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Sample records for rescues catalytic defect

  1. A ketogenic diet rescues hippocampal memory defects in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome.

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    Benjamin, Joel S; Pilarowski, Genay O; Carosso, Giovanni A; Zhang, Li; Huso, David L; Goff, Loyal A; Vernon, Hilary J; Hansen, Kasper D; Bjornsson, Hans T

    2017-01-03

    Kabuki syndrome is a Mendelian intellectual disability syndrome caused by mutations in either of two genes (KMT2D and KDM6A) involved in chromatin accessibility. We previously showed that an agent that promotes chromatin opening, the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) AR-42, ameliorates the deficiency of adult neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and rescues hippocampal memory defects in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome (Kmt2d +/βGeo ). Unlike a drug, a dietary intervention could be quickly transitioned to the clinic. Therefore, we have explored whether treatment with a ketogenic diet could lead to a similar rescue through increased amounts of beta-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous HDACi. Here, we report that a ketogenic diet in Kmt2d +/βGeo mice modulates H3ac and H3K4me3 in the granule cell layer, with concomitant rescue of both the neurogenesis defect and hippocampal memory abnormalities seen in Kmt2d +/βGeo mice; similar effects on neurogenesis were observed on exogenous administration of beta-hydroxybutyrate. These data suggest that dietary modulation of epigenetic modifications through elevation of beta-hydroxybutyrate may provide a feasible strategy to treat the intellectual disability seen in Kabuki syndrome and related disorders.

  2. Green tea polyphenols rescue of brain defects induced by overexpression of DYRK1A.

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    Fayçal Guedj

    Full Text Available Individuals with partial HSA21 trisomies and mice with partial MMU16 trisomies containing an extra copy of the DYRK1A gene present various alterations in brain morphogenesis. They present also learning impairments modeling those encountered in Down syndrome. Previous MRI and histological analyses of a transgenic mice generated using a human YAC construct that contains five genes including DYRK1A reveal that DYRK1A is involved, during development, in the control of brain volume and cell density of specific brain regions. Gene dosage correction induces a rescue of the brain volume alterations. DYRK1A is also involved in the control of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Increased gene dosage results in brain morphogenesis defects, low BDNF levels and mnemonic deficits in these mice. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG - a member of a natural polyphenols family, found in great amount in green tea leaves - is a specific and safe DYRK1A inhibitor. We maintained control and transgenic mice overexpressing DYRK1A on two different polyphenol-based diets, from gestation to adulthood. The major features of the transgenic phenotype were rescued in these mice.

  3. Probing the catalytic mechanism of bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease I by chemical rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-J.; Lai, P.-J.; Lai, Y.-S.; Huang, P.-T.; Lin, C.-C.; Liao, T.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Previous structural and mutational studies of bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease I (bpDNase I) have demonstrated that the active site His134 and His252 played critical roles in catalysis. In our present study, mutations of these two His residues to Gln, Ala or Gly reduced the DNase activity by a factor of four to five orders of magnitude. When imidazole or primary amines were added exogenously to the Ala or Gly mutants, the residual DNase activities were substantially increased by 60-120-fold. The rescue with imidazole was pH- and concentration-dependent. The pH-activity profiles showed nearly bell-shaped curves, with the maximum activity enhancement for H134A at pH 6.0 and that for H252A at pH 7.5. These findings indicated that the protonated form of imidazole was responsible for the rescue in H134A, and the unprotonated form was for that in H252A, prompting us to assign unambiguously the roles for His134 as a general acid, and His252 as a general base, in bpDNase I catalysis

  4. Transgenic Expression of Dspp Partially Rescued the Long Bone Defects of Dmp1-null Mice

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    Jani, Priyam H.; Gibson, Monica P.; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaofang; Lu, Yongbo; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) belong to the Small Integrin-Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) family. In addition to the features common to all SIBLING members, DMP1 and DSPP share several unique similarities in chemical structure, proteolytic activation and tissue localization. Mutations in, or deletion of DMP1, cause autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets along with dental defects; DSPP mutations or its ablation are associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta. While the roles and functional mechanisms of DMP1 in osteogenesis have been extensively studied, those of DSPP in long bones have been studied only to a limited extent. Previous studies by our group revealed that transgenic expression of Dspp completely rescued the dentin defects of Dmp1-null (Dmp1−/−) mice. In this investigation, we assessed the effects of transgenic Dspp on osteogenesis by analyzing the formation and mineralization of the long bones in Dmp1−/− mice that expresses a transgene encoding full-length DSPP driven by a 3.6-kb rat Col1a1 promoter (referred as “Dmp1−/−;Dspp-Tg mice”). We characterized the long bones of the Dmp1−/−;Dspp-Tg mice at different ages and compared them with those from Dmp1−/− and Dmp1+/− (normal control) mice. Our analyses showed that the long bones of Dmp1−/−;Dspp-Tg mice had a significant increase in cortical bone thickness, bone volume and mineral density along with a remarkable restoration of trabecular thickness compared to those of the Dmp1−/− mice. The long bones of Dmp1−/−;Dspp-Tg mice underwent a dramatic reduction in the amount of osteoid, significant improvement of the collagen fibrillar network, and better organization of the lacunocanalicular system, compared to the Dmp1−/− mice. The elevated levels of biglycan, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in Dmp1−/− mice were also noticeably corrected by the transgenic expression of Dspp. These findings suggest that

  5. L-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

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    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2015-03-15

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (α-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite α-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

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    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Chemical rescue of cleft palate and midline defects in conditional GSK-3beta mice.

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    Liu, Karen J; Arron, Joseph R; Stankunas, Kryn; Crabtree, Gerald R; Longaker, Michael T

    2007-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) has integral roles in a variety of biological processes, including development, diabetes, and the progression of Alzheimer's disease. As such, a thorough understanding of GSK-3beta function will have a broad impact on human biology and therapeutics. Because GSK-3beta interacts with many different pathways, its specific developmental roles remain unclear. We have discovered a genetic requirement for GSK-3beta in midline development. Homozygous null mice display cleft palate, incomplete fusion of the ribs at the midline and bifid sternum as well as delayed sternal ossification. Using a chemically regulated allele of GSK-3beta (ref. 6), we have defined requirements for GSK-3beta activity during discrete temporal windows in palatogenesis and skeletogenesis. The rapamycin-dependent allele of GSK-3beta produces GSK-3beta fused to a tag, FRB* (FKBP/rapamycin binding), resulting in a rapidly destabilized chimaeric protein. In the absence of drug, GSK-3beta(FRB)*(/FRB)* mutants appear phenotypically identical to GSK-3beta-/- mutants. In the presence of drug, GSK-3betaFRB* is rapidly stabilized, restoring protein levels and activity. Using this system, mutant phenotypes were rescued by restoring endogenous GSK-3beta activity during two distinct periods in gestation. This technology provides a powerful tool for defining windows of protein function during development.

  8. Cooperative RNP assembly: Complementary rescue of structural defects by protein and RNA subunits of archaeal RNase P

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    Chen, Wen-Yi; Xu, Yiren; Cho, I-Ming; Oruganti, Sri Vidya; Foster, Mark P.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2011-01-01

    RNase P is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that utilizes a Mg2+-dependent RNA catalyst to cleave the 5′-leader of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs) and generate mature tRNAs. The bacterial RNase P protein (RPP) aids RNase P RNA (RPR) catalysis by promoting substrate binding, Mg2+ coordination, and product release. Archaeal RNase P comprises an RPR and at least four RPPs, which have eukaryal homologs and function as two binary complexes (POP5•RPP30 and RPP21•RPP29). In this study, we employed a previously characterized substrate-enzyme conjugate [pre-tRNATyr-Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mja) RPR] to investigate the functional role of a universally conserved uridine in a bulge-helix structure in archaeal RPRs. Deletion of this bulged uridine resulted in an 80-fold decrease in the self-cleavage rate of pre-tRNATyr-MjaΔU RPR compared to the wildtype, and this defect was partially ameliorated upon addition of either RPP pair. The catalytic defect in the archaeal mutant RPR mirrors that reported in a bacterial RPR and highlights a parallel in their active sites. Furthermore, an N-terminal deletion mutant of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) RPP29 that is defective in assembling with its binary partner RPP21, as assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy, is functional when reconstituted with the cognate Pfu RPR. Collectively, these results indicate that archaeal RPPs are able to compensate for structural defects in their cognate RPR and vice-versa, and provide striking examples of the cooperative subunit interactions critical for driving archaeal RNase P towards its functional conformation. (236 words) PMID:21683084

  9. Rescue of mutant fitness defects using in vitro reconstituted designer transposons in Mycoplasma mycoides

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    Bogumil Jacek Karas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With only hundreds of genes contained within their genomes, mycoplasmas have become model organisms for precise understanding of cellular processes, as well as platform organisms for predictable engineering of microbial functions for mission-critical applications. Despite the availability of whole genome writing in Mycoplasma mycoides, some traditional methods for genetic engineering are underdeveloped in mycoplasmas. Here we demonstrate two facile transposon-mediated approaches for introducing genes into the synthetic cell based on M. mycoides. The marker-less approach involves preparing a fragment containing only a small genomic region of interest with flanking transposase-binding sites, followed by in vitro transposase loading and introduction into the cells. The marker-driven approach involves cloning an open reading frame (ORF of interest into a vector containing a marker for mycoplasma transformation, as well as sites for transposase loading and random genomic integration. An innovative feature of this construct is to use a single promoter to express the transformation marker and the introduced ORF. The marker-driven approach can be conveniently applied to any exogenous or synthetic gene without any information on the effect of the gene on the strain, whereas the marker-less approach requires that the fragment has a recognizable effect. Using the marker-less method, we found that a region containing the nusG gene rescues a slow growth phenotype of a strain containing a larger deletion encompassing this gene. Using the marker-driven approach, we better defined this finding, thereby establishing that nusG is required for a normal growth rate in synthetic M. mycoides. These methods are suitable for complementation tests to identify genes responsible for assorted functions lacking in deletion mutants. These approaches are also expected to facilitate rapid testing of various natural and engineered genes or gene clusters from numerous sources in

  10. Progranulin modulates zebrafish motoneuron development in vivo and rescues truncation defects associated with knockdown of Survival motor neuron 1

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    Bateman Andrew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progranulin (PGRN encoded by the GRN gene, is a secreted glycoprotein growth factor that has been implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. PGRN haploinsufficiency caused by autosomal dominant mutations within the GRN gene leads to progressive neuronal atrophy in the form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. This form of the disease is associated with neuronal inclusions that bear the ubiquitinated TAR DNA Binding Protein-43 (TDP-43 molecular signature (FTLD-U. The neurotrophic properties of PGRN in vitro have recently been reported but the role of PGRN in neurons is not well understood. Here we document the neuronal expression and functions of PGRN in spinal cord motoneuron (MN maturation and branching in vivo using zebrafish, a well established model of vertebrate embryonic development. Results Whole-mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses of zebrafish embryos revealed that zfPGRN-A is expressed within the peripheral and central nervous systems including the caudal primary (CaP MNs within the spinal cord. Knockdown of zfPGRN-A mRNA translation mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides disrupted normal CaP MN development resulting in both truncated MNs and inappropriate early branching. Ectopic over-expression of zfPGRN-A mRNA resulted in increased MN branching and rescued the truncation defects brought about by knockdown of zfPGRN-A expression. The ability of PGRN to interact with established MN developmental pathways was tested. PGRN over-expression was found to reverse the truncation defect resulting from knockdown of Survival of motor neuron 1 (smn1. This is involved in small ribonucleoprotein biogenesis RNA processing, mutations of which cause Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA in humans. It did not reverse the MN defects caused by interfering with the neuronal guidance pathway by knockdown of expression of NRP-1, a semaphorin co-receptor. Conclusions Expression of

  11. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

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    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Defect-meditated efficient catalytic activity toward p-nitrophenol reduction: A case study of nitrogen doped calcium niobate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yiguo; Huang, Shushu; Wang, Tingting; Peng, Liman; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A series of nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 was successfully prepared via ion-exchange method, which was found to be an efficient and green noble-metal-free catalyst toward catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. - Highlights: • Nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 was found to be an efficient and green noble-metal-free catalyst toward catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. • Defective nitrogen and oxygen species were found to play synergetic roles in the reduction of p-nitrophenol. • Nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 showed photo-synergistic promotion effects toward p-nitrophenol reduction under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: This work reported on the synthesis of a series of nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 with tunable nitrogen content that were found to be efficient and green noble-metal-free catalysts toward catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. XPS and ESR results indicated that the introduction of nitrogen in Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 gave rise to a large number of defective nitrogen and oxygen species. Defective nitrogen and oxygen species were found to play synergetic roles in the reduction of p-nitrophenol. The underlying mechanism is completely different from those reported for metallic nanoparticles. Moreover, the more negative conduction band edge potential enabled nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 to show photo-synergistic effects that could accelerate the reduction rate toward p-nitrophenol under UV light irradiation. This work may provide a strategy for tuning the catalytic performance by modulating the chemical composition, electronic structure as well as surface defect chemistry

  13. A Novel Expression Cassette of Lyssavirus Shows that the Distantly Related Mokola Virus Can Rescue a Defective Rabies Virus Genome

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    Le Mercier, Philippe; Jacob, Yves; Tanner, Kyle; Tordo, Noël

    2002-01-01

    By comparing three expression vectors for the rabies virus (Rv) minigenome, we show that the characteristic of the Rv RNA is important for efficient rescue despite its not being crucial for replication. Moreover, we show that the coexpression of the viral proteins from helper Rv and Mokola virus could rescue the Rv minigenome while Rv-related European bat lyssavirus 1 could not, suggesting that the signals controlling transcription and replication are conserved in the distantly related Rv and Mokola virus. PMID:11799201

  14. Role of Defects and Adsorbed Water Film in Influencing the Electrical, Optical and Catalytic Properties of Transition Metal Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) constitute a large group of materials that exhibit a wide range of optical, electrical, electrochemical, dielectric and catalytic properties, and thus making them highly regarded as promising materials for a variety of applications in next generation electronic, optoelectronic, catalytic, photonic, energy storage and energy conversion devices. Some of the unique properties of TMOs are their strong electron-electron correlations that exists between the valence electrons of narrow d- or f-shells and their ability to exist in variety of oxidation states. This gives TMOs an enormous range of fascinating electronic and other physical properties. Many of these remarkable properties of TMOs arises from the complex surface charge transfer processes at the oxide surface/electrochemical redox species interface and non-stoichiometry due to the presence of lattice vacancies that may cause significant perturbation to the electronic structure of the material. Stoichiometry, oxidation state of the metal center and lattice vacancy defects all play important roles in affecting the physical properties, electronic structures, device behavior and other functional properties of TMOs. However, the underlying relationships between them is not clearly known. For instance, the exchange of electrons between adsorbates and defects can lead to the passivation of existing defect states or formation of new defects, both of which affect defect equilibria, and consequently, functional properties. In depth understanding of the role of lattice defects on the electrical, catalytic and optical properties of TMOs is central to further expansion of the technological applications of TMO based devices. The focus of this work is to elucidate the interactions of vacancy defects with various electrochemical adsorbates in TMOs. The ability to directly probe the interactions of vacancy defects with gas and liquid phase species under in-operando conditions is highly desirable to

  15. Rescue of HIV-1 release by targeting widely divergent NEDD4-type ubiquitin ligases and isolated catalytic HECT domains to Gag.

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    Eric R Weiss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses engage the ESCRT pathway through late assembly (L domains in Gag to promote virus release. HIV-1 uses a PTAP motif as its primary L domain, which interacts with the ESCRT-I component Tsg101. In contrast, certain other retroviruses primarily use PPxY-type L domains, which constitute ligands for NEDD4-type ubiquitin ligases. Surprisingly, although HIV-1 Gag lacks PPxY motifs, the release of HIV-1 L domain mutants is potently enhanced by ectopic NEDD4-2s, a native isoform with a naturally truncated C2 domain that appears to account for the residual titer of L domain-defective HIV-1. The reason for the unique potency of the NEDD4-2s isoform has remained unclear. We now show that the naturally truncated C2 domain of NEDD4-2s functions as an autonomous Gag-targeting module that can be functionally replaced by the unrelated Gag-binding protein cyclophilin A (CypA. The residual C2 domain of NEDD4-2s was sufficient to transfer the ability to stimulate HIV-1 budding to other NEDD4 family members, including the yeast homologue Rsp5, and even to isolated catalytic HECT domains. The isolated catalytic domain of NEDD4-2s also efficiently promoted HIV-1 budding when targeted to Gag via CypA. We conclude that the regions typically required for substrate recognition by HECT ubiquitin ligases are all dispensable to stimulate HIV-1 release, implying that the relevant target for ubiquitination is Gag itself or can be recognized by divergent isolated HECT domains. However, the mere ability to ubiquitinate Gag was not sufficient to stimulate HIV-1 budding. Rather, our results indicate that the synthesis of K63-linked ubiquitin chains is critical for ubiquitin ligase-mediated virus release.

  16. Developmental and growth defects in mice with combined deficiency of CK2 catalytic genes.

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    Landesman-Bollag, Esther; Belkina, Anna; Hovey, Beth; Connors, Edward; Cox, Charles; Seldin, David C

    2011-10-01

    The CK2 α and α' catalytic gene products have overlapping biochemical activity, but in vivo, their functions are very different. Deletion of both alleles of CK2α leads to mid-gestational embryonic lethality, while deletion of both alleles of CK2α' does not interfere with viability or development of embryos; however, adult CK2α'-/-males are infertile. To further elucidate developmental roles of CK2, and analyze functional overlap between the two catalytic genes, mice with combined knockouts were bred. Mice bearing any two CK2 catalytic alleles were phenotypically normal. However, inheritance of a single CK2α allele, without either CK2α' allele, resulted in partial embryonic lethality. Such mice that survived through embryogenesis were smaller at birth than littermate controls, and weighed less throughout life. However, their cardiac function and lifespan were normal. Fibroblasts derived from CK2α+/-CK2α'-/- embryos grew poorly in culture. These experiments demonstrate that combined loss of one CK2α allele and both CK2α' alleles leads to unique abnormalities of growth and development.

  17. Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of the cognitive defects in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome.

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    Jennifer L Daily

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS, a genetic disorder occurring in approximately one in every 15,000 births, is characterized by severe mental retardation, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. The gene responsible for AS was discovered to be UBE3A and encodes for E6-AP, an ubiquitin ligase. A unique feature of this gene is that it undergoes maternal imprinting in a neuron-specific manner. In the majority of AS cases, there is a mutation or deletion in the maternally inherited UBE3A gene, although other cases are the result of uniparental disomy or mismethylation of the maternal gene. While most human disorders characterized by severe mental retardation involve abnormalities in brain structure, no gross anatomical changes are associated with AS. However, we have determined that abnormal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII regulation is seen in the maternal UBE3A deletion AS mouse model and is responsible for the major phenotypes. Specifically, there is an increased αCaMKII phosphorylation at the autophosphorylation sites Thr(286 and Thr(305/306, resulting in an overall decrease in CaMKII activity. CaMKII is not produced until after birth, indicating that the deficits associated with AS are not the result of developmental abnormalities. The present studies are focused on exploring the potential to rescue the learning and memory deficits in the adult AS mouse model through the use of an adeno-associated virus (AAV vector to increase neuronal UBE3A expression. These studies show that increasing the levels of E6-AP in the brain using an exogenous vector can improve the cognitive deficits associated with AS. Specifically, the associative learning deficit was ameliorated in the treated AS mice compared to the control AS mice, indicating that therapeutic intervention may be possible in older AS patients.

  18. Space Rescue

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    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  19. Carefully designed oxygen-containing functional groups and defects of porous carbon spheres with UV-O3 treatment and their enhanced catalytic performance

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    Han, Weiliang; Huang, Xiaosheng; Lu, Gongxuan; Tang, Zhicheng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the support surface properties (surface oxygen-containing functional groups and structure defects) of porous carbon spheres (PCSs) were carefully designed by as UV assisted O3 technology. CO catalytic oxidation reactions performed over the supported Pd-Ce catalysts on modified porous carbon spheres. Results illustrated that the Pd-Ce/PCSs catalysts exhibited high CO catalytic activity, which were increased at first, and then decreased with UV assistant-O3 treatment time. The Pd-Ce/PCSs-30 catalyst exhibited superior activity and T100 was only 15 °C. Moreover, the Pd-Ce/PCSs-30 catalyst obtained an excellent stability, and 100% CO conversion could be maintained as the time on stream evolutes up to 16h in the presence of H2O in the feed. Based on characterization results, there were two main factors: (a) the surface area and pore volume were decreased with UV-O3 treatment, leading to the enhancement of Pd-Ce particle size, and the decrease of Pd-Ce nanoparticle dispersion and mass transfer efficiency, as well as the decrease of catalytic activity of Pd-Ce/PCSs, (b) the surface oxygen content and defect sites of PCSs were raised by UV-O3 treatment, which could improve surface loading of Pd, Ce and enhance Pdsbnd Osbnd Ce bonding interactions, thereby increasing the activity of Pd-Ce/PCSs.

  20. The effect of defects on the catalytic activity of single Au atom supported carbon nanotubes and reaction mechanism for CO oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajjad; Fu Liu, Tian; Lian, Zan; Li, Bo; Sheng Su, Dang

    2017-08-23

    The mechanism of CO oxidation by O 2 on a single Au atom supported on pristine, mono atom vacancy (m), di atom vacancy (di) and the Stone Wales defect (SW) on single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) surface is systematically investigated theoretically using density functional theory. We determine that single Au atoms can be trapped effectively by the defects on SWCNTs. The defects on SWCNTs can enhance both the binding strength and catalytic activity of the supported single Au atom. Fundamental aspects such as adsorption energy and charge transfer are elucidated to analyze the adsorption properties of CO and O 2 and co-adsorption of CO and O 2 molecules. It is found that CO binds stronger than O 2 on Au supported SWCNT. We clearly demonstrate that the defected SWCNT surface promotes electron transfer from the supported single Au atom to O 2 molecules. On the other hand, this effect is weaker for pristine SWCNTs. It is observed that the high density of spin-polarized states are localized in the region of the Fermi level due to the strong interactions between Au (5d orbital) and the adjacent carbon (2p orbital) atoms, which influence the catalytic performance. In addition, we elucidate both the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms of CO oxidation by O 2 . For the LH pathway, the barriers of the rate-limiting step are calculated to be 0.02 eV and 0.05 eV for Au/m-SWCNT and Au/di-SWCNT, respectively. To regenerate the active sites, an ER-like reaction occurs to form a second CO 2 molecule. The ER pathway is observed on Au/m-SWCNT, Au/SW-SWCNT and Au/SWCNT in which the Au/m-SWCNT has a smaller barrier. The comparison with a previous study (Lu et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113, 20156-20160.) indicates that the curvature effect of SWCNTs is important for the catalytic property of the supported single Au. Overall, Au/m-SWCNT is identified as the most active catalyst for CO oxidation compared to pristine SWCNT, SW-SWCNT and di-SWCNT. Our findings give a

  1. Catalytic Oxidation of CO and Soot over Ce-Zr-Pr Mixed Oxides Synthesized in a Multi-Inlet Vortex Reactor: Effect of Structural Defects on the Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaid, Samir; Piumetti, Marco; Novara, Chiara; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Chiodoni, Angelica; Russo, Nunzio; Fino, Debora

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, ceria, ceria-zirconia (Ce = 80 at.%, Zr = 20 at.%), ceria praseodymia (Ce = 80 at.%, Pr = 20 at.%) and ceria-zirconia-praseodymia catalysts (Ce = 80 at.%, Zr = 10 at.% and Pr = 10 at.%) have been prepared by the multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR). For each set of samples, two inlet flow rates have been used during the synthesis (namely, 2 ml min -1 , and 20 ml min -1 ) in order to obtain different particle sizes. Catalytic activity of the prepared materials has been investigated for CO and soot oxidation reactions. As a result, when the catalysts exhibit similar crystallite sizes (in the 7.7-8.8 nm range), it is possible to observe a direct correlation between the O v /F 2g vibrational band intensity ratios and the catalytic performance for the CO oxidation. This means that structural (superficial) defects play a key role for this process. The incorporation of Zr and Pr species into the ceria lattice increases the population of structural defects, as measured by Raman spectroscopy, according to the order: CeO 2  oxidation activity for these catalysts, in contrast with nanostructured ones (e.g., Ce-Zr-O nanopolyhedra, Ce-Pr-O nanocubes) described elsewhere (Andana et al. Appl. Catal. B 197: 125-137, 2016; Piumetti et al., Appl Catal B 180: 271-282, 2016).

  2. Deletion of the cardiolipin-specific phospholipase Cld1 rescues growth and life span defects in the tafazzin mutant: implications for Barth syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Cunqi; Lou, Wenjia; Li, Yiran; Chatzispyrou, Iliana A.; Hüttemann, Maik; Lee, Icksoo; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Vaz, Frédéric M.; Chen, Shuliang; Greenberg, Miriam L.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) that is synthesized de novo is deacylated to monolysocardiolipin (MLCL), which is reacylated by tafazzin. Remodeled CL contains mostly unsaturated fatty acids. In eukaryotes, loss of tafazzin leads to growth and respiration defects, and in humans, this results in the

  3. Late Maternal Folate Supplementation Rescues from Methyl Donor Deficiency-Associated Brain Defects by Restoring Let-7 and miR-34 Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Andréa; Kerek, Racha; Pourié, Grégory; Helle, Déborah; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Daval, Jean-Luc; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine

    2017-09-01

    The micronutrients folate and vitamin B12 are essential for the proper development of the central nervous system, and their deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a wide range of disorders. They act as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism which critically influences epigenetic mechanisms. In order to depict further underlying mechanisms, we investigated the role of let-7 and miR-34, two microRNAs regulated by methylation, on a rat model of maternal deficiency. In several countries, public health policies recommend periconceptional supplementation with folic acid. However, the question about the duration and periodicity of supplementation remains. We therefore tested maternal supply (3 mg/kg/day) during the last third of gestation from embryonic days (E) 13 to 20. Methyl donor deficiency-related developmental disorders at E20, including cerebellar and interhemispheric suture defects and atrophy of selective cerebral layers, were associated with increased brain expression (by 2.5-fold) of let-7a and miR-34a, with subsequent downregulation of their regulatory targets such as Trim71 and Notch signaling partners, respectively. These processes could be reversed by siRNA strategy in differentiating neuroprogenitors lacking folate, with improvement of their morphological characteristics. While folic acid supplementation helped restoring the levels of let-7a and miR-34a and their downstream targets, it led to a reduction of structural and functional defects taking place during the perinatal period. Our data outline the potential role of let-7 and miR-34 and their related signaling pathways in the developmental defects following gestational methyl donor deficiency and support the likely usefulness of late folate supplementation in at risk women.

  4. Antitumor immunity is defective in T cell-specific microRNA-155-deficient mice and is rescued by immune checkpoint blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Thomas B; Lee, Soh-Hyun; Tang, William W; Wallace, Jared A; Alexander, Margaret; Runtsch, Marah C; Larsen, Dane K; Thompson, Jacob; Ramstead, Andrew G; Voth, Warren P; Hu, Ruozhen; Round, June L; Williams, Matthew A; O'Connell, Ryan M

    2017-11-10

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates antitumor immune responses. However, its specific functions within distinct immune cell types have not been delineated in conditional KO mouse models. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-155 specifically within T cells during the immune response to syngeneic tumors. We found that miR-155 expression within T cells is required to limit syngeneic tumor growth and promote IFNγ production by T cells within the tumor microenvironment. Consequently, we found that miR-155 expression by T cells is necessary for proper tumor-associated macrophage expression of IFNγ-inducible genes. We also found that immune checkpoint-blocking (ICB) antibodies against programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) restored antitumor immunity in miR-155 T cell-conditional KO mice. We noted that these ICB antibodies rescued the levels of IFNγ-expressing T cells, expression of multiple activation and effector genes expressed by tumor-infiltrating CD8 + and CD4 + T cells, and tumor-associated macrophage activation. Moreover, the ICB approach partially restored expression of several derepressed miR-155 targets in tumor-infiltrating, miR-155-deficient CD8 + T cells, suggesting that miR-155 and ICB regulate overlapping pathways to promote antitumor immunity. Taken together, our findings highlight the multifaceted role of miR-155 in T cells, in which it promotes antitumor immunity. These results suggest that the augmentation of miR-155 expression could be used to improve anticancer immunotherapies. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Sporulation-specific cell division defects in ylmE mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor are rescued by additional deletion of ylmD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Hoskisson, Paul A; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2018-05-09

    Cell division during the reproductive phase of the Streptomyces life-cycle requires tight coordination between synchronous formation of multiple septa and DNA segregation. One remarkable difference with most other bacterial systems is that cell division in Streptomyces is positively controlled by the recruitment of FtsZ by SsgB. Here we show that deletion of ylmD (SCO2081) or ylmE (SCO2080), which lie in operon with ftsZ in the dcw cluster of actinomycetes, has major consequences for sporulation-specific cell division in Streptomyces coelicolor. Electron and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that ylmE mutants have a highly aberrant phenotype with defective septum synthesis, and produce very few spores with low viability and high heat sensitivity. FtsZ-ring formation was also highly disturbed in ylmE mutants. Deletion of ylmD had a far less severe effect on sporulation. Interestingly, the additional deletion of ylmD restored sporulation to the ylmE null mutant. YlmD and YlmE are not part of the divisome, but instead localize diffusely in aerial hyphae, with differential intensity throughout the sporogenic part of the hyphae. Taken together, our work reveals a function for YlmD and YlmE in the control of sporulation-specific cell division in S. coelicolor, whereby the presence of YlmD alone results in major developmental defects.

  6. HDAC6 Inhibitors Rescued the Defective Axonal Mitochondrial Movement in Motor Neurons Derived from the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Peripheral Neuropathy Patients with HSPB1 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2F (CMT2F and distal hereditary motor neuropathy 2B (dHMN2B are caused by autosomal dominantly inherited mutations of the heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1 gene and there are no specific therapies available yet. Here, we assessed the potential therapeutic effect of HDAC6 inhibitors on peripheral neuropathy with HSPB1 mutation using in vitro model of motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs of CMT2F and dHMN2B patients. The absolute velocity of mitochondrial movements and the percentage of moving mitochondria in axons were lower both in CMT2F-motor neurons and in dHMN2B-motor neurons than those in controls, and the severity of the defective mitochondrial movement was different between the two disease models. CMT2F-motor neurons and dHMN2B-motor neurons also showed reduced α-tubulin acetylation compared with controls. The newly developed HDAC6 inhibitors, CHEMICAL X4 and CHEMICAL X9, increased acetylation of α-tubulin and reversed axonal movement defects of mitochondria in CMT2F-motor neurons and dHMN2B-motor neurons. Our results suggest that the neurons derived from patient-specific iPSCs can be used in drug screening including HDAC6 inhibitors targeting peripheral neuropathy.

  7. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  8. Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Name Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Development Estimate) Defense Acquisition... Helicopter (CRH) system will provide Personnel Recovery (PR) forces with a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that is quickly deployable and

  9. Rescue US energy innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Holdren, John P.

    2017-10-01

    President Trump has proposed severe cuts to US government spending on energy research, development and demonstration, but Congress has the `power of the purse' and can rescue US energy innovation. If serious cuts are enacted, the pace of innovation will slow, harming the economy, energy security and global environmental quality.

  10. Rescue workers and trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romano, Eugenia; Elklit, Ask

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates which factors had the biggest impact on developing distress in rescue workers who were involved in a firework factory explosion. Method: Four hundred sixty-five rescuers were assessed using items investigating demographic factors, organizational variables, so...

  11. Microtubule catastrophe and rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Melissa K; Zanic, Marija; Howard, Jonathon

    2013-02-01

    Microtubules are long cylindrical polymers composed of tubulin subunits. In cells, microtubules play an essential role in architecture and motility. For example, microtubules give shape to cells, serve as intracellular transport tracks, and act as key elements in important cellular structures such as axonemes and mitotic spindles. To accomplish these varied functions, networks of microtubules in cells are very dynamic, continuously remodeling through stochastic length fluctuations at the ends of individual microtubules. The dynamic behavior at the end of an individual microtubule is termed 'dynamic instability'. This behavior manifests itself by periods of persistent microtubule growth interrupted by occasional switching to rapid shrinkage (called microtubule 'catastrophe'), and then by switching back from shrinkage to growth (called microtubule 'rescue'). In this review, we summarize recent findings which provide new insights into the mechanisms of microtubule catastrophe and rescue, and discuss the impact of these findings in regards to the role of microtubule dynamics inside of cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  13. Rescuing--a universal phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John

    2014-12-01

    Rescuing, where the person is delivered from the immediacy of their conundrum by another, complicates management. The object of this paper is to understand the difficulty in relinquishing the rescuing role. Rescuing is a universal phenomenon in parenting, teaching and therapy that has developed over time through a variety of interwoven social, economic, psychological and clinical variables. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  14. The PKA-C3 catalytic subunit is required in two pairs of interneurons for successful mating of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, Marlène; Sunderhaus, Elizabeth; Wentzell, Jill S; Kuntz, Sara; Strauss, Roland; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2018-02-06

    Protein kinase A (PKA) has been shown to play a role in a plethora of cellular processes ranging from development to memory formation. Its activity is mediated by the catalytic subunits whereby many species express several paralogs. Drosophila encodes three catalytic subunits (PKA-C1-3) and whereas PKA-C1 has been well studied, the functions of the other two subunits were unknown. PKA-C3 is the orthologue of mammalian PRKX/Pkare and they are structurally more closely related to each other than to other catalytic subunits within their species. PRKX is expressed in the nervous system in mice but its function is also unknown. We now show that the loss of PKA-C3 in Drosophila causes copulation defects, though the flies are active and show no defects in other courtship behaviours. This phenotype is specifically due to the loss of PKA-C3 because PKA-C1 cannot replace PKA-C3. PKA-C3 is expressed in two pairs of interneurons that send projections to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum and the mushroom bodies and that synapse onto motor neurons in the ventral nerve cord. Rescue experiments show that expression of PKA-C3 in these interneurons is sufficient for copulation, suggesting a role in relaying information from the sensory system to motor neurons to initiate copulation.

  15. Catalytic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindley, W T.R.

    1931-04-18

    An apparatus is described for the catalytic treatment of liquids, semi-liquids, and gases comprising a vessel into which the liquid, semi-liquid, or gas to be treated is introduced through a common inlet to a chamber within the vessel whence it passes to contact with a catalyst through radially arranged channels or passages to a common outlet chamber.

  16. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2017-01-01

    recirculating the claim that human trafficking is the “third largest” criminal economy after drugs and weapons. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Nigerian sex worker migrants conducted in Benin City, Nigeria, in 2011 and 2012, this study brings together four otherwise isolated migration economies......This contribution explores the economies interlinked by the migration of Nigerian women sex workers. The literature and politics of sex work migration and human trafficking economies are commonly relegated to the realm that focuses on profits for criminal networks and pimps, in particular...... – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  17. Rescuing Quadratic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Sueiro, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Inflationary models based on a single scalar field $\\phi$ with a quadratic potential $V = \\frac{1}{2} m^2 \\phi^2$ are disfavoured by the recent Planck constraints on the scalar index, $n_s$, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio for cosmological density perturbations, $r_T$. In this paper we study how such a quadratic inflationary model can be rescued by postulating additional fields with quadratic potentials, such as might occur in sneutrino models, which might serve as either curvatons or supplementary inflatons. Introducing a second scalar field reduces but does not remove the pressure on quadratic inflation, but we find a sample of three-field models that are highly compatible with the Planck data on $n_s$ and $r_T$. We exhibit a specific three-sneutrino example that is also compatible with the data on neutrino mass difference and mixing angles.

  18. The problem with rescue medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2013-02-01

    Is there a rational and ethical basis for efforts to rescue individuals in dire straits? When does rescue have ethical support, and when does it reflect an irrational impulse? This paper defines a Rule of Rescue and shows its intuitive appeal. It then proceeds to argue that this rule lacks support from standard principles of justice and from ethical principles more broadly, and should be rejected in many situations. I distinguish between agent-relative and agent-neutral reasons, and argue that the Rule of Rescue qualifies only in a narrow range of cases where agent-relative considerations apply. I conclude that it would be wise to set aside the Rule of Rescue in many cases, especially those involving public policies, where it has only weak normative justification. The broader implications of this analysis are noted.

  19. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  20. Rescue from replication stress during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Michalis; Naim, Valeria

    2017-04-03

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and a common feature of human disorders, characterized by growth defects, neurodegeneration, cancer predisposition, and aging. Recent evidence has shown that DNA replication stress is a major driver of genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Cells can undergo mitosis with under-replicated DNA or unresolved DNA structures, and specific pathways are dedicated to resolving these structures during mitosis, suggesting that mitotic rescue from replication stress (MRRS) is a key process influencing genome stability and cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of MRRS following oncogene activation or loss-of-function of caretaker genes may be the cause of chromosomal aberrations that promote cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of replication stress, focusing on its persistence in mitosis as well as the mechanisms and factors involved in its resolution, and the potential impact of incomplete replication or aberrant MRRS on tumorigenesis, aging and disease.

  1. 46 CFR 133.135 - Rescue boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 133.135 Section 133.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.135 Rescue boats. (a) Each OSV must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue...

  2. 46 CFR 199.262 - Rescue boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.262 Rescue boats. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under approval... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.262 Section 199.262 Shipping COAST...

  3. Shp2 knockdown and Noonan/LEOPARD mutant Shp2-induced gastrulation defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Jopling

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Shp2 is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine phosphatase that is essential for normal development. Activating and inactivating mutations have been identified in humans to cause the related Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes, respectively. The cell biological cause of these syndromes remains to be determined. We have used the zebrafish to assess the role of Shp2 in early development. Here, we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of Shp2 in zebrafish resulted in defects during gastrulation. Cell tracing experiments demonstrated that Shp2 knockdown induced defects in convergence and extension cell movements. In situ hybridization using a panel of markers indicated that cell fate was not affected by Shp2 knock down. The Shp2 knockdown-induced defects were rescued by active Fyn and Yes and by active RhoA. We generated mutants of Shp2 with mutations that were identified in human patients with Noonan or LEOPARD Syndrome and established that Noonan Shp2 was activated and LEOPARD Shp2 lacked catalytic protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity. Expression of Noonan or LEOPARD mutant Shp2 in zebrafish embryos induced convergence and extension cell movement defects without affecting cell fate. Moreover, these embryos displayed craniofacial and cardiac defects, reminiscent of human symptoms. Noonan and LEOPARD mutant Shp2s were not additive nor synergistic, consistent with the mutant Shp2s having activating and inactivating roles in the same signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that Shp2 is required for normal convergence and extension cell movements during gastrulation and that Src family kinases and RhoA were downstream of Shp2. Expression of Noonan or LEOPARD Shp2 phenocopied the craniofacial and cardiac defects of human patients. The finding that defective Shp2 signaling induced cell movement defects as early as gastrulation may have implications for the monitoring and diagnosis of Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome.

  4. Joseph Conrad's tormented Rescue (fantasy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, William

    2014-02-01

    Joseph Conrad was a notoriously tormented writer for whom the creative act was often a punishment severe enough to drive him into paralyzing depressions that delayed the completion of his novels, sometimes for years. By far the most agonizing of these projects was The Rescue, a novel he began in 1898, abandoned a year later, tried unsuccessfully to continue several times over the next two decades, but was only able to resume in 1918 and to complete, after another tortured two-year struggle, in 1920. An explanation for this incapacity, that is powerfully suggested by the novel's evocative title and perhaps unintentionally ironic subtitle (A Romance of the Shallows) has not yet been explored. Using Freud's 1910 essay on the rescue fantasy, "Contributions to the Psychology of Love: A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men," and Emanuel Berman's instructive revision and expansion of the concept in his 2003 American Imago essay, "Ferenczi, Rescue, and Utopia," I argue that a substantial explanation for Conrad's tormented history with The Rescue is ascribable to its quite remarkably faithful treatment of a rescue fantasy with deep and disabling resonance for its author. More specifically, the difficulty was compounded by the novel's dramatization of the soul-crushing conflict between two such fantasies: one in the service of the masculine ideal of unflinching dedication to a heroic purpose, the other promising satisfaction to the equally potent demands of emotional and sexual desire. Features of Conrad's narrative fit so tightly and consistently with the theory as Freud (and Abraham) proposed and as Berman elaborated it that The Rescue offers itself as one of those rare and reinforcing instances wherein the literary text seems to validate the psychoanalytic theory at least as persuasively as the theory "understands" the text.

  5. CERN Fire Brigade rescue simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Fire Brigade is made up of experienced firemen from all of the 20 Member States. In these images they are seen at a 'Discovery Monday' held at the Microcosm exhibition. Here visitors learn how the Fire Brigade deal with various situations, including a simulated cave rescue performed by the Hazardous Environments Response Team.

  6. The RESCueH Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Nielsen, Anette; Nielsen, Bent; Andersen, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possible...

  7. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  8. The yeast complex I equivalent NADH dehydrogenase rescues pink1 mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vilain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink1 is a mitochondrial kinase involved in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery. Pink1 loss also affects the enzymatic activity of isolated Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC; however, the primary defect in pink1 mutants is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ETC deficiency is upstream of other pink1-associated phenotypes. We expressed Saccaromyces cerevisiae Ndi1p, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex I, or sea squirt Ciona intestinalis AOX, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex III and IV, in pink1 mutant Drosophila and find that expression of Ndi1p, but not of AOX, rescues pink1-associated defects. Likewise, loss of function of subunits that encode for Complex I-associated proteins displays many of the pink1-associated phenotypes, and these defects are rescued by Ndi1p expression. Conversely, expression of Ndi1p fails to rescue any of the parkin mutant phenotypes. Additionally, unlike pink1 mutants, fly parkin mutants do not show reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that Ndi1p acts downstream or parallel to Pink1, but upstream or independent of Parkin. Furthermore, while increasing mitochondrial fission or decreasing mitochondrial fusion rescues mitochondrial morphological defects in pink1 mutants, these manipulations fail to significantly rescue the reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that functional defects observed at the level of Complex I enzymatic activity in pink1 mutant mitochondria do not arise from morphological defects. Our data indicate a central role for Complex I dysfunction in pink1-associated defects, and our genetic analyses with heterologous ETC enzymes suggest that Ndi1p-dependent NADH dehydrogenase activity largely acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Pink1 but upstream of Parkin and mitochondrial remodeling.

  9. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  10. 46 CFR 199.202 - Rescue boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.202 Rescue boats... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.202 Section 199.202 Shipping COAST... least one rescue boat approved under approval series 160.156 that is equipped as specified in table 199...

  11. Rope rescue in National fire-fighting and rescue system

    OpenAIRE

    SOCHACKI MARIAN

    2008-01-01

    Автор описывает организацию, функционирование и место системы спасения с высоты в Государственной спасательно-гасящей системе.The author describes organization, working and place of rope rescue in National Firefighting and Rescue System (KSRG).

  12. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...... to retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....... developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users...

  13. [Design and application of portable rescue vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Qi, Huaying; Wang, Shen

    2017-12-01

    The disease of critically ill patients was with rapid changes, and at any time faced the risk of emergency. The current commonly used rescue vehicles were larger and bulky implementation, which were not conducive to the operation, therefore the design of a portable rescue vehicle was needed. This new type of rescue vehicle is multi-layer folding structure, with small footprint, large storage space, so a variety of first aid things can be classified and put, easy to be cleaned and disinfected. In the rescue process, the portable rescue vehicles can be placed in the required position; box of various emergency items can be found at a glance with easy access; the height of the infusion stand can adjust freely according to the user height; the rescue vehicle handle can be easy to pull and adjust accord with human body mechanics principle. The portable rescue vehicle facilitates the operation of medical staff, and is worthy of clinical application.

  14. Defect modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgett, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  15. Chemical Rescue of Enzymes: Proton Transfer in Mutants of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, C. Mark; Castillo, Norberto; Taraphder, Srabani; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    In human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) the mutation of position 64 from histidine to alanine (H64A) disrupts the rate limiting proton transfer (PT) event, resulting in a reduction of the catalytic activity of the enzyme as compared to the wild-type. Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations utilizing the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) methodology for H64A HCA II give a PT free energy barrier significantly higher than that found in the wild-type enzyme. This high barrier, determined in the absence of exogenous buffer and assuming no additional ionizable residues in the PT pathway, indicates the likelihood of alternate enzyme pathways that utilize either ionizable enzyme residues (self-rescue) and/or exogenous buffers (chemical rescue). It has been shown experimentally that the catalytic activity of H64A HCA II can be chemically rescued to near wild type levels by the addition of the exogenous buffer 4-methylimidazole (4MI). Crystallographic studies have identified two 4MI binding sites, yet site specific mutations intended to disrupt 4MI binding have demonstrated these sites to be non-productive. In the present work MS-EVB simulations show that binding of 4MI near Thr199 in the H64A HCA II mutant, a binding site determined by NMR spectroscopy, results in a viable chemical rescue pathway. Additional viable rescue pathways are also identified where 4MI acts as a proton transport intermediary from the active site to ionizable residues on the rim of the active site, revealing a probable mode of action for the chemical rescue pathway PMID:21452838

  16. The Data Rescue @ Home Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, A.; Allan, R.; Valente, M. A.; Tinz, B.; Brönnimann, S.

    2012-04-01

    Climate science as a whole as well as reanalyses as a special case can significantly profit from the recovery, imaging and digitisation of historical observations. The importance of this fact is reflected in large, global data rescue projects and initiatives such as the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE, www.met-acre.org) or the EU FP7 ERA-CLIM project (www.era-clim.eu). From the time before 1957, there are still large amounts of surface data e.g. from former colonies and from overseas territories of European countries )e.g. Portugal, France and Germany) that need to be rescued. Also in case of the very early upper-air observations before the 1930s, even Europe and North America still hold an important quantity of data to be recovered in digital form. Here, we present the web platform "Data Rescue @ Home" (www.data-rescue-at-home.org), which has been developed at ETH Zurich and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, and which has been designed to take advantage of the voluntary assistance of the thousands of people on the web who are interested in climate or old weather data. On the website, these volunteers can enter meteorological data shown on digital images into entry masks that resemble the original. By registering, the users get access to their personal digitisation statistics and help optimising the project. At the moment, 4 digitisation projects are online: One project is dealing with German upper-air data from the Second World War period. In a second project, station data from Tulagi (Solomon Islands) is being digitised. Finally, two collaborative projects have been included: One in cooperation with the Instituto Dom Luiz (Univ. Lisbon, Portugal), where Portuguese station data from Angra (Azores) is digitised, and a further one in cooperation with the German Meteorological Service (DWD), in which precipitation data from former German colonies is being digitised. On our poster, we will report on the status of the projects

  17. Advances in search and rescue at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Allen, Arthur Addoms; Maisondieu, Christophe; Olagnon, Michel

    2013-01-01

    A topical collection on "Advances in Search and Rescue at Sea" has appeared in recent issues of Ocean Dynamics following the latest in a series of workshops on "Technologies for Search and Rescue and other Emergency Marine Operations" (2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011), hosted by IFREMER in Brest, France. Here, we give a brief overview of the history of search and rescue at sea before we summarize the main results of the papers that have appeared in the topical collection.

  18. 46 CFR 133.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.140 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be stowed as follows: (1) Each rescue boat must be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) Each rescue boat... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 133.140 Section 133.140...

  19. Teaching Holocaust Rescue: A Problematic Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Determining how to teach about rescue during the Holocaust presents many dilemmas to teachers as they plan Holocaust curricula. Rescue is often overemphasized, and faulty perspectives about rescuers and their actions may cause students to develop distorted views about this aspect of Holocaust history. This article explores several factors that…

  20. Precision Rescue Behavior in North American Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Altruistic behavior, in which one individual provides aid to another at some cost to itself, is well documented. However, some species engage in a form of altruism, called rescue, that places the altruist in immediate danger. Here we investigate one such example, namely rescuing victims captured by predators. In a field experiment with two North American ant species, Tetramorium sp. E and Prenolepis imparis, individuals were held in artificial snares simulating capture. T. sp. E, but not P. imparis, exhibited digging, pulling, and snare biting, the latter precisely targeted to the object binding the victim. These results are the first to document precision rescue in a North American ant species; moreover, unlike rescue in other ants, T. sp. E rescues conspecifics from different colonies, mirroring their atypical social behavior, namely the lack of aggression between non-nestmate (heterocolonial conspecifics. In a second, observational study designed to demonstrate rescue from an actual predator, T. sp. E victims were dropped into an antlion's pit and the behavior of a single rescuer was observed. Results showed that T. sp. E not only attempted to release the victim, but also risked attacking the predator, suggesting that precision rescue may play an important role in this species' antipredator behavior.

  1. A new approach to road accident rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alejandro; González-Aguilera, Diego; López, Alfonso I; Gutiérrez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    This article develops and validates a new methodology and tool for rescue assistance in traffic accidents, with the aim of improving its efficiency and safety in the evacuation of people, reducing the number of victims in road accidents. Different tests supported by professionals and experts have been designed under different circumstances and with different categories of damaged vehicles coming from real accidents and simulated trapped victims in order to calibrate and refine the proposed methodology and tool. To validate this new approach, a tool called App_Rescue has been developed. This tool is based on the use of a computer system that allows an efficient access to the technical information of the vehicle and sanitary information of the common passengers. The time spent during rescue using the standard protocol and the proposed method was compared. This rescue assistance system allows us to make vital information accessible in posttrauma care services, improving the effectiveness of interventions by the emergency services, reducing the rescue time and therefore minimizing the consequences involved and the number of victims. This could often mean saving lives. In the different simulated rescue operations, the rescue time has been reduced an average of 14%.

  2. Rescuing mutant CFTR: a multi-task approach to a better outcome in treating cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Margarida D; Farinha, Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    Correcting multiple defects of mutant CFTR with small molecule compounds has been the goal of an increasing number of recent Cystic Fibrosis (CF) drug discovery programmes. However, the mechanism of action (MoA) by which these molecules restore mutant CFTR is still poorly understood, in particular of CFTR correctors, i.e., compounds rescuing to the cells surface the most prevalent mutant in CF patients--F508del-CFTR. However, there is increasing evidence that to fully restore the multiple defects associated with F508del-CFTR, different small molecules with distinct corrective properties may be required. Towards this goal, a better insight into MoA of correctors is needed and several constraints should be addressed. The methodological approaches to achieve this include: 1) testing the combined effect of compounds with that of other (non-pharmacological) rescuing strategies (e.g., revertants or low temperature); 2) assessing effects in multiple cellular models (non-epithelial vs epithelial, non-human vs human, immortalized vs primary cultures, polarized vs non polarized, cells vs tissues); 3) assessing compound effects on isolated CFTR domains (e.g., compound binding by surface plasmon resonance, assessing effects on domain folding and aggregation); and finally 4) assessing compounds specificity in rescuing different CFTR mutants and other mutant proteins. These topics are reviewed and discussed here so as to provide a state-of-the art review on how to combine multiple ways of rescuing mutant CFTR to the ultimate benefit of CF patients.

  3. Amphibious Search and Rescue: Shaping the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowling, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The current Amphibious Search and Rescue (ASAR) mission is outdated, lacks integration with the mission/doctrine of the amphibious force and fails to exploit the multi-mission and tactical capabilities of the MH-60S helicopter...

  4. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  5. Factors influencing mine rescue team behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Jacqueline H; Kowalski-Trakofler, K M; Brnich, M J; Vaught, C

    2016-01-01

    A focus group study of the first moments in an underground mine emergency response was conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Office for Mine Safety and Health Research. Participants in the study included mine rescue team members, team trainers, mine officials, state mining personnel, and individual mine managers. A subset of the data consists of responses from participants with mine rescue backgrounds. These responses were noticeably different from those given by on-site emergency personnel who were at the mine and involved with decisions made during the first moments of an event. As a result, mine rescue team behavior data were separated in the analysis and are reported in this article. By considering the responses from mine rescue team members and trainers, it was possible to sort the data and identify seven key areas of importance to them. On the basis of the responses from the focus group participants with a mine rescue background, the authors concluded that accurate and complete information and a unity of purpose among all command center personnel are two of the key conditions needed for an effective mine rescue operation.

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION CATALYTIC KINETIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of ...

  7. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  8. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  9. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue access windows. 238.114 Section 238.114... § 238.114 Rescue access windows. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of... rescue access windows. At least one rescue access window shall be located in each side of the car...

  10. Organizations of food redistribution and rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, T Y; Freeland-Graves, J H

    2017-11-01

    Food insecurity affects 13.4% of the USA population, despite the fact that 30-40% of all food is deposited in a landfill. Food rescue nutrition is the process of redistribution of surplus food to the impoverished. The aim of this study is to document the extent of involvement of organizations in food rescue nutrition. In this cross-sectional study, a survey about organizations involved in food rescue nutrition was developed, validated, and then tested. Directors of 100 organizations involved in food rescue nutrition from eight Southwestern States in the USA participated in this research. These organizations provided an average of 2 million kg of food to more than 40,000 clients each month. Food assistance programs had an average of eight workers and 3081 volunteers. In addition to food, these organizations provided other services such as clothing, clinical, and childcare. The agencies encountered several challenges, including lack of resources that resulted in reducing food portions and turning away clients. The extent of involvement of community-based programs in food rescue nutrition was strong in eight Southwestern states in the USA. Organizations involved in food redistribution helped alleviate food insecurity in their clients. Sustainability of these charitable networks was dependent on availability of resources and sufficient volunteers. Health professionals should encourage these organizations by providing support through donations of time, money, and/or food. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  12. Endovascular rescue method for undesirably stretched coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Undesirable detachment or stretching of coils within the parent artery during aneurysm embolization can be related with thrombus formation, which can be caused occlusion of parent artery or embolic event(s). To escape from this situation, several rescue methods have been reported. A case with undesirably stretched coil in which another rescue method was used, is presented. When the stretched coil is still located in the coil delivery microcatheter, the stretched coil can be removed safely using a snare and a handmade monorail microcatheter. After a snare is lodged in the handmade monorail microcatheter, the snare is introduced over the coil delivery micorcatheter and located in the distal part of the stretched coil. After then, the handmade monorail microcatheter captures the stretched coil and the snare as one unit. This technique using a handmade monorail microcatheter and a snare can be a good rescue modality for the undesirably stretched coil, still remained within the coil delivery microcatheter.

  13. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  14. Embedded defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriola, M.; Vachaspati, T.; Bucher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the Z string and a one-parameter family of strings called the W(α) string. It is argued that although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member becomes physically distinct when multistring configurations are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The Z string is shown to be unstable for all values of the Higgs boson mass when θ W =π/4. W strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron

  15. Failure to Rescue, Rescue Surgery and Centralization of Postoperative Complications: A Challenge for General and Acute Care Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Mauro; Bozzo, Samantha; Carrara, Giulia; Mariani, Diego

    2017-01-01

    To explore the current literature on the failure to rescue and rescue surgery concepts, to identify the key items for decreasing the failure to rescue rate and improve outcome, to verify if there is a rationale for centralization of patients suffering postoperative complications. There is a growing awareness about the need to assess and measure the failure to rescue rate, on institutional, regional and national basis. Many factors affect failure to rescue, and all should be individually analyzed and considered. Rescue surgery is one of these factors. Rescue surgery assumes an acute care surgery background. Measurement of failure to rescue rate should become a standard for quality improvement programs. Implementation of all clinical and organizational items involved is the key for better outcomes. Preparedness for rescue surgery is a main pillar in this process. Centralization of management, audit, and communication are important as much as patient centralization. Celsius.

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  17. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  18. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...

  19. Catalytic methanol dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Shindler, Y.; Tatrtakovsky, L.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the methanol dissociation study on copper/potassium catalyst with alumina support at various temperatures are presented. The following gaseous and liquid products at. The catalytic methanol dissociation is obtained: hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and dimethyl ether. Formation rates of these products are discussed. Activation energies of corresponding reactions are calculated

  20. Rescuing Dogs in the Frederick Community | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many Frederick National Lab employees have a favorite cause to which they volunteer a significant amount of time. For Dianna Kelly, IT program manager/scientific program analyst, Office of Scientific Operations, and Courtney Kennedy, associate technical project manager, Business Enterprise Systems, that cause is dog rescue.

  1. Rescuing Downed Aircrews: The Value of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Make a tax -deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving/contribute www.rand.org Library of Congress Control Number: 2015955037 ISBN...Predictors of Survival and Evasion ............................................................ 40   Table 5.2. Regression Predictors...a damaged aircraft, and the ability to avoid immediate capture. Combat rescue records and anecdotal evidence show that if the pilot were able to

  2. Emergency Medical Rescue in a Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briesmeister, L.; Ellington, Y.; Hollis, R.; Kunzman, J.; McNaughton, M.; Ramsey, G.; Somers, B.; Turner, A.; Finn, J.

    1999-01-01

    Previous experience with emergency medical rescues in the presence of radiation or contamination indicates that the training provided to emergency responders is not always appropriate. A new course developed at Los Alamos includes specific procedures for emergency response in a variety of radiological conditions

  3. REM sleep rescues learning from interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Duggan, Katherine A.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  4. In vitro embryo rescue and plant regeneration following self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro embryo rescue and plant regeneration following self-pollination with irradiated ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... shows that pollen irradiation coupled with self-pollination and embryo rescue ...

  5. Expectations of a business rescue plan: international directives for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expectations of a business rescue plan: international directives for Chapter 6 implementation. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Preliminary analysis of business rescue plans suggested that a significant ...

  6. Neurotrauma and the rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybul, S; Gillett, G R; Ho, K M; Lind, C R P

    2011-12-01

    The rule of rescue describes the powerful human proclivity to rescue identified endangered lives, regardless of cost or risk. Deciding whether or not to perform a decompressive craniectomy as a life-saving or 'rescue' procedure for a young person with a severe traumatic brain injury provides a good example of the ethical tensions that occur in these situations. Unfortunately, there comes a point when the primary brain injury is so severe that if the patient survives they are likely to remain severely disabled and fully dependent. The health resource implications of this outcome are significant. By using a web-based outcome prediction model this study compares the long-term outcome and designation of two groups of patients. One group had a very severe injury as adjudged by the model and the other group a less severe injury. At 18 month follow-up there were significant differences in outcome and healthcare requirements. This raises important ethical issues when considering life-saving but non-restorative surgical intervention. The discussion about realistic outcome cannot be dichotomised into simply life or death so that the outcome for the patient must enter the equation. As in other 'rescue situations', the utility of the procedure cannot be rationalised on a mere cost-benefit analysis. A compromise has to be reached to determine at what point either the likely outcome would be unacceptable to the person on whom the procedure is being performed or the social utility gained from the rule of rescue intervention fails to justify the utilitarian value and justice of equitable resource allocation.

  7. [Medical rescue of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team in Lushan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-hua; Yang, Hui-ning; Liu, Hui-liang; Wang, Fan; Hu, Li-bin; Zheng, Jing-chen

    2013-05-01

    To summarize and analyze the medical mission of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team (CNESAR) in Lushan earthquake, to promote the medical rescue effectiveness incorporated with search and rescue. Retrospective analysis of medical work data by CNESAR from April 21th, 2013 to April 27th during Lushan earthquake rescue, including the medical staff dispatch and the wounded case been treated. The reasonable medical corps was composed by 22 members, including 2 administrators, 11 doctors [covering emergency medicine, orthopedics (joints and limbs, spinal), obstetrics and gynecology, gastroenterology, cardiology, ophthalmology, anesthesiology, medical rescue, health epidemic prevention, clinical laboratory of 11 specialties], 1 ultrasound technician, 5 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 1 medical instrument engineer and 1 office worker for propaganda. There were two members having psychological consultants qualifications. The medical work were carried out in seven aspects, including medical care assurance for the CNESAR members, first aid cooperation with search and rescue on site, clinical work in refugees' camp, medical round service for scattered village people, evacuation for the wounded, mental intervention, and the sanitary and anti-epidemic work. The medical work covered 24 small towns, and medical staff established 3 medical clinics at Taiping Town, Shuangshi Town of Lushan County and Baoxing County. Medical rescue, mental intervention for the old and kids, and sanitary and anti-epidemic were performed at the above sites. The medical corps had successful evacuated 2 severe wounded patients and treated the wounded over thousands. Most of the wounded were soft tissue injuries, external injury, respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, and heat stroke. Compared with the rescue action in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the aggregation and departure of rescue team in Lushan earthquake, the traffic control order in disaster area, the self-aid and buddy aid

  8. Near-infrared 808 nm light boosts complex IV-dependent respiration and rescues a Parkinson-related pink1 model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Vos

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC defects are observed in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and in PD fly- and mouse-models; however it remains to be tested if acute improvement of ETC function alleviates PD-relevant defects. We tested the hypothesis that 808 nm infrared light that effectively penetrates tissues rescues pink1 mutants. We show that irradiating isolated fly or mouse mitochondria with 808 nm light that is absorbed by ETC-Complex IV acutely improves Complex IV-dependent oxygen consumption and ATP production, a feature that is wavelength-specific. Irradiating Drosophila pink1 mutants using a single dose of 808 nm light results in a rescue of major systemic and mitochondrial defects. Time-course experiments indicate mitochondrial membrane potential defects are rescued prior to mitochondrial morphological defects, also in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting mitochondrial functional defects precede mitochondrial swelling. Thus, our data indicate that improvement of mitochondrial function using infrared light stimulation is a viable strategy to alleviate pink1-related defects.

  9. Contribution of the C-terminal region within the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase to yeast lethality, chromatin binding and viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhumeur Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 integrase (IN is a key viral enzymatic molecule required for the integration of the viral cDNA into the genome. Additionally, HIV-1 IN has been shown to play important roles in several other steps during the viral life cycle, including reverse transcription, nuclear import and chromatin targeting. Interestingly, previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of HIV-1 IN induces the lethal phenotype in some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses of the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN in order to delineate the critical amino acid(s and/or motif(s required for the induction of the lethal phenotype in the yeast strain HP16, and to further elucidate the molecular mechanism which causes this phenotype. Results Our study identified three HIV-1 IN mutants, V165A, A179P and KR186,7AA, located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of IN that do not induce the lethal phenotype in yeast. Chromatin binding assays in yeast and mammalian cells demonstrated that these IN mutants were impaired for the ability to bind chromatin. Additionally, we determined that while these IN mutants failed to interact with LEDGF/p75, they retained the ability to bind Integrase interactor 1. Furthermore, we observed that VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 containing these IN mutants was unable to replicate in the C8166 T cell line and this defect was partially rescued by complementation with the catalytically inactive D64E IN mutant. Conclusion Overall, this study demonstrates that three mutations located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN inhibit the IN-induced lethal phenotype in yeast by inhibiting the binding of IN to the host chromatin. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN is important for binding to host chromatin and is crucial for both viral replication and the promotion of

  10. Concentric catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Gerald J [Oviedo, FL; Laster, Walter R [Oviedo, FL

    2009-03-24

    A catalytic combustor (28) includes a tubular pressure boundary element (90) having a longitudinal flow axis (e.g., 56) separating a first portion (94) of a first fluid flow (e.g., 24) from a second portion (95) of the first fluid flow. The pressure boundary element includes a wall (96) having a plurality of separate longitudinally oriented flow paths (98) annularly disposed within the wall and conducting respective portions (100, 101) of a second fluid flow (e.g., 26) therethrough. A catalytic material (32) is disposed on a surface (e.g., 102, 103) of the pressure boundary element exposed to at least one of the first and second portions of the first fluid flow.

  11. Catalytic exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H

    1973-09-01

    Recent achievements and problems in the development of exhaust control devices in the USA are reviewed. To meet the 1976 emission standards, catalytic systems for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and for the reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and water are needed. While oxidizing catalysts using platinum, palladium, copper, vanadium, and chromium appplied on alumina or ceramic materials are more or less effective in emission control, there are no catalytic devices for the reduction of nitrogen oxides with the required useful life of 25,000 to 50,000 miles as yet available. In the case of platinum catalysts on monolithic supports, the operating temperature of 650 to 750/sup 0/C as required for the oxidation process may cause inactivation of the catalysts and fusion of the support material. The oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons is inhibited by high concentrations of CO, nitric oxide, and hydrocarbons. The use of catalytic converters requires the use of lead-free or low-lead gasoline. The nitrogen oxides conversion efficiency is considerably influenced by the oxygen-to-CO ratio of the exhaust gas, which makes limitation of this ratio necessary.

  12. Combat Search and Rescue in Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    in the United States also sup- ported civil SAR. Almost daily, the veterans of Southeast Asia were called upon to rescue lost hikers and foundering ...Ridge in the Persian Gulf. Under the NRCC, Combined Task Force (CTF) 151 served as the regional SAR controller for Battle Force Zulu in the Persian...was ZULU + 3 [i.e., Greenwich Mean Time plus three hours]. Saudi Arabia local time was ZULU + 3:30. All times in the log extracts that follow are

  13. Emergency Air Rescue System in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tranca Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The helicopter, as a means of transport, has facilitated a significant decrease in intervention time at the site of request, increasing the chances of survival of the critical patient. Since 2003, SMURD has managed to form a fleet composed of nine helicopters and two airplanes. From an operational and strategic point of view, the SMURD intervention unit, set up seven Aeromedical Operational Bases (A.O.B. equipped with helicopters and materials necessary for their operation. There is a dynamic increase in the number of air rescue missions in Romania, with most missions being carried out by the air rescue bases in Târgu Mureş and Bucharest. Specialty literature has clearly demonstrated the positive impact on the survival of critical patients assisted by airborne crews, so it is necessary for the Romanian air rescue system to grow up. It is necessary to increase the number of air bases, purchase new helicopters and to continue the training programs of both pilots and medical personnel.

  14. Defect Chemistry of Oxides for Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweke, Danielle; Mordehovitz, Yuval; Halabi, Mahdi; Shelly, Lee; Hayun, Shmuel

    2018-05-31

    Oxides are widely used for energy applications, as solid electrolytes in various solid oxide fuel cell devices or as catalysts (often associated with noble metal particles) for numerous reactions involving oxidation or reduction. Defects are the major factors governing the efficiency of a given oxide for the above applications. In this paper, the common defects in oxide systems and external factors influencing the defect concentration and distribution are presented, with special emphasis on ceria (CeO 2 ) based materials. It is shown that the behavior of a variety of oxide systems with respect to properties relevant for energy applications (conductivity and catalytic activity) can be rationalized by general considerations about the type and concentration of defects in the specific system. A new method based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), recently reported by the authors for mapping space charge defects and measuring space charge potentials, is shown to be of potential importance for understanding conductivity mechanisms in oxides. The influence of defects on gas-surface reactions is exemplified on the interaction of CO 2 and H 2 O with ceria, by correlating between the defect distribution in the material and its adsorption capacity or splitting efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, David C.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Kataria, Atish; Shen, Jian-Ping

    2018-04-17

    Described herein are processes for converting a biomass starting material (such as lignocellulosic materials) into a low oxygen containing, stable liquid intermediate that can be refined to make liquid hydrocarbon fuels. More specifically, the process can be a catalytic biomass pyrolysis process wherein an oxygen removing catalyst is employed in the reactor while the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis conditions. The stream exiting the pyrolysis reactor comprises bio-oil having a low oxygen content, and such stream may be subjected to further steps, such as separation and/or condensation to isolate the bio-oil.

  16. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  17. Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Peter T; Tan, Catherine L; Freeman, Gordon J; Haigis, Marcia; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2015-07-14

    Defective antibody production in aging is broadly attributed to immunosenescence. However, the precise immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate an increase in the ratio of inhibitory T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells to stimulatory T follicular helper (TFH) cells in aged mice. Aged TFH and TFR cells are phenotypically distinct from those in young mice, exhibiting increased programmed cell death protein-1 expression but decreased ICOS expression. Aged TFH cells exhibit defective antigen-specific responses, and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 blockade can partially rescue TFH cell function. In contrast, young and aged TFR cells have similar suppressive capacity on a per-cell basis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms contributing to defective humoral immunity in aging: an increase in suppressive TFR cells combined with impaired function of aged TFH cells results in reduced T-cell-dependent antibody responses in aged mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  19. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  20. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  1. Motivations for volunteers in food rescue nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, T Y; Freeland-Graves, J H

    2017-08-01

    A variety of organizations redistribute surplus food to low-income populations through food rescue nutrition. Why volunteers participate in these charitable organizations is unclear. The aim of this study is to document the participation and motivations of volunteers who are involved specifically in food rescue nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, a new instrument, Motivations to Volunteer Scale, was developed and validated in 40 participants (aged ≥18 years). In phase 2, the new scale and a demographics questionnaire were administered to 300 participants who were volunteering in food pantries and churches. The pilot study showed that Motivations to Volunteer Scale exhibited an internal consistency of Cronbach's α of 0.73 (P  0.05). The scale was validated also by comparison to the Volunteer Function Inventory (r = 0.86, P social life, and altruism. The mean motivation score of the 300 volunteers was 9.15 ± 0.17. Greater motivations were observed among participants who were aged >45 years, women, Hispanics, college/university graduates, physically inactive, non-smokers, and had an income ≥ $48,000. The Motivations to Volunteer Scale is a valid tool to assess why individuals volunteer in food rescue nutrition. The extent of motivations of participants was relatively high, and the primary reason for volunteering was altruism. Health professionals should be encouraged to participate in food redistribution. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Drone configuration for seaside rescue missions

    OpenAIRE

    Garro Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The project is based on creating a first aid tool to perform a coastline rescue with an unmanned. The System is formed by a ground segment, where the ground station will be placed and an air segment, where the unmanned vehicle, equipped with all the necessary extra devices to perform the mission will be found. For notices of possible drownings, the ground station will receive notifications that users will publish using a Mobile application. This app will allow users to capture images of the v...

  3. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is ...

  4. Catalytic detritiation of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.; Lamberger, P.H.; Ellis, R.E.; Mills, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot-scale system has been used at Mound Laboratory to investigate the catalytic detritiation of water. A hydrophobic, precious metal catalyst is used to promote the exchange of tritium between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen at 60 0 C. Two columns are used, each 7.5 m long by 2.5 cm ID and packed with catalyst. Water flow is 5-10 cm 3 /min and countercurrent hydrogen flow is 9,000-12,000 cm 3 /min. The equipment, except for the columns, is housed in an inert atmosphere glovebox and is computer controlled. The hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of a portion of the water stream. Enriched gaseous tritium is withdrawn for further enrichment. A description of the system is included along with an outline of its operation. Recent experimental data are discussed

  5. Clinical and economic analysis of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom-paz, Einat; Alshalati, Jana; Shehata, Fady; Jimenez, Luis; Son, Weon-Young; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang Lin; Almog, Benny

    2011-12-01

    To identify clinical and embryological factors that may predict success in rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles (after total fertilization failure has occurred) and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of rescue ICSI strategy. Additionally, follow-up of 20 rescue ICSI pregnancies is reported. Retrospective analysis of total fertilization failure cycles. University-based tertiary medical center. In total, 92 patients who had undergone conventional in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with total fertilization failure were included. The patients were divided into two subgroups: those who conceived through rescue ICSI and those who did not. The pregnant members of the rescue ICSI subgroup were found to be significantly younger (32.9 ± 4.2 vs. 36.3 ± 4.5, respectively, p = 0.0035,) and to have better-quality embryos than those who did not conceive (cumulative embryo score: 38.3 ± 20.4 vs. 29.3 ± 14.7, p = 0.025). Cost effectiveness analysis showed 25% reduction in the cost per live birth when rescue ICSI is compared to cycle cancellation approach. The pregnancies follow-up did not show adverse perinatal outcome. Rescue ICSI is an option for salvaging IVF cycles complicated by total fertilization failure. Success in rescue ICSI was found to be associated with younger age and higher quality of embryos. Furthermore, the cost effectiveness of rescue ICSI in terms of total fertilization failure was found to be worthwhile.

  6. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  7. Rescue of a pathogenic mutant human glucagon receptor by pharmacological chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Chen, Chun-Rong; Liu, Xiaohong; Kodra, János T

    2012-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a homozygous inactivating P86S mutation of the glucagon receptor (GCGR) causes a novel human disease of hyperglucagonemia, pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (Mahvash disease). The mechanisms for the decreased activity of the P86S mutant (P86S) are abnormal receptor localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and defective interaction with glucagon. To search for targeted therapies for Mahvash disease, we examined whether P86S can be trafficked to the plasma membrane by pharmacological chaperones and whether novel glucagon analogs restore effective receptor interaction. We used enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged P86S stably expressed in HEK 293 cells to allow fluorescence imaging and western blotting and molecular modeling to design novel glucagon analogs in which alanine 19 was replaced with serine or asparagine. Incubation at 27 °C largely restored normal plasma membrane localization and normal processing of P86S but osmotic chaperones had no effects. The ER stressors thapsigargin and curcumin partially rescued P86S. The lipophilic GCGR antagonist L-168,049 also partially rescued P86S, so did Cpd 13 and 15 to a smaller degree. The rescued P86S led to more glucagon-stimulated cAMP production and was internalized by glucagon. Compared with the native glucagon, the novel glucagon analogs failed to stimulate more cAMP production by P86S. We conclude that the mutant GCGR is partially rescued by several pharmacological chaperones and our data provide proof-of-principle evidence that Mahvash disease can be potentially treated with pharmacological chaperones. The novel glucagon analogs, however, failed to interact with P86S more effectively.

  8. Absence of Wip1 partially rescues Atm deficiency phenotypes in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Yolanda; Nguyen, Thuy-Ai; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Herron, Alan; Rao, Pulivarthi; Zhu, Chengming; Lu, Xiongbin; Donehower, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Wildtype p53-Induced Phosphatase 1 (WIP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that dephosphorylates proteins in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-initiated DNA damage response pathway. WIP1 may play a homeostatic role in ATM signaling by returning the cell to a normal pre-stress state following completion of DNA repair. To better understand the effects of WIP1 on ATM signaling, we crossed Atm-deficient mice to Wip1-deficient mice and characterized phenotypes of the double knockout progeny. We hypothesized that the absence of Wip1 might rescue Atm deficiency phenotypes. Atm null mice, like ATM-deficient humans with the inherited syndrome ataxia telangiectasia, exhibit radiation sensitivity, fertility defects, and are T-cell lymphoma prone. Most double knockout mice were largely protected from lymphoma development and had a greatly extended lifespan compared to Atm null mice. Double knockout mice had increased p53 and H2AX phosphorylation and p21 expression compared to their Atm null counterparts, indicating enhanced p53 and DNA damage responses. Additionally, double knockout splenocytes displayed reduced chromosomal instability compared to Atm null mice. Finally, doubly null mice were partially rescued from infertility defects observed in Atm null mice. These results indicate that inhibition of WIP1 may represent a useful strategy for cancer treatment in general and A-T patients in particular. PMID:21765465

  9. Modulating Wnt Signaling Rescues Palate Morphogenesis in Pax9 Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Lan, Y; Krumlauf, R; Jiang, R

    2017-10-01

    Cleft palate is a common birth defect caused by disruption of palatogenesis during embryonic development. Although mutations disrupting components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been associated with cleft lip and palate in humans and mice, the mechanisms involving canonical Wnt signaling and its regulation in secondary palate development are not well understood. Here, we report that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in Pax9-mediated regulation of secondary palate development. We found that cleft palate pathogenesis in Pax9-deficient embryos is accompanied by significantly reduced expression of Axin2, an endogenous target of canonical Wnt signaling, in the developing palatal mesenchyme, particularly in the posterior regions of the palatal shelves. We found that expression of Dkk2, encoding a secreted Wnt antagonist, is significantly increased whereas the levels of active β-catenin protein, the essential transcriptional coactivator of canonical Wnt signaling, is significantly decreased in the posterior regions of the palatal shelves in embryonic day 13.5 Pax9-deficent embryos in comparison with control littermates. We show that small molecule-mediated inhibition of Dickkopf (DKK) activity in utero during palatal shelf morphogenesis partly rescued secondary palate development in Pax9-deficient embryos. Moreover, we found that genetic inactivation of Wise, which is expressed in the developing palatal shelves and encodes another secreted antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling, also rescued palate morphogenesis in Pax9-deficient mice. Furthermore, whereas Pax9 del/del embryos exhibit defects in palatal shelf elevation/reorientation and significant reduction in accumulation of hyaluronic acid-a high molecular extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan implicated in playing an important role in palatal shelf elevation-80% of Pax9 del/del ;Wise -/- double-mutant mouse embryos exhibit rescued palatal shelf elevation/reorientation, accompanied by restored

  10. Impaired Mitochondrial Dynamics Underlie Axonal Defects in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Kyle; Mou, Yongchao; Xu, Chong-Chong; Shah, Dhruvi; Chang, Jaerak; Blackstone, Craig; Li, Xue-Jun

    2018-05-02

    Mechanisms by which long corticospinal axons degenerate in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are largely unknown. Here, we have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with two autosomal recessive forms of HSP, SPG15 and SPG48, which are caused by mutations in the ZFYVE26 and AP5Z1 genes encoding proteins in the same complex, the spastizin and AP5Z1 proteins, respectively. In patient iPSC-derived telencephalic glutamatergic and midbrain dopaminergic neurons, neurite number, length and branching are significantly reduced, recapitulating disease-specific phenotypes. We analyzed mitochondrial morphology and noted a significant reduction in both mitochondrial length and their densities within axons of these HSP neurons. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also decreased, confirming functional mitochondrial defects. Notably, mdivi-1, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission GTPase DRP1, rescues mitochondrial morphology defects and suppresses the impairment in neurite outgrowth and late-onset apoptosis in HSP neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of these HSP genes causes similar axonal defects, also mitigated by treatment with mdivi-1. Finally, neurite outgrowth defects in SPG15 and SPG48 cortical neurons can be rescued by knocking down DRP1 directly. Thus, abnormal mitochondrial morphology caused by an imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion underlies specific axonal defects and serves as a potential therapeutic target for SPG15 and SPG48.

  11. 30 CFR 49.17 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.17 Physical requirements for mine rescue team. (a) Each member of a mine rescue team shall be examined annually by a...

  12. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  13. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... embryo rescue from interspecific hybridization between diploid and tetraploid grape species. Wakana et al. (2003) and Motosugi et al. (2003) studied the formation and developments of hybrid seeds from cross between diploid and tetraploid, and then obtained triploid progenies through embryo rescue.

  14. 29 CFR 553.215 - Ambulance and rescue service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activities, the applicable standard is the one which applies to the activity in which the employee spends the majority of work time during the work period. (b) Ambulance and rescue service employees of public agencies... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambulance and rescue service employees. 553.215 Section 553...

  15. Emotional Reactions of Rescue Workers Following a Tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Susan L.; And Others

    Rescue and medical workers may be at risk for negative emotional experience following intervention efforts in disaster situations. To examine this possibility, 120 rescue and hospital personnel responded to a survey of their emotional reactions and coping behaviors 3 months after a devastating tornado. Twenty-eight subjects had been involved in…

  16. Review and expectations of terror attack emergency rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-wen WANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten years of anti-terror struggle since the 9/11 event has indicated adequately that terrorism is a global problem and international danger. Likewise, anti-terror emergency rescue is also an important task which will influence the safety and benefit of every country all over the world. This paper reviews the main progress and result of international anti-terror struggle in the last ten years, and also introduces the new characteristic of the international anti-terror activity. Besides that, this paper also brings forward the further consideration about the anti-terror emergency medical rescue and the researches remaining to be carried out. The latter includes: (1 to further perfect the high-efficient medical rescue command organization; (2 to further perfect the emergency medical rescue prearranged scheme; (3 to further perfect the construction of rescue system and rescue base after various types of terror attack; (4 to further promote the anti-terror consciousness in the public, and pay more attention to the prevention and investigation of the psychological disaster; (5 to further carry out the basic investigation on emergency medical rescue after various terror attack injuries (for example the types and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology and prevention and treatment of stress-psychological effect induced by terror attack, new high-efficient medical rescue measure and equipments, and so on.

  17. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... coal requires more heat to combust; (3) anthracite dust does not propagate an explosion; and (4) there... to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria. The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response...

  18. Medical rescue for nuclear or radiologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaohua; Nie Suifeng

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear or radiologic emergencies are defined as incidents that are caused by radioactive substance or by other sources of radiation and can pose a serious hazard to public health. In case of nuclear or radiologic emergencies, radioactive rays will damage the human body and bring about psychological and mental stress, resulting in a series of social psychological effects. The key to medical rescue for nuclear or radiologic emergencies is to take effective measures which can minimize the body harm resulting from nuclear or radiologic emergencies and maintain social stability. This article reviews the personnel protection, on-the-spot salvage, treatments of various harm, and prevention of public psychological effect following nuclear or radiologic emergencies. (authors)

  19. Teleautonomous Control on Rescue Robot Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Kuswadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot application in disaster area can help responder team to save victims. In order to finish task, robot must have flexible movement mechanism so it can pass through uncluttered area. Passive linkage can be used on robot chassis so it can give robot flexibility. On physical experiments, robot is succeeded to move through gravels and 5 cm obstacle. Rescue robot also has specialized control needs. Robot must able to be controlled remotely. It also must have ability to move autonomously. Teleautonomous control method is combination between those methods. It can be concluded from experiments that on teleoperation mode, operator must get used to see environment through robot’s camera. While on autonomous mode, robot is succeeded to avoid obstacle and search target based on sensor reading and controller program. On teleautonomous mode, robot can change control mode by using bluetooth communication for data transfer, so robot control will be more flexible.

  20. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  1. Data Rescue Case Studies from the Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    A simple definition of the cryosphere is "where the world is frozen", or where water takes the form of snow and ice. The cryosphere is shrinking as the Earth warms. Data, particularly old data, document this in often eye-opening fashion. A photograph of Alaska's Muir Glacier taken in 1902 next to one taken in 2005 has impact that a line graph of air temperature anomalies from a weather station can't match, even though temperature data are fundamental to climate research and to understanding the glacier retreat captured in the photographs. Whaling logbooks from the late 1800s, maps of sea ice shared internationally in the 1930s, and satellite images of the polar oceans from the 1960s are not as immediately thought-provoking as are glacier photographs, but when preserved and documented they provide a record of sea ice coverage that is more than 100 years long. We developed a data product from these and other sources that is used in meteorological reanalysis and to answer questions about ice in the Arctic prior to 1978, when commonly used satellite-data-derived sea ice records begin. Preserving glacier photographs and making them available online, and publishing a gridded sea ice data product that builds on the preservation work of others are examples of data rescue projects that benefit scientific research and mobilize knowledge. These and other case studies suggest that even absent secure funding and an organizational setting that supports data rescue, important data make the transition from someone's office to archived and online with metadata because scientists are impassioned about the data they collect and want others to be able to use these data. In these cases from the cryosphere, student interns, collaborations with librarians, and cooperation with colleagues in other data centers have made it possible to preserve data at low cost.

  2. Posture manipulation for rescue activity via small traction robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yuki; Osuka, Koichi; Amano, Hisanori

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a conceptual design of rescue robots against nuclear-power plant accidents. We claim that the rescue robots in nuclear-power plants should have the following properties. (1) The size is small. (2) The structure is simple. (3) The number of the robots is large. This paper studies the rescue robots to rescue people in an area polluted with radioactive leakage in nuclear power institutions. In particular, we propose a rescue system which consists of a group of small mobile robots. First, small traction robots set the posture of the fainted victims to carry easily, and carry them to the safety space with the mobile robots for the stretcher composition. In this paper, we describe the produced small traction robots. And, we confirm that the robots can manipulate a 40 kg dummy doll's posture. We also examine the optimal number of robots from a perspective of working efficiency in the assumption spot. (author)

  3. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    126, No. 2, March 2014, pp. 341–351. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and .... Gas–liquid and liquid–solid transport processes in catalytic reactors.5.

  4. Nickel sulfate induces numerous defects in Caenorhabditis elegans that can also be transferred to progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dayong; Wang Yang

    2008-01-01

    Whether the multiple biological toxicities from nickel exposure could be transferred to progeny has not been clarified. In this report, we explored the Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the multiple toxicities of nickel and their possibly transferable properties. The nickel toxicity caused multiple biological defects in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, most of these toxicities could be transferred and could be only partially rescued in progeny. Some specific phenotypes in progeny were also found to exhibit no obvious rescue phenotypes or to show even more severe defects than their parents. The defects caused by nickel exposure could be classified into four groups according to their transferring properties. That is, the defects caused by nickel exposure could be largely, or partially, or unable to be rescued, or became even more severe in progeny animals. Therefore, most of the nickel exposure-caused defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny to different degrees in C. elegans. - Nickel exposure can cause multi-biological toxicities and these defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny in C. elegans

  5. Nickel sulfate induces numerous defects in Caenorhabditis elegans that can also be transferred to progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dayong [Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education (China)], E-mail: dayongw@seu.edu.cn; Wang Yang [Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education (China)

    2008-02-15

    Whether the multiple biological toxicities from nickel exposure could be transferred to progeny has not been clarified. In this report, we explored the Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the multiple toxicities of nickel and their possibly transferable properties. The nickel toxicity caused multiple biological defects in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, most of these toxicities could be transferred and could be only partially rescued in progeny. Some specific phenotypes in progeny were also found to exhibit no obvious rescue phenotypes or to show even more severe defects than their parents. The defects caused by nickel exposure could be classified into four groups according to their transferring properties. That is, the defects caused by nickel exposure could be largely, or partially, or unable to be rescued, or became even more severe in progeny animals. Therefore, most of the nickel exposure-caused defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny to different degrees in C. elegans. - Nickel exposure can cause multi-biological toxicities and these defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny in C. elegans.

  6. TET2 Regulates Mast Cell Differentiation and Proliferation through Catalytic and Non-catalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Montagner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Dioxygenases of the TET family impact genome functions by converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC in DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC. Here, we identified TET2 as a crucial regulator of mast cell differentiation and proliferation. In the absence of TET2, mast cells showed disrupted gene expression and altered genome-wide 5hmC deposition, especially at enhancers and in the proximity of downregulated genes. Impaired differentiation of Tet2-ablated cells could be relieved or further exacerbated by modulating the activity of other TET family members, and mechanistically it could be linked to the dysregulated expression of C/EBP family transcription factors. Conversely, the marked increase in proliferation induced by the loss of TET2 could be rescued exclusively by re-expression of wild-type or catalytically inactive TET2. Our data indicate that, in the absence of TET2, mast cell differentiation is under the control of compensatory mechanisms mediated by other TET family members, while proliferation is strictly dependent on TET2 expression. : The impact of TET enzymes on gene expression and cell function is incompletely understood. Montagner et al. investigate the TET-mediated regulation of mast cell differentiation and function, uncover transcriptional pathways regulated by TET2, and identify both enzymatic activity-dependent and -independent functions of TET2. Keywords: differentiation, DNA hydroxymethylation, epigenetics, mast cells, proliferation, TET

  7. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...

  8. Congenital platelet function defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that cause reduced platelet function. Most of the time, people with these disorders have ...

  9. Defect of the Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanning Nina; Pelton, Ron W; Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, John David

    2017-08-01

    Eyelid defects disrupt the complex natural form and function of the eyelids and present a surgical challenge. Detailed knowledge of eyelid anatomy is essential in evaluating a defect and composing a reconstructive plan. Numerous reconstructive techniques have been described, including primary closure, grafting, and a variety of local flaps. This article describes an updated reconstructive ladder for eyelid defects that can be used in various permutations to solve most eyelid defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2013-01-09

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  11. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  12. Transgenic rescue of defective Cd36 ameliorates insulin resistance in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Musilová, Alena; Křen, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Aitman, T. J.; Glazier, A. M.; Ibrahimi, A.; Abumrad, N. A.; Qi, N.; Wang, J. M.; St.Lezin, E. M.; Kurtz, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2001), s. 156-158 ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/00/1636; GA ČR GV204/98/K015; GA MŠk LN00A079 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 55000331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Cd36 (fatty acid transporter) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 29.600, year: 2001

  13. Transgenic rescue of defective Cd36 enhances myocardial adenylyl cyclase signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klevstig, M.; Manakov, D.; Kašparová, D.; Brabcová, I.; Papoušek, František; Žurmanová, J.; Zídek, Václav; Šilhavý, Jan; Neckář, Jan; Pravenec, Michal; Kolář, František; Nováková, O.; Novotný, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 465, č. 10 (2013), s. 1477-1486 ISSN 0031-6768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX01110901; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0505 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : SHR rats * Cd36 * heart * beta-Adrenergic receptors * Adenylyl cyclase * Protein kinase A Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.073, year: 2013

  14. Point defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The principal properties of point defects are studied: thermodynamics, electronic structure, interactions with etended defects, production by irradiation. Some measuring methods are presented: atomic diffusion, spectroscopic methods, diffuse scattering of neutron and X rays, positron annihilation, molecular dynamics. Then points defects in various materials are investigated: ionic crystals, oxides, semiconductor materials, metals, intermetallic compounds, carbides, nitrides [fr

  15. Fibrous metaphyseal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschl, P.; Hajek, P.C.; Pechmann, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients with fibrous metaphyseal defects were examined with both plain radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Depending on the age of the fibrous metaphyseal defects, characteristic radiomorphologic changes were found which correlated well with MR images. Following intravenous Gadolinium-DTPA injection, fibrous metaphyseal defects invariably exhibited a hyperintense border and signal enhancement. (orig./GDG)

  16. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Defects KidsHealth / For Parents / Birth Defects What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Anomalías congénitas What Are Birth Defects? While still in the womb, some babies ...

  17. Physical capacity of rescue personnel in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mining industry has one of the highest occupational rates of serious injury and fatality. Mine staff involved with rescue operations are often required to respond to physically challenging situations. This paper describes the physical attributes of mining rescue personnel. Methods 91 rescue personnel (34 ± 8.6 yrs, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 90 ± 15.0 kg participating in the Queensland Mines Rescue Challenge completed a series of health-related and rescue-related fitness tasks. Health-related tasks comprised measurements of aerobic capacity (VO2max, abdominal endurance, abdominal strength, flexibility, lower back strength, leg strength, elbow flexion strength, shoulder strength, lower back endurance, and leg endurance. Rescue-related tasks comprised an incremental carry (IC, coal shovel (CS, and a hose drag (HD, completed in this order. Results Cardiovascular (VO2max and muscular endurance was average or below average compared with the general population. Isometric strength did not decline with age. The rescue-related tasks were all extremely demanding with heart rate responses averaging greater than 88% of age predicted maximal heart rates. Heart rate recovery responses were more discriminating than heart rates recorded during the tasks, indicating the hose drag as the most physically demanding of the tasks. Conclusion Relying on actual rescues or mining related work to provide adequate training is generally insufficient to maintain, let alone increase, physical fitness. It is therefore recommended that standards of required physical fitness be developed and mines rescue personnel undergo regularly training (and assessment in order to maintain these standards.

  18. Development of stretcher component robots for rescue against nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yuki; Osuka, Koichi; Amano, Hisanori

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the rescue robots to rescue people in an area polluted with radioactive leakage in nuclear power institutions. In particular, we propose the rescue system which consists of a group of small mobile robots. First, small traction robots set the posture of the fainted victims to carry easily, and carry them to the safety space with the mobile robots for the stretcher composition. In this paper, we confirm that the stretcher component robots could transport and convey a 40 [kg] dummy doll. And, we also show an application usage of stretcher robot. (author)

  19. Emergency rescue in accidents with HDR afterloading units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulich, T.W.; Nuesslin, F.; Becker, G.; Lamprecht, U.; Bamberg, M.

    1999-01-01

    Problem: HDR brachyradiotherapy has minimized the exposure to radiation of the personnel working in this field. Nonetheless there are periodically reported troubles with afterloading units concerning the retraction of sources that require immediate action for the limitation of possible damage. Legal Principles according to the German Regulation Concerning Protection against Radiation (Strahlenschutzverordnung=StrlSchV): If in afterloading brachyradiotherapy the radiation source remains extended through malfunction we deal with an emergency according to the StrlSchV. The rescue personnel should be chosen in accordance with Paragraph 50 StrlSchV. Organization of the Rescue of the Patient: The quickest possible rescue of a patient in an emergency demands an unequivocal definition of responsibilities. Our recommendations in this instance: The physicist is responsible for the organization of the emergency rescue. The radiation oncologist in charge informs himself about the necessary emergency measures before starting the treatment and carries out the emergency rescue. If the physicist diagnoses a failure in the retraction of the source he tries to remove the failure. If he doesn't succeed in retracting the source the radiation oncologist carries out the rescue of the patient. The organizational structure of the clinic allowing, the emergency physician should invariably be the physician who placed the applicator. In the emergency rescue the radiation oncologist should be protected by a lead barrier and use manipulators. Dose Assessment in Personnel and Patient: The radiation exposure of the rescue personnel is calculated from the photon-equivalence dose H x with the help of the dose-rate constant of 192 Ir. According to the same procedure there can be evaluated the local radiation exposure of the patient concerned. Conclusions: Generally speaking, all considerations regarding the topic of emergency rescue should always start out from a worst-case scenario. Of all the

  20. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future developments of medical rescue at sea.

  1. Computer Security: DNS to the rescue!

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Why you should be grateful to the Domain Name System at CERN.   Incidents involving so-called “drive-by” infections and “ransomware” are on the rise. Whilst an up-to-date and fully patched operating system is essential; whilst running anti-virus software with current virus signature files is a must; whilst “stop --- think --- don’t click” surely helps, we can still go one step further in better protecting your computers: DNS to the rescue. The DNS, short for Domain Name System, translates the web address you want to visit (like “http://cern.ch”) to a machine-readable format (the IP address, here: “188.184.9.234”). For years, we have automatically monitored the DNS translation requests made by your favourite web browser (actually by your operating system, but that doesn’t matter here), and we have automatically informed you if your computer tried to access a website known to hos...

  2. Dirichlet topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.M.; Trodden, M.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a class of field theories featuring solitonic solutions in which topological defects can end when they intersect other defects of equal or higher dimensionality. Such configurations may be termed open-quotes Dirichlet topological defects,close quotes in analogy with the D-branes of string theory. Our discussion focuses on defects in scalar field theories with either gauge or global symmetries, in 3+1 dimensions; the types of defects considered include walls ending on walls, strings on walls, and strings on strings. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  3. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  4. Defect production in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  5. Catalytic bioreactors and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Robert Mark; Liu, Yangmu Chloe

    2017-07-25

    Various embodiments provide a bioreactor for producing a bioproduct comprising one or more catalytically active zones located in a housing and adapted to keep two incompatible gaseous reactants separated when in a gas phase, wherein each of the one or more catalytically active zones may comprise a catalytic component retainer and a catalytic component retained within and/or thereon. Each of the catalytically active zones may additionally or alternatively comprise a liquid medium located on either side of the catalytic component retainer. Catalytic component may include a microbial cell culture located within and/or on the catalytic component retainer, a suspended catalytic component suspended in the liquid medium, or a combination thereof. Methods of using various embodiments of the bioreactor to produce a bioproduct, such as isobutanol, are also provided.

  6. On holographic defect entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O’Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-01-01

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions

  7. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  8. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  9. Modulation of NF-KB in rescued irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, R.K.K.; Fung, Y.K.; Han, W.; Li, L.; Chiu, S.K.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2015-01-01

    Studies by different groups on the rescue effect, where unirradiated bystander cells mitigated the damages in the irradiated cells, since its discovery by the authors' group in 2011 were first reviewed. The properties of the rescue effect were then examined using a novel experimental set-up to physically separate the rescue signals from the bystander signals. The authors' results showed that the rescue effect was mediated through activation of the nuclear factor-KB (NF-KB) response pathway in the irradiated cells, and that the NF-KB activation inhibitor BAy -1 1-7082 did not affect the activation of this response pathway in the irradiated cells induced by direct irradiation. (authors)

  10. Expectations of a business rescue plan: international directives for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... 10Key words: business rescue, South African Companies Act, business ... countries such as Germany, Australia, the United Kingdom (UK) and ...... operating statistics and detailed cash flow projections is needed for sound risk.

  11. Achievements in emergency medical rescue service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... In North-West province this process of provincialisation took place in ... Emergency Medical Rescue Service, Department of Health, North-West. Victor R .... recovery after CPR treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  12. Guidance of Autonomous Amphibious Vehicles for Flood Rescue Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarachary Ragi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a path-planning algorithm to guide autonomous amphibious vehicles (AAVs for flood rescue support missions. Specifically, we develop an algorithm to control multiple AAVs to reach/rescue multiple victims (also called targets in a flood scenario in 2D, where the flood water flows across the scene and the targets move (drifted by the flood water along the flood stream. A target is said to be rescued if an AAV lies within a circular region of a certain radius around the target. The goal is to control the AAVs such that each target gets rescued while optimizing a certain performance objective. The algorithm design is based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP. In practice, POMDP problems are hard to solve exactly, so we use an approximation method called nominal belief-state optimization (NBO. We compare the performance of the NBO approach with a greedy approach.

  13. The Cognitive Dissonance between Child Rescue and Child Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.

  14. That Others May Live: USAF Air Rescue in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marion, Forrest L

    2004-01-01

    When the Korean War began in June 1950, the United States Air Force's Air Rescue Service was a fledgling organization possessing a variety of aircraft types, most having seen service during World War II...

  15. Water Supply Systems For Aircraft Fire And Rescue Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance for the selection : of a water source and standards for the design of a distribution system to : support aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) service operations on : airports.

  16. Atrial septal defect in a Korean wild raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Soomi; Choi, Sooyoung; Kim, Jongtaek; Chung, Jin-Young; Park, Inchul

    2017-10-07

    An approximately two-year-old, male 6.1 kg body weight, Korean wild raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) was captured by the wildlife medical rescue center of Kangwon National University. Upon physical examination, the heart rate was 87 beats per min and there were no clinical signs. The hematological, and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings; however, thoracic radiographs showed cardiac enlargement, especially in the right atrium. On electrocardiogram, sinus node dysfunction and bradyarrhythmia were revealed. Echocardiography showed a left-to-right shunting atrial septal defect. Based on these findings, this Korean wild raccoon dog was diagnosed with atrial septal defect. This is the rare case report of atrial septal defect in wildlife.

  17. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  18. Disruption of Mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Kim, Jeong Im; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N; Anderson, Nickolas A; Ximenes, Eduardo; Maeda, Junko; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2014-05-15

    Lignin is a phenylpropanoid-derived heteropolymer important for the strength and rigidity of the plant secondary cell wall. Genetic disruption of lignin biosynthesis has been proposed as a means to improve forage and bioenergy crops, but frequently results in stunted growth and developmental abnormalities, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here we show that the phenotype of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant is dependent on the transcriptional co-regulatory complex, Mediator. Disruption of the Mediator complex subunits MED5a (also known as REF4) and MED5b (also known as RFR1) rescues the stunted growth, lignin deficiency and widespread changes in gene expression seen in the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant ref8, without restoring the synthesis of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits. Cell walls of rescued med5a/5b ref8 plants instead contain a novel lignin consisting almost exclusively of p-hydroxyphenyl lignin subunits, and moreover exhibit substantially facilitated polysaccharide saccharification. These results demonstrate that guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits are largely dispensable for normal growth and development, implicate Mediator in an active transcriptional process responsible for dwarfing and inhibition of lignin biosynthesis, and suggest that the transcription machinery and signalling pathways responding to cell wall defects may be important targets to include in efforts to reduce biomass recalcitrance.

  19. Rescue Effects: Irradiated Cells Helped by Unirradiated Bystander Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R. K. K.; Fung, Y. K.; Han, W.; Yu, K. N.

    2015-01-01

    The rescue effect describes the phenomenon where irradiated cells or organisms derive benefits from the feedback signals sent from the bystander unirradiated cells or organisms. An example of the benefit is the mitigation of radiation-induced DNA damages in the irradiated cells. The rescue effect can compromise the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) (and actually all radiotherapy). In this paper, the discovery and subsequent confirmation studies on the rescue effect were reviewed. The mechanisms and the chemical messengers responsible for the rescue effect studied to date were summarized. The rescue effect between irradiated and bystander unirradiated zebrafish embryos in vivo sharing the same medium was also described. In the discussion section, the mechanism proposed for the rescue effect involving activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway was scrutinized. This mechanism could explain the promotion of cellular survival and correct repair of DNA damage, dependence on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and modulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in irradiated cells. Exploitation of the NF-κB pathway to improve the effectiveness of RIT was proposed. Finally, the possibility of using zebrafish embryos as the model to study the efficacy of RIT in treating solid tumors was also discussed. PMID:25625514

  20. A versatile sensor network for urban search and rescue operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Känsälä, Klaus; Korkalainen, Marko; Mäyrä, Aki

    2011-11-01

    The presentation is based in the research work carried out in EU funded project SGL for USaR (Second Generation Locator for Urban Search and Rescue Operations). The aim of this project is to develop wireless standalone communication system with embedded sensor network which can be globally used in rescue operations after accidents or terrorist attacks. The system should be able to operate without external support for several days: it should have autonomy with power supply and communication. The devices must be lightweight so that rescue team can easily carry them and finally they must be easy to install and use. The range of the wireless communication must cover an area of several square kilometers. The embedded sensor system must be able to detect sings of life but also detect hazards threatening the rescue operators thus preventing more accidents. It should also support positioning and digital mapping as well as the management of the search and rescue operation. This sensor network for urban search and rescue operations has been tested on a field conditions and it has proven to be robust and reliable and provides an energy efficient way of communication and positioning on harsh conditions.

  1. Rescuing the ischemic penumbra: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tamara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Over one million strokes per year are occurring in Europe. Brain stroke is one of the most important death and disability causes in Europe and USA. The main role of perfusion is to determine the border of insult core and ischemic penumbra. Penumbra can be saved with thrombolytic therapy but core have irreversible injuries and represent death of brain cells. Aim: to determine the role of CT brain perfusion in cases of acute brain stroke and following thrombolytic therapy. Methods: We examined 64 patients with acute brain stroke who received thrombolytic therapy after that. All patients were examining on 16 MDCT with 50 ml of iodine contrast agent following the standard procedure for CT perfusion. Patients were 34 male and 30 female with middle age of 64 years. MRI was made after thrombolytic therapy and compare with perfusion results before therapy. Results: Using an artery and a vein as reference three parameters were measured - blood flow (CBF, blood volume (CBV and mean transit time (MTT, for each patient. Hemorrhagic was find in 9 (14.01% patients after thrombolytic therapy. 4 (6.25% other patients develop new stroke of same but mostly other side of brain. 8 (12.50% more patients finished lethally. From other 42 patients with thrombolytic therapy we can positively say that in 31 (48.44% patients penumbra was rescued. For other 11 (17.19% stroke was same size like firstly involved core and penumbra but not bigger. Conclusion: CT perfusion plays major role by showing a curable parts of tissue in brain strokes.

  2. Rescuing loading induced bone formation at senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Srinivasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of osteoporosis worldwide requires anabolic treatments that are safe, effective, and, critically, inexpensive given the prevailing overburdened health care systems. While vigorous skeletal loading is anabolic and holds promise, deficits in mechanotransduction accrued with age markedly diminish the efficacy of readily complied, exercise-based strategies to combat osteoporosis in the elderly. Our approach to explore and counteract these age-related deficits was guided by cellular signaling patterns across hierarchical scales and by the insight that cell responses initiated during transient, rare events hold potential to exert high-fidelity control over temporally and spatially distant tissue adaptation. Here, we present an agent-based model of real-time Ca(2+/NFAT signaling amongst bone cells that fully described periosteal bone formation induced by a wide variety of loading stimuli in young and aged animals. The model predicted age-related pathway alterations underlying the diminished bone formation at senescence, and hence identified critical deficits that were promising targets for therapy. Based upon model predictions, we implemented an in vivo intervention and show for the first time that supplementing mechanical stimuli with low-dose Cyclosporin A can completely rescue loading induced bone formation in the senescent skeleton. These pre-clinical data provide the rationale to consider this approved pharmaceutical alongside mild physical exercise as an inexpensive, yet potent therapy to augment bone mass in the elderly. Our analyses suggested that real-time cellular signaling strongly influences downstream bone adaptation to mechanical stimuli, and quantification of these otherwise inaccessible, transient events in silico yielded a novel intervention with clinical potential.

  3. 46 CFR 199.175 - Survival craft and rescue boat equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. 199.175....175 Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (a) All lifeboat and rescue boat equipment— (1) Must be... craft or rescue boat; or (iii) Overload the launching appliance. (b) Each lifeboat, rigid liferaft, and...

  4. 30 CFR 49.7 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.7 Physical requirements for mine rescue team. (a) Each member of a mine rescue team shall be examined annually by a physician who shall certify that each person is...

  5. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    Full Text Available Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH, Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/- and Klotho(-/- (Kl(-/- mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/- mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/- mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/- (Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- or DKO mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/- mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-, but not of Fgf23(-/- mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions into

  6. Defective mitophagy in XPA via PARP-1 hyperactivation and NAD(+)/SIRT1 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Brace, Lear E

    2014-01-01

    with excessive cleavage of PINK1 and increased mitochondrial membrane potential. The mitochondrial abnormalities appear to be caused by decreased activation of the NAD(+)-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis triggered by hyperactivation of the DNA damage sensor PARP-1. This phenotype is rescued by PARP-1 inhibition...... or by supplementation with NAD(+) precursors that also rescue the lifespan defect in xpa-1 nematodes. Importantly, this pathogenesis appears common to ataxia-telangiectasia and Cockayne syndrome, two other DNA repair disorders with neurodegeneration, but absent in XPC, a DNA repair disorder without neurodegeneration...

  7. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.

    1983-04-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author) [pt

  8. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...... and quantum state merging, and leads to a resource theory of decoupling....

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    were characterized by infrared, electronic, electron paramagnetic resonance ... The catalytic oxidation property of ruthenium(III) complexes were also ... cies at room temperature. ..... aldehyde part of Schiff base ligands, catalytic activ- ity of new ...

  10. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  11. Rescue of placental phenotype in a mechanistic model of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Michael J

    2010-05-01

    fully rescuing LQ trans placental abnormalities that are caused by imprinting defects.

  12. Rescue of sarcoglycan mutations by inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum quality control is associated with minimal structural modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Tayebeh; Gicquel, Evelyne; Poupiot, Jérôme; N'Guyen, Luu; Le Roy, Florence; Bartoli, Marc; Richard, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    Sarcoglycanopathies (SGP) are a group of autosomal recessive muscle disorders caused by primary mutations in one of the four sarcoglycan genes. The sarcoglycans (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-sarcoglycan) form a tetrameric complex at the muscle membrane that is part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and plays an essential role for membrane integrity during muscle contractions. We previously showed that the most frequent missense mutation in α-sarcoglycan (p.R77C) leads to the absence of the protein at the cell membrane due to its blockade by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control. Moreover, we demonstrated that inhibition of the ER α-mannosidase I activity using kifunensine could rescue the mutant protein localization at the cell membrane. Here, we investigate 25 additional disease-causing missense mutations in the sarcoglycan genes with respect to intracellular fate and localization rescue of the mutated proteins by kifunensine. Our studies demonstrate that, similarly to p.R77C, 22 of 25 of the selected mutations lead to defective intracellular trafficking of the SGs proteins. Six of these were saved from ER retention upon kifunensine treatment. The trafficking of SGs mutants rescued by kifunensine was associated with mutations that have moderate structural impact on the protein. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Metallography of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, E.A.; Bochvar, G.A.; Brun, M.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Different types of defects of metallurgical, technological and exploitation origin in intermediate and final products of titanium alloys, are considered. The examples of metallic and nonmetallic inclusions, chemical homogeneity, different grains, bands, cracks, places of searing, porosity are given; methods of detecting the above defects are described. The methods of metallography, X-ray spectral analysis, measuring microhardness are used

  14. Beating Birth Defects

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.

  15. Burnout syndrome in nurses of prehospital rescue team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Pereira Bezerra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence and evaluate the levels of burnout syndrome in nurses of the prehospital rescue team. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a sample of 17 nurses from the prehospital rescue team, by application of the Maslach burnout Inventory and a questionnaire prepared by the authors. Rresults: In the group studied, 76% of the nurses of the prehospital rescue team were female. Ages varied from 30 to 49 years old. As to time already in the profession, 59% reported having worked from five to ten years in prehospital rescue. As to Maslach burnout Inventory subscale means, in the group analyzed of 17 prehospital rescue team nurses, low/moderate level (31.53 of reduced professional accomplishment, low/moderate level (18.41 of emotional exhaustion, and low/moderate level (8.88 of depersonalization were observed. As to dimensions of burnout levels, it was noted that 76.47% of the nurses displayed a low/moderate level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced professional accomplishment. Cconclusions: It was demonstrated that this sample showed no evidence of burnout syndrome, since its presence is proven only when there are high scores of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced professional accomplishment.

  16. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaither, Katherine N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Polsky, Yarom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knudsen, Steven D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Su, Jiann-Cherng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Costin, Laurence S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  17. Strategies to improve sleep during extended search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer Lee; Fredericksen, Kim; Stone, Roger; Tang, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated strategies to improve sleeping conditions during search and rescue operations during disaster response. Forty members of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Urban Search and Rescue Team were surveyed for individual sleep habits and sleeping aids used during extended deployments. Team members were also asked to suggest methods to improve sleep on future deployments. The average amount of sleep during field operations was 5.4 hours with a range of 4-8 hours. Eight percent surveyed would prefer another schedule besides the 12-hour work day, all of whom proposed three 8-hour shifts. Fifteen percent of participants were interested in a pharmacological sleeping aid. Fifty percent of search and rescue members interviewed would consider using nonpharmacological sleeping aids. Furthermore, 40% of participants stated they had successfully devised self-employed methods of sleep aids for previous deployments, such as ear plugs, massage, mental imagery, personal routines, music and headphones, reading, and blindfolds. This study suggests that availability of both pharmacological and nonpharmacological sleeping aids to search and rescue workers via the team cache could impact the quantity of sleep. Further investigation into methods of optimizing sleep during field missions could theoretically show enhanced performance through various aspects of missions including mitigation of errors, improved productivity, and improved overall physiological and emotional well-being of search and rescue personnel.

  18. Catalytic process for tritium exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansoo Lee; Kang, H.S.; Paek, S.W.; Hongsuk Chung; Yang Geun Chung; Sook Kyung Lee

    2001-01-01

    The catalytic activities for a hydrogen isotope exchange were measured through the reaction of a vapor and gas mixture. The catalytic activity showed to be comparable with the published data. Since the gas velocity is relatively low, the deactivation was not found clearly during the 5-hour experiment. Hydrogen isotope transfer experiments were also conducted through the liquid phase catalytic exchange reaction column that consisted of a catalytic bed and a hydrophilic bed. The efficiencies of both the catalytic and hydrophilic beds were higher than 0.9, implying that the column performance was excellent. (author)

  19. Defects in dilute nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.M.; Buyanova, I.A.; Tu, C.W.; Yonezu, H.

    2005-01-01

    We provide a brief review our recent results from optically detected magnetic resonance studies of grown-in non-radiative defects in dilute nitrides, i.e. Ga(In)NAs and Ga(Al,In)NP. Defect complexes involving intrinsic defects such as As Ga antisites and Ga i self interstitials were positively identified.Effects of growth conditions, chemical compositions and post-growth treatments on formation of the defects are closely examined. These grown-in defects are shown to play an important role in non-radiative carrier recombination and thus in degrading optical quality of the alloys, harmful to performance of potential optoelectronic and photonic devices based on these dilute nitrides. (author)

  20. [Analysis on on-site rescue and traumatic features of victims involved in gas explosion accident in Hangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X G; Jin, R H; Liu, F P; Han, C M

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the situations of on-site rescue and traumatic features of victims involved in gas explosion accident in Hangzhou, so as to provide more data support for emergency medical rescues of the similar incidents of massive casualty. Methods: Two medical workers with a certain clinical experience were sent to Hangzhou 120 emergency medical centers to collect data of the on-site rescue on 21st July, 2017, including ambulance call-outs, on-site command and traffic conditions, and on-site triage and evacuation of the victims. They were then sent to the hospitals receiving the victims to investigate the situations of these victims including the general information (such as gender, age, admitted hospitals, and number of admission, discharge, and transferring in the first two weeks after the accident) and injury assessment [such as injury position and type, injury severity evaluation by New Injury Severity Scoring (NISS), and burn severity evaluation for victims with burns]. Results: (1) A total of 15 ambulances reached the accident site for rescue. The traffic and transportation were jammed and interrupted after this accident. On-site triage and distribution were disorderly conducted. (2) Clinical data of 53 victims were collected, including 24 males and 29 females, with the age of 8 to 70 (34±14) years old. They were sent into 6 hospitals in Hangzhou. Two victims died on the day of accident. Up to two weeks after this accident, 28 (52.8%) victims were discharged from the hospitals and received follow-up in outpatient department. Five victims with severe injuries were transferred to the other hospitals. (3) Based on the results of NISS, the injury severities were mild in 29 (54.7%) cases, moderate in 9 (17.0%) cases, serious in 3 (5.7%) cases, and severe in 12 (22.6%) cases. Those 2 dead victims were classified into the severe category due to the highest NISS score of 75. For all of the victims, skin and soft tissue defects were most common. Six (11

  1. Phosphorus doped and defects engineered graphene for improved electrochemical sensing: synergistic effect of dopants and defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Ke; Wang, Fan; Tian, Ye; Wei, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphene materials emerged as promising metal-free catalysts have recently attracted a growing interest in electrochemical sensing applications. However, their catalytic activity and sensing performances still need to be further improved. Herein, we reported the development of unique phosphorus (P)-doped and plasma-etched graphene (denoted as PG-E) as an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for dopamine (DA) sensing. It was demonstrated that introducing both P-dopants and plasma-engineered defects in graphene could synergistically improve the activity toward electrocatalytic oxidation of DA by increasing the accessible active sites and promoting the electron transport capability. The resulting PG-E modified electrode showed exceptional DA sensing performances with low detection limit, high selectivity and good stability. These results suggested that the synergistic effect of dopants and defects might be an important factor for developing the advanced graphene-based metal-free catalysts for electrochemical sensing.

  2. An unmanned search and rescue mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaro Mascarello, Laura; Quagliotti, Fulvia; Bertini, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are becoming more and more powerful and innovative and they have an increased interest in civil applications, in particular, after natural hazard phenomena. The RPAS is useful in search and rescue missions in high mountain where scenarios are unfriendly and the use of helicopters is often not profitable. First, the unmanned configuration is safer because there is no hazards for human life that is not on board. Moreover, it is cheaper due to the use of electric propulsion instead of internal combustion engine and to its small dimensions and weights. Finally, the use of the RPAS is faster while the helicopter is often not available because is involved in other missions or it cannot be used if the search mission is in impervious scenario, such as forests with thick vegetation. For instance, the RPAS can be used after an avalanche when victims have little time to be saved before the death by hypothermia. In most conditions, the body maintains a healthy temperature. However, if it is exposed to cold temperatures, especially with a high cooling factor from wind and high humidity, for extended periods, the control mechanisms of the body may not be able to maintain a normal body temperature. When you lose more heat than the body can generate, it takes over hypothermia, defined as a body temperature below 35° C. Wet clothing, fall into cold water or not adequately cover themselves during the cold season, are all factors that can increase the chances of hypothermia. Signs and symptoms (tremor, slurred speech, breathing abnormally slow, cold and pale skin, loss of coordination, fatigue, lethargy or apathy, confusion or memory loss) usually develop slowly. People with hypothermia typically experience a gradual loss of mental acuity and physical capacity, and realize that you have need of emergency medical care. For these reasons, the use of an RPAS could be crucial for the survival of disappeared people in high mountain. In

  3. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  4. Low dose tubulin-binding drugs rescue peroxisome trafficking deficit in patient-derived stem cells in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Fan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, diagnosed by progressive gait disturbances with muscle weakness and spasticity, for which there are no treatments targeted at the underlying pathophysiology. Mutations in spastin are a common cause of HSP. Spastin is a microtubule-severing protein whose mutation in mouse causes defective axonal transport. In human patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS cells, spastin mutations lead to lower levels of acetylated α-tubulin, a marker of stabilised microtubules, and to slower speed of peroxisome trafficking. Here we screened multiple concentrations of four tubulin-binding drugs for their ability to rescue levels of acetylated α-tubulin in patient-derived ONS cells. Drug doses that restored acetylated α-tubulin to levels in control-derived ONS cells were then selected for their ability to rescue peroxisome trafficking deficits. Automated microscopic screening identified very low doses of the four drugs (0.5 nM taxol, 0.5 nM vinblastine, 2 nM epothilone D, 10 µM noscapine that rescued acetylated α-tubulin in patient-derived ONS cells. These same doses rescued peroxisome trafficking deficits, restoring peroxisome speeds to untreated control cell levels. These results demonstrate a novel approach for drug screening based on high throughput automated microscopy for acetylated α-tubulin followed by functional validation of microtubule-based peroxisome transport. From a clinical perspective, all the drugs tested are used clinically, but at much higher doses. Importantly, epothilone D and noscapine can enter the central nervous system, making them potential candidates for future clinical trials.

  5. Low dose tubulin-binding drugs rescue peroxisome trafficking deficit in patient-derived stem cells in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongjun; Wali, Gautam; Sutharsan, Ratneswary; Bellette, Bernadette; Crane, Denis I.; Sue, Carolyn M.; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, diagnosed by progressive gait disturbances with muscle weakness and spasticity, for which there are no treatments targeted at the underlying pathophysiology. Mutations in spastin are a common cause of HSP. Spastin is a microtubule-severing protein whose mutation in mouse causes defective axonal transport. In human patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS) cells, spastin mutations lead to lower levels of acetylated α-tubulin, a marker of stabilised microtubules, and to slower speed of peroxisome trafficking. Here we screened multiple concentrations of four tubulin-binding drugs for their ability to rescue levels of acetylated α-tubulin in patient-derived ONS cells. Drug doses that restored acetylated α-tubulin to levels in control-derived ONS cells were then selected for their ability to rescue peroxisome trafficking deficits. Automated microscopic screening identified very low doses of the four drugs (0.5 nM taxol, 0.5 nM vinblastine, 2 nM epothilone D, 10 µM noscapine) that rescued acetylated α-tubulin in patient-derived ONS cells. These same doses rescued peroxisome trafficking deficits, restoring peroxisome speeds to untreated control cell levels. These results demonstrate a novel approach for drug screening based on high throughput automated microscopy for acetylated α-tubulin followed by functional validation of microtubule-based peroxisome transport. From a clinical perspective, all the drugs tested are used clinically, but at much higher doses. Importantly, epothilone D and noscapine can enter the central nervous system, making them potential candidates for future clinical trials. PMID:24857849

  6. Catalytic processes for cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catani, R.; Marchionna, M.; Rossini, S.

    1999-01-01

    More stringent limitations on vehicle emissions require different measurement: fuel reformulation is one of the most important and is calling for a noticeable impact on refinery assets. Composition rangers of the future fuels have been defined on a time scale. In this scenario the evolution of catalytic technologies becomes a fundamental tool for allowing refinery to reach the fixed-by-law targets. In this paper, the refinery process options to meet each specific requirements of reformulated fuels are surveyed [it

  7. Genetic Information, the Principle of Rescue, and Special Obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S Matthew; Mackenzie, Jordan

    2018-05-01

    In "Genetic Privacy, Disease Prevention, and the Principle of Rescue," Madison Kilbride argues that patients have a duty to warn biological family members about clinically actionable adverse genetic findings. The duty does not stem from the special obligations that we may have to family members, she argues, but rather follows from the principle of rescue, which she understands as the idea that one ought to prevent, reduce, or mitigate the risk of harm to another person when the expected harm is serious and the cost or risk to oneself is sufficiently moderate. We doubt, however, whether the principle of rescue can ground a duty to warn in the cases Kilbride envisages, and we suggest that Kilbride may have underappreciated the role that special obligations could play in generating a duty to warn family members. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  8. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  9. Rescue US: Birth, Django, and the Violence of Racial Redemption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Winters

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I show how the relationship between race, violence, and redemption is articulated and visualized through film. By juxtaposing DW Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation and Quentin Tarantino’s Django Unchained, I contend that the latter inverts the logic of the former. While Birth sacrifices black bodies and explains away anti-black violence for the sake of restoring white sovereignty (or rescuing the nation from threatening forms of blackness, Django adopts a rescue narrative in order to show the excessive violence that structured slavery and the emergence of the nation-state. As an immanent break within the rescue narrative, Tarantino’s film works to “rescue” images and sounds of anguish from forgetful versions of history.

  10. Functional antigen binding by the defective B cells of CBA/N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippe, H; Merchant, B; Lizzio, E F; Inman, J K

    1982-01-01

    CBA/N mice have an X-linked B cell defect which prevents them from responding to nonmitogenic thymic independent (TI-2) antigens such as dinitrophenylated DNP-Ficoll (1,2). The F1 male progeny of CBA/N female mice express the same defect. Spleen cell suspensions from such defective mice (CBA/N X C3H/HeN F1 males) could not respond to DNP-Ficoll following in vitro immunization and subsequent transfer into irradiated, syngeneic, F1 male recipients as expected. In contrast, normal CBA/N X C3H/HeN F1 female spleen cells could respond and effect a "rescue"; they mounted strong plaque-forming cell responses 7 days after in vitro exposure to DNP-Ficoll and subsequent transfer into irradiated F1 male recipients. Defective F1 male spleen cells, however, could bind significant quantities of 125I-DNP-Ficoll after in vitro exposure. Extensive washing of these spleen cells could not reverse this binding. Such DNP-Ficoll-exposed and washed F1 male spleen cells could, after transfer, aid normal untreated F1 female cells in their rescue function. The defective F1 male spleen cells could convey immunogenic quantities of DNP-Ficoll to the "rescuing" F1 female cells. Mitomycin treatment of F1 male cells did not interfere with their conveyor function. Goat anti-mouse mu serum impeded the passive antigen conveyor function of defective F1 male cells as did prior exposure to high concentrations of free DNP hapten. Our data support the view that the B cell defect of CBA/N X C3H/HeN F1 male mice does not relate to antigen binding, but rather to an inability to be effectively triggered by certain cell-bound polymeric antigens.

  11. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  12. Formation of topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachaspati, T.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the formation of point and line topological defects (monopoles and strings) from a general point of view by allowing the probability of formation of a defect to vary. To investigate the statistical properties of the defects at formation we give qualitative arguments that are independent of any particular model in which such defects occur. These arguments are substantiated by numerical results in the case of strings and for monopoles in two dimensions. We find that the network of strings at formation undergoes a transition at a certain critical density below which there are no infinite strings and the closed-string (loop) distribution is exponentially suppressed at large lengths. The results are contrasted with the results of statistical arguments applied to a box of strings in dynamical equilibrium. We argue that if point defects were to form with smaller probability, the distance between monopoles and antimonopoles would decrease while the monopole-to-monopole distance would increase. We find that monopoles are always paired with antimonopoles but the pairing becomes clean only when the number density of defects is small. A similar reasoning would also apply to other defects

  13. Expression of inactive glutathione peroxidase 4 leads to embryonic lethality, and inactivation of the Alox15 gene does not rescue such knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütsch, Simone Hanna; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Lu; Stender, Hannelore; Neziroglu, Nilgün; Richter, Constanze; Kuhn, Hartmut; Borchert, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (Gpx) and lipoxygenases (Alox) are functional counterplayers in the metabolism of hydroperoxy lipids that regulate cellular redox homeostasis. Gpx4 is a moonlighting protein that has been implicated not only as an enzyme in anti-oxidative defense, gene expression regulation, and programmed cell death, but also as a structural protein in spermatogenesis. Homozygous Gpx4 knock-out mice are not viable, but molecular reasons for intrauterine lethality are not completely understood. This study was aimed at investigating whether the lack of catalytic activity or the impaired function as structural protein is the dominant reason for embryonic lethality. We further explored whether the pro-oxidative enzyme mouse 12/15 lipoxygenase (Alox15) plays a major role in embryonic lethality of Gpx4-deficient mice. To achieve these goals, we first created knock-in mice, which express a catalytically inactive Gpx4 mutant (Sec46Ala). As homozygous Gpx4-knock-out mice Sec46Ala-Gpx4(+/+) knock-in animals are not viable but undergo intrauterine resorption between embryonic day 6 and 7 (E6-7). In contrast, heterozygous knock-in mice (Sec46Ala-Gpx4(-/+)) are viable, fertile and do not show major phenotypic alterations. Interestingly, homozygous Alox15 deficiency did not rescue the U46A-Gpx4(+/+) mice from embryonic lethality. In fact, when heterozygous U46A-Gpx4(-/+) mice were stepwise crossed into an Alox15-deficent background, no viable U46A-Gpx4(+/+)+Alox15(-/-) individuals were obtained. However, we were able to identify U46A-Gpx4(+/+)+Alox15(-/-) embryos in the state of resorption around E7. These data suggest that the lack of catalytic activity is the major reason for the embryonic lethality of Gpx4(-/-) mice and that systemic inactivation of the Alox15 gene does not rescue homozygous knock-in mice expressing catalytically silent Gpx4.

  14. Early environmental therapy rescues brain development in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begenisic, Tatjana; Sansevero, Gabriele; Baroncelli, Laura; Cioni, Giovanni; Sale, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS), the most common genetic disorder associated with intellectual disabilities, is an untreatable condition characterized by a number of developmental defects and permanent deficits in the adulthood. Ts65Dn mice, the major animal model for DS, display severe cognitive and synaptic plasticity defects closely resembling the human phenotype. Here, we employed a multidisciplinary approach to investigate, for the first time in developing Ts65Dn mice, the effects elicited by early environmental enrichment (EE) on brain maturation and function. We report that exposure to EE resulted in a robust increase in maternal care levels displayed by Ts65Dn mothers and led to a normalization of declarative memory abilities and hippocampal plasticity in trisomic offspring. The positive effects of EE on Ts65Dn phenotype were not limited to the cognitive domain, but also included a rescue of visual system maturation. The beneficial EE effects were accompanied by increased BDNF and correction of over-expression of the GABA vesicular transporter vGAT. These findings highlight the beneficial impact of early environmental stimuli and their potential for application in the treatment of major functional deficits in children with DS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rescuing Israeli travellers: effects of substance abuse, mental health, geographic region of rescue, gender and age of rescuees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny-Noach, Hagit; Sagiv-Alayoff, Moran

    2017-09-01

    Research conducted on young Israeli travellers has pointed to high substance usage rates. For some drug-using backpackers, actual extraction and rescue from their trip abroad is necessary. This study represents a first attempt to explore the influence of geographic region in which rescue occurs, cause for rescue and gender and age differences among Israeli rescuees. Sub-analysis of all logs of individual rescuees during a 5-year period from 2011 to 2016 ( N  = 86) included 66 men and 20 women, with an average age of 27.83 (SD = 7.86). The findings demonstrate that Israelis are most frequently rescued from South and Southeast Asia (57%) followed by Europe (22%), South America (17%), North America (2.3%) and Africa (1.2%). India was the country with the highest rate of rescue incidents ( N  = 36) followed by Thailand ( N  = 8) and the Netherlands ( N  = 5). The most common cause for rescue was substance abuse (87%). However, significant regional differences were found based on the variable of age ( F  = 3.21, df = 3,50, P  young travellers should be taken into consideration when thinking about induced acute psychosis caused by substance use. Policymakers need to consider prevention and harm reduction interventions relevant to this risk group. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Call your doctor if your baby or child: Tires easily when eating or playing Is not gaining ... heart procedures. Risk factors Ventricular septal defects may run in families and sometimes may occur with other ...

  17. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cerebral palsy (also called CP) is a group of conditions ...

  18. Endocardial cushion defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 426. Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Hanley FL, Kirklin JK. Atrioventricular septal defect. In: Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Hanley FL, Kirklin JK, eds. Kirklin/Barratt- ...

  19. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E.; Crisp, R.W.; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E.; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We

  20. Point defects in platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercy, G.R.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was made of the mobility and types of point defect introduced in platinum by deformation in liquid nitrogen, quenching into water from 1600 o C, or reactor irradiation at 50 o C. In all cases the activation energy for motion of the defect was determined from measurements of electrical resistivity. Measurements of density, hardness, and x-ray line broadening were also made there applicable. These experiments indicated that the principal defects remaining in platinum after irradiation were single vacant lattice sites and after quenching were pairs of vacant lattice sites. Those present after deformation In liquid nitrogen were single vacant lattice sites and another type of defect, perhaps interstitial atoms. (author)

  1. The effect of Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure in catalytic activity for benzene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Zhao, Xiujian; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-11-01

    The nanostructure of Ce doped OMS-2 plays a very important role in its catalytic property. We demonstrate by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the unique nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 with Mn vacancy in the framework is beneficial for the improvement of catalytic activity, while the nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 without defects are detrimental to the catalytic activity. We establish a novel and facile strategy of synthesizing these unique Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure with Mn vacancies in the framework by hydrothermal redox reaction between Ce(NO3)3 and KMnO4 with KMnO4/Ce(NO3)3 at a molar ratio of 3 : 1 at 120 °C. Compared to pure OMS-2, the produced catalyst of Ce ion substituted OMS-2 ultrathin nanorods exhibits an enormous enhancement in the catalytic activity for benzene oxidation, which is evidenced by a significant decrease (ΔT50 = 100 °C, ΔT90 = 129 °C) in the reaction temperature of T50 and T90 (corresponding to the benzene conversion = 50% and 90%), which is considerably more efficient than the expensive supported noble metal catalyst (Pt/Al2O3). We combine both theoretical and experimental evidence to provide a new physical insight into the significant effect due to the defects induced by the Ce ion substitution on the catalytic activity of OMS-2. The formation of unique Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure with Mn vacancies in the framework leads to a significant enhancement of the lattice oxygen activity, thus tremendously increasing the catalytic activity.The nanostructure of Ce doped OMS-2 plays a very important role in its catalytic property. We demonstrate by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the unique nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 with Mn vacancy in the framework is beneficial for the improvement of catalytic activity, while the nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 without defects are detrimental to the catalytic activity. We establish a novel

  2. Twinning in fcc lattice creates low-coordinated catalytically active sites in porous gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajčí, Marian [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kameoka, Satoshi; Tsai, An-Pang [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    We describe a new mechanism for creation of catalytically active sites in porous gold. Samples of porous gold prepared by de-alloying Al{sub 2}Au exhibit a clear correlation between the catalytic reactivity towards CO oxidation and structural defects in the fcc lattice of Au. We have found that on the stepped (211) surfaces quite common twin boundary defects in the bulk structure of porous gold can form long close-packed rows of atoms with the coordination number CN = 6. DFT calculations confirm that on these low-coordinated Au sites dioxygen chemisorbs and CO oxidation can proceed via the Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism with the activation energy of 37 kJ/mol or via the CO–OO intermediate with the energy barrier of 19 kJ/mol. The existence of the twins in porous gold is stabilized by the surface energy.

  3. Kinetic and structural evidences on human prolidase pathological mutants suggest strategies for enzyme functional rescue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Besio

    Full Text Available Prolidase is the only human enzyme responsible for the digestion of iminodipeptides containing proline or hydroxyproline at their C-terminal end, being a key player in extracellular matrix remodeling. Prolidase deficiency (PD is an intractable loss of function disease, characterized by mutations in the prolidase gene. The exact causes of activity impairment in mutant prolidase are still unknown. We generated three recombinant prolidase forms, hRecProl-231delY, hRecProl-E412K and hRecProl-G448R, reproducing three mutations identified in homozygous PD patients. The enzymes showed very low catalytic efficiency, thermal instability and changes in protein conformation. No variation of Mn(II cofactor affinity was detected for hRecProl-E412K; a compromised ability to bind the cofactor was found in hRecProl-231delY and Mn(II was totally absent in hRecProl-G448R. Furthermore, local structure perturbations for all three mutants were predicted by in silico analysis. Our biochemical investigation of the three causative alleles identified in perturbed folding/instability, and in consequent partial prolidase degradation, the main reasons for enzyme inactivity. Based on the above considerations we were able to rescue part of the prolidase activity in patients' fibroblasts through the induction of Heath Shock Proteins expression, hinting at new promising avenues for PD treatment.

  4. Restoration of Motor Defects Caused by Loss of Drosophila TDP-43 by Expression of the Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel, Cacophony, in Central Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Kayly M; Scudder, Charles; Morton, David B

    2017-09-27

    Defects in the RNA-binding protein, TDP-43, are known to cause a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar dementia. A variety of experimental systems have shown that neurons are sensitive to TDP-43 expression levels, yet the specific functional defects resulting from TDP-43 dysregulation have not been well described. Using the Drosophila TDP-43 ortholog TBPH, we previously showed that TBPH-null animals display locomotion defects as third instar larvae. Furthermore, loss of TBPH caused a reduction in cacophony , a Type II voltage-gated calcium channel, expression and that genetically restoring cacophony in motor neurons in TBPH mutant animals was sufficient to rescue the locomotion defects. In the present study, we examined the relative contributions of neuromuscular junction physiology and the motor program to the locomotion defects and identified subsets of neurons that require cacophony expression to rescue the defects. At the neuromuscular junction, we showed mEPP amplitudes and frequency require TBPH. Cacophony expression in motor neurons rescued mEPP frequency but not mEPP amplitude. We also showed that TBPH mutants displayed reduced motor neuron bursting and coordination during crawling and restoring cacophony selectively in two pairs of cells located in the brain, the AVM001b/2b neurons, also rescued the locomotion and motor defects, but not the defects in neuromuscular junction physiology. These results suggest that the behavioral defects associated with loss of TBPH throughout the nervous system can be associated with defects in a small number of genes in a limited number of central neurons, rather than peripheral defects. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT TDP-43 dysfunction is a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Loss- and gain-of-function models have shown that neurons are sensitive to TDP-43

  5. Rescue of avian leukosis subgroup-J-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene and analysis of their tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-12-01

    In our previous study, six subgroup J strains of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J)-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene, designated as Fu-J and Fu-J1-5, were isolated and characterized from fibrosarcomas in ALV-J-infected chickens. In the present study, the oncogenic potential of Fu-J and Fu-J1-5 was investigated using a reverse genetics technique. Six replication-defective viruses, named rFu-J and rFu-J1-5, were rescued with the replication-competent rescued ALV-J strain rSDAU1005 as a helper virus by co-transfection of chicken embryo fibroblast monolayers with infectious clone plasmids. Experimental bird studies were performed, demonstrating that only the rescued rFu-J virus carrying the complete v-fps oncogene with rSDAU1005 as the helper virus could induce acute fibrosarcoma after inoculation in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. These results provide direct evidence that the replication-defective acutely transforming Fu-J virus, with the complete v-fps oncogene, was associated with acute fibrosarcoma in chickens infected with ALV-J in the field, as reported previously.

  6. Autonomous underwater vehicle for research and rescue operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous under water vehicles are ideal platforms for search and rescue operations. They can also be used for inspection of underwater terrains. These vehicles need to be autonomous and robust to cope with unpredictable current and high pressures...

  7. EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND RESCUE, TEXTBOOK FOR SQUADMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    DESIGNED FOR TRAINING EMERGENCY SQUAD PERSONNEL IN RESCUE PROCEDURES AND VICTIM CARE BEYOND BASIC FIRST AID, THIS TEXTBOOK WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF SQUADMEN, DOCTORS, NURSES, FIREMEN, AND STATE TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL TO BE USED IN ADULT TRAINING CLASSES OF FULL-TIME OR VOLUNTEER SQUADMEN. THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL INCLUDES 26…

  8. Mine rescue robots requirements: Outcomes from an industry workshop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available and internationally. The paper identifies three definite robot deployments in South Africa as a) box hole deployment (vertical tunnels), b) flying drone reconnaissance and c) proto (rescue) team assistance. These represent applications where there is a market need...

  9. Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds in South Africa, especially African penguins Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannets Morus capensis , 1983–2005. ... In addition, oiling has a long-term negative impact on the breeding productivity and cost of reproduction in de-oiled birds. The primary ...

  10. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui×. Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55).

  11. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui× Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55) orthogonal experiment ...

  12. In vitro embryo rescue and plant regeneration following self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... 2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere ... Key words: Cassava, doubled haploids, embryo rescue, plant regeneration, pollen germination, pollen ... breeding as inbred lines are readily tested and used within a ... dominance, allowing the separation of homozygotes from.

  13. Intelligent Robot-assisted Humanitarian Search and Rescue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Y. K. Lau

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented scale and number of natural and man-made disasters in the past decade has urged international emergency search and rescue communities to seek for novel technology to enhance operation efficiency. Tele-operated search and rescue robots that can navigate deep into rubble to search for victims and to transfer critical field data back to the control console has gained much interest among emergency response institutions. In response to this need, a low-cost autonomous mini robot equipped with thermal sensor, accelerometer, sonar, pin-hole camera, microphone, ultra-bright LED and wireless communication module is developed to study the control of a group of decentralized mini search and rescue robots. The robot can navigate autonomously between voids to look for living body heat and can send back audio and video information to allow the operator to determine if the found object is a living human. This paper introduces the design and control of a low-cost robotic search and rescue system based on an immuno control framework developed for controlling decentralized systems. Design and development of the physical prototype and the immunity-based control system are described in this paper.

  14. RoboCup Rescue Robot and Simulation Leagues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, H.L.; Ito, N.; Jacoff, A.; Kleiner, A.; Pellenz, J.; Visser, A.

    2013-01-01

    The RoboCup Rescue Robot and Simulation competitions have been held since 2000. The experience gained during these competitions has increased the maturity level of the field, which allowed deploying robots after real disasters (for example, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster). This article provides

  15. The role of "rescue saccades" in tracking objects through occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinsky, Gregory J; Todor, Andrei

    2010-12-29

    We hypothesize that our ability to track objects through occlusions is mediated by timely assistance from gaze in the form of "rescue saccades"-eye movements to tracked objects that are in danger of being lost due to impending occlusion. Observers tracked 2-4 target sharks (out of 9) for 20 s as they swam through a rendered 3D underwater scene. Targets were either allowed to enter into occlusions (occlusion trials) or not (no occlusion trials). Tracking accuracy with 2-3 targets was ≥ 92% regardless of target occlusion but dropped to 74% on occlusion trials with four targets (no occlusion trials remained accurate; 83%). This pattern was mirrored in the frequency of rescue saccades. Rescue saccades accompanied approximatlely 50% of the Track 2-3 target occlusions, but only 34% of the Track 4 occlusions. Their frequency also decreased with increasing distance between a target and the nearest other object, suggesting that it is the potential for target confusion that summons a rescue saccade, not occlusion itself. These findings provide evidence for a tracking system that monitors for events that might cause track loss (e.g., occlusions) and requests help from the oculomotor system to resolve these momentary crises. As the number of crises increase with the number of targets, some requests for help go unsatisfied, resulting in degraded tracking.

  16. Intelligent Robot-Assisted Humanitarian Search and Rescue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Y. Ko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented scale and number of natural and man-made disasters in the past decade has urged international emergency search and rescue communities to seek for novel technology to enhance operation efficiency. Tele-operated search and rescue robots that can navigate deep into rubble to search for victims and to transfer critical field data back to the control console has gained much interest among emergency response institutions. In response to this need, a low-cost autonomous mini robot equipped with thermal sensor, accelerometer, sonar, pin-hole camera, microphone, ultra-bright LED and wireless communication module is developed to study the control of a group of decentralized mini search and rescue robots. The robot can navigate autonomously between voids to look for living body heat and can send back audio and video information to allow the operator to determine if the found object is a living human. This paper introduces the design and control of a low-cost robotic search and rescue system based on an immuno control framework developed for controlling decentralized systems. Design and development of the physical prototype and the immunity-based control system are described in this paper.

  17. Protecting front-line survey and rescue teams during emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresise, H.

    1980-01-01

    Means of protecting front-line survey and rescue teams during emergencies are described. The team composition, their apparatus, the selection of the incident control point, the use of guidelines and breathing apparatus and control point trolley and equipment are discussed. (H.K.)

  18. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  19. Catalytic Organometallic Reactions of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, ammonia had rarely succumbed to catalytic transformations with homogeneous catalysts, and the development of such reactions that are selective for the formation of single products under mild conditions has encountered numerous challenges. However, recently developed catalysts have allowed several classes of reactions to create products with nitrogen-containing functional groups from ammonia. These reactions include hydroaminomethylation, reductive amination, alkylation, allylic substitution, hydroamination, and cross-coupling. This Minireview describes examples of these processes and the factors that control catalyst activity and selectivity. PMID:20857466

  20. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  1. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  2. Computational design of a PDZ domain peptide inhibitor that rescues CFTR activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle E Roberts

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is an epithelial chloride channel mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. The most prevalent CFTR mutation, ΔF508, blocks folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Recent work has shown that some ΔF508-CFTR channel activity can be recovered by pharmaceutical modulators ("potentiators" and "correctors", but ΔF508-CFTR can still be rapidly degraded via a lysosomal pathway involving the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL, which binds CFTR via a PDZ interaction domain. We present a study that goes from theory, to new structure-based computational design algorithms, to computational predictions, to biochemical testing and ultimately to epithelial-cell validation of novel, effective CAL PDZ inhibitors (called "stabilizers" that rescue ΔF508-CFTR activity. To design the "stabilizers", we extended our structural ensemble-based computational protein redesign algorithm K* to encompass protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions. The computational predictions achieved high accuracy: all of the top-predicted peptide inhibitors bound well to CAL. Furthermore, when compared to state-of-the-art CAL inhibitors, our design methodology achieved higher affinity and increased binding efficiency. The designed inhibitor with the highest affinity for CAL (kCAL01 binds six-fold more tightly than the previous best hexamer (iCAL35, and 170-fold more tightly than the CFTR C-terminus. We show that kCAL01 has physiological activity and can rescue chloride efflux in CF patient-derived airway epithelial cells. Since stabilizers address a different cellular CF defect from potentiators and correctors, our inhibitors provide an additional therapeutic pathway that can be used in conjunction with current methods.

  3. Promotion and Rescue of Intracellular Brucella neotomae Replication during Coinfection with Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Kirby, James E

    2017-05-01

    We established a new Brucella neotomae in vitro model system for study of type IV secretion system-dependent (T4SS) pathogenesis in the Brucella genus. Importantly, B. neotomae is a rodent pathogen, and unlike B. abortus , B. melitensis , and B. suis , B. neotomae has not been observed to infect humans. It therefore can be handled more facilely using biosafety level 2 practices. More particularly, using a series of novel fluorescent protein and lux operon reporter systems to differentially label pathogens and track intracellular replication, we confirmed T4SS-dependent intracellular growth of B. neotomae in macrophage cell lines. Furthermore, B. neotomae exhibited early endosomal (LAMP-1) and late endoplasmic reticulum (calreticulin)-associated phagosome maturation. These findings recapitulate prior observations for human-pathogenic Brucella spp. In addition, during coinfection experiments with Legionella pneumophila , we found that defective intracellular replication of a B. neotomae T4SS virB4 mutant was rescued and baseline levels of intracellular replication of wild-type B. neotomae were significantly stimulated by coinfection with wild-type but not T4SS mutant L. pneumophila Using confocal microscopy, it was determined that intracellular colocalization of B. neotomae and L. pneumophila was required for rescue and that colocalization came at a cost to L. pneumophila fitness. These findings were not completely expected based on known temporal and qualitative differences in the intracellular life cycles of these two pathogens. Taken together, we have developed a new system for studying in vitro Brucella pathogenesis and found a remarkable T4SS-dependent interplay between Brucella and Legionella during macrophage coinfection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. F508del-CFTR rescue: a matter of cell stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieddu, Erika; Pollarolo, Benedetta; Merello, Luisa; Schenone, Silvia; Mazzei, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common inherited fatal disease affecting 70,000 people worldwide, with a median predicted age of survival of approximately 38 years. The deletion of Phenylalanine in position 508 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (F508del-CFTR) is the most common mutation in CF patients: the deleted protein, not properly folded, is degraded. To date no commercial drugs are available. Low temperature, some osmolytes and conditions able to induce heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression and heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) inhibition result in F508del-CFTR rescue, hence restoring its physiological function: this review sheds light on the correlation between these several evidences. Interestingly, all these approaches have a role in the cell stress response (CSR), a set of cell reactions to stress. In addition, unpredictably, F508del-CFTR rescue has to be considered in the frame of CSR: entities that induce - or are induced during - the CSR are, in general, also able to correct trafficking defect of CFTR. Specifically, the low temperature induces, by definition, a CSR; osmolytes, such as glycerol and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), are products of the CSR; pharmacological correctors, such as Matrine and 4-phenylbutirric acid (4PBA), down-regulate the constitutive Hsc70 in favor of an up-regulation of the inducible chaperone Hsp70, another component of the CSR. The identification of a common mechanism of action for different types of correctors could drive the discovery of new active molecules in CF, overcoming methods clinically inapplicable, such as the low temperature.

  5. Management of Anterior Skull Base Defect Depending on Its Size and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Rioja, Elena; Enseñat, Joaquim; Enriquez, Karla; Viscovich, Liza; Agredo-Lemos, Freddy Enrique; Alobid, Isam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. We present our experience in the reconstruction of these leaks depending on their size and location. Material and Methods. Fifty-four patients who underwent advanced skull base surgery (large defects, >20 mm) and 62 patients with CSF leaks of different origin (small, 2–10 mm, and midsize, 11–20 mm, defects) were included in the retrospective study. Large defects were reconstructed with a nasoseptal pedicled flap positioned on fat and fascia lata. In small and midsized leaks. Fascia lata in an underlay position was used for its reconstruction covered with mucoperiosteum of either the middle or the inferior turbinate. Results. The most frequent etiology for small and midsized defects was spontaneous (48.4%), followed by trauma (24.2%), iatrogenic (5%). The success rate after the first surgical reconstruction was 91% and 98% in large skull base defects and small/midsized, respectively. Rescue surgery achieved 100%. Conclusions. Endoscopic surgery for any type of skull base defect is the gold standard. The size of the defects does not seem to play a significant role in the success rate. Fascia lata and mucoperiosteum of the turbinate allow a two-layer reconstruction of small and midsized defects. For larger skull base defects, a combination of fat, fascia lata, and nasoseptal pedicled flaps provides a successful reconstruction. PMID:24895567

  6. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S.

    2016-01-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  7. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es. Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3% rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing, and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and

  8. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Therese; Ragu, Sandrine; Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S

    2016-05-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  9. Catalytic enantioselective Reformatsky reaction with ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, M. Angeles; Macia, Beatriz; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    Chiral tertiary alcohols were obtained with good yields and enantioselectivities via a catalytic Reformatsky reaction with ketones, including the challenging diaryl ketones, using chiral BINOL derivatives.

  10. Petrochemical promoters in catalytic cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Maria; Vargas, Clemencia; Lizcano, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on the current scheme followed by a refinery with available Catalytic Cracking capacity to process new feedstocks such as Straight Run Naphtha and Naphthas from FCC. These feedstocks are of petrochemical interest to produce Ethane, Ethylene, Propylene, i-Butane, Toluene and Xylene. To evaluate the potential of these new streams versus the Cracking-charged Residues, it was performed a detailed chemical analysis on the structural groups in carbons [C1-C12] at the reactor product obtained in pilot plant. A catalyst with and without Propylene Promoter Additive was used. This study analyzes the differences in the chemical composition of the feedstocks, relating them to the yield of each petrochemical product. Straight Run Naphthas with a high content of Naphthenes, and Paraffines n[C5-C12] and i[C7-C12] are selective to the production of i-Butane and Propane, while Naphthas from FCC with a high content of n[C5-C12]Olefins, i-Olefins, and Aromatics are more selective to Propylene, Toluene, and Xylene. Concerning Catalytic Cracking of Naphthas, the Additive has similar selectivity for all the petrochemical products, their yields increase by about one point with 4%wt of Additive, while in cracking of Residues, the Additive increases in three points Propylene yield, corresponding to a selectivity of 50% (?C3= / ?LPG).

  11. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  12. Catalytic converters in the fireplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouki, J.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to selecting the appropriate means of heating and using dry fuel, the amount of harmful emissions contained by flue gases produced by fireplaces can be reduced by technical means. One such option is to use an oxidising catalytic converter. Tests at TTS Institute's Heating Studies Experimental Station have focused on two such converters (dense and coarse) mounted in light-weight iron heating stoves. The ability of the dense catalytic converter to oxidise carbon monoxide gases proved to be good. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the flue gases was reduced by as much as 90 %. Measurements conducted by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) showed that the conversion of other gases, e.g. of methane, was good. The exhaust resistance caused by the dense converter was so great as to necessitate the mounting of a fluegas evacuation fan in the chimney for the purpose of creating sufficient draught. When relying on natural draught, the dense converter requires a chimney of at least 7 metres and a by-pass connection while the fire is being lit. In addition, the converter will have to be constructed to be less dense and this will mean that it's capability to oxidise non-combusted gases will be reduced. The coarse converter did not impair the draught but it's oxidising property was insufficient. With the tests over, the converter was not observed to have become blocked up by impurities

  13. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  14. 46 CFR 133.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each davit for a rescue boat must be approved under approval series... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...

  15. 46 CFR 199.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each rescue boat must...

  16. 46 CFR 111.75-16 - Lighting of survival craft and rescue boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting of survival craft and rescue boats. 111.75-16... craft and rescue boats. (a) During preparation, launching, and recovery, each survival craft and rescue... of circuits must be such that the lighting for adjacent launching stations for survival craft or...

  17. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E; Crisp, Ryan W; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-10-23

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We utilized atomically thin semiconductor nanoplatelets as a convenient platform for studying, both microscopically and spectroscopically, the development of defects during ligand exchange with the conductive ligands Na 4 SnS 4 and (NH 4 ) 4 Sn 2 S 6 . These defects can be repaired via mild chemical or thermal routes, through the addition of L-type ligands or wet annealing, respectively. This results in a higher-quality, conductive, colloidally stable nanomaterial that may be used as the active film in optoelectronic devices. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Defect identification using positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.

    2001-01-01

    The current use of the lifetime and Doppler broadening techniques in defect identification is demonstrated with two studies, the first being the identification of carbon vacancy in n-6H SiC through lifetime spectroscopy, and the second the production of de-hydrogenated voids in α-Si:H through light soaking. Some less conventional ideas are presented for more specific defect identification, namely (i) the amalgamation of lifetime and Doppler techniques with conventional deep level transient spectroscopy in what may be called ''positron-deep level transient spectroscopy'', and (ii) the extraction of more spatial information on vacancy defects by means of what may be called ''Fourier transform Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation spectroscopy'' (orig.)

  19. Quantum computing with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel

    2011-03-01

    The development of a quantum computer is contingent upon the identification and design of systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information. One of the most promising candidates consists of a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center, since it is an individually-addressable quantum system that can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. While the success of the NV-1 stems from its nature as a localized ``deep-center'' point defect, no systematic effort has been made to identify other defects that might behave in a similar way. We provide guidelines for identifying other defect centers with similar properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate systems. To elucidate these points, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). Using hybrid functionals, we report formation energies, configuration-coordinate diagrams, and defect-level diagrams to compare and contrast the properties of these defects. We find that the NC VSi - 1 center in SiC, a structural analog of the NV-1 center in diamond, may be a suitable center with very different optical transition energies. We also discuss how the proposed criteria can be translated into guidelines to discover NV analogs in other tetrahedrally coordinated materials. This work was performed in collaboration with J. R. Weber, W. F. Koehl, B. B. Buckley, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, and D. D. Awschalom. This work was supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF.

  20. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some problems openned in the study of defects in semiconductors are presented. In particular, a review is made of the more important problems in Si monocrystals of basic and technological interest: microdefects and the presence of oxigen and carbon. The techniques usually utilized in the semiconductor material characterization are emphatized according its potentialities. Some applications of x-ray techniques in the epitaxial shell characterization in heterostructures, importants in electronic optics, are shown. The increase in the efficiency of these defect analysis methods in semiconductor materials with the use of synchrotron x-ray sources is shown. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of polyacrylamide solution | Hu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modified with trace metal elements, the catalytic activity of Fe2O3/Al2O3 could be changed greatly. Among various trace metal elements, Fe2O3/Al2O3 catalysts modified with Co and Cu showed great increase on catalytic activity. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2010, pp. 110- ...

  2. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  3. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, B.B.

    1993-12-01

    Focus of this project is on developing new approaches for hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. The strategies to accomplish CO reduction are based on favorable thermodynamics manifested by rhodium macrocycles for producing a series of intermediates implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Metalloformyl complexes from reactions of H 2 and CO, and CO reductive coupling to form metallo α-diketone species provide alternate routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics are promising candidates for future development

  4. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J; Koljonen, T [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  5. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  6. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    The overall topic of this thesis is within the field of catalysis, were model systems of different complexity have been studied utilizing a multipurpose Ultra High Vacuum chamber (UHV). The thesis falls in two different parts. First a simple model system in the form of a ruthenium single crystal...... of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles is highly relevant to industrial methanol synthesis for which the direct interaction of Cu and ZnO nanocrystals synergistically boost the catalytic activity. The dynamical behavior of the nanoparticles under reducing and oxidizing environments were studied by means of ex situ X......-ray Photoelectron Electron Spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The surface composition of the nanoparticles changes reversibly as the nanoparticles exposed to cycles of high-pressure oxidation and reduction (200 mbar). Furthermore, the presence of metallic Zn is observed by XPS...

  7. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  8. Reliable Rescue Routing Optimization for Urban Emergency Logistics under Travel Time Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of rescue routes is critical for urban emergency logistics during disasters. However, studies on reliable rescue routing under stochastic networks are still rare. This paper proposes a multiobjective rescue routing model for urban emergency logistics under travel time reliability. A hybrid metaheuristic integrating ant colony optimization (ACO and tabu search (TS was designed to solve the model. An experiment optimizing rescue routing plans under a real urban storm event, was carried out to validate the proposed model. The experimental results showed how our approach can improve rescue efficiency with high travel time reliability.

  9. The evolution of catalytic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Marie-Christine; Ricard, Jacques

    2006-03-01

    It is very likely that the main driving force of enzyme evolution is the requirement to improve catalytic and regulatory efficiency which results from the intrinsic performance as well as from the spatial and functional organization of enzymes in living cells. Kinetic co-operativity may occur in simple monomeric proteins if they display “slow” conformational transitions, at the cost of catalytic efficiency. Oligomeric enzymes on the other hand can be both efficient and co-operative. We speculate that the main reason for the emergence of co-operative oligomeric enzymes is the need for catalysts that are both cooperative and efficient. As it is not useful for an enzyme to respond to a change of substrate concentration in a complex kinetic way, the emergence of symmetry has its probable origin in a requirement for “functional simplicity”. In a living cell, enzyme are associated with other macromolecules and membranes. The fine tuning of their activity may also be reached through mutations of the microenvironment. Our hypothesis is that these mutations are related to the vectorial transport of molecules, to achieve the hysteresis loops of enzyme reactions generated by the coupling of reaction and diffusion, through the co-operativity brought about by electric interactions between a charged substrate and a membrane, and last but not least, through oscillations. As the physical origins of these effects are very simple and do not require complex molecular devices, it is very likely that the functional advantage generated by the spatial and functional organization of enzyme molecules within the cell have appeared in prebiotic catalysis or very early during the primeval stages of biological evolution. We shall began this paper by presenting the nature of the probable earliest catalysts in the RNA world.

  10. Evolutionary rescue: linking theory for conservation and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen K; Martin, Guillaume; Martin, Oliver Y; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Evolutionary responses that rescue populations from extinction when drastic environmental changes occur can be friend or foe. The field of conservation biology is concerned with the survival of species in deteriorating global habitats. In medicine, in contrast, infected patients are treated with chemotherapeutic interventions, but drug resistance can compromise eradication of pathogens. These contrasting biological systems and goals have created two quite separate research communities, despite addressing the same central question of whether populations will decline to extinction or be rescued through evolution. We argue that closer integration of the two fields, especially of theoretical understanding, would yield new insights and accelerate progress on these applied problems. Here, we overview and link mathematical modelling approaches in these fields, suggest specific areas with potential for fruitful exchange, and discuss common ideas and issues for empirical testing and prediction.

  11. Defect detection module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, R.; Westermann, G.

    1986-01-01

    The ''defect detector'' module is aimed at exceptional event or state recording. Foreseen for voltage presence monitoring on high supply voltage module of drift chambers, its characteristics can also show up the vanishing of supply voltage and take in account transitory fast signals [fr

  12. Quantum computing with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J R; Koehl, W F; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2010-05-11

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV(-1)) center stands out for its robustness--its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV(-1) center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors.

  13. A change of attitude: from rescue to prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, Valentina I.

    2003-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative leap recorded by economical companies after the Romanian Revolution occurred in 1989, has positively influenced the functioning of the workplaces and working environment by increasing the employees' occupational safety, well being, health and results of their activities. In fact it has determined a new approach of safety culture. This has resulted in a change of attitude: from rescue to prevention. The paper is addressing the steps in which this change has been occurred. (author)

  14. A change of attitude: From rescue to prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, Valentina

    2002-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative leap recorded by economical companies after the Romanian Revolution occurred in 1989, has positively influenced the functioning of the workplaces and working environment by increasing the employees' occupational safety, well being, health and results of their activities. In fact it has determined a new approach of safety culture. This has resulted in a change of attitude: from rescue to prevention. (author)

  15. Reforming The Governance Of Corporate Rescue: The Enterprise Act 2002

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour; Rizwaan Jameel Mokal

    2004-01-01

    English corporate insolvency law has been reshaped by the Enterprise Act 2002. The Act was intended to ‘to facilitate company rescue and to produce better returns for creditors as a whole’. Administrative receivership, which placed control of insolvency proceedings in the hands of banks, is for most purposes being abolished. It is being replaced by a ‘streamlined’ administration procedure. Whilst it will still be possible for banks to control the appointment process, the administrator once in...

  16. A competency framework for the business rescue practitioner profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2014-08-01

    Research purpose: Competencies required by business rescue practitioners (BRPs to navigate a distressed venture were investigated. What BRPs actually ‘do’ during a rescue guided the development of a competency framework to inform future qualification guidelines for BRP education and accreditation. Motivation for the study: To investigate the research question: ‘What are the competencies that underlie the activities of a business rescue practitioner?’. Research design, approach and method: A modified ‘interview to the double’ (ITTD process was used to elicit instructions that a BRP would give to an imaginary ‘double’. These instructions were analysed and rated for importance, transferability, knowledge requirement and skills requirement; in conclusion, these instructions were ranked and subjected to a content analysis. Main findings: Based on the main activities that were derived from the practices and praxis, one assignment and four supra (higher-level competencies were consequent to the analysis. A BRP able to successfully navigate a distressed venture towards normal operations should demonstrate a high level of competency in sense-making, decision making and integration, achieved through collaboration as the central competency. Practical implications: Firstly, the study addresses educators’ need for a framework of competencies to guide education. Secondly, it paves the way for the Regulator to develop a qualifications framework for accreditation. Contribution: The findings gave structure to the competencies underlying the activities of a BRP to navigate a rescue. Pre-business and financial acumen appears limited without these competencies containing insight, experience, intuition, heuristics, tacit knowledge, perceptive induction and more.

  17. Mechanisms by which heme oxygenase rescue renal dysfunction in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fomusi Ndisang

    2014-01-01

    Collectively, these data suggest that hemin ameliorates nephropathy by potentiating the expression of proteins of repair/regeneration, abating oxidative/inflammatory mediators, reducing renal histo-pathological lesions, while enhancing nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin, CD2AP and creatinine clearance, with corresponding reduction of albuminuria/proteinuria suggesting improved renal function in hemin-treated ZFs. Importantly, the concomitant potentiation regeneration proteins and podocyte cytoskeletal proteins are novel mechanisms by which hemin rescue nephropathy in obesity.

  18. Rescue apparatus for a high working oil derrick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.P.; Yagudin, S.Z.

    1980-05-18

    In order to improve reliability of the rescue apparatus a device for lowering a basket is made in the form of a collapsible forked support installed in the vertical plane inclined away from the tower. Its lower ends are attached by hinges to the base of the derrick. The upper end is connected to the derrick by means of a fastener. The apparatus has brakes with shock straps for receiving forked support.

  19. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30?years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health servi...

  20. Simulation Optimization of Search and Rescue in Disaster Relief Based on Distributed Auction Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we optimize the search and rescue (SAR in disaster relief through agent-based simulation. We simulate rescue teams’ search behaviors with the improved Truncated Lévy walks. Then we propose a cooperative rescue plan based on a distributed auction mechanism, and illustrate it with the case of landslide disaster relief. The simulation is conducted in three scenarios, including “fatal”, “serious” and “normal”. Compared with the non-cooperative rescue plan, the proposed rescue plan in this paper would increase victims’ relative survival probability by 7–15%, increase the ratio of survivors getting rescued by 5.3–12.9%, and decrease the average elapsed time for one site getting rescued by 16.6–21.6%. The robustness analysis shows that search radius can affect the rescue efficiency significantly, while the scope of cooperation cannot. The sensitivity analysis shows that the two parameters, the time limit for completing rescue operations in one buried site and the maximum turning angle for next step, both have a great influence on rescue efficiency, and there exists optimal value for both of them in view of rescue efficiency.

  1. Evolutionary rescue of a parasite population by mutation rate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspoon, Philip B; Mideo, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    The risk of antibiotic resistance evolution in parasites is a major problem for public health. Identifying factors which promote antibiotic resistance evolution is thus a priority in evolutionary medicine. The rate at which new mutations enter the parasite population is one important predictor; however, mutation rate is not necessarily a fixed quantity, as is often assumed, but can itself evolve. Here we explore the possible impacts of mutation rate evolution on the fate of a disease circulating in a host population, which is being treated with drugs, the use of which varies over time. Using an evolutionary rescue framework, we find that mutation rate evolution provides a dramatic increase in the probability that a parasite population survives treatment in only a limited region, while providing little or no advantage in other regions. Both epidemiological features, such as the virulence of infection, and population genetic parameters, such as recombination rate, play important roles in determining the probability of evolutionary rescue and whether mutation rate evolution enhances the probability of evolutionary rescue or not. While efforts to curtail mutation rate evolution in parasites may be worthwhile under some circumstances, our results suggest that this need not always be the case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: An urban perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available SouthAfrica is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV and 38 African white-backed (AWBV vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range.

  3. Rescue Medicine for Epilepsy: New Options for Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galemore, Cynthia A

    2016-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently published a clinical report recommending expanded options for seizure rescue medications in the school setting. School nurses rely on prescribing professionals for medical orders to manage children with epilepsy in the school setting. The report suggests additional medications beyond rectal diazepam gel along with discussing the purpose of the medications, the variations in prescribing practices for seizure rescue medications, inconsistencies in legislation based on jurisdictions, and the need for school medical orders for students with epilepsy. There are many issues faced by school personnel when caring for students with a diagnosis of epilepsy, chief among them the presence of licensed health professions for the school to be able to respond quickly and appropriately in the event of a seizure. School nurses can assist health care providers in determining the rescue medication most easily delivered and monitored in the variety of activities that are part of the school experience, including transportation to and from school, field trips, and before- and after-school activities, all beyond the regular classroom setting.

  4. The Chemical Chaperone Phenylbutyrate Rescues MCT8 Mutations Associated With Milder Phenotypes in Patients With Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Doreen; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) prevent appropriate entry of thyroid hormones into brain cells during development and cause severe mental retardation in affected patients. The current treatment options are thyromimetic compounds that enter the brain independently of MCT8. Some MCT8-deficient patients (e.g., those carrying MCT8delF501) will not be as severely affected as most others. We have shown that the MCT8delF501 protein has decreased protein stability but important residual function once it reaches the plasma membrane. We were able to rescue protein expression and the function of MCT8delF501 in a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell model by application of the chemical chaperone sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a drug that has been used to treat patients with cystic fibrosis and urea cycle defects for extended periods of time. In the present study, we have extended our previous study and report on the NaPB-dependent rescue of a series of other pathogenic MCT8 mutants associated with milder patient phenotypes. We show that NaPB can functionally rescue the expression and activities of Ser194Phe, Ser290Phe, Leu434Trp, Arg445Cys, Leu492Pro, and Leu568Pro mutations in MCT8 in a dose-dependent manner. The soy isoflavone genistein, a dietary supplement, which was effective in MCT8delF501, was also effective in increasing the expression and transport of these MCT8 mutants; however, the effect size differed among mutants. Kinetic analyses revealed that the Michaelis constants of the mutants toward the primary substrate 3,3',5-triiodothyronine were not much different from the wild-type value, suggesting that these mutants are not impaired in their interaction with substrate but rather destabilized by the mutation and degraded. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  5. Functional phenotypic rescue of Caenorhabditis elegans neuroligin-deficient mutants by the human and rat NLGN1 genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Calahorro

    Full Text Available Neuroligins are cell adhesion proteins that interact with neurexins at the synapse. This interaction may contribute to differentiation, plasticity and specificity of synapses. In humans, single mutations in neuroligin encoding genes lead to autism spectrum disorder and/or mental retardation. Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in nlg-1, an orthologue of human neuroligin genes, have defects in different behaviors. Here we show that the expression of human NLGN1 or rat Nlgn1 cDNAs in C. elegans nlg-1 mutants rescues the fructose osmotic strength avoidance and gentle touch response phenotypes. Two specific point mutations in NLGN3 and NLGN4 genes, involved in autistic spectrum disorder, were further characterized in this experimental system. The R451C allele described in NLGN3, was analyzed with both human NLGN1 (R453C and worm NLG-1 (R437C proteins, and both were not functional in rescuing the osmotic avoidance behavior and the gentle touch response phenotype. The D396X allele described in NLGN4, which produces a truncated protein, was studied with human NLGN1 (D432X and they did not rescue any of the behavioral phenotypes analyzed. In addition, RNAi feeding experiments measuring gentle touch response in wild type strain and worms expressing SID-1 in neurons (which increases the response to dsRNA, both fed with bacteria expressing dsRNA for nlg-1, provided evidence for a postsynaptic in vivo function of neuroligins both in muscle cells and neurons, equivalent to that proposed in mammals. This finding was further confirmed generating transgenic nlg-1 deficient mutants expressing NLG-1 under pan-neuronal (nrx-1 or pan-muscular (myo-3 specific promoters. All these results suggest that the nematode could be used as an in vivo model for studying particular synaptic mechanisms with proteins orthologues of humans involved in pervasive developmental disorders.

  6. A DFT study of Cu nanoparticles adsorbed on defective graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Rodríguez, D.E.; Mendoza-Huizar, L.H.; Díaz, C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu_n supported on graphene may be a promising electrode material for DBFC's cells. • Cu_n/graphene interaction is rather local and size independent. • Cu_1_3 anchors strongly to defects in graphene, while keeping its gas-phase properties. - Abstract: Metal nanoparticles adsorbed on graphene are systems of interest for processes relative to catalytic reactions and alternative energy production. Graphene decorated with Cu-nanoparticles, in particular, could be a good alternative material for electrodes in direct borohydride fuel cells. However our knowledge of this system is still very limited. Based on density functional theory, we have analyzed the interaction of Cu_n nanoparticles (n = 4, 5, 6, 7, 13) with pristine and defective-graphene. We have considered two types of defects, a single vacancy (SV), and an extended lineal structural defect (ELSD), formed by heptagon-pentagon pairs. Our analysis has revealed the covalent character of the Cu_n-graphene interaction for pristine- and ELSD-graphene, and a more ionic-like interaction for SV-graphene. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the interaction between the nanoparticles and the graphene is rather local, i.e., only the nanoparticle atoms close to the contact region are involved in the interaction, being the electronic contact region much higher for defective-graphene than for pristine-graphene. Thus, the higher the particle the lower its average electronic and structural distortion.

  7. Diameter Dependence of Planar Defects in InP Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhang, Minghuan; Han, Zhenlian; Yip, SenPo; Shen, Lifan; Han, Ning; Pun, Edwin Y B; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-09-12

    In this work, extensive characterization and complementary theoretical analysis have been carried out on Au-catalyzed InP nanowires in order to understand the planar defect formation as a function of nanowire diameter. From the detailed transmission electron microscopic measurements, the density of stacking faults and twin defects are found to monotonically decrease as the nanowire diameter is decreased to 10 nm, and the chemical analysis clearly indicates the drastic impact of In catalytic supersaturation in Au nanoparticles on the minimized planar defect formation in miniaturized nanowires. Specifically, during the chemical vapor deposition of InP nanowires, a significant amount of planar defects is created when the catalyst seed sizes are increased with the lower degree of In supersaturation as dictated by the Gibbs-Thomson effect, and an insufficient In diffusion (or Au-rich enhancement) would lead to a reduced and non-uniform In precipitation at the NW growing interface. The results presented here provide an insight into the fabrication of "bottom-up" InP NWs with minimized defect concentration which are suitable for various device applications.

  8. A DFT study of Cu nanoparticles adsorbed on defective graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rodríguez, D.E. [Universidad Politécnica de Aguascalientes, Calle Paseo San Gerardo No. 297 Fracc. San Gerardo, 20342 Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico); Mendoza-Huizar, L.H. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Área Académica de Química, Ciudad del Conocimiento. Carretera Pachuca-Tulancigo Km. 4.5 Mineral de la Reforma, 42186 Hidalgo (Mexico); Díaz, C., E-mail: cristina.diaz@uam.es [Departamento de Química, Módulo 13, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Institute for Advanced Research in Chemical Science (IAdChem), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Cu{sub n} supported on graphene may be a promising electrode material for DBFC's cells. • Cu{sub n}/graphene interaction is rather local and size independent. • Cu{sub 13} anchors strongly to defects in graphene, while keeping its gas-phase properties. - Abstract: Metal nanoparticles adsorbed on graphene are systems of interest for processes relative to catalytic reactions and alternative energy production. Graphene decorated with Cu-nanoparticles, in particular, could be a good alternative material for electrodes in direct borohydride fuel cells. However our knowledge of this system is still very limited. Based on density functional theory, we have analyzed the interaction of Cu{sub n} nanoparticles (n = 4, 5, 6, 7, 13) with pristine and defective-graphene. We have considered two types of defects, a single vacancy (SV), and an extended lineal structural defect (ELSD), formed by heptagon-pentagon pairs. Our analysis has revealed the covalent character of the Cu{sub n}-graphene interaction for pristine- and ELSD-graphene, and a more ionic-like interaction for SV-graphene. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the interaction between the nanoparticles and the graphene is rather local, i.e., only the nanoparticle atoms close to the contact region are involved in the interaction, being the electronic contact region much higher for defective-graphene than for pristine-graphene. Thus, the higher the particle the lower its average electronic and structural distortion.

  9. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  10. Neurological disease mutations of α3 Na+,K+-ATPase: Structural and functional perspectives and rescue of compromised function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Rikke; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S; Einholm, Anja P; Schack, Vivien R; Andersen, Jens P; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-11-01

    Na + ,K + -ATPase creates transmembrane ion gradients crucial to the function of the central nervous system. The α-subunit of Na + ,K + -ATPase exists as four isoforms (α1-α4). Several neurological phenotypes derive from α3 mutations. The effects of some of these mutations on Na + ,K + -ATPase function have been studied in vitro. Here we discuss the α3 disease mutations as well as information derived from studies of corresponding mutations of α1 in the light of the high-resolution crystal structures of the Na + ,K + -ATPase. A high proportion of the α3 disease mutations occur in the transmembrane sector and nearby regions essential to Na + and K + binding. In several cases the compromised function can be traced to disturbance of the Na + specific binding site III. Recently, a secondary mutation was found to rescue the defective Na + binding caused by a disease mutation. A perspective is that it may be possible to develop an efficient pharmaceutical mimicking the rescuing effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Catalytic modification of cellulose and hemicellulose - Sugarefine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repo, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland),Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry], email: timo.repo@helsinki.fi

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of the project is to develop catalytic methods for the modification of lignocellulose-based saccharides in the biorefineries. The products of these reactions could be used for example as biofuel components, raw materials for the chemical industry, solvents and precursors for biopolymers. The catalyst development aims at creating efficient, selective and green catalytic methods for profitable use in biorefineries. The project is divided in three work packages: In WP1 (Catalytic dehydration of cellulose) the aim is at developing non-toxic, efficient methods for the catalytic dehydration of cellulose the target molecule being here 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). 5-HMF is an interesting platform chemical for the production of fuel additives, solvents and polymers. In WP2 (Catalytic reduction), the objective of the catalytic reduction studies is to produce commercially interesting monofunctional chemicals, such as 1-butanol or 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF). In WP3 (Catalytic oxidation), the research focuses on developing a green and efficient oxidation method for producing acids. Whereas acetic and formic acids are bulk chemicals, diacids such as glucaric and xylaric acids are valuable specialty chemicals for detergent, polymer and food production.

  12. Neuron-specific regulation of class I PI3K catalytic subunits and their dysfunction in brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eGross

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The PI3K complex plays important roles in virtually all cells of the body. The enzymatic activity of PI3K to phosphorylate phosphoinositides in the membrane is mediated by a group of catalytic and regulatory subunits. Among those, the class I catalytic subunits, p110α, p110β, p110γ and p110δ, have recently drawn attention in the neuroscience field due to their specific dysregulation in diverse brain disorders. While in non-neuronal cells these catalytic subunits may have partially redundant functions, there is increasing evidence that in neurons their roles are more specialized, and confined to distinct receptor-dependent pathways. This review will summarize the emerging role of class I PI3K catalytic subunits in neurotransmitter-regulated neuronal signaling, and their dysfunction in a variety of neurological diseases, including fragile X syndrome, schizophrenia and epilepsy. We will discuss recent literature describing the use of PI3K subunit-selective inhibitors to rescue brain disease-associated phenotypes in in vitro and animal models. These studies give rise to the exciting prospect that these drugs, originally designed for cancer treatment, may be repurposed as therapeutic drugs for brain disorders in the future.

  13. Age-related deficits in synaptic plasticity rescued by activating PKA or PKC in sensory neurons of Aplysia californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kempsell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is associated with declines in synaptic function that contribute to memory loss, including reduced postsynaptic response to neurotransmitters and decreased neuronal excitability. To understand how aging affects memory in a simple neural circuit, we studied neuronal proxies of memory for sensitization in mature versus advanced age Aplysia. Glutamate- (L-Glu- evoked excitatory currents were facilitated by the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT in sensory neurons (SN isolated from mature but not aged animals. Activation of PKA and PKC signaling rescued facilitation of L-Glu currents in aged SN. Similarly, PKA and PKC activators restored increased excitability in aged tail SN. These results suggest that altered synaptic plasticity during aging involves defects in second messenger systems

  14. Age-related deficits in synaptic plasticity rescued by activating PKA or PKC in sensory neurons of Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempsell, Andrew T; Fieber, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with declines in synaptic function that contribute to memory loss, including reduced postsynaptic response to neurotransmitters and decreased neuronal excitability. To understand how aging affects memory in a simple neural circuit, we studied neuronal proxies of memory for sensitization in mature vs. advanced age Aplysia californica (Aplysia). L-Glutamate- (L-Glu-) evoked excitatory currents were facilitated by the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) in sensory neurons (SN) isolated from mature but not aged animals. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling rescued facilitation of L-Glu currents in aged SN. Similarly, PKA and PKC activators restored increased excitability in aged tail SN. These results suggest that altered synaptic plasticity during aging involves defects in second messenger systems.

  15. UvA Rescue - Team Description Paper - Infrastructure competition - Rescue Simulation League RoboCup 2014 - João Pessoa - Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2014-01-01

    The UvA Rescue Team has several innovative ideas to further improve the infrastructure of the RoboCup Rescue Simulation League. Those ideas range from providing USARSim an interface compatible with the RoboCup@Home Simulation, to provide the possibility to specify robots in the URDF format, to

  16. CDKL5 protein substitution therapy rescues neurological phenotypes of a mouse model of CDKL5 disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trazzi, Stefania; De Franceschi, Marianna; Fuchs, Claudia; Bastianini, Stefano; Viggiano, Rocchina; Lupori, Leonardo; Mazziotti, Raffaele; Medici, Giorgio; Lo Martire, Viviana; Ren, Elisa; Rimondini, Roberto; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Bartesaghi, Renata; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Ciani, Elisabetta

    2018-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase like-5 (CDKL5) disorder is a rare neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutations in the CDKL5 gene. The consequent misexpression of the CDKL5 protein in the nervous system leads to a severe phenotype characterized by intellectual disability, motor impairment, visual deficits and early-onset epilepsy. No therapy is available for CDKL5 disorder. It has been reported that a protein transduction domain (TAT) is able to deliver macromolecules into cells and even into the brain when fused to a given protein. We demonstrate that TAT-CDKL5 fusion protein is efficiently internalized by target cells and retains CDKL5 activity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of TAT-CDKL5 restored hippocampal development, hippocampus-dependent memory and breathing pattern in Cdkl5-null mice. Notably, systemically administered TAT-CDKL5 protein passed the blood-brain-barrier, reached the CNS, and rescued various neuroanatomical and behavioral defects, including breathing pattern and visual responses. Our results suggest that CDKL5 protein therapy may be an effective clinical tool for the treatment of CDKL5 disorder.

  17. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cells rescue visual function in dystrophic RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Raymond D; Wang, Shaomei; Klimanskaya, Irina; Holmes, Toby; Ramos-Kelsey, Rebeca; Lu, Bin; Girman, Sergej; Bischoff, N; Sauvé, Yves; Lanza, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells promise to provide a well-characterized and reproducible source of replacement tissue for human clinical studies. An early potential application of this technology is the use of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases such as macular degeneration. Here we show the reproducible generation of RPE (67 passageable cultures established from 18 different hES cell lines); batches of RPE derived from NIH-approved hES cells (H9) were tested and shown capable of extensive photoreceptor rescue in an animal model of retinal disease, the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, in which photoreceptor loss is caused by a defect in the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium. Improvement in visual performance was 100% over untreated controls (spatial acuity was approximately 70% that of normal nondystrophic rats) without evidence of untoward pathology. The use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and/or the creation of banks of reduced complexity human leucocyte antigen (HLA) hES-RPE lines could minimize or eliminate the need for immunosuppressive drugs and/or immunomodulatory protocols.

  18. Human cathepsin L rescues the neurodegeneration and lethality incathepsin B/L double deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevenich, Lisa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas

    2006-01-09

    Cathepsin B (CTSB) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two widelyexpressed cysteine proteases thought to predominantly reside withinlysosomes. Functional analysis of CTSL in humans is complicated by theexistence of two CTSL-like homologues (CTSL and CTSL2), in contrast tomice which contain only one CTSL enzyme. Thus transgenic expression ofhuman CTSL in CTSL deficient mice provides an opportunity to study the invivo functions of this human protease without interference by its highlyrelated homologue. While mice with single gene deficiencies for murineCTSB or CTSL survive without apparent neuromuscular impairment, murineCTSB/CTSL double deficient mice display degeneration of cerebellarPurkinje cells and neurons of the cerebral cortex, resulting in severehypotrophy, motility defects, and lethality during their third to fourthweek of life. Here we show that expression of human CTSL through agenomic transgene results in widespread expression of human CTSL in themouse which is capable of rescuing the lethality found in CTSB/CTSLdouble-deficient animals. Human CTSL is expressed in the brain of thesecompound mutants predominantly in neurons of the cerebral cortex and inPurkinje cells of the cerebellum, where it appears to prevent neuronalcell death.

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in amelogenesis imperfecta and phenotypic rescue using 4-phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Steven J; Barron, Martin J; Boot-Handford, Ray; Kirkham, Jennifer; Dixon, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Inherited diseases caused by genetic mutations can arise due to loss of protein function. Alternatively, mutated proteins may mis-fold, impairing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) trafficking, causing ER stress and triggering the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR attempts to restore proteostasis but if unsuccessful drives affected cells towards apoptosis. Previously, we reported that in mice, the p.Tyr64His mutation in the enamel extracellular matrix (EEM) protein amelogenin disrupts the secretory pathway in the enamel-forming ameloblasts, resulting in eruption of malformed tooth enamel that phenocopies human amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Defective amelogenin post-secretory self-assembly and processing within the developing EEM has been suggested to underlie the pathogenesis of X chromosome-linked AI. Here, we challenge this concept by showing that AI pathogenesis associated with the p.Tyr64His amelogenin mutation involves ameloblast apoptosis induced by ER stress. Furthermore, we show that 4-phenylbutyrate can rescue the enamel phenotype in affected female mice by promoting cell survival over apoptosis such that they are able to complete enamel formation despite the presence of the mutation, offering a potential therapeutic option for patients with this form of AI and emphasizing the importance of ER stress in the pathogenesis of this inherited conformational disease.

  20. Catalytic Wittig and aza-Wittig reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Lao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys the literature regarding the development of catalytic versions of the Wittig and aza-Wittig reactions. The first section summarizes how arsenic and tellurium-based catalytic Wittig-type reaction systems were developed first due to the relatively easy reduction of the oxides involved. This is followed by a presentation of the current state of the art regarding phosphine-catalyzed Wittig reactions. The second section covers the field of related catalytic aza-Wittig reactions that are catalyzed by both phosphine oxides and phosphines.

  1. Catalytic models developed through social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    of adolescents placed in out-of-home care and is characterised using three situated cases as empirical data. Afterwards the concept of catalytic processes is briefly presented and then applied in an analysis of pedagogical treatment in the three cases. The result is a different conceptualisation of the social......The article develops the concept of catalytic processes in relation to social work with adolescents in an attempt to both reach a more nuanced understanding of social work and at the same time to develop the concept of catalytic processes in psychology. The social work is pedagogical treatment...

  2. Efficient catalytic combustion in integrated micropellistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bársony, I; Ádám, M; Fürjes, P; Dücső, Cs; Lucklum, R; Hirschfelder, M; Kulinyi, S

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses two of the key issues of the development of catalytic combustion-type sensors: the selection and production of active catalytic particles on the micropellistor surface as well as the realization of a reliable thermal conduction between heater element and catalytic surface, for the sensing of temperature increase produced by the combustion. The report also demonstrates that chemical sensor product development by a MEMS process is a continuous struggle for elimination of all uncertainties influencing reliability and sensitivity of the final product

  3. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be associated with genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome . But the cause of most congenital heart defects isn't known. While they can't be prevented, many treatments are available for the defects and related health ...

  4. Antigravity from a spacetime defect

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkhamer, F. R.; Queiruga, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We argue that there may exist spacetime defects embedded in Minkowski spacetime, which have negative active gravitational mass. One such spacetime defect then repels a test particle, corresponding to what may be called "antigravity."

  5. Studies of defects and defect agglomerates by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    A brief introduction to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and in particular lo its use for defect studies in metals is given. Positrons injected into a metal may become trapped in defects such as vacancies, vacancy clusters, voids, bubbles and dislocations and subsequently annihilate from...... the trapped state iri the defect. The annihilation characteristics (e.g., the lifetime of the positron) can be measured and provide information about the nature of the defect (e.g., size, density, morphology). The technique is sensitive to both defect size (in the range from monovacancies up to cavities...

  6. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  7. Catalytic hydrotreatment of refinery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The object of the project is to produce liquid hydrocarbons by the catalytic hydroprocessing of solid refinery wastes (hard pitches) in order to improve the profitability of deep conversion processes and reduce the excess production of heavy fuels. The project was mostly carried out on the ASVAHL demonstration platform site, at Solaize, and hard pitches were produced primarily by deasphalting of atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues. The project includes two experimental phases and an economic evaluation study phase. In phase 1, two granular catalysts were used to transform pitch into standard low sulphur fuel oil: a continuously moving bed, with demetallation and conversion catalyst; a fixed bed, with hydrorefining catalyst. In phase 2 of the project, it was proven that a hydrotreatment process using a finely dispersed catalyst in the feedstock, can, under realistic operating conditions, transform with goods yields hard pitch into distillates that can be refined through standard methods. In phase 3 of the project, it was shown that the economics of such processes are tightly linked to the price differential between white and black oil products, which is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the evolution of environmental constraints will impel the use of such methods, thus avoiding the coproduction of polluting solid residues.

  8. Congenital Heart Defects and CCHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Congenital heart defects and ... in congenital heart defects. You have a family history of congenital heart ... syndrome or VCF. After birth Your baby may be tested for CCHD as ...

  9. Immobile defects in ferroelastic walls: Wall nucleation at defect sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; Salje, E. K. H.; Ding, X.; Sun, J.

    2018-02-01

    Randomly distributed, static defects are enriched in ferroelastic domain walls. The relative concentration of defects in walls, Nd, follows a power law distribution as a function of the total defect concentration C: N d ˜ C α with α = 0.4 . The enrichment Nd/C ranges from ˜50 times when C = 10 ppm to ˜3 times when C = 1000 ppm. The resulting enrichment is due to nucleation at defect sites as observed in large scale MD simulations. The dynamics of domain nucleation and switching is dependent on the defect concentration. Their energy distribution follows the power law with exponents during yield between ɛ ˜ 1.82 and 2.0 when the defect concentration increases. The power law exponent is ɛ ≈ 2.7 in the plastic regime, independent of the defect concentration.

  10. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  11. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  12. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  13. Chemistry and engineering of catalytic hydrodesulfurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, G.C.A.; Gates, B.C.

    1973-01-01

    A review with 74 refs. on catalytic hydrodesulfurization of pure compds. and petroleum feedstocks, with emphasis on reaction intermediates and structures of Al2O3-supported Ni-W and Co-Mo catalysts. [on SciFinder (R)

  14. Catalytic Aminohalogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemler, Sherry R; Bovino, Michael T

    2013-06-07

    Catalytic aminohalogenation methods enable the regio- and stereoselective vicinal difunctionalization of alkynes, allenes and alkenes with amine and halogen moieties. A range of protocols and reaction mechanisms including organometallic, Lewis base, Lewis acid and Brønsted acid catalysis have been disclosed, enabling the regio- and stereoselective synthesis of halogen-functionalized acyclic amines and nitrogen heterocycles. Recent advances including aminofluorination and catalytic enantioselective aminohalogenation reactions are summarized in this review.

  15. Kinetic catalytic studies of scorpion's hemocyanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queinnec, E.; Vuillaume, M.; Gardes-Albert, M.; Ferradini, C.; Ducancel, F.

    1991-01-01

    Hemocyanins are copper proteins which function as oxygen carriers in the haemolymph of Molluscs and Arthropods. They possess enzymatic properties: peroxidatic and catalatic activities, although they have neither iron nor porphyrin ring at the active site. The kinetics of the catalytic reaction is described. The reaction of superoxide anion with hemocyanin has been studied using pulse radiolysis at pH 9. The catalytic rate constant is 3.5 X 10 7 mol -1 .l.s -1 [fr

  16. Defect engineering of mesoporous nickel ferrite and its application for highly enhanced water oxidation catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Qiudi; Liu, Cunming; Wan, Yangyang; Wu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Du, Pingwu

    2018-02-01

    Spinel nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) emerges as a promising low-cost catalyst for water splitting but it usually shows low catalytic activity because of its limited number of active sites and poor conductivity. For the first time, herein we have successfully overcome its weaknesses using defect engineering approach by creating oxygen vacancies in NiFe2O4. The existence of oxygen vacancy not only shifts up the d-band center, strengthens the adsorption of H2O, and thus provides more active catalytic sites, but also tunes the electron configuration and creates massive number of defective donor states in the band gap to facilitate charge transfer processes. The optimal defective catalyst showed significantly enhanced catalytic OER performance with an OER overpotential as low as 0.35 V at 10 mA cm-2 and a Tafel slope of only ~40 mV dec-1. Moreover, the impressive specific mass and area current density of 17.5 A g-1 and 0.106 A m-2 at 1.58 V vs. RHE have been achieved, which are ~23 and ~36 times higher than that of defect-free counterpart, respectively.

  17. Tactical mobile robots for urban search and rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitch, John; Sidki, Nahid; Durkin, Tim

    2000-07-01

    Few disasters can inspire more compassion for victims and families than those involving structural collapse. Video clips of children's bodies pulled from earthquake stricken cities and bombing sties tend to invoke tremendous grief and sorrow because of the totally unpredictable nature of the crisis and lack of even the slightest degree of negligence (such as with those who choose to ignore storm warnings). Heartbreaking stories of people buried alive for days provide a visceral and horrific perspective of some of greatest fears ever to be imagined by human beings. Current trends toward urban sprawl and increasing human discord dictates that structural collapse disasters will continue to present themselves at an alarming rate. The proliferation of domestic terrorism, HAZMAT and biological contaminants further complicates the matter further and presents a daunting problem set for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) organizations around the world. This paper amplifies the case for robot assisted search and rescue that was first presented during the KNOBSAR project initiated at the Colorado School of Mines in 1995. It anticipates increasing technical development in mobile robot technologies and promotes their use for a wide variety of humanitarian assistance missions. Focus is placed on development of advanced robotic systems that are employed in a complementary tool-like fashion as opposed to traditional robotic approaches that portend to replace humans in hazardous tasks. Operational challenges for USAR are presented first, followed by a brief history of mobiles robot development. The paper then presents conformal robotics as a new design paradigm with emphasis on variable geometry and volumes. A section on robot perception follows with an initial attempt to characterize sensing in a volumetric manner. Collaborative rescue is then briefly discussed with an emphasis on marsupial operations and linked mobility. The paper concludes with an emphasis on Human Robot Interface

  18. Surface defects and chiral algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Gaiotto, Davide [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Shao, Shu-Heng [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-05-26

    We investigate superconformal surface defects in four-dimensional N=2 superconformal theories. Each such defect gives rise to a module of the associated chiral algebra and the surface defect Schur index is the character of this module. Various natural chiral algebra operations such as Drinfeld-Sokolov reduction and spectral flow can be interpreted as constructions involving four-dimensional surface defects. We compute the index of these defects in the free hypermultiplet theory and Argyres-Douglas theories, using both infrared techniques involving BPS states, as well as renormalization group flows onto Higgs branches. In each case we find perfect agreement with the predicted characters.

  19. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Froehle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  20. A Novel Reconfigurable Robot for Urban Search and Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houxiang Zhang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mobile robot for urban search and rescue based on reconfiguration. The system consists of three identical modules; actually each module is an entire robotic system that can perform distributed activities. To achieve highly adaptive locomotion capabilities, the robot's serial and parallel mechanisms form an active joint, enabling it to change its shape in three dimensions. A docking mechanism enables adjacent modules to connect or disconnect flexibly and automatically. This mechanical structure and the control system are introduced in detail, followed by a description of the locomotion capabilities. In the end, the successful on-site tests confirm the principles described above and the robot's ability.

  1. A Novel Reconfigurable Robot for Urban Search and Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Deng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mobile robot for urban search and rescue based on reconfiguration. The system consists of three identical modules; actually each module is an entire robotic system that can perform distributed activities. To achieve highly adaptive locomotion capabilities, the robot's serial and parallel mechanisms form an active joint, enabling it to change its shape in three dimensions. A docking mechanism enables adjacent modules to connect or disconnect flexibly and automatically. This mechanical structure and the control system are introduced in detail, followed by a description of the locomotion capabilities. In the end, the successful on-site tests confirm the principles described above and the robot's ability.

  2. Data Rescue in Collaboration with Federal Open Access Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R.

    2017-12-01

    The recent calls to rescue scientific data is a real opportunity to collaborate with federal agencies which have been spending years managing research data and making it secure. The 2013 memos from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and Office of Management and Budget have spurred innovation across federal agencies to make publicly funded data accessible. Now is the time for stakeholders to take advantage of the groundwork laid by federal government, support the work to expand data sharing, thereby encouraging open science.

  3. Locating Direction Finders in a Generalized Search and Rescue Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    David A . Drake and Alfred B. Marsb. Conv-ersation at NationalI Security Agenc, 29 September 1990. 7. Daskin , Mark S. " A M-admum Fpeced Co-:efing...91 7 19 134 .flT/GORjEnSj9I-M LOCATING DIRECTION FIND’RS IN A GENERALIZED SEARCH AND RESCUE NETWORK THESIS Jean M. Steppe Captain, USAF AFIT/GOR/EN S...91-Mk-7 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELI ASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. 1191-05734 .. 91.. .7 19 134 i i . nMIGOR4M.S/91-MI LOCATING DIRECTION FINDERS IW A

  4. Launch-Off-Need Shuttle Hubble Rescue Mission: Medical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Ilcus, Linda; Perchonok, Michele; Polk, James; Brandt, Keith; Powers, Edward; Stepaniak, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Hubble repair mission (STS-125) is unique in that a rescue mission (STS-400) has to be ready to launch before STS-125 life support runs out should the vehicle become stranded. The shuttle uses electrical power derived from fuel cells that use cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen (CRYO) to run all subsystems including the Environmental Control System. If the STS-125 crew cannot return to Earth due to failure of a critical subsystem, they must power down all nonessential systems and wait to be rescued by STS-400. This power down will cause the cabin temperature to be 60 F or less and freeze the rest of the vehicle, preventing it from attempting a reentry. After an emergency has been declared, STS-125 must wait at least 7 days to power down since that is the earliest that STS-400 can be launched. Problem The delayed power down of STS-125 causes CYRO to be consumed at high rates and limits the survival time after STS-400 launches to 10 days or less. CRYO will run out sooner every day that the STS-400 launch is delayed (weather at launch, technical issues etc.). To preserve CRYO and lithium hydroxide (LiOH - carbon dioxide removal) the crew will perform no exercise to reduce their metabolic rates, yet each deconditioned STS-125 crewmember must perform an EVA to rescue himself. The cabin may be cold for 10 days, which may cause shivering, increasing the metabolic rate of the STS-125 crew. Solution To preserve LiOH, the STS-125 manifest includes nutrition bars with low carbohydrate content to maintain crew respiratory quotient (RQ) below 0.85 as opposed to the usual shuttle galley food which is rich in carbohydrates and keeps the RQ at approximately 0.95. To keep the crew more comfortable in the cold vehicle warm clothing also has been included. However, with no exercise and limited diet, the deconditioned STS-125 crew returning on STS-400 may not be able to egress the vehicle autonomously requiring a supplemented crash-and-rescue capability.

  5. Robotic Platform for Automated Search and Rescue Missions of Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Kolberg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel type of model incorporating a special remote life signals sensing optical system on top of a controllable robotic platform. The remote sensing system consists of a laser and a camera. By properly adapting our optics and by applying a proper image processing algorithm we can sense within the field of view, illuminated by the laser and imaged by the camera, the heartbeats and the blood pulse pressure of subjects (even several simultaneously. The task is to use the developed robotic system for search and rescue mission such as saving survivals from a fire.

  6. State of the art: Rescue intubation through supraglottic airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hofmeyr*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of supraglottic airways as rescue devices in failed intubation and resuscitation has become well accepted in emergency practice. Many offer or advertise the possibility of intubation through the device, but techniques and success rates vary greatly. Intubation can be achieved blindly, with the use a bougie or introducer, or with fiberoptic guidance. In this review, I examine the evidence behind different devices with various techniques, present the data from our on-going research, suggest further research directions and propose practical guidelines for clinical use in emergencies.

  7. Rescue and Fire Fighting on RWY 06R/24L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Vaňková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rescue and firefighting service is an important and essential part at the Václav Havel Airport Prague and it has to follow the requirements stated in Commission regulations (EU, regulations and laws of Czech Republic. Construction of parallel runway 06R/24L influences runway and taxiway system significantly. Consequences of these construction changes are changes of access routes and new places of potential interventions originates. Safety risks of inaccessible areas at the airport and inability to follow response time come with operations of the new runway. These risks are assessed and mitigated if necessary.

  8. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  9. Current insights into the role of PKA phosphorylation in CFTR channel activity and the pharmacological rescue of cystic fibrosis disease-causing mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Stephanie; Hung, Maurita; Bear, Christine E

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel gating is predominantly regulated by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation. In addition to regulating CFTR channel activity, PKA phosphorylation is also involved in enhancing CFTR trafficking and mediating conformational changes at the interdomain interfaces of the protein. The major cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutation is the deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del); it causes many defects that affect CFTR trafficking, stability, and gating at the cell surface. Due to the multiple roles of PKA phosphorylation, there is growing interest in targeting PKA-dependent signaling for rescuing the trafficking and functional defects of F508del-CFTR. This review will discuss the effects of PKA phosphorylation on wild-type CFTR, the consequences of CF mutations on PKA phosphorylation, and the development of therapies that target PKA-mediated signaling.

  10. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  11. International Fund of Aral Sea rescue:prospects and new aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslov, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter of book author suggest about aims and prospects of International Fund of Aral Sea rescue. The base aim of International Fund of Aral Sea rescue was the funds attraction of Central Asia governments and international community-donors for financing of Program of Aral Sea basin. Now the Executive Committee of International Fund of Aral Sea rescue develops the program of basin of Aral Sea for the period till 2010

  12. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  13. Adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil

    2017-01-31

    The present invention provides an adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle having at least one adsorbent functional group bound thereto. The adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle also includes at least one catalytic material. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles. In some examples, the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles can be used to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks for biodiesel, and to hydrotreat the separated fatty acids.

  14. A Review of Mine Rescue Ensembles for Underground Coal Mining in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, F Selcen; Monaghan, William D; Powell, Jeffrey B

    The mining industry is among the top ten industries nationwide with high occupational injury and fatality rates, and mine rescue response may be considered one of the most hazardous activities in mining operations. In the aftermath of an underground mine fire, explosion or water inundation, specially equipped and trained teams have been sent underground to fight fires, rescue entrapped miners, test atmospheric conditions, investigate the causes of the disaster, or recover the dead. Special personal protective ensembles are used by the team members to improve the protection of rescuers against the hazards of mine rescue and recovery. Personal protective ensembles used by mine rescue teams consist of helmet, cap lamp, hood, gloves, protective clothing, boots, kneepads, facemask, breathing apparatus, belt, and suspenders. While improved technology such as wireless warning and communication systems, lifeline pulleys, and lighted vests have been developed for mine rescuers over the last 100 years, recent research in this area of personal protective ensembles has been minimal due to the trending of reduced exposure of rescue workers. In recent years, the exposure of mine rescue teams to hazardous situations has been changing. However, it is vital that members of the teams have the capability and proper protection to immediately respond to a wide range of hazardous situations. Currently, there are no minimum requirements, best practice documents, or nationally recognized consensus standards for protective clothing used by mine rescue teams in the United States (U.S.). The following review provides a summary of potential issues that can be addressed by rescue teams and industry to improve potential exposures to rescue team members should a disaster situation occur. However, the continued trending in the mining industry toward non-exposure to potential hazards for rescue workers should continue to be the primary goal. To assist in continuing this trend, the mining industry

  15. Non-catalytic direct synthesis of graphene on Si (111) wafers by using inductively-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Won; Shin, Hyunho; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2016-08-01

    We employ inductively-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition for non-catalytic growth of graphene on a Si (111) wafer or glass substrate, which is useful for practical device applications of graphene without transfer processes. At a RF power (P) of 500 W under C2H2 flow, defect-free 3 ˜ 5-layer graphene is grown on Si (111) wafers, but on glass substrate, the layer is thicker and defective, as characterized by Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The graphene is produced on Si (111) for P down to 190 W whereas it is almost not formed on glass for P < 250 W, possibly resulting from the weak catalytic-reaction-like effect on glass. These results are discussed based on possible growth mechanisms.

  16. GIS plays key role in NYC Rescue and Relief Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    New York City, Sept. 17—The posters of missing loved ones are pasted onto New York City walls and street signs six days after 2 hijacked commercial airlines destroyed the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan on September 11. Several miles uptown from “ground zero,” heightened security hovers around the city's Office of Emergency Management rescue and relief command center, an around-the-clock operation. Police, firefighters, military, officials with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, communications technicians, and a beehive of others work in controlled chaos in this cavernous, convention center-sized hall, lined with computers and adorned with several American flags.After the original command center at 7 World Trade Center collapsed to rubble as an after-effect of the plane strikes, city officials scrambled to recreate it. Alan Leidner, director of New York's citywide geographic information systems (GIS), and who is with the Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, knew that maps would be an integral component of the rescue and relief efforts. Maps provide emergency workers and others with accurate and detailed scientific data in the form of visual aids upon which they can make informed decisions.

  17. Influencing factors of embryo rescue in seedless grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.; Chen, W.; Liu, Z.; Li, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of inoculating stage, medium type and concentration of plant growth regulators on embryo rescue effectiveness by L25(5)6 orthogonal design using selfed ovules of Venus Seedless as the testing material. The main results were as follows. The most important factor influencing ovule germination was inoculating stage. Ovule germinating rate gradually increased as inoculating being postponed. The highest germinating rate appeared when inoculation was done 55d after flowering. Other influencing factors were IBA concentration, exogenous amino acid, 6-BA concentration, GA3 concentration and medium type in descending order. The best embryo rescue result was based on Nitsch medium including 1.0 mg/L IBA, 0.1 mg/L GA3, 0.7 mg /L 6-BA and 2.0 mmol/L glutamine using ovules inoculated 55d after flowering. The highest germinating rate reached 41.25%, and a batch of seedlings was also obtained. (author)

  18. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli, Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  19. Biparental chloroplast inheritance leads to rescue from cytonuclear incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Kubow, Karen B; McCoy, Morgan A; Galloway, Laura F

    2017-02-01

    Although organelle inheritance is predominantly maternal across animals and plants, biparental chloroplast inheritance has arisen multiple times in the angiosperms. Biparental inheritance has the potential to impact the evolutionary dynamics of cytonuclear incompatibility, interactions between nuclear and organelle genomes that are proposed to be among the earliest types of genetic incompatibility to arise in speciation. We examine the interplay between biparental inheritance and cytonuclear incompatibility in Campanulastrum americanum, a plant species exhibiting both traits. We first determine patterns of chloroplast inheritance in genetically similar and divergent crosses, and then associate inheritance with hybrid survival across multiple generations. There is substantial biparental inheritance in C. americanum. The frequency of biparental inheritance is greater in divergent crosses and in the presence of cytonuclear incompatibility. Biparental inheritance helps to mitigate cytonuclear incompatibility, leading to increased fitness of F 1 hybrids and recovery in the F 2 generation. This study demonstrates the potential for biparental chloroplast inheritance to rescue cytonuclear compatibility, reducing cytonuclear incompatibility's contribution to reproductive isolation and potentially slowing speciation. The efficacy of rescue depended upon the strength of incompatibility, with a greater persistence of weak incompatibilities in later generations. These findings suggest that incompatible plastids may lead to selection for biparental inheritance. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Space rescue system definition (system performance analysis and trades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housten, Sam; Elsner, Tim; Redler, Ken; Svendsen, Hal; Wenzel, Sheri

    This paper addresses key technical issues involved in the system definition of the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV). The perspective on these issues is that of a prospective ACRV contractor, performing system analysis and trade studies. The objective of these analyses and trade studies is to develop the recovery vehicle system concept and top level requirements. The starting point for this work is the definition of the set of design missions for the ACRV. This set of missions encompasses three classes of contingency/emergency (crew illness/injury, space station catastrophe/failure, transportation element catastrophe/failure). The need is to provide a system to return Space Station crew to Earth quickly (less than 24 hours) in response to randomly occurring contingency events over an extended period of time (30 years of planned Space Station life). The main topics addressed and characterized in this paper include the following: Key Recovery (Rescue) Site Access Considerations; Rescue Site Locations and Distribution; Vehicle Cross Range vs Site Access; On-orbit Loiter Capability and Vehicle Design; and Water vs. Land Recovery.

  1. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  2. Biobotic insect swarm based sensor networks for search and rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Alper; Lobaton, Edgar; Sichitiu, Mihail; Hedrick, Tyson; Latif, Tahmid; Dirafzoon, Alireza; Whitmire, Eric; Verderber, Alexander; Marin, Juan; Xiong, Hong

    2014-06-01

    The potential benefits of distributed robotics systems in applications requiring situational awareness, such as search-and-rescue in emergency situations, are indisputable. The efficiency of such systems requires robotic agents capable of coping with uncertain and dynamic environmental conditions. For example, after an earthquake, a tremendous effort is spent for days to reach to surviving victims where robotic swarms or other distributed robotic systems might play a great role in achieving this faster. However, current technology falls short of offering centimeter scale mobile agents that can function effectively under such conditions. Insects, the inspiration of many robotic swarms, exhibit an unmatched ability to navigate through such environments while successfully maintaining control and stability. We have benefitted from recent developments in neural engineering and neuromuscular stimulation research to fuse the locomotory advantages of insects with the latest developments in wireless networking technologies to enable biobotic insect agents to function as search-and-rescue agents. Our research efforts towards this goal include development of biobot electronic backpack technologies, establishment of biobot tracking testbeds to evaluate locomotion control efficiency, investigation of biobotic control strategies with Gromphadorhina portentosa cockroaches and Manduca sexta moths, establishment of a localization and communication infrastructure, modeling and controlling collective motion by learning deterministic and stochastic motion models, topological motion modeling based on these models, and the development of a swarm robotic platform to be used as a testbed for our algorithms.

  3. The secret life of kinases: insights into non-catalytic signalling functions from pseudokinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Annette V; Murphy, James M

    2017-06-15

    Over the past decade, our understanding of the mechanisms by which pseudokinases, which comprise ∼10% of the human and mouse kinomes, mediate signal transduction has advanced rapidly with increasing structural, biochemical, cellular and genetic studies. Pseudokinases are the catalytically defective counterparts of conventional, active protein kinases and have been attributed functions as protein interaction domains acting variously as allosteric modulators of conventional protein kinases and other enzymes, as regulators of protein trafficking or localisation, as hubs to nucleate assembly of signalling complexes, and as transmembrane effectors of such functions. Here, by categorising mammalian pseudokinases based on their known functions, we illustrate the mechanistic diversity among these proteins, which can be viewed as a window into understanding the non-catalytic functions that can be exerted by conventional protein kinases. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Catalytic properties and radiothermoluminescence of calcium molybdate with MoO3 additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, B.I.; Shkuratova, L.N.; Maksimov, Yu.V.; Gustov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Radiothermoluminescence (RTL) technique was used to examine the surface properties of calcium-molybdenum catalysts. Excess MoO 3 was added to stoichiometric calcium molybdate via impregnation of the latter by ammonium heptamolybdate and subsequent drying and calcination. Catalytic properties in methanol oxidation were determined by a flow-circulation technique at 623 K in the kinetic region. The samples were irradiated by a 57 Co source (1-2 Mrad) at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. RTL curves were recorded at temperatures varying within 100-260 K. The addition of excess MoO 3 to calcium molybdate leads to significant changes in catalytic properties and RTL, thus indicating either the healing of the surface defects of matrices or the formation of solid solutions. (Sz.J.)

  5. Defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Ibrahim Ahmad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2008-08-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 kWatt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with ThermofitTMPro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔΤ m ax and the time of its appearance, τ m ax (ΔΤ). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔΤ m ax), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defects are at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (Author)

  6. Dipole defects in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R

    2010-01-01

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  7. Mountain Search and Rescue with Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvagni, Mario; Tonoli, Andrea; Zenerino, Enrico; Chiaberge, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) also known as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are nowadays becoming more and more popular in several applications. Even though a complete regulation is not yet available all over the world, researches, tests and some real case applications are wide spreading. These technologies can bring many benefits also to the mountain operations especially in emergencies and harsh environmental conditions, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) and avalanche rescue missions. In fact, during last decade, the number of people practicing winter sports in backcountry environment is increased and one of the greatest hazards for recreationists and professionals are avalanches. Often these accidents have severe consequences leading, mostly, to asphyxia-related death, which is confirmed by the hard drop of survival probability after ten minutes from the burying. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the time of burial. Modern avalanche beacon (ARTVA) interface guides the rescuer during the search phase reducing its time. Even if modern avalanche beacons are valid and reliable, the seeking range influences the rescue time. Furthermore, the environment and morphologic conditions of avalanches usually complicates the rescues. The recursive methodology of this kind of searching offers the opportunity to use automatic device like drones (RPAS). These systems allow performing all the required tasks autonomously, with high accuracy and without exposing the rescuers to additional risks due to secondary avalanches. The availability of highly integrated electronics and subsystems specifically meant for the applications, better batteries, miniaturized payload and, in general, affordable prices, has led to the availability of small RPAS with very good performances that can give interesting application opportunities in unconventional environments. The present work is one of the outcome from the experience made by the authors in RPAS fields and in Mechatronics

  8. Contributions to the theory of catalytic titrations-III Neutralization catalytic titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, F F; Abramović, B F

    1985-07-01

    Neutralization catalytic titrations of weak monoprotic adds and bases with both volumetric and coulometric addition of the titrant (strong base/acid) have been simulated by taking into account the equilibrium concentration of the catalyst during the titration. The influence of several factors on the shape of the simulated catalytic titration curve has been investigated and is discussed.

  9. Atomically Precise Metal Nanoclusters for Catalytic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Rongchao [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    The central goal of this project is to explore the catalytic application of atomically precise gold nanoclusters. By solving the total structures of ligand-protected nanoclusters, we aim to correlate the catalytic properties of metal nanoclusters with their atomic/electronic structures. Such correlation unravel some fundamental aspects of nanocatalysis, such as the nature of particle size effect, origin of catalytic selectivity, particle-support interactions, the identification of catalytically active centers, etc. The well-defined nanocluster catalysts mediate the knowledge gap between single crystal model catalysts and real-world conventional nanocatalysts. These nanoclusters also hold great promise in catalyzing certain types of reactions with extraordinarily high selectivity. These aims are in line with the overall goals of the catalytic science and technology of DOE and advance the BES mission “to support fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the level of electrons, atoms, and molecules”. Our group has successfully prepared different sized, robust gold nanoclusters protected by thiolates, such as Au25(SR)18, Au28(SR)20, Au38(SR)24, Au99(SR)42, Au144(SR)60, etc. Some of these nanoclusters have been crystallographically characterized through X-ray crystallography. These ultrasmall nanoclusters (< 2 nm diameter) exhibit discrete electronic structures due to quantum size effect, as opposed to quasicontinuous band structure of conventional metal nanoparticles or bulk metals. The available atomic structures (metal core plus surface ligands) of nanoclusters serve as the basis for structure-property correlations. We have investigated the unique catalytic properties of nanoclusters (i.e. not observed in conventional nanogold catalysts) and revealed the structure-selectivity relationships. Highlights of our

  10. Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Liang, Yunchang; Schneider, Oliver; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2017-09-01

    The activity of heterogeneous catalysts—which are involved in some 80 per cent of processes in the chemical and energy industries—is determined by the electronic structure of specific surface sites that offer optimal binding of reaction intermediates. Directly identifying and monitoring these sites during a reaction should therefore provide insight that might aid the targeted development of heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts (those that participate in electrochemical reactions) for practical applications. The invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the electrochemical STM promised to deliver such imaging capabilities, and both have indeed contributed greatly to our atomistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. But although the STM has been used to probe and initiate surface reactions, and has even enabled local measurements of reactivity in some systems, it is not generally thought to be suited to the direct identification of catalytically active surface sites under reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate, however, that common STMs can readily map the catalytic activity of surfaces with high spatial resolution: we show that by monitoring relative changes in the tunnelling current noise, active sites can be distinguished in an almost quantitative fashion according to their ability to catalyse the hydrogen-evolution reaction or the oxygen-reduction reaction. These data allow us to evaluate directly the importance and relative contribution to overall catalyst activity of different defects and sites at the boundaries between two materials. With its ability to deliver such information and its ready applicability to different systems, we anticipate that our method will aid the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  11. Computer simulation of defect cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-04-01

    In order to elucidate individual element process of various defects and defect clusters of used materials under irradiation environments, interatomic potential with reliability was investigated. And for comparison with experimental results, it is often required to adopt the temperature effect and to investigate in details mechanism of one dimensional motion of micro conversion loop and so forth using the molecular dynamic (MD) method. Furthermore, temperature effect is also supposed for stable structure of defects and defect clusters, and many problems relating to alloy element are also remained. And, simulation on photon life at the defects and defect clusters thought to be important under comparison with equipment can also be supposed an improvement of effectiveness due to relation to theses products. In this paper, some topics in such flow was extracted to explain them. In particular, future important problems will be potential preparation of alloy, structure, dynamic behavior and limited temperature of intralattice atomic cluster. (G.K.)

  12. Rescue of defective ATP8B1 trafficking by CFTR correctors as a therapeutic strategy for familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woerd, Wendy L.; Wichers, Catharina G. K.; Vestergaard, Anna L.; Andersen, Jens Peter; Paulusma, Coen C.; Houwen, Roderick H. J.; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.

    Background & Aims ATP8B1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive liver disease characterized by intrahepatic cholestasis. ATP8B1 mutation p.I661T, the most frequent mutation in European patients, results in protein misfolding and impaired targeting to the plasma membrane. Similarly, mutations in cystic

  13. Rescue of defective ATP8B1 trafficking by CFTR correctors as a therapeutic strategy for familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woerd, Wendy L.; Wichers, Catharina G. K.; Vestergaard, Anna L.; Andersen, Jens Peter; Paulusma, Coen C.; Houwen, Roderick H. J.; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.

    2016-01-01

    ATP8B1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive liver disease characterized by intrahepatic cholestasis. ATP8B1 mutation p.I661T, the most frequent mutation in European patients, results in protein misfolding and impaired targeting to the plasma membrane. Similarly, mutations in cystic fibrosis

  14. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs

  15. Defects in new protective aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, S.; LeBlanc, A.D.; Bushong, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Upon careful examination, several defects have been detected in new protective aprons. The nature of the defects is identified and described. Although the occurrence of such defects has not exceeded 5%, they are significant enough to warrant return of the lead apron to the supplier. It is recommended that the integrity of all new protective aprons be verified upon receipt as well as at yearly intervals

  16. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings

  17. Metastable gravity on classical defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeval, Christophe; Rombouts, Jan-Willem

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the realization of metastable gravity on classical defects in infinite-volume extra dimensions. In dilatonic Einstein gravity, it is found that the existence of metastable gravity on the defect core requires violation of the dominant energy condition for codimension N c =2 defects. This is illustrated with a detailed analysis of a six-dimensional hyperstring minimally coupled to dilaton gravity. We present the general conditions under which a codimension N c >2 defect admits metastable modes, and find that they differ from lower codimensional models in that, under certain conditions, they do not require violation of energy conditions to support quasilocalized gravity

  18. Defect Characterization of Pyroelectric Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeble, David

    2002-01-01

    Two methods for identify point defects applicable to the study of technologically relevant pyroelectric oxide materials have been investigated, namely Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS...

  19. Who named the quantum defect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.R.P.; Inokuti, M.

    1997-01-01

    The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term quantum defect does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schroedinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. The authors present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments

  20. Fibrous metaphyseal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, P.C.; Ritschi, P.; Kramer, J.; Imhof, H.; Karnel, F.

    1988-01-01

    Eighty-two patients (107 fibrous metaphyseal defects [FMDs]) were investigated with standard radiography and MR imaging (N = 15). Twenty-two of these were followed up sequentially up to 10 years (mean, 7.3 years). Histologic studies proved that FMDs originate at the site of insertion of a tendon in the perichondrium of the epiphyseal cartilage. After normal bone growth is regained, all FMDs were found to move diaphysically, following a straight line parallel to the long axis of the FMDs. This line pointed to the insertion of the tendon originally involved, a fact that was proved with MR imaging. Four characteristic stages were found to define a typical radiomorphologic course of an FMD

  1. Noonan syndrome gain-of-function mutations in NRAS cause zebrafish gastrulation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Runtuwene

    2011-05-01

    Noonan syndrome is a relatively common developmental disorder that is characterized by reduced growth, wide-set eyes and congenital heart defects. Noonan syndrome is associated with dysregulation of the Ras–mitogen-activated-protein-kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Recently, two mutations in NRAS were reported to be associated with Noonan syndrome, T50I and G60E. Here, we report a mutation in NRAS, resulting in an I24N amino acid substitution, that we identified in an individual bearing typical Noonan syndrome features. The I24N mutation activates N-Ras, resulting in enhanced downstream signaling. Expression of N-Ras-I24N, N-Ras-G60E or the strongly activating mutant N-Ras-G12V, which we included as a positive control, results in developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, demonstrating that these activating N-Ras mutants are sufficient to induce developmental disorders. The defects in zebrafish embryos are reminiscent of symptoms in individuals with Noonan syndrome and phenocopy the defects that other Noonan-syndrome-associated genes induce in zebrafish embryos. MEK inhibition completely rescued the activated N-Ras-induced phenotypes, demonstrating that these defects are mediated exclusively by Ras-MAPK signaling. In conclusion, mutations in NRAS from individuals with Noonan syndrome activated N-Ras signaling and induced developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, indicating that activating mutations in NRAS cause Noonan syndrome.

  2. Noonan syndrome gain-of-function mutations in NRAS cause zebrafish gastrulation defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtuwene, Vincent; van Eekelen, Mark; Overvoorde, John; Rehmann, Holger; Yntema, Helger G.; Nillesen, Willy M.; van Haeringen, Arie; van der Burgt, Ineke; Burgering, Boudewijn; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Noonan syndrome is a relatively common developmental disorder that is characterized by reduced growth, wide-set eyes and congenital heart defects. Noonan syndrome is associated with dysregulation of the Ras–mitogen-activated-protein-kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Recently, two mutations in NRAS were reported to be associated with Noonan syndrome, T50I and G60E. Here, we report a mutation in NRAS, resulting in an I24N amino acid substitution, that we identified in an individual bearing typical Noonan syndrome features. The I24N mutation activates N-Ras, resulting in enhanced downstream signaling. Expression of N-Ras-I24N, N-Ras-G60E or the strongly activating mutant N-Ras-G12V, which we included as a positive control, results in developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, demonstrating that these activating N-Ras mutants are sufficient to induce developmental disorders. The defects in zebrafish embryos are reminiscent of symptoms in individuals with Noonan syndrome and phenocopy the defects that other Noonan-syndrome-associated genes induce in zebrafish embryos. MEK inhibition completely rescued the activated N-Ras-induced phenotypes, demonstrating that these defects are mediated exclusively by Ras-MAPK signaling. In conclusion, mutations in NRAS from individuals with Noonan syndrome activated N-Ras signaling and induced developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, indicating that activating mutations in NRAS cause Noonan syndrome. PMID:21263000

  3. First principles density functional theory study of Pb doped α-MnO2 catalytic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zilin; Yan, Zhiguo; Yang, Xiaojun; Bai, Hang; Duan, Yuhua; Yang, Bin; Leng, Li

    2018-03-01

    The impact of Pb in the tunnels of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves on chemical state of Mn species and lattice oxygen were investigated utilizing density functional theory calculations. The results show that the Pb dopant in the tunnels of OMS-2 could reduce the average valence states of Mn. The lower energy required for bulk oxygen defects formation in Pb-OMS-2 validates the activation of lattice oxygen by inclusion of tunnel dopant. The inclusion of Pb promotes the catalytic oxidation activity of OMS-2 by reducing the energy required for the surface lattice oxygen migration during the Mars - van Krevelen oxidation process.

  4. Dense inorganic membranes - studies on transport properties, defect chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen separation with dense oxide membranes may be an attractive method for the production of oxygen from air. Another possible application is the direct supply of oxygen in membrane reactors for the (partial) oxidation of hydrocarbons. The driving force for oxygen permeation through dense mixed

  5. Reactivity of organic compounds in catalytic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minachev, Kh M; Bragin, O V

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive review of 1976 Soviet research on catalysis delivered to the 1977 annual session of the USSR Academy of Science Council on Catalysis (Baku 6/16-20/77) covers hydrocarbon reactions, including hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis, dehydrogenation, olefin dimerization and disproportionation, and cyclization and dehydrocyclization (e.g., piperylene cyclization and ethylene cyclotrimerization); catalytic and physicochemical properties of zeolites, including cracking, dehydrogenation, and hydroisomerization catalytic syntheses and conversion of heterocyclic and functional hydrocarbon derivatives, including partial and total oxidation (e.g., of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride); syntheses of thiophenes from alkanes and hydrogen sulfide over certain dehydrogenation catalysts; catalytic syntheses involving carbon oxides ( e.g., the development of a new heterogeneous catalyst for hydroformylation of olefins), and of Co-MgO zeolitic catalysts for synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and fabrication of high-viscosity lubricating oils over bifunctional aluminosilicate catalysts.

  6. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  7. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    -ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation......Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X...

  8. Modeling and simulation of heterogeneous catalytic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis and mathematical modeling are essential components of the continuing search for better utilization of raw materials and energy, with reduced impact on the environment. Numerical modeling of chemical systems has progressed rapidly due to increases in computer power, and is used extensively for analysis, design and development of catalytic reactors and processes. This book presents reviews of the state-of-the-art in modeling of heterogeneous catalytic reactors and processes. Reviews by leading authorities in the respective areas Up-to-date reviews of latest techniques in modeling of catalytic processes Mix of US and European authors, as well as academic/industrial/research institute perspectives Connections between computation and experimental methods in some of the chapters.

  9. Human Detection and Classification of Landing Sites for Search and Rescue Drones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Martins, Felipe; de Groot, Marc; Stokkel, Xeryus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Search and rescue is often time and labour intensive. We present a system to be used in drones to make search and rescue operations more effective. The system uses a drone downward facing camera to detect people and to evaluate potential sites as being safe or not for the drone to land. Histogram of

  10. 46 CFR 199.220 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements... APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.220 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (a) Survival craft...

  11. 50 CFR 23.79 - How may I participate in the Plant Rescue Center Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How may I participate in the Plant Rescue Center Program? 23.79 Section 23.79 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... may I participate in the Plant Rescue Center Program? (a) Purpose. We have established the Plant...

  12. Business rescue: How can its success be evaluated at company level?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of what constitutes a successful business rescue is a very topical and unanswered one. Reports on success are contradictory and seem to lack a set of standardised evaluation criteria. The purpose of this article is to investigate how business rescue success is evaluated internationally in order to develop a set ...

  13. Constraints on decision making regarding post-commencement finance in Business rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction, business rescue has become a critical consideration in business strategy decision making. One of the critical components of business rescue, which appears largely unsuccessful to date, involves securing post-commencement finance (PCF to restore the company’s financial health. Despite extensive theory in the literature on failure, there is a void regarding post-commencement finance. Specialist practitioners and financiers with extensive experience in rescue and turnaround were interviewed in this study. Findings showed that many critical factors and reasons for lack of interest are due to the newness of the South African Companies Act 71 of 2008 (introduced May 2011. These include business rescue filing being left too late; the poor financial state of the business that files for rescue; and the significant impact on the outcome by some of the key players (especially the financiers and business rescue practitioners. Better understanding of this aspect would be beneficial for creditors, rescue practitioners, shareholders, government regulators, court officials and educators alike. Key words: business rescue, post-commencement finance, turnaround, decision making

  14. 46 CFR 108.575 - Survival craft and rescue boat equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fishing kit 1 1 12 Flashlight 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 Hatchet 2 2 14 Heaving line 2 1 2 2 1 2 15 Instruction card 1... rigid/inflated rescue boats. 4 A hatchet counts toward this requirement in rigid rescue boats. 5 Oars...

  15. Ontological Reasoning for Human-Robot Teaming in Search and Rescue Missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagosi, T.; Hindriks, k.V.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In search and rescue missions robots are used to help rescue workers in exploring the disaster site. Our research focuses on how multiple robots and rescuers act as a team, and build up situation awareness. We propose a multi-agent system where each agent supports one member, either human or robot.

  16. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An index is required by paragraph (c) of this section for each certificate holder. The Index is determined...

  17. Mid-Term report 'Establishing bonds for the advancement of the Rescue League'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riaño, I.; Visser, A.

    2014-01-01

    The RoboCup Rescue Simulation League aims to benchmark the intelligence of software agents and robots on their capabilities to make autonomously the right decisions in a disaster response scenario. The UvA Rescue and Distribot team have come together to work co-operatively to support this aim in two

  18. Final report 'Establishing bonds for the advancement of the Rescue League'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riaño, I.; Visser, A.

    2014-01-01

    The RoboCup Rescue Simulation League aims to benchmark the intelligence of software agents and robots on their capabilities to make autonomously the right decisions in a disaster response scenario. The UvA Rescue and Distribot team have come together to work co-operatively to support this aim in two

  19. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle.

  20. Financing Corporate Rescues, Where Does the UK Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpareva Aruoriwo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Akpareva Aruoriwo aims to evaluate the adequacy of the framework available for the financing of corporate rescues in the UK. She examines the legal provision made for prioritising creditors who get involved after an insolvency has been declared, with reference to examples from America and Canada. Without post-insolvency funding, companies may find it very difficult to survive, and without protection for post-insolvency creditors, those creditors may not wish to provide this sort of funding. The author examines the arguments for and against this kind of creditor protection, looking at past calls for reforms to the law and the preparedness of the UK to adopt any reforms.

  1. Test Report : GS Battery, EPC power HES RESCU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  2. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions

  3. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle. PMID:26039160

  4. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.

  5. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  6. Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of Biaryl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gaoyuan; Sibi, Mukund P

    2015-08-10

    Biaryl compounds with axial chirality are very common in synthetic chemistry, especially in catalysis. Axially chiral biaryls are important due to their biological activities and extensive applications in asymmetric catalysis. Thus the development of efficient enantioselective methods for their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. This Minireview discusses the progress made in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl compounds and chronicles significant advances made recently in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl scaffolds. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  8. Janus droplet as a catalytic micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, Sergey

    2015-06-01

    Self-propulsion of a Janus droplet in a solution of surfactant, which reacts on a half of a drop surface, is studied theoretically. The droplet acts as a catalytic motor creating a concentration gradient, which generates its surface-tension-driven motion; the self-propulsion speed is rather high, 60 μ \\text{m/s} and more. This catalytic motor has several advantages over other micromotors: simple manufacturing, easily attained neutral buoyancy. In contrast to a single-fluid droplet, which demonstrates a self-propulsion as a result of symmetry breaking instability, for the Janus one no stability threshold exists; hence, the droplet radius can be scaled down to micrometers.

  9. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  10. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  11. Using electron beams to investigate catalytic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bingsen; Su, Dang Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM) enables us, not only to reveal the morphology, but also to provide structural, chemical and electronic information about solid catalysts at the atomic level, providing a dramatic driving force for the development of heterogeneous catalysis. Almost all catalytic materials have been studied with TEM in order to obtain information about their structures, which can help us to establish the synthesis-structure-property relationships and to design catalysts with new structures and desired properties. Herein, several examples will be reviewed to illustrate the investigation of catalytic materials by using electron beams. (authors)

  12. Mouse oocytes nucleoli rescue embryonic development of porcine enucleolated oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovic, Martin; Strejcek, Frantisek; Nakagawa, Shoma; Deshmukh, Rahul S; Murin, Matej; Benc, Michal; Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Pendovski, Lazo; Fulka, Josef; Laurincik, Jozef

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that nucleoli of fully grown mammalian oocytes are indispensable for embryonic development. Therefore, the embryos originated from previously enucleolated (ENL) oocytes undergo only one or two cleavages and then their development ceases. In our study the interspecies (mouse/pig) nucleolus transferred embryos (NuTE) were produced and their embryonic development was analyzed by autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (C23 and upstream binding factor (UBF)). Our results show that the re-injection of isolated oocyte nucleoli, either from the pig (P + P) or mouse (P + M), into previously enucleolated and subsequently matured porcine oocytes rescues their development after parthenogenetic activation and some of these develop up to the blastocyst stage (P + P, 11.8%; P + M, 13.5%). In nucleolus re-injected 8-cell and blastocyst stage embryos the number of nucleoli labeled with C23 in P + P and P + M groups was lower than in control (non-manipulated) group. UBF was localized in small foci within the nucleoli of blastocysts in control and P + P embryos, however, in P + M embryos the labeling was evenly distributed in the nucleoplasm. The TEM and autoradiographic evaluations showed the formation of functional nucleoli and de novo rRNA synthesis at the 8-cell stage in both, control and P + P group. In the P + M group the formation of comparable nucleoli was delayed. In conclusion, our results indicate that the mouse nucleolus can rescue embryonic development of enucleolated porcine oocytes, but the localization of selected nucleolar proteins, the timing of transcription activation and the formation of the functional nucleoli in NuTE compared with control group show evident aberrations.

  13. Thermodynamic Data Rescue and Informatics for Deep Carbon Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.; Ma, X.; Prabhu, A.; Eleish, A.; Pan, F.; Parsons, M. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Erickson, J. S.; Chen, Y.; Wang, H.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    A large number of legacy datasets are contained in geoscience literature published between 1930 and 1980 and not expressed external to the publication text in digitized formats. Extracting, organizing, and reusing these "dark" datasets is highly valuable for many within the Earth and planetary science community. As a part of the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) data legacy missions, the DCO Data Science Team and Extreme Physics and Chemistry community identified thermodynamic datasets related to carbon, or more specifically datasets about the enthalpy and entropy of chemicals, as a proof of principle analysis. The data science team endeavored to develop a semi-automatic workflow, which includes identifying relevant publications, extracting contained datasets using OCR methods, collaborative reviewing, and registering the datasets via the DCO Data Portal where the 'Linked Data' feature of the data portal provides a mechanism for connecting rescued datasets beyond their individual data sources, to research domains, DCO Communities, and more, making data discovery and retrieval more effective.To date, the team has successfully rescued, deposited and registered additional datasets from publications with thermodynamic sources. These datasets contain 3 main types of data: (1) heat content or enthalpy data determined for a given compound as a function of temperature using high-temperature calorimetry, (2) heat content or enthalpy data determined for a given compound as a function of temperature using adiabatic calorimetry, and (3) direct determination of heat capacity of a compound as a function of temperature using differential scanning calorimetry. The data science team integrated these datasets and delivered a spectrum of data analytics including visualizations, which will lead to a comprehensive characterization of the thermodynamics of carbon and carbon-related materials.

  14. A human DAZ transgene confers partial rescue of the mouse Dazl null phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, R.; Grimes, B.; Speed, R. M.; Taggart, M.; Maguire, S. M.; Ross, A.; McGill, N. I.; Saunders, P. T. K.; Cooke, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    In a subset of infertile men, a spectrum of spermatogenic defects ranging from a complete absence of germ cells (sertoli cell only) to oligozoospermia is associated with microdeletions of the DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) gene cluster on human distal Yq. DAZ encodes a testis-specific protein with RNA-binding potential recently derived from a single-copy gene DAZL1 (DAZ-like) on chromosome 3. Y chromosomal DAZ homologues are confined to humans and higher primates. It remains unclear which function unique to higher primate spermatogenesis DAZ may serve, and the functional status of the gene recently has been questioned. To assess the extent of functional conservation we have tested the capacity of a human DAZ gene contained in a 225-kb yeast artificial chromosome to complement the sterile phenotype of the Dazl null mouse (Dazl−/−), which is characterized by severe germ-cell depletion and meiotic failure. Although Dazl−/− mice remained infertile when the DAZ transgene was introduced, histological examination revealed a partial and variable rescue of the mutant phenotype, manifest as a pronounced increase in the germ cell population of the seminiferous tubules and survival to the pachytene stage of meiosis. As well as constituting definitive proof of the spermatogenic role of the DAZ gene product, these findings confirm the high degree of functional conservation between the DAZ and DAZL1 genes, suggesting they may constitute a single target for contraceptive intervention and raising the possibility of therapeutic up-regulation of the DAZL1 gene in infertile men. PMID:10393944

  15. Pentamidine rescues contractility and rhythmicity in a Drosophila model of myotonic dystrophy heart dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouli Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to 80% of individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 will develop cardiac abnormalities at some point during the progression of their disease, the most common of which is heart blockage of varying degrees. Such blockage is characterized by conduction defects and supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia, and carries a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Despite its importance, very few animal model studies have focused on the heart dysfunction in DM1. Here, we describe the characterization of the heart phenotype in a Drosophila model expressing pure expanded CUG repeats under the control of the cardiomyocyte-specific driver GMH5-Gal4. Morphologically, expression of 250 CUG repeats caused abnormalities in the parallel alignment of the spiral myofibrils in dissected fly hearts, as revealed by phalloidin staining. Moreover, combined immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization of Muscleblind and CUG repeats, respectively, confirmed detectable ribonuclear foci and Muscleblind sequestration, characteristic features of DM1, exclusively in flies expressing the expanded CTG repeats. Similarly to what has been reported in humans with DM1, heart-specific expression of toxic RNA resulted in reduced survival, increased arrhythmia, altered diastolic and systolic function, reduced heart tube diameters and reduced contractility in the model flies. As a proof of concept that the fly heart model can be used for in vivo testing of promising therapeutic compounds, we fed flies with pentamidine, a compound previously described to improve DM1 phenotypes. Pentamidine not only released Muscleblind from the CUG RNA repeats and reduced ribonuclear formation in the Drosophila heart, but also rescued heart arrhythmicity and contractility, and improved fly survival in animals expressing 250 CUG repeats.

  16. CO{sub 2} in underground openings and mine rescue training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, J. [Freiburg Univ. of Mining and Technology (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering and Special Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mine rescue training procedures related to dangerous gases in mines were discussed. Methods of detecting carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in abandoned opening and old adits were presented. High concentrations of CO{sub 2} combine with hemoglobin and lead to a lack of oxygen supply to the inner organs. Nitric acid forms in the alveoli and can lead to injuries or death after a period of 4 to 12 hours. Exposure to very high concentrations of CO{sub 2} can cause people to immediately lose consciousness. CO{sub 2} concentrations in the blood can change pH blood values. Members of mine rescue teams should be equipped with breathing equipment and be between 18 and 40 years old. Training rescue operations should be conducted 4 times per year. While larger mines have their own rescue teams, smaller mines must ensure that guest rescue teams are familiar with their mines. Various mine training activities were reviewed. 5 refs.

  17. Field studies of safety security rescue technologies through training and response activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robin R.; Stover, Sam

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the field-oriented philosophy of the Institute for Safety Security Rescue Technology (iSSRT) and summarizes the activities and lessons learned during calendar year 2005 of its two centers: the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue and the NSF Safety Security Rescue industry/university cooperative research center. In 2005, iSSRT participated in four responses (La Conchita, CA, Mudslides, Hurricane Dennis, Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Wilma) and conducted three field experiments (NJTF-1, Camp Hurricane, Richmond, MO). The lessons learned covered mobility, operator control units, wireless communications, and general reliability. The work has collectively identified six emerging issues for future work. Based on these studies, a 10-hour, 1 continuing education unit credit course on rescue robotics has been created and is available. Rescue robots and sensors are available for loan upon request.

  18. Structural/surface characterization and catalytic evaluation of rare-earth (Y, Sm and La) doped ceria composite oxides for CH{sub 3}SH catalytic decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Dedong; Chen, Dingkai; Hao, Husheng; Yu, Jie; Liu, Jiangping; Lu, Jichang; Liu, Feng [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500 (China); Wan, Gengping [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500 (China); Research Center for Analysis and Measurement, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228 (China); He, Sufang [Research Center for Analysis and Measurement, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650093 (China); Luo, Yongming, E-mail: environcatalysis222@yahoo.com [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 0.75}RE{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ} (RE = Y, Sm and La) were synthesized by citrate complexation method. • Ce{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ} exhibited the best stability for the decomposition of CH{sub 3}SH. • Cation radius played a key role in determining structure and surface characteristics. • Catalytic behavior depended on synergistic role of oxygen vacancies and basic sites. • Ce{sub 2}S{sub 3} accumulation on the surface was responsible for the deactivation of catalyst. - Abstract: A series of rare earth (Y, Sm and La) doped ceria composite oxides and pure CeO{sub 2} were synthesized and evaluated by conducting CH{sub 3}SH catalytic decomposition test. Several characterization studies, including XRD, BET, Raman, H{sub 2}-TPR, XPS, FT-IR, CO{sub 2}-TPD and CH{sub 3}SH-TPD, were undertaken to correlate structural and surface properties of the obtained ceria-based catalysts with their catalytic performance for CH{sub 3}SH decomposition. More oxygen vacancies and increased basic sites exhibited in the rare earth doped ceria catalysts. Y doped ceria sample (Ce{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ}), with a moderate increase in basic sites, contained more oxygen vacancies. More structural defects and active sites could be provided, and a relatively small amount of sulfur would accumulate, which resulted in better catalytic performance. The developed catalyst presented good catalytic behavior with stability very similar to that of typical zeolite-based catalysts reported previously. However, La doped ceria catalyst (Ce{sub 0.75}La{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ}) with the highest alkalinity was not the most active one. More sulfur species would be adsorbed and a large amount of cerium sulfide species (Ce{sub 2}S{sub 3}) would accumulate, which caused deactivation of the catalysts. The combined effect of increased oxygen vacancies and alkalinity led to the catalytic stability of Ce{sub 0.75}Sm{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ} sample was comparable to that of pure Ce

  19. Functional Rescue of a Misfolded Drosophila melanogaster Dopamine Transporter Mutant Associated with a Sleepless Phenotype by Pharmacological Chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasture, Ameya; El-Kasaby, Ali; Szöllősi, Daniel; Asjad, H M Mazhar; Grimm, Alexandra; Stockner, Thomas; Hummel, Thomas; Freissmuth, Michael; Sucic, Sonja

    2016-09-30

    Folding-defective mutants of the human dopamine transporter (DAT) cause a syndrome of infantile dystonia/parkinsonism. Here, we provide a proof-of-principle that the folding deficit is amenable to correction in vivo by two means, the cognate DAT ligand noribogaine and the HSP70 inhibitor, pifithrin-μ. We examined the Drosophila melanogaster (d) mutant dDAT-G108Q, which leads to a sleepless phenotype in flies harboring this mutation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested an unstable structure of dDAT-G108Q consistent with a folding defect. This conjecture was verified; heterologously expressed dDAT-G108Q and the human (h) equivalent hDAT-G140Q were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum in a complex with endogenous folding sensors (calnexin and HSP70-1A). Incubation of the cells with noribogaine (a DAT ligand selective for the inward-facing state) and/or pifithrin-μ (an HSP70 inhibitor) restored folding of, and hence dopamine transport by, dDAT-G108Q and hDAT-G140Q. The mutated versions of DAT were confined to the cell bodies of the dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain and failed to reach the axonal compartments. Axonal delivery was restored, and sleep time was increased to normal length (from 300 to 1000 min/day) if the dDAT-G108Q-expressing flies were treated with noribogaine and/or pifithrin-μ. Rescuing misfolded versions of DAT by pharmacochaperoning is of therapeutic interest; it may provide opportunities to remedy disorders arising from folding-defective mutants of human DAT and of other related SLC6 transporters. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Lumber defect detection by ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonics, the technology of high-frequency sound, has been developed as a viable means for locating most defects In lumber for use in digital form in decision-making computers. Ultrasonics has the potential for locating surface and internal defects in lumber of all species, green or dry, and rough sawn or surfaced.

  1. Neutron diffraction and lattice defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    1974-01-01

    Study on lattice defects by neutron diffraction technique is described. Wave length of neutron wave is longer than that of X-ray, and absorption cross-section is small. Number of defects observed by ESR is up to several defects, and the number studied with electron microscopes is more than 100. Information obtained by neutron diffraction concerns the number of defects between these two ranges. For practical analysis, several probable models are selected from the data of ESR or electron microscopes, and most probable one is determined by calculation. Then, defect concentration is obtained from scattering cross section. It is possible to measure elastic scattering exclusively by neutron diffraction. Minimum detectable concentration estimated is about 0.5% and 10 20 - 10 21 defects per unit volume. A chopper and a time of flight system are used as a measuring system. Cold neutrons are obtained from the neutron sources inserted into reactors. Examples of measurements by using similar equipments to PTNS-I system of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. Interstitial concentration in the graphite irradiated by fast neutrons is shown. Defects in irradiated MgO were also investigated by measuring scattering cross section. Study of defects in Ge was made by measuring total cross section, and model analysis was performed in comparison with various models. (Kato, T.)

  2. Lectures on cosmic topological defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachaspati, T [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Colaba, Mumbai (India) and Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2001-11-15

    These lectures review certain topological defects and aspects of their cosmology. Unconventional material includes brief descriptions of electroweak defects, the structure of domain walls in non-Abelian theories, and the spectrum of magnetic monopoles in SU(5) Grand Unified theory. (author)

  3. Toward Intelligent Software Defect Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Markland J.

    2011-01-01

    Source code level software defect detection has gone from state of the art to a software engineering best practice. Automated code analysis tools streamline many of the aspects of formal code inspections but have the drawback of being difficult to construct and either prone to false positives or severely limited in the set of defects that can be detected. Machine learning technology provides the promise of learning software defects by example, easing construction of detectors and broadening the range of defects that can be found. Pinpointing software defects with the same level of granularity as prominent source code analysis tools distinguishes this research from past efforts, which focused on analyzing software engineering metrics data with granularity limited to that of a particular function rather than a line of code.

  4. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  5. Defect forces, defect couples and path integrals in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1979-07-01

    In this work, it is shown that the path integrals can be introduced without any reference to the material behavior. The method is based on the definition in a continuous medium of a set of vectors and couples having the dimension of a force or a moment. More precisely, definitions are given of volume defect forces, surface defect forces, volume defect couples, and surface defect couples. This is done with the help of the stress working variation of a particule moving through the solid. The most important result is: the resultant of all the defect forces included in a volume V is the J integral on the surface surrounding V and the moment resultant is the L integral. So these integrals are defined without any assumption on the material constitutive equation. Another result is the material form of the virtual work principle - defect forces are acting like conventional forces in the conventional principles of virtual work. This lead to the introduction of the energy momentum tensor and of the associated couple stress. Application of this method is made to fracture mechanics in studying the defect forces distribution around a crack [fr

  6. Defect assessment benchmark studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.; Sharples, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Assessments of the resistance to fast fracture of the beltline region of a PWR vessel subjected to a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transient have been carried out using the procedures of French (RCC-M) and German (KTA) design codes, and comparisons made with results obtained using the R6 procedure as applied for Sizewell B. The example chosen for these comparisons is of a generic nature, and is taken as the PTS identified by the Hirsch addendum to the Second Marshall report (1987) as the most severe transient with regard to vessel integrity. All assessment methods show the beltline region of the vessel to be safe from the risk of fast fracture, but by varying factors of safety. These factors are discussed in terms of margins between limiting and reference defect sizes, fracture toughness and stress intensity factor, and material temperature and temperature at the onset of upper-shelf materials behaviour. Based on these studies, consideration is given to issues involved in the harmonization of those sections of the design codes which are concerned with methods for the demonstration of the avoidance of the risk of failure by fast fracture. (author)

  7. Fluid catalytic cracking : Feedstocks and reaction mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupain, X.

    2006-01-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is one of the key units in a modern refinery. Traditionally, its design is primarily aimed for the production of gasoline from heavy oil fractions, but as co-products also diesel blends and valuable gasses (e.g. propene and butenes) are formed in

  8. Kinetic equation of heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trokhimets, A I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii

    1979-12-01

    A kinetic equation is derived for the bimolecular isotope exchange reaction between AXsub(n)sup(*) and BXsub(m)sup(o), all atoms of element X in each molecule being equivalent. The equation can be generalized for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange.

  9. Complementary structure sensitive and insensitive catalytic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, van R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The burgeoning field of nanoscience has stimulated an intense interest in properties that depend on particle size. For transition metal particles, one important property that depends on size is catalytic reactivity, in which bonds are broken or formed on the surface of the particles. Decreased

  10. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  11. Electrochemical Promotion of Catalytic Reactions Using

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bjerrum, Niels; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on electrochemical promotion (EP) of catalytic reactions using Pt/C/polybenzimidazole(H3PO4)/Pt/C fuel cell performed by the Energy and Materials Science Group (Technical University of Denmark) during the last 6 years[1-4]. The development of our...... understanding of the nature of the electrochemical promotion is also presented....

  12. Novel Metal Nanomaterials and Their Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the rapidly developing areas of nanotechnology, nano-scale materials as heterogeneous catalysts in the synthesis of organic molecules have gotten more and more attention. In this review, we will summarize the synthesis of several new types of noble metal nanostructures (FePt@Cu nanowires, Pt@Fe2O3 nanowires and bimetallic Pt@Ir nanocomplexes; Pt-Au heterostructures, Au-Pt bimetallic nanocomplexes and Pt/Pd bimetallic nanodendrites; Au nanowires, CuO@Ag nanowires and a series of Pd nanocatalysts and their new catalytic applications in our group, to establish heterogeneous catalytic system in “green” environments. Further study shows that these materials have a higher catalytic activity and selectivity than previously reported nanocrystal catalysts in organic reactions, or show a superior electro-catalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol. The whole process might have a great impact to resolve the energy crisis and the environmental crisis that were caused by traditional chemical engineering. Furthermore, we hope that this article will provide a reference point for the noble metal nanomaterials’ development that leads to new opportunities in nanocatalysis.

  13. Toward a catalytic site in DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Rohr, Katja; Vogel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    A number of functionalized polyaza crown ether building blocks have been incorporated into DNA-conjugates as catalytic Cu(2+) binding sites. The effect of the DNA-conjugate catalyst on the stereochemical outcome of a Cu(2+)-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction will be presented....

  14. CATALYTIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Mn(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    method is based on the catalytic effect of Mn(II) with the oxidation of Celestine blue .... water samples were filtered through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter to remove suspended .... slope of the calibration graph as the optimization criterion. ..... In presence of Phen as stability enhancement agent in indicator system. ( ) +.

  15. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the alkaloid (+)-myrtine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzuti, Maria Gabriefla; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    A new protocol for the asymmetric synthesis of trans-2,6-disubstituted-4-piperidones has been developed using a catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition reaction in combination with a diastereoselective lithiation-substitution sequence; an efficient synthesis of (+)-myrtine has been achieved

  16. Catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a precursor and characterized by chemical analysis using the ICP–AES method, XRD, TEM, FTIR and BET surface area determination. The oxidation reaction was carried out at 70°C under atmospheric pressure. The results showed the catalytic performance of Pt/Al2O3 as being very high in terms of turnover frequency.

  17. Catalytic site interactions in yeast OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Barr, Eric W.; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2014-01-01

    45 (2006) 5330-5342]. This behavior was investigated in the yeast enzyme by mutations in the conserved catalytic loop and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-diphosphate (PRPP) binding motif. Although the reaction is mechanistically sequential, the wild-type (WT) enzyme shows parallel lines in double reciprocal...

  18. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue

    2004-01-01

    technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate...

  19. Sintering of Catalytic Nanoparticles: Particle Migration or Ostwald Ripening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; DeLaRiva, Andrew T.; Challa, Sivakumar R.

    2013-01-01

    deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. This is especially true for high temperature catalytic processes, such as steam reforming, automotive exhaust treatment, or catalytic combustion. With dwindling supplies of precious metals and increasing demand, fundamental...

  20. Catalytic characterization of bi-functional catalysts derived from Pd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    1995; Lyubovsky and Pfefferle 1999; Sales et al 1999;. Hill et al 2000). ... For a catalytic system, whose activity ... catalytic systems containing Pd, supported on various acid- ..... Further studies are needed to optimize a balance between.

  1. Catalytically favorable surface patterns in Pt-Au nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental demonstrations of novel PtAu nanoparticles with highly enhanced catalytic properties, we present a systematic theoretical study that explores principal catalytic indicators as a function of the particle size

  2. Precise design-based defect characterization and root cause analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qian; Venkatachalam, Panneerselvam; Lee, Julie; Chen, Zhijin; Zafar, Khurram

    2017-03-01

    As semiconductor manufacturing continues its march towards more advanced technology nodes, it becomes increasingly important to identify and characterize design weak points, which is typically done using a combination of inline inspection data and the physical layout (or design). However, the employed methodologies have been somewhat imprecise, relying greatly on statistical techniques to signal excursions. For example, defect location error that is inherent to inspection tools prevents them from reporting the true locations of defects. Therefore, common operations such as background-based binning that are designed to identify frequently failing patterns cannot reliably identify specific weak patterns. They can only identify an approximate set of possible weak patterns, but within these sets there are many perfectly good patterns. Additionally, characterizing the failure rate of a known weak pattern based on inline inspection data also has a lot of fuzziness due to coordinate uncertainty. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) Review attempts to come to the rescue by capturing high resolution images of the regions surrounding the reported defect locations, but SEM images are reviewed by human operators and the weak patterns revealed in those images must be manually identified and classified. Compounding the problem is the fact that a single Review SEM image may contain multiple defective patterns and several of those patterns might not appear defective to the human eye. In this paper we describe a significantly improved methodology that brings advanced computer image processing and design-overlay techniques to better address the challenges posed by today's leading technology nodes. Specifically, new software techniques allow the computer to analyze Review SEM images in detail, to overlay those images with reference design to detect every defect that might be present in all regions of interest within the overlaid reference design (including several classes of defects

  3. Catalytic site identification—a web server to identify catalytic site structural matches throughout PDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Daniel A.; Nilmeier, Jerome P.; Lightstone, Felice C.

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic site identification web server provides the innovative capability to find structural matches to a user-specified catalytic site among all Protein Data Bank proteins rapidly (in less than a minute). The server also can examine a user-specified protein structure or model to identify structural matches to a library of catalytic sites. Finally, the server provides a database of pre-calculated matches between all Protein Data Bank proteins and the library of catalytic sites. The database has been used to derive a set of hypothesized novel enzymatic function annotations. In all cases, matches and putative binding sites (protein structure and surfaces) can be visualized interactively online. The website can be accessed at http://catsid.llnl.gov. PMID:23680785

  4. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N.; Rinaldi, A.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300° C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550° C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  5. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Graphene substrate-mediated catalytic performance enhancement of Ru nanoparticles: A first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The structural, energetic and magnetic properties of Ru nanoparticles deposited on pristine and defective graphene have been thoroughly studied by first-principles based calculations. The calculated binding energy of a Ru 13 nanoparticle on a single vacancy graphene is as high as -7.41 eV, owing to the hybridization between the dsp states of the Ru particles with the sp 2 dangling bonds at the defect sites. Doping the defective graphene with boron would further increase the binding energy to -7.52 eV. The strong interaction results in the averaged d-band center of the deposited Ru nanoparticle being upshifted toward the Fermi level from -1.41 eV to -1.10 eV. Further study reveals that the performance of the nanocomposites against hydrogen, oxygen and carbon monoxide adsorption is correlated to the shift of the d-band center of the nanoparticle. Thus, Ru nanoparticles deposited on defective graphene are expected to exhibit both high stability against sintering and superior catalytic performance in hydrogenation, oxygen reduction reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Density functional study the interaction of oxygen molecule with defect sites of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Xuejun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Wuhan 430074 (China); Guo Xin, E-mail: guoxin@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zheng Chuguang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The defect sites existed on the graphite surface create active sites and enhance the reactivity of carbonaceous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen molecule more favor chemisorbed on the graphene surface contains defect sites than the perfect surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single active oxygen atom adsorbed on the defect surfaces, it completely insert into the surface. - Abstract: The present article reports a theoretical study of oxygen interacted with graphene surface containing defect sites on the atomic level by employing the density functional theory combined with the graphene cluster model. It was founded that oxygen molecule prefers to be chemisorbed on the graphene surface containing defect sites compared to the perfect surface. The adsorption energy of O{sub 2} on the double defect site is about 2.5 times as large as that on the perfect graphene surface. Moreover, the oxygen molecule interacts with S-W defect site gives rise to stable epoxy structure, which pulling the carbon atom outward from the original site in the direction perpendicular to the surface. If the oxygen molecule is adsorbed on the single vacancy site, two C-O bonds are formed on the graphene surface. However, when the oxygen molecule is chemisorbed on the double vacancy site, the oxygen atoms substitute the missing carbon atom's position in the carbon plane and form a hexagonal structure on the graphene network. The results indicate that single active oxygen atom approaches the defect site, it's completely adsorbed in the plane and high energy is released. In all cases, the interaction of an oxygen atom with defect surface involves an exothermic process. The defect site creates active sites on the surface of graphene and produces catalytic effects during the process of oxidation of carbonaceous materials.

  8. Importance of teamwork, communication and culture on failure-to-rescue in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaferi, A A; Dimick, J B

    2016-01-01

    Surgical mortality increases significantly with age. Wide variations in mortality rates across hospitals suggest potential levers for improvement. Failure-to-rescue has been posited as a potential mechanism underlying these differences. A review was undertaken of the literature evaluating surgery, mortality, failure-to-rescue and the elderly. This was followed by a review of ongoing studies and unpublished work aiming to understand better the mechanisms underlying variations in surgical mortality in elderly patients. Multiple hospital macro-system factors, such as nurse staffing, available hospital technology and teaching status, are associated with differences in failure-to-rescue rates. There is emerging literature regarding important micro-system factors associated with failure-to-rescue. These are grouped into three broad categories: hospital resources, attitudes and behaviours. Ongoing work to produce interventions to reduce variations in failure-to-rescue rates include a focus on teamwork, communication and safety culture. Researchers are using novel mixed-methods approaches and theories adapted from organizational studies in high-reliability organizations in an effort to improve the care of elderly surgical patients. Although elderly surgical patients experience failure-to-rescue events at much higher rates than their younger counterparts, patient-level effects do not sufficiently explain these differences. Increased attention to the role of organizational dynamics in hospitals' ability to rescue these high-risk patients will establish high-yield interventions aimed at improving patient safety. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68 or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40 significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68 (p<0.05. Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1 compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05, and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05 and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1, anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05, and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05 genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3 compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes.

  10. Novel catalytic micromotor of porous zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 for precise drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Zhu, Hongli; Shi, Ying; Ge, You; Feng, Xiaomiao; Liu, Ruiqing; Li, Yi; Ma, Yanwen; Wang, Lianhui

    2018-06-07

    Micromotors hold promise as drug carriers for targeted drug delivery owing to the characteristics of self-propulsion and directional navigation. However, several defects still exist, including high cost, short movement life, low drug loading and slow release rate. Herein, a novel catalytic micromotor based on porous zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) synthesized by a greatly simplified wet chemical method assisted with ultrasonication is described as an efficient anticancer drug carrier. These porous micromotors display effective autonomous motion in hydrogen peroxide and long durable movement life of up to 90 min. Moreover, the multifunctional micromotor ZIF-67/Fe3O4/DOX exhibits excellent performance in precise drug delivery under external magnetic field with high drug loading capacity of fluorescent anticancer drug DOX up to 682 μg mg-1 owing to its porous nature, high surface area and rapid drug release based on dual stimulus of catalytic reaction and solvent effects. Therefore, these porous ZIF-67-based catalytic micromotors combine the domains of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and micomotors, thus developing potential resources for micromotors and holding great potential as label-free and precisely controlled high-quality candidates of drug delivery systems for biomedical applications.

  11. Defect detection based on extreme edge of defective region histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhir Wakaf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic thresholding has been used by many applications in image processing and pattern recognition systems. Specific attention was given during inspection for quality control purposes in various industries like steel processing and textile manufacturing. Automatic thresholding problem has been addressed well by the commonly used Otsu method, which provides suitable results for thresholding images based on a histogram of bimodal distribution. However, the Otsu method fails when the histogram is unimodal or close to unimodal. Defects have different shapes and sizes, ranging from very small to large. The gray-level distributions of the image histogram can vary between unimodal and multimodal. Furthermore, Otsu-revised methods, like the valley-emphasis method and the background histogram mode extents, which overcome the drawbacks of the Otsu method, require preprocessing steps and fail to use the general threshold for multimodal defects. This study proposes a new automatic thresholding algorithm based on the acquisition of the defective region histogram and the selection of its extreme edge as the threshold value to segment all defective objects in the foreground from the image background. To evaluate the proposed defect-detection method, common standard images for experimentation were used. Experimental results of the proposed method show that the proposed method outperforms the current methods in terms of defect detection.

  12. Who is going to rescue the rescuers? Post-traumatic stress disorder among rescue workers operating in Greece during the European refugee crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Chatzea, Vasiliki-Eirini; Vlachaki, Sofia-Aikaterini; Melidoniotis, Evangelos; Pistolla, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    During the European refugee crisis, numerous Greek and international rescue workers are operating in Lesvos, offering search, rescue, and first aid services. Exposure to stressful life events while engaging in this rescue work can result in developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The study aimed to assess the prevalence of PTSD and explore potential differences between different categories of rescuers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 217 rescue workers. Participants were grouped according to affiliation: "Greek Professionals Rescuers/GPR", "International Professionals Rescuers/IPR" and "Volunteer Rescuers/VR". The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was utilized. All tests were two-tailed (a = 0.05). Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Overall probable PTSD prevalence found was 17.1%. Rates varied significantly per rescuer's category; 23.1% in GPR, 11.8% in IPR, and 14.6% in VR (p = 0.02). GPR demonstrated the highest risk compared to IPR and VR (p hours, and handling dead refugees and dead children were also considered major risk factors. Rescue workers providing substantial aid to the refugees and migrants at Lesvos experience significant psychological distress. The present findings indicate the urgent need for targeted interventions. Further studies are needed to address long-term effects of the refugee crisis on rescuers, and explore effective measures to prevent PTSD.

  13. Molecular dynamics characterization of five pathogenic factor X mutants associated with decreased catalytic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat

    2014-11-11

    Factor X (FX) is one of the major players in the blood coagulation cascade. Upon activation to FXa, it converts prothrombin to thrombin, which in turn converts fibrinogen into fibrin (blood clots). FXa deficiency causes hemostasis defects, such as intracranial bleeding, hemathrosis, and gastrointestinal blood loss. Herein, we have analyzed a pool of pathogenic mutations, located in the FXa catalytic domain and directly associated with defects in enzyme catalytic activity. Using chymotrypsinogen numbering, they correspond to D102N, T135M, V160A, G184S, and G197D. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for 1.68 μs on the wild-type and mutated forms of FXa. Overall, our analysis shows that four of the five mutants considered, D102N, T135M, V160A, and G184S, have rigidities higher than those of the wild type, in terms of both overall protein motion and, specifically, subpocket S4 flexibility, while S1 is rather insensitive to the mutation. This acquired rigidity can clearly impact the substrate recognition of the mutants.

  14. Molecular dynamics characterization of five pathogenic factor X mutants associated with decreased catalytic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Oliva, Romina M.; Chermak, Edrisse; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Factor X (FX) is one of the major players in the blood coagulation cascade. Upon activation to FXa, it converts prothrombin to thrombin, which in turn converts fibrinogen into fibrin (blood clots). FXa deficiency causes hemostasis defects, such as intracranial bleeding, hemathrosis, and gastrointestinal blood loss. Herein, we have analyzed a pool of pathogenic mutations, located in the FXa catalytic domain and directly associated with defects in enzyme catalytic activity. Using chymotrypsinogen numbering, they correspond to D102N, T135M, V160A, G184S, and G197D. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for 1.68 μs on the wild-type and mutated forms of FXa. Overall, our analysis shows that four of the five mutants considered, D102N, T135M, V160A, and G184S, have rigidities higher than those of the wild type, in terms of both overall protein motion and, specifically, subpocket S4 flexibility, while S1 is rather insensitive to the mutation. This acquired rigidity can clearly impact the substrate recognition of the mutants.

  15. Substrate-mediated enhanced activity of Ru nanoparticles in catalytic hydrogenation of benzene

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The impact of carbon substrate-Ru nanoparticle interactions on benzene and hydrogen adsorption that is directly related to the performance in catalytic hydrogenation of benzene has been investigated by first-principles based calculations. The stability of Ru 13 nanoparticles is enhanced by the defective graphene substrate due to the hybridization between the dsp states of the Ru 13 particle with the sp 2 dangling bonds at the defect sites. The local curvature formed at the interface will also raise the Ru atomic diffusion barrier, and prohibit the particle sintering. The strong interfacial interaction results in the shift of averaged d-band center of the deposited Ru nanoparticle, from -1.41 eV for a freestanding Ru 13 particle, to -1.17 eV for the Ru/Graphene composites, and to -1.54 eV on mesocellular foam carbon. Accordingly, the adsorption energies of benzene are increased from -2.53 eV for the Ru/mesocellular foam carbon composites, to -2.62 eV on freestanding Ru 13 particles, to -2.74 eV on Ru/graphene composites. A similar change in hydrogen adsorption is also observed, and all these can be correlated to the shift of the d-band center of the nanoparticle. Thus, Ru nanoparticles graphene composites are expected to exhibit both high stability and superior catalytic performance in hydrogenation of arenes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Facts about Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of CHDs. The types marked with a star (*) are considered critical CHDs. Atrial Septal Defect Atrioventricular ... for Disease Control and Prevention Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  17. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  18. Why the cognitive science of religion cannot rescue 'spiritual care'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2015-10-01

    Peter Kevern believes that the cognitive science of religion (CSR) provides a justification for the idea of spiritual care in the health services. In this paper, I suggest that he is mistaken on two counts. First, CSR does not entail the conclusions Kevern wants to draw. His treatment of it consists largely of nonsequiturs. I show this by presenting an account of CSR, and then explaining why Kevern's reasons for thinking it rescues 'spirituality' discourse do not work. Second, the debate about spirituality-in-health is about classification: what shall count as a 'spiritual need' and what shall count as 'spiritual care'. It is about the politics of meaning, an exercise in persuasive definition. The function of 'spirituality' talk in health care is to change the denotation of 'spiritual', and attach its indelibly religious connotations to as many health-related concepts and practices as possible. CSR, however plausible it may be as a theory of the origins and pervasiveness of religious belief, is irrelevant to this debate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Postmodernity and a hypertensive patient: rescuing value from nihilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S

    1998-01-01

    Much of postmodern philosophy questions the assumptions of Modernity, that period in the history of the Western world since the Enlightment. These assumptions are that truth is discoverable through human reason; that certain knowledge is possible; and furthermore, that such knowledge will provide a basis for the ineluctable progress of Mankind. The Enlightenment project is underwritten by the conviction that knowledge gained through the scientific method is secure. In so far as biomedicine inherits these assumptions it becomes fair game for postmodern deconstruction. Today, perhaps more than ever, plural values compete, and contradictory approaches to health, for instance, garner support and acquire supremacy through consumer choice and media manipulation rather than evidence-based science. Many doctors feel a tension between meeting the needs of the patient face to face, and working towards the broader health needs of the public at large. But if the very foundations of medical science are questioned, by patients, or by doctors themselves, wherein lies the value of their work? This paper examines the issues that the anti-foundationalist thrust of postmodernism raises, in the light of a case of mild hypertension. The strict application of medical protocol, derived from a nomothetic, statistical perspective, seems unlikely to furnish value in the treatment of an individual. The anything goes, consumerist approach, however, fares no better. The author argues that whilst value cannot depend on any rationally predetermined parameters, it can be rescued, and emerges from the process of the meeting with the patient. PMID:9549679

  20. Vinorelbine rescue therapy for dogs with primary urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, M E; Thamm, D H; Weishaar, K; Lawrence, J A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumour activity and toxicoses of vinorelbine as a palliative rescue therapy for dogs with primary urinary bladder carcinoma. Thirteen dogs refractory to prior chemotherapeutics and one dog naïve to chemotherapeutic treatment were enrolled. Vinorelbine (15 mg m(-2) IV) was administered intravenously along with concurrent oral anti-inflammatory drugs, if tolerated. A median of six doses of vinorelbine (range: 1-16) was administered. Two dogs (14%) had partial responses, and eight (57%) experienced stable disease. Subjective improvement in clinical signs was noted in 11 dogs (78%). Adverse events were mild and primarily haematological in nature. Median time to progression was 93 days (range: 20-239 days). Median survival time for all dogs was 187 days; median survival for 13 pre-treated dogs was 207 days. Vinorelbine may have utility in the management of canine primary urinary bladder carcinoma and should be evaluated in a prospective study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Flood Rescue: A Gender-Inclusive Integrated STEM Curriculum Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Dare

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As national reform documents and movements in the United States, such as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013, push K-12 educators to begin to include engineering and integration of the STEM disciplines, there is a need to create curricula that meet a multitude of different standards. Additionally, there is a need to engage a more diverse population of students to pursue STEM careers. The 6th grade curriculum presented here focuses on an example of a teacher-created integrated STEM curriculum that combines girl-friendly instructional strategies (Häussler et al., 1998; Newbill & Cennamo, 2008 with an integrated STEM framework (Moore et al., 2014. An engineering design challenge that asks students to create a prototype of a watercraft used by the National Guard to rescue people during floods engages students in learning various physics concepts (forces, buoyancy, volume, and maximum capacity. In this article, we describe the lessons of the unit with respect to the frameworks, as well as key areas that particularly impacted 6th grade girls and boys.

  2. Hydrometry data rescue, a stake for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of past events and long-term series is a base to understand phenomena, analyze climate change and forecast future events. To increase long term series and their accuracy, NUNIEAU software, sort of “Digitizing Table”, was developed and distributed freely since 2006 by Cerema. It is an international reference in tide gauge record, but has been improved to widespread its used for river and rainfall record. The SCHAPI (the French national service for hydrometeorology and support to flood forecasting launched a tender to rescue the old data on rainfall and rivers available. Many improvements have been done to manage different types of rainfall charts. NUNIEAU was developed in French and is also available in English and Spanish version with collaboration of foreign institutes. Main challenge is not only to digitize old data but also assess the quality of digitized data. Protocol has been done to control the digitizing process and after to allows assessing the final quality of data.

  3. Safety technology: Emergency equipment and sea rescue techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-06-01

    In June 1986, a two day workshop was convened to review mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) evacuation research and development (R D) requirements for programs currently sponsored by the Marine Engineering Committee for PERD (Panel on Energy Research and Development) task 6.2. The proceedings of the workshop are presented in terms of: evacuation technology needs; a review of current R D projects for their relevance to the technological needs; recommended changes to current projects where warranted; and recommended priority R D projects that are not presently being undertaken to meet the evacuation technology needs. Current R D projects reviewed include: preferred orientation and displacement (PROD) lifeboat launching, personal transfer baskets, arctic escape system (AES), fast rescue craft (FRC), helicopter survival suits, diving bell emergency heaters, working immersion suits, diving bell emergency ascent system, undersea robotics systems and DCIEM decompression tables. It was concluded that gaps in offshore safety/evacuation capability cannot be adequately addressed by one or two major projects. Rather, a wider range of problems exist that require attention through a greater financial commitment than is presently the case. Government-industry cooperation in this field is required. Overall, the projects were judged to have been well planned, managed, and relevant to offshore safety needs. The only exception was a feeling that diving related projects consummed a disproportionate share of the available funding. Further, there was some reservation that the robotics study was outside the 6.2 PERD R D mandate. A list of recommendations is presented. 1 tab.

  4. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is among the developing countries that are struggling to develop in the field of industrial development. The logical consequence of any development process, especially industrial development is the emergence of associated impacts that greatly affect the durability and sustainability of the environment. Developing the equitable industry in order to create public welfare is important. However, maintaining the security and preservation of the environment is also very important, because it is only with the availability of a good environment and healthy living that human beings can perform daily living. The availability of good and healthy environment is the constitutional responsibility of the government, as well as part of the human rights of all citizens which must be given by the State. Efforts to create a good environment and healthy living will be effective if controlled by State government and institutions who understand the objective conditions on the ground. In this regard, the granting of the authority on environmental control to regional government autonomously is the right, very smart policy choice. How To Cite: Sutrisno, B. (2016. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 27-58. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.98

  6. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.

    1993-04-01

    In this thesis, experimental results of the transition metals Ti, V, Nb, Mo, and W as impurity centres in silicon are presented. Transition metal doping was accomplished by ion implantation. Emphasis is put on energy level position, electrical and optical properties of the encountered defect levels. Junction space charge methods (JSCM) such as DLTS, photocapacitance and photocurrent techniques are employed. Three energy levels are found for the 3d-transition metals Ti(E c -0.06eV, E c -0.30eV, E v +0.26) and V(E c -0.21eV, E c -0,48e, E v +0.36eV), and for the 4d-element Nb(E c -0.29eV, E c -0.58eV, E v +0.163eV) in Silicon, whereas only one transition metal induced level is found for Mo(E v +0.30eV) and W(E v +0.38eV) respectively. Electrical and optical characteristics of Si 1-x Ge x ,0.7 7 cm -2 . The solvent Bi, used in the LPE-process, is found to be the dominant impurity element. Furthermore, liquid phase epitaxy of high purity In 0.53 Ga 0.57 As on InP, together with the properties of the Cu-induced acceptor in this material are examined. Free electron concentrations of n=5x10 14 cm -3 and electron Hall-mobilities of μ 77K = 44000 cm 2 /Vs are achieved. The energy level position of the Cu-acceptor is found to be E v +0.025eV. Photoluminescence and Hall-effect measurements, together with JSCM are the main characterization methods used. The band linups of In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As with GaAs and with InP are determined according to the Cu-acceptor energy level position in these materials. Additionally, the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the Cu-acceptor energy level position in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As is examined. (103 refs.)

  7. Topological defects from the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble.

  8. Topological defects from the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Blanco-Pillado, Jose J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2015-05-28

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble.

  9. Topological defects from the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Vilenkin, Alexander; Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Garriga, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble

  10. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, Isabella; Polignano, Maria Luisa; Marco, Cinzia De

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

  11. Knockdown of Pnpla6 protein results in motor neuron defects in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2013-03-01

    Mutations in patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 6 (PNPLA6, also known as neuropathy target esterase (NTE or SPG39, cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP. Although studies on animal models, including mice and Drosophila, have extended our understanding of PNPLA6, its roles in neural development and in HSP are not clearly understood. Here, we describe the generation of a vertebrate model of PNPLA6 insufficiency using morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown in zebrafish (Danio rerio. Pnpla6 knockdown resulted in developmental abnormalities and motor neuron defects, including axon truncation and branching. The phenotypes in pnpla6 knockdown morphants were rescued by the introduction of wild-type, but not mutant, human PNPLA6 mRNA. Our results also revealed the involvement of BMP signaling in pnpla6 knockdown phenotypes. Taken together, these results demonstrate an important role of PNPLA6 in motor neuron development and implicate overexpression of BMP signaling as a possible mechanism underlying the developmental defects in pnpla6 morphants.

  12. On the Structural Context and Identification of Enzyme Catalytic Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tung Chien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes play important roles in most of the biological processes. Although only a small fraction of residues are directly involved in catalytic reactions, these catalytic residues are the most crucial parts in enzymes. The study of the fundamental and unique features of catalytic residues benefits the understanding of enzyme functions and catalytic mechanisms. In this work, we analyze the structural context of catalytic residues based on theoretical and experimental structure flexibility. The results show that catalytic residues have distinct structural features and context. Their neighboring residues, whether sequence or structure neighbors within specific range, are usually structurally more rigid than those of noncatalytic residues. The structural context feature is combined with support vector machine to identify catalytic residues from enzyme structure. The prediction results are better or comparable to those of recent structure-based prediction methods.

  13. Effect of inlet cone pipe angle in catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira Zainal, Nurul; Farhain Azmi, Ezzatul; Arifin Samad, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    The catalytic converter shows significant consequence to improve the performance of the vehicle start from it launched into production. Nowadays, the geometric design of the catalytic converter has become critical to avoid the behavior of backpressure in the exhaust system. The backpressure essentially reduced the performance of vehicles and increased the fuel consumption gradually. Consequently, this study aims to design various models of catalytic converter and optimize the volume of fluid flow inside the catalytic converter by changing the inlet cone pipe angles. Three different geometry angles of the inlet cone pipe of the catalytic converter were assessed. The model is simulated in Solidworks software to determine the optimum geometric design of the catalytic converter. The result showed that by decreasing the divergence angle of inlet cone pipe will upsurge the performance of the catalytic converter.

  14. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  15. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  16. Enantioselective catalytic fluorinative aza-semipinacol rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov-Michailidis, Fedor; Pupier, Marion; Besnard, Céline; Bürgi, Thomas; Alexakis, Alexandre

    2014-10-03

    An efficient and highly stereoselective fluorinative aza-semipinacol rearrangement is described. The catalytic reaction requires use of Selectfluor in combination with the chiral, enantiopure phosphate anion derived from acid L3. Under optimized conditions, cyclopropylamines A were transformed into β-fluoro cyclobutylimines B in good yields and high levels of diastereo- and enantiocontrol. Furthermore, the optically active cyclobutylimines were reduced diastereoselectively with L-Selectride in the corresponding fluorinated amines C, compounds of significant interest in the pharmacological industry.

  17. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  18. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  19. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE's inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results

  20. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2017-12-19

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  1. Overexpression of Indian hedgehog partially rescues short stature homeobox 2-overexpression-associated congenital dysplasia of the temporomandibular joint in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xihai; Liang, Wenna; Ye, Hongzhi; Weng, Xiaping; Liu, Fayuan; Lin, Pingdong; Liu, Xianxiang

    2015-09-01

    The role of short stature homeobox 2 (shox2) in the development and homeostasis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has been well documented. Shox2 is known to be expressed in the progenitor cells and perichondrium of the developing condyle. A previous study by our group reported that overexpression of shox2 leads to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ via downregulation of the Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling pathway, which is essential for embryonic disc primordium formation and mandibular condylar growth. To determine whether overexpression of Ihh may rescue the overexpression of shox2 leading to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ, a mouse model in which Ihh and shox2 were overexpressed (Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice) was utilized to assess the consequences of this overexpression on TMJ development during post-natal life. The results showed that the developmental process and expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 and sex determining region Y-box 9 in the TMJ of the Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice were similar to those in wild‑type mice. Overexpression of Ihh rescued shox2 overexpression-associated reduction of extracellular matrix components. However, overexpression of Ihh did not inhibit the shox2 overexpression-associated increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP9, MMP13 and apoptosis in the TMJ. These combinatory cellular and molecular defects appeared to account for the observed congenital dysplasia of TMJ, suggesting that overexpression of Ihh partially rescued shox2 overexpression‑associated congenital dysplasia of the TMJ in mice.

  2. Overexpression of Indian hedgehog partially rescues short stature homeobox 2-overexpression-associated congenital dysplasia of the temporomandibular joint in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, XIHAI; LIANG, WENNA; YE, HONGZHI; WENG, XIAPING; LIU, FAYUAN; LIN, PINGDONG; LIU, XIANXIANG

    2015-01-01

    The role of short stature homeobox 2 (shox2) in the development and homeostasis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has been well documented. Shox2 is known to be expressed in the progenitor cells and perichondrium of the developing condyle. A previous study by our group reported that overexpression of shox2 leads to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ via downregulation of the Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling pathway, which is essential for embryonic disc primordium formation and mandibular condylar growth. To determine whether overexpression of Ihh may rescue the overexpression of shox2 leading to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ, a mouse model in which Ihh and shox2 were overexpressed (Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice) was utilized to assess the consequences of this overexpression on TMJ development during post-natal life. The results showed that the developmental process and expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 and sex determining region Y-box 9 in the TMJ of the Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice were similar to those in wild-type mice. Overexpression of Ihh rescued shox2 overexpression-associated reduction of extracellular matrix components. However, overexpression of Ihh did not inhibit the shox2 overexpression-associated increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP9, MMP13 and apoptosis in the TMJ. These combinatory cellular and molecular defects appeared to account for the observed congenital dysplasia of TMJ, suggesting that overexpression of Ihh partially rescued shox2 overexpression-associated congenital dysplasia of the TMJ in mice. PMID:26096903

  3. Improvement of neuromuscular synaptic phenotypes without enhanced survival and motor function in severe spinal muscular atrophy mice selectively rescued in motor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Paez-Colasante

    Full Text Available In the inherited childhood neuromuscular disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, lower motor neuron death and severe muscle weakness result from the reduction of the ubiquitously expressed protein survival of motor neuron (SMN. Although SMA mice recapitulate many features of the human disease, it has remained unclear if their short lifespan and motor weakness are primarily due to cell-autonomous defects in motor neurons. Using Hb9(Cre as a driver, we selectively raised SMN expression in motor neurons in conditional SMAΔ7 mice. Unlike a previous study that used choline acetyltransferase (ChAT(Cre+ as a driver on the same mice, and another report that used Hb9(Cre as a driver on a different line of conditional SMA mice, we found no improvement in survival, weight, motor behavior and presynaptic neurofilament accumulation. However, like in ChAT(Cre+ mice, we detected rescue of endplate size and mitigation of neuromuscular junction (NMJ denervation status. The rescue of endplate size occurred in the absence of an increase in myofiber size, suggesting endplate size is determined by the motor neuron in these animals. Real time-PCR showed that the expression of spinal cord SMN transcript was sharply reduced in Hb9(Cre+ SMA mice relative to ChAT(Cre+ SMA mice. This suggests that our lack of overall phenotypic improvement is most likely due to an unexpectedly poor recombination efficiency driven by Hb9(Cre . Nonetheless, the low levels of SMN were sufficient to rescue two NMJ structural parameters indicating that these motor neuron cell autonomous phenotypes are very sensitive to changes in motoneuronal SMN levels. Our results directly suggest that even those therapeutic interventions with very modest effects in raising SMN in motor neurons may provide mitigation of neuromuscular phenotypes in SMA patients.

  4. Catalytic hydrogen recombination for nuclear containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroll, G.W.; Lau, D.W.P.; Dewit, W.A.; Graham, W.R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Catalytic recombiners appear to be a credible option for hydrogen mitigation in nuclear containments. The passive operation, versatility and ease of back fitting are appealing for existing stations and new designs. Recently, a generation of wet-proofed catalyst materials have been developed at AECL which are highly specific to H 2 -O 2 , are active at ambient temperatures and are being evaluated for containment applications. Two types of catalytic recombiners were evaluated for hydrogen removal in containments based on the AECL catalyst. The first is a catalytic combustor for application in existing air streams such as provided by fans or ventilation systems. The second is an autocatalytic recombiner which uses the enthalpy of reaction to produce natural convective flow over the catalyst elements. Intermediate-scale results obtained in 6 m 3 and 10 m 3 spherical and cylindrical vessels are given to demonstrate self-starting limits, operating limits, removal capacity, scaling parameters, flow resistance, mixing behaviour in the vicinity of an operating recombiner and sensitivity to poisoning, fouling and radiation. (author). 13 refs., 10 figs

  5. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  6. Catalytic applications of bio-inspired nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacardo, Dennis Kien Balaong

    The biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanoparticles was presented using the Pd4 peptide, TSNAVHPTLRHL, isolated from combinatorial phage display library. Using this approach, nearly monodisperse and spherical Pd nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 1.9 +/- 0.4 nm. The peptide-based nanocatalyst were employed in the Stille coupling reaction under energy-efficient and environmentally friendly reaction conditions of aqueous solvent, room temperature and very low catalyst loading. To this end, the Pd nanocatalyst generated high turnover frequency (TOF) value and quantitative yields using ≥ 0.005 mol% Pd as well as catalytic activities with different aryl halides containing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. The Pd4-capped Pd nanoparticles followed the atom-leaching mechanism and were found to be selective with respect to substrate identity. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring R5 peptide (SSKKSGSYSGSKGSKRRIL) was employed in the synthesis of biotemplated Pd nanomaterials which showed morphological changes as a function of Pd:peptide ratio. TOF analysis for hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols showed similar catalytic activity regardless of nanomorphology. Determination of catalytic properties of these bio-inspired nanomaterials are important as they serve as model system for alternative green catalyst with applications in industrially important transformations.

  7. Vapor-Driven Propulsion of Catalytic Micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Renfeng; Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Ezhilan, Barath; Xu, Tailin; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Wei; Saintillan, David; Ren, Biye; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Chemically-powered micromotors offer exciting opportunities in diverse fields, including therapeutic delivery, environmental remediation, and nanoscale manufacturing. However, these nanovehicles require direct addition of high concentration of chemical fuel to the motor solution for their propulsion. We report the efficient vapor-powered propulsion of catalytic micromotors without direct addition of fuel to the micromotor solution. Diffusion of hydrazine vapor from the surrounding atmosphere into the sample solution is instead used to trigger rapid movement of iridium-gold Janus microsphere motors. Such operation creates a new type of remotely-triggered and powered catalytic micro/nanomotors that are responsive to their surrounding environment. This new propulsion mechanism is accompanied by unique phenomena, such as the distinct off-on response to the presence of fuel in the surrounding atmosphere, and spatio-temporal dependence of the motor speed borne out of the concentration gradient evolution within the motor solution. The relationship between the motor speed and the variables affecting the fuel concentration distribution is examined using a theoretical model for hydrazine transport, which is in turn used to explain the observed phenomena. The vapor-powered catalytic micro/nanomotors offer new opportunities in gas sensing, threat detection, and environmental monitoring, and open the door for a new class of environmentally-triggered micromotors.

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  9. Antibody proteases: induction of catalytic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabibov, A G; Friboulet, A; Thomas, D; Demin, A V; Ponomarenko, N A; Vorobiev, I I; Pillet, D; Paon, M; Alexandrova, E S; Telegin, G B; Reshetnyak, A V; Grigorieva, O V; Gnuchev, N V; Malishkin, K A; Genkin, D D

    2002-10-01

    Most of the data accumulated throughout the years on investigation of catalytic antibodies indicate that their production increases on the background of autoimmune abnormalities. The different approaches to induction of catalytic response toward recombinant gp120 HIV-1 surface protein in mice with various autoimmune pathologies are described. The peptidylphosphonate conjugate containing structural part of gp120 molecule is used for reactive immunization of NZB/NZW F1, MRL, and SJL mice. The specific modification of heavy and light chains of mouse autoantibodies with Val-Ala-Glu-Glu-Glu-Val-PO(OPh)2 reactive peptide was demonstrated. Increased proteolytic activity of polyclonal antibodies in SJL mice encouraged us to investigate the production of antigen-specific catalytic antibodies on the background of induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The immunization of autoimmune-prone mice with the engineered fusions containing the fragments of gp120 and encephalitogenic epitope of myelin basic protein (MBP(89-104)) was made. The proteolytic activity of polyclonal antibodies isolated from the sera of autoimmune mice immunized by the described antigen was shown. Specific immune response of SJL mice to these antigens was characterized. Polyclonal antibodies purified from sera of the immunized animals revealed proteolytic activity. The antiidiotypic approach to raise the specific proteolytic antibody as an "internal image" of protease is described. The "second order" monoclonal antibodies toward subtilisin Carlsberg revealed pronounced proteolytic activity.

  10. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  11. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  12. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  13. Monitoring and Information Fusion for Search and Rescue Operations in Large-Scale Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nardi, Daniele

    2002-01-01

    ... for information fusion with application to search-and-rescue and large scale disaster relief. The objective is to develop and to deploy tools to support the monitoring activities in an intervention caused by a large-scale disaster...

  14. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  15. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  16. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  17. Defective mitochondrial rRNA methyltransferase MRM2 causes MELAS-like clinical syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garone, Caterina; D'Souza, Aaron R; Dallabona, Cristina; Lodi, Tiziana; Rebelo-Guiomar, Pedro; Rorbach, Joanna; Donati, Maria Alice; Procopio, Elena; Montomoli, Martino; Guerrini, Renzo; Zeviani, Massimo; Calvo, Sarah E; Mootha, Vamsi K; DiMauro, Salvatore; Ferrero, Ileana; Minczuk, Michal

    2017-11-01

    Defects in nuclear-encoded proteins of the mitochondrial translation machinery cause early-onset and tissue-specific deficiency of one or more OXPHOS complexes. Here, we report a 7-year-old Italian boy with childhood-onset rapidly progressive encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes. Multiple OXPHOS defects and decreased mtDNA copy number (40%) were detected in muscle homogenate. Clinical features combined with low level of plasma citrulline were highly suggestive of mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, however, the common m.3243 A > G mutation was excluded. Targeted exome sequencing of genes encoding the mitochondrial proteome identified a damaging mutation, c.567 G > A, affecting a highly conserved amino acid residue (p.Gly189Arg) of the MRM2 protein. MRM2 has never before been linked to a human disease and encodes an enzyme responsible for 2'-O-methyl modification at position U1369 in the human mitochondrial 16S rRNA. We generated a knockout yeast model for the orthologous gene that showed a defect in respiration and the reduction of the 2'-O-methyl modification at the equivalent position (U2791) in the yeast mitochondrial 21S rRNA. Complementation with the mrm2 allele carrying the equivalent yeast mutation failed to rescue the respiratory phenotype, which was instead completely rescued by expressing the wild-type allele. Our findings establish that defective MRM2 causes a MELAS-like phenotype, and suggests the genetic screening of the MRM2 gene in patients with a m.3243 A > G negative MELAS-like presentation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Boulder Food Rescue: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Food Waste and Increasing Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewald, Craig A; Kuo, Elena S; Dansky, Hana

    2018-05-01

    Food waste and food insecurity are both significant issues in communities throughout the U.S., including Boulder, Colorado. As much as 40% of the food produced in the U.S. goes uneaten and ends up in landfills. Nearly 13% of people in the Boulder region experience some level of food insecurity. Founded in 2011, Boulder Food Rescue supports community members to create their own food security through a participatory approach to an emergency food system. The organization uses a web-application "robot" to manage a schedule of volunteers. They coordinate with individuals at low-income senior housing sites, individual housing sites, family housing sites, after-school programs, and pre-schools to set up no-cost grocery programs stocked with food from local markets and grocers that would otherwise go to waste. Each site coordinator makes decisions about how, when, and where food delivery and distribution will occur. The program also conducts robust, real-time data collection and analysis. Boulder Food Rescue is a member and manager of the Food Rescue Alliance, and its model has been replicated and adapted by other cities, including Denver, Colorado Springs, Seattle, Jackson Hole, Minneapolis, Binghamton, and in the Philippines. Information for this special article was collected through key informant interviews with current and former Boulder Food Rescue staff and document review of Boulder Food Rescue materials. Boulder Food Rescue's open source software is available to other communities; to date, 40 cities have used the tool to start their own food rescue organizations. Boulder Food Rescue hopes to continue spreading this model to other cities that are considering ways to reduce food waste and increase food security. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  19. A critical review of the Mediterranean sea turtle rescue network: a web looking for a weaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Ullmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A key issue in conservation biology is recognizing and bridging the gap between scientific results and specific action. We examine sea turtles—charismatic yet endangered flagship species—in the Mediterranean, a sea with historically high levels of exploitation and 22 coastal nations. We take sea turtle rescue facilities as a visible measure for implemented conservation action. Our study yielded 34 confirmed sea turtle rescue centers, 8 first-aid stations, and 7 informal rescue institutions currently in operation. Juxtaposing these facilities to known sea turtle distribution and threat hotspots reveals a clear disconnect. Only 14 of the 22 coastal countries had centers, with clear gaps in the Middle East and Africa. Moreover, the information flow between centers is apparently limited. The populations of the two species nesting in the Mediterranean, the loggerhead Caretta caretta and the green turtle Chelonia mydas, are far below historical levels and face a range of anthropogenic threats at sea and on land. Sea turtle rescue centers are acknowledged to reduce mortality in bycatch hotspots, provide a wealth of scientific data, and raise public awareness. The proposal for a Mediterranean-wide rescue network as published by the Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas a decade ago has not materialized in its envisioned scope. We discuss the efficiency, gaps, and needs for a rescue network and call for establishing additional rescue centers and an accompanying common online database to connect existing centers. This would provide better information on the number and types of rescue facilities on a Mediterranean scale, improve communication between these facilities, enhance standardization of procedures, yield large-scale data on the number of treated turtles and their injuries, and thus provide valuable input for targeted conservation measures.

  20. Work engagement among rescue workers: psychometric properties of the portuguese UWES

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Sinval; Alexandra Marques-Pinto; Cristina Queirós; João Marôco

    2018-01-01

    Rescue workers have a stressful and risky occupation where being engaged is crucial to face physical and emotional risks in order to help other persons. This study aims to estimate work engagement levels of rescue workers (namely comparing nurses, firefighters, and police officers) and to assess the validity evidence related to the internal structure of the Portuguese versions of the UWES-17 and UWES-9, namely, dimensionality, measurement invariance between occupational groups, and reliabilit...

  1. The goal(s) of corporate rescue in company law: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony O. Nwafor

    2017-01-01

    The concept of corporate rescue lays emphasis on corporate sustainability than liquidation. This trend in corporate legislation which featured in the United Kingdom Insolvency Act of 1986, Australian Corporations Act 2001, Indian Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act of 1985 (as replaced by Companies Act, 2013 and supplanted by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016) has been adopted in the South African Companies Act of 2008. The goal(s) of corporate rescue in some of these ju...

  2. Melatonin rescues cardiovascular dysfunction during hypoxic development in the chick embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Itani, Nozomi; Skeffington, Katie L.; Beck, Christian; Niu, Youguo; Giussani, Dino A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is a search for rescue therapy against fetal origins of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy complicated by chronic fetal hypoxia, particularly following clinical diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Melatonin protects the placenta in adverse pregnancy; however, whether melatonin protects the fetal heart and vasculature in hypoxic pregnancy independent of effects on the placenta is unknown. Whether melatonin can rescue fetal cardiovascular dysfunction when treatment comm...

  3. Dual approaches for defects condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougemont, Romulo; Grigorio, Leonardo de Souza; Wotzasek, Clovis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Marcelo Santos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text. Due to the fact that the QCD running coupling constant becomes larger as we go into the low energy (or large distance) limit of the theory, a perturbative treatment of its infrared (IR) region is impossible. In particular, a formal mathematical demonstration of color confinement and a complete physical understanding of the exact mechanism that confines quarks and gluons are two missing points in our current knowledge of the IR-QCD. It was known that due to the Meissner effect of expulsion of magnetic fields in a electric condensate that usual superconductors should confine magnetic monopoles. That point led to the conjecture that the QCD vacuum could be a condensate of chromomagnetic monopoles, a dual superconductor (DSC). Such a chromomagnetic condensate should be responsible for the dual Meissner effect which is expected to lead to the confinement of color charges immersed in this medium. In dual superconductor models of color confinement, magnetic monopoles appear as topological defects in points of the space where the abelian projection becomes singular. Also, condensation of other kinds of defects such as vortices in superfluids and line-like defects in solids are responsible for a great variety of phase transitions, which once more proves the relevance of the subject. In the present work we review two methods that allow us to approach the condensation of defects: the Kleinert Mechanism (KM) and the Julia-Toulouse Mechanism (JTM). We show that in the limit where the vortex gauge field goes to zero, which we identify as the signature of the condensation of defects in the dual picture, these are two equivalent dual prescriptions for obtaining an effective theory for a phase where defects are condensed, starting from the fundamental theory defined in the normal phase where defects are diluted. (author)

  4. EPS insulated façade fires from a fire and rescue perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumm M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the challenges the fire and rescue services can meet at façade fires involving EPS insulation during construction and use of a building. The EPS characteristics are discussed in respect to the fire and rescue operation and results from orientating fire tests performed at a fire and rescue services training and test field are presented. Types of evacuation solutions, involving the fire and rescue services, where façade fires can delay or completely rule out the possibilities for safe evacuation, are presented. The restrictions in the Swedish building codes regarding use of combustible insulation are analysed and reflections over the practical problems with following the instructions to keep an EPS insulated façade safe through the building's whole lifespan are made. A number of occurred fires involving EPS are discussed and analysed from a fire and rescue perspective. Finally, recommendations are given for the fire and rescue services and future research fields are proposed.

  5. Gas Concentration Prediction Based on the Measured Data of a Coal Mine Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal mine environment is complex and dangerous after gas accident; then a timely and effective rescue and relief work is necessary. Hence prediction of gas concentration in front of coal mine rescue robot is an important significance to ensure that the coal mine rescue robot carries out the exploration and search and rescue mission. In this paper, a gray neural network is proposed to predict the gas concentration 10 meters in front of the coal mine rescue robot based on the gas concentration, temperature, and wind speed of the current position and 1 meter in front. Subsequently the quantum genetic algorithm optimization gray neural network parameters of the gas concentration prediction method are proposed to get more accurate prediction of the gas concentration in the roadway. Experimental results show that a gray neural network optimized by the quantum genetic algorithm is more accurate for predicting the gas concentration. The overall prediction error is 9.12%, and the largest forecasting error is 11.36%; compared with gray neural network, the gas concentration prediction error increases by 55.23%. This means that the proposed method can better allow the coal mine rescue robot to accurately predict the gas concentration in the coal mine roadway.

  6. Sirolimus for rescue and primary immunosuppression in transplanted children receiving tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhi, R; Webber, S; Venkataramanan, R; McGhee, W; Phillips, S; Smith, A; Baird, C; Iurlano, K; Mazariegos, G; Cooperstone, B; Holt, D W; Zeevi, A; Fung, J J; Reyes, J

    2001-09-15

    The role of sirolimus (SRL) as a rescue agent (n=42) and as a component of primary immunosuppression (n=8) was evaluated in a mixed population of 50 transplanted children receiving tacrolimus (liver: 26, heart: 5, intestinal: 5, liver-intestine: 9, lung: 1, bone marrow: 1, liver-kidney: 1, multivisceral: 1). Rescue indications for tacrolimus (TAC) failure were recurrent acute rejection and acute rejection complicating withdrawal of immunosuppression in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Rescue indications for TAC toxicity were nephrotoxicity, pancreatitis, seizures, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and graft-versus-host disease. Mean age at rescue was 11.5 years and mean follow-up was 204 (range 18-800) days. As primary immunosuppression, SRL+TAC prevented early acute rejection in 7/8 children. The indication for rescue resolved in 33/42 children. In children with TAC toxicity, this was associated with decrease in TAC doses by 50%, significant improvements in renal function, and continuing decline in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral load in PTLD patients. Serious adverse events led to discontinuation of SRL in 9/42 rescue patients, 3 of them also experienced acute rejection. Three additional children also experienced acute rejection on SRL therapy (overall incidence 6/50, 12%). Pharmacokinetic analysis in the first week of SRL administration suggested a short half-life (11.8+/-5.5 hr, n=21). SRL and reduced-dose TAC may achieve adequate immunosuppression without compromising renal function or enhancing EBV viremia significantly.

  7. Gazing toward humans: a study on water rescue dogs using the impossible task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Scandurra, Anna; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Valsecchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have assessed the role of life experiences, including learning opportunities, living conditions and the quality of dog-human relationships, in the use of human cues and problem-solving ability. The current study investigates how and to what extent training affects the behaviour of dogs and the communication of dogs with humans by comparing dogs trained for a water rescue service and untrained pet dogs in the impossible task paradigm. Twenty-three certified water rescue dogs (the water rescue group) and 17 dogs with no training experience (the untrained group) were tested using a modified version of the impossible task described by Marshall-Pescini et al. in 2009. The results demonstrated that the water rescue dogs directed their first gaze significantly more often towards the owner and spent more time gazing toward two people compared to the untrained pet dogs. There was no difference between the dogs of the two groups as far as in the amount of time spent gazing at the owner or the stranger; neither in the interaction with the apparatus attempting to obtain food. The specific training regime, aimed at promoting cooperation during the performance of water rescue, could account for the longer gazing behaviour shown toward people by the water rescue dogs and the priority of gazing toward the owner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dispatching Plan Based on Route Optimization Model Considering Random Wind for Aviation Emergency Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emergency rescue is an effective means of nature disaster relief that is widely used in many countries. The dispatching plan of aviation emergency rescue guarantees the efficient implementation of this relief measure. The conventional dispatching plan that does not consider random wind factors leads to a nonprecise quick-responsive scheme and serious safety issues. In this study, an aviation emergency rescue framework that considers the influence of random wind at flight trajectory is proposed. In this framework, the predicted wind information for a disaster area is updated by using unscented Kalman filtering technology. Then, considering the practical scheduling problem of aircraft emergency rescue at present, a multiobjective model is established in this study. An optimization model aimed at maximizing the relief supply satisfaction, rescue priority satisfaction, and minimizing total rescue flight distance is formulated. Finally, the transport times of aircraft with and without the influence of random wind are analyzed on the basis of the data of an earthquake disaster area. Results show that the proposed dispatching plan that considers the constraints of updated wind speed and direction is highly applicable in real operations.

  9. The work of the South Manchester Accident Rescue Team (SMART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, A D

    1990-01-01

    Skills acquired in the hospital do not necessarily translate to the scene of an accident. However, training in certain hospital specialties, particularly accident and emergency medicine, will expose doctors to dealing with very ill patients in a less rigidly structured environment. The operating theatre is a disciplined and controlled environment. Skill in anaesthesia, monitoring and operating, if tested only in these circumstances may be found to be gravely inadequate when exposed to the fluctuant and hostile environment at the site. Doctors who wish to do this sort of work or are designated to do it, must undergo regular and frequent training, especially if they are not trained in accident and emergency departments. This has long been recognised by the British Association for Immediate Care. In combination with the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh they have now established a diploma in Immediate Medical Care. In urban areas the need for a doctor to attend at the scene of an accident is usually limited to entrapment. These occasions are likely to be infrequent and this can result in a lack of preparedness for such events. Interhospital transfer, primarily from peripheral hospitals to the specialist services of a teaching hospital, often involves critically ill and injured patients. The management of these cases by the mobile team provides regular, frequent exposure to working in a 'hostile' environment. Relationships with the rescue services are developed and staff become familiar with equipment and call-out procedures. The care of transported patients is improved. None of our patients have died in transit or within 6 h of arrival at base.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Levy, J.K.; Kirk, S.K.; Crawford, P.C.; Leutenegger, C.M.; Shuster, J.J.; Liu, J.; Chandrashekar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’ (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, Odds ratio=2.5, P<0.001), but not with hemotropic mycoplasmas or Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  11. Oral Paracetamol for Patent Ductus Arteriosus Rescue Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharande, Pramod; Watson, Hadley; Tan, Kenneth; Sehgal, Arvind

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the efficacy of oral paracetamol in closing a symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) when used as 'rescue' option. After obtaining ethics approval, a retrospective appraisal of the data from April 2014 to July 2015 was performed. Infants who were administered oral paracetamol either after unsuccessful therapy with ibuprofen or where it was considered contraindicated were included. A previously published echocardiographic scoring schema to stratify for ductal disease severity was used. Using univariate analysis, characteristics of infants with successful closure were compared with partial (a priori reduction in composite score by ≥ 50% of pretreatment) or no closure. Twenty infants with gestation age and birthweight of 25.7 ± 1.5 weeks and 724.1 ± 143 g, respectively, were studied. Complete closure was noted in 10 (50%) infants with additional four infants showing a significant reduction in haemodynamic shunting. Gestational age at birth and at therapy, chronological age at therapy, birthweight and total fluid intake were comparable between the two groups. The pre-therapy composite score had a significant association with successful closure (the higher the echocardiographic score, the lesser the closure). Concomitant furosemide therapy and late-onset sepsis had a high likelihood ratio of unsuccessful closure (11.01 [2-tailed, p = 0.005] and 5.3 [2-tailed, p = 0.07]), respectively. Oral paracetamol may be a possible therapeutic option in premature infants where therapy with first-line agents is unsuccessful or contraindicated. Concomitant sepsis and furosemide administration may affect successful therapy.

  12. Treatment of Inherited Eye Defects by Systemic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Celine J; Kreymerman, Alexander; Ur, Sarah N; Frizzi, Katie E; Naphade, Swati; Lau, Athena; Tran, Tammy; Calcutt, Nigel A; Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Cherqui, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Cystinosis is caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin (CTNS gene), resulting in cystine crystal accumulation in tissues. In eyes, crystals accumulate in the cornea causing photophobia and eventually blindness. Hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) rescue the kidney in a mouse model of cystinosis. We investigated the potential for HSPC transplantation to treat corneal defects in cystinosis. We isolated HSPCs from transgenic DsRed mice and systemically transplanted irradiated Ctns-/- mice. A year posttransplantation, we investigated the fate and function of HSPCs by in vivo confocal and fluorescence microscopy (IVCM), quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), mass spectrometry, histology, and by measuring the IOP. To determine the mechanism by which HSPCs may rescue disease cells, we transplanted Ctns-/- mice with Ctns-/- DsRed HSPCs virally transduced to express functional CTNS-eGFP fusion protein. We found that a single systemic transplantation of wild-type HSPCs prevented ocular pathology in the Ctns-/- mice. Engraftment-derived HSPCs were detected within the cornea, and also in the sclera, ciliary body, retina, choroid, and lens. Transplantation of HSPC led to substantial decreases in corneal cystine crystals, restoration of normal corneal thickness, and lowered IOP in mice with high levels of donor-derived cell engraftment. Finally, we found that HSPC-derived progeny differentiated into macrophages, which displayed tunneling nanotubes capable of transferring cystinosin-bearing lysosomes to diseased cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HSPCs can rescue hereditary corneal defects, and supports a new potential therapeutic strategy for treating ocular pathologies.

  13. Determination of defect content and defect profile in semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubiaga, A; Garcia, J A; Plazaola, F; Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present an overview of the technique to obtain the defects depth profile and width of a deposited layer and multilayer based on positron annihilation spectroscopy. In particular we apply the method to ZnO and ZnO/ZnCdO layers deposited on sapphire substrates. After introducing some terminology we first calculate the trend that the W/S parameters of the Doppler broadening measurements must follow, both in a qualitative and quantitative way. From this point we extend the results to calculate the width and defect profiles in deposited layer samples.

  14. Determination of defect content and defect profile in semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubiaga, A [Laboratory of Physics, HUT, PO Box 1100, 02015 TKK, Espoo (Finland); Garcia, J A; Plazaola, F [Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unbertsitatea, P. K. 644, 48080, Bilbao (Spain); Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V, E-mail: fernando.plazaola@ehu.es [Universitat de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada i Electromagnetisme, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-10

    In this article we present an overview of the technique to obtain the defects depth profile and width of a deposited layer and multilayer based on positron annihilation spectroscopy. In particular we apply the method to ZnO and ZnO/ZnCdO layers deposited on sapphire substrates. After introducing some terminology we first calculate the trend that the W/S parameters of the Doppler broadening measurements must follow, both in a qualitative and quantitative way. From this point we extend the results to calculate the width and defect profiles in deposited layer samples.

  15. Turning goals into results: the power of catalytic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J

    1999-01-01

    Most executives have a big, hairy, audacious goal. They write vision statements, formalize procedures, and develop complicated incentive programs--all in pursuit of that goal. In other words, with the best of intentions, they install layers of stultifying bureaucracy. But it doesn't have to be that way. In this article, Jim Collins introduces the catalytic mechanism, a simple yet powerful managerial tool that helps translate lofty aspirations into concrete reality. Catalytic mechanisms are the crucial link between objectives and performance; they are a galvanizing, nonbureaucratic means to turn one into the other. What's the difference between catalytic mechanisms and most traditional managerial controls? Catalytic mechanisms share five characteristics. First, they produce desired results in unpredictable ways. Second, they distribute power for the benefit of the overall system, often to the discomfort of those who traditionally hold power. Third, catalytic mechanisms have teeth. Fourth, they eject "viruses"--those people who don't share the company's core values. Finally, they produce an ongoing effect. Catalytic mechanisms are just as effective for reaching individual goals as they are for corporate ones. To illustrate how catalytic mechanisms work, the author draws on examples of individuals and organizations that have relied on such mechanisms to achieve their goals. The same catalytic mechanism that works in one organization, however, will not necessarily work in another. Catalytic mechanisms must be tailored to specific goals and situations. To help readers get started, the author offers some general principles that support the process of building catalytic mechanisms effectively.

  16. Rescue of mitochondrial function in parkin-mutant fibroblasts using drug loaded PMPC-PDPA polymersomes and tubular polymersomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yealland, G; Battaglia, G; Bandmann, O; Mortiboys, H

    2016-09-06

    Mutations in parkin cause autosomal recessive Parkinsonism and mitochondrial defects. A recent drug screen identified a class of steroid-like hydrophobic compounds able to rescue mitochondrial function in parkin-mutant fibroblasts. Whilst these possess therapeutic potential, the size and high hydrophobicity of some may limit their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier from systemic circulation, something that could be improved by novel drug formulations. In the present study, the steroid-like compounds Ursolic Acid (UA) and Ursocholanic Acid (UCA) were successfully encapsulated within nanoscopic polymersomes formed by poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine)-poly(2-di-isopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PMPC-PDPA) and separated into spherical and tubular morphologies to assess the effects of nanoparticle mediated delivery on drug efficacy. Following incubation with either morphology, parkin-mutant fibroblasts demonstrated time and concentration dependent increases in intracellular ATP levels, resembling those resulting from treatment with nascent UA and UCA formulated in 0.1% DMSO, as used in the original drug screen. Empty PMPC-PDPA polymersomes did not alter physiological measures related to mitochondrial function or induce cytotoxicity. In combination with other techniques such as ligand functionalisation, PMPC-PDPA nanoparticles of well-defined morphology may prove a promising platform for tailoring the pharmacokinetic profile and organ specific bio-distribution of highly hydrophobic compounds. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Dendritic Spine Instability in a Mouse Model of CDKL5 Disorder Is Rescued by Insulin-like Growth Factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Sala, Grazia; Putignano, Elena; Chelini, Gabriele; Melani, Riccardo; Calcagno, Eleonora; Michele Ratto, Gian; Amendola, Elena; Gross, Cornelius T; Giustetto, Maurizio; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2016-08-15

    CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5) is mutated in many severe neurodevelopmental disorders, including atypical Rett syndrome. CDKL5 was shown to interact with synaptic proteins, but an in vivo analysis of the role of CDKL5 in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic molecular organization is still lacking. In vivo two-photon microscopy of the somatosensory cortex of Cdkl5(-/y) mice was applied to monitor structural dynamics of dendritic spines. Synaptic function and plasticity were measured using electrophysiological recordings of excitatory postsynaptic currents and long-term potentiation in brain slices and assessing the expression of synaptic postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95). Finally, we studied the impact of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) treatment on CDKL5 null mice to restore the synaptic deficits. Adult mutant mice showed a significant reduction in spine density and PSD-95-positive synaptic puncta, a reduction of persistent spines, and impaired long-term potentiation. In juvenile mutants, short-term spine elimination, but not formation, was dramatically increased. Exogenous administration of IGF-1 rescued defective rpS6 phosphorylation, spine density, and PSD-95 expression. Endogenous cortical IGF-1 levels were unaffected by CDKL5 deletion. These data demonstrate that dendritic spine stabilization is strongly regulated by CDKL5. Moreover, our data suggest that IGF-1 treatment could be a promising candidate for clinical trials in CDKL5 patients. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A small molecule inhibitor of mutant IDH2 rescues cardiomyopathy in a D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria type II mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Travins, Jeremy; Lin, Zhizhong; Si, Yaguang; Chen, Yue; Powe, Josh; Murray, Stuart; Zhu, Dongwei; Artin, Erin; Gross, Stefan; Santiago, Stephanie; Steadman, Mya; Kernytsky, Andrew; Straley, Kimberly; Lu, Chenming; Pop, Ana; Struys, Eduard A; Jansen, Erwin E W; Salomons, Gajja S; David, Muriel D; Quivoron, Cyril; Penard-Lacronique, Virginie; Regan, Karen S; Liu, Wei; Dang, Lenny; Yang, Hua; Silverman, Lee; Agresta, Samuel; Dorsch, Marion; Biller, Scott; Yen, Katharine; Cang, Yong; Su, Shin-San Michael; Jin, Shengfang

    2016-11-01

    D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D2HGA) type II is a rare neurometabolic disorder caused by germline gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), resulting in accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG). Patients exhibit a wide spectrum of symptoms including cardiomyopathy, epilepsy, developmental delay and limited life span. Currently, there are no effective therapeutic interventions. We generated a D2HGA type II mouse model by introducing the Idh2R140Q mutation at the native chromosomal locus. Idh2R140Q mice displayed significantly elevated 2HG levels and recapitulated multiple defects seen in patients. AGI-026, a potent, selective inhibitor of the human IDH2R140Q-mutant enzyme, suppressed 2HG production, rescued cardiomyopathy, and provided a survival benefit in Idh2R140Q mice; treatment withdrawal resulted in deterioration of cardiac function. We observed differential expression of multiple genes and metabolites that are associated with cardiomyopathy, which were largely reversed by AGI-026. These findings demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefit of an IDH2R140Q inhibitor in patients with D2HGA type II.

  19. Defects in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billò, Marco; Gonçalves, Vasco; Lauria, Edoardo; Meineri, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We discuss consequences of the breaking of conformal symmetry by a flat or spherical extended operator. We adapt the embedding formalism to the study of correlation functions of symmetric traceless tensors in the presence of the defect. Two-point functions of a bulk and a defect primary are fixed by conformal invariance up to a set of OPE coefficients, and we identify the allowed tensor structures. A correlator of two bulk primaries depends on two cross-ratios, and we study its conformal block decomposition in the case of external scalars. The Casimir equation in the defect channel reduces to a hypergeometric equation, while the bulk channel blocks are recursively determined in the light-cone limit. In the special case of a defect of codimension two, we map the Casimir equation in the bulk channel to the one of a four-point function without defect. Finally, we analyze the contact terms of the stress-tensor with the extended operator, and we deduce constraints on the CFT data. In two dimensions, we relate the displacement operator, which appears among the contact terms, to the reflection coefficient of a conformal interface, and we find unitarity bounds for the latter.

  20. Defects in conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billò, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1 I-10125 Torino (Italy); Gonçalves, Vasco [Centro de Física do Porto,Departamento de Física e Astronomia Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research Instituto de Física Teórica,UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lauria, Edoardo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Meineri, Marco [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Scuola Normale Superiore, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Pisa,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    We discuss consequences of the breaking of conformal symmetry by a flat or spherical extended operator. We adapt the embedding formalism to the study of correlation functions of symmetric traceless tensors in the presence of the defect. Two-point functions of a bulk and a defect primary are fixed by conformal invariance up to a set of OPE coefficients, and we identify the allowed tensor structures. A correlator of two bulk primaries depends on two cross-ratios, and we study its conformal block decomposition in the case of external scalars. The Casimir equation in the defect channel reduces to a hypergeometric equation, while the bulk channel blocks are recursively determined in the light-cone limit. In the special case of a defect of codimension two, we map the Casimir equation in the bulk channel to the one of a four-point function without defect. Finally, we analyze the contact terms of the stress-tensor with the extended operator, and we deduce constraints on the CFT data. In two dimensions, we relate the displacement operator, which appears among the contact terms, to the reflection coefficient of a conformal interface, and we find unitarity bounds for the latter.

  1. Effect of support on the catalytic activity of manganese oxide catalyts for toluene combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozan, Gulin Selda

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► α-Al 2 O 3 , obtained from Bohmite, as a support for enhancing of the activity. ► The support material for catalytic oxidation. ► The manganese state and oxygen species effect on the catalytic combustion reaction. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to study combustion of toluene (1000 ppm) over MnO 2 modified with different supports. α-Al 2 O 3 and γ-Al 2 O 3 obtained from Boehmite, γ-Al 2 O 3 (commercial), SiO 2 , TiO 2 and ZrO 2 were used as commercial support materials. In view of potential interest of this process, the influence of support material on the catalytic performance was discussed. The deposition of 9.5MnO 2 was performed by impregnation over support. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed reduction and oxidation (TPR/TPO) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic tests were carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed-bed flow reactor. 9.5MnO 2 /α-Al 2 O 3 (B) (synthesized from Boehmite) catalyst exhibits the highest catalytic activity, over which the toluene conversion was up to 90% at a temperature of 289 °C. Considering all the characterization and reaction data reported in this study, it was concluded that the manganese state and oxygen species played an important role in the catalytic activity.

  2. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Busca, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  3. UvA Rescue - Team Description Paper - Agent competition - Rescue Simulation League RoboCup 2014 - João Pessoa - Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traichioiu, M.; Visser, A.

    2014-01-01

    This year's contribution of the UvA Rescue Team is twofold. On one hand a theoretical contribution is made by describing the planning and coordination problem formally as an POMDP problem, which will allow to apply POMDP-solution methods in this application area. On the other hand the impact of the

  4. UvA Rescue Technical Report: a description of the methods and algorithms implemented in the UvA Rescue code release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2012-01-01

    This technical report gives the background documentation behind the competition code of the UvA Rescue Team, who participates in the RoboCup Simulation League. The described code is used in the Virtual Robot competition, where a team of robots, guided by a single operator, has to find as many

  5. Detection of paint polishing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Wagner, M.; Mazal, J.; Rosén, B.-G.; Dahlén, M.

    2018-06-01

    Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as ‘polishing roses’ or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight. This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects’ intensity, severity and viewing angle.

  6. Theory of Defects in Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Drabold, David A

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor science and technology is the art of defect engineering. The theoretical modeling of defects has improved dramatically over the past decade. These tools are now applied to a wide range of materials issues: quantum dots, buckyballs, spintronics, interfaces, amorphous systems, and many others. This volume presents a coherent and detailed description of the field, and brings together leaders in theoretical research. Today's state-of-the-art, as well as tomorrow’s tools, are discussed: the supercell-pseudopotential method, the GW formalism,Quantum Monte Carlo, learn-on-the-fly molecular dynamics, finite-temperature treatments, etc. A wealth of applications are included, from point defects to wafer bonding or the propagation of dislocation.

  7. Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiol, Bartomeu, E-mail: bfiol@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS{sub 4} × S{sup 7}, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.

  8. Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiol, Bartomeu

    2010-01-01

    We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS 4 × S 7 , and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory

  9. Rail inspection of RCF defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Popović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rail defects due to rolling contact fatigue (RCF threaten the traffic safety around the world. That hazard is more distinct on railways without adequate maintenance strategy. Realization of interoperability of European railway network demands from every infrastructure manager to have a maintenance plan for the infrastructure subsystem. Besides that, this plan includes rail inspection and strategy against RCF defects. This paper emphasizes the importance of rail inspection and early detection of RCF because the most of RCF crack should be removed in rail grinding campaigns (preventive, cyclical and corrective activities during the whole rail service life.

  10. Defect characterization with positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granatelli, L.; Lynn, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    Positron annihilation in metal crystals is reviewed. A brief introduction to the positron annihilation technique is presented first. Then the ability of the positron technique to perform microstructural characterization of four types of lattice defects (vacancies, voids, dislocations, grain boundaries) is discussed. It is frequently not possible to obtain samples that contain only one type of defect in nonnegligible concentrations. Such situations exist for some alloys and for fatigued metal samples. Finally, the current limitations and some future prospects of the technique are presented. 79 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  11. Engineering Metallic Nanoparticles for Enhancing and Probing Catalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gillian; Holmes, Justin D

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments in tailoring the structural and chemical properties of colloidal metal nanoparticles (NPs) have led to significant enhancements in catalyst performance. Controllable colloidal synthesis has also allowed tailor-made NPs to serve as mechanistic probes for catalytic processes. The innovative use of colloidal NPs to gain fundamental insights into catalytic function will be highlighted across a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic applications. The engineering of future heterogenous catalysts is also moving beyond size, shape and composition considerations. Advancements in understanding structure-property relationships have enabled incorporation of complex features such as tuning surface strain to influence the behavior of catalytic NPs. Exploiting plasmonic properties and altering colloidal surface chemistry through functionalization are also emerging as important areas for rational design of catalytic NPs. This news article will highlight the key developments and challenges to the future design of catalytic NPs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Catalytic cracking models developed for predictive control purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ljungqvist

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with state-space modeling issues in the context of model-predictive control, with application to catalytic cracking. Emphasis is placed on model establishment, verification and online adjustment. Both the Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC and the Residual Catalytic Cracking (RCC units are discussed. Catalytic cracking units involve complex interactive processes which are difficult to operate and control in an economically optimal way. The strong nonlinearities of the FCC process mean that the control calculation should be based on a nonlinear model with the relevant constraints included. However, the model can be simple compared to the complexity of the catalytic cracking plant. Model validity is ensured by a robust online model adjustment strategy. Model-predictive control schemes based on linear convolution models have been successfully applied to the supervisory dynamic control of catalytic cracking units, and the control can be further improved by the SSPC scheme.

  13. Defective homing is associated with altered Cdc42 activity in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia group A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Shang, Xun; Guo, Fukun; Murphy, Kim; Kirby, Michelle; Kelly, Patrick; Reeves, Lilith; Smith, Franklin O.; Williams, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Fanconi anemia (FA) murine stem cells have defective reconstitution after bone marrow (BM) transplantation. The mechanism underlying this defect is not known. Here, we report defective homing of FA patient BM progenitors transplanted into mouse models. Using cells from patients carrying mutations in FA complementation group A (FA-A), we show that when transplanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) recipient mice, FA-A BM cells exhibited impaired homing activity. FA-A cells also showed defects in both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Complementation of FA-A deficiency by reexpression of FANCA readily restored adhesion of FA-A cells. A significant decrease in the activity of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 was found associated with these defective functions in patient-derived cells, and expression of a constitutively active Cdc42 mutant was able to rescue the adhesion defect of FA-A cells. These results provide the first evidence that FA proteins influence human BM progenitor homing and adhesion via the small GTPase Cdc42-regulated signaling pathway. PMID:18565850

  14. Protein structure based prediction of catalytic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, J Eduardo; Fiser, Andras

    2013-02-22

    Worldwide structural genomics projects continue to release new protein structures at an unprecedented pace, so far nearly 6000, but only about 60% of these proteins have any sort of functional annotation. We explored a range of features that can be used for the prediction of functional residues given a known three-dimensional structure. These features include various centrality measures of nodes in graphs of interacting residues: closeness, betweenness and page-rank centrality. We also analyzed the distance of functional amino acids to the general center of mass (GCM) of the structure, relative solvent accessibility (RSA), and the use of relative entropy as a measure of sequence conservation. From the selected features, neural networks were trained to identify catalytic residues. We found that using distance to the GCM together with amino acid type provide a good discriminant function, when combined independently with sequence conservation. Using an independent test set of 29 annotated protein structures, the method returned 411 of the initial 9262 residues as the most likely to be involved in function. The output 411 residues contain 70 of the annotated 111 catalytic residues. This represents an approximately 14-fold enrichment of catalytic residues on the entire input set (corresponding to a sensitivity of 63% and a precision of 17%), a performance competitive with that of other state-of-the-art methods. We found that several of the graph based measures utilize the same underlying feature of protein structures, which can be simply and more effectively captured with the distance to GCM definition. This also has the added the advantage of simplicity and easy implementation. Meanwhile sequence conservation remains by far the most influential feature in identifying functional residues. We also found that due the rapid changes in size and composition of sequence databases, conservation calculations must be recalibrated for specific reference databases.

  15. Theoretical insights into the energetics and electronic properties of MPt{sub 12} (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Pd) nanoparticles supported by N-doped defective graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qing [Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Photochemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Tian, Yu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin, 150025 (China); Chen, Guangju, E-mail: gjchen@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Photochemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Zhao, Jingxiang, E-mail: xjz_hmily@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin, 150025 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • We studied the deposition of several Pt-based alloy NPs on N-doped defective graphene. • The N-doped graphene can provide anchoring site for Pt-based NPs. • The electronic properties of Pt-based NPs have been greatly modified. • The catalytic properties of Pt-based NPs can be enhanced. - Abstract: Enhancing the catalytic activity and decreasing the usage of Pt catalysts has been a major target in widening their applications for developing proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In this work, the adsorption energetics, structural features, and electronic properties of several MPt{sub 12} (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Pd) nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on N-doped defective graphene were systemically explored by means of comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) computations. The computations revealed that the defective N-doped graphene substrate can provide anchoring site for these Pt-based alloying NPs due to their strong hybridization with the sp{sup 2} dangling bonds at the defect sites of substrate. Especially, these deposited MPt{sub 12} NPs exhibit reduced magnetic moment and their average d-band centers are shifted away from the Fermi level, as compared with the freestanding NPs, leading to the reduction of the adsorption energies of the O species. Thus, the defective N-doped graphene substrate not only enhances the stability of the deposited MPt{sub 12} NPs, but also endows them higher catalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  16. Dendrimer-based selective autophagy-induction rescues ΔF508-CFTR and inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Mackenzie Brockman

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis (CF is a genetic disorder caused by mutation(s in the CF-transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr gene. The most common mutation, ΔF508, leads to accumulation of defective-CFTR protein in aggresome-bodies. Additionally, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa, a common CF pathogen, exacerbates obstructive CF lung pathology. In the present study, we aimed to develop and test a novel strategy to improve the bioavailability and potentially achieve targeted drug delivery of cysteamine, a potent autophagy-inducing drug with anti-bacterial properties, by developing a dendrimer (PAMAM-DEN-based cysteamine analogue.We first evaluated the effect of dendrimer-based cysteamine analogue (PAMAM-DENCYS on the intrinsic autophagy response in IB3-1 cells and observed a significant reduction in Ub-RFP and LC3-GFP co-localization (aggresome-bodies by PAMAM-DENCYS treatment as compared to plain dendrimer (PAMAM-DEN control. Next, we observed that PAMAM-DENCYS treatment shows a modest rescue of ΔF508-CFTR as the C-form. Moreover, immunofluorescence microscopy of HEK-293 cells transfected with ΔF508-CFTR-GFP showed that PAMAM-DENCYS is able to rescue the misfolded-ΔF508-CFTR from aggresome-bodies by inducing its trafficking to the plasma membrane. We further verified these results by flow cytometry and observed significant (p<0.05; PAMAM-DEN vs. PAMAM-DENCYS rescue of membrane-ΔF508-CFTR with PAMAM-DENCYS treatment using non-permeabilized IB3-1 cells immunostained for CFTR. Finally, we assessed the autophagy-mediated bacterial clearance potential of PAMAM-DENCYS by treating IB3-1 cells infected with PA01-GFP, and observed a significant (p<0.01; PAMAM-DEN vs. PAMAM-DENCYS decrease in intracellular bacterial counts by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Also, PAMAM-DENCYS treatment significantly inhibits the growth of PA01-GFP bacteria and demonstrates potent mucolytic properties.We demonstrate here the efficacy of dendrimer-based autophagy

  17. The Polar Rock Repository: Rescuing Polar Collections for New Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.

    2016-12-01

    /spectral imaging of Transantarctic Mountains rocks. Rescuing these collections from universities that no longer want to store the rocks or from researchers who no longer need the samples has resulted in many new publications, new proposals and enormous cost and environmental savings to the U.S. Antarctic science program.

  18. More than a bystander: the contributions of intrinsic skeletal muscle defects in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Justin G; Ferrier, Andrew; Kothary, Rashmi

    2013-12-18

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) are devastating diseases characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons. Although the molecular causes underlying these diseases differ, recent findings have highlighted the contribution of intrinsic skeletal muscle defects in motor neuron diseases. The use of cell culture and animal models has led to the important finding that muscle defects occur prior to and independently of motor neuron degeneration in motor neuron diseases. In SMA for instance, the muscle specific requirements of the SMA disease-causing gene have been demonstrated by a series of genetic rescue experiments in SMA models. Conditional ALS mouse models expressing a muscle specific mutant SOD1 gene develop atrophy and muscle degeneration in the absence of motor neuron pathology. Treating SBMA mice by over-expressing IGF-1 in a skeletal muscle-specific manner attenuates disease severity and improves motor neuron pathology. In the present review, we provide an in depth description of muscle intrinsic defects, and discuss how they impact muscle function in these diseases. Furthermore, we discuss muscle-specific therapeutic strategies used to treat animal models of SMA, ALS, and SBMA. The study of intrinsic skeletal muscle defects is crucial for the understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases and will open new therapeutic options for the treatment of motor neuron diseases.

  19. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  20. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.; Gibson, G.W.; Ortman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented