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Sample records for resanaye shafafe zno

  1. ZnO Film Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosi Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized high-quality, nanoscale ultrathin ZnO films at relatively low temperature using a facile and effective hydrothermal approach. ZnO films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The products demonstrated 95% photodegradation efficiency with Congo red (CR after 40 min irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange (MO and eosin red also were carried out. The results indicate that the as-obtained ZnO films might be promising candidates as the excellent photocatalysts for elimination of waste water.

  2. ZnO UV Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation-hard UV detectors will be developed with ZnO in Phase I efforts by MOXtronics, Inc. (MOX). ZnO is a very suitable material for fabrication of high-speed,...

  3. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndrez Manuel; Martínez Eduardo; Solís-Pomar Francisco; Pérez-Tijerina Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100) substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the norm...

  4. ZnO UV Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-efficiency UV detectors will be developed in the Phase II program with ZnO and its alloy (ZnBeO). ZnO and ZnBeO are a very suitable material for fabrication of...

  5. ZnO nanocrystals and allied materials

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has been the central theme of research in the past decade due to its various applications in band gap engineering, and textile and biomedical industries. In nanostructured form, it offers ample opportunities to realize tunable optical and optoelectronic properties and it was also termed as a potential material to realize room temperature ferromagnetism. This book presents 17 high-quality contributory chapters on ZnO related systems written by experts in this field. These chapters will help researchers to understand and explore the varied physical properties to envisage device applications of ZnO in thin film, heterostructure and nanostructure forms.

  6. ZnO nanostructures and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaowei, Sun

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the various functional properties and potential applications of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, from basic principles to our most recent discoveries. It comprises experimental analysis of various properties of ZnO nanostructures, preparation techniques, research methods, and some promising applications. The areas of focus include ZnO-based gas/biochemical sensing devices, field emitters, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, e-papers, and single-nanowire-based transistors.

  7. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndrez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100 substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.

  8. Investigation into the antibacterial behaviour of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO nanofluids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lingling; Jiang Yunhong; Ding Yulong [University of Leeds, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering (United Kingdom)], E-mail: y.ding@leeds.ac.uk; Povey, Malcolm [University of Leeds, Procter Department of Food Science (United Kingdom); York, David [Procter and Gamble Newcastle Technical Centre (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    The antibacterial behaviour of suspensions of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO nanofluids) against E. Coli has been investigated. ZnO nanoparticles from two sources are used to formulate nanofluids. The effects of particle size, concentration and the use of dispersants on the antibacterial behaviour are examined. The results show that the ZnO nanofluids have bacteriostatic activity against E. coli. The antibacterial activity increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and increases with decreasing particle size. Particle concentration is observed to be more important than particle size under the conditions of this work. The results also show that the use of two types of dispersants (Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and Polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP)) does not affect much the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanofluids but enhances the stability of the suspensions. SEM analyses of the bacteria before and after treatment with ZnO nanofluids show that the presence of ZnO nanoparticles damages the membrane wall of the bacteria. Electrochemical measurements using a model DOPC monolayer suggest some direct interaction between ZnO nanoparticles and the bacteria membrane at high ZnO concentrations.

  9. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Pomar, Francisco; Martínez, Eduardo; Meléndrez, Manuel F; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo

    2011-09-07

    A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100) substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS: 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.).

  10. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), which gave the evidence of 1-D ZnO nanorods, polymerization of pyrrole monomer and strong interaction between PPy and 1-D ZnO nanorods, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of 1-D ZnO ...

  11. Superhydrophobic ZnO networks with high water adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Florica, Camelia; Preda, Nicoleta; Enculescu, Monica; Zgura, Irina; Socol, Marcela; Enculescu, Ionut

    2014-01-01

    ZnO structures were deposited using a simple chemical bath deposition technique onto interdigitated electrodes fabricated by a conventional photolithography method on SiO2/Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO samples have a hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy observations prove that the substrates are uniformly covered by ZnO networks formed by monodisperse rods. The ZnO rod average diameter and length were tuned by controlling ...

  12. Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals via ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, D.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Hansen, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents...... for the precipitation of ZnO....

  13. Synthesis and optical characteristics of ZnO nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The average crystal size of the as prepared ZnO nanopowder is determined by XRD and the values are in good agreement with the TEM analysis. UV absorption spectra revealed the absorption at wavelength < 370 nm indicating the smaller size of ZnO nanoparticles. The quality and purity of ZnO nanomaterial crystalline ...

  14. Intrinsic Ferromagnetism in Eu doped ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Assadi, M. H. N.; Zhang, Y. B.; Ionescu, M.; Photongkam, P.; Li, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report room temperature ferromagnetism in as-implanted Eu doped ZnO (ZnO:Eu). To address the origin of ferromagnetism ab initio calculations of ZnO:Eu system are performed. Results show that the ferromagnetism is induced by ZnO point defects as Eu ions in perfect ZnO tend to align antiferromagnetically.

  15. Ultrasonic-assisted fabrication of superhydrophobic ZnO nanowall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... ics, photonics and energy conversion applications. Okyay et al [6] grew ZnO nanorods on ZnO ... applications. As per the literature review, there are no reports regarding the growth of ZnO nanowalls on glass ... sonic waves (Ultrasonic Processor, Sonics and Systems, 500. W, 20 kHz at 20% efficiency) were ...

  16. Electrowetting on ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei; Wang, Bao-Ping

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the electrowetting character on ZnO nanowires. We grow the ZnO nanowires on indium tin oxide (ITO) by a hydrothermal method, and the ZnO nanowires surface is further hydrophobized by spin-coating Teflon. Such a prepared surface shows superhydrophobic properties with an initial contact angle 165°. When the applied external voltage between the ITO and the sessile droplet is less than 50 V, the contact angle continuously changed from 165° to 120°, and exhibits instant reversibility. For a slightly higher voltage, a mutation of the contact angle changing to 100° was observed and the contact angle was not reversible after removing the applied voltage, which indicates a transition from non-wetting state to wetting state. Further increasing of the applied voltage, the apparent contact angle decreased to an invariable value 70°, and electrical breakdown emerged synchronously.

  17. Photoluminescence properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lommens, P.; Smet, P.F.; De Mello Donega, C.

    2006-01-01

    We performed photoluminescence experiments on colloidal, Co -doped ZnO nanocrystals in order to study the electronic properties of Co in a ZnO host. Room temperature measurements showed, next to the ZnO exciton and trap emission, an additional emission related to the Co dopant. The spectral...... position and width of this emission does not depend on particle size or Co concentration. At 8 K, a series of ZnO bulk phonon replicas appear on the Co-emission band. We conclude that Co ions are strongly localized in the ZnO host, making the formation of a Co d-band unlikely. Magnetic measurements...

  18. ZnO nanofluids: Green synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalal, Razieh [Dept. of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91779 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goharshadi, Elaheh K., E-mail: gohari@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir [Dept. of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91779 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Nano Research, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abareshi, Maryam [Dept. of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91779 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moosavi, Majid [Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Abbas [Pare-Tavous Research Institute, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nancarrow, Paul [QUILL Research Centre and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by microwave decomposition of zinc acetate precursor using an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, [bmim][NTf{sub 2}] as a green solvent. The structure and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The ZnO nanofluids have been prepared by dispersing ZnO nanoparticles in glycerol as a base fluid in the presence of ammonium citrate as a dispersant. The antibacterial activity of suspensions of ZnO nanofluids against (E. coli) has been evaluated by estimating the reduction ratio of the bacteria treated with ZnO. Survival ratio of bacteria decreases with increasing the concentrations of ZnO nanofluids and time. The results show that an increase in the concentrations of ZnO nanofluids produces strong antibacterial activity toward E. coli.

  19. Growth of novel ZnO nanohelices modified by SiO{sub 2}-sheathed ZnO discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, PO Box 3025, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, X T [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Zhou, M Y [Department of Physics, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, Z G [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, PO Box 3025, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang, X Z [Department of Physics, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2007-02-14

    Disc-modified nanohelices (DNHs) of ZnO were synthesized by thermal evaporation. The ZnO DNHs are constructed by nanowires which are regularly attached with discs. The axis of the DNH structure is along the ZnO[0001] direction. The pitch distance, the mean diameter, and the thickness of the nanowires are uniform for each ZnO DNH. Within one period there are 12 discs symmetrically attached on the surfaces of the nanowires. The discs are composed of nanometre-sized ZnO crystal cores and amorphous SiO{sub 2} shells. The mechanism of formation of the nanostructures is also discussed.

  20. Cr-N co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modified photocatalysts were synthesized by the incipient wetness impregnation method (chromium-doped ZnO) and by solid state reactions using ZnO and urea as precursors (nitrogen-doped ZnO). Chromium-nitrogen co-doped ZnO nanomaterials were prepared from the already prepared N-doped ZnO nanomaterials via ...

  1. Fabrication and characterization of ZnO and Li doped ZnO by a sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadillah, L.; Soegijono, B.; Budiawanti, S.; Mudzakir, I.

    2017-07-01

    The substitution of group-I and or group V elements on Zn-site and O-site respectively are challenge that needs to be overcome for the realization of the most ZnO based application materials. The process of fabrication to obtain high quality crystal samples in various structures should be handled carefully with precaution. ZnO and Li doped ZnO have been fabricated via sol-gel method. The samples have been observed by means of X-ray diffractometer, Thermal gravimetry analyzer (TGA), and FTIR. The characterization results show similar to commercial powder for undoped ZnO while Li doped ZnO show a shifting in crystallographic properties. It concludes that fabrication of high quality ZnO and Li doped ZnO was accomplished.

  2. Photoluminescence of nanocoral ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiewicz, M.A., E-mail: mbory@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotników 32/46, Warsaw 02-668 (Poland); Wzorek, M. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotników 32/46, Warsaw 02-668 (Poland); Wojciechowski, T.; Wojtowicz, T. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, Warsaw 02-668 (Poland); Kamińska, E.; Piotrowska, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotników 32/46, Warsaw 02-668 (Poland)

    2014-03-15

    Photoluminescence studies of nanocoral ZnO nanostructures, fabricated using magnetron sputter deposition of porous Zn films with subsequent oxidation by RTP annealing at 400–800 °C is presented. Structural characterization of the films performed using electron microscopy techniques show the nanocoral morphology of the films with individual coral branches constituting of bunched single crystal ZnO grains of 30–100 nm in dimensions. High resolution images confirm the high quality of individual grains. The features in the photoluminescence spectra are identified using temperature-dependent and power-dependent measurements, with rich features observed in the excitonic region at 5 K, as well as zinc vacancy lines and surface-state recombination lines being present. It is found, that the spectra significantly depend on the annealing temperatures of the samples, with the spectra acquired for the sample annealed at 800 °C exhibiting stronger excitonic emission by 2 orders of magnitude than any other features, thus proving the highest structural quality of the nanostructures. -- Highlights: • Photoluminescence (PL) of nanocoral ZnO nanostructures is studied. • Nanocoral ZnO fabricated by sputtering with post deposition oxidation at 400–800 °C. • PL spectra taken at 300 K and 5 K exhibit excitonic and intrinsic defect lines. • Rich excitonic features identified in temperature- /power-dependent spectra. • Structures fabricated at 800 °C show significantly dominating excitonic emission.

  3. Reducing ZnO nanoparticles toxicity through silica coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Sing Ling; Leong, David Tai

    2016-10-01

    ZnO NPs have good antimicrobial activity that can be utilized as agents to prevent harmful microorganism growth in food. However, the use of ZnO NPs as food additive is limited by the perceived high toxicity of ZnO NPs in many earlier toxicity studies. In this study, surface modification by silica coating was used to reduce the toxicity of ZnO NPs by significantly reducing the dissolution of the core ZnO NPs. To more accurately recapitulate the scenario of ingested ZnO NPs, we tested our as synthesized ZnO NPs in ingestion fluids (synthetic saliva and synthetic gastric juice) to determine the possible forms of ZnO NPs in digestive system before exposing the products to colorectal cell lines. The results showed that silica coating is highly effective in reducing toxicity of ZnO NPs through prevention of the dissociation of ZnO NPs to zinc ions in both neutral and acidic condition. The silica coating however did not alter the desired antimicrobial activity of ZnO NPs to E. coli and S. aureus. Thus, silica coating offered a potential solution to improve the biocompatibility of ZnO NPs for applications such as antimicrobial agent in foods or food related products like food packaging. Nevertheless, caution remains that high concentration of silica coated ZnO NPs can still induce undesirable cytotoxicity to mammalian gut cells. This study indicated that upstream safer-by-design philosophy in nanotechnology can be very helpful in a product development.

  4. Reducing ZnO nanoparticles toxicity through silica coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Ling Chia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO NPs have good antimicrobial activity that can be utilized as agents to prevent harmful microorganism growth in food. However, the use of ZnO NPs as food additive is limited by the perceived high toxicity of ZnO NPs in many earlier toxicity studies. In this study, surface modification by silica coating was used to reduce the toxicity of ZnO NPs by significantly reducing the dissolution of the core ZnO NPs. To more accurately recapitulate the scenario of ingested ZnO NPs, we tested our as synthesized ZnO NPs in ingestion fluids (synthetic saliva and synthetic gastric juice to determine the possible forms of ZnO NPs in digestive system before exposing the products to colorectal cell lines. The results showed that silica coating is highly effective in reducing toxicity of ZnO NPs through prevention of the dissociation of ZnO NPs to zinc ions in both neutral and acidic condition. The silica coating however did not alter the desired antimicrobial activity of ZnO NPs to E. coli and S. aureus. Thus, silica coating offered a potential solution to improve the biocompatibility of ZnO NPs for applications such as antimicrobial agent in foods or food related products like food packaging. Nevertheless, caution remains that high concentration of silica coated ZnO NPs can still induce undesirable cytotoxicity to mammalian gut cells. This study indicated that upstream safer-by-design philosophy in nanotechnology can be very helpful in a product development.

  5. Growth of a Novel Nanostructured ZnO Urchin: Control of Cytotoxicity and Dissolution of the ZnO Urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Roghayeh; Drašler, Barbara; Kononenko, Veno; Romih, Tea; Eleršič, Kristina; Jelenc, Janez; Junkar, Ita; Remškar, Maja; Drobne, Damjana; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš

    2015-12-01

    The applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) in implantable wireless devices, such as diagnostic nanobiosensors and nanobiogenerators, have recently attracted enormous attention due to their unique properties. However, for these implantable nanodevices, the biocompatibility and the ability to control the behaviour of cells in contact with ZnO NWs are demanded for the success of these implantable devices, but to date, only a few contrasting results from their biocompatibility can be found. There is a need for more research about the biocompatibility of ZnO nanostructures and the adhesion and viability of cells on the surface of ZnO nanostructures. Here, we introduce synthesis of a new nature-inspired nanostructured ZnO urchin, with the dimensions of the ZnO urchin's acicula being controllable. To examine the biocompatibility and behaviour of cells in contact with the ZnO urchin, the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell line was chosen as an in vitro experimental model. The results of the viability assay indicated that, compared to control, the number of viable cells attached to the surface of the ZnO urchin and its surrounding area were reduced. The measurements of the Zn contents of cell media confirmed ZnO dissolution, which suggests that the ZnO dissolution in cell culture medium could lead to cytotoxicity. A purposeful reduction of ZnO cytotoxicity was achieved by surface coating of the ZnO urchin with poly(vinylidene fluorid-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), which changed the material matrix to slow the Zn ion release and consequently reduce the cytotoxicity of the ZnO urchin without reducing its functionality.

  6. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped ZnO....... Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...... for conventional ZnO materials. For Al-doped ZnO, α- and γ-Al2O3 were selectively used as dopants in order to understand the doping mechanism of each phase and their effects on the thermoelectric properties. The samples were prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique from precursors calcined at various...

  7. Strain effects on valence bands of wurtzite ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, LiPing; Chai, ChangChun; Jin, Zhao; Yang, YinTang; Ma, ZhenYang

    2013-09-01

    Based on the k.p theory of Luttinger-Kohn and Bir-Pikus, analytical E-k solutions for the valence band of strained wurtzite ZnO materials are obtained. Strain effects on valence band edges and hole effective masses in strained wurtzite ZnO materials are also discussed. In comparison with unstrained ZnO materials, apparent movement of valence band edges such as "light hole band", "heavy hole band" and "crystal splitting band" at Γ point is found in strained wurtzite ZnO materials. Moreover, effective masses of "light hole band", "heavy hole band" and "crystal splitting band" for strained wurtzite ZnO materials as the function of stress are given. The analytical results can provide a theoretical foundation for the understanding of physics of strained ZnO materials and its applications with the framework for an effective mass theory.

  8. Synthesis and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Li-li YANG

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures have great potential applications in the fields of optoelectronic and sensor devices. Therefore, it is really important to realize the controllable growth of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures and investigate their properties. The main points for this thesis are not only to successfully realize the controllable growth of ZnO nonawires, nanorods and quantum dots (QDs), and also investigate the structure and optical properties in detail by the methods of scan ...

  9. Effect of Zn/O contents ratio on the structural, optical and electrical properties of MBE grown ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M.; Mahmood, K.; Malik, F.; Rabia, S.; M, Samaa B.; Hasan, M. A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the strong dependence of structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO on the concentration of Zn/O has been observed. Four samples of ZnO with Zn/O-ratio of 1.08, 1.12, 1.17 and 1.22 were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern demonstrates that intensity of (002) peak and crystallite size decreases as the Zn/O ratio increases in the samples, suggesting that the crystallinity of the samples degraded. In Raman spectra the Ehigh2 mode shifts towards higher frequency with increasing the concentration of Zn in films. According to electrical measurements, the VO-Zni act as donor defects in ZnO because the carrier concentration increases and resistivity decreases with increasing the Zn/O ratio in the samples.

  10. Preparation and characterization of ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO films by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin ZHANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO thin films are prepared on glass substrate by sol-gel method, and the surface morphology, structure and optical property are analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results show that both films have a smooth surface and a hexagonal wurtzite structure with orienting along the (101 plane. Compared with the ZnO film, the surface of Fe-doped ZnO film becomes smoother, and its grain size decreases from 58.512 nm of the ZnO film to 36.460 nm. Moreover, after Fe doping, the orientation degree of (101 plane is weakened, and the optical band gap energy increases from 3.1 eV of the ZnO film to 3.4 eV.

  11. Fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles by laser ablation of sintered ZnO in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Keisuke; Nanai, Yasushi; Okuno, Tsuyoshi [University of Electro-Communications, Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, Seiji [University of Electro-Communications, The Center for Instrumental Analysis, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    Fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquid medium is reported. The possibility of using a sintered ZnO target for the ablation as well as a Zn plate is demonstrated. The appropriate aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate is found to be 1 mM for ZnO growing. The shape of ZnO nanoparticles is sphere and its diameter is 30{proportional_to}60 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman scattering spectra, and photoluminescence spectra reveal the optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles. Nanoparticles obtained by using ZnO targets show a smaller defect density compared with those by using Zn targets. (orig.)

  12. Optical Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Capped with Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Noguchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles capped with polymers were investigated. Polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP were used as capping reagents. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Fluorescence and absorption spectra were measured. When we varied the timing of the addition of the polymer to the ZnO nanoparticle solution, the optical properties were drastically changed. When PEG was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence intensity increased. At the same time, the total particle size increased, which indicated that PEG molecules had capped the ZnO nanoparticles. The capping led to surface passivation, which increased fluorescence intensity. However, when PEG was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence and particle size did not change. When PVP was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, aggregation of nanoparticles occurred. When PVP was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, fluorescence and particle size increased. This improvement of optical properties is advantageous to the practical usage of ZnO nanoparticles, such as bioimaging

  13. An organometallic route to chiroptically active ZnO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwojnowska, Elżbieta; Wolska-Pietkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grzonka, Justyna; Lewiński, Janusz

    2017-10-12

    The unique optical properties of zinc oxide nanocrystals (ZnO NCs) are strongly dependent on both the properties and the composition of the inorganic core-organic ligand interface. Developing a novel organometallic self-supporting approach, we report on the synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanocrystals coated by chiral monoanionic aminoalcoholate ligands. The resulting ZnO NCs are both chiroptically active and possess size dependent optical properties. The size and in consequence the emission color of the ZnO NCs could be simply adjusted by the characteristic of the aminoalcohol used.

  14. Resistive switching behaviors of ZnO nanorod layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Chin-An; He-Hau, Jr.; Wu, Tai-Bor

    2010-06-01

    We have fabricated vertically aligned ZnO nanorod layers (NRLs) on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes using a hydrothermal process. The Pt/ZnO NRL/ITO capacitor exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior. The resistive switching behavior may be related to the oxygen vacancies and/or zinc interstitials confined on the surface of the ZnO NRs, giving rise to the formation of straight and extensible conducting filaments along each vertically aligned ZnO NR. Superior stability in resistive switching characteristics was also observed, demonstrating that ZnO NRLs have the potential for next-generation nonvolatile memory applications.

  15. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanostructures - revew article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Baruah and Joydeep Dutta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional nanostructures exhibit interesting electronic and optical properties due to their low dimensionality leading to quantum confinement effects. ZnO has received lot of attention as a nanostructured material because of unique properties rendering it suitable for various applications. Amongst the different methods of synthesis of ZnO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is attractive for its simplicity and environment friendly conditions. This review summarizes the conditions leading to the growth of different ZnO nanostructures using hydrothermal technique. Doping of ZnO nanostructures through hydrothermal method are also highlighted.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of PVP stabilized ZnO and modified ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandekar, Gauri; Rajurkar, N. S.; Mulla, I. S.; Mulik, U. P.; Amalnerkar, D. P.; Adhyapak, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, ZnO nanostructures have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal, sonochemical and precipitation methods using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the capping agent. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The XRD results revealed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO nanostructures for all the samples. Furthermore, the morphology of the ZnO particles was obtained from FESEM micrographs. Particles prepared by hydrothermal method were found to be rice grain shaped and that prepared by precipitation and sonochemical methods were spherical shaped. Sunlight driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was studied for ZnO nanostructures synthesized by various methods. The ZnO nanostructures were further decorated with Ag nanoparticles to enhance its dye degradation efficiency. The Ag decorated ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a higher degradation rate as compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles which was independent of pH. Since this process of dye degradation relies on the degradation of dye due to oxidation by highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, there are many factors which affect the efficiency of this process. Hence a study was conducted on the effect of various parameters on ZnO viz amount of catalyst, reaction pH and concentration of MB dye.

  17. Homoepitaxial growth of ZnO; Homoepitaxie von ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, C.

    2006-08-15

    This thesis deals with the homoepitaxial growth of ZnO epitaxial thin-films. It starts with a theoretical consideration of this material system and shows how to establish a successful epitaxy. Then, the thesis shows the development of a CVD process with metallic zinc precursor and nitrogen dioxide as oxygen precursor. Finally, the physical properties of the realized epitaxial thin films are shown. Besides excellent crystalline and optical properties one finds the dependence of incorporation of atoms of the gaseous phase from the polarity of the ZnO growth polarity. (orig.)

  18. Anodized ZnO nanostructures for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mao-Chia [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wang, TsingHai [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wu, Bin-Jui [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jing-Chie, E-mail: jclin4046@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by electrochemical anodic process. • The parameter of ZnO nanostructure was anodic potential. • The model of growth of ZnO nanostructure was investigated. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated on the polished zinc foil by anodic deposition in an alkaline solution containing 1.0 M NaOH and 0.25 M Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Potentiostatic anodization was conducted at two potentials (−0.7 V in the passive region and −1.0 V in the active region vs. SCE) which are higher than the open circuit potential (−1.03 V vs. SCE) and as-obtained ZnO nanostrcutures were investigated focusing on their structural, optical, electrical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) characteristics. All samples were confirmed ZnO by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra. Observations in the SEM images clearly showed that ZnO nanostructures prepared at −0.7 V vs. SCE were composed of nanowires at while those obtained at −1.0 V vs. SCE possessed nanosheets morphology. Result from transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction patterns suggested that the ZnO nanowires belonged to single crystalline with a preferred orientation of (0 0 2) whereas the ZnO nanosheets were polycrystalline. Following PEC experiments indicated that ZnO nanowires had higher photocurrent density of 0.32 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.5 V vs. SCE under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination. This value was about 1.9 times higher than that of ZnO nanosheets. Observed higher photocurrent was likely due to the single crystalline, preferred (0 0 2) orientation, higher carrier concentration and lower charge transfer resistance.

  19. Root uptake and phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daohui; Xing, Baoshan

    2008-08-01

    Increasing application of nanotechnology highlights the need to clarify nanotoxicity. However, few researches have focused on phytotoxicity of nanomaterials; it is unknown whether plants can uptake and transport nanoparticles. This study was to examine cell internalization and upward translocation of ZnO nanoparticles by Lolium perenne (ryegrass). The dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and its contribution to the toxicity on ryegrass were also investigated. Zn2+ ions were used to compare and verify the root uptake and phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in a hydroponic culture system. The root uptake and phytotoxicity were visualized by light scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopies. In the presence of ZnO nanoparticles, ryegrass biomass significantly reduced, root tips shrank, and root epidermal and cortical cells highly vacuolated or collapsed. Zn2+ ion concentrations in bulk nutrient solutions with ZnO nanoparticles were lower than the toxicity threshold of Zn2+ to the ryegrass; shoot Zn contents under ZnO nanoparticle treatments were much lower than that under Zn2+ treatments. Therefore, the phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was not directly from their limited dissolution in the bulk nutrient solution or rhizosphere. ZnO nanoparticles greatly adhered on to the rootsurface. Individual ZnO nanoparticles were observed present in apoplast and protoplast of the root endodermis and stele. However, translocation factors of Zn from root to shoot remained very low under ZnO nanoparticle treatments, and were much lower than that under Zn2+ treatments, implying that little (if any) ZnO nanoparticles could translocate up in the ryegrass in this study.

  20. Role of ZnO thin film in the vertically aligned growth of ZnO nanorods by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Nguyen Thanh; Noh, Jin-Seo; Park, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ZnO thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods was investigated. ZnO thin films were sputter-deposited on Si substrate with varying the thickness. ZnO nanorods were grown on the thin film using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 90 °C. The ZnO thin films showed granular structure and vertical roughness on the surface, which facilitated the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The average grain size and the surface roughness of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness, and this led to the increase in both the average diameter and the average length of vertically grown ZnO nanorods. In particular, it was found that the average diameter of ZnO nanorods was very close to the average grain size of ZnO thin film, confirming the role of ZnO film as a seed layer for the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The CBD growth on ZnO seed layers may provide a facile route to engineering vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays.

  1. ZnO nanostructured microspheres and grown structures by thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Synthesis of flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures composed of ZnO nanosticks was achieved by the solution process using zinc acetate dihydrate, sodium hydroxide and polyethylene glycol-20000 (PEG-20000) at 180°C for 4 h. The diameter of individual nanosticks was about 100 nm. Detailed structure ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of thermally oxidized ZnO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The main goal of this paper is to establish some corre- lations between the oxidation conditions and optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO thin films. 2. Experimental. The preparation method of ZnO thin films consists of two steps: (a) deposition of zinc metallic films by thermal evaporation under vacuum and (b) ...

  3. Adsorption property of volatile molecules on ZnO nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... Abstract. ZnO nanowires (NWs) were deposited on a glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR). Sensing response of ZnO NWs towards reducing vapours was tested at ambient temperature (∼32◦. C) by the chemiresistor method. The vapour response was found ...

  4. Synthesis and optical characteristics of ZnO nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    (Johnson et al 2001; Zhang et al 2002). Compared to other semiconductors, ZnO has wide bandgap of 3⋅37 eV and other large excitation binding energy, which makes excitation stable even at room temperature. There are various methods in order to synthesize ZnO nanomaterials viz. solvothermal synthesis, sol–gel (Li ...

  5. Photochemical events during photosensitization of colloidal ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photosensitization of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles with riboflavin (RF) was investigated using absorption, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements and time resolved fluorescence measurements. Riboflavin adsorbed strongly on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Apparent association constant was obtained from the ...

  6. Screen printed nanosized ZnO thick film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanosized ZnO was prepared by polyol synthesis. Fluorescence spectrum of the ZnO colloid at varying pump intensities was studied. The powder was extracted and characterized by XRD and BET. The extracted powder was screen printed on glass substrates using ethyl cellulose as binder and turpinol as solvent.

  7. Optical Properties of Indium Doeped ZnO Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Shine Ko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of the ZnO nanowires (NWs with different indium concentrations by using the thermal evaporation method. The gold nanoparticles were used as the catalyst and were dispersed on the silicon wafer to facilitate the growth of the ZnO NWs. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that the ZnO NWs growth relied on vapor-liquid-solid mechanism and energy dispersion spectrum detects the atomic percentages of indium in ZnO NWs. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the diameters of pure ZnO NWs range from 20 to 30 nm and the diameters of ZnO:In were increased to 50–80 nm with increasing indium doping level. X-ray diffraction results point out that the crystal quality of the ZnO NWs was worse with doping higher indium concentration. Photoluminescence (PL study of the ZnO NWs exhibited main photoemission at 380 nm due to the recombination of excitons in near-band-edge (NBE. In addition, PL results also indicate the slightly blue shift and PL intensity decreasing of NBE emission from the ZnO NWs with higher indium concentrations could be attributed to more donor-induced trap center generations.

  8. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO /p-Si heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiliang; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2007-03-01

    Nominally undoped ZnO films were deposited by reactive sputtering on the lightly boron-doped (p-) and heavily boron-doped (p+) silicon substrates. The sputtered ZnO films were identified to be highly ⟨002⟩ oriented in crystallinity and n type in electrical conductivity. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics revealed that the ZnO /p--Si heterojunction exhibited well-defined rectifying behavior while the ZnO /p+-Si heterojunction did not possess rectifying function. As for the ZnO /p+-Si heterojunction, it was electroluminescent to a certain extent in the visible region under sufficient forward bias with the positive voltage on the silicon substrate, while it emitted ultraviolet light characteristics of near-band-edge emission of ZnO under the reverse bias, which significantly dominated the visible emission. In contrast to the ZnO /p+-Si heterojunction, the ZnO /p--Si heterojunction did not exhibit detectable electroluminescence (EL) under either forward or reverse bias. The I-V characteristics and EL mechanism of the above-mentioned heterojunctions have been tentatively explained in terms of the energy-band structures of the heterojunctions.

  9. Next-generation hydrothermal ZnO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrentraut, Dirk; Maeda, Katsumi; Kano, Masataka; Fujii, Katsushi; Fukuda, Tsuguo

    2011-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals were grown by the hydrothermal method under significantly improved conditions. Careful adjustment of critical growth conditions led the way towards ZnO crystals with extremely low (indium and lithium yields high-quality crystals.

  10. Magnetism in dopant-free ZnO nanoplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jung-Il; Choi, Jiil; Jang, Seung Soon; Gu, Jiyeong; Chang, Yangling; Wortman, Gregory; Snyder, Robert L; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-02-08

    It is known that bulk ZnO is a nonmagnetic material. However, the electronic band structure of ZnO is severely distorted when the ZnO is in the shape of a very thin plate with its dimension along the c-axis reduced to a few nanometers while keeping the bulk scale sizes in the other two dimensions. We found that the chemically synthesized ZnO nanoplates exhibit magnetism even at room temperature. First-principles calculations show a growing asymmetry in the spin distribution within the distorted bands formed from Zn (3d) and O (2p) orbitals with the reduction of thickness of the ZnO nanoplates, which is suggested to be responsible for the observed magnetism. In contrast, reducing the dimension along the a- or b-axes of a ZnO crystal does not yield any magnetism for ZnO nanowires that grow along c-axis, suggesting that the internal electric field produced by the large {0001} polar surfaces of the nanoplates may be responsible for the distorted electronic band structures of thin ZnO nanoplates. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. Manufacturing of patterned ZnO films with application for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patterned thin films, ZnO, are successfully prepared on glass substrates by the sol–gel method using dip-coating technique. The films, formed of ZnO nanocrystallites with hexagonal crystal structure, are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  12. Photoluminescent ZnO Nanoparticles and Their Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Yong; Xiong, Huan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, numerous achievements concerning luminescent zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been reported due to their improved luminescence and good biocompatibility. The photoluminescence of ZnO NPs usually contains two parts, the exciton-related ultraviolet (UV) emission and the defect-related visible emission. With respect to the visible emission, many routes have been developed to synthesize and functionalize ZnO NPs for the applications in detecting metal ions and biomolecules, biological fluorescence imaging, nonlinear multiphoton imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging. As the biological applications of ZnO NPs develop rapidly, the toxicity of ZnO NPs has attracted more and more attention because ZnO can produce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release Zn2+ ions. Just as a coin has two sides, both the drug delivery and the antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs become attractive at the same time. Hence, in this review, we will focus on the progress in the synthetic methods, luminescent properties, and biological applications of ZnO NPs.

  13. Photoluminescent ZnO Nanoparticles and Their Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yong Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, numerous achievements concerning luminescent zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs have been reported due to their improved luminescence and good biocompatibility. The photoluminescence of ZnO NPs usually contains two parts, the exciton-related ultraviolet (UV emission and the defect-related visible emission. With respect to the visible emission, many routes have been developed to synthesize and functionalize ZnO NPs for the applications in detecting metal ions and biomolecules, biological fluorescence imaging, nonlinear multiphoton imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging. As the biological applications of ZnO NPs develop rapidly, the toxicity of ZnO NPs has attracted more and more attention because ZnO can produce the reactive oxygen species (ROS and release Zn2+ ions. Just as a coin has two sides, both the drug delivery and the antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs become attractive at the same time. Hence, in this review, we will focus on the progress in the synthetic methods, luminescent properties, and biological applications of ZnO NPs.

  14. Photoluminescent hierarchical Zno micro-flower and its surface wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, X.B.; Lu, W.C.; Ma, H.P. [College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2012-10-15

    The flower-like ZnO with micro-nano hierarchical structure is successfully obtained by a simple hydrothermal synthesis, using sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as a structure direct agent. The resulted ZnO micro-flowers are very uniform in morphology with particle sizes around 1 {mu}m. A number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), are used to characterize the obtained ZnO. The self-assemble of ZnO nano-sheets under the direction of SDBS leads to the formation of ZnO micro-flowers. The room temperature photoluminescence property of the obtained flower-like ZnO exhibits a broad visible light emission. The surface of as-made ZnO shows a very hydrophilic property, while the special micro-nano hierarchical structure enables the ZnO micro-flower a superhydrophobic surface after modification of fluoroalkylsilane. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Adsorption property of volatile molecules on ZnO nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    energy of the ZnO nanowire and adsorbed ZnO nanowire system, an increase in the total energy was observed after ... This means that conductivity increased when the film surface was exposed to the reducing molecules. .... reality, there will be plenty of vapor molecules which will interact over the entire sensing element ...

  16. ZnO 1-D nanostructures: Low temperature synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO is one of the most important semiconductors having a wide variety of applications in photonic, field emission and sensing devices. In addition, it exhibits a wide variety of morphologies in the nano regime that can be grown by tuning the growth habit of the ZnO crystal. Among various nanostructures, oriented 1-D ...

  17. ZnO nanorods: growth mechanism and anisotropic functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholski, Claudia; Kornowski, Andreas; Weller, Horst

    2004-10-01

    We report on the wet-chemical synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and their functionalization with metal colloids by photocatalytic reduction of metal ions. Different morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by using different precursor concentrations and zinc sources such as zinc acetate, zinc propanoate and zinc decanoate. Spherical ZnO nanoparticles were produced at low concentrations and with zinc precursors having long alkylchains. The formation of elongated particles was achieved by using zinc acetate and high precursor concentrations. We found that ZnO nanorods were grown via oriented attachment of pre-formed quasi-spherical particles. This growth mechanism occurs at almost ambient temperature and in the first step, pearl chain like structures of 5 nm particles are formed, which coarse by condensation and finally grow - assisted by Ostwald ripening - to almost perfect single crystalline rods with length up to 300 nm. These nanorods were metallizied with silver and platinum by photocatalytic reduction of the appropriate metal ions on pre-formed ZnO nanorods. The deposition of metal took place at different locations of the ZnO nanorods and depended on the metal source. Positively charged silver ions were preferentially reduced to silver colloids at one end of the ZnO nanorods and led to anisotropic functionalized nanoparticles. Using a negatively charged platinum complex instead of silver ions generated a statistical coverage of the ZnO nanorods.

  18. ZnO nanowire arrays with and without cavity tops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongyu; Quan Baogang; Tang Haoying; Guo Chuanfei [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Jiang Peng, E-mail: pjiang@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Yu Aifang [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Xie Sishen, E-mail: ssxie@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Zhonglin, E-mail: zhong.wang@mse.gatech.edu [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} ZnO NW array structure was formed on a ZnO-seed-layer-patterned Si substrate. {yields} Both e-beam lithography and a wet chemical method were employed. {yields} A bubble-assisted method was used for constructing ZnO nanowire arrays with cavity tops. {yields} ZnO NW array structures with different morphologies exhibited different photoluminescence properties. - Abstract: We report a new bubble-assisted growing and etching method for constructing ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with cavity tops. Firstly, a ZnO NW array structure was formed on a ZnO-seed-layer-patterned Si substrate by combining e-beam lithography and a wet chemical method. Secondly, a new kind of ZnO NW array with cavity tops could be formed by a subsequent bubble-assisted growing and etching. These ZnO NW array structures with different morphologies exhibited different photoluminescence properties, showing their potential applications in lasing cavities, stimulated emitters, nanogenerator, photocatalysis and light-emitting diodes. The bubble-assisted etching method will open a new door for morphology design of ZnO and other semiconductor nanowire arrays at special sites.

  19. Shape tunable synthesis of Eu- and Sm-doped ZnO microstructures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microstructures and vibration properties of ZnO. 3. Results and discussion. Three typical samples and related morphological, structural, compositional and vibrational properties have been inves- tigated in this work: namely ZO (ZnO microdisks), EZO. (Eu-doped ZnO microspheres) and SZO (Sm-doped ZnO microplates).

  20. Photocatalysis and Bandgap Engineering Using ZnO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Johar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites have a great potential to work as efficient, multifunctional materials for energy conversion and photoelectrochemical reactions. Nanocomposites may reveal more improved photocatalysis by implying the improvements of their electronic and structural properties than pure photocatalyst. This paper presents the recent work carried out on photoelectrochemical reactions using the composite materials of ZnO with CdS, ZnO with SnO2, ZnO with TiO2, ZnO with Ag2S, and ZnO with graphene and graphene oxide. The photocatalytic efficiency mainly depends upon the light harvesting span of a material, lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pair, and reactive sites available in the photocatalyst. We reviewed the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of nanocomposite and photodegradation reported by the same material and how photodegradation depends upon the factors described above. Finally the improvement in the absorption band edge of nanocomposite material is discussed.

  1. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Hussain Ibupoto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002 peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  2. Analysis of Li-related defects in ZnO thin films influenced by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO annealed under O2 ambient and an amount of Lii(o) defect had existed in ZnO annealed under Ar ambient. First-principle calculations were performed to calculate formation energies of Li-doped ZnO in order to explain the formation mechanism of Li-related defects in ZnO. Keywords. ZnO; thin films; radio frequency ...

  3. Solution growth of ZnO microwires and grass architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin, E-mail: nchopra@eng.ua.edu; Wu, Junchi; Shi, Wenwu

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were produced. • Au nanoparticles resulted in uniformly dispersed and standing ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles also resulted in ZnO grass architectures. -- Abstract: In spite of extensive research in gold (Au) nanoparticles, it remains a challenge to synthesize structurally homogeneous sample-set with controlled morphologies. The latter critically affect the role of Au nanoparticles as a seed/catalyst for the growth of other nanostructures. Here, we systematically studied and quantified the growth of Au nanoparticles in a single-step chemical synthesis approach and observed the effects of growth temperature and duration, metal salt and surfactant concentration, and surfactant type. These parameters strongly influenced morphological evolution, distribution, and heterogeneities in the as-synthesized Au nanoparticles. Next, the synthesized Au nanoparticles were utilized for the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) microwires in a solution growth approach. It was observed that Au nanoparticles on the substrate did not catalyze the growth of ZnO microwires but facilitated uniform dispersion of standing microwires. Supported by microscopic analysis, the proposed growth mechanism is heterogeneous nucleation of ZnO on the loosely bound Au nanoparticles on the substrates, favored by lattice match between the ZnO and Au. Based on this mechanism, Au nanoparticles only assisted in the initial stages of ZnO microwire growth. For longer growth duration (∼10 h), over-deposition of ZnO from the solution on already grown wires led to their micron scale diameters as well as grass architectures and making the growth process independent of size and shape of the Au nanoparticles. The formation of ZnO grass architecture is due to attachment of Au nanoparticles on the growing microwire surface, which further served as a heterogeneous

  4. Polarized Raman scattering of single ZnO nanorod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J. L., E-mail: jlyu@semi.ac.cn; Lai, Y. F., E-mail: laiyunfeng@gmail.com; Wang, Y. Z.; Cheng, S. Y. [Institute of Micro/Nano Devices and Solar Cells, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Y. H. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-01-21

    Polarized Raman scattering measurement on single wurtzite c-plane (001) ZnO nanorod grown by hydrothermal method has been performed at room temperature. The polarization dependence of the intensity of the Raman scattering for the phonon modes A{sub 1}(TO), E{sub 1}(TO), and E{sub 2}{sup high} in the ZnO nanorod are obtained. The deviations of polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy from the prediction of Raman selection rules are observed, which can be attributed to the structure defects in the ZnO nanorod as confirmed by the comparison of the transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectra as well as the polarization dependent Raman signal of the annealed and unannealed ZnO nanorod. The Raman tensor elements of A{sub 1}(TO) and E{sub 1}(TO) phonon modes normalized to that of the E{sub 2}{sup high} phonon mode are |a/d|=0.32±0.01, |b/d|=0.49±0.02, and |c/d|=0.23±0.01 for the unannealed ZnO nanorod, and |a/d|=0.33±0.01, |b/d|=0.45±0.01, and |c/d|=0.20±0.01 for the annealed ZnO nanorod, which shows strong anisotropy compared to that of bulk ZnO epilayer.

  5. Superhydrophobic ZnO networks with high water adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florica, Camelia; Preda, Nicoleta; Enculescu, Monica; Zgura, Irina; Socol, Marcela; Enculescu, Ionut

    2014-01-01

    ZnO structures were deposited using a simple chemical bath deposition technique onto interdigitated electrodes fabricated by a conventional photolithography method on SiO2/Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO samples have a hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy observations prove that the substrates are uniformly covered by ZnO networks formed by monodisperse rods. The ZnO rod average diameter and length were tuned by controlling reactants' concentration and reaction time. Optical spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that all the samples display bandgap values and emission bands typical for ZnO. The electrical measurements reveal percolating networks which are highly sensitive when the samples are exposed to ammonia vapors, a variation in their resistance with the exposure time being evidenced. Other important characteristics are that the ZnO rod networks exhibit superhydrophobicity, with water contact angles exceeding 150° and a high water droplet adhesion. Reproducible, easily scalable, and low-cost chemical bath deposition and photolithography techniques could provide a facile approach to fabricate such ZnO networks and devices based on them for a wide range of applications where multifunctionality, i.e., sensing and superhydrophobicity, properties are required. 81.07.-b; 81.05.Dz; 68.08.Bc.

  6. ZnO Nanowire Array-Based Optoelectronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    ZnO nanowire array-based optoelectronic devices are discussed in this dissertation. ZnO has a wide band gap of 3.37 eV and a large exciton binding energy of 60 meV at room temperature, which make it a promising candidate for optoelectronic devices such as blue-light emitting diodes, ultraviolet laser diodes and photodiodes. Recently, there have been tremendous interests in ZnO nanowire arrays. It is well known that one of the biggest challenges toward good ZnO-based optoelectronic devices is ...

  7. High pressure and high temperature behaviour of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Nilesh A. [K. K. Shah Jarodwala Maninagar Science College, Rambaug, Maninagar, Ahmedabad-380008 (India); Bhatt, Apoorva D. [Department of Physics, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-380009 (India); Pandya, Tushar C., E-mail: pandyatc@gmail.com [St. Xavier' s College, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380009 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The thermodynamic properties with the wurtzite (B4) and rocksalt (B1) phases of ZnO under high pressures and high temperatures have been investigated using Tait's Equation of state (EOS). The effects of pressures and temperatures on thermodynamic properties such as bulk modulus, thermal expansivity and thermal pressure are explored for both two structures. It is found that ZnO material gradually softens with increase of temperature while it hardens with the increment of the pressure. Our predicted results of thermodynamics properties for both the phases of ZnO are in overall agreement with the available data in the literature.

  8. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Saito and Hajime Haneda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres.

  9. ZnO materials and surface tailoring for biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimova, Rositza; Selegard, Linnea; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Pearce, Ruth; Spetz, Anita Lloyd; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructured materials, such as films and nanoparticles, could provide a suitable platform for development of high performance biosensors due to their unique fundamental material properties. This paper reviews different preparation techniques of ZnO nanocrystals and material issues like wettability, biocompatibility and toxicity, which have an important relevance to biosensor functionality. Efforts are made to summarize and analyze existing results regarding surface modification and molecular attachments for successful biofunctionalization and understanding of the mechanisms involved. A section is devoted to implementations of tailored surfaces in biosensors. We end with conclusions on the feasibility of using ZnO nanocrystals for biosensing.

  10. Ultrahydrophobicity of ZnO modified CVD diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YiZhou; Wang, ChuanXi; Li, HongDong; Lin, Quan

    2013-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films with an ultrahydrophobic surface were fabricated by constructing a hierarchical structure through sputtering a ZnO layer on diamond grains, with a growth step feature. Under optimized conditions, the combined original diamond with a step structure of the ZnO can achieve a water contact angle (WCA) of as high as 141° ± 1°. It is proved that WCA decreases as the roughness of ZnO/PDF reduced. It can be concluded that the step structure of diamond grains and ZnO nuclei size have a great influence on the variation of WCA.

  11. Oxygen Defects Mediated Magnetism of Ni Doped ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a solution route and annealed in O2, air, and Ar, respectively. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the samples possess typical wurtzite structure and have no other impurity phases. Magnetization loops for ZnO samples were measured and clearly show typical ferromagnetic saturation behavior. With the defect analysis based on photoluminescence spectroscopy, the effect of defects on the nature and origin of ferromagnetism was investigated. The results suggest that oxygen vacancies, especially single ionized oxygen vacancies, play a crucial role in mediating ferromagnetism in the Ni doped ZnO.

  12. Preparation, characterization and properties of ZnO nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaolian; Zhang, Xiaoming; Chen, Ruxue; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, using the hydrothermal synthesis method, NaOH, Zn(NO3)2, anhydrous ethanol, deionized water as raw material to prepare ZnO nanomaterial, and by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) on the synthesis of nano materials, surface morphology and phase luminescence characterization. The results show that the nano materials synthesized for single-phase ZnO, belonging to the six wurtzite structure; material surface shaped, arranged evenly distributed, and were the top six party structure; ZnO nano materials synthesized with strong emission spectra, emission peak is located at 394nm.

  13. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [51] Patil D R 2007 Studies on ZnO based gas sensors Ph.D Thesis. [52] Velmurugan R and Swaminathan M 2011 Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C 95 942. [53] Senthilkumaar S and Porkodi K 2005 J. Colloid. Interf. Sci. 288 184. [54] Chougule M A, Dalvi D S, Mali S, Patil P S, Moholkar A V,. Agawane G L et al 2012 Measurement 45 ...

  14. EPD-deposited ZnO thin films: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, M.

    2014-07-01

    ZnO-based materials and specifically ZnO films with tailored morphology have been subjected to extensive research in the past few years due to their high potential for multiple prospective applications, mainly in electronics. Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) constitutes an economical, eco friendly, low energy consuming and easily scalable alternative to the high energy consuming evaporative techniques which are commonly used for the obtaining of these ZnO films. For its application, however, the use of stable, well dispersed suspensions is a necessary requirement, and thus a thorough study of their colloidal chemistry is essential. In this work the main contributions to the study of colloidal chemistry of ZnO nanoparticle suspensions and their shaping into ZnO films by EPD are summarized. (Author)

  15. Photochemical events during photosensitization of colloidal ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) was investigated using absorption, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements and time resolved fluorescence measurements. Riboflavin adsorbed strongly on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Apparent association constant was obtained ...

  16. Enhanced Photoluminescence in Acetylene-Treated ZnO Nanorods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäppinen, Luke; Jalkanen, Tero; Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed; Heinonen, Markku; Kukk, Edwin; Radevici, Ivan; Paturi, Petriina; Peurla, Markus; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Santos, Hélder A; Boukherroub, Rabah; Santos, Hellen; Lastusaari, Mika; Salonen, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were manufactured using the aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method, and the effect of thermal acetylene treatment on their morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties was investigated...

  17. Nanogenerator made of ZnO nanosheet networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renyun; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olsen, Martin; Örtegren, Jonas; Olin, Håkan

    2017-05-01

    The piezoelectricity of nanomaterials attracts a great deal of attention due to its broad application, including the harvesting of ambient mechanical energy to power small electronics devices. We report here a simple method to fabricate piezoelectric nanogenerators consisting of networks of ZnO nanosheets grown on aluminum (Al) foils, where the Al acts as both a substrate for growth and as an electrode contacting the ZnO network. A second, top electrode was tapped, rolled, or rubbed against the ZnO to generate piezoelectricity. This second electrode was either a copper foil or fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. A piezo voltage of up to 0.924 V was detected during rolling and 6 μA was the highest current observed when rubbing the ZnO film with a FTO glass. Due to its simplicity, this nanogenerator fabrication method has the potential to be scaled up for the industrial production of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  18. Direct observation of voltage barriers in ZnO varistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, O. L.; Williams, P.; Lin, Y.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Voltage barriers in a ZnO varistor have been imaged by voltage-contrast scanning electron microscopy. They are due to grain boundaries and are capable of supporting voltage differences of up to about 4 V.

  19. ZnO Nanowire Application in Chemoresistive Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas Rackauskas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the recent development of ZnO nanowires (NWs for chemoresistive sensing. Working mechanisms of chemoresistive sensors are unified for gas, ultraviolet (UV and bio sensor types: single nanowire and nanowire junction sensors are described, giving the overview for a simple sensor manufacture by multiple nanowire junctions. ZnO NW surface functionalization is discussed, and how this effects the sensing is explained. Further, novel approaches for sensing, using ZnO NW functionalization with other materials such as metal nanoparticles or heterojunctions, are explained, and limiting factors and possible improvements are discussed. The review concludes with the insights and recommendations for the future improvement of the ZnO NW chemoresistive sensing.

  20. Sonochemical effects on ZnO particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna C. Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La variedad de aplicaciones tecnológicas relacionadas a los dispositivos basados en óxidos semiconductores nanoestructurados ha despertado un gran interés en la comunidad científica, haciendo con que los estudios relacionados a estos materiales han aumentado en los últimos años. Entre estos materiales, se encuentra el óxido de zinc (ZnO, que presenta aplicaciones en las más diversas áreas, desde diodos emisores de luz (LEDs a los dispositivos fotovoltaicos en células solares. Con el conocimiento de que las propiedades químicas y físicas que confieren a estos materiales las posibilidades de aplicación en dispositivos tecnológicos son fuertemente dependientes de las rutas de síntesis empleadas para la obtención de los mismos, presentamos en este trabajo una investigación con respecto de las modificaciones morfológicas ocurridas en partículas de ZnO, cuando el mismo es expuesto a un tratamiento sonoquímico, además de las influencias de los parámetros relacionados a éste método de síntesis en la obtención de este material. Para analizar los parámetros presentados anteriormente, tres muestras fueron preparadas, dos de ellas manteniendo la amplitud y variando el tiempo de sonicación y otra manteniendo el tiempo y variando la amplitud de sonicación, durante el tratamiento sonoquímico. El análisis de los resultados obtenidos indica que el tratamiento sonoquímico conduce a modificaciones morfológicas superficiales en las partículas de ZnO, además estas modificaciones se presentaron más evidentes cuando una mayor amplitud y un mayor tiempo de sonicación fueron utilizados en la síntesis de las muestras.

  1. Photoluminescence of sequential infiltration synthesized ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Gosztola, David J.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Suh, Hyo-Seon; Connolly, Aine

    2016-02-01

    For the past several years there have been ongoing efforts to incorporate zinc oxide (ZnO) inside polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), in the form of nanoparticles or quantum dots, to combine their optical properties for multiple applications. We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside the polymer. PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid oxide material with enhanced photonic, or sensing, properties. This is much easier than micromachining films of ZnO or other similar oxides because they are difficult to etch. The amount of ZnO formed inside the polymer film is magnitudes higher than equivalent amount deposited on a flat 2D surface, and the intensity of the photoemission suggests there is an enhancement created by the polymer-ZnO interaction. Photoemission from thin films exhibit photoemission similar to intrinsic ZnO with oxygen vacancies. These vacancies can be removed by annealing the sample at 500°C in an oxygen rich environment. SiS ZnO exhibits unusual photoemission properties for thick polymer films, emitting at excitations wavelengths not found in bulk or standard ZnO. Finally we have shown that patterning the polymer and then doing SiS ZnO treatment afterwards allows modifying or manipulating the photoemission spectra. This opens the doors to novel photonic applications.

  2. ZnO Nanostructures for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Marco; Cauda, Valentina

    2017-11-06

    This review focuses on the most recent applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures for tissue engineering. ZnO is one of the most investigated metal oxides, thanks to its multifunctional properties coupled with the ease of preparing various morphologies, such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanoparticles. Most ZnO applications are based on its semiconducting, catalytic and piezoelectric properties. However, several works have highlighted that ZnO nanostructures may successfully promote the growth, proliferation and differentiation of several cell lines, in combination with the rise of promising antibacterial activities. In particular, osteogenesis and angiogenesis have been effectively demonstrated in numerous cases. Such peculiarities have been observed both for pure nanostructured ZnO scaffolds as well as for three-dimensional ZnO-based hybrid composite scaffolds, fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies. Therefore, all these findings suggest that ZnO nanostructures represent a powerful tool in promoting the acceleration of diverse biological processes, finally leading to the formation of new living tissue useful for organ repair.

  3. ZnO Tetrapods: Synthesis and Applications in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luting Yan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO tetrapods have received much interest due to their unique morphology, that is, four arms con‐ nected to one centre. Tetrapod networks possess the excellent electronic properties of the ZnO semiconductor, which is attractive for photoelectrode materials in energy- conversion devices because of their advantages in electron extraction and transportation. In this review, we have discussed recent advancements in the field of ZnO tetrapod synthesis, including vapour transport synthesis and the wet chemical method, together with their advantages and disadvantages in terms of morphology control and yield regulation. The developments and improvements in the applications of ZnO nanotetrapods in photovoltaics, including dye-sensitized solar cells and polymer solar cells, are also described. Our aim is to give readers a compre‐ hensive and critical overview of this unique morphology of ZnO, including synthesis control and growth mechanism, and to understand the role of this particular morphology in the development of solar cells. The future research directions in ZnO tetrapods-based solar cell are also discussed.

  4. Cytotoxicity of ZnO Nanowire Arrays on Excitable Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires have been widely studied for their applications in electronics, optics, and catalysts. Their semiconducting, piezoelectric, fluorescent, and antibacterial properties have also attracted broad interest in their biomedical applications. Thus, it is imperative to evaluate the biosafety of ZnO nanowires and their biological effects. In this study, the cellular level biological effects of ZnO nanowire arrays are specifically tested on three types of excitable cells, including NG108-15 neuronal cell line, HL-1 cardiac muscle cell line, and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Vertically aligned and densely packed ZnO nanowire arrays are synthesized using a solution-based method and used as a substrate for cell culture. The metabolism levels of all three types of cells cultured on ZnO nanowire arrays are studied using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assays of a full factorial design. Under the studied settings, the results show statistically significant inhibitory effects of ZnO nanowire arrays on the metabolism of NG108-15 and HL-1 cells in comparison to gold, glass, and polystyrene substrates, and on the metabolism of cardiomyocytes in comparison to gold substrate.

  5. ZnO Nanostructures for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laurenti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the most recent applications of zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures for tissue engineering. ZnO is one of the most investigated metal oxides, thanks to its multifunctional properties coupled with the ease of preparing various morphologies, such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanoparticles. Most ZnO applications are based on its semiconducting, catalytic and piezoelectric properties. However, several works have highlighted that ZnO nanostructures may successfully promote the growth, proliferation and differentiation of several cell lines, in combination with the rise of promising antibacterial activities. In particular, osteogenesis and angiogenesis have been effectively demonstrated in numerous cases. Such peculiarities have been observed both for pure nanostructured ZnO scaffolds as well as for three-dimensional ZnO-based hybrid composite scaffolds, fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies. Therefore, all these findings suggest that ZnO nanostructures represent a powerful tool in promoting the acceleration of diverse biological processes, finally leading to the formation of new living tissue useful for organ repair.

  6. Synthesis, characteristics and antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki, A. Chinnammal; Sailatha, E.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2015-06-01

    The utilization of various plant resources for the bio synthesis of metallic nano particles is called green technology and it does not utilize any harmful protocols. Present study focuses on the green synthesis of ZnO nano particles by Zinc Carbonate and utilizing the bio-components of powder extract of dry ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale). The ZnO nano crystallites of average size range of 23-26 nm have been synthesized by rapid, simple and eco friendly method. Zinc oxide nano particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectra confirmed the adsorption of surfactant molecules at the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and the presence of ZnO bonding. Antimicrobial activity of ZnO nano particles was done by well diffusion method against pathogenic organisms like Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and Penicillium notatum. It is observed that the ZnO synthesized in the process has the efficient antimicrobial activity.

  7. Controlled growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires with different crystal orientation of the ZnO seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, S. N.; Song, B. G.; Jang, J. E.; Jung, J. E.; Han, I. T.; Ha, J. H.; Hong, J. P.; Kang, D. J.; Kim, J. M.

    2008-06-01

    A novel synthesis and growth method achieving vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires on a silicon dioxide (SiO2) coated silicon (Si) substrate is demonstrated. The growth direction of the ZnO nanowires is determined by the crystal structure of the ZnO seed layer, which is formed by the oxidation of a DC-sputtered Zn film. The [002] crystal direction of the seed layer is dominant under optimized thickness of the Zn film and thermal treatment. Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on SiO2 coated Si substrate are realized from the appropriately thick oxidized Zn seed layer by a vapor-solid growth mechanism by catalyst-free thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD). These experimental results raise the possibility of using the nanowires as functional blocks for high-density integration systems and/or photonic applications.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and renal toxicity of ZnO and polyethylene glycol Coated ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Raisi Dehkourdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The wide scale use of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs in the consumer market world makes human beings more prone to the exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and its adverse effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess renal toxicity potential of ZnO and Polyethylene glycol Coated ZnO Nanoparticles in rat.Materials and Methods: Co-precipitation chemical method was used in order to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with PEG (Polyethylene glycol and the coating interactions were investigated by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Structural properties of ZnO NPs were evaluated by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope and XRD (X Ray Diffraction. Toxicity assessment of ZnO and PEG coated ZnO nanoparticles were studied in rat by intra peritoneal injections during a one-month. Renal factors (Creatinine, Uric acid and Blood Urea Nitrogen were measured 15 and 30 days post injection.Results: The synthesized nanoparticles were single phase and have spinel structure. Their size distribution was around 18 nm. Some kidney factors were changed due to the injection of both uncoated and coated nanoparticles (especially in groups received concentrations of more than 100 mg per kg of body weight. Renal factors changes were more considerable in groups received ZnO NPs in comparison with those received PEG coated ZnO NPs. Chemical toxicity studies showed that there was no irreversible effect in the groups received  concentrations less than 200 mg/kg (mg per kg of body weight.Conclusion: The results indicated that renal factors were changed during 15 days post injection, especially in groups received high doses (200 mg/kg. The results of measurements 30 days post injection showed less change in comparison with the control and this indicates that there was no irreversible effect on kidney. Moreover, PEG coated nanoparticles were less toxic in comparison with Uncoated ZnO NPs.

  9. Comparative toxicity of nano ZnO and bulk ZnO towards marine algae Tetraselmis suecica and Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiji; Schiavo, Simona; Rametta, Gabriella; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; La Ferrara, Vera; Wu, Changwen; Manzo, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    The wide use of ZnO nanoparticles in a number of products implies an increasing release into the marine environment, resulting in the need to evaluate the potential effects upon organisms, and particularly phytoplankton, being at the base of the throphic chain. To this aim, dose-response curves for the green alga Tetraselmis suecica and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum derived from the exposure to nano ZnO (100 nm) were evaluated and compared with those obtained for bulk ZnO (200 nm) and ionic zinc. The toxic effects to both algae species were reported as no observable effect concentration (NOEC) of growth inhibition and as 1, 10, and 50% effect concentrations (EC1, EC10, and EC50). The toxicity decreased in the order nano ZnO > Zn 2+ > bulk ZnO. EC50 values for nano ZnO were 3.91 [3.66-4.14] mg Zn/L towards the green microalgae and 1.09 [0.96-1.57] mg Zn/L towards the diatom, indicating a higher sensitivity of P. tricornutum. The observed diverse effects can be ascribed to the interaction occurring between different algae and ZnO particles. Due to algae motility, ZnO particles were intercepted in different phases of aggregation and sedimentation processes, while algae morphology and size can influence the level of entrapment by NP aggregates.This underlines the need to take into account the peculiarity of the biological system in the assessment of NP toxicity.

  10. Chemical manipulation of oxygen vacancy and antibacterial activity in ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Lakshmi Prasanna; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2017-08-01

    Pure and doped ZnO (cation and anion doping) compositions have been designed in order to manipulate oxygen vacancy and antibacterial activity of ZnO. In this connection, we have synthesized and characterized micron sized ZnO, N doped micron sized ZnO, nano ZnO, nano Na and La doped ZnO. The intrinsic vacancies in pure ZnO and the vacancies created by N and Na doping in ZnO have been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS) and Photoluminiscence Spectroscopy(PL). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and H2O2 responsible for antibacterial activity have been estimated by PL, UV-Vis spectroscopy and KMnO4 titrations respectively. It was found that nano Na doped ZnO releases highest amount of ROS followed by nano ZnO, micron N doped ZnO while micron ZnO releases the least amount of ROS. The concentration of vacancies follows the same sequence. This illustrates directly the correlation between ROS and oxygen vacancy in well designed pure and doped ZnO. For the first time, material design in terms of cation doping and anion doping to tune oxygen vacancies has been carried out. Interaction energy (Eg), between the bacteria and nanoparticles has been calculated based on Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (EDLVO) theory and is correlated with antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microwave synthesis and photocatalytic activities of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fazhe; Zhao, Zengdian [Analysis and Testing Center, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255100 (China); Qiao, Xueliang, E-mail: xuelqiao@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Tan, Fatang; Wang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized linked ZnO nanorods by a facile microwave method. • The effect of reaction parameters on ZnO was investigated. • ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios were prepared. • The photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods was evaluated. - Abstract: Linked ZnO nanorods have been successfully prepared via a facile microwave method without any post-synthesis treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the precursor had completely transformed into the pure ZnO crystal. The images of field emitting scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that linked ZnO nanorods consisted predominantly of ZnO bipods. The formation process of the ZnO bipods was clearly discussed. ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios have been obtained by tuning the concentrations of reagents and microwave power. Moreover, the photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios for degradation of methylene blue was systematically evaluated. The results of photocatalytic experiments showed that the photocatalytic activity increased with the aspect ratios of ZnO bipods increased. The reason is that ZnO bipods with larger aspect ratio have higher surface area, which can absorb more MB molecules to react with ·OH radicals.

  12. Enhancement of UV emission in ZnO nanorods by growing additional ZnO layers on the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yongseon; Kang, Shinhoo, E-mail: yskim01@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: shinkang@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence emission from ZnO nanorod arrays was greatly enhanced by growing additional thin ZnO layers on the surface after thermal reduction of the nanorods. Appropriate selection of additives based on the shape of the original ZnO samples was found to be an important factor in designing the solution composition for growing the additional ZnO layers. This is because the additives modify the growth rates with respect to crystallographic planes. Adding ethylene glycol to the solution was effective for rod-shaped ZnO nanorods in enhancing the UV emission, whereas adding polyethylenimine was better for plate-like particles. These results can be explained by the presence of non-luminescent regions near the surface, where UV emission is thought to be suppressed by non-radiative surface centers. Growing additional layers on side planes increases the volume of the optically active region of ZnO nanorods, with a lower transmittance loss; thus, it effectively enhances the UV emission intensity.

  13. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees A. Ansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  14. Optical and Sensing Properties of Cu Doped ZnO Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shukla, R. K; Srivastava, Anchal; Kumar, Nishant; Pandey, Akhilesh; Pandey, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and Cu doped ZnO films of two different molarities deposited by spray pyrolysis using zinc nitrate and cupric chloride as precursors show polycrystalline nature and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO...

  15. Luminance behavior of lithium-doped ZnO nanowires with p-type conduction characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Won Bae; Lee, Jun Seok; Lee, Sang Hyo; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the room-temperature cathodeluminescence (CL) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of p-type lithium (Li)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) grown by hydrothermal doping and post-annealing processes. A ZnO thin film was used as a seed layer in NW growth. The emission wavelengths and intensities of undoped ZnO NWs and p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs were analyzed for comparison. CL and PL observations of post-annealed p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs clearly exhibited a dominant sharp band-edge emission. Finally, a n-type ZnO thin film/p-type annealed Li-doped ZnO NW homojunction diode was prepared to confirm the p-type conduction of annealed Li-doped ZnO NWs as well as the structural properties measured by transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Fabrication and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Tanaike, Kohei; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Kazuya; Suzuki, Atsushi; Balachandran, Jeyadevan; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells with different lengths of ZnO nanorods were fabricated. The ZnO nanorods were prepared by chemical bath deposition and directly confirmed to be hexagon-shaped nanorods. The lengths of the ZnO nanorads were controlled by deposition condition of ZnO seed layer. Photovoltaic properties of the ZnO nanorods/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} solar cells were investigated by measuring current density-voltage characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency. The highest conversion efficiency was obtained in ZnO nanorods/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} with the longest ZnO nanorods.

  17. Electrochemical Sensing, Photocatalytic and Biological Activities of ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis via Green Chemistry Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, L. S. Reddy; Archana, B.; Lingaraju, K.; Kavitha, C.; Suresh, D.; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaraju, G.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have successfully synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (Nps) via solution combustion method using sugarcane juice as the novel fuel. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO Nps have been analyzed using various analytical tools. The synthesized ZnO Nps exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye, indicating that the ZnO Nps are potential photocatalytic semiconductor materials. The synthesized ZnO Nps also show good electrochemical sensing of dopamine. ZnO Nps exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eschesichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, the ZnO Nps show good antioxidant activity by potentially scavenging 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The above studies clearly demonstrate versatile applications of ZnO synthesized by simple eco-friendly route.

  18. Recent Progress in Ohmic/Schottky-Contacted ZnO Nanowire Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ranran; Hua, Qilin; Dong, Lin; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng

    2015-01-01

      We review the recent progress of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire sensors with ohmic-contacted and Schottky-contacted configurations and the enhancement of the performances of Schottky-contacted ZnO NW sensors (SCZNSs...

  19. Fabrication and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Tanaike, Kohei; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Kazuya; Suzuki, Atsushi; Balachandran, Jeyadevan; Oku, Takeo

    2016-02-01

    ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells with different lengths of ZnO nanorods were fabricated. The ZnO nanorods were prepared by chemical bath deposition and directly confirmed to be hexagon-shaped nanorods. The lengths of the ZnO nanorads were controlled by deposition condition of ZnO seed layer. Photovoltaic properties of the ZnO nanorods/CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells were investigated by measuring current density-voltage characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency. The highest conversion efficiency was obtained in ZnO nanorods/CH3NH3PbI3 with the longest ZnO nanorods.

  20. Enhanced field emission of ZnO nanoneedle arrays via solution etching at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Huanming; Qin, Zhiwei; Wang, Zaide

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays (ZnO nns) were synthesized by a facile two-step solution-phase method based on the etching of pre-synthesized ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO nws) with flat ends at room temperature. Field emission measurement results showed that the turn-on electronic fields of ZnO nns and nws wer...... 2.7 and 5.3 V μm−1 at a current density of 10 μA cm−2, and the field enhancement factors were 4939.3 for ZnO nns and 1423.6 for ZnO nws. The enhanced field emission properties in ZnO nns were ascribed to the sharp tip geometry....

  1. Photoluminescence characterization of ZnO nanowires functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Jane; Gioffrè, Mariano; Rea, Ilaria; De Stefano, Luca; Rendina, Ivo

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructured photoluminescent materials are optimal transducers for optical biosensors due to their capacity to convert molecular interactions in light signals without contamination or deterioration of the samples. In recent years, nanostructured biosensors with low cost and readily available properties have been developed for such applications as therapeutics, diagnostic and environmental. Zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) is material with unique properties and due to these they were widely studied in many fields as electronics, optics, and photonics. ZnO NWs can be either grown independently or deposited on solid support, such as glass, gold substrates and crystalline silicon. Vertical aligned ZnO forest on a substrate shows specific advantages in photonic device fabrication. ZnO NWs are typically synthesized by such techniques classified as vapour phase and solution phase synthesis. In particular, hydrothermal methods have received a lot of attention and have been widely used for synthesis of ZnO NWs. This technique shows more crystalline defects than others due to oxygen vacancies, so as the material shows intense photoluminescence emission under laser irradiation. ZnO NWs surface is highly hydrolysed, so it is covered by OH reactive groups, and standard biomodification chemistry can be used in order to bind bioprobes on the surface. In this work, we present our newest results on synthetic nanostructured materials characterization for optical biosensors applications. In particular, we characterize the ZnO NWs structure grown on crystalline silicon by SEM images and the biomodification by photoluminesce technique, fluorescence microscopy, water contact angle and FT-IR measurements.

  2. Tuning magnetism by biaxial strain in native ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chengxiao; Wang, Yuanxu; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Guangbiao; Wang, Chao; Yang, Gui

    2015-07-07

    Magnetic ZnO, one of the most important diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), has attracted great scientific interest because of its possible technological applications in optomagnetic devices. Magnetism in this material is usually delicately tuned by the doping level, dislocations, and local structures. The rational control of magnetism in ZnO is a highly attractive approach for practical applications. Here, the tuning effect of biaxial strain on the d(0) magnetism of native imperfect ZnO is demonstrated through first-principles calculations. Our calculation results show that strain conditions have little effect on the defect formation energy of Zn and O vacancies in ZnO, but they do affect the magnetism significantly. For a cation vacancy, increasing the compressive strain will obviously decrease its magnetic moment, while tensile strain cannot change the moment, which remains constant at 2 μB. For a singly charged anion vacancy, however, the dependence of the magnetic moment on strain is opposite to that of the Zn vacancy. Furthermore, the ferromagnetic state is always present, irrespective of the strain type, for ZnO with two zinc vacancies, 2VZns. A large tensile strain is favorable for improving the Curie temperature and realizing room temperature ferromagnetism for ZnO-based native semiconductors. For ZnO with two singly charged oxygen vacancies, 2Vs, no ferromagnetic ordering can be observed. Our work points the way to the rational design of materials beyond ZnO with novel non-intrinsic functionality by simply tuning the strain in a thin film form.

  3. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) were investigated. Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)- coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was coated with zinc acetate dihydrate to form seed layer of ZnO nanocrystals. Double zone tube furnace ...

  4. Analysis of Li-related defects in ZnO thin films influenced by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li-doped ZnO thin films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering and in situ annealing under O2 or Ar ambient. Li-related defects in ZnO films strongly depend on the annealing ambient. AFM and XRD indicated that ZnO films possessed a good crystallinity with -axis orientation, uniform ...

  5. Hierarchical nanoflowers assembled with Au nanoparticles decorated ZnO nanosheets toward enhanced photocatalytic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Cuiyan; Yu, Yanlong; Xu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical nanoflowers assembled with Au nanoparticles (NPs) decorated ZnO nanosheets (Au-ZnO nanosheet flowers, AZNSFs) were successful synthesized. The AZNSFs showed more efficient activity to photodegradation of RhB than that of pure ZnO nanosheet flowers and commercial ZnO nanopowders...

  6. ZnO Interactions with Biomatrices: Effect of Particle Size on ZnO-Protein Corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NPs have been widely used for food fortification, because zinc is essential for many enzyme and hormone activities and cellular functions, but public concern about their potential toxicity is increasing. Interactions between ZnO and biomatrices might affect the oral absorption, distribution, and toxicity of ZnO, which may be influenced by particle size. In this study, ZnO interactions with biomatrices were investigated by examining the physicochemical properties, solubility, protein fluorescence quenching, particle–protein corona, and intestinal transport with respect to the particle size (bulk vs. nano in simulated gastrointestinal (GI and plasma fluids and in rat-extracted fluids. The results demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii and zeta potentials of bulk ZnO and nano ZnO in biofluids changed in different ways, and that nano ZnO induced higher protein fluorescence quenching than bulk ZnO. However, ZnO solubility and its intestinal transport mechanism were unaffected by particle size. Proteomic analysis revealed that albumin, fibrinogen, and fibronectin play roles in particle–plasma protein corona, regardless of particle size. Furthermore, nano ZnO was found to interact more strongly with plasma proteins. These observations show that bulk ZnO and nano ZnO interact with biomatrices in different ways and highlight the need for further study of their long-term toxicity.

  7. Shape tunable synthesis of Eu-and Sm-doped ZnO microstructures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facile and low-cost aqueous chemical bath deposition route has been demonstrated to fabricate Eu- and Sm-doped ZnO microstructures. The effect of Eu and Sm ions on the morphology of the ZnO was investigated. The synthesized doped ZnO microstructures were systematically characterized by field-emission scanning ...

  8. Preparation of electron buffer layer with crystalline ZnO nanoparticles in inverted organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Kang, Taeho; Choi, Yoon-Young; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized through sol-gel method were used to fabricate the electron buffer layer in inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) after thermal treatment. To investigate the effect of thermal treatment on the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, the amorphous ZnO nanoparticles were treated via hydrothermal method. The crystalline phase of ZnO with well-ordered structure could be obtained when the amorphous phase of ZnO was processed under hydrothermal treatment at 170 °C. The crystalline structure of ZnO thin film in inverted organic solar cell could be obtained under relatively low annealing temperature by using thermally treated ZnO nanoparticles. The OPVs fabricated by using crystalline ZnO nanoparticles for electron buffer layer exhibited higher efficiency than the conventional ZnO nanoparticles. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for 7.16% through the ZnO film using the crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. The proposed method to prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) could effectively reduce energy consumption during the fabrication of OPVs, which would greatly contribute to advantages such as lower manufacturing costs, higher productivity and application on flexible substrates.

  9. ZnO Thin Film Electronics for More than Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jose Israel

    Zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in this work for large-area electronic applications outside of display technology. A constant pressure, constant flow, showerhead, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process has been developed to fabricate high mobility TFTs and circuits on rigid and flexible substrates at 200 °C. ZnO films and resulting devices prepared by PEALD and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) have been compared. Both PEALD and PLD ZnO films result in densely packed, polycrystalline ZnO thin films that were used to make high performance devices. PEALD ZnO TFTs deposited at 300 °C have a field-effect mobility of ˜ 40 cm2/V-s (and > 20 cm2/V-S deposited at 200 °C). PLD ZnO TFTs, annealed at 400 °C, have a field-effect mobility of > 60 cm2/V-s (and up to 100 cm2/V-s). Devices, prepared by either technique, show high gamma-ray radiation tolerance of up to 100 Mrad(SiO2) with only a small radiation-induced threshold voltage shift (VT ˜ -1.5 V). Electrical biasing during irradiation showed no enhanced radiation-induced effects. The study of the radiation effects as a function of material stack thicknesses revealed the majority of the radiation-induced charge collection happens at the semiconductor-passivation interface. A simple sheet-charge model at that interface can describe the radiation-induced charge in ZnO TFTs. By taking advantage of the substrate-agnostic process provided by PEALD, due to its low-temperature and excellent conformal coatings, ZnO electronics were monolithically integrated with thin-film complex oxides. Application-based examples where ZnO electronics provide added functionality to complex oxide-based devices are presented. In particular, the integration of arrayed lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 or PZT) thin films with ZnO electronics for microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) and deformable mirrors is demonstrated. ZnO switches can provide voltage to PZT capacitors with fast charging and slow

  10. Improving the Hydrophobicity of ZnO by PTFE Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to obtain a zinc oxide- (ZnO- based superhydrophobic surface in a simple and cost-effective manner. Chemical immersion deposition being simple and economical has been adopted to develop modified ZnO coating on glass substrate. Several modifications of ZnO like treatment with alkanoic acid (stearic acid and fluoroalkylsilane to tune the surface wettability (hydrophobicity were attempted. The effect of thermal treatment on the hydrophobic performance was also studied. It was observed that thermal treatment at 70°C for 16 hrs followed by immersion in stearic acid resulted in high water contact angle (WCA, that is, a superhydrophobic surface. Thus, a modified ZnO superhydrophobic surface involves the consumption of large amount of electrical energy and time. Hence, the alternate involved the incorporation of low surface energy fluoropolymer polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE in the ZnO coating. The immersion deposited ZnO-PTFE composite coating on modification with either stearic acid or fluoroalkylsilane resulted in a better superhydrophobic surface. The coatings were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM for the surface morphology. It was found that microstructure of the coating was influenced by the additives employed. A flower-like morphology comprising of needle-like structure arranged in a radial manner was exhibited by the superhydrophobic coating.

  11. Obtaining of nanostructured ZnO coatings using mechanoactivated oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muktepavela, F [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Bakradze, G [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Tamanis, E [Daugavpils University, Daugavpils (Latvia); Grigorjeva, L [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Kulis, P [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Krutohvostovs, R [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2007-12-15

    The concept to use nanostructured state of metal at the instant of destruction in air environment was used to obtain nanostructured Zn-ZnO coatings on glass and quartz by mechanical method. Subsequent annealing in the ambient atmosphere, annealing in vacuum and irradiation with 532-nm YAG:Nd laser were used to obtain completely oxidized, transparent ZnO coatings. The saturated with oxygen nanostructured coatings were transformed into nanostructured ZnO coatings after annealing above 773K or irradiation with laser (allowing to reach 673K) in ambient atmosphere. AFM and SEM images show that after annealing ZnO coatings have multi-shaped structure. The formation of ZnO need-like whiskers (d = 100nm, l = 2{mu}m) was observed after laser irradiation. Obtained ZnO coatings have high microhardness (10--12GPa), strong adhesion with substrates and show green and blue luminescence at room temperature. The oxidation process is mechanoactivated due to the facilitated oxygen diffusion along deformation defects: vacancies, dislocation, microcracks, and developed network of grain boundaries.

  12. Effects of seed layers on structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Min, Soon-Ki; Oh, Cha-Hwan; Leel, YoungPak; Lim, Hyunjin; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Nam, Hyun Jung; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon; Min, Sun-Ki; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of seed layers on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods. ZnO and Ag-doped ZnO (ZnO:Ag) seed layers were deposited on glass substrates by magnetron co-sputtering. ZnO nanorods were grown on these seed layers by the chemical bath deposition in an aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)2 and hexamethyltetramine. SEM micrographs clearly reveal that ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on both kinds of seed layers. The XRD patterns indicate that crystallization of ZnO nanorods is along the c-axis. Meanwhile, the packing density and the vertical alignment of the ZnO nanorods on the ZnO seed layer are better than those of the ZnO nanorods on ZnO:Ag. The enhanced growth of nanorods is thought to be due to the fact that the ZnO layer exhibits a higher crystalline quality than the ZnO:Ag layer. According to the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra, the ZnO nanorods on the ZnO seed layer show a narrow strong ultraviolet emission band centered at 369 nm, while those on ZnO:Ag exhibit multiple bands. These results are thought to be related with the crystallinity of ZnO nanorods, the morphologies of ZnO nanorods, and the reflectivities of seed layers. More detailed studies for clarification of the seed layer effect on the growth of ZnO nanorods are desirable.

  13. Fabrication of surface-patterned ZnO thin films using sol-gel methods and nanoimprint lithography

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Shuxi; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Dianbo; Han, Xiao; Shi, Qing; Wang, Shujie; Du, Zuliang

    2011-01-01

    Surface-patterned ZnO thin films were fabricated by direct imprinting on ZnO sol and subsequent annealing process. The polymer-based ZnO sols were deposited on various substrates for the nanoimprint lithography and converted to surface-patterned ZnO gel films during the thermal curing nanoimprint process. Finally, crystalline ZnO films were obtained by subsequent annealing of the patterned ZnO gel films. The optical characterization indicates that the surface patterning of ZnO thin films can ...

  14. Ultraviolet lasing behavior in ZnO optical microcavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Dong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO optical microcavity modulated UV lasers have been attracting a wide range of research interests. As one of the most important materials in developing high quality microcavity and efficient UV–visible optoelectronic devices due to its wide band gap (3.37 eV and large exciton binding energy (∼60 meV. In this review, we summarized the latest development of ZnO optical cavity based microlasers, mainly including Fabry-Perot mode lasers and whispering gallery mode lasers. The synthesis and optical studies of ZnO optical microcavities with different morphologies were discussed in detail. Finally, we also consider that the research focus in the near future would include new nanotechnology and physical effects, such as nano/micro fabrication, surface plasmon enhancement, and quantum dot coupling, which may result in new and interesting physical phenomena.

  15. Nanosheet-Assembled ZnO Microflower Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale ZnO microflowers assembled by numerous nanosheets are synthesized through a facile and effective hydrothermal route. The structure and morphology of the resultant products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Photocatalytic properties of the as-synthesized products are also investigated. The results demonstrate that eosin red aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 110 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, methyl orange (MO and Congo red (CR aqueous solution degradation experiments also are conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that nanosheet-assembled ZnO microflowers represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 91% for CR with 90 min of irradiation and 90% for MO with 60 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  16. Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sheng; Wang, Guoping; Zhou, Weihang; Lin, Yuqing; Chernyak, Leonid; Zhao, Jianze; Kong, Jieying; Li, Lin; Ren, Jingjian; Liu, Jianlin

    2011-07-03

    Ultraviolet semiconductor lasers are widely used for applications in photonics, information storage, biology and medical therapeutics. Although the performance of gallium nitride ultraviolet lasers has improved significantly over the past decade, demand for lower costs, higher powers and shorter wavelengths has motivated interest in zinc oxide (ZnO), which has a wide direct bandgap and a large exciton binding energy. ZnO-based random lasing has been demonstrated with both optical and electrical pumping, but random lasers suffer from reduced output powers, unstable emission spectra and beam divergence. Here, we demonstrate electrically pumped Fabry-Perot type waveguide lasing from laser diodes that consist of Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowires and n-type ZnO thin films. The diodes exhibit highly stable lasing at room temperature, and can be modelled with finite-difference time-domain methods.

  17. Effect of Intrinsic Point Defect on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO Nanowire

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangni Yun; Zhiyong Zhang; Tieen Yin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of intrinsic point defect on the magnetic properties of ZnO nanowire is investigated by the first-principles calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated results reveal that the pure ZnO nanowire without intrinsic point defect is nonmagnetic and ZnO nanowire with VO, Zni, Oi, OZn, or ZnO point defect also is nonmagnetic. However, a strong spin splitting phenomenon is observed in ZnO nanowire with VZn defect sitting on the surface site. The Mulliken popul...

  18. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanotube synthesis via novel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlol, Rajaa Abdul Alameer

    ZnO nanotubes were synthesized using novel and simple method where commercial visible light was used as heating source. The XRD results revealed that pure ZnO was prepared with wurtzite structure. The AFM describes the homogeneous distribution of ZnO on the substrates, while SEM and TEM micrographs shows that the prepared ZnO have nanotubes structure with length of 600 nm and diameter of 300 nm. The PL results showed strong UV emission with weak green emission implies that the ZnO nanotubes have good crystal structure. The optical properties of the samples revealed good transparency.

  19. Synthesis of ZnO Nanocrystals and Application in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-Jing; Wu, Jian; Hao, Hui-Ying; Xing, Jie; Liu, Hao; Gao, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Controllable synthesis of various ZnO nanocrystals was achieved via a simple and cost-effective hydrothermal process. The morphology evolution of the ZnO nanostructures was well monitored by tuning hydrothermal growth parameters, such as solution concentration, reaction temperature, and surfactant. As-obtained ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies, e.g., ZnO nanorods, nanotetrapods, nanoflowers, and nanocubes, were further introduced into the organic bulk heterojunction solar cells as the electron transport channel. It was found that the device performance was closely related to the morphology of the ZnO nanocrystals.

  20. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO microrods on ITO-coated glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jincheng; Li, Tengfei; Heng, Hang

    2015-04-01

    ZnO microrods were prepared on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrate by a hydrothermal method. ZnO microrods were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, photoluminescence, and UV-visible spectrum. ZnO microrods were pure wurtzite phase. The formation mechanism was discussed, especially emphasizing the formation mechanism of ZnO clusters and twinned ZnO structures. Green and orange emissions in photoluminescence were attributed to O vacancies and O interstitials, respectively.

  1. Preferred oriented ZnO films growth on nonoriented substrates by CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduev, A.; Akhmedov, A.; Asvarov, A.; Omaev, A.

    2012-02-01

    The processes of CVD synthesis of ZnO layers with different preferred orientation on non-crystalline substrates where studied. Synthesis was carried out in a hydrogen atmosphere on substrates with ZnO buffer layers with various preferred orientation, namely in the plane perpendicular as well as parallel to plane of the substrate. ZnO buffer layers were synthesized by magnetron sputtering of ZnO ceramic targets. Conditions for the ZnO layers formation by CVD with (002), (100), (110) preferred orientations and mixed (100) - (110) orientations were determined.

  2. Single-Crystal Mesoporous ZnO Thin Films Composed of Nanowalls

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xudong

    2009-02-05

    This paper presents a controlled, large scale fabrication of mesoporous ZnO thin films. The entire ZnO mesoporous film is one piece of a single crystal, while high porosity made of nanowalls is present. The growth mechanism was proposed in comparison with the growth of ZnO nanowires. The ZnO mesoporous film was successfully applied as a gas sensor. The fabrication and growth analysis of the mesoporous ZnO thin film gi ve general guidance for the controlled growth of nanostructures. It also pro vides a unique structure with a superhigh surface-to-volume ratio for surface-related applications. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  3. In-situ PXRD studies of ZnO nanoparticle growth: How do various salts influence the hydrothermal growth of ZnO?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjesen, Espen Drath

    ZnO is a material of great scientific and everyday relevance; it is used widely in all sorts of application. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles can be performed by a wide assortment of methods and a tremendous variety of sizes and shapes, it has been suggested that ZnO is the one known compound showing...... the broadest range of nanostructures. Previously many different in-situ characterization methods have been used to investigate the ZnO formation under various synthesis conditions; these include UV-VIS and SAXS. These methods were primarily used to give information on particle size of ZnO formed using soft...... chemical methods and non-aqueous solvents. In our work we have studied the formation of ZnO during hydrothermal syntheses using in-situ powder X-ray diffraction, thus enabling us to extract crystallographic as well as microstructural information. The data was analyzed using Rietveld refinement and whole...

  4. Epitaxial growth of znO nanowires over the ZnO thin films deposited on the Si and sapphire substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, No-Kuk; Lee, You Jin; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Won Guen; Bae, Young Je; Yoon, Suk Hoon; Han, Gi Bo; Ryu, Si Ok; Lee, Tae Jin

    2008-09-01

    Epitaxial growth of ZnO nanowires was carried out using a modified thermal evaporation method with inexpensive experimental setup. ZnO nanowires were synthesized using ZnO thin films. The ZnO thin films were deposited as a buffer layer on silicon and sapphire using an impinging flow reactor (IFR). The IFR system is a modified version of a chemical bath deposition (CBD). Films can be created at low temperature, without any metallic catalysts. The properties of Zinc Oxide films are dependant upon the type of substrate used. The same deposition process with a different substrates yields two films with different properties. The most critical effect on growth of ZnO nanowires were dependent the properties of the buffer layer deposited on the substrate. It was not the type of substrate used. A cost-efficient method for epitaxial growth of single crystal ZnO nanowires is proposed in this work.

  5. Photoluminescence of Sequential Infiltration Synthesized ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas; Gosztola, David; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Connolly, Aine

    We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and other polymers. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that we synthesize ZnO up to 300 nm inside a PMMA film. Photoluminescence data on a PMMA film shows that we achieve a factor of 400X increase in photoluminescence (PL) intensity when comparing a blank Si sample and a 270 nm thick PMMA film, where both were treated with the same 12 alternating cycles of H2O and diethyl zinc (DEZ). PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid polymer-oxide material. We show that patterning does indeed affect the photoluminescence signature of native ZnO. We demonstrate we can track the growth of the ZnO inside the PMMA polymer using both photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy and determine the point in the process where ZnO is first photoluminescent and also at which point ZnO first exhibits long range order in the polymer. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Preparation and characterization of ZnO microcantilever for nanoactuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peihong; Du, Hejun; Shen, Shengnan; Zhang, Mingsheng; Liu, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Zinc oxide [ZnO] thin films are deposited using a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering method under room temperature. Its crystalline quality, surface morphology, and composition purity are characterized by X-ray diffraction [XRD], atomic force microscopy [AFM], field-emission scanning electron microscopy [FE-SEM], and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy [EDS]. XRD pattern of the ZnO thin film shows that it has a high c-axis-preferring orientation, which is confirmed by a FE-SEM cross-sectional image of the film. The EDS analysis indicates that only Zn and O elements are contained in the ZnO film. The AFM image shows that the film's surface is very smooth and dense, and the surface roughness is 5.899 nm. The microcantilever (Au/Ti/ZnO/Au/Ti/SiO2/Si) based on the ZnO thin film is fabricated by micromachining techniques. The dynamic characterizations of the cantilever using a laser Doppler vibrometer show that the amplitude of the cantilever tip is linear with the driving voltage, and the amplitude of this microcantilever's tip increased from 2.1 to 13.6 nm when the driving voltage increased from 0.05 to 0.3 Vrms. The calculated transverse piezoelectric constant d 31 of the ZnO thin film is -3.27 pC/N. This d 31 is high compared with other published results. This ZnO thin film will be used in smart slider in hard disk drives to do nanoactuation in the future.

  7. Growth of ZnO nanowires on nonwoven polyethylene fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Baruah et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of ZnO nanowires on nonwoven polyethylene fibers using a simple hydrothermal method at a temperature below the boiling point of water. The ZnO nanowires were grown from seed ZnO nanoparticles affixed onto the fibers. The seed ZnO nanoparticles, with diameters of about 6–7 nm, were synthesized in isopropanol by reducing zinc acetate hydrate with sodium hydroxide. The growth process was carried out in a sealed chemical bath containing an equimolar solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylene tetramine at a temperature of 95 °C over a period of up to 20 h. The thickness and length of the nanowires can be controlled by using different concentrations of the starting reactants and growth durations. A 0.5 mM chemical bath yielded nanowires with an average diameter of around 50 nm, while a 25 mM bath resulted in wires with a thickness of up to about 1 μm. The length of the wires depends both on the concentration of the precursor solution as well as the growth duration, and in 20 h, nanowires as long as 10 μm can be grown. The nonwoven mesh of polyethylene fibers covered with ZnO nanowires can be used for novel applications such as water treatment by degrading pollutants by photocatalysis. Photocatalysis tests carried out on standard test contaminants revealed that the polyethylene fibers with ZnO nanowires grown on them could accelerate the photocatalytic degradation process by a factor of 3.

  8. Growth of ZnO nanowires on nonwoven polyethylene fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Thanachayanont, Chanchana; Dutta, Joydeep

    2008-01-01

    We report the growth of ZnO nanowires on nonwoven polyethylene fibers using a simple hydrothermal method at a temperature below the boiling point of water. The ZnO nanowires were grown from seed ZnO nanoparticles affixed onto the fibers. The seed ZnO nanoparticles, with diameters of about 6–7 nm, were synthesized in isopropanol by reducing zinc acetate hydrate with sodium hydroxide. The growth process was carried out in a sealed chemical bath containing an equimolar solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylene tetramine at a temperature of 95 °C over a period of up to 20 h. The thickness and length of the nanowires can be controlled by using different concentrations of the starting reactants and growth durations. A 0.5 mM chemical bath yielded nanowires with an average diameter of around 50 nm, while a 25 mM bath resulted in wires with a thickness of up to about 1 μm. The length of the wires depends both on the concentration of the precursor solution as well as the growth duration, and in 20 h, nanowires as long as 10 μm can be grown. The nonwoven mesh of polyethylene fibers covered with ZnO nanowires can be used for novel applications such as water treatment by degrading pollutants by photocatalysis. Photocatalysis tests carried out on standard test contaminants revealed that the polyethylene fibers with ZnO nanowires grown on them could accelerate the photocatalytic degradation process by a factor of 3. PMID:27877984

  9. Preparation and characterization of Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers by an electrospinning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Pil Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO Nanofibers on (111 Pt/SiO2/Si substrates were produced using an electrospinning technique. The as-prepared composite fibres were subjected to high-temperature calcination to produce inorganic fibers. After calcining at a temperature of 500 °C, the average diameter of the ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers were determined to be 170 nm and 225 nm, respectively. The average grain size of the ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers were about 50 nm and 57 nm, respectively. The microstructure, chemical bonding state and photoluminescence of the produced ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers were investigated. The Ce-doped ZnO nanofiber can be assigned to the presence of Ce ions on substitutional sites of Zn ions and the Ce3+ state from X-ray photoelectron spectra. Compared with PL spectra of ZnO nanofibers, the peak position of the UV emission of the Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers is sharply suppressed while the green emission band is highly enhanced.

  10. Nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel are highly safe and effective for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kyudae; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun

    2017-04-01

    The safety and effectiveness of antimicrobial ZnO films must be established for general applications. In this study, the antimicrobial activity, skin irritation, elution behavior, and mechanical properties of nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel were evaluated. ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and ZnO nanowall (NW) structures were prepared with different surface roughnesses, wettability, and concentrations using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The thicknesses of ZnO NP and ZnO NW were approximately 300 and 620 nm, respectively, and ZnO NW had two diffraction directions of [0002] and [01-10] based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ZnO NW structure demonstrated 99.9% antimicrobial inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Penicillium funiculosum, and no skin irritation was detected using experimental rabbits. Approximately 27.2 ± 3.0 μg L-1 Zn ions were eluted from the ZnO NW film at 100 °C for 24 h, which satisfies the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. Furthermore, the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of ZnO NW films on stainless steel were enhanced by 11 and 14% compared to those of the parent stainless steel. Based on these results, ZnO NW films on STS316L sheets are useful for household supplies, such as water pipes, faucets, and stainless steel containers.

  11. Laser-induced grating in ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jesper N.

    1992-01-01

    A simple approach for the calculation of self-diffraction in a thin combined phase and amplitude grating is presented. The third order nonlinearity, the electron-hole recombination time, and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a ZnO crystal are measured by means of laser-induced self-diffracti......A simple approach for the calculation of self-diffraction in a thin combined phase and amplitude grating is presented. The third order nonlinearity, the electron-hole recombination time, and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a ZnO crystal are measured by means of laser-induced self...

  12. Optical function of bionic nanostructure of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C X [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhu, G P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Liu, Y J [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X W [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Li, X [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Liu, J P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cui, Y P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2007-10-15

    A novel bionic network nanostructure of zinc oxide (ZnO), which is similar to the microstructure of a butterfly wing, was first fabricated by a vapor-phase transport method using zinc powder as a source. These bionic nanostructures are composed of three ordered multi-aperture gratings. Similar to the optical effect of butterfly wings, the diffraction patterns of the bionic network of ZnO were observed. The mechanism of the optical function was discussed based on the physical model of multi-aperture diffraction.

  13. Optical characterization of ZnO nanomaterial with praseodymium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y. K.; Pal, Sudha; Goyal, Priyanka; Bind, Umesh Chandra

    2016-05-01

    ZnO nanomaterial with praseodymium ions was prepared by chemical synthesis method. The ZnO nanomaterial was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. Their absorption in UV-VIS/NIR regions was measured at room temperature. The experimental oscillator strengths were calculated from the areas under the absorption bands. Eight absorption bands have been observed. From these spectral data various energy interaction parameters like Slater-Condon, Lande, Racah, Nephelauxetic ratio and bonding parameters have been computed. Judd-Ofelt analysis has been carried out using the absorption spectra to evaluate the radiative properties for luminescent levels of the praseodymium ion and discussed. The observed nano particle size is 2nm.

  14. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lerose, Damiana [MPI fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bochmann, Arne [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Christiansen, Silke H. [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); MPI fuer die Physik des Lichts, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Zentrum fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Ion beams can be used to bend or re-align nanowires permanently, after they have been grown. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with ions of different species and energy, achieving bending and alignment in various directions. We study the bending of single nanowires as well as the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires in detail. Computer simulations show that the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Dislocations are identified to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent and resistant against annealing procedures.

  15. EPD-deposited ZnO thin films: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde, M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ZnO-based materials and specifically ZnO films with tailored morphology have been subjected to extensive research in the past few years due to their high potential for multiple prospective applications, mainly in electronics. Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD constitutes an economical, ecofriendly, low energy consuming and easily scalable alternative to the high energy consuming evaporative techniques which are commonly used for the obtaining of these ZnO films. For its application, however, the use of stable, well dispersed suspensions is a necessary requirement, and thus a thorough study of their colloidal chemistry is essential. In this work the main contributions to the study of colloidal chemistry of ZnO nanoparticle suspensions and their shaping into ZnO films by EPD are summarized.Los materiales basados en ZnO y en particular las láminas de ZnO con morfología controlada han sido objeto en los últimos años de numerosas investigaciones debido al elevado potencial que presentan para múltiples aplicaciones emergentes, principalmente en electrónica. La deposición electroforética (EPD constituye un método alternativo económico, ecológico, de bajo coste energético y elevada escalabilidad para la producción de éstas láminas de ZnO, en contraste con las técnicas evaporativas empleadas habitualmente, las cuales presentan un elevado impacto energético, así como una escalabilidad complicada. Para su aplicación, sin embargo, y puesto que el principal requisito es el uso de suspensiones estables y bien dispersas, es necesario un detallado estudio de la coloidequímica de las mismas. En este trabajo se resumen las aportaciones más relevantes relativas al estudio de los distintos parámetros que afectan a la estabilidad coloidal de las suspensiones de nanopartículas de ZnO y al proceso de obtención de las láminas mediante EPD a partir de las mismas.

  16. Room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnO prepared by microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyu Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Clear room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in ZnO powders prepared by microemulsion. The O vacancy (VO clusters mediated by the VO with one electron (F center contributed to the ferromagnetism, while the isolated F centers contributed to the low temperature paramagnetism. Annealing in H2 incorporated interstitial H (Hi in ZnO, and removed the isolated F centers, leading to the suppression of the paramagnetism. The ferromagnetism has been considered to originate from the VO clusters mediated by the Hi, leading to the enhancement of the coercivity. The ferromagnetism disappeared after annealing in air due to the reduction of Hi.

  17. Optical characterization of ZnO nanomaterial with praseodymium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Y. K., E-mail: dryksharma@yahoo.com; Bind, Umesh Chandra [Department of Physics, Centre of Nanotechnology, IIT Roorkee (India); Pal, Sudha, E-mail: namansingh91@gmail.com; Goyal, Priyanka, E-mail: namansingh91@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    ZnO nanomaterial with praseodymium ions was prepared by chemical synthesis method. The ZnO nanomaterial was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. Their absorption in UV-VIS/NIR regions was measured at room temperature. The experimental oscillator strengths were calculated from the areas under the absorption bands. Eight absorption bands have been observed. From these spectral data various energy interaction parameters like Slater–Condon, Lande, Racah, Nephelauxetic ratio and bonding parameters have been computed. Judd-Ofelt analysis has been carried out using the absorption spectra to evaluate the radiative properties for luminescent levels of the praseodymium ion and discussed. The observed nano particle size is 2nm.

  18. Piezoelectric ZnO nanostructure for energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Leprince-Wang, Yamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, ZnO as an important II-VI semiconductor has attracted much attention within the scientific community over the world owing to its numerous unique and prosperous properties. This material, considered as a "future material", especially in nanostructural format, has aroused many interesting research works due to its large range of applications in electronics, photonics, acoustics, energy and sensing. The bio-compatibility, piezoelectricity & low cost fabrication make ZnO nanostructure a very promising material for energy harvesting.

  19. Spontaneous ZnO nanowire formation during oxidation of Cu-Zn alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Wang, Chao; Cai, Rongsheng; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Guangwen

    2013-07-01

    A combination of electron microscopy and in-situ x-ray diffraction is employed to study the thermal oxidation of brass (Cu0.7Zn0.3 alloy) in order to elucidate the mechanism of one-dimensional growth of ZnO nanostructures. Oxidation of the brass alloy results in the growth of a ZnO overlayer with ZnO nanowire formation on the ZnO layer. Increasing the oxidation temperature thickens the ZnO overlayer while suppressing ZnO nanowire formation on the top, which provides clear evidence that the formation of ZnO nanowires is related to a stress-driven mechanism that involves accumulation of compressive stress generated from the ZnO/Cu-Zn interfacial reaction and relaxation of the compressive stress by outward grain-boundary diffusion of Zn.

  20. Seed-mediated growth of ZnO nanorods on multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changqing; Jin, Zhong; Chu, Haibin; Li, Yan

    2008-09-01

    The heterostructures of ZnO nanorods on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were fabricated by a seed-mediated growth method. First, the surfaces of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were coated in situ with mono-dispersed ZnO nanocrystals of about 7 nm by the reaction of zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide. These nanocrystals were then served as the seeds for further growth of ZnO nanorods. In the second step, ZnO nanorods were grown on MWNTs coated with ZnO nanocrystals in an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate and equimolar hexamethylenetetramine at 85 degrees C. Typically, the ZnO nanorods had the length of 300-600 nm and the diameter of 40-140 nm and took a random direction on the outside walls of MWNTs. The morphology of the ZnO nanorods was dependent on pH, reactant concentration, and growing time.

  1. Atomistic study of structures and elastic properties of single crystalline ZnO nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Wonha; Hwang, Hojung

    2008-06-04

    The structural stability and Young's modulus of single crystalline ZnO nanotubes are investigated using atomistic simulations. Unlike the case for conventional layered nanotubes, the energetic stability of single crystalline ZnO nanotubes is related to the wall thickness. The potential energy of ZnO nanotubes with fixed outer and inner diameters decreases with increasing wall thickness, while the nanotubes with the same wall thickness are independent of the outer and inner diameters. The transformation of single crystalline ZnO nanotubes with a double layer from wurtzite phase to graphitic phase suggests the possibility of wall-typed ZnO nanotubes. The size-dependent Young's modulus of ZnO nanotubes is also investigated. The wall thickness plays a significant role in the Young's modulus of single crystalline ZnO nanotubes, whereas the variation of outer and inner diameters slightly affects the Young's modulus of nanotubes with same wall thickness.

  2. Microwave absorption properties and the isotropic antenna mechanism of ZnO nanotrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, R. F.; Qiao, L.; Feng, H. T.; Chen, J. T.; Yan, D.; Wu, Z. G.; Yan, P. X.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanowires and ZnO nanotrees have been prepared and their microwave absorption properties have been investigated in detail. Complex permittivity and permeability of the ZnO nanostructures and paraffin composites have been measured in a frequency of 0.1-18 GHz. Excellent microwave absorption performances have been observed in ZnO nanotree composite compared to ZnO nanowire composite, and the maximum absorption is enhanced as the concentration of the nanotrees increases in the composite. The value of minimum reflection loss for the composites with 60 vol % ZnO nanotrees is -58 dB at 4.2 GHz with a thickness of 4.0 mm. Such strong absorption is attributed to the unique isotropic antenna morphology of the ZnO nanotrees in the composite.

  3. Preparation and Study of morphological properties of ZnO nano Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Salab Hamza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, ZnO nanostructures for powder ZnO were synthesized by Hydrothermal Method. Size and shape of ZnO nanostructureas can be controlled by change ammonia concentration. In the preparation of ZnO nanostructure, zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO32·6H2O] was used as a precursor. The structure and morphology of ZnO nanostructure have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures have a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Also using Zeta potential and Particle Size Analyzers and size distribution of the ZnO powder

  4. Nanostructured ZnO - its challenging properties and potential for device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO possessing interesting structural and optical properties offers challenging opportunities for innovative applications. In this lecture the review of the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanostructured layers is presented. It is shown that they have a direct impact on the parameters of devices involving ZnO. An analysis of current trends in the photovoltaic (PV) field shows that improved light harvesting and efficiency of solar cells can be obtained by implementing nanostructured ZnO layers to process advanced solar cell structures. Because of amenability to doping, high chemical stability, sensitivity to different adsorbed gases, nontoxicity and low cost ZnO attracted much attention for application as gas sensors. The sensitivity of nano-grain ZnO gas elements is comparatively high because of the grain-size effect. Application of nanostructured ZnO for gas sensors and for increasing of light harvesting in solar cells is demonstrated.

  5. Hydrothermal Growth and Application of ZnO Nanowire Films with ZnO and TiO2Buffer Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Weiguang; Wan, Farong; Chen, Siwei; Jiang, Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports the effects of the seed layers prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating methods on the morphology and density of ZnO nanowire arrays, thus on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The nanowire films with the thick ZnO buffer layer (~0.8–1 μm thick) can improve the open circuit voltage of the DSSCs through suppressing carrier recombination, however, and cause the decrease of dye loading absorbed on ZnO nanowires. In ord...

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO and Nd doped ZnO nanoparticles against ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed Haja; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Ahamed, Abdulazees Parveez; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Ravi, Ganasan

    2016-04-01

    Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm-1 for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls.

  7. Structural studies of ZnO nanostructures by varying the deposition parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, S. H. A.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Ichimura, M.; Supee, A.; Rahim, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) was investigated. The structures of ZnO NRs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in aqueous solution of N2O6Zn.6H2O and C6H12N4 at 90°C of deposition temperature. One of the ZnO NRs samples was deposited on a ZnO seed layer coated on a glass substrate to investigate the properties of ZnO NRs without receiving effect of other materials. Next, for diode application, the ZnO NRs was deposited on tin monosulfide (SnS) coated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate (SnS/ITO). The next, the ZnO structural properties were studied from surface morphology, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectra, and chemical composition by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), XRD and energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The growth of ZnO NRs on ZnO seed layer was investigated by ZnO seed layer condition while the growth of ZnO NRs on SnS/ITO was investigated by deposition time and deposition temperature parameters. From FESEM images, aligned ZnO NRs were obtained, and the diameters of ZnO NRs were 0.024-3.94 µm. The SnS thin film was affected by the diameter of ZnO NRs which are the ZnO NRs grow on SnS thin films has a larger diameter compared to ZnO NRs grow on ZnO seed layer. Besides that, all of ZnO peaks observed from XRD corresponding to the wurzite structure and preferentially oriented along the c-axis. In addition, EDX shows a high composition of zinc (Zn) and oxygen (O) signals, which indicated that the NRs are indeed made up of Zn and O.

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures on ZnO seed layer for DSSC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were prepared on ZnO seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate in the solutions consisting of different concentrations of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The electrochemical, structural, morphological, vibrational and optical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. CV curves confirm that metallic zinc phase is not deposited as the HMTA concentration is about 9 mM in a deposition solution. XRD patterns of the as-prepared films show that the increasing HMTA concentrations from 0 mM to 9 mM not only increase the formation of zinc hydrate chloride (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) but also decrease and finally disappear the metallic Zn deposition. After the as-prepared films annealed at 450 ° C, the crystalline phases of Zn and Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O are completely converted to ZnO hexagonal wurtzite phase with high intense growth (002) plane orientation. SEM images support that the vertical growth of ZnO nanostructures (nanorods and petals) with a few flowers is found to be in the cordillera structure as the films are deposited in the solutions consisting of 3 mM, 6 mM and 9 mM HMTA respectively. Raman and PL spectra confirm that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA has a higher crystalline nature with lesser atomic defects and is also higher c-axis growth than that of other films deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM, 3 mM and 6 mM, respectively. UV-vis absorbance spectra corroborate that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA shows a high dye absorbance as compared with other films. The efficiency of DSSCs based on ZnO photoanodes deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM and 9 mM HMTA was 1.79 and 3.75%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra revealed that DSSC based on ZnO photoanode

  9. Trapping of cubic ZnO nanocrystallites at ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decremps, F.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Datchi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Dense powder of nanocrystalline ZnO has been recovered at ambient conditions in the metastable cubic structure after a heat treatment at high pressure (15 GPa and 550 K). Combined x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments have been performed to probe both long...

  10. Biogenic ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using L. aculeata leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous extract of Lantana aculeata Linn. leaf and assessed their effects on antifungal activity against the plant fungal pathogens. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, ...

  11. Facile synthesis of ZnO hollow fibres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. In this paper, cotton fibres were used as bio-template to successfully synthesize new ceramic mate- rials, ZnO hollow fibres and in an effort to explore the synthesis condition, and simplify the synthesis procedure. In this synthesis, a direct thermal decomposition of zinc acetate dihydrate coated on the surface of ...

  12. Mechanical, microstructure and electrical properties of ternary ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V2O5–Mn3O4 (ZVM)-based varis- tors were investigated at different sintering temperatures of 825–950◦C. The microstructure of the samples consists mainly of ZnO grains with Zn3(VO4)2, ZnV2O4 and VO2 as minor secondary phases.

  13. NANO CRYSTALLINE ZnO CATALYZED ONE POT THREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naphtho[1',2':5,6]pyrano[3,2- c]chromen-6-ones is described by three-component reaction of β-naphthol, aromatic aldehydes and 4- hydroxycoumarin using ZnO nanoparticles under solvent-free conditions. The present method provides a ...

  14. ZnO processing for integrated optic sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsthuis, Winfried H.G.

    1986-01-01

    ZnO thin films were sputter deposited onto oxidized silicon wafers. The film quality increased with increasing applied r.f. power. Characterization of the films was performed by measurements of the attenuation of the transverse electric TE0 optical guided mode. For an applied r.f. power of 2000 W,

  15. Luminescence properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Grym, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, 1November (2016), s. 214-220 ISSN 0749-6036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14111; GA ČR GA15-17044S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Photoluminescence * Annealing * ZnO nanorods Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.123, year: 2016

  16. Biogenic ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using L. aculeata leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanoparticles are widely used as an additive into numerous materials and products including paints, cosmetics, plastic and rubber manufacturing, electronics, pharmaceuticals as well as wide applications in agricultural and aquaculture [8]. The synthesis of nanoparticles by conventional physical and chemical methods ...

  17. Ecotoxicity of Manufactured ZnO Nanoparticles - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an exhaustive literature review on the toxicity of manufactured ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to ecological receptors across different phylum: bacteria, algae and plants, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and freshwater fish. Results show that the majority of s...

  18. Photoluminescence of spray pyrolysis deposited ZnO nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikli Valdek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Photoluminescence of highly structured ZnO layers comprising well-shaped hexagonal rods is presented. The ZnO rods (length 500-1,000 nm, diameter 100-300 nm were grown in air onto a preheated soda-lime glass (SGL or ITO/SGL substrate by low-cost chemical spray pyrolysis method using zinc chloride precursor solutions and growth temperatures in the range of 450-550°C. We report the effect of the variation in deposition parameters (substrate type, growth temperature, spray rate, solvent type on the photoluminescence properties of the spray-deposited ZnO nanorods. A dominant near band edge (NBE emission is observed at 300 K and at 10 K. High-resolution photoluminescence measurements at 10 K reveal fine structure of the NBE band with the dominant peaks related to the bound exciton transitions. It is found that all studied technological parameters affect the excitonic photoluminescence in ZnO nanorods. PACS: 78.55.Et, 81.15.Rs, 61.46.Km

  19. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N., E-mail: nned@ie.bas.bg [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Nanosecond laser pulse nanostructuring of ZnO thin films on metal substrate is demonstrated. • Two regimes of the thin film modification are observed depending on the applied laser fluence. • At high fluence regime the ZnO film is homogeneously decomposed into nanosized particles. • The characteristic size of the formed nanostructures corresponds to the domain size of the thin film. - Abstract: In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  20. Development of gas sensors using ZnO nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Different ZnO nanostructures such as nanowires, nanobelts and tetrapods have been grown and used for preparation of thick film (with random grain boundaries) as well as isolated nano- wire/nanobelt gas sensors. Sensitivity of different type of sensors has been studied to H2S and NO gases. The results show ...

  1. Growth of ZnO and GaN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.; Hong, S.-K.; Matsumoto, K.; Tokunaga, H.; Tachibana, A.; Lee, S. W.; Cho, M.-W.

    . Zinc oxide (ZnO) and gallium nitride (GaN) are wide bandgap semi conductors applicable to light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) with wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to blue light. Now ZnO and GaN are key ma terials for optoelectronic device applications and their applications are being rapidly expanded to lots of other technology including electronics, biotechnology, nanotech-nology, and fusion technology among all these. As a fundamental starting point for the development of this new technique, epitaxy of ZnO and GaN films is one of the most important key technology. Hence, development of the growth technique for high quality epitaxial films is highly necessary. Among the various kinds of epi taxy technique for semiconductor films developed so far, physical vapor deposition (PVD)-based epitaxy technique has been revealed to be the appropriate way for the high quality ZnO film and related alloy growths, while chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-based epitaxy technique has been proved to be the best method for the high quality GaN film and related alloy growths.

  2. Direct Precipitation and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Moharram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles are prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of zinc acetate dihydrate by potassium hydroxide in alcoholic medium at low temperatures. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the precursor is made in order to specify the temperature range over which the weight loss and thermal effect are significant. X-ray diffraction of the as-prepared specimens shows that the hexagonal (a=3.2459 Å, c=5.1999 Å structure is the predominant crystallographic structure. According to Scherer’s formula, the average size of the nanoparticles is 22.4 ± 0.6 nm. The structural properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles have been confirmed using the TEM micrographs. The optical energy gap of the ZnO nanoparticles, as obtained from applying Tauc’s equation, is equal to 3.52 eV, which is higher than that of the bulk material. Absorption peak of the as-prepared sample is 298 nm which is highly blue shifted as compared to the bulk (360 nm. Large optical energy gap and highly blue shifted absorption edge confirm that the prepared ZnO nanoparticle exhibits strong quantum confinement effect.

  3. Microstructural and optical properties of transparent conductive ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 3. Microstructural and optical properties of transparent conductive ZnO : Al : Mo films deposited by template-assisted sol–gel method. H-Y He J-F Huang Z He J Lu Q Shen. Volume 37 Issue 3 May 2014 pp 519-525 ...

  4. Electron-hole quantum physics in ZnO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, M.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829935

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes several new aspects of the quantum physics of electrons and holes in zinc oxide (ZnO), including a few possible applications. Zinc oxide is a II-VI semiconductor with a direct band gap in the ultraviolet. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed, both on

  5. Hydrothermally grown ZnO nanoparticles for effective photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, N.; Ramamurthi, K.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Sethuraman, K.; Moorthy Babu, S.

    2017-10-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method from the source materials of zinc chloride and ammonium hydroxide. Precursor solution pH was varied to 7, 9, 11 and 13 by the addition of ammonium solution and the solution was hydrothermally treated at 150 °C for 3 h. Further prepared samples were annealed at 400° C for 3 h. X-ray diffraction technique was employed to study the structure and crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy studies revealed that optical band gap of ZnO is slightly varied due to the effect of size of the particle. Field emission scanning electron microscope images showed that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles acquired spindle like nanorods, hexagonal disk, porous nanorods and nanoflower structures due to the effect of pH of the precursor solution. Photocatlytic activity of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated for Rhodamine B (RhB) dye which showed 94% of degradation and good stability for five cycles.

  6. The Applications of Morphology Controlled ZnO in Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO, with the unique chemical and physical properties of high chemical stability, broad radiation absorption range, high electrochemical coupling coefficient, and high photo-stability, is an attractive multifunctional material which has promoted great interest in many fields. What is more, its properties can be tuned by controllable synthesized morphologies. Therefore, after the success of the abundant morphology controllable synthesis, both the morphology-dependent ZnO properties and their related applications have been extensively investigated. This review concentrates on the properties of morphology-dependent ZnO and their applications in catalysis, mainly involved reactions on green energy and environmental issues, such as CO2 hydrogenation to fuels, methanol steam reforming to generate H2, bio-diesel production, pollutant photo-degradation, etc. The impressive catalytic properties of ZnO are associated with morphology tuned specific microstructures, defects or abilities of electron transportation, etc. The main morphology-dependent promotion mechanisms are discussed and summarized.

  7. Development of gas sensors using ZnO nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different ZnO nanostructures such as nanowires, nanobelts and tetrapods have been grown and used for preparation of thick film (with random grain boundaries) as well as isolated nanowire/nanobelt gas sensors. Sensitivity of different type of sensors has been studied to H2S and NO gases. The results show that the ...

  8. ZnO coated nanospring-based chemiresistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrokhotov, Vladimir; Oakes, Landon; Sowell, Dewayne; Larin, Alexander; Hall, Jessica; Kengne, Alex; Bakharev, Pavel; Corti, Giancarlo; Cantrell, Timothy; Prakash, Tej; Williams, Joseph; McIlroy, D. N.

    2012-02-01

    Chemiresistors were constructed using 3-D silica nanospring mats coated with a contiguous film of ZnO nanocrystals. Chemiresistors with an average ZnO nanocrystal radius 20 nm, were found to exhibit a relative change in conductance of a factor of 50 upon exposure to a gas flow of 20% O2 and 80% N2 with ˜500 ppm of toluene and an operational temperature of 400 °C. Samples with an average ZnO nanocrystal radius of 15 nm were found to be the most responsive with a relative conductance change of a factor of 1000. The addition of metal nanoparticles (average radius equal to 2.4 nm) onto the surface of the ZnO nanocrystals (average radius equal to 15 nm) produced a relative change in conductance of a factor of 1500. For the optimum conditions (T = 400 °C, grain size ˜15 nm) well-defined spikes in conductance to explosive vapors (TNT, TATP) were obtained for 0.1 ms exposure time at ppb levels.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures with varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-05-13

    May 13, 2017 ... dry at room temperature, and then stored in a desiccator for further use. 2.3 Heat treatment. Pre-weighed powder sample of the selected batch of the ... Figure 1. SEM images of the ZnO particles obtained by heating reactant solutions of different pH values, containing ..... [5] Prasad A S 1995 Nutrition 11 39.

  10. Screen printed nanosized ZnO thick film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    It was then dried under IR radiation. The thickness of the film was measured to be 30 µm using a film thickness monitoring gauge (Hanatek 8010). 2.2 Optical studies. The ZnO colloids were characterized by optical absorp- tion measurements using spectrophotometer JascoV-570. (UV/Vis/IR). Fluorescence studies at ...

  11. ZnO Nanostructure-Based Intracellular Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Asif

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently ZnO has attracted much interest because of its usefulness for intracellular measurements of biochemical species by using its semiconducting, electrochemical, catalytic properties and for being biosafe and biocompatible. ZnO thus has a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, intracellular nanosensors, transducers, energy conversion and medical sciences. This review relates specifically to intracellular electrochemical (glucose and free metal ion biosensors based on functionalized zinc oxide nanowires/nanorods. For intracellular measurements, the ZnO nanowires/nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 µm in diameter and functionalized with membranes or enzymes to produce intracellular selective metal ion or glucose sensors. Successful intracellular measurements were carried out using ZnO nanowires/nanorods grown on small tips for glucose and free metal ions using two types of cells, human fat cells and frog oocytes. The sensors in this study were used to detect real-time changes of metal ions and glucose across human fat cells and frog cells using changes in the electrochemical potential at the interface of the intracellular micro-environment. Such devices are helpful in explaining various intracellular processes involving ions and glucose.

  12. Stable aqueous ZnO nanoparticles with green photoluminescence and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lihua, E-mail: huazi.95@163.com [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang Jing, E-mail: yttik16@163.com [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sun Shuqing, E-mail: s625827@163.com [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as a kind of biological labeling material have many unique fluorescence properties relative to conventional organic dyes, which can be used for long-term fluorescence tracking. In this work, a facile method was developed for synthesizing water-stable ZnO nanoparticles with green emission. The as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were shown to be highly stable and soluble in water. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as UV-vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry (PL) were employed to investigate the structures and properties of ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, hemolysis assay was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of these ZnO nanoparticles in vitro. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles have biocompatibility, which make them a promising cell label. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successfully prepared ZnO nanocrystals with green emission by a facile method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-synthesized ZnO nanocrystals were highly stable and soluble in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL properties of the ZnO nanocrystals could be preserved for at least 30 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanocrystals have good biocompatibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We think that the ZnO nanocrystals have promising applications in cell labeling.

  13. Structural interpretation of chemically synthesized ZnO nanorod and its application in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Samapti; Sain, Sumanta [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research and Education Centre, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Kar, Tanusree [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Gunawardhana, Nanda, E-mail: nandagunawardhana@pdn.ac.lk [International Research Centre, Senate Building, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Pradhan, Swapan Kumar, E-mail: skpradhan@phys.buruniv.ac.in [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route. • Growth direction of ZnO nanorods has been determined along 〈0 0 2〉. • ZnO nanorods constructed anode shows a high discharge capacity in first cycle. • It retains good reversible capacity compared to other ZnO morphologies. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route without using any template or capping agent and its importance is evaluated as a suitable candidate for anode material in lithium ion battery. Structural and microstructure characterizations of these nanorods are made by analyzing the X-ray diffraction data employing the Rietveld method of powder structure refinement. It reveals that the ZnO nanorods are grown up with a preferred orientation and elongated along 〈0 0 2〉. FESEM images reveal that these uniform cylindrical shaped nanorods are of different lengths and diameters. These synthesized ZnO nanorods are tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The nano grain size of the ZnO rods results in less volume expansion and/or contraction during the alloying/de-alloying process and causes in good cyclability. In addition, synthesized ZnO nanorods deliver high charge/discharge capacities compared to other reported ZnO materials.

  14. Development of nanostructured ZnO thin film via electrohydrodynamic atomization technique and its photoconductivity characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Kwon, Ki Rin; Jo, Jeongdai; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the non-vacuum technique for the preparation of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on glass substrate through electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. The detailed process parameters for achieving homogeneous ZnO thin films are clearly discussed. The crystallinity and surface morphology of ZnO thin film are investigated by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows that the deposited ZnO thin film is oriented in the wurtzite phase with void free surface morphology. The surface roughness of deposited ZnO thin film is found to be ~17.8 nm. The optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films show the average transmittance is about 90% in the visible region and the energy band gap is found to be 3.17 eV. The surface chemistry and purity of deposited ZnO thin films are analyzed by fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, conforming the presence of Zn-O in the deposited thin films without any organic moiety. The photocurrent measurement of nanostructured ZnO thin film is examined in the presence of UV light illumination with wavelength of 365 nm. These results suggest that the deposited nanostructured ZnO thin film through EHDA technique possess promising applications in the near future.

  15. Hybrid organic solar cells using both ZnO and PCBM as electron acceptor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikram, Muhammad [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 19716 (United States); Solar Application Lab, Department of Physics, Government College University Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Murray, Roy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 19716 (United States); Hussain, Afzal [Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Salamat [Solar Application Lab, Department of Physics, Government College University Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Ismat Shah, S., E-mail: ismat@udel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 19716 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 19716 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Organic hybrid photovoltaic devices with ZnO were fabricated. • Varying the ratio of PCBM and ZnO optimized the devices. • Using a mixture of ZnO and PCBM made the highest efficiency. • ZnO addition increased P3HT crystallinity and reduced resistances. - Abstract: In this paper, we studied the effect of the addition of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles to the active layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells. Devices with varying ratios of ZnO and PCBM were fabricated while maintaining a fixed concentration of P3HT. This effect was investigated in different solvents, specificaly chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The addition of ZnO nanoparticles was found to significantly increase the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the P3HT:PCBM solar cells. The mixing of ZnO in the active layer using CB as the solvent introduced a red shift in the absorption spectra and enhanced the absorption in the visible region. The incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles was also found to increase the surface roughness of the active layer. ZnO nanoparticles agglomerated as their concentration relative to PCBM increased and completely agglomerated in the absence of the fullerene derivative.

  16. Growth of high aspect ratio ZnO nanorods by solution process: Effect of polyethyleneimine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Han-Seok; Vaseem, Mohammad; Kim, Sang Gon; Im, Yeon-Ho [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of BIN Fusion Technology, BK 21 Centre for Future Energy Materials and Devices, and Nanomaterials Processing Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Yoon-Bong, E-mail: ybhahn@chonbuk.ac.kr [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of BIN Fusion Technology, BK 21 Centre for Future Energy Materials and Devices, and Nanomaterials Processing Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    High aspect ratio ZnO nanorods were grown vertically on ZnO seed layer deposited silicon, glass and polyimide substrates by a solution process at low-temperature using zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine. We studied the effect of polyethlyeneimine (PEI) on the growth of ZnO nanorods. It was found that PEI has a prominent effect on controlling the aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods in solution. The morphological and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO nanorods were also examined with varying the growth temperature (60-90 Degree-Sign C). - Graphical abstract: With addition of polyehyleneimine (PEI) high aspect-ratio ZnO nanorods were grown. It is believed that during ZnO nanorods growth, protonized form of linear PEI molecules inhibits the lateral growth by being adsorbed on non-polar lateral planes. Thus the vertical growth is favored. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A controlled growth of high aspect ratio ZnO nanorods on different substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A prominent effect of polyethlyeneimine (PEI) on controlling the aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precursor concentration and growth temperature effect for various aspect ratio ZnO nanorods.

  17. Room temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwan, S., E-mail: iwan-sugihartono@unj.ac.id [Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA-UNJ, Rawamangun, Jakarta (Indonesia); Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Fauzia, Vivi [Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Umar, A. A. [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sun, X. W. [School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue (Singapore)

    2016-04-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were fabricated by a hydrothermal reaction on silicon (Si) substrate at 95 °C for 6 hours. The ZnO seed layer was fabricated by depositing ZnO thin films on Si substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolisis (USP). The annealing effects on crystal structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated. The post-annealing treatment was performed at 800 °C with different environments. The annealed of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) in order to analyze crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. The results show the orientations of [002], [101], [102], and [103] diffraction peaks were observed and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanorods were vertically grown on Si substrates. The room temperature PL spectra show ultra-violet (UV) and visible emissions. The annealed of ZnO nanorods in vacuum condition (3.8 × 10{sup −3} Torr) has dominant UV emission. Meanwhile, non-annealed of ZnO nanorods has dominant visible emission. It was expected that the annealed of ZnO in vacuum condition suppresses the existence of native defects in ZnO nanorods.

  18. Selective area growth of well-ordered ZnO nanowire arrays with controllable polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Vincent; Sarigiannidou, Eirini; Appert, Estelle; Bocheux, Amandine; Guillemin, Sophie; Donatini, Fabrice; Robin, Ivan-Christophe; Kioseoglou, Joseph; Robaut, Florence

    2014-05-27

    Controlling the polarity of ZnO nanowires in addition to the uniformity of their structural morphology in terms of position, vertical alignment, length, diameter, and period is still a technological and fundamental challenge for real-world device integration. In order to tackle this issue, we specifically combine the selective area growth on prepatterned polar c-plane ZnO single crystals using electron-beam lithography, with the chemical bath deposition. The formation of ZnO nanowires with a highly controlled structural morphology and a high optical quality is demonstrated over large surface areas on both polar c-plane ZnO single crystals. Importantly, the polarity of ZnO nanowires can be switched from O- to Zn-polar, depending on the polarity of prepatterned ZnO single crystals. This indicates that no fundamental limitations prevent ZnO nanowires from being O- or Zn-polar. In contrast to their catalyst-free growth by vapor-phase deposition techniques, the possibility to control the polarity of ZnO nanowires grown in solution is remarkable, further showing the strong interest in the chemical bath deposition and hydrothermal techniques. The single O- and Zn-polar ZnO nanowires additionally exhibit distinctive cathodoluminescence spectra. To a broader extent, these findings open the way to the ultimate fabrication of well-organized heterostructures made from ZnO nanowires, which can act as building blocks in a large number of electronic, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic devices.

  19. Well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays and networks grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijun [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education & International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Ming, E-mail: mingliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education & International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Ren, Wei, E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education & International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Ye, Zuo-Guang, E-mail: zye@sfu.ca [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education & International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Chemistry and 4D LABS, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanotube networks and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays are fabricated by ALD. • The wall thickness of the ZnO nanotubes can be well-controlled at the angstrom level. • The fishing net-like networks of ZnO nanotubes with an ultra thin wall thickness are fabricated. • The ZnO nanotube arrays have an aspect ratio as high as 1000:1. - Abstract: Semiconductor ZnO, possessing a large exciton binding energy and wide band gap, has received a great deal of attention because it shows great potential for applications in optoelectronics. Precisely controlling the growth of three-dimensional ZnO nanotube structures with a uniform morphology constitutes an important step forward toward integrating ZnO nanostructures into microelectronic devices. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, featured with self-limiting surface reactions, is an ideal approach to the fabrication of ZnO nanostructures, because it allows for accurate control of the thickness at atomic level and conformal coverage in complex 3D structures. In this work, well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays and networks are prepared by ALD. The morphology, crystallinity and wall thickness of these nanotube structures are examined for different growth conditions. The microstructure of the ZnO nanotubes is investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The high aspect ratio of ZnO nanotubes provides a large specific area which could enhance the kinetics of chemical reactions taking place between the ZnO and its surroundings, making the potential devices more efficient and compact.

  20. The Antibacterial Activity of Ta-doped ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bing-Lei; Han, Ping; Guo, Li-Chuan; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Wu, Di

    2015-12-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The antimicrobial study of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles on several bacteria of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were performed using a standard microbial method. The Ta-doping concentration effect on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various bacteria under dark ambient has been evaluated. The photocatalytical inactivation of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible light irradiation was examined. The MIC results indicate that the incorporation of Ta(5+) ions into ZnO significantly improve the bacteriostasis effect of ZnO nanoparticles on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis in the absence of light. Compared to MIC results without light irradiation, Ta-doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles show much stronger bactericidal efficacy on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus under visible light illumination. The possible antimicrobial mechanisms in Ta-doped ZnO systems under visible light and dark conditions were also proposed. Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit more effective bactericidal efficacy than pure ZnO in dark ambient, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of enhanced surface bioactivity and increased electrostatic force due to the incorporation of Ta(5+) ions into ZnO. Based on the antibacterial tests, 5 % Ta-doped ZnO is a more effective antimicrobial agent than pure ZnO.

  1. Influence of annealing on polymeric precursor derived ZnO thin films on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choppali, Uma, E-mail: umachoppali@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Science, Collin College, Frisco, TX 75035 (United States); Kougianos, Elias; Mohanty, Saraju P. [NanoSystem Design Laboratory (NSDL), University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Gorman, Brian P. [Colorado Center for Advanced Ceramics, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on c-sapphire substrates were synthesized by spin-coating aqueous polymeric precursors. The effects of annealing at 1000 °C on crystallinity, surface morphology, and optical properties of ZnO thin films, with varying thicknesses, were studied. Single-layered ZnO thin films are polycrystalline with wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented along the (002) plane. X-ray diffraction pattern also reveals the presence of spinel zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) peaks. ZnO films have highly faceted granular morphology. Multilayered ZnO films, annealed twice at 1000 °C, do not exhibit any ZnO peaks but only ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} peaks. Moreover, the surface morphology was smooth with ridges. These films do not exhibit the band gap or ultra-violet emission photoluminescence characteristics of ZnO. On annealing, there is an interfacial reaction between ZnO and sapphire resulting in ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Multilayer polymeric precursor derived ZnO film is annealed at 1000 °C on c-sapphire. • X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of ZnO film annealed at 1000 °C shows ZnO peaks. • XRD pattern of ZnO films twice-annealed at 1000 °C shows only ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} peaks. • Optical characterization of the multilayered films does not show ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} peaks. • On annealing twice at 1000 °C, ZnO reacts with the c-sapphire to form ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  2. The Antibacterial Activity of Ta-doped ZnO Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bing-Lei; Han, Ping; Guo, Li-Chuan; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Wu, Di

    2015-08-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The antimicrobial study of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles on several bacteria of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) were performed using a standard microbial method. The Ta-doping concentration effect on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various bacteria under dark ambient has been evaluated. The photocatalytical inactivation of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible light irradiation was examined. The MIC results indicate that the incorporation of Ta5+ ions into ZnO significantly improve the bacteriostasis effect of ZnO nanoparticles on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis in the absence of light. Compared to MIC results without light irradiation, Ta-doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles show much stronger bactericidal efficacy on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus under visible light illumination. The possible antimicrobial mechanisms in Ta-doped ZnO systems under visible light and dark conditions were also proposed. Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit more effective bactericidal efficacy than pure ZnO in dark ambient, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of enhanced surface bioactivity and increased electrostatic force due to the incorporation of Ta5+ ions into ZnO. Based on the antibacterial tests, 5 % Ta-doped ZnO is a more effective antimicrobial agent than pure ZnO.

  3. Highly efficient excitonic emission of CBD grown ZnO micropods (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, Roy; Gokarna, Anisha; Nomenyo, Komla; Miska, Patrice; Geng, Wei; Couteau, Christophe; Lérondel, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Due to its wide direct band gap and large exciton binding energy allowing for efficient excitonic emission at room temperature, ZnO has attracted attention as a luminescent material in various applications such as UV-light emitting diodes, chemical sensors and solar cells. While low-cost growth techniques, such as chemical bath deposition (CBD), of ZnO thin films and nanostructures have been already reported; nevertheless, ZnO thin films and nanostructures grown by costly techniques, such as metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, still present the most interesting properties in terms of crystallinity and internal quantum efficiency. In this work, we report on highly efficient and highly crystalline ZnO micropods grown by CBD at a low temperature (ZnO micropods revealed a highly crystalline ZnO structure and a strong UV excitonic emission with internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 10% at room temperature. Thermal annealing at 900°C of the as-grown ZnO micropods leads to further enhancement in their structural and optical properties. Low-temperature PL measurements on annealed ZnO micropods showed the presence of phonon replicas, which was not the case for as-grown samples. The appearance of phonon replicas provides a strong proof of the improved crystal quality of annealed ZnO micropods. Most importantly, low-temperature PL reveals an improved IQE of 15% in the excitonic emission of ZnO micropods. The ZnO micropods IQE reported here are comparable to IQEs reported on ZnO structures obtained by costly and more complex growth techniques. These results are of great interest demonstrating that high quality ZnO microstructures can be obtained at low temperatures using a low-cost CBD growth technique.

  4. Function of NaOH hydrolysis in electrospinning ZnO nanofibers via using polylactide as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mengzhu, E-mail: liumengzhu125@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130012 (China); Wang, Yongpeng, E-mail: wyp4889@gmail.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130012 (China); Cheng, Zhiqiang, E-mail: czq5974@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130012 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Jilin Agriculture University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130118 (China); Song, Lihua, E-mail: 120836684@qq.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130012 (China); Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, CGS, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110034 (China); Zhang, Mingyue, E-mail: zhangmingyue8803@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130012 (China); Hu, Meijuan, E-mail: 442675083@qq.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130012 (China); Li, Junfeng, E-mail: jfli@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130012 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PLA was used as templates to electrospin ZnO nanofibers for the first time. • Without NaOH hydrolysis, only ZnO film was prepared. • Under function of NaOH, ZnO nanofibers were obtained. • The function of NaOH was discussed. • ZnO nanofibers showed much higher photocatalytical efficiency than ZnO film. - Abstract: Mixture of polylactide (8 wt%), zinc acetate (6 wt%) and hexafluoroisopropanol was first used as electrospinning solution to fabricate ZnO nanofibers. Unfortunately, after direct calcination of the precursor polylactide/zinc acetate nanofibers, only ZnO film was prepared. Surprisingly, when the precursor fibers were pre-hydrolyzed with NaOH, ZnO nanofibers with diameter of 678 nm were obtained. The mechanism analysis showed that the preserve of fiber structure was attributed to the formation of zinc polylactic acid in the process of hydrolyzation. After characterized by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, the ZnO film was found to be an aggregation of irregular nanoparticles and the ZnO nanofiber was a necklace-like arrangement of cylindrical grains. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements indicated that the crystalline quality of the ZnO nanofibers was higher than the film. Furthermore, photocatalytic performance of the ZnO samples was investigated. Comparing with ZnO film, ZnO nanofibers exhibited much higher activity.

  5. Capped ZnO (3, 0) nanotubes as building blocks of bare and H passivated wurtzite ZnO nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsattar, Mudar Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    In the present work we propose building blocks of hexagonal type crystals and nanocrystals of zinc oxide including wurtzite structure that are called wurtzoids. These molecules are ZnO (3, 0) nanotubes capped at their two terminals with Zn or O atoms. Hexagonal part of these molecules is included in the central part of these molecules. This part can be repeated to increase hexagonal structure ratio. Hydrogen passivated and bare ZnO wurtzoids are investigated. Results show bare wurtzoids have shorter and stronger surface sp2 bonds than H passivated sp3 bonded wurtzoids. The calculated energy gap of these molecules shows the expected trend of gaps. Calculated binding energy per atom shows that wurtzoids are tight and stable structures which are not the case of ZnO diamondoids. Vibrational frequencies manifest the expected trends of hexagonal type structures. Reduced mass and force constant of these vibrations are investigated to illustrate the sp2 and sp3 bonding effects of bare and H passivated ZnO nanocrystals respectively.

  6. Using the hydrothermal method to grow p-type ZnO nanowires on Al-doped ZnO thin film to fabricate a homojunction diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Kuan; Hung, Meng-Chun; Su, Shun-Lung; Li, Sheng-Kai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the hydrothermal method is used to grow phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires on Si/SiO2 substrates deposited with Al-doped ZnO thin film. This structure forms a homogeneous p-n junction. In this study, we are the pioneers to use ammonium hypophosphite (NH4H2PO2) as a source of phosphorus to prepare the precursor solution. Ammonium hypophosphite of different concentration levels is used to observe its effects on the growth of nanowires. The results show that the precursor solution prepared from ammonium hypophosphite can produce good crystalline ZnO nanowires while there is no linear relationship between the amounts and concentration levels of phosphorus doped into the nanowires. Whether the phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires have the characteristics of a p-type semiconductor is indirectly verified by measuring whether the p-n junction made up of Al-doped ZnO thin film and phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires shows rectifying behavior. I-V measurements are made on the specimens. The results show good rectifying behavior, proving that the phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires and Al-doped AZO films have p-type and n-type semiconductor properties, constituting a good p-n junction. This result also proves that ammonium hypophosphite is a better source of phosphorus in the hydrothermal method to synthesize phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires.

  7. Ohmic-rectifying conversion of Ni contacts on ZnO and the possible determination of ZnO thin film surface polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Guan Saw

    Full Text Available The current-voltage characteristics of Ni contacts with the surfaces of ZnO thin films as well as single crystal (0001 ZnO substrate are investigated. The ZnO thin film shows a conversion from Ohmic to rectifying behavior when annealed at 800°C. Similar findings are also found on the Zn-polar surface of (0001 ZnO. The O-polar surface, however, only shows Ohmic behavior before and after annealing. The rectifying behavior observed on the Zn-polar and ZnO thin film surfaces is associated with the formation of nickel zinc oxide (Ni1-xZnxO, where x = 0.1, 0.2. The current-voltage characteristics suggest that a p-n junction is formed by Ni1-xZnxO (which is believed to be p-type and ZnO (which is intrinsically n-type. The rectifying behavior for the ZnO thin film as a result of annealing suggests that its surface is Zn-terminated. Current-voltage measurements could possibly be used to determine the surface polarity of ZnO thin films.

  8. Effects of ZnO seed layer thickness on catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanostructures for enhanced UV photoresponse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultany, Forat H.; Hassan, Z.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Elafadill, Nezar G.; Abd, Hassnen R.

    2018-01-01

    Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on ZnO seed layers with different thickness (25-150 nm) coated glass substrates by thermal evaporation method. Prior to the growth process, the sputtered ZnO seed layers were annealed using the continuous wave CO2 laser as a heat source at 450 °C in air for 15 min. The fabrication and characterization of a metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO nanostructures with different thickness of seed layer were successfully fabricated. Upon exposure to 365 nm light (1.5 mW/cm2) at five-bias voltage, the device with 100 nm thick seed layer showed a relatively high UV sensitivity, quick response, and high responsivity. The prototype device shows a cost effective glass substrate using thermal evaporation method for ZnO nanostructures synthesis and demonstrates the possibility of constructing nanoscale photodetectors for nano-optics applications.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over single crystalline ZnO: orientation dependence of photoactivity and photostability of ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Nikolai; Lahiri, Jayeeta; Verma, Himanshu; Goswami, D Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias; Batzill, Matthias

    2009-03-03

    The photocatalytic destruction of methyl orange in aqueous solution has been studied over single crystal ZnO surfaces under UV irradiation. Differences in the apparent reaction rates between the polar surfaces (first order) and the nonpolar ZnO(10-10) surface (zero order) were observed. Reaction rates for different crystallographic orientations showed the highest activity for ZnO(10-10) followed by ZnO(0001)-Zn and the lowest activity for ZnO(000-1)-O surfaces. In addition, the etching of surfaces by photolysis has been studied. For this process, strongly face-dependent behavior was also observed. Possible reasons for the face dependencies are discussed.

  10. Investigations into the impact of various substrates and ZnO ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on growth of ZnO nanowire array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, JN; Liu, YB; Tan, CB; Yuan, NY

    2012-07-01

    The impact of various substrates and zinc oxide (ZnO) ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on the geometric morphology of subsequent ZnO nanowire arrays (NWs) fabricated by the hydrothermal method was investigated. The investigated substrates included B-doped ZnO films, indium tin oxide films, single crystal silicon (111), and glass sheets. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the geometry and aligment of the NWs were controlled by surface topography of the substrates and thickness of the ZnO seed layers, respectively. According to atomic force microscopy data, we suggest that the substrate, fluctuate amplitude and fluctuate frequency of roughness on ZnO seed layers have a great impact on the alignment of the resulting NWs, whereas the influence of the seed layers' texture was negligible.

  11. Preparation and photocatalytic property of a novel dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jian-Hui; Dong, Shu-Ying; Wang, Yong-Kui

    2009-01-01

    A novel dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in the present study. The prepared ZnO photocatalyst was systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG......-DTA), photoluminescence spectrum (PL) and UV-vis absorption spectrum (UV-vis). The characterizations of dumbbell-shaped ZnO were also compared with the commercial ZnO. The results show that the prepared ZnO photocatalyst has a unique dumbbell shape and it belongs to the hexagonal wurtzite family. In addition......, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst was evaluated by the degradation of three different kinds of dyes wastewater (Crystal Violet, Methyl Violet and Methylene Blue). After 75 min reaction, the decolourization efficiencies of the three kinds of dyes wastewater...

  12. Effect of Intrinsic Point Defect on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangni Yun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intrinsic point defect on the magnetic properties of ZnO nanowire is investigated by the first-principles calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT. The calculated results reveal that the pure ZnO nanowire without intrinsic point defect is nonmagnetic and ZnO nanowire with VO, Zni, Oi, OZn, or ZnO point defect also is nonmagnetic. However, a strong spin splitting phenomenon is observed in ZnO nanowire with VZn defect sitting on the surface site. The Mulliken population analysis reveals that the oxygen atoms which are close to the VZn defect do major contribution to the magnetic moment. Partial density states calculation further suggests that the appearance of the half-metallic ferromagnetism in ZnO nanorod with VZn originates from the hybridization of the O2p states with Zn 3d states.

  13. Room-temperature deposition of crystalline patterned ZnO films by confined dewetting lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S., E-mail: selene.sepulvedagz@uanl.edu.mx [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia. UANL, PIIT Monterrey, CP 66629, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Reeja-Jayan, B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); De la Rosa, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115 Col. Lomas del Campestre C.P. 37150 Leon, Gto. Mexico (Mexico); Ortiz-Mendez, U. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia. UANL, PIIT Monterrey, CP 66629, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Reyes-Betanzo, C. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Santa Maria Tonanzintla, Puebla. Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Jose-Yacaman, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department University of Texas at San Antonio 1604 campus San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    In this work patterned ZnO films were prepared at room-temperature by deposition of {approx}5 nm size ZnO nanoparticles using confined dewetting lithography, a process which induces their assembly, by drying a drop of ZnO colloidal dispersion between a floating template and the substrate. Crystalline ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a strong visible (525 nm) light emission upon UV excitation ({lambda} = 350 nm). The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The method described herein presents a simple and low cost method to prepare crystalline ZnO films with geometric patterns without additional annealing. Such transparent conducting films are attractive for applications like light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the process is carried out at room temperature, the patterned crystalline ZnO films can even be deposited on flexible substrates.

  14. Single-walled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Partha P.; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Jiang, Hua; Timmermans, Marina; Kaskela, Antti; Tolochko, Oleg V.; Kurochkin, Alexey V.; Karppinen, Maarit; Nisula, Mikko; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility of ZnO deposition on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the help of an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was successfully demonstrated. The utilization of pristine SWCNTs as a support resulted in a non-uniform deposition of ZnO in the form of nanoparticles. To achieve uniform ZnO coating, the SWCNTs first needed to be functionalized by treating the samples in a controlled ozone atmosphere. The uniformly ZnO coated SWCNTs were used to fabricate UV sensing devices. An UV irradiation of the ZnO coated samples turned them from hydrophobic to hydrophilic behaviour. Furthermore, thin films of the ZnO coated SWCNTs allowed us switch p-type field effect transistors made of pristine SWCNTs to have ambipolar characteristics.

  15. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C. S.; de Moura, Ana P.; Freire, Poliana G.; da Silva, Luis F.; Longo, Elson; Munoz, Rodrigo A. A.; Lima, Renata C.

    2015-10-01

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn1-2xCoxNixO nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green-orange-red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO.

  16. UV-Enhanced Ethanol Sensing Properties of RF Magnetron-Sputtered ZnO Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinyu; Du, Yu; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Hao; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tian, Xiaoqing

    2017-12-26

    ZnO film was deposited by the magnetron sputtering method. The thickness of ZnO film is approximately 2 μm. The influence of UV light illumination on C₂H₅OH sensing properties of ZnO film was investigated. Gas sensing results revealed that the UV-illuminated ZnO film displays excellent C₂H₅OH characteristics in terms of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, rapid response/recovery, and low detection limit down to 0.1 ppm. The excellent sensing performance of the sensor with UV activation could be attributed to the photocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the ZnO film, the planar film structure with high utilizing efficiency of UV light, high electron mobility, and a good surface/volume ratio of of ZnO film with a relatively rough and porous surface.

  17. Surface Engineering of ZnO Thin Film for High Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Zong-Liang; Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2015-09-28

    Sputtering made ZnO thin film was used as an electron-transport layer in a regular planar perovskite solar cell based on high quality CH3NH3PbI3 absorber prepared with a two-step spin-coating. An efficiency up to 15.9% under AM 1.5G irradiation is achieved for the cell based on ZnO film fabricated under Ar working gas. The atmosphere of the sputtering chamber can tune the surface electronic properties (band structure) of the resulting ZnO thin film and therefore the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding perovskite solar cell. Precise surface engineering of ZnO thin film was found to be one of the key steps to fabricate ZnO based regular planar perovskite solar cell with high power conversion efficiency. Sputtering method is proved to be one of the excellent techniques to prepare ZnO thin film with controllable properties.

  18. Efficient solution route to transparent ZnO semiconductor films using colloidal nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suehiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanocrystals (NCs were synthesized by heating Zn (II acetylacetonate in oleic acid/oleylamine in the presence of 1,2-hexadecanediol at 220 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS measurements revealed the formation of monodispersed ZnO NCs of ca. 7 nm. ZnO NC assembled films were fabricated on a glass substrate by deposition with the colloidal ZnO NCs dispersed in toluene. The film composed of the NCs showed good optical transparency in the visible to near-infrared region. A device coupling the ZnO NC film with a p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS NC film exhibited an obvious diode-like current–voltage behavior. The results suggest that the transparent ZnO film has a potentiality to be used for an n-type window layer in some optoelectronic applications.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and dielectric properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; You, Tian-Gui; Zhao, Wu; Yun, Jiang-Ni

    2009-09-01

    By orthogonal design theory, technological parameters of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles prepared in a hydrothermal process are optimized. This paper reports a set of technological parameters for growing chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles on a large scale. It investigates the morphologies and crystalline structures of the as-synthesized three-dimensional ZnO particles with a scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope, and the possible growth mechanism on the three-dimensional ZnO particles. The experimental results indicate that the values of in', in″ and tan δe gradually increase in the X band with the improvement of the developmental level of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles, implying that the electromagnetic wave absorbing property depends on the morphologies of three-dimensional ZnO particles.

  20. Effects of carbon defects on ZnO nanorods directly grown on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Tokuda, Fuyuki; Ichikawa, Yo

    2017-11-01

    The correlation between carbon defects and the density of ZnO nanorods directly grown on graphene was studied. Thermal annealing was performed to vary the defect density of graphene on which ZnO nanorods were directly grown via hydrothermal synthesis. We found that ZnO nanorods were densely distributed on a highly defective graphene. Furthermore, specific defect sites were observed to provide upright ZnO nanorods. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the thermally induced defect corresponds to a carbon vacancy, which is expected to provide a reactive graphene surface where precursors can be easily attached to trigger the nucleation and further growth of ZnO nanorods. The local measurement of defects is believed to elucidate the key parameters for the growth of highly oriented ZnO nanorods.

  1. Photoluminescence and gas sensing study of nanostructured pure and Sn doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navale, Shalaka C. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune-411008 (India); DST Unit on Nanoscience, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411008 (India); Mulla, I.S., E-mail: is.mulla@ncl.res.in [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune-411008 (India)

    2009-05-05

    The nanostructured pure and Sn doped ZnO have been synthesized by the thermal evaporation technique. The influence of Sn on the morphology and structure is investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis techniques. The SEM images indicate change in the growth pattern from nanowires of pure ZnO to tetrapods for Sn doped ZnO. Pure ZnO nanowires exhibit selective response towards acetone vapors while on Sn doping the response decreases. The non-stiochiometry and the morphology of ZnO are probably responsible for such a difference in gas response. However increase in temperature doesn't improve the sensing behavior. The photoluminiscence (PL) studies reveal UV emission in pure ZnO which shifts to green emission on doping of Sn.

  2. Site-specific growth of Au particles on ZnO nanopyramids under ultraviolet illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin

    2011-01-01

    In this work, wurtzite ZnO nanocrystals with unique "pyramid" morphology were firstly prepared via solvothermal synthesis. It was determined that the ZnO nanopyramids are grown along the polar c-axis with the vertexes pointing to the [001] direction. When the mixture of ZnO nanopyramids and Au precursor (HAuCl4) was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, Au particles were site-specifically formed on the vertexes of ZnO nanopyramids. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposite showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the bare ZnO nanopyramids. First-principles based calculations well explained the formation of ZnO nanopyramids as well as the site-specific growth of Au, and revealed that during the photocatalysis process the Au particles can accommodate photoelectrons and thus facilitate the charge separation. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Microwave absorption properties and mechanism of cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mao-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Xiao-Yong; Jin, Hai-Bo; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Yu-Jin

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared and their microwave absorption properties were investigated in detail. Dielectric constants and losses of the pure cagelike ZnO nanostructures were measured in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4GHz. The measured results indicate that the cagelike ZnO nanostructures are low-loss material for microwave absorption in X band. However, the cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites exhibit a relatively strong attenuation to microwave in X band. Such strong absorption is related to the unique geometrical morphology of the cagelike ZnO nanostructures in the composites. The microcurrent network can be produced in the cagelike ZnO nanostructures, which contributes to the conductive loss.

  4. Photovoltaic properties of graphene oxide sheets beaded with ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Li; Qu, Chaoqun; Su, Yadong; Yu, Shansheng; Zheng, Weitao; Liu, Yichun

    2011-04-01

    A hybrid material of graphene oxide (GO) sheets beaded with ZnO nanoparticles was prepared. The material extends over a few hundred square nanometers, in which the ZnO nanoparticles (average diameter (˜5 nm)) are dispersed evenly on the GO sheet. Both the surface photovoltage or surface photocurrent intensity for the material are much stronger than for pure ZnO nanoparticles, meaning that the free charge carriers can effectively be transferred from ZnO nanoparticles to GO sheets, which can serve as a probe to monitor the electron transfer from excited ZnO to GO. Anchoring ZnO nanoparticles on two dimensional carbon nanostructures such as GO can pave a way towards the design of ordered nanostructure assemblies that can harvest light energy efficiently.

  5. Low temperature growth and optical properties of ZnO nanowires using an aqueous solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Manh-Hung; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Kim, Kyeong-Won; Norton, D P; Heo, Young-Woo

    2012-02-01

    ZnO nanowires were grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates at a low temperature of 90 degrees C using an aqueous solution method. The ZnO seeds were coated on the ITO thin films by using a spin coater. ZnO nanowires were formed in an aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2 x 6H2O) and hexamethylenetetramine (C6H12N4). The pH value and concentration of the solution play an important role in the growth and morphologies of ZnO nanowires. The size of ZnO naonowires increased as the concentration of the solution increased. It was formed with a top surface of hexagonal and tapered shape at low and high pH values respectively. Additionally, the single crystalline structure and optical property of the ZnO nanowires were investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  6. III-nitrides on oxygen- and zinc-face ZnO substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Gon; Burnham, Shawn; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Trybus, Elaissa; Doolittle, W. Alan; Losurdo, Maria; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni; Nemeth, Bill; Nause, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The characteristics of III-nitrides grown on zinc- and oxygen-face ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern indicates formation of a cubic phase at the interface between III-nitride and both Zn- and O-face ZnO. The polarity indicates that Zn-face ZnO leads to a single polarity, while O-face ZnO forms mixed polarity of III-nitrides. Furthermore, by using a vicinal ZnO substrate, the terrace-step growth of GaN was realized with a reduction by two orders of magnitude in the dislocation-related etch pit density to ˜108cm-2, while a dislocation density of ˜1010cm-2 was obtained on the on-axis ZnO substrates.

  7. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd

    2017-09-01

    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  8. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Muhammad [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Youngbong-dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ju-Young [Center for Vacuum, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-ro, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Heyoung, E-mail: kdhh@chonnam.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Youngbong-dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods have been successfully adopted as the electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cells. • The addition of atomic layer deposited ZnO on the ZnO nanorods effectively enhance the photovoltaic performances of inverted organic solar cells. • The inverted organic solar cells with 5 nm thick-ALD ZnO showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of approximately 80% compared to the cells without the ALD ZnO layer (PCE = 1.67%). - Abstract: Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  9. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanorod-based dye-sensitized solar cells by using Ga doped ZnO seed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Yuanyao [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Wu, Fang, E-mail: fang01234@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Mao, Caiying [Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Fang, Liang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Guo, Shengchun [Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Zhou, Miao [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorods were grown on Ga-doped ZnO seed layers using hydrothermal method. • Using the ZnO nanorods as photoanodes for fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells. • The highest η of 1.23% can be achieved in a DSSC with 3 at.% Ga-doped in seeds. • The effects of ZnO seed layers on electron transport properties were investigated. • The enhancement performance of DSSCs contributed to higher dye loading and η{sub cc}. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were grown on FTO substrates with a Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) seed layer by a hydrothermal method. GZO seed layers were obtained via sol–gel technology with Ga concentration in the range of 0–4 at.%. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using ZnO nanorod arrays as the photoanode layers were prepared. The effect of Ga dopant concentrations in ZnO seed layer on the morphology features of ZnO nanorod arrays and the performance of DSSCs were systematically investigated. Results indicate that the average diameter and density of ZnO nanorod arrays decrease with increasing Ga concentration, but their length shows an opposite trend. The photocurrent density–voltage (J–V) characteristics reveal that the DSSCs with GZO seed layer exhibit significantly improved photovoltaic performance. In particular, the highest energy conversion efficiency (η) of 1.23% can be achieved in a DSSC with 3 at.% Ga doping, which is increased by 86.36% compared with that of the undoped DSSC. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectra and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to explore the photon-to-electron conversion process in DSSCs. It is demonstrated that the performance enhancement of DSSCs based on GZO seed layer can be attributed to higher amount of dye loading, more efficient electron transportation and better electrons collection efficiency.

  10. Growth of ZnO thin films on GaAs by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craciun, V.; Elders, J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Geretovsky, J.; Boyd, Ian W.

    1995-01-01

    ZnO thin films have been grown on GaAs substrates using the pulsed laser deposition technique with or without a photodeposited SiO2 buffer layer. The presence of the SiO2 layer has a beneficial effect on the crystalline quality of the grown ZnO films. Highly c-axis oriented ZnO films having a full

  11. The effect of ZnO nanoparticles on liver function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hua-Qiao; Xu, Min; Rong, Qian; Jin, Ru-Wen; Liu, Qi-Ji; Li, Ying-Lun

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is widely incorporated as a food additive in animal diets. In order to optimize the beneficial effects of ZnO and minimize any resultant environmental pollution, ZnO nanoparticles are often used for delivery of the zinc. However, the possible toxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles, including effects on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effect of ZnO nanoparticles, in doses used in animal feeds, on CYP450 enzymes, liver and intestinal enzymes, liver and kidney histopathology, and hematologic indices in rats. We found that liver and kidney injury occurred when the concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles in feed were 300-600 mg/kg. Also, liver mRNA expression for constitutive androstane receptor was suppressed and mRNA expression for pregnane X receptor was induced when feed containing ZnO nanoparticles was given at a concentration of 600 mg/kg. Although the expression of mRNA for CYP 2C11 and 3A2 enzymes was induced by ZnO nanoparticles, the activities of CYP 2C11 and 3A2 were suppressed. While liver CYP 1A2 mRNA expression was suppressed, CYP 1A2 activity remained unchanged at all ZnO nanoparticle doses. Therefore, it has been concluded that ZnO nanoparticles, in the doses customarily added to animal feed, changed the indices of hematology and blood chemistry, altered the expression and activity of hepatic CYP enzymes, and induced pathological changes in liver and kidney tissues of rats. These findings suggest that greater attention needs to be paid to the toxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles in animal feed, with the possibility that the doses of ZnO should be reduced.

  12. Fabrication of ZnO and ZnO:Sb Nanoparticles for Gas Sensor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyout, A.B.; Soliman,H. M. A.; H. Shokry Hassan; Abousehly, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO and Sb-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully prepared using sol-gel technique. Different concentrations of triethanolamine (TEA) were utilized as the preparation procedure to act as complexing agent that enhances the doping probability of the formed Sb-doped ZnO nanopowder. Thick films of the prepared nanopowders were fabricated with spinner coating. Morphological characteristics, phase structure, chemical composition, thermal stability, and optical properties of the prepared nanopowd...

  13. The effect of cations on the aggregation of commercial ZnO nanoparticle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Szu; Peng, Yu-Huei; Shiung, Chia-En; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2012-12-01

    Nanoscale ZnO materials have been largely used in many products due to their distinct properties. However, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are hazardous to human health and the ecosystem. The characteristics and the stability of ZnO NPs are relevant to their fate in the environment and their potential toxicities. In this study, a stable commercial ZnO NP suspension was chosen to investigate its aggregation under various salt additions. Different concentrations of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 were chosen to represent various environmental conditions. Under pH 8-9, the surface charge of commercial ZnO NPs was negative. The behavior of the stabilized ZnO NPs in water was affected by ionic combinations and ionic strength; that is, divalent cations were more effective than monovalent ones in promoting aggregation formation. The attachment efficiencies of ZnO aggregates were calculated based upon the aggregation kinetics. The critical coagulation concentration values for this commercial ZnO NPs were higher than previous reported for ZnO NPs, indicating this ZnO NP could be stable in the aquatic environment and might have increased hazardous potentials. Based upon the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, interactions between ZnO NPs in the presence of different ions were evaluated to illustrate the aggregation mechanism. Our results indicated that critical ionic type and concentration promote the aggregation of stable ZnO NPs. These understandings also can facilitate the design of the precipitation treatment to remove NPs from water.

  14. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Morasae; Zirak, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naseri, Amene [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorashadizade, Elham [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moshfegh, Alireza Z., E-mail: moshfegh@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-30

    Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. - Highlights: • Metals and nonmetals used as a dopant to shift ZnO band gap toward visible-light. • Modification of electronic structure played a crucial role in doped ZnO activity. • Correlation between dopant's characteristics and ZnO visible activity was reviewed. • Photo-degradation of doped ZnO was studied and compared for different dopants.

  15. Effect of nanocomposite packaging containing ZnO on growth of Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmailzadeh, Hakimeh [National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sangpour, Parvaneh, E-mail: Sangpour@merc.ac.ir [Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Department, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahraz, Farzaneh [National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Jalal [Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaksar, Ramin [National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened new windows in active food packaging. Nano-sized ZnO is an inexpensive material with potential antimicrobial properties. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antibacterial effect of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) containing ZnO nanoparticles on Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes. ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by facil molten salt method and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanocomposite films containing 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder. The growth of both microorganisms has decreased in the presence of ZnO containing nanocomposites compared with controls. Nanocomposites with 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles had stronger antibacterial effect against both bacteria in comparison with the 2 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites. B. subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ZnO containing nanocomposite films compared with E. aerogenes as Gram-negative bacteria. There were no significant differences between the migration of Zn ions from 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites and the released Zn ions were not significantly increased in both groups after 14 days compared with the first. Regarding the considerable antibacterial effects of ZnO nanoparticles, their application in active food packaging can be a suitable solution for extending the shelf life of food. - Highlights: • ZnO containing nanocomposites decreased growth of both B. subtilis and E. aerogenes. • B. subtilis was more sensitive to ZnO containing nanocomposites. • The migration of Zn ions from nanocomposites was negligible.

  16. Mn{sup 2+} ions distribution in doped sol–gel deposited ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Mariana, E-mail: mstefan@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Ghica, Daniela; Nistor, Sergiu V.; Maraloiu, Adrian V. [National Institute of Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Plugaru, Rodica [National Institute for R & D in Microtechnologies (IMT), Erou Iancu Nicolae Str. 126A, 077190 Bucharest (Romania)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Several Mn{sup 2+} centers observed by EPR in sol–gel ZnO films. • Mn{sup 2+} ions localized at Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO grains and disordered ZnO phase. • Sixfold coordinated Mn{sup 2+} ions localized in inter-grain region. • Aggregated Mn in insular-like regions between ZnO grains in the ZnO:5%Mn film. • Aggregated Mn phase presence and distribution observed by EPR and EDX-STEM. - Abstract: The localization and distribution of the Mn{sup 2+} ions in two sol–gel deposited ZnO films doped with different manganese concentrations were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy. In the lightly doped sample the Mn{sup 2+} ions are mainly localized substitutionally at isolated tetrahedrally coordinated Zn{sup 2+} sites in both crystalline ZnO nanograins (34%) and surrounding disordered ZnO (52%). In the highly doped ZnO film, a much smaller proportion of manganese substitutes Zn{sup 2+} in the crystalline and disordered ZnO (10%). The main amount (85%) of manganese aggregates in a secondary phase as an insular-like distribution between the ZnO nanograins. The remaining Mn{sup 2+} ions (14% and 5% at low and high doping levels, respectively) are localized at isolated, six-fold coordinated sites, very likely in the disordered intergrain region. Annealing at 600 °C induced changes in the Mn{sup 2+} ions distribution, reflecting the increase of the ZnO crystallization degree, better observed in the lightly doped sample.

  17. ZnO micro/nanocrystals grown by Laser Assisted Flow Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,J.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Mata, D.; Holz, T.; Carvalho, R. G.; Allah, R. Fath; Ben, T; Gonzalez, D; Silva, R F; da Cunha, A.F.; Correia, M. R.; Alves,L.C.; Lorenz, K; Neves, A.J.; Costa, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Laser assisted flow deposition (LAFD) is a very high yield method based on a vapor-solid mechanism, allowing the production of ZnO crystals in a very short time. The LAFD was used in the growth of different morphologies (nanoparticles, tetrapods and microrods) of ZnO micro/nanocrystals and their microstructural characterization confirms the excellent crystallinity of the wurtzite structure. The optical properties of the as-grown ZnO crystals investigated by low temperature photoluminescence (...

  18. UV irradiation assisted growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Bo; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Li, Xiaoping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Temgyuan; Tang, Zirong, E-mail: zirong@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new fabrication process combined a hydrothermal process with UV irradiation from optical fiber is developed. • The growth of ZnO nanowires is efficient in the utilization of UV light. • A novel hybrid structure which integrates ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface is synthesized. • The UV assisted growth of ZnO nanowires shows preferred orientation and better quality. • A mechanism of growing ZnO nanowires under UV irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach was developed for the enhanced growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface. The method combined a hydrothermal process with the efficient UV irradiation from the fiber core, and the effects of UV irradiation on the growth behavior of ZnO nanowires were investigated. The results show that UV irradiation had great effects on the preferred growth orientation and the quality of the ZnO nanowires. The crystallization velocity along the c-axis would increase rapidly with the increase of the irradiation power, while the growth process in the lateral direction was marginally affected by the irradiation. The structure of ZnO nanowires also shows less oxygen vacancy with UV irradiation of higher power. The developed approach is applicable for the efficient growth of nanowires on the fiber surface, and the ZnO nanowires/optical fiber hybrid structures have great potentials for a wide variety of applications such as optical fiber sensors and probes.

  19. Enhanced wetting of Cu on ZnO by migration of subsurface oxygen vacancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beinik, Igor; Helström, Matti; Jensen, Thomas Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    is of utmost importance. The Cu/ZnO system is among the most investigated of such systems in model studies, but the presence of subsurface ZnO defects and their important role for adhesion on ZnO have been unappreciated so far. Here we reveal that the surface-directed migration of subsurface defects affects...... the Cu adhesion on polar ZnO(0001) in the technologically interesting temperature range up to 550 K. This leads to enhanced adhesion and ultimately complete wetting of ZnO(0001) by a Cu overlayer. On the basis of our experimental and computational results we demonstrate a mechanism which implies...

  20. From Bloch to random lasing in ZnO self-assembled nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David; Cefe, López

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present measurements on UV lasing in ZnO ordered and disordered nanostructures. Bloch lasing is achieved in the ordered structures by exploiting very low group-velocity Bloch modes in ZnO photonic crystals. In the second case, random lasing is observed in ZnO photonic glasses. We...... study the lasing threshold in both cases and its dependence on the structural parameters. Finally, we present the transition from Bloch to random lasing by deliberately doping a ZnO inverse photonic crystal with a controlled amount of lattice vacancies effectively converting it into a translationally...

  1. Effects of the Absorption Behaviour of ZnO Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Najim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO absorbs certain wavelengths of light and this behavior is more pronounced for nanoparticles of ZnO. As many toxicity measurements rely on measuring light transmission in cell lines, it is essential to determine how far this light absorption influences experimental toxicity measurements. The main objective was to study the ZnO absorption and how this influenced the cytotoxicity measurements. The cytotoxicity of differently sized ZnO nanoparticles in normal and cancer cell lines derived from lung tissue (Hs888Lu, neuron-phenotypic cells (SH-SY5Y, neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, human histiocytic lymphoma (U937, and lung cancer (A549 was investigated. Our results demonstrate that the presence of ZnO affected the cytotoxicity measurements due to the absorption characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles. The data revealed that the ZnO nanoparticles with an average particle size of around 85.7 nm and 190 nm showed cytotoxicity towards U937, SH-SY5Y, differentiated SH-SY5Y, and Hs888Lu cell lines. No effect on the A549 cells was observed. It was also found that the cytotoxicity of ZnO was particle size, concentration, and time dependent. These studies are the first to quantify the influence of ZnO nanoparticles on cytotoxicity assays. Corrections for absorption effects were carried out which gave an accurate estimation of the concentrations that produce the cytotoxic effects.

  2. Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by sonochemical method: Structural, photoluminescence, and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A.A., E-mail: aaelho@yahoo.com [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Osman, M.A. [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Ibrahim, E.M.M. [Sohag University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Ali, Manar A.; Abd-Elrahim, A.G. [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by the sonochemical method. • Structural, morphological, optical, photoluminescence and magnetic properties were investigated. • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures reveal a blue shift of the optical band gap. • Photoluminescence spectra of Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures show quenching in the emission intensity. • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. - Abstract: This work reports the synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures using ice-bath assisted sonochemical technique. The impact of Mn-doping on structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of ZnO nanostructures is studied. The morphological study shows that the lower doped samples possess mixtures of nanosheets and nanorods while the increase in Mn content leads to improvement of an anisotropic growth in a preferable orientation to form well-defined edge rods at Mn content of 0.04. UV–vis absorption spectra show that the exciton peak in the UV region is blue shifted due to Mn incorporation into the ZnO lattice. Doping ZnO with Mn ions leads to a reduction in the PL intensity due to a creation of more non-radiative recombination centers. The magnetic measurements show that the Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature, as well as variation of the Mn content can significantly affect the ferromagnetic behavior of the samples.

  3. Polyethylenimine-assisted synthesis of transparent ZnO nanowhiskers at ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiulan, E-mail: whoxiulan@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Xin-mo-fan Road No.5, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shen, Xiaodong; Li, Hongtao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Xin-mo-fan Road No.5, Nanjing 210009 (China); Masuda, Yoshitake; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    Transparent ZnO nanowhiskers were synthesized at ambient temperature (5–30 °C) assisted with pH buffer of polyethylenimine from an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and zinc acetate. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed their crystalline phase, morphology and formation mechanism. The ZnO nuclei were formed at the initial stage in a wide low temperature range by in-situ forced hydrolysis of anhydrous zinc acetate template layer. Subsequently ZnO nanowhiskers were formed on the F-doped SnO{sub 2}-coated glass substrate by heterogeneous nucleation and growth. Lower temperature was found to favor the hydrolysis, whereas higher temperature was found to promote the growth of ZnO. Such synthesized ZnO possessed good crystalline structure. The length, diameter, and density (number of whiskers per unit area) of ZnO nanowhiskers are controllable by simply varying the deposition time and/or solution temperature. - Highlights: • ZnO nanowhisker film was synthesized at ambient temperature (5–30 °C). • Polyethylenimine improved forced hydrolysis of template layer and ZnO film growth. • The parameters of ZnO films are function of reaction time and temperature. • This approach features with low cost and a more substrate materials choice.

  4. Explanation of ferromagnetism origin in C-doped ZnO by first principle calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Amiri, A., E-mail: aelamiri@casablanca.ma [Laboratoire de Physique Fondamentale et Appliquée (LPFA), Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca, Maroc (Morocco); Lassri, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Micro-électronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT). Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca, Maroc (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Abid, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Fondamentale et Appliquée (LPFA), Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca, Maroc (Morocco)

    2015-01-15

    By ab-initio calculations, we systematically study possible source of ferromagnetism C-doped ZnO compound. The electronic structure and magnetic properties of C-doped ZnO with / without ZnO host and C defects were investigated using the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (KKR) method combined with coherent potential approximation (CPA). We show that Zn vacancy and presence of C defects (substitutional, interstitial or combination of both) induce the ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO. From density of state (DOS) analysis, we show that p–p interaction between C atoms and/or C and O atoms is the mechanism of ferromagnetic coupling in C-doped ZnO. - Highlights: • We study the effect of ZnO host and C defects on ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO. • Details of KKR method calculations performed to investigate both magnetic and electronic structures. • Magnetic moments, total and partial DOS for C-doped ZnO are well calculated and discussed. • Based on DOS calculations we interpret a origin of ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO. • Mechanism of ferromagnetic coupling is well proposed.

  5. Improved conversion efficiency of amorphous Si solar cells using a mesoporous ZnO pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Bit-Na; Kim, Yang Doo; Suk Oh, Kyoung; Kim, Chaehyun; Choi, Hak-Jong; Lee, Heon

    2014-01-01

    To provide a front transparent electrode for use in highly efficient hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells, porous flat layer and micro-patterns of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) layers were prepared through ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) and deposited on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers. Through this, it was found that a porous micro-pattern of ZnO NPs dispersed in resin can optimize the light-trapping pattern, with the efficiency of solar cells based on patterned or flat mesoporous ZnO layers increased by 27% and 12%, respectively.

  6. Oxidant-Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Undoped ZnO Films by Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyunho

    2017-02-27

    Extraordinary oxidant-dependent changes in the thermoelectric properties of undoped ZnO thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been observed. Specifically, deionized water and ozone oxidants are used in the growth of ZnO by ALD using diethylzinc as a zinc precursor. No substitutional atoms have been added to the ZnO films. By using ozone as an oxidant instead of water, a thermoelectric power factor (σS) of 5.76 × 10 W m K is obtained at 705 K for undoped ZnO films. In contrast, the maximum power factor for the water-based ZnO film is only 2.89 × 10 W m K at 746 K. Materials analysis results indicate that the oxygen vacancy levels in the water- and ozone-grown ZnO films are essentially the same, but the difference comes from Zn-related defects present in the ZnO films. The data suggest that the strong oxidant effect on thermoelectric performance can be explained by a mechanism involving point defect-induced differences in carrier concentration between these two oxides and a self-compensation effect in water-based ZnO due to the competitive formations of both oxygen and zinc vacancies. This strong oxidant effect on the thermoelectric properties of undoped ZnO films provides a pathway to improve the thermoelectric performance of this important material.

  7. Morphology evolution of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures on gallium doping and their defect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Hernandez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Escobedo-Morales, A., E-mail: alejandroescobedo@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Chigo-Anota, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2012-08-15

    In the present article, the effect of gallium doping on the morphology, structural, and vibrational properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures has been studied. It has been observed that incorporated gallium plays an important role on the growth kinetics and hence on the morphology evolution of the ZnO crystals. Ga doping in high concentration results in the contraction of ZnO unit cell, mainly along c-axis. Although Ga has high solubility in ZnO, heavy doping promotes the segregation of Ga atoms as a secondary phase. Incorporated Ga atoms strongly affect the vibrational characteristics of ZnO lattice and induce anomalous Raman modes. Possible mechanisms of morphology evolution and origin of anomalous Raman modes in Ga doped ZnO nanostructures are discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully grown by hydrothermal chemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doping has strong effect on the resulting morphology of ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous vibrational modes in wurtzite ZnO lattice are induced by Ga doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporated Ga atoms accommodate at preferential lattice sites.

  8. Synthesis and Field Emission Properties of Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Peng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three novel kinds of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures: nanocombs nanoscrewdrivers and nanonails, have been synthesized in large quantities via a simple thermal evaporation process in the same run of growth in different regions of the quartz tube. The morphologies could be well controlled by adjusting the distances between the source materials and the substrates. These ZnO products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The field emission properties of the ZnO nanostructures were investigated. These hierarchical ZnO nanostructures may be attractive building blocks for field emission microelectronic devices and other devices.

  9. Tuning photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods via surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 China (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xia, Yujing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 China (China); He, Tao, E-mail: het@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 China (China)

    2012-12-14

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile material that has been used in photocatalysis, solar cells, chemical sensors, and piezoelectric transducers. All these are directly related to its surface properties. Here ZnO nanorod arrays were successfully synthesized by electrochemical deposition method, the surface of which was modified by dopamine, a robust anchor. Compared with pristine ZnO sample, the surface modification can greatly enhance the ultraviolet and visible-light photoluminescence. This is due to the formation of polydopamine on the nanorod surface, which may act as a dye that can be photoexcited. The resultant photogenerated electrons can inject into the conduction band of ZnO and take part in the luminescent process. These results may provide a foundation for real applications of ZnO nanomaterials in optoelectronic devices and, especially, for the applications in biological field as both the dopamine and ZnO are biocompatible materials. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanorod arrays are prepared via a simple electrochemical deposition method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence of ZnO nanorods can be greatly enhanced via dopamine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dye-like polydopamine can be formed on the nanorod surface upon dopamine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photogenerated electrons in polydopamine can inject into conduction band of ZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced photoluminescence is because more electrons can contribute to it.

  10. Structural, optical and antibacterial properties of yttriumdoped ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Mote

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yttrium-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method to investigate structural, optical and antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms hexagonal (wurtzite structure with average crystallite size between 16 and 30 nm. Optical energy band gap decreaseswith increasing Y-doping concentration. ZnO nanoparticles were found to be highly effective against S. aureus and Y-doped ZnO nanoparticles against E. coli, B. subtilis and S. typhi. Undoped and Y-doped ZnO nanoparticles are good inorganic antimicrobial agents and can be synthesized by cost effective co-precipitation method.

  11. ZnO gap engineering by doping with III-V compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, A N; Menon, M

    2016-01-27

    Gap engineering of ZnO by codoping it with III-V materials is investigated using model and ab initio calculation. Our results show that the codoped materials (ZnO)1-x (III-V)x , where (III-V) stands for GaN, AlN, AlP, BN, BP exhibit energy band gaps that get smaller as the dopant concentrations x is increased. Even at a very small dopant concentration the obtained band gaps are found to be much smaller than that of ZnO making the studied (ZnO)1-x(III-V)x materials promising candidates for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

  12. Facile Hydrothermal Approach to ZnO Nanorods at Mild Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, ZnO nanorods are obtained through a facile hydrothermal route. The structure and morphology of the resultant products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The experimental results indicated that the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods have an average diameter of approximate 100 nm. A possible growth mechanism for ZnO nanorods was proposed based on the experimental results and found that Zn powder plays a critical role for the morphology of the products. Room temperature photoluminescence property of ZnO nanorods shows an ultraviolet emission peak at 390 nm.

  13. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo [Nano-optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (NOR.), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin [Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bandar Putra Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati [Craniofacial Science Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  14. Synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties of ZnO nanowires/graphene oxide heterostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeng, Huidan; Cao, Ying; Xie, Shufan; Yang, Junhe; Tang, Zhihong; Wang, Xianying; Sun, Luyi

    2013-01-01

    .... Electrochemical property measurement results demonstrated that the ZnO nanowires/graphene oxide have large integral area of cyclic voltammetry loop, indicating that such heterostructure is promising...

  15. Selective growth of ZnO thin film nanostructures: Structure, morphology and tunable optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakanth, Katturi Naga; Sunandana, C. S. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Rajesh, Desapogu, E-mail: rajesh.esapogu@gmail.com, E-mail: mperd@nus.edu.sg [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-23

    The ZnO nanostructures (spherical, rod shape) have been successfully fabricated via a thermal evaporation followed by dip coating method. The pure, doped ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the spherical, rod shape ZnO nanostructures are discussed. XRD patterns revealed that all films consist of pure ZnO phase and were well crystallized with preferential orientation towards (002) direction. Doping by PVA, PVA+Cu has effective role in the enhancement of the crystalline quality and increases in the band gap.

  16. ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Jiaqian, E-mail: jiaqian.q@chula.ac.th [Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Zhang, Xinyu, E-mail: xyzhang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Chengwu; Cao, Meng; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposites were prepared via a solution method. • ZnO microspheres anchored on the rGO sheets is observed using SEM and TEM. • The obtained nanocomposites exhibit good photocatalytic degradation of MB under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: In this work, ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple solution method and used for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye from water under UV light. The SEM and TEM observations demonstrate that the microsphere morphologies of the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite is composed of ZnO microspheres anchored on rGO sheets, confirming the formation of ZnO microspheres-rGO composites. Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that both of the reduction of GO tight contact between ZnO and rGO are achieved during the high temperature calcination process. During the photocatalytic test, in comparison with ZnO microspheres and P25 TiO2, the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite shows improved photodegradation of MB dye, because the rGO sheets could reduce the charge recombination in electron-transfer processes. According to the scavenger experiments, the possible MB degradation mechanism is contributed mainly to the generation of active species induced by the photogenerated holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}).

  17. Synthesis and properties of novel liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huizhao; Xu, Peng; Li, Junlin

    2013-06-01

    Liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized on Al2O3-coated Si (1 1 1) substrates by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) at 1050 °C. Every liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructure is made up of one nanorod and two nanowires at the ends. The liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) photoluminescence (PL). The results indicate that the liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures are wurtzite hexagonal structure and the growth direction is [0 0 0 1]. The liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures became the new member of ZnO nanostructures for the novel configuration. PL reveals ultraviolet (UV) emission at 384 nm and a broad emission peak at 540 nm. These novel liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures will provide an improvement for electronic and optical devices. The pre-prepared Al2O3 film on the Si (1 1 1) substrate solves the troublesome lattice mismatch problem between the Si substrate and ZnO, and makes the growth of liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures more effective. In addition, the effect of screw dislocation and polar surfaces in understanding crystal growth mechanisms in nanometer scale were also provided.

  18. Effects of Ce doping and humidity on UV sensing properties of electrospun ZnO nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Di; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Gong, Mao-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Long, Yun-Ze

    2017-09-01

    Pure ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning-calcination technique. The morphology, composition, structure, humidity sensing and photoelectric properties were characterized. The field-effect curves showed that a single pure ZnO nanofiber is an n-type semiconductor and an individual Ce-ZnO nanofiber is a p-type semiconductor. The Ce doping and humidity have strong influence on the UV sensing properties of ZnO-based nanofibers. In the dark, the responses [(IVarious RH - I43% RH)/I43% RH] of pure ZnO increased gradually with the increase of humidity, while the responses of Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers decreased. When exposed to UV radiation, the response of pure ZnO nanofibers decreased with increasing humidity, while that of Ce-doped ZnO increased. And the highest responses are around 88.44 and 683.67 at 97% humidity for pure ZnO and Ce-ZnO nanofibers under UV irradiation. In addition, the UV response of Ce-ZnO with good stability and repeatability increases by two orders of magnitude than that of pure ZnO. The sensing mechanism relevant to oxygen and water-related conduction was discussed briefly. These results exhibit that the application prospects of p-type Ce-ZnO nanofibers are promising in the field of photoelectric devices.

  19. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on porous silicon substrates: Effect of growth time

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shabannia

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates by chemical bath deposition at a low temperature. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) analyses were carried out to investigate the effect of growth duration (2 h to 8 h) on the optical and structural properties of the aligned ZnO nanorods. Strong and sharp ZnO (0 0 2) peaks of the ZnO nanorods proved th...

  20. Low-temperature growth of ZnO nanorods by chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sung-Hak; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-A; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2007-09-15

    Aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized using a chemical bath deposition method at normal atmospheric pressure without any metal catalyst. A simple two-step process was developed for growing ZnO nanorods on a PET substrate at 90-95 degrees C. The ZnO seed precursor was prepared by a sol-gel reaction. ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated on ZnO-seed-coated substrate. The ZnO seeds were indispensable for the aligned growth of ZnO nanorods. The ZnO nanorods had a length of 400-500 nm and a diameter of 25-50 nm. HR-TEM and XRD analysis confirmed that the ZnO nanorod is a single crystal with a wurtzite structure and its growth direction is [0001] (the c-axis). Photoluminescence measurements of ZnO nanorods revealed an intense ultraviolet peak at 378.3 nm (3.27 eV) at room temperature.

  1. Shape controlled Sn doped ZnO nanostructures for tunable optical emission and transport properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rakshit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pure and Sn doped ZnO nanostructures have been grown on SiO2/Si substrates by vapor-solid technique without using any catalysts. It has been found that the morphology of the nanostructures depend strongly on the growth temperature and doping concentration. By proper tuning of the growth temperature, morphology of pure ZnO can be changed from tetrapods to multipods. On the other hand, by varying the doping concentration of Sn in ZnO, the morphology can be tuned from tetrapods to flower-like multipods to nanowires. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals that the nanostructures have a preferred (0002 growth orientation, and they are tensile strained with the increase of Sn doping in ZnO. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence characteristics of these nanostructures have been investigated in the range from 10 to 300 K. Pure ZnO tetrapods exhibited less defect state emissions than that of pure ZnO multipods. The defect emission is reduced with low concentration of Sn doping, but again increases at higher concentration of doping because of increased defects. Transport properties of pure and Sn doped ZnO tetrapods have been studied using complex-plane impedance spectroscopy. The contribution from the arms and junctions of a tetrapod could be distinguished. Sn doped ZnO samples showed lower conductivity but higher relaxation time than that of pure ZnO tetrapods.

  2. Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO and carbon nanotube based coaxial heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. S.; Lee, S.-M.; Scholz, R.; Knez, M.; Gösele, U.; Fallert, J.; Kalt, H.; Zacharias, M.

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes and ZnO based functional coaxial heterostructured nanotubes have been fabricated by using atomic layer deposition. An irregular structured shell composed of ZnO nanocrystals was deposited on pristine nanotubes, while a highly defined ZnO shell was deposited on the tubes after its functionalization with Al2O3. Photoluminescence measurements of the ZnO shell on Al2O3/nanotube show a broad green band emission, whereas the shell grown on the bare nanotube shows a band shifted to the orange spectral range.

  3. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-04-01

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  4. Effect of growth temperature on photoluminescence and piezoelectric characteristics of ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Walter [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Fang, T.-H. [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Institute of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fang.tehua@msa.hinet.net; Ji, L.-W.; Lee, C.-C. [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

    2009-02-25

    ZnO nanowire arrays were synthesized on Au-coated silicon (1 0 0) substrates by using vapour-liquid-solid process in this work. The effect of growth temperatures on the crystal structure and the surface morphology of ZnO nanowires were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The absorption and optical characteristics of the nanowires were examined by Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence, respectively. The photoluminescence results exhibited ZnO nanowires had an ultraviolet and blue emission at 383 and 492 nm. Then a nanogenerator with ZnO nanowire arrays was fabricated and demonstrated Schottky-like current-voltage characteristics.

  5. Mechanistic study of ZnO nanorod array electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Belghiti, H.; Pauporte, T.; Lincot, D. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et Chimie Analytique, UMR7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris-Universite Paris 6 (France)

    2008-10-15

    The growth of ZnO nanorods by electrodeposition from oxygenated aqueous mixture of zinc chloride and potassium chloride is studied experimentally as a function of the deposition time, zinc concentration and the substrate. These parameters influence markedly the characteristics of the deposits (rod density, aspect ratio, orientation). A mechanistic model is presented in order to explain the formation of ZnO nanorod arrays by electrodeposition. The model is based on the effect of zinc concentration on the interfacial pH at the electrode surface and then on the charged stable zinc species able to react with the growing film. The charge of the complex seems to be the key parameter which stops the lateral growth and then significantly increases the aspect ratio of the single crystalline nanorods. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Oxygen vacancy diffusion in bare ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bei; Luisa da Rosa, Andreia; Frauenheim, Th.; Xiao, J. P.; Shi, X. Q.; Zhang, R. Q.; van Hove, Michel A.

    2014-09-01

    Oxygen vacancies (VO) are known to be common native defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) and to play important roles in many applications. Based on density functional theory, we present a study for the migration of oxygen vacancies in ultra-thin ZnO nanowires (NWs). We find that under equilibrium growth conditions VO has a higher formation energy (Ef) inside the wire than that at shallow sites and surface sites, with different geometric relaxations and structural reconstructions. The migration of VO has lower barriers in the NW than in the bulk and is found to be energetically favorable in the direction from the bulk to the surface. These results imply a higher concentration of VO at surface sites and also a relative ease of diffusion in the NW structure. Our results support the previous experimental observations and are important for the development of ZnO-based devices in photocatalysis and optoelectronics.

  7. ZnO Coated Nanospring-Based Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakharev, Pavel Viktorovich

    The current research demonstrates new techniques for characterization of electrical transport properties of the metal oxide polycrystalline structures, gas and vapor phase kinetics, surface processes such as gas-surface, vapor-surface interactions and redox processes by applying novel gas sensing devices. Real-time sensor electrical response characteristics obtained under highly controlled laboratory conditions have been used to characterize corresponding surface interactions and electrical properties of the gas sensitive structures. Novel redox chemical sensors (chemiresistors) have been fabricated with 3-D and 1-D ZnO coated nanospring (NS) structures. Silica NSs served as insulating scaffolding for a ZnO gas sensitive layer and has been grown via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism by using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The NSs have been coated with polycrystalline ZnO by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The chemiresistor devices have been thoroughly characterized in terms of their crystal structures (by XRD, FESEM, TEM, and ellipsometry) and their electrical response properties. A 3-D gas sensor has been constructed from a xenon light bulb by coating it with a 3-D zinc oxide coated silica nanospring mat, where the xenon light bulb served as a sensor heater. This inexpensive sensor platform has been used to characterize gas-solid, vapor-solid, and redox processes. The optimal temperature of the gas sensitive ZnO layer, the temperature of the vapor-gas mixture and the crystal structure of the gas sensitive layer have been determined to reach the highest sensitivity of the gas sensors. The activation energy of toluene oxidation (Ed) on the ZnO surface and the activation energy of oxidation (Ea) of the depleted ZnO surface have been determined and analyzed. A 1-D chemiresistor has been fabricated with a single ZnO coated silica nanospring by photolithography. The question of sensor sensitivity of MOS nanomaterials and MOS thin films has been addressed

  8. Regular ZnO nanopillar arrays by nanosphere photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Z.; Volk, J.; Fülöp, E.; Deák, A.; Bársony, I.

    2013-02-01

    Highly regular vertical ZnO nanopillar arrays were hydrothermally grown through a nucleation window pattern generated by nanosphere photolithography. The in-plane intensity modulation of the exposing ultraviolet light in the photoresist was performed by Stöber silica or polystyrene nanospheres in the masking Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer. By comparing six different nanosphere diameters in the 180-700 nm range only those with diameter above the exposure wavelength of 405 nm generate a pattern in the thin photoresist layer. The pattern quality is improving with increasing diameter, therefore, the masking for nanopillar growth was demonstrated with 700 nm polystyrene nanospheres. The results of the nanosphere photolithography were supported by finite-difference time-domain calculations. This growth approach was shown to have the potential for low-cost, low-temperature, large area fabrication of ZnO pillars or nanowires enabling a precise engineering of geometry.

  9. Biofunctionalization of ZnO nanowires for DNA sensory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Ulrich Christian; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Moeller, Robert; Rudolph, Bettina; Fritzsche, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien e.V., Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, DNA detecting systems have received a growing interest due to promising fields of application like DNA diagnostics, gene analysis, virus detection or forensic applications. Nanowire-based DNA biosensor allows both miniaturization and easy continuous monitoring of a detection signal by electrical means. The label free detection scheme based on electrochemical changes of the surface potential during immobilization of specific DNA probes was heretofore mainly studied for silicon. In this work a surface decoration process with bifunctional molecules known as silanization was applied to VLS-grown ZnO nanowires which both feature a large sensitivity for surface modification, are biocompatible and easy to synthesize as well. Successfully bound DNA was proved by fluorescence microscopy. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) was chosen and optimized for quickly contacting the ZnO nanowires. Furthermore, electrical signal characterization was performed in preparation for DNA sensory applications.

  10. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantilleke Anura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc and Eosin-Y (EoY. Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled.

  11. Defects and the optical absorption in nanocrystalline ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sreetama; Chattopadhyay, Sanjay; Sutradhar, Manas; Sarkar, Anindya; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, Dirtha; Jana, Debnarayan

    2007-06-01

    The correlation between the structural and optical properties of mechanically milled high purity ZnO powder is reported in the present work. Reduction of average grain size and enhancement of strain as a result of milling have been estimated from the broadening of x-ray powder diffraction patterns. After milling, the optical bandgap, revealed from absorption spectroscopy, has been red-shifted and the width of the localized states, calculated from the analysis of the Urbach tail below the absorption edge, has been extended more and more into the bandgap. Moreover, the band tailing parameter is seen to vary exponentially with the inverse of the grain size. Finally, the positron annihilation technique has been employed to identify the nature of defects present (or generated due to milling) in the system and thereby to correlate the defect mediated modification of optical absorption in ZnO.

  12. Defects and the optical absorption in nanocrystalline ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Sreetama [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sanjay [Department of Physics, Taki Government College, Taki 743429 (India); Sutradhar, Manas [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Sarkar, Anindya [Department of Physics, Bangabasi Morning College, 19 Rajkumar Chakraborty Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Mahuya [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Sanyal, Dirtha [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Jana, Debnarayan [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2007-06-13

    The correlation between the structural and optical properties of mechanically milled high purity ZnO powder is reported in the present work. Reduction of average grain size and enhancement of strain as a result of milling have been estimated from the broadening of x-ray powder diffraction patterns. After milling, the optical bandgap, revealed from absorption spectroscopy, has been red-shifted and the width of the localized states, calculated from the analysis of the Urbach tail below the absorption edge, has been extended more and more into the bandgap. Moreover, the band tailing parameter is seen to vary exponentially with the inverse of the grain size. Finally, the positron annihilation technique has been employed to identify the nature of defects present (or generated due to milling) in the system and thereby to correlate the defect mediated modification of optical absorption in ZnO.

  13. Lattice sites of Na dopants in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069243; Martins Correia, Joao; Amorim, Lígia; Decoster, Stefan; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The angular distribution of beta− particles emitted by the radioactive isotope 24Na was monitored following implantation into ZnO single crystals at fluences above 5E12 cm−2 at CERN’s ISOLDE facility. We identified sodium on two distinct sites: on substitutional Zn sites and on interstitial sites that are close to the so-called octahedral site. The interstitial Na was to large extent converted to substitutional Na already for annealing at 200°C, from which an activation energy of 0.8−1.3 eV, most likely around 1.2 eV, is estimated for the migration of interstitial Na in ZnO.

  14. Al-doped ZnO nanofilms: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huczko, A.; Dabrowska, A. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Madhup, D.K. [Department of Physics, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel (Nepal); College of Biomedical Engineering and Applied Sciences, Hadigaun, Kathmandu (Nepal); Subedi, D.P.; Chimouriya, S.P. [Department of Physics, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel (Nepal)

    2010-12-15

    Al-doped and un-doped ZnO nanofilms on quartz substrate were obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of salt solutions (mole concentration of Al within 0-10%). The films were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV spectroscopy to study the morphology and optical properties. The optical studies showed that the increase in Al within ZnO thin layer increases its band gap energy. The obtained value of band gap energy is very close to the determined oscillation energy. However, the dispersion energy is nearly half of band gap energy value. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Paramagnetism in Mn/Fe implanted ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Gunnlaugsson, HP; Weyer, G; Kobayashi, Y; Bharuth-Ram, K; Olafsson, S; Gislason, H P; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Yoshida, Y; Langouche, G; Molholt, T E; Masenda, H; Johnston, K; Sielemann, R; Dlamini, W B; ISOLDE Collaboration; Naidoo, D; Mantovan, R

    2010-01-01

    Prompted by the generally poor understanding of the nature of magnetic phenomena in 3d-metal doped ZnO, we have undertaken on-line Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy on ZnO single crystals in an external magnetic field of 0.6 T, following the implantation of radioactive Mn-57 ions at room temperature. The Mossbauer spectra of the dilute Fe impurities are dominated by sextets whose angular dependence rules out an ordered magnetic state (which had been previously proposed) but are well accounted for on the basis of Fe3+ paramagnetic centers on substitutional Zn sites with unusually long relaxation times (> 20 ns). (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. {[}doi:10.1063/1.3490708

  16. Timing performance of ZnO: Ga nanopowder composite scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turtos, R.M.; Gundacker, S.; Lucchini, M.T.; Procházková, L.; Čuba, V.; Burešová, H.; Mrázek, Jan; Nikl, Martin; Lecoq, P.; Auffray, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 11 (2016), s. 843-847 ISSN 1862-6254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 690599 - ASCIMAT Grant - others:COST(XE) TD1401 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystals * coincidence time resolution * scintillators ZnO :Ga Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 3.032, year: 2016

  17. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  18. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cell fabricated using Al-doped ZnO nanorod electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, M.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Balasundrapraphu, R.; Senthil, T. S.; Agilan, S.

    2015-04-01

    ZnO and Al doped ZnO nanorods have been successfully synthesized on ITO substrate via solgel dip coating method without using any catalyst. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that the Al doped ZnO samples are of hexagonal wurtzite structure. The Al ions were successfully incorporated into the ZnO lattice. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the average diameter of ZnO nanorods and Al doped ZnO nanorods are ∼300 nm and ∼200 nm respectively. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence Al in the ZnO thin films. The CdS quantum dot sensitized Al doped ZnO solar cell exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.5%.

  19. Annealing Heat Treatment of ZnO Nanoparticles Grown on Porous Si Substrate Using Spin-Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Eswar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were successfully deposited on porous silicon (PSi substrate using spin-coating method. In order to prepare PSi, electrochemical etching was employed to modify the Si surface. Zinc acetate dihydrate was used as a starting material in ZnO sol-gel solution preparation. The postannealing treatments were investigated on morphologies and photoluminescence (PL properties of the ZnO thin films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM results indicate that the thin films composed by ZnO nanoparticles were distributed uniformly on PSi. The average sizes of ZnO nanoparticle increase with increasing annealing temperature. Atomic force microscopic (AFM analysis reveals that ZnO thin films annealed at 500°C had the smoothest surface. PL spectra show two peaks that completely correspond to nanostructured ZnO and PSi. These findings indicate that the ZnO nanostructures grown on PSi are promising for application as light emitting devices.

  20. Hydrothermal Growth and Application of ZnO Nanowire Films with ZnO and TiO2Buffer Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the effects of the seed layers prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating methods on the morphology and density of ZnO nanowire arrays, thus on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The nanowire films with the thick ZnO buffer layer (~0.8–1 μm thick can improve the open circuit voltage of the DSSCs through suppressing carrier recombination, however, and cause the decrease of dye loading absorbed on ZnO nanowires. In order to further investigate the effect of TiO2buffer layer on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs, compared with the ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs without a compact TiO2buffer layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and open circuit voltage of the ZnO DSSCs with the compact TiO2layer (~50 nm thick were improved by 3.9–12.5 and 2.4–41.7%, respectively. This can be attributed to the introduction of the compact TiO2layer prepared by sputtering method, which effectively suppressed carrier recombination occurring across both the film–electrolyte interface and the substrate–electrolyte interface.

  1. Fabrication of 3D rotor-like ZnO nanostructure from 1D ZnO nanorods and their morphology dependent photoluminescence property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhakar; Jo, Jin-Nyeong; Lee, In-Hwan; Yu, Yeon-Tae

    2010-10-01

    A facile and eco-friendly sonochemical route to fabricate well-defined dentritic (rotor-like) ZnO nanostructures from 1D ZnO nanorods without alloying elements, templates and surfactants has been reported. Phase and structural analysis has been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, showed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study showed the formation of rotor-like ZnO nanostructure having a central core which is surrounded by side branches nanocones. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study showed that these nanocones grow along [0001] direction on the six {01-10} planes of central core ZnO nanorods. A plausible formation mechanism of rotor-like ZnO nanostructures was studied by SEM which indicates that the size and morphology of side branches can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of OH - ions and time duration of growth. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the synthesized rotor-like ZnO nanostructures exhibited a weak ultraviolet emission at 400 nm and a strong green emission at 532 nm recorded at room temperature. The influence of morphology on the origin of green emission was discussed in detail. The results suggested a positive relationship among polar plane, oxygen vacancy and green emission.

  2. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuendling, Soenke; Soekmen, Uensal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self-organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Synthesis and Sintering of ZnO Nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Aimable

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanopowders are continuously under investigation as they open new perspectives in numerous fields. There are two main challenges to stimulating their development: sufficient low-cost, high throughput synthesis methods which lead to a production with well-defined and reproducible properties; and for ceramics specifically, the conservation of the powders’ nanostructure after sintering. In this context, this paper presents the synthesis of a pure nanosized powder of ZnO (dv50~60 nm, easily redispersable by using a continuous Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR, which has previously shown its versatility and its robustness, ensuring a high powder quality and reproducibility over time. A higher scale of production can be achieved based on a “scale-out” concept by replicating the tubular reactors. The sinterability of ZnO nanopowders synthesized by the SFTR was studied, by natural sintering at 900 °C and 1100 °C, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS at 900 °C. The performance of the synthesized nanopowder was compared to a commercial ZnO nanopowder of high quality. The samples obtained from the synthesized nanopowder could not be densified at low temperature by traditional sintering, whereas SPS led to a fully dense material after only 5 min at 900 °C, while also limiting the grain growth, thus leading to a nanostructured material.

  4. Lattice location of implanted As in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Correia, J G; Marques, A C; Alves, E; Soares, J C

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive 73As ions were implanted into a ZnO single crystal at room temperature with 60 keV up to a fluence of 2×1013 cm−2. Subsequently, the angular emission channeling patterns of emitted conversion electrons were recorded by means of a position-sensitive detector in the as-implanted state and following annealing up to 900 C, and were compared to simulated emission yields for a variety of different lattice sites. We find that As does not occupy substitutional O sites, but mainly occupies the substitutional Zn sites. The fraction of As on O sites was at most a few per cent. Arsenic in ZnO is thus an interesting example of an impurity in a semiconductor where the major impurity lattice site is determined by atomic size and electronegativity rather than its position in the periodic system. Possible consequences with respect to the role of arsenic as a p-type dopant in ZnO are being discussed.

  5. Retracted: Study of the wettability of ZnO nanofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal M Joshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Al-doped and un-doped ZnO thin films deposited on quartz substrates by the nebulized spray pyrolysis method were studied to investigate the wettability of the surface. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the wettability of ZnO thin film by changing the concentration of Al doping. Microstructure and water contact angles of the films were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and using a contact angle goniometer. SEM studies revealed that the grain size within the film increases with the doping concentration. The contact angles were studied to see the effect of aluminum doping on the hydrophilicity of the film. ZnO films were found to be hydrophobic in nature. A good correlation was observed between the SEM micrographs and contact angle results. The nature of the film was found to change from being hydrophobic to hydrophilic after the treatment in low-pressure DC glow discharge plasma, which, however, was reversible with the storage time.

  6. ZnO Nanoparticles: A Promising Anticancer Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Bisht

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles, with their selective targeting capabilities and superior efficacy, are becoming increasingly important in modern cancer therapy and starting to overshadow traditional cancer therapies such as chemotherapy radiation and surgery. ZnO nanoparticles, with their unique properties such as biocompatibility, high selectivity, enhanced cytotoxicity and easy synthesis, may be a promising anticancer agent. Zinc, as one of the major trace elements of the human body and co-factor of more than 300 mammalian enzymes, plays an important role in maintaining crucial cellular processes including oxidative stress, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Thus, it is evident that an alteration in zinc levels in cancer cells can cause a deleterious effect. Research has shown that low zinc concentration in cells leads to the initiation and progression of cancer and high zinc concentration shows toxic effects. Zinc-mediated protein activity disequilibrium and oxidative stress through reactive oxygen species (ROS may be the probable mechanism of this cytotoxic effect. The selective localization of ZnO nanoparticles towards cancer cells due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect and electrostatic interaction and selective cytotoxicity due to increased ROS present in cancer cells show that ZnO nanoparticles can selectively target and kill cancer cells, making them a promising anticancer agent.

  7. ZnO light-emitting nanoprobes for tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Tsan; Shen, Yi-Chun; Yang, Sheng-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2013-02-01

    Tumor detection is a significant health issue, but it is still a limit to identify cancer cells during tumor resection by using traditional methods such as fluorescence. In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods bonded to antibodies was investigated as nanoprobes for sensing cancer cells. The result shows that antibodies toward epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can be connected to ZnO nanorods and EGFR receptors of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The cancer cells can be recognized via the observation of purple light emission from these probes by using naked eye or an optical microscope. By contrast, the HS68 cells with less EGFR expression had no purple light emission as the probes were washed off. Besides, from the photoluminescent spectra, the intensity ratio between the purple light (from ZnO nanorods) and green band (from the autofluorescence of cells) is much higher in SCC than in HS68 cells, which suggest that the cancer cells can be detected by comparing the peak intensity ratio. The probes have the potential clinical application for real-time tumor detection, and the cancer cells can be excised more precisely with the help of purple light emission.

  8. Structural and Morphology of ZnO Nanorods Synthesized Using ZnO Seeded Growth Hydrothermal Method and Its Properties as UV Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhuan, Nur Syafinaz; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia; Abdul Aziz, Azlan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were synthesized using a simple hydrothermal reaction on ZnO seeds/n-silicon substrate. Several parameters were studied, including the heat-treatment temperature to produce ZnO seeds, zinc nitrate concentration, pH of hydrothermal reaction solution, and hydrothermal reaction time. The optimum heat-treatment temperature to produce uniform nanosized ZnO seeds was 400°C. The nanorod dimensions depended on the hydrothermal reaction parameters. The optimum hydrothermal reaction parameters to produce blunt tip-like nanorods (770 nm long and 80 nm in top diameter) were 0.1 M zinc nitrate, pH 7, and 4 h of growth duration. Phase analysis studies showed that all ZnO nanorods exhibited a strong (002) peak. Thus, the ZnO nanorods grew in a c-axis preferred orientation. A strong ultraviolet (UV) emission peak was observed for ZnO nanorods grown under optimized parameters with a low, deep-level emission peak, which indicated high optical property and crystallinity of the nanorods. The produced ZnO nanorods were also tested for their UV-sensing properties. All samples responded to UV light but with different sensing characteristics. Such different responses could be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanorods that correlated with the final ZnO nanorods morphology formed at different synthesis parameters. The sample grown using optimum synthesis parameters showed the highest responsivity of 0.024 A/W for UV light at 375 nm under a 3 V bias. PMID:23189199

  9. Preparation of Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Sonicated Sol-Gel Immersion Fabricated for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Saurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aligned ZnO Nanorod arrays are deposited on the Sn-doped ZnO thin film via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Sn-doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Results show that the Sn-doped ZnO thin films with small grain size (~20 nm, high average transmittance (96% in visible region, and good resistivity 7.7 × 102 Ω·cm are obtained for 2 at.% Sn doping concentration. The aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with large surface area were also obtained for 2 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film. They were grown on sol-gel derived Sn-doped ZnO thin film, which acts as a seed layer, via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The grown aligned ZnO nanorod arrays show high transmittance at visible region. The fabricated dye-sensitised solar cell based on the 2.0 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film with aligned ZnO nanorod arrays exhibits improved current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and conversion efficiency compared with the undoped ZnO and 1 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin films.

  10. ZnO nanoparticles augment ALT, AST, ALP and LDH expressions in C2C12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. ZnO nanoparticles are widely used in the several cosmetic lotions and other biomedical products. Several studies report on ZnO nanoparticle mediated cytotoxicity. However, there are no reports on the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme expressions...

  11. Room-temperature chemical integration of ZnO nanoarchitectures on plastic substrates for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Geng-Jia; Lin, Shou-Yen; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC.

  12. Fabrication of Semiconductor ZnO Nanostructures for Versatile SERS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Yang, Yong; Ma, Yunfeng; Li, Shuai; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Zhengren; Long, Nguyen Viet

    2017-01-01

    Since the initial discovery of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the 1970s, it has exhibited a huge potential application in many fields due to its outstanding advantages. Since the ultra-sensitive noble metallic nanostructures have increasingly exposed themselves as having some problems during application, semiconductors have been gradually exploited as one of the critical SERS substrate materials due to their distinctive advantages when compared with noble metals. ZnO is one of the most representative metallic oxide semiconductors with an abundant reserve, various and cost-effective fabrication techniques, as well as special physical and chemical properties. Thanks to the varied morphologies, size-dependent exciton, good chemical stability, a tunable band gap, carrier concentration, and stoichiometry, ZnO nanostructures have the potential to be exploited as SERS substrates. Moreover, other distinctive properties possessed by ZnO such as biocompatibility, photocatcalysis and self-cleaning, and gas- and chemo-sensitivity can be synergistically integrated and exerted with SERS activity to realize the multifunctional potential of ZnO substrates. In this review, we discuss the inevitable development trend of exploiting the potential semiconductor ZnO as a SERS substrate. After clarifying the root cause of the great disparity between the enhancement factor (EF) of noble metals and that of ZnO nanostructures, two specific methods are put forward to improve the SERS activity of ZnO, namely: elemental doping and combination of ZnO with noble metals. Then, we introduce a distinctive advantage of ZnO as SERS substrate and illustrate the necessity of reporting a meaningful average EF. We also summarize some fabrication methods for ZnO nanostructures with varied dimensions (0–3 dimensions). Finally, we present an overview of ZnO nanostructures for the versatile SERS application. PMID:29156600

  13. Tungsten-doped ZnO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization, and highly active photocatalyst toward dye photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah, E-mail: Fallah.m@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A series of W-doped ZnO nanocomposite with different W contents were synthesized by sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and BET surface area measurement. The XRD results revealed that all the W-doped samples showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDS and XPS revealed that W was doped into ZnO structure. The particle size of doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to that of pure ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of undoped ZnO and W-doped ZnO was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the W-doped ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO and the optimum percentage of doped W is 4 mol%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO samples may be related to the narrowing of the band gap, increase in the charge separation efficiency, particle size reduction and increase of the surface area. Highlights: ► W-doped ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The XRD results revealed that all the materials consisting of wurtzite structure. ► The sizes of the W-ZnO nanocomposite are 5–10 nm, obtained from TEM image. ► With W doping into ZnO photoinduced charge separation rate has been enhanced. ► Photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnO Nanorods on Multiple Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abu ul Hassan Sarwar; Ko, Kyul; Hong, Sejun; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we present the fabrication and characterization of ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown on p-Si, gold (Au) and nickel (Ni) coated on Si wafer, indium tin oxide (ITO), and quartz substrates. The aqueous chemical growth method is used for the vertical growth of ZnO NRs on multiple substrates. The samples are characterized with scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to probe into the growth, alignment, density, diameter, and length of ZnO NRs on multiple substrates. It is found that under same conditions, like growth temperature, growth time, and solution concentration, ZnO NRs on ITO and quartz have same length but comparatively larger diameter than on other samples. The effects of growth time on the diameter and length of ZnO NRs are also explored. All the samples are characterized with probe station to look at the current-voltage (I-V) behavior of ZnO NRs on multiple substrates. It is found that ZnO NRs on p-Si show a simple p-n heterojunction diode like behavior. ZnO NRs grown on Au- and Ni-coated Si wafers show Schottky I-V characteristic behaviors while ZnO NRs on ITO show a simple ohmic I-V response with comparatively higher level of current. Finally, the I-V response of ZnO NRs on p-Si is also studied under ultraviolet illumination. Because of the photo-generated carriers in ZnO, the sample shows higher level of current upon illumination.

  15. Effect of Ag doping on structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S.M.; Sarsari, I. Abdolhosseini, E-mail: abdolhosseini@cc.iut.ac.ir; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Hexagonal-wurtzite phase of ZnO were synthesized by thermal treatment of ball milled precursors at 400 °C. • Silver may be a good candidate for producing p-type ZnO. • Photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles increased by silver doping. • Reduction the optical energy gap of ZnO by silver doping is an advantage for use in optoelectronic devices. • The Ag 3d binding energy shifts to lower energies via XPS study. - Abstract: Silver-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully fabricated at 400 °C via a simple and rapid method based on short time solid state milling and calcination of precursor powders. The effect of Ag dilute doping on the structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometer and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. X-ray analysis revealed that Ag doped ZnO solidified in hexagonal wurtzite structure. The intensity of deep level emission was reduced with increasing silver doping in PL measurement. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement predicted that Ag was mainly in the metallic state and ZnO was in the wurtzite structure. This metallic state accompanied by unique zinc oxide properties decolorized the methyl violet, efficiently. The first-principles calculation represented Ag deep level in ZnO with an n-type behavior, while in ZnO structure with grain boundary p-type nature via shallow states is dominant same as powder samples as studied in this present work. It was suggested that these Ag-doped ZnO nanoparticles may have good applications in optoelectronics, spintronics and wastewater treatment.

  16. Preferential growth of ZnO thin films by the atomic layer deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pung, Swee-Yong; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Hou, Xianghui; Shan, Chongxin

    2008-10-01

    Preferred orientation of ZnO thin films deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique could be manipulated by deposition temperature. In this work, diethyl zinc (DEZn) and deionized water (H2O) were used as a zinc source and oxygen source, respectively. The results demonstrated that (10.0) dominant ZnO thin films were grown in the temperature range of 155-220 °C. The c-axis crystal growth of these films was greatly suppressed. Adhesion of anions (such as fragments of an ethyl group) on the (00.2) polar surface of the ZnO thin film was believed to be responsible for this suppression. In contrast, (00.2) dominant ZnO thin films were obtained between 220 and 300 °C. The preferred orientations of (10.0) and (00.2) of the ZnO thin films were examined by XRD texture analysis. The texture analysis results agreed well with the alignments of ZnO nanowires (NWs) which were grown from these ZnO thin films. In this case, the nanosized crystals of ZnO thin films acted as seeds for the growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The highly (00.2) textured ZnO thin films deposited at high temperatures, such as 280 °C, contained polycrystals with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate surface and provided a good template for the growth of vertically aligned ZnO NWs.

  17. Facile synthesis of mesoporous nanocrystalline ZnO bipyramids and spheres: Characterization, and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Priya; Subramanian, Balaji [Laboratoire de recherche en matériaux et Micro-spectroscopies Raman et FTIR, Université de Moncton, Campus de Shippagan, Shippagan, NB, E8S 1P6 Canada (Canada); Djaoued, Yahia, E-mail: yahia.djaoued@umoncton.ca [Laboratoire de recherche en matériaux et Micro-spectroscopies Raman et FTIR, Université de Moncton, Campus de Shippagan, Shippagan, NB, E8S 1P6 Canada (Canada); Robichaud, Jacques [Laboratoire de recherche en matériaux et Micro-spectroscopies Raman et FTIR, Université de Moncton, Campus de Shippagan, Shippagan, NB, E8S 1P6 Canada (Canada); Sharma, Tanu; Bruning, Ralf [Department of Physcis, Mount Alison University, Sackville, NB, E4L 1E6 Canada (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    A facile and versatile polyol mediated solvo-thermal process using zinc acetate has been adopted for the synthesis of mesoporous ZnO nanomaterials having novel morphologies. Polyols used in this study, i.e. ethylene glycol (EG) and polyethylene glycols (PEG) of molecular weight 200 and 400, not only act as solvents but also as structure directing agents. The synthesis using EG leads to the formation of novel square bipyramidal zinc glycolate intermediate, which upon thermal treatment is converted into a nanocrystalline (NC) wurtzite ZnO structure, preserving the square bipyramidal morphology. Zinc glycolate upon hot water treatment (∼85 °C), results in the formation of NC wurtzite ZnO having a bicone morphology. However, when the synthesis is carried out by replacing EG with PEG-200 or 400, NC wurtzite ZnO having spherical morphologies have been directly isolated. In the case of PEG-200, the NC ZnO spheres displayed radially oriented nanorod features on the surface. A mechanism of formation of these ZnO morphologies is proposed. The synthesized ZnO materials have been used as catalysts for the photodegradation of crystal violet dye under UV-B and UV-C irradiation. The catalytic behavior of the ZnO samples is explained based on their porosity, crystallinity, and microstructure. - Highlights: • A polyol facilitated process using zinc acetate was used to obtain mesoporous ZnO. • These mesoporous ZnO materials exhibited square bipyramids and spheres morphologies. • Ethylene glycol and PEG-200 mediated ZnO samples presented higher degradation rates. • Crystallinity takes precedence over surface area in photodegradation.

  18. Obtaining ZnO nanocrystalline through methods of combustion and precipitation; Obtencao de ZnO nanocristalino atraves dos metodos de combustao e de precipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.P.; Guaglianoni, W.C.; Cunha, M.A.; Basegio, T.M.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: anapquimica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos

    2012-07-01

    Zinc oxide is important technological applications in rubber and industrial paints. The chemical properties and microstructure of ZnO powder depends on the synthesis method employed. In this work, it was obtained nanosized ZnO using different synthesis processes, such as solution combustion and precipitation, varying the concentrations of reactants and the working temperature. The obtained powders were characterized by SEM, BET, XRD, crystallite size determination and thermal analysis (TGA and DTA). It was possible to obtain nanosized ZnO with the methods used. (author)

  19. Fabrication of ZnO Bi-crystals with twist boundaries using Co doped ZnO single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ohashi, N; Ohgaki, T; Tsurumi, T; Fukunaga, O; Haneda, H; Tanaka, J

    1999-01-01

    Zn O single crystals doped with Co were grown by using a flux method and their electrical properties were investigated by Hall effect. Then, these crystals were polished with diamond paste and bonded to form bi-crystal by hot pressing under a pressure of 10 MPa at 1000 .deg. C. The bi-crystals showed nonlinear I-V curves, and the curvature of I-V relation agreed with that for Co-doped polycrystalline ZnO.

  20. Sensitivity Enhancement of ZnO Nanorod Gas Sensors with Surface Modification by an InSb Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, Nitul; Jee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Soo Ho; Lee, Hyun-Kwuon; Yoon, Young Soo

    2009-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were prepared on sol-gel ZnO seed-coated alumina substrates by a hydrothermal method. A very thin layer of indium antimonite (InSb) was deposited on the ZnO nanorods by a thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were applied to analyze the quality of the ZnO nanorods. XRD results showed that the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods were well crystallized in hexagonal wurzite ZnO. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study confirmed the deposition of InSb on the ZnO nanorods. The activation energies of sensors fabricated from ZnO nanorods and InSb-deposited ZnO nanorods were calculated. It was found that the activation energy of the InSb-deposited ZnO nanorods was very small. The sensitivity of the sensors towards acetone gas was measured at concentrations of 500-5,000 ppm and at operating temperatures ranging from 200 to 350 °C. The sensitivity of the InSb-deposited ZnO nanorod sensor was much higher than that of the ZnO nanorod sensor. The optimum temperature of the sensors was found to be 300 °C.

  1. ZnO nanoparticle as catalyst for efficient green one-pot synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 5. ZnO nanoparticle as catalyst for efficient green one-pot synthesis of coumarins through Knoevenagel condensation. B Vinay Kumar Halehatty ... Keywords. Knoevenagel condensation; -hydroxy benzaldehyde; zinc oxide (ZnO); catalyst; green chemistry.

  2. Tracing bioavailability of ZnO nanoparticles using stable isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Dogra, Yuktee; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Fabrega, Julia; Stolpe, Björn; Bridgestock, Luke J; Goodhead, Rhys; Weiss, Dominik J; Moger, Julian; Lead, Jamie R; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Tyler, Charles R; Galloway, Tamara S; Rehkämper, Mark

    2012-11-06

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used in commercial products and knowledge of their environmental fate is a priority for ecological protection. Here we synthesized model ZnO NPs that were made from and thus labeled with the stable isotope (68)Zn and this enables highly sensitive and selective detection of labeled components against high natural Zn background levels. We combine high precision stable isotope measurements and novel bioimaging techniques to characterize parallel water-borne exposures of the common mudshrimp Corophium volutator to (68)ZnO NPs, bulk (68)ZnO, and soluble (68)ZnCl(2) in the presence of sediment. C. volutator is an important component of coastal ecosystems where river-borne NPs will accumulate and is used on a routine basis for toxicity assessments. Our results demonstrate that ionic Zn from ZnO NPs is bioavailable to C. volutator and that Zn uptake is active. Bioavailability appears to be governed primarily by the dissolved Zn content of the water, whereby Zn uptake occurs via the aqueous phase and/or the ingestion of sediment particles with adsorbed Zn from dissolution of ZnO particles. The high sorption capacity of sediments for Zn thus enhances the potential for trophic transfer of Zn derived from readily soluble ZnO NPs. The uncertainties of our isotopic data are too large, however, to conclusively rule out any additional direct uptake route of ZnO NPs by C. volutator.

  3. Catalytic synthesis of ZnO nanorods on patterned silicon wafer—An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The etch-patterned wafer was used to provide larger surface area for ZnO growth by forming. 'V'-grooves. This ZnO film may be predicted as a very good material for gas sensor. Keywords. Patterned wafer; anisotropic etching; nanorods; catalytic growth; surface enhanced Raman scat- tering; sensor material. 1. Introduction.

  4. ZnO(101) films by pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    PRCLA) to deposit a (101) oriented. ZnO film. In this method, a supersonic jet of oxygen pulse is made to cross the laser plume from a zinc metal target while being carried to the Si(111) substrate. The obtained deposit was nanocrystalline ZnO as ...

  5. High quality ZnO layers with adjustable refractive indices for integrated optics applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Thin (approx. 1 μm) crystalline ZnO films with a good optical quality and a good (0002) texture are grown under two considerably different process parameter sets using a r.f. planar magnetron sputtering unit. The optical parameters of the two corresponding ZnO layers are distinctly different: high

  6. Influence of annealing temperature on ZnO thin films grown by dual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that all ZnO films have (002) preferred orientation. Full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of XRD from the (002) crystal plane was observed to reach to a minimum value of 0⋅139° from ZnO film, annealed at 600 °C. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements demonstrated sharp ...

  7. Room-temperature ferromagnetic properties of Cu-doped ZnO rod ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have investigated properties of the Cu-doped ZnO crystalline film synthesized by the hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results provide the evidence that Cu2+ is incor- porated into the ZnO lattices. Photoluminescence spectrum of the rod arrays shows that the UV ...

  8. In situ high temperature XRD studies of ZnO nanopowder prepared ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Ultrasonic mist chemical vapour deposition (UM–CVD) system has been developed to prepare. ZnO nanopowder. This is a promising method for large area deposition at low temperature inspite of being simple, inexpensive and safe. The particle size, lattice parameters and crystal structure of ZnO nanopowder.

  9. Ethanol gas sensing properties of Al2 O3 -doped ZnO thick film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly ...

  10. Structural and magnetic Properties of Mn, Co, Ni doped ZnO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZnO is one of the most important semiconductor material for research. It is abundant, cost effective, non-toxic and also it is used in many bio-medical applications. The transition metal(TM) such as manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals are promising candidates for variety of ...

  11. Inception and Trapping of ZnO Nanoparticles within Desilicated Mordenite and ZSM-5 Zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susarrey Arce, A.; Hernandez-Espinosa, M.A.; Rojas-Gonzalez, F.; Reed, C.P.; Petranovskii, V.; Licea, A.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticle inception within mordenite and ZSM-5 zeolites, of varied Si/Al ratios, was achieved via the exchange of zeolite cations with Zn2+, followed by NaOH leaching, and thermal treatment at 550 °C under O2. ZnO particles were observed by electron microscopy; further characterization

  12. Nature of sub-band gap luminescent eigenmodes in a ZnO nanowire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rühle, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31407659X; van Vugt, L.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338773800; Li, H.-Y.; Keizer, N.A.; Kuipers, L.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829137

    2008-01-01

    The emission spectrum of individual high-quality ZnO nanowires consists of a series of Fabry-Pérot-like eigenmodes that extend far below the band gap of ZnO. Spatially resolved luminescence spectroscopy shows that light is emitted predominantly at both wire ends, with identical spectra reflecting

  13. Growth of compact arrays of optical quality single crystalline ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. We report the synthesis and optical properties of compact and aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (dia,. ~ 50–200 nm) grown on a glass substrate with varying seed particle density. The suspension of ZnO nanoparti- cles (size, ~ 15 nm) of various concentrations are used as seed layer for the growth of nanorod arrays via ...

  14. Photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with controlled defects as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Taku; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Ito, Tsuyohito

    2016-07-01

    Conductance of photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with various defects has been investigated in oxygen. ZnO nanoparticles, which show strong photoluminescence peaks originating from interstitial zinc atom (Zni) and singly charged oxygen vacancy (VO+), show oxygen-pressure-dependent conductance changes caused by photoexcitation. Herein, a model is proposed to simulate the conductance changes.

  15. Well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays and networks grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2015-06-01

    Semiconductor ZnO, possessing a large exciton binding energy and wide band gap, has received a great deal of attention because it shows great potential for applications in optoelectronics. Precisely controlling the growth of three-dimensional ZnO nanotube structures with a uniform morphology constitutes an important step forward toward integrating ZnO nanostructures into microelectronic devices. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, featured with self-limiting surface reactions, is an ideal approach to the fabrication of ZnO nanostructures, because it allows for accurate control of the thickness at atomic level and conformal coverage in complex 3D structures. In this work, well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays and networks are prepared by ALD. The morphology, crystallinity and wall thickness of these nanotube structures are examined for different growth conditions. The microstructure of the ZnO nanotubes is investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The high aspect ratio of ZnO nanotubes provides a large specific area which could enhance the kinetics of chemical reactions taking place between the ZnO and its surroundings, making the potential devices more efficient and compact.

  16. Growth of compact arrays of optical quality single crystalline ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the synthesis and optical properties of compact and aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (dia, ∼ 50–200 nm) grown on a glass substrate with varying seed particle density. The suspension of ZnO nanoparticles (size, ∼ 15 nm) of various concentrations are used as seed layer for the growth of nanorod arrays via ...

  17. Size control mechanism of ZnO nanoparticles obtained in microwave solvothermal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Koltsov, Iwona; Gierlotka, Stanislaw; Dworakowska, Sylwia; Lojkowski, Witold

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to explain the mechanism of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) size control, which enables the size control of ZnO NPs obtained in microwave solvothermal synthesis (MSS) within the size range between circa 20 and 120 nm through the control of water content in the solution of zinc acetate in ethylene glycol. Heavy water was used in the tests. The mechanism of ZnO NPs size control was explained, discussed and experimentally verified. The discovery and investigation of this mechanism was possible by tracking the fate of water molecules during the whole synthesis process. All the synthesis products were identified. It was indicated that the MSS of ZnO NPs proceeded through the formation and conversion of intermediates such as Zn5(OH)8(CH3COO)2 · xH2O. Esters and H2O were the by-products of the MSS reaction of ZnO NPs. We justified that the esterification reaction is the decisive stage that is a prerequisite of the formation of ZnO NPs. The following parameters of the obtained ZnO NPs and of the intermediate were determined: pycnometric density, specific surface area, phase purity, average particles size, particles size distribution and chemical composition. The ZnO NPs morphology and structure were determined using scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Preparation of porous flower-like ZnO nanostructures and their gas-sensing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Cuiping [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Huang Jiarui, E-mail: jrhuang@mail.anhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Key Lab Biomimet Sensing and Adv Robot Technol, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Youjie; Zhai Muheng [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Sun Yufeng [Mechanical Engineering Department, Anhui University of Technology and Science, Wuhu 241000 (China); Liu Jinhuai [Key Lab Biomimet Sensing and Adv Robot Technol, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2011-03-31

    Research highlights: > Flower-like basic zinc carbonate was prepared by template-free hydrothermal method. > Porous flower-like ZnO nanostructures were obtained by annealing the precursors. > The porous flower-like ZnO nanostructures exhibit excellent sensing performances. > High porosity and 3D morphology structures promote its sensing performances. - Abstract: Porous flower-like ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by a template-free, economical hydrothermal method combined with subsequent calcination. Calcination of the precursors produced flower-like ZnO nanostructures, composed of interconnected porous ZnO nanosheets with high porosity resulting from the thermal decomposition of the as-prepared precursors, i.e., flower-like basic zinc carbonate (BZC). Moreover, the nanostructures have been characterized through X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric-differential thermalgravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analyses. Compared with ZnO nanorods, the as-prepared porous flower-like ZnO nanostructures exhibit a good response and reversibility to some organic gas, such as ethanol and acetone. The sensor responses to 100 ppm ethanol and acetone are 21.8 and 16.8, respectively, at a working temperature of 320 {sup o}C. In addition, the sensors also exhibited a good response to 2-propanol and methanol, which indicate that these porous flower-like ZnO nanostructures are highly promising for applications of gas sensors.

  19. Solvents induced ZnO nanoparticles aggregation associated with their interfacial effect on organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pandeng; Jiu, Tonggang; Tang, Gang; Wang, Guojie; Li, Jun; Li, Xiaofang; Fang, Junfeng

    2014-10-22

    ZnO nanofilm as a cathode buffer layer has surface defects due to the aggregations of ZnO nanoparticles, leading to poor device performance of organic solar cells. In this paper, we report the ZnO nanoparticles aggregations in solution can be controlled by adjusting the solvents ratios (chloroform vs methanol). These aggregations could influence the morphology of ZnO film. Therefore, compact and homogeneous ZnO film can be obtained to help achieve a preferable power conversion efficiency of 8.54% in inverted organic solar cells. This improvement is attributed to the decreased leakage current and the increased electron-collecting efficiency as well as the improved interface contact with the active layer. In addition, we find the enhanced maximum exciton generation rate and exciton dissociation probability lead to the improvement of device performance due to the preferable ZnO dispersion. Compared to other methods of ZnO nanofilm fabrication, it is the more convenient, moderate, and effective to get a preferable ZnO buffer layer for high-efficiency organic solar cells.

  20. Characterization of precursor-based ZnO transport layers in inverted polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossiord, N.; Bruyn, P. de; Moet, D.J.D.; Andriessen, R.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of characterization techniques are used to study spin-coated films of zinc oxide (ZnO) obtained from thermal decomposition of zinc acetylacetonate hydrate. Inverted organic solar cells with ZnO transport layers were prepared. Deposition conditions of the solution onto the substrate

  1. From Stable ZnO and GaN Clusters to Novel Double Bubbles and Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Farrow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A bottom up approach is employed in the design of novel materials: first, gas-phase “double bubble” clusters are constructed from high symmetry, Th, 24 and 96 atom, single bubbles of ZnO and GaN. These are used to construct bulk frameworks. Upon geometry optimization—minimisation of energies and forces computed using density functional theory—the symmetry of the double bubble clusters is reduced to either C1 or C2, and the average bond lengths for the outer bubbles are 1.9 Å, whereas the average bonds for the inner bubble are larger for ZnO than for GaN; 2.0 Å and 1.9 Å, respectively. A careful analysis of the bond distributions reveals that the inter-bubble bonds are bi-modal, and that there is a greater distortion for ZnO. Similar bond distributions are found for the corresponding frameworks. The distortion of the ZnO double bubble is found to be related to the increased flexibility of the outer bubble when composed of ZnO rather than GaN, which is reflected in their bulk moduli. The energetics suggest that (ZnO12@(GaN48 is more stable both in gas phase and bulk frameworks than (ZnO12@(ZnO48 and (GaN12@(GaN48. Formation enthalpies are similar to those found for carbon fullerenes.

  2. Effect of Growth Time on the Characteristics of ZnO Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiawati, R.; Mufti, N.; Taufiq, A.; Wisodo, H.; Laila, I. K. R.; Fuad, A.; Sunaryono

    2017-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were successfully synthesized via two stages, that is deposition of ZnO seed layers on ITO substrate and growth of ZnO nanorods via solvothermal method. A characterization by using XRD was employed to investigate the structure and size of the crystals. SEM characterization was used to study the size and morphology of the particles. UV-Vis and FTIR characterizations were used to investigate the bandgap and functional group of the samples. The data analysis presented that the ZnO particles had a crystal structure of hexagonal with rod morphology. The diameter size of the ZnO nanorods growth on the substrate surface for the growth time of 4, 6, and 8 hours were respectively 138, 230, and 236 nm with the length of the rods of 570, 934, and 1280 nm, respectively. The bandgaps of the ZnO nanorods for growth times of 4, 6, and 8 hours were respectively 3.14, 3.12, and 3.05 eV, while the ZnO seed layers had 3.22 eV band gap. FTIR spectrum showed that the main peaks were 400-515, 870, and 1250 cm-1 showing the functional groups of ZnO and H-C-N.

  3. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was coated with zinc acetate dihydrate to form seed layer of ZnO nanocrystals. Double zone tube furnace connected to vacuum pump was used for ZnO ...

  4. Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, Nagarajan; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles with various particle sizes. ZnO was prepared by the base hydrolysis of zinc acetate in a 2-propanol medium and also by a precipitation method using Zn(NO3)2 and NaOH. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Bacteriological tests such as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk diffusion were performed in Luria-Bertani and nutrient agar media on solid agar plates and in liquid broth systems using different concentrations of ZnO by a standard microbial method for the first time. Our bacteriological study showed the enhanced biocidal activity of ZnO nanoparticles compared with bulk ZnO in repeated experiments. This demonstrated that the bactericidal efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles increases with decreasing particle size. It is proposed that both the abrasiveness and the surface oxygen species of ZnO nanoparticles promote the biocidal properties of ZnO nanoparticles. PMID:27878001

  5. Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles-an antimicrobial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, Nagarajan; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles with various particle sizes. ZnO was prepared by the base hydrolysis of zinc acetate in a 2-propanol medium and also by a precipitation method using Zn(NO3)2 and NaOH. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Bacteriological tests such as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk diffusion were performed in Luria-Bertani and nutrient agar media on solid agar plates and in liquid broth systems using different concentrations of ZnO by a standard microbial method for the first time. Our bacteriological study showed the enhanced biocidal activity of ZnO nanoparticles compared with bulk ZnO in repeated experiments. This demonstrated that the bactericidal efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles increases with decreasing particle size. It is proposed that both the abrasiveness and the surface oxygen species of ZnO nanoparticles promote the biocidal properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

  6. Influence of pH on ZnO nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Sol–gel; ZnO nanocrystalline thin films; dip coating method. 1. Introduction. ZnO materials have attracted much interest due to wide direct bandgap of 3·37 eV and large exciton binding energy of. 60 meV. Semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted much attention in recent years due to novel optical, electrical ...

  7. Thin-film ZnO as micromechanical actuator at low frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, F.R.; Blom, F.R.; IJntema, D.J.; Ijntema, D.J.; van de Pol, F.C.M.; van de Pol, F.C.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Fluitman, J.H.J.; Popma, T.J.A.

    A new model is proposed for the low-frequency piezoelectric activity of ZnO films grown on CVD SiO2. In this MOS structure, with ZnO as the semiconductor, a depletion layer is induced by means of a d.c. bias voltage. Using standard semiconductor theory, an expression is derived relating the electric

  8. Tunable electronic transport characteristics of surface-architecture-controlled ZnO nanowire field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Woong-Ki; Sohn, Jung Inn; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kwon, Soon-Shin; Jo, Gunho; Song, Sunghoon; Kim, Seong-Min; Ko, Hang-Ju; Park, Seong-Ju; Welland, Mark E; Lee, Takhee

    2008-03-01

    Surface-architecture-controlled ZnO nanowires were grown using a vapor transport method on various ZnO buffer film coated c-plane sapphire substrates with or without Au catalysts. The ZnO nanowires that were grown showed two different types of geometric properties: corrugated ZnO nanowires having a relatively smaller diameter and a strong deep-level emission photoluminescence (PL) peak and smooth ZnO nanowires having a relatively larger diameter and a weak deep-level emission PL peak. The surface morphology and size-dependent tunable electronic transport properties of the ZnO nanowires were characterized using a nanowire field effect transistor (FET) device structure. The FETs made from smooth ZnO nanowires with a larger diameter exhibited negative threshold voltages, indicating n-channel depletion-mode behavior, whereas those made from corrugated ZnO nanowires with a smaller diameter had positive threshold voltages, indicating n-channel enhancement-mode behavior.

  9. ZnO films synthesized by thermal annealing of ZnSe/GaAs heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Oleg

    2008-03-01

    ZnO received much attention due to its potential application for the fabrication of ultraviolet light emitters and photodetectors. High crystalline quality films were grown using MBE, PLD, and CVD on Al2O3, GaN, SiC, and other substrates. However, further progress in this area is slowed down by the difficulties associated with doping ZnO p-type. Here, we report on the synthesis and doping of ZnO films using the annealing of MBE-grown ZnSe/GaAs heterostructures in the controlled environment. Se is displaced by oxygen through the reaction: 2ZnSe + 3O2-> 2ZnO + 2SO2. In addition, As migrating from the GaAs substrate into the ZnO layer, promotes p-type doping. While ZnGa2O4, ZnO2, and other second phases form as the result of high temperature annealing (>700^oC), stoichiometric ZnO films are obtained at moderate temperatures (˜500^oC). Films processed under optimized conditions exhibit sharp band edge emission, narrow rocking curve, and are comparable with the ZnO films grown on the GaAs substrates using other techniques. I would like to acknowledge support from the Office of Naval Research under grant N00014-06-1-1018.

  10. ZnO nanorods/polyaniline heterojunctions for low-power flexible light sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, Rawnaq A.; Abdullah, M.J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Al-Salman, Husam S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Mohammad, Sabah M. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Allam, Nageh K., E-mail: nageh.allam@aucegypt.edu [Energy Materials Laboratory (EML), School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo, 11835 (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    Zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) were directly grown on p-type polyaniline (PAni)/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using chemical bath deposition method at low temperature. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the morphology and structure of the fabricated films. The resulted ZnO NRs are hexagonal and grew vertically on the PAni surface in the (002) direction along the c-axis. The compressive strain, Raman and photoluminescence measurements confirmed the high-quality crystal structure of the formed ZnO NRs with no damage of the PAni surface. The photodetector made using ZnO NRs/PAni junction showed a sensitivity of 85% and a quantum efficiency of 12.3% at 5 V. - Highlights: • ZnO NRs/polyaniline p-n junction photodetectors were fabricated on flexible substrates. • The fabricated ZnO NRs grew along the (002) direction. • The fabricated ZnO NRs have low compressive strain. • The ZnO NRs/PAni junction showed a high sensitivity of 85%. • The photodetectors showed quantum efficiency as high as 12%.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes with manganese-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Ruh [NUST Institute of Information Technology (NIIT), National University of Science and Technology (NUST) Pakistan, 166A, Street 9 Chaklala Scheme III, Tamiz ud din Road, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)], E-mail: ruhullahg@gmail.com; Dutta, Joydeep [Centre of Excellence in Nanotechnology (CoEN), Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klongluang Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)], E-mail: joy@ait.ac.th

    2008-08-15

    Manganese-doped and undoped ZnO photocatalysts were synthesized via wet-chemical techniques. Doping of ZnO with manganese (Mn{sup 2+}) was intended to create tail states within the band gap of ZnO. These can subsequently be used as efficient photocatalysts which can effectively degrade organic contaminants only with visible light irradiation. Photocatalysts prepared with these techniques, which were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photo-co-relation spectroscopy (PCS) and UV-vis-spectroscopy showed significant difference in the optical absorption of Mn-doped ZnO. Enhancement in optical absorption of Mn-doped ZnO indicates that it can be used as an efficient photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. The photo-reduction activities of photocatalysts were evaluated using a basic aniline dye, methylene blue (MB) as organic contaminant irradiated only with visible light from tungsten bulb. It was found that manganese-doped ZnO (ZnO:Mn{sup 2+}) bleaches MB much faster than undoped ZnO upon its exposure to the visible light. The experiment demonstrated that the photo-degradation efficiency of ZnO:Mn{sup 2+} was significantly higher than that of undoped ZnO and might also be better than the conventional metal oxide semiconductor such as TiO{sub 2} using MB as a contaminant.

  12. Structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO thin films have been prepared using zinc acetate precursor by spray pyrolytic decomposition of zinc acetate on glass substrates at 450 °C. Effect of precursor concentration on structural and optical properties has been investigated. ZnO films are polycrystalline with (002) plane as preferential orientation. The optical ...

  13. Heavy lithium-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium-doped ZnO thin films (ZnO : Li) were prepared by spray pyrolysis method on the glass substrates for ( = [Li]/[Zn]) value varied between 5 and 70%. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ...

  14. Simple fabrication of a ZnO nanorod array UV detector with a high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Liao, Qingliang; Yan, Xiaoqin; Bai, Zhiming; Wang, Zengze; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yunhua; Zhang, Yue

    2014-07-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays were grown on the indium-tin-oxide glass through a hydrothermal method. A novel and simple method was created to fabricate the high-performance ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors on the basis of the ZnO NR arrays. When the ZnO NRs device is under 365-nm UV illumination (2.01 mW/cm2), it showed a photocurrent of ~308.04 μA, an on/off ratio of ~5.13×102 and a fast decay time constant of 1.69 s at 1 V applied bias. The performance of the ZnO NRs device was much better than that of the conventional ZnO film device. The superior photoresponse of the ZnO NRs device is due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio and better crystal quality of ZnO NRs. The ZnO NRs device has great potential for application in UV detection and is promising for large-scale production.

  15. [Optical Properties of ZnO Films Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-mei; Wang, Dong-dong; Fang, Ming; Zhang, Ao; Wang, Xiao-yu; Chen, Qiang; Meng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The ZnO films were deposited by atomic layer deposition method using water and diethylzinc as precursors at different temperatures (110 and 190 degrees C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence spectra (PL) were used to investigate the elemental composition and optical properties of ZnO films. Our results showed that with the increasing of the growth temperature, the amount of -OH groups in the ZnO film decreased, which indicated that the reactions went to completion at high processing temperatures. The PL spectra of the ZnO film deposited at 110 degrees C exhibited two emission bands, one in the UV region and the other in the visible region. When the deposition temperature increased to 190 degrees C, the emission bands in the visible region disappeared, which indicated that the deep level defect in ZnO became less. The carrier mobility improved from 25 to 32 cm2 x (V x S)(-1) with the reduction of the defects in the ZnO film. The refractive index of the ZnO films decreased from 2.33 to 1.9 in the 375-800 nm region. The optical absorption edge (E(g)) values of the ZnO films deposited at different temperature were about 3.27 eV.

  16. Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres as a photocatalyst for high performance photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Da, E-mail: dchen_80@hotmail.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Dongfang; Ge, Qisheng; Ping, Guangxing [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Qin, Laishun [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Bai, Liqun [School of Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Lv, Chunju; Shu, Kangying [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres (ZnO–graphene nanocomposites) were prepared by a simple facile lyophilization method, followed by thermal treatment process. ZnO nanospheres with the size of about 100–400 nm, composed of numerous nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure, were well separated from each other and wrapped with transparent graphene sheets. Compared to ZnO nanospheres, the ZnO–graphene nanocomposites showed a significant enhancement in the photodegradation of methylene blue. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to their favorable dye-adsorption affinity and increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer of the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO to graphene. Thus, this work could provide a facile and low-cost method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, sensing, and so on. - Highlights: • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were prepared by a facile lyophilization method. • ZnO nanospheres were separated from each other and wrapped with 2D graphene sheets. • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres exhibited superior photocatalytic activities. • The photocatalytic mechanisms of graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were discussed.

  17. Hole-enhanced electron injection from ZnO in inverted polymer light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Mingtao; de Bruyn, Paul; Nicolai, Herman T.; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    Metal oxides as ZnO provide an interesting alternative for conventional low work function metals as electron injection layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, for most state-of-the-art OLED materials the high work function of ZnO leads to a large injection barrier for electrons. As

  18. Gel-combustion-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles for visible light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The scanning electron and transmission electron microscopic images confirm the ZnO NPs to be agglomerated with loop- and chain-like morphology. The ZnO NPs prepared by this method is a promising candidate for photocatalytic hydrogen generation (41 μ mol h − 1 g − 1 ) under UV light illumination and (140 μ mol h − 1 ...

  19. A Review of the Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Hybrid ZnO and Carbon Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protima Rauwel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescent ZnO carbon nanomaterials are an emerging class of nanomaterials with unique optical properties. They each, ZnO and carbon nanomaterials, have an advantage of being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. Their cost-effective production methods along with simple synthesis routes are also of interest. Moreover, ZnO presents photoluminescence emission in the UV and visible region depending on the synthesis routes, shape, size, deep level, and surface defects. When combined with carbon nanomaterials, modification of surface defects in ZnO allows tuning of these photoluminescence properties to produce, for example, white light. Moreover, efficient energy transfer from the ZnO to carbon nanostructures makes them suitable candidates not only in energy harvesting applications but also in biosensors, photodetectors, and low temperature thermal imaging. This work reviews the synthesis and photoluminescence properties of 3 carbon allotropes: carbon quantum or nanodots, graphene, and carbon nanotubes when hybridized with ZnO nanostructures. Various synthesis routes for the hybrid materials with different morphologies of ZnO are presented. Moreover, differences in photoluminescence emission when combining ZnO with each of the three different allotropes are analysed.

  20. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on porous silicon substrates: Effect of growth time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shabannia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on porous silicon (PS substrates by chemical bath deposition at a low temperature. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL analyses were carried out to investigate the effect of growth duration (2 h to 8 h on the optical and structural properties of the aligned ZnO nanorods. Strong and sharp ZnO (0 0 2 peaks of the ZnO nanorods proved that the aligned ZnO nanorods were preferentially fabricated along the c-axis of the hexagonal wurtzite structure. FESEM images demonstrated that the ZnO nanorod arrays were well aligned along the c-axis and perpendicular to the PS substrates regardless of the growth duration. The TEM image showed that the top surfaces of the ZnO nanorods were round with a smooth curvature. PL spectra demonstrated that the ZnO nanorods grown for 5 h exhibited the sharpest and most intense PL peaks within the ultraviolet range among all samples.

  1. Structural and electronic properties of ZnO nanowires and nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Andreia Luisa da; Frauenheim, Thomas [BCCMS, Universitaet Bremen (Germany); Xu, Hu; Fan, Wei; Zhan, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong [Nano-organic Photoelectronic Laboratory, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Beijing (China); Zhang, Ruiqin [COSDAF, Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2008-07-01

    ZnO is a well known semiconductor with potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics. ZnO has a direct wide band gap of 3.3 eV and a large exciton binding energy making it promising for high-efficiency blue and ultra-violet devices. Recently, the successful growth of highly ordered nanowires has expanded the list of potential applications. In this work we employ density functional theory to investigate ZnO nanowires and nanotubes. We find that relaxations on the facets are very similar to the ones in non-polar ZnO surfaces. While bare and completely passivated wires are semiconducting, wires with intermediate hydrogen passivation exhibit metallic behavior. We therefore suggest that hydrogenation leads to drastic changes in the ZnO nanowire electrical properties. We have also investigated ZnO nanotubes with round and hexagonal shapes. The calculated strain energy of round ZnO nanotubes follows a classical strain law. All the ZnO nanotubes were found to be direct band gap semiconductors with the band gap decreasing as their diameter increases.

  2. Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles-the role of ROS mediated cell injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipovsky, Anat; Gedanken, Aharon [Department of Chemistry, Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Nitzan, Yeshayahu [Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Lubart, Rachel [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan (Israel)

    2011-03-11

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles, such as those comprised of ZnO, has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water, and to increase with a decrease in particle size. In the present study, we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect the viability of the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. albicans was observed. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0.1 mg ml{sup -1} ZnO; this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C. albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, in cell death. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds.

  3. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Padmavathy and Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles with various particle sizes. ZnO was prepared by the base hydrolysis of zinc acetate in a 2-propanol medium and also by a precipitation method using Zn(NO32 and NaOH. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Bacteriological tests such as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and disk diffusion were performed in Luria-Bertani and nutrient agar media on solid agar plates and in liquid broth systems using different concentrations of ZnO by a standard microbial method for the first time. Our bacteriological study showed the enhanced biocidal activity of ZnO nanoparticles compared with bulk ZnO in repeated experiments. This demonstrated that the bactericidal efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles increases with decreasing particle size. It is proposed that both the abrasiveness and the surface oxygen species of ZnO nanoparticles promote the biocidal properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

  5. Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles-an antimicrobial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmavathy, Nagarajan; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan [School of Science and Humanities-Materials Division, VIT University, Vellore - 632 014, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: rvijayaraghavan@vit.ac.in

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles with various particle sizes. ZnO was prepared by the base hydrolysis of zinc acetate in a 2-propanol medium and also by a precipitation method using Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NaOH. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Bacteriological tests such as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk diffusion were performed in Luria-Bertani and nutrient agar media on solid agar plates and in liquid broth systems using different concentrations of ZnO by a standard microbial method for the first time. Our bacteriological study showed the enhanced biocidal activity of ZnO nanoparticles compared with bulk ZnO in repeated experiments. This demonstrated that the bactericidal efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles increases with decreasing particle size. It is proposed that both the abrasiveness and the surface oxygen species of ZnO nanoparticles promote the biocidal properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

  6. Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, Nagarajan; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles with various particle sizes. ZnO was prepared by the base hydrolysis of zinc acetate in a 2-propanol medium and also by a precipitation method using Zn(NO3)2 and NaOH. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Bacteriological tests such as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk diffusion were performed in Luria-Bertani and nutrient agar media on solid agar plates and in liquid broth systems using different concentrations of ZnO by a standard microbial method for the first time. Our bacteriological study showed the enhanced biocidal activity of ZnO nanoparticles compared with bulk ZnO in repeated experiments. This demonstrated that the bactericidal efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles increases with decreasing particle size. It is proposed that both the abrasiveness and the surface oxygen species of ZnO nanoparticles promote the biocidal properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

  7. Growth of "waist" ZnO twin rods through hydrothermal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lixia; Yu, Xianjin; Zhang, Lipeng; Yang, Ping

    2014-04-01

    The factors that govern the deposition and structure of "waist" ZnO twin rods from aqueous solution through hydrothermal synthesis were discussed in details. Pencil-like ZnO hexagonal twin rods were obtained in Zn(2+) + HMTA system on ITO glass substrates with ZnO buffer layer deposited in advance. As a contrast, a series of experiments were preceded with TBAB or on bare Cu sheet, Zn sheet, and Al sheet to research lattice-match influences on ZnO nucleation. A series of "waist" ZnO hexagonal twin rods were synthesized and the morphology of each "waist" was shown. The forming of different waists results from the different lattice-match effects between substrates and ZnO crystal. We demonstrated ZnO hexagonal twin rods synthesis on Cu, Al, Zn sheet by normal hydrothermal synthesis and revealed different forming schemes of these varying "waists" of the twin structures. On the basis of our research, not only some new ways of synthesizing ZnO twin rods were proposed but a new idea of applying metal to nano-devices used in piezoelectric area.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C3N4/ZnO: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were investigated under the illumination of blacklight and fluorescent lamps as the low wattage light source. The C 3 N 4 /ZnO showed a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO to degrade a methylene blue (MB) dye solution using blacklight lamps, but there is no significant ...

  9. Photoluminescence quenching and enhanced spin relaxation in Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovhal, Manoj M.; Santhosh Kumar, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Khullar, Prerna [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Abhyankar, A.C., E-mail: ashutoshabhyankar@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Cost-effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method is utilized to synthesize Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature and the effect of Iron (Fe) doping on structural, optical and spin relaxation properties also presented. As-synthesized pure and Fe doped ZnO NPs possess a perfect hexagonal growth habit of wurtzite zinc oxide, along the (101) direction of preference. With Fe doping, ‘c/a’ ratio and compressive lattice strain in ZnO NPs are found to reduce and increase, respectively. Raman studies demonstrate that the E{sub 1} longitudinal optical (LO) vibrational mode is very weak in pure which remarkably enhanced with Fe doping into ZnO NPs. The direct band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the ZnO NPs has been increased from 3.02 eV to 3.11 eV with Fe doping. A slight red-shift observed with strong green emission band, in photoluminescence spectra, is strongly quenched in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals spherical shape of ZnO NPs with 60–70 nm, which reduces substantially on Fe doping. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrum and elemental mapping confirms the homogeneous distribution of Fe in ZnO NPs. Moreover, the specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been measured using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs. Further, the correlation of structural, optical and dynamic properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Pure ZnO and Fe doped ZnO NPs were successfully prepared by cost effective ultrasonically assisted precipitation method. • The optical band gap of ZnO has been enhanced form 3.02–3.11 eV with Fe doping. • PL quenching behaviour has been observed with Fe{sup 3+} ions substitution in ZnO lattice. • Specific relaxation rate (R{sub 2sp} = 1/T{sub 2}) has been varied with Fe doping and found to be maximum in 6 wt.% Fe doped ZnO NPs.

  10. Preparation of Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Sonicated Sol-Gel Immersion Fabricated for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Saurdi, I.; M. H. Mamat; M. F. Malek; Rusop, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aligned ZnO Nanorod arrays are deposited on the Sn-doped ZnO thin film via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Sn-doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Results show that the Sn-doped ZnO thin films with small grain size (~20 nm), high average transmittance (96%) in visible region, and good resistivity 7.7 × 102 Ω·cm are obtained for 2 at.% Sn doping concentration. The aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with large surface area were also obtai...

  11. Analisis Sifat Optis Lapisan Tipis ZnO, TiO2, TiO2:ZnO, Dengan Dan Tanpa Lapisan Penyangga Yang Dideposisikan Menggunakan Metode Sol-Gel Spray Coating (Halaman 41 S.d. 44)

    OpenAIRE

    Amananti, Wilda; Sutanto, Heri

    2015-01-01

    Pada penelitian ini lapisan tipis TiO2, ZnO, TiO2:ZnO, dengan dan tanpa lapisan penyangga telah berhasil di deposisi di atas subtrat kaca menggunakan metode sol-gel dengan teknik spray coating. Sifat optik lapisan tipis TiO2, ZnO, TiO2:ZnO, dengan dan tanpa lapisan penyangga dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer UV-Vis. Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa kualitas lapisan tipis TiO2:ZnO yang ditumbukan di atas subtrat kaca lebih baik dari pada lapisan tipis TiO2 dan lapisan tipis...

  12. Analisis Sifat Optis Lapisan Tipis ZnO, TiO2, TiO2:ZnO, dengan dan Tanpa Lapisan Penyangga yang Dideposisikan Menggunakan Metode Sol-Gel Spray Coating (Halaman 41 s.d. 44)

    OpenAIRE

    Amananti, Wilda; Sutanto, Heri

    2015-01-01

    Pada penelitian ini lapisan tipis TiO2, ZnO, TiO2:ZnO, dengan dan tanpa lapisan penyangga  telah berhasil di deposisi di atas subtrat kaca menggunakan metode sol-gel dengan teknik spray coating. Sifat optik lapisan tipis TiO2, ZnO, TiO2:ZnO, dengan dan tanpa lapisan penyangga  dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer UV-Vis. Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa kualitas lapisan tipis TiO2:ZnO yang ditumbukan di atas subtrat kaca lebih baik dari pada lapisan tipis TiO2 dan lapisan tipis...

  13. Effect of ZnO buffer layer on phase transition properties of vanadium dioxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiqun; Li, Lekang; Li, Chunbo

    2016-03-01

    VO2 thin films were prepared on ZnO buffer layers by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature using vanadium target and post annealing at 400 °C. The ZnO buffer layers with different thickness deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering have a high visible and near infrared optical transmittance. The electrical resistivity and the phase transition properties of the VO2/ZnO composite thin films in terms of temperature were investigated. The results showed that the resistivity variation of VO2 thin film with ZnO buffer layer deposited for 35 min was 16 KΩ-cm. The VO2/ZnO composite thin films exhibit a reversible semiconductor-metal phase transition at 48 °C.

  14. Transport and structural characterization of solution-processable doped ZnO nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Noriega, Rodrigo

    2009-08-18

    The use of ZnO nanowires has become a widespread topic of interest in optoelectronics. In order to correctly assess the quality, functionality, and possible applications of such nanostructures it is important to accurately understand their electrical and optical properties. Aluminum- and gallium-doped crystalline ZnO nanowires were synthesized using a low-temperature solution-based process, achieving dopant densities of the order of 1020 cm-3. A non-contact optical technique, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, is used to characterize ensembles of ZnO nanowires. By modeling the free charge carrier absorption as a Drude metal, we are able to calculate the free carrier density and mobility. Determining the location of the dopant atoms in the ZnO lattice is important to determine the doping mechanisms of the ZnO nanowires. Solid-state NMR is used to distinguish between coordination environments of the dopant atoms.

  15. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Melia dubia leaf extract and its characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Subburam; Vaideki, Krishnakumar; Anitha, Sundaram; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2017-02-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (Nps) using the biocompounds extracted from Melia dubia leaves (MD L.) and zinc acetate as precursors. The choice of the precursors was based on the intention to use the synthesised ZnO Nps for the healthcare applications. In this line, the antimicrobial property of ethanolic extract of MD L., uncalcined ZnO Nps and calcined ZnO Nps has been assessed and compared. The prepared particles have been characterised by comparing their Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) diffractogram and TEM images. The presence of ZnO has been confirmed using IR spectrum. The crystal structure and crystallite size have been found out using XRD diffractogram, and the obtained crystallite size was confirmed using TEM images. Finally, an attempt has been made to correlate the structure with the antimicrobial property of the material.

  16. Fabrication of ZnO photonic amorphous diamond nanostructure from parrot feathers for modulated photoluminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengli; Yu, Ke; Liao, Na; Yin, Haihong; Lou, Lei; Yu, Qian; Liao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2011-12-01

    A ZnO photonic amorphous diamond nanostructure was successfully synthesised using a feather barb of the Rosy-Faced Lovebird as supporting template via a facile sol-gel process. Different from ordered structures, an isotropic PBG around 500 nm was evidenced from reflectance spectra and an optical metallurgical microscopy image, which overlaps with the visible emission peak of ZnO. As a result, the inhibition of visible emission inside the PBG and the enhancement of UV emission at the PBG edges have both been observed, which is independent from the incident angle. Moreover, the rapid thermal annealing can also help improve the crystallinity of ZnO and raise the UV/visible emission ratio without affecting the structure. These results can be very useful for the study of the modification of the optical emission properties of ZnO and other semiconductor materials as well as research on ZnO random lasing.

  17. Efficiency improvement of silicon solar cells enabled by ZnO nanowhisker array coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuegong; Wang, Dong; Lei, Dong; Li, Genhu; Yang, Deren

    2012-06-15

    An efficient antireflection coating is critical for the improvement of silicon solar cell performance via increased light coupling. Here, we have grown well-aligned ZnO nanowhisker (NW) arrays on Czochralski silicon solar cells by a seeding-growth two-step process. It is found that the ZnO NWs have a great effect on the macroscopic antireflection effect and, therefore, improves the solar cell performance. The ZnO NW array-coated solar cells display a broadband reflection suppression from 500 to 1,100 nm, and the minimum reflectance smaller than 3% can easily be achieved. By optimizing the time of ZnO NW growth, it has been confirmed that an increase of 3% relatively in the solar cell efficiency can be obtained. These results are quite interesting for the application of ZnO nanostructure in the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, Luminescent and Nonlinear Optical Responses of Nanosized ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multian, Volodymyr V; Uklein, Andrii V; Zaderko, Alexander N; Kozhanov, Vadim O; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu; Linnik, Rostyslav P; Lisnyak, Vladyslav V; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we report soft and solvothermal methods for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Both methods involve a precursor and are carried out at the middle low-temperature regime. The effect of different solvents on the ZnO NPs properties was studied. The nonlinear optical (NLO) response of the NPs was analyzed by the self-action of picosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm and by second harmonic generation (SHG) of a femtosecond laser pulses pump at 800 nm. The luminescence was studied within UV-visible ranges. It was shown that the NLO response efficiency significantly depends on the solvent. The obtained SHG efficiency of small (~2 nm) ZnO NPs is comparable to the one obtained for large (~150 nm) commercial ZnO NPs. The observed results are important for the application of the ZnO NPs in biolabeling.

  19. Manipulating the quantum interference effect and magnetotransport of ZnO nanowires through interfacial doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siwen; Wu, Yiming; Zhang, Kaixuan; Ding, Huaiyi; Du, Dongxue; Zhao, Jiyin; Pan, Nan; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-11-16

    We carefully prepared interfacial Al-doped (IAD) and interfacial natively-doped (IND) ZnO nanowires (NWs) by introducing atomic-layer interfacial Δ-doping between the two steps of CVD growth. Variable-temperature electron transport as well as magnetotransport behaviours of these NWs were systematically investigated. By virtue of the unique architecture and the quality-guaranteed growth technique, a series of quantum interference effects were clearly observed in the IAD ZnO NWs, including weak localization, universal conductance fluctuation and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations. The phase-coherence length (L φ ) of electrons exceeds 100 nm in the IAD ZnO NWs, much longer than those in the IND ones and most conventionally doped ZnO NWs. This ability to efficiently manipulate a variety of quantum interference effects in ZnO NWs is very desirable for applications in nano-optoelectronics, nano- & quantum-electronics and solid-state quantum computing.

  20. Atom probe microscopy of zinc isotopic enrichment in ZnO nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Ironside

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on atomic probe microscopy (APM of isotopically enriched ZnO nanorods that measures the spatial distribution of zinc isotopes in sections of ZnO nanorods for natural abundance natZnO and 64Zn and 66Zn enriched ZnO nanorods. The results demonstrate that APM can accurately quantify isotopic abundances within these nanoscale structures. Therefore the atom probe microscope is a useful tool for characterizing Zn isotopic heterostructures in ZnO. Isotopic heterostructures have been proposed for controlling thermal conductivity and also, combined with neutron transmutation doping, they could be key to a novel technology for producing p-n junctions in ZnO thin films and nanorods.

  1. Photoluminescence study of ZnO films codoped with nitrogen and tellurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, H. L.; Muth, J. F.; Narayan, J.; Foreman, John V.; Everitt, Henry O.

    2006-12-01

    Epitaxial ZnO films codoped with tellurium and nitrogen were grown by pulsed laser deposition on c-axis oriented sapphire substrates. The codoping strategy allowed the resistivity of the films to be controlled over several orders of magnitude and may prove useful in the development of ZnO based light emitters. Photoluminescence studies of tellurium-doped, nitrogen-doped, tellurium and nitrogen codoped, and undoped ZnO films were conducted. Strong room temperature photoluminescence and stimulated emission were observed in the undoped and Te-doped films, but not in codoped films. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicated that carrier lifetime was significantly reduced in doped ZnO as compared to undoped ZnO.

  2. Probing hydrogen in ZnO nanorods using solid-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li Q.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Windisch, Charles F.; Yao, Chunhua; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhou, Xiao Dong

    2007-04-23

    We have developed a low-temperature reflux method to synthesize large quantities of well-dispersed free-standing ZnO nanorods using a simple and mild aqueous solution route. In this approach, different surfactants were used to control nanostructure morphologies. Bound proton states in these ZnO nanorods were characterized for the first time by high resolution solid-state 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. In contrast to commercially available ZnO nano- or micro-particles, our uniform ZnO nanorods show a surprisingly sharp 1H NMR resonance. The feature is maintained upon heating to 500 oC, which suggests that an unusually stable proton species exists, most likely associated with lattice defects within the ZnO framework. Work here has demonstrated a new approach for probing a small amount of proton species associated with defects in nano-crystalline solids using high resolution solid-state 1H MAS NMR.

  3. Ferromagnetic behaviour of ZnO: the role of grain boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris B. Straumal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to attain ferromagnetic properties in transparent semiconductor oxides such as ZnO is very promising for future spintronic applications. We demonstrate in this review that ferromagnetism is not an intrinsic property of the ZnO crystalline lattice but is that of ZnO/ZnO grain boundaries. If a ZnO polycrystal contains enough grain boundaries, it can transform into the ferromagnetic state even without doping with “magnetic atoms” such as Mn, Co, Fe or Ni. However, such doping facilitates the appearance of ferromagnetism in ZnO. It increases the saturation magnetisation and decreases the critical amount of grain boundaries needed for FM. A drastic increase of the total solubility of dopants in ZnO with decreasing grain size has been also observed. It is explained by the multilayer grain boundary segregation.

  4. Effect of ZnO facet on ethanol steam reforming over Co/ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ning; Zhang, He; Davidson, Stephen D.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ZnO facets on ethanol steam reforming (ESR) were investigated over Co/ZnO catalysts synthesized using ZnO with different fractions of (10-10) non-polar facet. Co supported on ZnO with a higher fraction of (10-10) non-polar facet shows higher C-C cleavage activity and higher selectivity to CO2 (lower selectivity to CO) compared with Co supported on ZnO with less (10-10) non-polar facet exposed. The improved ethanol steam reforming performances are attributed to the high fraction of metallic Co stabilized by the ZnO (10-10) non-polar facet, which enhanced C-C cleavage and water-gas-shift (WGS) activities.

  5. High-Sensitive Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on ZnO Nanorods/CdS Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kin-Tak; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Ji, Liang-Wen; Fang, Te-Hua; Hsiao, Kai-Hua; Chu, Tung-Te

    2017-12-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors with ZnO nanorods (NRs)/CdS thin film heterostructures on glass substrates have been fabricated and characterized. It can be seen that the UV photoresponsivity of such a device became higher as the ZnO NR length was increased in the investigation. With an incident wavelength of 350 nm and 5 V applied bias, the responsivity of photodetectors based on ZnO NR/CdS heterostructures with the ZnO NR length at 500, 350, and 200 nm and traditional CdS film were at 12.86, 3.83, 0.91, and 0.75 A/W, respectively. The measurement results of the fabricated photodetectors based on ZnO nanorods (NRs)/CdS heterostructures have shown a significant high sensitivity in the range of UV light, which can be useful for the application of UV detection.

  6. Recovery of thermal-degraded ZnO photodetector by embedding nano silver oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhan-Shuo [Institute of Microelectronics, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hung, Fei-Yi, E-mail: fyhung@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuan-Jen [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); The Instrument Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shoou-Jinn [Institute of Microelectronics, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Wei-Kang; Liao, Tsai-Yu; Chen, Tse-Pu [Institute of Microelectronics, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-15

    The degraded performance of annealed ZnO-based photodetector can be recovered by embedding Ag{sub 2}O nanoparticles resulted from the transformation of as-deposited Ag layer. After thermal treatment, the electrons were attracted at the interface between ZnO and Ag{sub 2}O. The excess Ag{sup +} ions form the cluster to incorporate into the interstitial sites of ZnO lattice to create a larger amount of lattice defects for the leakage path. The photo-current of ZnO film with Ag{sub 2}O nanoparticles is less than annealed ZnO film because the photo-induced electrons would flow into Ag{sub 2}O side. ZnO photodetector with the appropriate Ag{sub 2}O nanoparticles possesses the best rejection ratio.

  7. Characterization, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of ZnO nanoparticles using Coptidis Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagajyothi, P C; Sreekanth, T V M; Tettey, Clement O; Jun, Yang In; Mook, Shin Heung

    2014-09-01

    Here, we report a simple, eco-friendly and inexpensive approach for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Coptidis Rhizoma. The ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM-EDX, TGA, TEM, SAED and XRD. TEM images confirmed the presence of spherical and rod shaped ZnO NPs in the range of 2.90-25.20 nm. Green synthesized ZnO NPS exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and excellent DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Synthesized ZnO NPs had no toxic effects on the RAW 264.7 cell line. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Fabrication of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric for wearable device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyarasan, V.; Suhasini, S.; Archana, J.; Navaneethan, M.; Majumdar, Abhijit; Hayakawa, Y.; Ikeda, H.

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric (CF) s a flexible material for an application of wearable thermoelectric (TE) power generator which requires super-hydrophobicity, UV protection, and high TE efficiency. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the formed ZnO nanostructures have a mixture of nanorods and nanosheets and are uniformly coated on the CF. XRD pattern and Raman spectra revealed that the ZnO nanostructure has a wurtzite structure. Contact angle measurements showed that the ZnO-nanostructures-coated CF possessed a high super hydrophobic nature with an angle of 132.5°. ZnO nanocomposite/CF sample exhibited an excellent UV protection factor 183.84. Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power factor of the ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric were evaluated to be 28 μV/K, 0.04 Ω-cm, and 22 μW/m K2, respectively.

  9. Effect of Ga-doping on the properties of ZnO nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, Takeshi, E-mail: ishiyama@ee.tut.ac.jp; Nakane, Takaya, E-mail: ishiyama@ee.tut.ac.jp; Fujii, Tsutomu, E-mail: ishiyama@ee.tut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Arrays of single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires have been synthesized on silicon substrates by vapor-liquid-solid growth techniques. The effect of growth conditions including substrate temperature and Ar gas flow rate on growth properties of ZnO nanowire arrays were studied. Structural and optical characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. SEM images of the ZnO nanowire arrays grown at various Ar gas flow rates indicated that the alignment and structural features of ZnO nanowires were affected by the gas flow rate. The PL of the ZnO nanowire arrays exhibited strong ultraviolet (UV) emission at 380 nm and green emission around 510 nm. Moreover, the green emission reduced in Ga-doped sample.

  10. Elaboration of translucent ZnO ceramics by spark plasma sintering under low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Debao; Fan, Lingcong; Shi, Ying; Xie, Jianjun; Lei, Fang; Ren, Dudi

    2017-09-01

    ZnO is considered to be a potential ultrafast scintillator. In this work, nanosized ZnO powders were synthesized via thermal decomposition of precursors prepared by indirect-precipitation method from zinc nitrate and urea in aqueous solutions. The resultant single phased ZnO powder calcined at 600 °C for 2 h had a primary grain size of 66.0 nm with good dispersity showing excellent sinterability. Translucent ZnO ceramic with a relative density of 99.2% was fabricated successfully by spark plasma sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under the pressure of 80 MPa. The obtained ZnO ceramic exhibited fully dense and homogenous microstructure with average grain size of ∼1 μm, leading to an in-line optical transmission of 11.8% at a wavelength of 950 nm.

  11. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated ZnO nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Lee, Jin Young; Uhm, Han Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2014-07-01

    We studied the effect of plasma treatment on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by chemical bath deposition in an aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)2 and hexamethylenetetramine. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the as-grown ZnO nanostructures exhibited two emission bands due to exciton emission and defect emission. After treating with hydrogen plasma, the treated ZnO nanostructures exhibited stronger exciton emission than the as-grown, untreated ZnO nanostructures in their respective cathodoluminescence and PL spectra. The low-temperature PL spectrum of the hydrogen plasma-treated ZnO nanostructures showed a strong exciton emission at 3.34 eV, attributing to the bound exciton and its longitudinal optical-phonon sidebands. The strong exciton emission is thought to be due to the combined effect of exciton emission enhancement by defect passivation and optical confinement resulting from nanostructure geometry.

  12. Nano ZnO structures synthesized in presence of anionic and cationic surfactant under hydrothermal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, T.; Geetha, D.

    2012-12-01

    Uniform ZnO nano structures are synthesized in the presence of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and cationic surfactant, cetyl tri methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) at 100 °C using NaOH as the reactant. The particle size, morphology and structure of the nano ZnO particles are collected by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Rod and cone shaped ZnO nano structure is observed. It may vary in morphology from pure ZnO structure due to the presence of surfactants. The results show that there is an extrinsic relation between the morphology of the samples. Based on the relation, we proposed that there might be two kinds of interactions between SDBS and CTAB with ZnO particles, i.e., inter- and intra-interactions.

  13. Electric Characteristics of the Carbon Nanotube Network Transistor with Directly Grown ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Bae, Gi Yoon; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We report on the electrical characteristics of field effect transistors fabricated with random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes with surfaces modified by ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles are directly grown on single-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic layer deposition using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water. Electrical observations show that ZnO nanoparticles act as charge transfer sources that provide electrons to the nanotube channel. The valley position in ambipolar transport of nanotube transistors is negatively shifted for 3V due to the electronic n-typed property of ZnO nanoparticles. However, the Raman resonance remains invariant despite the charge transfer effect produced by ZnO nanoparticles.

  14. Density functional theory study of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric ZnO grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Wolfgang; Bristowe, Paul D.; Elsässer, Christian

    2011-07-01

    We present a density functional theory analysis of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric ZnO tilt grain boundaries (GBs) that reveals under which conditions such extrinsically undoped GBs may become electrically active. In the case of ZnO the self-interaction correction (SIC) scheme used allows a more accurate description of the formation energies as well as the electronic levels than the local density approximation (LDA). The results obtained with the SIC scheme deviate in some crucial ways from the LDA results of recent years. First, stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric ZnO GBs can show occupied deep levels whenever oxygen atoms are undercoordinated. Second, ZnO GBs with an oxygen excess at the boundary plane can exhibit unoccupied deep levels which may account for an experimentally observed weak varistor effect found in undoped polycrystalline ZnO.

  15. Variation of index of refraction in cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Amrit; Hari, Parameswar

    2017-10-01

    One dimensional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated using a low temperature chemical bath deposition technique. The ZnO nanorods were doped with cobalt using cobalt nitrate with cobalt concentration varying from 0% to 9%. The scanning electron microscope images of the nanostructures indicate that the diameter of ZnO nanorods increased with the increase in cobalt doping concentration. The optical characterizations of the doped and undoped samples were performed by investigating the variation in the band gap, the Urbach energy, the index of refraction, and the extinction coefficient with cobalt concentration. The dispersion of index of refraction in cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures was modeled based on the Wemple DiDomenico single oscillator model. The interband oscillator energy and the dispersion energy were estimated for different cobalt doped ZnO nanorod samples based on this model.

  16. ZnO nanowires array grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichang; Li, Yafeng; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ding, Kai; Wei, Mingdeng; Lin, Zhang

    2015-06-23

    High quality ZnO nanowires arrays were homoepitaxial grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal (GZOSC), which have the advantages of high conductivity, high carrier mobility and high thermal stability. When it was employed as a photoanode in the DSSCs, the cell exhibited a 1.44% power-conversion efficiency under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5G). The performance is superior to our ZnO nanowires/FTO based DSSCs under the same condition. This enhanced performance is mainly attributed to the perfect interface between the ZnO nanowires and the GZOSC substrate that contributes to lower carrier scattering and recombination rates compared with that grown on traditional FTO substrate.

  17. Synthesis, structural and optical characterization of undoped, N-doped ZnO and co-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar, E-mail: tpathak01@gmail.com; Kumar, R.; Purohit, L. P., E-mail: proflppurohitphys@gmail.com [Semiconductor Research Lab., Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India)

    2015-05-15

    ZnO, N-doped ZnO and Al-N co-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on ITO coated corning glass by spin coater using sol-gel method. The films were annealed in air at 450°C for one hour. The crystallographic structure and morphology of the films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The X-ray diffraction results confirm that the thin films are of wurtzite hexagonal with a very small distortion. The optical properties were investigated by transmission spectra of different films using spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-VIS-NIR 3600). The results indicate that the N doped ZnO thin films have obviously enhanced transmittance in visible region. Moreover, the thickness of the films has strong influences on the optical constants.

  18. Morphology and photoluminescence of ZnO nanorods grown on sputtered GaN films with intermediate ZnO seed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Srinivasa, R.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Major, S.S., E-mail: syed@iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076 (India)

    2016-10-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered GaN over Si with and without sputtered ZnO seed layers. The effect of ZnO seed layer thickness, precursor concentration and growth temperature on the morphology and photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO-NRs has been studied. Scanning electron microscopy studies at different stages of growth have shown that the thickness of ZnO seed layer is critically important for controlling the growth behavior, morphology and density of ZnO-NRs on GaN surface. ZnO-NRs on bare GaN/Si grow with a large diameter and small aspect ratio of ∼4, displaying the tendency of lateral growth. Introduction of a thin ZnO seed layer (10 nm) under optimized precursor concentration and temperature drastically increases the aspect ratio to ∼16, due to partial coverage of ZnO on GaN surface and a moderate density of nucleation with small critical size. ZnO seed layers of higher thickness (50 nm and 100 nm) result in reduced aspect ratio due to increase in nucleation density and limited availability of reacting species. Increase in precursor concentration results in pronounced lateral growth and the decrease in growth temperature also results in compact nanorods with reduced aspect ratios. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies show that ZnO-NRs on GaN, grown with or without ZnO seed layer under optimized precursor concentration and temperature, display high near-band-edge luminescence and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods on a ZnO seed layer over Si, as well as those grown at higher precursor concentration and lower temperatures. The enhanced PL is attributed to the absence of crystalline defects at nanorod interfaces due to lateral coalescence, arising from the moderate density and slight misalignment of the nanorods. - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods grown on sputtered GaN film display strong tendency of lateral growth. • Nanorods grown on 10 nm ZnO/GaN display moderate density and high aspect ratios.

  19. ZnO nanofluids for the improved cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Soleymani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Combination anticancer therapy holds promise for improving the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX as well as decreasing their dose-limiting side effects. Overcoming the side effects of doxorubicin (DOX is a major challenge to the effective treatment of cancer. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs are emerging as potent tools for a wide variety of biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to develop a combinatorial approach for enhancing the anticancer efficacy and cellular uptake of DOX. Materials and Methods: ZnO NPs were synthesized by the solvothermal method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. ZnO NPs were dispersed in 10% bovine serum albumin (BSA and the cytotoxic effect of the resulting ZnO nanofluids was evaluated alone and in combination with DOX on DU145 cells. The influence of ZnO nanofluids on the cellular uptake of DOX and DOX-induced catalase mRNA expression were investigated by fluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, respectively. Results: The MTT results revealed that ZnO nanofluids decreased the cell viability of DU145 cells in a timeand dose-dependent manner. Simultaneous combination treatment of DOX and ZnO nanofluid showed a significant increase in anticancer activity and the cellular uptake of DOX compared to DOX alone. Also, a time-dependent reduction of catalase mRNA expression was observed in the cells treated with ZnO nanofluids and DOX, alone and in combination with each other. Conclusion: These results indicate the role of ZnO nanofluid as a growth-inhibitory agent and a drug delivery system for DOX in DU145 cells. Thus, ZnO nanofluid could be a candidate for combination chemotherapy.

  20. Low-temperature solution growth of ZnO nanotube arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Woong Chae

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Single crystal ZnO nanotube arrays were synthesized at low temperature in an aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine. It was found that the pH value of the reaction solution played an important role in mediating the growth of ZnO nanostructures. A change in the growth temperature might change the pH value of the solution and bring about the structure conversion of ZnO from nanorods to nanotubes. It was proposed that the ZnO nanorods were initially formed while the reaction solution was at a relatively high temperature (~90 °C and therefore enriched with colloidal Zn(OH2, which allowed a fast growth of ZnO nanocrystals along the [001] orientation to form nanorods. A decrease in the reaction temperature yielded a supersaturated solution, resulting in an increase in the concentration of OH− ions as well as the pH value of the solution. Colloidal Zn(OH2 in the supersaturated solution trended to precipitate. However, because of a slow diffusion process in view of the low temperature and low concentration of the colloidal Zn(OH2, the growth of the (001 plane of ZnO nanorods was limited and only occurred at the edge of the nanorods, eventually leading to the formation of a nanotube shape. In addition, it was demonstrated that the pH might impact the surface energy difference between the polar and non-polar faces of the ZnO crystal. Such a surface energy difference became small at high pH and hereby the prioritized growth of ZnO crystal along the [001] orientation was suppressed, facilitating the formation of nanotubes. This paper demonstrates a new strategy for the fabrication of ZnO nanotubes on a large scale and presents a more comprehensive understanding of the growth of tube-shaped ZnO in aqueous solution at low temperature.

  1. Influence of Co doping on combined photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, M.; Dinesh, S.; Krishnakumar, N.; Balamurugan, K.

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to investigate the structural, optical, photocatalyst and antibacterial properties of bare and cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different concentrations Zn1-x Co x O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD patterns confirmed that all samples of cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures revealed the formation of single phase having hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite size in the range of 31-41 nm. Further, the decreasing trend in lattice parameters and grain sizes were also seen with increasing doping concentrations which confirms the incorporation of Co ions into the ZnO lattice. This result was further supported by the FT-IR data. HR-TEM images demonstrated the distinct hexagonal like morphology with small agglomeration. The UV-visible absorption spectra exhibits red shift with increase in Co doping concentration in ZnO while corresponding bandgap energy of cobalt doped ZnO NPs decreased with increased Co doping concentration. PL spectra showed a weak UV and visible emission band which may be ascribed to the reduction in oxygen vacancy and defects by cobalt doping. XPS and EDX spectral results confirm the composition and the purity of Co doped ZnO NPs. Furthermore, the Co doped ZnO NPs were found to exhibit lesser photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl green dye under UV light illumination in comparison with the bare ZnO NPs. Moreover, anti-bacterial studies reveals that the Co doped ZnO NPs possess more antibacterial effect against gram positive Basillus subtills and gram negative Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial strains than the bare ZnO NPs.

  2. Recent advances in ZnO nanostructures and thin films for biosensor applications: Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, Sunil K., E-mail: sunilarya333@gmail.com [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, A-Star 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Saha, Shibu [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E. [Engineering Science and Materials Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (United States); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Bhansali, Shekhar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Singh, Surinder P., E-mail: singh.uprm@gmail.com [National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2012-08-06

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanostructures have shown binding of biomolecules in desired orientation with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, their compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes them suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films, and their applications in biosensor technology. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article highlights the importance of ZnO nanostructures as biosensor matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article highlights the advances in various biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article describes the potential of ZnO based biosensor for new generation healthcare devices. - Abstract: Biosensors have shown great potential for health care and environmental monitoring. The performance of biosensors depends on their components, among which the matrix material, i.e., the layer between the recognition layer of biomolecule and transducer, plays a crucial role in defining the stability, sensitivity and shelf-life of a biosensor. Recently, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and thin films have attracted much interest as materials for biosensors due to their biocompatibility, chemical stability, high isoelectric point, electrochemical activity, high electron mobility, ease of synthesis by diverse methods and high surface-to-volume ratio. ZnO nanostructures have shown the binding of biomolecules in desired orientations with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes ZnO

  3. Effects of polyphosphates and orthophosphate on the dissolution and transformation of ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Biao; Yan, Yupeng; Tang, Yuanzhi; Bai, Yuge; Liu, Fan; Tan, Wenfeng; Huang, Qiaoyun; Feng, Xionghan

    2017-06-01

    The fate and toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in nature are affected by solution chemistry such as pH, anions, and natural organic matter (NOM). Inorganic polyphosphates are environmentally ubiquitous phosphorus (P) species that may change the speciation and environmental fate of ZnO NPs. In this study, the interactions of polyphosphates with ZnO NPs and the impacts on ZnO NP dissolution and transformation were investigated and compared with orthophosphate (P1). The results revealed that pyrophosphate (P2), tripolyphosphate (P3), and hexametaphosphate (P6) enhanced whereas P1 inhibited the dissolution of ZnO NPs. In addition, P1, P2, and P3 promoted the transformation of ZnO NPs into zinc phosphate (Zn-P) precipitates via interactions with dissolved Zn(2+). However, P6-promoted ZnO NP dissolution was through the formation of soluble Zn-P complexes due to the strong capability of P6 to chelate with Zn(2+). The transformation of ZnO NPs in the presence of P3 was affected by reaction time, pH, and P/Zn molar ratio. P3 first formed inner-sphere surface complexes on ZnO NPs, which gradually transformed into crystalline Zn2HP3O10(H2O)6 precipitates. This study provided a new perspective for understanding the reactivity of various forms of inorganic phosphate species with ZnO NPs in the natural environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Moura, Ana P. de [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Freire, Poliana G. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Luis F. da; Longo, Elson [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Lima, Renata C., E-mail: rclima@iqufu.ufu.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.

  5. Modulation of field emission properties of znO nanorods during arc discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F; Kennedy, J; Carder, D A; Futter, J; Murmu, P; Markwitz, A

    2010-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have been synthesized via the arc discharge method. Different oxygen partial pressures were applied in the arc discharge chamber to modulate the field emission properties of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to analyze the morphology of the ZnO nanorods. The ion beam analysis technique of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was performed to probe the impurities in ZnO nanorods. SEM images clearly revealed the formation of randomly oriented ZnO nanorods with diameters between 10-50 nm. It was found that the morphology and the electrical properties of the ZnO nanorods were dependent on the oxygen partial pressure during arc discharge. In addition enhanced UV-sensitive photoconductivity was found for ZnO nanorods synthesized at high oxygen partial pressure during arc discharge. The field emission properties of the nanorods were studied. The turn-on field, which is defined at a current density of 10 microA cm(-2), was about 3 V microm(-1) for ZnO nanorods synthesized at 99% oxygen partial pressure during arc discharge. The turn-on field for ZnO nanorods increased with the decrease of oxygen partial pressure during arc discharge. The simplicity of the synthesis route coupled with the modulation of field emission properties due to the arc discharge method make the ZnO nanorods a promising candidate for a low cost and compact cold cathode material.

  6. Effect of polar and non-polar surfaces of ZnO nanostructures on photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jinghai, E-mail: jhyang1@jlnu.edu.cn [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry (Jilin Normal University), Ministry of Education, Siping 136000 (China); Wang Jian; Li Xiuyan; Lang Jihui; Liu Fuzhu; Yang Lili; Zhai Hongju; Gao Ming; Zhao Xiaoting [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry (Jilin Normal University), Ministry of Education, Siping 136000 (China)

    2012-07-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large-scale arrayed ZnO nanocrystals including ZnO hexagonal platforms and hamburger-like samples have been successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO with hexagonal platform-like morphology exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared with that of the hamburger-like ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The theories of expose surfaces and oxygen vacancies were utilized to explain the photocatalytic mechanism. - Abstract: Large-scale arrayed ZnO nanocrystals with two different expose surfaces, including ZnO hexagonal nanoplatforms with the major expose plane of (0 0 0 1) and hamburger-like samples with the nonpolar planes of {l_brace}101{sup Macron }0{r_brace} mainly exposed, were successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Mechanisms for compare the photocatalytic activity of two typical ZnO nanostructures were systematic explained as the key point in the paper. Compared with the hamburger-like ZnO nanostructures, the ZnO with hexagonal platform-like morphology exhibited improved ability on the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution under UV radiation. The relative higher photocatalytic activity of the ZnO hexagonal nanoplatforms was attributed to the exposed polar surfaces and the content of oxygen vacancy on the nanostructures surface. The Zn-terminated (0 0 0 1) polar face and the surface defects are facile to adsorb O{sup 2-} and OH{sup -} ions, resulting in a greater production rate of O{sup 2}{center_dot}{sup -} and OH{center_dot}{sup -}, hence promoting the photocatalysis reaction.

  7. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample.

  8. Synergistic effect of dual interfacial modifications with room-temperature-grown epitaxial ZnO and adsorbed indoline dye for ZnO nanorod array/P3HT hybrid solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dian-Wei; Wang, Ting-Chung; Liao, Wen-Pin; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2013-09-11

    ZnO nanorod (NR)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hybrid solar cells with interfacial modifications are investigated in this work. The ZnO NR arrays are modified with room-temperature (RT)-grown epitaxial ZnO shells or/and D149 dye molecules prior to the P3HT infiltration. A synergistic effect of the dual modifications on the efficiency of the ZnO NR/P3HT solar cell is observed. The open-circuit voltage and fill factor are considerable improved through the RT-grown ZnO and D149 modifications in sequence on the ZnO NR array, which brings about a 2-fold enhancement of the efficiency of the ZnO NR/P3HT solar cell. We suggested that the more suitable surface of RT-grown ZnO for D149 adsorption, the chemical compatibility of D149 and P3HT, and the elevated conduction band edge of the RT-grown ZnO/D149-modified ZnO NR array construct the superior interfacial morphology and energetics in the RT-grown ZnO/D149-modified ZnO NR/P3HT hybrid solar cell, resulting in the synergistic effect on the cell efficiency. An efficiency of 1.16% is obtained in the RT-grown ZnO/D149-modified ZnO NR/P3HT solar cell.

  9. Light Output Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Using Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanotapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yung-Chun; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Lin, Jia-Ching; Tsai, Fu-Shou; Lin, Tseng-Hsing; Uang, Kai-Ming; Chen, Tron-Min

    2013-06-01

    A new two-step hydrothermal growth (HTG) process with a shorter processing time and better growth control is proposed for the synthesis of ZnO nanotapers (NTs). The application of HTG ZnO NTs as surface roughening nanostructures to improve the light output power (Lop) of GaN-based LEDs is demonstrated. Compared with that of ZnO nanowires, the use of ZnO NTs leads to an improvement in Lop by 24.5% at 350 mA, which could be attributed to the fact that tapered ends of ZnO NTs offer more constructive photon scattering to maximize light extraction.

  10. Al-Doped ZnO Monolayer as a Promising Transparent Electrode Material: A First-Principles Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mingyang Wu; Dan Sun; Changlong Tan; Xiaohua Tian; Yuewu Huang

    2017-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO has attracted much attention as a transparent electrode. The graphene-like ZnO monolayer as a two-dimensional nanostructure material shows exceptional properties compared to bulk ZnO. Here, through first-principle calculations, we found that the transparency in the visible light region of Al-doped ZnO monolayer is significantly enhanced compared to the bulk counterpart. In particular, the 12.5 at% Al-doped ZnO monolayer exhibits the highest visible transmittance of above 99%. Fur...

  11. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of Fe2O3/ZnO and Fe3O4/ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patij Shah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite Iron oxide-Zinc oxide (α-Fe2O3/ZnO and Fe3O4/ZnO was synthesized by two step method. In the first step, uniform α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 particles were prepared through a hydrolysis process of ferric chloride at 80°C. In the second step, the ZnO particles were included in the α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 particles by a zinc acetate [Zn(Ac2·2H2O] assisted hydrothermal method at low temperature (90 °C. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX was used to study its structural properties. The α-Fe2O3 and ZnO phases were identified by XRD, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX. The photoactivities of α-Fe2O3/ZnO and Fe3O4/ZnO nanoparticles under UV irradiation were quantified by the degradation of formaldehyde. The determination of magnetic property was also carried out by Gouy balance method.

  12. Self-Assembled 3D ZnO Porous Structures with Exposed Reactive {0001} Facets and Their Enhanced Gas Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Waclawik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex three-dimensional structures comprised of porous ZnO plates were synthesized in a controlled fashion by hydrothermal methods. Through subtle changes to reaction conditions, the ZnO structures could be self-assembled from 20 nm thick nanosheets into grass-like and flower-like structures which led to the exposure of high proportions of ZnO {0001} crystal facets for both these materials. The measured surface area of the flower-like and the grass, or platelet-like ZnO samples were 72.8 and 52.4 m2∙g−1, respectively. Gas sensing results demonstrated that the porous, flower-like ZnO structures exhibited enhanced sensing performance towards NO2 gas compared with either grass-like ZnO or commercially sourced ZnO nanoparticle samples. The porous, flower-like ZnO structures provided a high surface area which enhanced the ZnO gas sensor response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization revealed that flower-like ZnO samples possessed a higher percentage of oxygen vacancies than the other ZnO sample-types, which also contributed to their excellent gas sensing performance.

  13. Defect induced ferromagnetism in undoped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainey, K.; Chess, J.; Eixenberger, J.; Tenne, D. A.; Hanna, C. B.; Punnoose, A., E-mail: apunnoos@boisestate.edu [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Undoped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with size ∼12 nm were produced using forced hydrolysis methods using diethylene glycol (DEG) [called ZnO-I] or denatured ethanol [called ZnO-II] as the reaction solvent; both using Zn acetate dehydrate as precursor. Both samples showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K with saturation magnetization M{sub s} = 0.077 ± 0.002 memu/g and 0.088 ± 0.013 memu/g for ZnO-I and ZnO-II samples, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that ZnO-I nanocrystals had DEG fragments linked to their surface. Photoluminescence (PL) data showed a broad emission near 500 nm for ZnO-II which is absent in the ZnO-I samples, presumably due to the blocking of surface traps by the capping molecules. Intentional oxygen vacancies created in the ZnO-I NPs by annealing at 450 °C in flowing Ar gas gradually increased M{sub s} up to 90 min and x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) suggested that oxygen vacancies may have a key role in the observed changes in M{sub s}. Finally, PL spectra of ZnO showed the appearance of a blue/violet emission, attributed to Zn interstitials, whose intensity changes with annealing time, similar to the trend seen for M{sub s}. The observed variation in the magnetization of ZnO NP with increasing Ar annealing time seems to depend on the changes in the number of Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancies.

  14. Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles in amphiphilic gel network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakohara, Shuji; Mori, Kazuya

    2008-02-01

    Nanosized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles were prepared in an amphiphilic N, N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) gel composed of a three-dimensional network with an effective pore size of the order of nanometers. The procedures consist of two major steps: (1) preparation of a precursor and (2) hydrolysis of the precursor to form nanoparticles. First, the plate-type dry gel was swollen in ethanol containing zinc acetate (ZnAc) in order to diffuse ZnAc molecules into the gel. Then, the ethanolic solution containing the gel was heated to ˜80°C to prepare the precursor. In the hydrolysis of the precursor, lithium hydroxide was added as the catalyst to the precursor solution containing the gel, and the solution was placed in an ultrasonic bath. Although the DMAA gel containing ZnO particles was completely transparent, it exhibited a yellow-green luminescence when irradiated with UV light. The ZnO nanoparticles stably dispersed in the gel network without growing, aggregating, or flowing out for over several months at a relatively high temperature of 50°C. The particle size depended on the effective pore size of the gel network, which could be controlled by the synthesis composition of the gel, that is, by the concentrations of DMAA as the primary monomer and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) as the cross-linker used for synthesizing the gel. This implies that the particle size can be controlled at the nanosized level by the synthesis composition of the gel.

  15. Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles in amphiphilic gel network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakohara, Shuji, E-mail: sakohara@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Mori, Kazuya [Hiroshima University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    Nanosized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles were prepared in an amphiphilic N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) gel composed of a three-dimensional network with an effective pore size of the order of nanometers. The procedures consist of two major steps: (1) preparation of a precursor and (2) hydrolysis of the precursor to form nanoparticles. First, the plate-type dry gel was swollen in ethanol containing zinc acetate (ZnAc) in order to diffuse ZnAc molecules into the gel. Then, the ethanolic solution containing the gel was heated to {approx}80 deg. C to prepare the precursor. In the hydrolysis of the precursor, lithium hydroxide was added as the catalyst to the precursor solution containing the gel, and the solution was placed in an ultrasonic bath. Although the DMAA gel containing ZnO particles was completely transparent, it exhibited a yellow-green luminescence when irradiated with UV light. The ZnO nanoparticles stably dispersed in the gel network without growing, aggregating, or flowing out for over several months at a relatively high temperature of 50 deg. C. The particle size depended on the effective pore size of the gel network, which could be controlled by the synthesis composition of the gel, that is, by the concentrations of DMAA as the primary monomer and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) as the cross-linker used for synthesizing the gel. This implies that the particle size can be controlled at the nanosized level by the synthesis composition of the gel.

  16. Al-Doped ZnO Monolayer as a Promising Transparent Electrode Material: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Al-doped ZnO has attracted much attention as a transparent electrode. The graphene-like ZnO monolayer as a two-dimensional nanostructure material shows exceptional properties compared to bulk ZnO. Here, through first-principle calculations, we found that the transparency in the visible light region of Al-doped ZnO monolayer is significantly enhanced compared to the bulk counterpart. In particular, the 12.5 at% Al-doped ZnO monolayer exhibits the highest visible transmittance of above 99%. Further, the electrical conductivity of the ZnO monolayer is enhanced as a result of Al doping, which also occurred in the bulk system. Our results suggest that Al-doped ZnO monolayer is a promising transparent conducting electrode for nanoscale optoelectronic device applications.

  17. Al-Doped ZnO Monolayer as a Promising Transparent Electrode Material: A First-Principles Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingyang; Sun, Dan; Tan, Changlong; Tian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yuewu

    2017-03-29

    Al-doped ZnO has attracted much attention as a transparent electrode. The graphene-like ZnO monolayer as a two-dimensional nanostructure material shows exceptional properties compared to bulk ZnO. Here, through first-principle calculations, we found that the transparency in the visible light region of Al-doped ZnO monolayer is significantly enhanced compared to the bulk counterpart. In particular, the 12.5 at% Al-doped ZnO monolayer exhibits the highest visible transmittance of above 99%. Further, the electrical conductivity of the ZnO monolayer is enhanced as a result of Al doping, which also occurred in the bulk system. Our results suggest that Al-doped ZnO monolayer is a promising transparent conducting electrode for nanoscale optoelectronic device applications.

  18. Cavity modes of tapered ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiulai; Brossard, Frederic S F; Williams, David A [Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, Hitachi Europe Ltd, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Collins, Daniel P; Holmes, Mark J; Taylor, Robert A [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Zhang Xitian, E-mail: xx757@cam.ac.u, E-mail: xtzhangzhang@hotmail.co [Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Excited State Processes, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2010-08-15

    We report on a cavity mode mapping of ZnO tapered nanowires using micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. Both the Fabry-Perot (FP) and the whispering gallery (WG) modes are identified in a single wire. The emission spectra from single nanowires comprise regular Lorentzian peaks, which arise from the FP interference between the ends of the nanowire. The overall intensity along the tapered wire varies periodically. This variation is ascribed to WG mode resonances across the nanowire. The results agree well with the theoretical calculations using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  19. Magnetic Studies of Co-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Singh, N. Surajkumar; Himanshu, A. K.; Chakraborty, Keka R.; Das, D.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Mondal, Nagendra

    2011-07-01

    ZnO doped with Co has been synthesised at various concentrations from 1 to 20 atom % in bulk polycrystalline form by wet chemical method. Particle size was ranging from 40-50 nm. There was a signature of ferromagnetism at 7 atom % and higher with S-type curves in M-H plots. Remanent magnetization was quite appreciable. But, there is anomaly with decrease in moment at higher atomic concentrations. No sign of superparamagnetism due to nanoparticles was there. Magnetism is thought to be due to interaction between nearest neighbor Co(II) ions along with clusters of Co(II) in isolation, which may be due to precipitation.

  20. Femtosecond laser assisted antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Palacios, Yryx Yanet; Alvarez, Crysthal; Cuando-Espitia, Natanael; Halaney, David L.; Camacho-Lopez, Santiago; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial infection of cranial implants remains a major cause of implant failure, and often requires surgical intervention to remove and replace the fouled implant. Novel transparent implants may allow for mitigation of infection using optical therapies, without the need for invasive surgeries. In this study, we investigate a combined treatment with ZnO nanoparticles and femtosecond laser pulses to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli (E. Coli) in vitro. The combined effect has shown a substantial reduction in the number of CFU/mL after incubation compared with no treatment.

  1. Texture of obliquely sputtered ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Červeň, I.; Lacko, T.; Novotný, I.; Tvarožek, V.; Harvanka, M.

    1993-08-01

    A series of ZnO polycrystalline thin films were prepared on Si(100)/SiO 2/TiN substrates by radio frequency (RF) sputtering at various angles between the sputter direction and the substrate normal. The X-ray diffraction θ/2 θ scans confirmed the expected c-orientation of the films, depending at some extent on the angle of sputtering. The limited pole figures, obtained by rocking-curve measurement, show a slight deviation of the texture axis from the substrate normal direction, which increase with the sputtering angle. The texture axis is inclined not toward the sputtering direction, as was expected, but quite opposite.

  2. Novel Scintillation Material - ZnO Transparent Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Rodnyi, P. A.; Chernenko, K. A.; Gorokhova, E. I.; Kozlovskii, S. S.; Khanin, V. M.; Khodyuk, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    ZnO-based scintillation ceramics for application in HENPA LENPA analyzers have been investigated. The following ceramic samples have been prepared: undoped ones (ZnO), an excess of zinc in stoichiometry (ZnO:Zn), doped with gallium (ZnO:Ga) and lithium (ZnO:Li). Optical transmission, x-ray excited emission, scintillation decay and pulse height spectra were measured and analyzed. Ceramics have reasonable transparency in visible range (up to 60% for 0.4 mm thickness) and energy resolution (14.9...

  3. Non-linear emission properties of ZnO microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, T.; Brimont, C.; Valvin, P.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T. [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR5221, Montpellier (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR5221, Montpellier (France); Medard, F.; Mihailovic, M. [LASMEA, UMR 6602, UBP-CNRS, Aubiere (France); Zuniga-Perez, J.; Leroux, M.; Semond, F. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Bouchoule, S. [LPN-CNRS, Marcoussis (France)

    2012-05-15

    Lasing in a ZnO planar microcavity is reported under optical excitation up to room temperature. The cavity presents a quality factor of 450 and the simultaneous presence of two cavity modes with different interference orders. The transition from the strong coupling to the weak coupling regime is observed at lasing threshold. The gain mechanism below T = 240 K is attributed to excitons, according to the observation of a specific gain transition within the strong coupling regime. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Surface effects on photoluminescence of single ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zhimin [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Hongzhou [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zhou Yangbo; Xu Jun; Zhang Jingmin [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yu Dapeng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: yudp@pku.edu.cn

    2008-06-09

    The influence of surface effects on the temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra from individual ZnO nanowires has been studied. It is found that the surface effects of the nanowire are very important in both ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission. We propose a new luminescence mechanism based on the recombination related to oxygen vacancies to explain the temperature dependent visible emission, which is significantly influenced by the carrier depletion and band bending caused by surface effects. In addition, the observed attenuation of UV emission with increasing temperature is ascribed to the decreasing depletion region and the increasing surface states related nonradiative recombination.

  5. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanohelices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M. Y.; Qu, L. S.; Gao, H.

    2017-06-01

    Sb-doped zinc oxide nanohelices were synthesized on silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition. The morphologies and structures of the samples have been investigated by XRD, SEM, and HR-TEM. The ZnO nanohelices have a single crystallinewurtzite structure. Its length is up to tens of micrometres as a whole. It grows in the direction of (0001). There are six sticks in each period of the helices, which grow al-ong six directions of the equivalent ≤ft . In addition, its growth mechanism is discussed. Optical properties of the nanohelices were demonstrated by Photo-luminescence (PL) spectra.

  6. The Scope of the ZnO Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    and to the realization of devices based on the control of the spin state (spin electronics or spintronics ) like quantum computers. 2 Proc. SPIE Vol...by bombardment of singlet 0(4-1") radicals extracted from an oxygen plasma, using a magnetic filter, on substrates of any Zn chalcogenide (ZnTe, ZnSe...properties of bulk ZnO", J. Appl. Phys. 86, pp. 6864-6867, 1999. 3. C.V6rid, "Covalency engineering through alloying with beryllium chalcogenides in wide band

  7. Fiber optic gas sensor with nanocrystalline ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renganathan, B.; Ganesan, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    A fiber optic gas sensor with a PMMA fiber whose clad is modified with chemically sensitive nano-crystalline zinc oxide has been developed and investigated to detect acetone, isopropyl alcohol and benzene gases. The spectral characteristics of the sensor were recorded for different concentrations ranging from (0-500 ppm) for these gases both with as-prepared and annealed nanocrystalline ZnO, and the influence of annealing on the gas sensing has been studied.The response time and recovery time were found to be 48 min. and 42 min. respectively for 500 ppm concentration.

  8. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Silva, Daniel José; David-Bosne, Eric; Decoster, Stefan; da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2013-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the $\\beta$− emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  9. MOVPE growth and characterisation of ZnO properties for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleynik, N.

    2007-03-07

    In this work a new Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) method was developed for the growth and doping of high-quality ZnO films. ZnO is a unique optoelectronic material for the effective light generation in the green to the UV spectral range. Optoelectronic applications of ZnO require impurity-free monocrystalline films with smooth surfaces and low concentration of the defects in the crystal lattice. At the beginning of this work only few reports on MOVPE growth of polycrystalline ZnO existed. The low quality of ZnO is attributed to the lack of an epitaxially matched substrate, and gas-phase prereactions between the Zn- and O-precursors. To achieve control over the ZnO quality, several O-precursors were tested for the growth on GaN/Si(111) or GaN/Sapphire substrates at different reactor temperatures and pressures. ZnO layers with XRD rocking curve FWHMs of the (0002) reflection of 180'' and narrow cathodoluminescence of 1.3 meV of the dominant I{sub 8} emission were synthesized using a two-step growth procedure. In this procedure, ZnO is homoepitaxially grown at high temperature using N{sub 2}O as O-precursor on a low temperature grown ZnO buffer layer using tertiary-butanol as O-precursor. p-Type doping of ZnO, which usually exhibits n-type behaviour, is very difficult. This doping asymmetry represents an issue for ZnO-based devices. Beginning from 1992, a growing number of reports have been claiming a fabrication of p-type ZnO, but, due to the missing reproducibilty, they are still questionable. Native defects, non-stoichiometry, and hydrogen are sources of n-type conductivity of ZnO. Together with a low solubility of the potential p-type dopants and deep position of impurity levels, these factors partly explain p-type doping difficulties in ZnO. However, there is no fully described mechanism of the ZnO doping asymmetry yet. In this work, NH{sub 3}, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMHy), diisobutylamine, and NO nitrogen precursors were studied

  10. Oxygen deficient ZnO 1-x nanosheets with high visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong-Li; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Xie, Xiao; Xu, An-Wu

    2015-04-28

    Zinc oxide is one of the most important wide-band-gap (3.2 eV) materials with versatile properties, however, it can not be excited by visible light. In this work, we have developed an exquisite and simple way to prepare oxygen-deficient ZnO 1-x nanosheets with a gray-colored appearance and excellent visible light photocatalytic activity. Detailed analysis based on UV-Vis absorption spectra, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra confirms the existence of oxygen vacancies in ZnO 1-x. The incorporation of oxygen defects could effectively extend the light absorption of ZnO 1-x into the visible-light region due to the fact that the energy of the localized state is located in the forbidden gap. Thus, our obtained ZnO 1-x shows a higher photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) compared to defect-free ZnO under visible light illumination. Additionally, the high content of ˙OH radicals with a strong photo-oxidation capability over the ZnO 1-x nanosheets significantly contributes to the improvement in the photocatalytic performance. Our oxygen deficient ZnO 1-x sample shows a very high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO even after 5 cycles without any obvious decline. The results demonstrate that defect engineering is a powerful tool to enhance the optoelectronic and photocatalytic performances of nanomaterials.

  11. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method. The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.

  12. Effect of Gd doping on structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Dojalisa; Panda, N. R.; Acharya, B. S.

    2017-11-01

    Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles with varying dopant concentration are synthesized by simple wet chemical method. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that the prepared samples are of hexagonal wurtzite structure with grain size around 50–60 nm. Gd doping induces lattice expansion in ZnO as the average crystallite size increases with the evolution of Gd2O3 phase after Gd doping. Electron microscopic studies show the presence of two types of particle distribution belonging to ZnO and Gd2O3 phases with an average size of 55 nm where the later surrounds the surface of ZnO. UV–VIS spectra show red-shift of absorption band of ZnO with Gd doping. A suppression of band edge UV emission and intensification of visible emission is observed in the photoluminescence spectra of doped ZnO. This has been explained on the basis of incorporation of impurity levels by the dopant along with intrinsic defect such as oxygen vacancies in the band gap of ZnO.

  13. Selective growth of hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Lan; Li, Jinliang; Mo, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    We report directly selective-area grown (SAG) high-quality hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets without invoking damage or introducing a catalyst. The SAG behavior in the non-catalytic growth mechanism is attributed to dangling bonds on the boundary edges of graphene nanosheets, which serve as the preferential adsorption and nucleation sites of ZnO nanorod. High densities of hierarchical ZnO nanorods show single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure and are vertically well-aligned on the graphene nanosheets, with the diameter and the density strongly dependent on the growth temperature. Furthermore, no carbon impurity can be seen in the tips of the ZnO nanorods and also no carbon-related defect peak in the 10 K PL spectrum of ZnO nanorods. Our approach using a graphene-nanosheet substrate provides an efficient route for the growth of high-quality ZnO with a one-dimensional (1D) hierarchical nanostructure, which is highly desirable for fabricating 1D ZnO hybrid optoelectronic devices, particularly for a fast-response UV photodetector and highly-sensitive gas sensor.

  14. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires on flexible fabric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gwang-Wook; Yun, Sang-Ho; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2016-04-01

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) would provide significant enhancement in sensitivity due to high surface to volume ratio. We investigated the first methodical study on the quantitative relationship between the process parameters of solution concentration ratio, structure, and physical and properties of ZnO NWs grown on different flexible fabric surfaces. To develop a fundamental following concerning various substrates, we controlled the growth speed of ZnO NWs and nanowires on cotton surface with easy and moderate cost fabrication method. Using ammonium hydroxide as the reactant with zinc nitrate hexahydrate, ZnO NWs layer have been grown on metal layers, instead of seed layer. ZnO NWs fabrication was done on different fabric substrates such as wool, nylon and polypropylene (PP). After the ZnO NWs grown to each substrates, we coated insulating layer with polyurethane (PU) and ethyl cellulose for prevent external intervention. Detailed electrical characterization was subsequently performed to reveal the working characteristics of the hybrid fabric. For electrical verification of fabricated ZnO NWs, we implemented measurement impact test and material properties with FFT analyzer and LCR meter.

  15. Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO incorporated Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuba, M.; Rathinavalli, U.; Thangaraju, K.; Muralidharan, G., E-mail: muraligru@gmail.com

    2014-09-15

    Tris-(8-hydroxyquionoline)aluminum(Alq{sub 3}) and different weight percentages (2 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt%) of ZnO incorporated hybrid Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO) composite were synthesized by a low cost and simple precipitation method under low temperature. XRD patterns reveal that the amorphous nature of pure Alq{sub 3} particles transforms into α-phase crystalline for hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite materials. The FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline with absorption in the region 600–800 cm{sup −1}. It also reveals the stretching vibration of Zn–O at 400–500 cm{sup −1} in Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite particles. The band gap (HOMO–LUMO) of Alq{sub 3} particles was calculated using absorption spectra and it is 2.92 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of Alq{sub 3} particle exhibits an emission at 507 nm when excited at 390 nm. Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibits maximum luminescence intensity. - Highlights: • The SEM image does not show the individual particles under the magnification. • Stoke's shift is not altered much by incorporation of ZnO.

  16. Photovoltaic Performance of ZnO Nanosheets Solar Cell Sensitized with Beta-Substituted Porphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was fabricated using two-dimensional ZnO nanosheets (2D ZnO NSs sensitized with beta-substituted porphyrins photosensitizer, and its photovoltaic performance in solid-state DSSC with TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 TNs modified poly (ethylene oxide (PEO polymer electrolyte was studied. The ZnO NSs were synthesized through hydrothermal method and were characterized through high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM, diffused reflectance spectra (DRS, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The crystallinity of the polymer electrolytes was investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis. The photovoltaic performance of the beta-substituted porphyrins sensitized solar cells was evaluated under standard AM1.5G simulated illumination (100 mW cm−2. The efficiency of energy conversion from solar to electrical due to 2D ZnO NSs based DSSCs is 0.13%, which is about 1.6 times higher than that of the control DSSC using ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs as photoanode (0.08%, when TiO2 NTs fillers modified PEO electrolyte was incorporated in the DSSCs. The current-voltage (- and photocurrent-time (- curves proved stable with effective collection of electrons, when the 2D ZnO nanostructured photoanode was introduced in the solid-state DSSC.

  17. Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanowires on UV-Nanoimprinted Polymer Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sooyeon; Moore, Sean A; Lee, Jaejong; Song, In-Hyouk; Farshchian, Bahador; Kim, Namwon

    2018-05-01

    Integration of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires on miniaturized polymer structures can broaden its application in multi-functional polymer devices by taking advantages of unique physical properties of ZnO nanowires and recent development of polymer microstructures in analytical systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer microstructures fabricated by UV nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) using a polyurethane acrylate (PUA). Since PUA is a siloxane-urethane-acrylate compound containing the alpha-hydroxyl ketone, UV-cured PUA include carboxyl groups, which inhibit and suppress the nucleation and growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer structures. The presence of carboxyl groups in UV-cured PUA was substantiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a Ag thin film was deposited on the nanoimprinted polymer structures to limit their inhibitive influence on the growth of ZnO nanowires. Furthermore, the naturally oxidized Ag layer (Ag2O) reduced crystalline lattice mismatches at the interface between ZnO-Ag during the seed annealing process. The ZnO nanowires grown on the Ag-deposited PUA microstructures were found to have comparable morphological characteristics with ZnO nanowires grown on a Si wafer.

  18. Optical and Electrical Performance of ZnO Films Textured by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Chuan HER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO films were prepared by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering on the glass substrate as transparent conductive oxide films. For silicon solar cells, a proper surface texture is essential to introduce light scattering and subsequent light trapping to enhance the current generation. In this study, the magnetron-sputtered ZnO films were textured by wet-chemical etching in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl for better light scattering. The diffuse transmittance of the surface textured ZnO films was measured to evaluate the light scattering. The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of the surface-textured ZnO film was investigated. The ZnO film etched in 0.05M HCl solution for 30 s exhibited average diffuse transmittance in the visible wavelength range of 9.52 % and good resistivity of 1.10 x 10-3 W×cm while the as-deposited ZnO film had average diffuse transmittance of 0.51 % and relatively high resistivity of 5.84 x 10-2 W×cm. Experimental results illustrated that the optical and electrical performance of ZnO films can be significantly improved by introducing the surface texture through the wet-chemical etching process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9624

  19. Perovskite Solar Cells with ZnO Electron-Transporting Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yafei; Liu, Detao; Chen, Hao; Ji, Long; Liu, Chunhua; Ahmad, Waseem; Chen, Zhi David; Li, Shibin

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have developed rapidly over the past few years, and the power conversion efficiency of PSCs has exceeded 20%. Such high performance can be attributed to the unique properties of perovskite materials, such as high absorption over the visible range and long diffusion length. Due to the different diffusion lengths of holes and electrons, electron transporting materials (ETMs) used in PSCs play a critical role in PSCs performance. As an alternative to TiO2 ETM, ZnO materials have similar physical properties to TiO2 but with much higher electron mobility. In addition, there are many simple and facile methods to fabricate ZnO nanomaterials with low cost and energy consumption. This review focuses on recent developments in the use of ZnO ETM for PSCs. The fabrication methods of ZnO materials are briefly introduced. The influence of different ZnO ETMs on performance of PSCs is then reviewed. The limitations of ZnO ETM-based PSCs and some solutions to these challenges are also discussed. The review provides a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the influence of different ZnO ETMs on PSCs performance and potentially motivates further development of PSCs by extending the knowledge of ZnO-based PSCs to TiO2 -based PSCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Stability study of ZnO nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of carboxylate anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godymchuk, Anna; Karepina, Elizaveta; Yunda, Elena; Lyamina, Galina; Kosova, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2015-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the use of carboxylic acids and salts for the elaboration of stable suspensions of ZnO engineered nanoparticles (40 and 200 nm) in physiological media at pH 6-8. It was shown that the aggregation degree of ZnO-200 particles increases with the growth of carboxylic anion activity, e.g., at pH 7 in the row «Acetate--Citrate3--Oxalate2-» the average size of ZnO-200 particles in suspensions amounts to «169-523-770» nm, zeta potential-«35.9-19.9-+5.42 mV», respectively. The aggregation degree of ZnO-40 particles increases in the row «Citrate3--Acetate--Oxalate2-», at pH 7, the average size of ZnO-40 particles in suspension amounts to «50-121-430» nm, zeta potential-«-28.3-14.5-+2.3» mV, respectively. pH-impact was found to be size-dependent: there was a significantly less effect of pH on adsorption, dispersion, and electrokinetic properties of ZnO-40 particles when compared to ZnO-200 particles. The main reason for the difference between micro- and nanosized particles behavior is a change of the ratio of acidic, basic, and neutral Bronsted centers for particles of nanosized scale.

  1. Fractal aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles under different aqueous solution chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.; Keller, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles influences not only their environmental transport but also their toxicity. In natural aquatic systems, the ubiquitous presence of natural organic matter (NOM) can lead to interactions with released ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and influence their transport. In this study, the aggregation kinetics of ZnO with and without NOM under different ionic strength and pH were examined by both time-resolved dynamic light scattering and sedimentation experiments. ZnO aggregates faster as the pH approaches its point of zero charge. The role of ionic strength role was examined by determining the reaction-limited cluster regime (RLCR) and diffusion-limited cluster regime (DLCR). The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) was determined as 25mM using NaCl as the electrolyte at pH 8. A higher initial ZnO concentration leads to faster aggregation. DLVO calculations agreed well with the experimental data. At high NOM concentration, ZnO aggregation was significantly slowed. However, at low NOM concentration, bridging effect was observed. Finally, the fractal dimensions of ZnO aggregates under different conditions were determined by static light scattering (SLS).

  2. Interior-architectured ZnO nanostructure for enhanced electrical conductivity via stepwise fabrication process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eugene; Kim, Sarah; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Choi, Dae-Geun; Jung, Joo-Yun; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Eung-Sug; Lee, Jaewhan; Park, Inkyu; Lee, Jihye

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of ZnO nanostructure via direct patterning based on sol-gel process has advantages of low-cost, vacuum-free, and rapid process and producibility on flexible or non-uniform substrates. Recently, it has been applied in light-emitting devices and advanced nanopatterning. However, application as an electrically conducting layer processed at low temperature has been limited by its high resistivity due to interior structure. In this paper, we report interior-architecturing of sol-gel-based ZnO nanostructure for the enhanced electrical conductivity. Stepwise fabrication process combining the nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process with an additional growth process was newly applied. Changes in morphology, interior structure, and electrical characteristics of the fabricated ZnO nanolines were analyzed. It was shown that filling structural voids in ZnO nanolines with nanocrystalline ZnO contributed to reducing electrical resistivity. Both rigid and flexible substrates were adopted for the device implementation, and the robustness of ZnO nanostructure on flexible substrate was verified. Interior-architecturing of ZnO nanostructure lends itself well to the tunability of morphological, electrical, and optical characteristics of nanopatterned inorganic materials with the large-area, low-cost, and low-temperature producibility.

  3. Study of an antireflection surface constructed of controlled ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ren-Jei, E-mail: rjchung@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology (Taipei Tech), Taipei 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Zih-Cian [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology (Taipei Tech), Taipei 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chin-An; Lai, Kun-Yu [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-11-03

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated on Si wafers using a hydrothermal method. By adjusting the spin-coating speed and annealing time for the zinc acetate thin films used as a seed layer, the density of ZnO nanorods (NRs) was controlled. In addition, it was found that the morphology of the NRs evolved from a wire-like geometry to a tower-like geometry with an increasing concentration of ascorbic acid. The surface reflectance of the ZnO NR layers with various textures was investigated. The results indicated that NRs effectively enhanced light trapping and further reduced Fresnel reflection due to the significant grading in the refractive index, avoiding the abrupt transition at the air/Si interface. The total reflectance on the coated surface can be as low as 11%, which is 3 times lower than that of polished Si. The optimized design of nanostructured ZnO surfaces for antireflection coatings will greatly improve the performance of optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Nanotructured ZnO was prepared to serve as an anti-reflection coating. • The geometries of sol–gel prepared ZnO were controlled. • ZnO nanorod, nanoneedle and nanotower arrays were fabricated. • The light reflectance of the nanostructures was much lower than that of bare Si.

  4. Diffusion Mechanisms of Ag atom in ZnO crystal: A First Principles Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Saeed; Noori, Amirreza; Nadimi, Ebrahim

    2017-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is currently under intensive investigation, as a result of its various applications in micro, nano and optoelectronics. However, a stable and reproducible p-type doping of ZnO is still a main challenging issue. Group IB elements such as Au, Cu and Ag, are promising candidates for p-type doping. Particularly, Ag atoms has been shown to be able to easily diffuse through the crystal structure of ZnO and lead to the p-type doping of the host crystal. However, the current understanding of Ag defects and their mobility in the ZnO crystal is still not fully explored. In this work, we report the results of our first-principles calculations based on density functional theory for Ag defects, particularly the interstitial and substitutional defects in ZnO crystal. Defect formation energies are calculated in different charged states as a function of Fermi energy in order to clarify the p-type behaviour of Ag-doped ZnO. We also investigate the diffusion behaviour and migration paths of Ag in ZnO crystal in the framework of density functional theory applying climbing image (CI) nudged elastic band method (NEB).

  5. Inhibition of growth of S. epidermidis by hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinaya, C.; Mayandi, J.; Osborne, J.; Frost, M.; Ekstrum, C.; Pearce, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    The antibacterial effect of zinc oxide (ZnO#1) as prepared and annealed (ZnO#2) at 400 °C, Cu doped ZnO (CuZnO), and Ag doped ZnO (AgZnO) nanoplates on Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated for the inhibition and inactivation of cell growth. The results shows that pure ZnO and doped ZnO samples exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) as compared to tryptic soy broth (TSB). Also it is observed that S. epidermidis was extremely sensitive to treatment with ZnO nanoplates and it is clear that the effect is not purely depend on Cu/Ag. Phase identification of a crystalline material and unit cell dimensions were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides information on sample’s surface topography and the EDX confirms the presence of Zn, O, Cu and Ag. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the elemental composition and electronic state of the elements that exist within the samples. These studies confirms the formation of nanoplates and the presence of Zn, O, Ag, Cu with the oxidation states  +2, -2, 0 and  +2 respectively. These results indicates promising antibacterial applications of these ZnO-based nanoparticles synthesized with low-cost hydrothermal methods.

  6. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles in the oxygen uptake during aerobic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Avilés, Pabel; Brito, Elcia M. S. [University of Guanajuato, Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering & Environmental Engineering (Mexico); Duran, Robert [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Equipe Environment et Microbiologie (France); Martínez, Arodí Bernal; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán, E-mail: german28@ugto.mx [University of Guanajuato, Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering & Environmental Engineering (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    The increased use of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in everyday products indicates the importance of studying NPs release to the wastewater and its possible effect on biological process for wastewater treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effect of the presence of ZnO NPs in aerobic wastewater treatment. The results indicated that the oxygen uptake rate of microorganisms is inhibited for concentrations higher than 473 mg L{sup −1} of ZnO NPs. The diversity of microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment was reduced in presence of ZnO NPs. Related to morphological interaction between ZnO NPs and suspended biomass, physical damage in flocs structure were observed in presence of ZnO NPs. However, the internalization of Zn compounds in microorganisms not presented mechanical damage in the membrane cell. These findings suggest that inhibition in oxygen uptake was caused for negative effect that ZnO NPs induces in aerobic microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment.

  7. Au sensitized ZnO nanorods for enhanced liquefied petroleum gas sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakate, U.T., E-mail: umesh.nakate@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Deemed University, Pune 411025 (India); Bulakhe, R.N.; Lokhande, C.D. [Department of Physics, Thin films Physics Laboratory, Shivaji University Kolhapur 416004 (India); Kale, S.N. [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Deemed University, Pune 411025 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • We studied ZnO nanorods film for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing. • The Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods gives improved LPG sensing response. • The Au–ZnO shows 48% LPG response for 1040 ppm with fast response time of 50 S. • We proposed schematic for sensing mechanism using band diagram. - Abstract: The zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have grown on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) method using zinc acetate solution. The phase formation, surface morphology and elemental composition of ZnO films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing response was remarkably improved by sensitization of gold (Au) surface noble metal on ZnO nanorods film. Maximum LPG response of 21% was observed for 1040 ppm of LPG, for pure ZnO nanorods sample. After Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods film sample, the LPG response greatly improved up to 48% at operating temperature 623 K. The improved LPG response is attributed Au sensitization with spill-over mechanism. Proposed model for LPG sensing mechanism discussed.

  8. Efficient room temperature hydrogen sensor based on UV-activated ZnO nano-network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, Rahul; Rajamani, Saravanan; Ranwa, Sapana; Fanetti, Mattia; Valant, Matjaz; Kumar, Mahesh

    2017-09-01

    Room temperature hydrogen sensors were fabricated from Au embedded ZnO nano-networks using a 30 mW GaN ultraviolet LED. The Au-decorated ZnO nano-networks were deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate by a chemical vapour deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum analysis revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and presence of Au. The ZnO nanoparticles were interconnected, forming nano-network structures. Au nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on ZnO surfaces, as confirmed by FESEM imaging. Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) were fabricated on the ZnO nano-networks using optical lithography. Sensor performances were measured with and without UV illumination, at room temperate, with concentrations of hydrogen varying from 5 ppm to 1%. The sensor response was found to be ˜21.5% under UV illumination and 0% without UV at room temperature for low hydrogen concentration of 5 ppm. The UV-photoactivated mode enhanced the adsorption of photo-induced O- and O2- ions, and the d-band electron transition from the Au nanoparticles to ZnO—which increased the chemisorbed reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. The sensor response was also measured at 150 °C (without UV illumination) and found to be ˜18% at 5 ppm. Energy efficient low cost hydrogen sensors can be designed and fabricated with the combination of GaN UV LEDs and ZnO nanostructures.

  9. Density functional investigation of structural, electronic and optical properties of Ge-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ying-bo; Dai, Ying; Yang, Kesong; Zhang, Zhenkui; Wei, Wei; Guo, Meng; Huang, Baibiao

    2011-10-01

    Recent experiments reported fascinating phenomenon of photoluminescence (PL) blueshift in Ge-doped ZnO. To understand it, we examined the structural, electronic and optical properties of Ge-doped ZnO (ZnO:Ge) systematically by means of density functional theory calculations. Our results show that Ge atoms tend to cluster in heavily doped ZnO. Ge clusters can limit the conductivity of doped ZnO but reinforce the near-band-edge emission. The substitutional Ge for Zn leads to Fermi level pinning in the conduction band, which indicates Ge-doped ZnO is of n-type conductivity character. It is found that the delocalized Ge 4s states hybridize with conduction band bottom, and is dominant in the region near the Fermi level, suggesting that Ge-4s states provides major free carriers in ZnO:Ge crystal. The observed blueshift of PL in Ge-doped ZnO originates from the electron transition energy from the valence band to the empty levels above Fermi level larger than the gap of undoped ZnO. The electron transition between the gap states induced by oxygen vacancy and conduction band minimum may be the origin of the new PL peak at 590 nm.

  10. Degradation of Paraquat in Gramoxone Pesticide with Addition of ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrina Arfi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is the most toxic herbicide, the main agricultural crops and plantations that use them are cloves, cocoa, oil palm, rubber, coffee, and pepper. Therefore, it is necessary to study to degrade paraquat compounds by photolysis method with using ZnO. Photolysis is a process of UV irradiation with a wavelength of 200-400 nm. In this study Photolysis method used UV light with λ = 365 nm. Degradation of paraquat compound was done with the influence of variation of time without the addition ZnO, the influence of ZnO additional variations, and the effect of combination between variations of time and optimization of ZnO addition. The result of the study shows that photolysis degradation product without the addition of ZnO for 120 minutes has been degraded by 12.56%. While the optimum addition of 0.1 grams ZnO increased the percentage of degradation which is about 57.64%. This is proved that the addition of ZnO with photolysis method can degrade more paraquat compounds.

  11. ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiaqian; Zhang, Xinyu; Yang, Chengwu; Cao, Meng; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2017-01-01

    In this work, ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple solution method and used for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye from water under UV light. The SEM and TEM observations demonstrate that the microsphere morphologies of the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite is composed of ZnO microspheres anchored on rGO sheets, confirming the formation of ZnO microspheres-rGO composites. Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that both of the reduction of GO tight contact between ZnO and rGO are achieved during the high temperature calcination process. During the photocatalytic test, in comparison with ZnO microspheres and P25 TiO2, the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite shows improved photodegradation of MB dye, because the rGO sheets could reduce the charge recombination in electron-transfer processes. According to the scavenger experiments, the possible MB degradation mechanism is contributed mainly to the generation of active species induced by the photogenerated holes (h+) and superoxide radicals (rad O2-).

  12. Hydrothermal growth and characterization of aluminum-doped ZnO bulk crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Buguo; Mann, Matthew; Claflin, Bruce; Snure, Michael; Look, David C.

    2013-03-01

    Bulk ZnO crystals were grown by the hydrothermal technique with Al2O3 added to the solution in an attempt to obtain Al-doped ZnO crystals. Aluminum and indium co-doped ZnO were also grown by the same technique. Adding Al2O3 to the growth solution has a significant impact on the ZnO growth ⎯ either preventing overgrowth and dissolving the seed growth or degrading the crystalline quality; nevertheless, the resulting crystals of both Al:ZnO and Al/In:ZnO are highly conductive, similar to In and Ga doped ZnO crystals, with a resistivity approaching 0.01 Ω cm, as revealed by temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements. Photoluminescence spectra at 18 K show Al0-bound-exciton peak energies of 3.3604 eV on the Zn face and 3.3609 eV on the O face for the Al-doped ZnO crystals. Similarly both an Al0- bound-exciton peak at 3.3604 eV and an In0-bound-exciton peak at 3.3575 eV were found on the Al/In-co-doped crystals. The electrical properties of all group III doped ZnO crystals grown hydrothermally are compared with each other and with Al:ZnO obtained by other growth methods.

  13. Thermal conductivity enhancement of ZnO nanofluid using a one-step physical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja, E-mail: leegj@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok Daero 1045, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Kyu [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok Daero 1045, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Quantum Energy Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Gajungro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Ku; Rhee, Chang Kyu [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok Daero 1045, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokwon; Kim, Chongyoup [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EG-based ZnO nanofluids were prepared by pulsed wire evaporation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal conductivity of ZnO nanofluid with higher concentration exhibited a temperature dependency due to the clustering and aggregation of nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experimentally measured value of thermal conductivity was higher than the theoretically calculated value based on Hamilton-Crosser model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the ZnO nanofluids showed a Newtonian behavior. - Abstract: In the present work, an ethylene-glycol (EG) based nanofluid containing ZnO nanoparticles was prepared by a one-step physical method known as pulsed-wire evaporation (PWE). The structural properties of the ZnO nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction method and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The thermal conductivity of the EG-based ZnO nanofluid at a higher concentration exhibited temperature-dependency due to the clustering and aggregation of nanoparticles in the fluid. Moreover, the experimentally measured value of the thermal conductivity was higher than the theoretically calculated value based on the Hamilton-Crosser model. From an analysis of the rheological behavior, it was found that all of the nanofluids showed Newtonian behavior. The viscosity increment did not show temperature-dependency, and its value increased with the ZnO volume fraction at a fixed temperature.

  14. Two-dimensional vanadium-doped ZnO nanosheet-based flexible direct current nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Keun Young; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2013-10-22

    Here, we report the synthesis of lead-free single-crystalline two-dimensional (2D) vanadium(V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and their application for high-performance flexible direct current (DC) power piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs). The vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) converted to NS networks by V doping. Piezoresponse force microscopy studies reveal that vertical V-doped ZnO NS exhibit typical ferroelectricity with clear phase loops, butterfly, and well-defined hysteresis loops with a piezoelectric charge coefficient of up to 4 pm/V, even in 2D nanostructures. From pristine ZnO NR-based NGs, alternating current (AC)-type output current was observed, while from V-doped ZnO NS-based NGs, a DC-type output current density of up to 1.0 μAcm(-2) was surprisingly obtained under the same vertical compressive force. The growth mechanism, ferroelectric behavior, charge inverted phenomena, and high piezoelectric output performance observed from the V-doped ZnO NS are discussed in terms of the formation of an ionic layer of [V(OH)4(-)], permanent electric dipole, and the doping-induced resistive behavior of ZnO NS.

  15. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of bridged ZnO nanorod arrays grown on V-grooved structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuefan; Ke, Lin; Leong, Eunice S P; Liu, Hong; Liew, Laura-Lynn; Teng, Jing Hua; Du, Hejun; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2012-09-14

    Bridged ZnO nanorod arrays on a V-grooved Si(100) substrate were used as the photoanode of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell for water splitting. Photolithography followed by reactive ion etching was employed to create a V-grooved structure on a Si substrate. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown via a hydrothermal method. The light trapping and PEC properties are greatly enhanced using the bridged ZnO nanorod arrays on a V-grooved Si substrate compared with those on a flat one. Increased short circuit photocurrent density (J(SC), 0.73 mA cm(-2)) and half-life time (1500 s) are achieved. This improved J(SC) and half-life time are 4 times and 10 times, respectively, higher than those of the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on a flat substrate. The overall PEC cell performance improvement for the V-groove grown ZnO array is attributed to the reduced light reflection and enhanced light trapping effect. Moreover, V-groove ZnO showed stronger adhesion between ZnO nanorod arrays and the substrate.

  16. Can visible light impact litter decomposition under pollution of ZnO nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuyan; Liu, Lina; Qv, Mingxiang; Lv, Yanna; Yin, Yifei; Zhou, Yinfei; Cui, Minghui; Zhu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2017-11-01

    ZnO nanoparticles is one of the most used materials in a wide range including antibacterial coating, electronic device, and personal care products. With the development of nanotechnology, ecotoxicology of ZnO nanoparticles has been received increasing attention. To assess the phototoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystem, microcosm experiments were conducted on Populus nigra L. leaf litter decomposition under combined effect of ZnO nanoparticles and visible light radiation. Litter decomposition rate, pH value, extracellular enzyme activity, as well as the relative contributions of fungal community to litter decomposition were studied. Results showed that long-term exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and visible light led to a significant decrease in litter decomposition rate (0.26 m-1 vs 0.45 m-1), and visible light would increase the inhibitory effect (0.24 m-1), which caused significant decrease in pH value of litter cultures, fungal sporulation rate, as well as most extracellular enzyme activities. The phototoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles also showed impacts on fungal community composition, especially on the genus of Varicosporium, whose abundance was significantly and positively related to decomposition rate. In conclusion, our study provides the evidence for negatively effects of ZnO NPs photocatalysis on ecological process of litter decomposition and highlights the contribution of visible light radiation to nanoparticles toxicity in freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers for photocatalytic dye degradation: Growth, structural and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi Inamur; Ahmad, Musheer; Misra, Sunil Kumar; Lohani, Minaxi B.

    2013-12-01

    A facile hydrothermal method was used to synthesize highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers by the reaction of zinc acetate and hexamethylenetetraamine (HMTA) at 105 °C. The morphological characterizations revealed that well defined ZnO nanorods were assembled into flowers morphology. X-rays diffraction patterns showed the highly crystalline nature of ZnO with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The structural and optical properties of hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers were measured by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) measurements. The as-synthesized hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers were applied as an efficient photocatalyst for the photodegradation of organic dyes under UV-light irradiation. The methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) over the surface of hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers considerably degraded by ∼91% and ∼80% within 140 min respectively. The degradation rate constants were found to be kapp (0.01313 mint-1) and kapp(0.0104 mint-1) for MB and RhB dye respectively. The enhanced dye degradation might be attributed to the efficient charge separation and the large number of oxyradicals generation on the surface of the hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers.

  18. Improved seedless hydrothermal synthesis of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Jinghua; Hu Jie; Li Sisi; Zhang Fan; Liu Jun; Shi Jian; Li Xin; Chen Yong [Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS-ENS-UPMC UMR 8640, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Tian Zhongqun, E-mail: yong.chen@ens.fr [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and LIA CNRS XiamENS ' NanoBioChem' , College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China)

    2011-06-17

    Seedless hydrothermal synthesis has been improved by introducing an adequate content of ammonia into the nutrient solution, allowing the fabrication of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas on a substrate. The presence of ammonia in the nutrient solution facilitates the high density nucleation of ZnO on the substrate which is critical for the nanowire growth. In order to achieve an optimal growth, the growth conditions have been studied systematically as a function of ammonia content, growth temperature and incubation time. The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) has also been studied but shown to be of no benefit to the nucleation of ZnO. Ultradense and ultralong ZnO nanowires could be obtained under optimal growth conditions, showing no fused structure at the foot of the nanowire arrays. Due to different reaction kinetics, four growth regimes could be attributed, including the first fast growth, equilibrium phase, second fast growth and final erosion. Combining this simple method with optical lithography, ZnO nanowires could be grown selectively on patterned areas. In addition, the as-grown ZnO nanowires could be used for the fabrication of a piezoelectric nanogenerator. Compared to the device of ZnO nanowires made by other methods, a more than twice voltage output has been obtained, thereby proving an improved performance of our growth method.

  19. Magnetism in Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by a co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, O. D.; Salunke, H. G.; Kadam, R. M.; Mohapatra, Manoj; Yaswant, G.; Kulshreshtha, S. K.

    2006-03-01

    We report the synthesis of nominal 2 and 5 at.% Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystalline particles by a co-precipitation method. Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data revealed that Mn-doped ZnO crystallizes in the monophasic wurtzite structure and the unit cell volume increases with increasing Mn concentration. DC magnetization measurements showed ferromagnetic ordering above room temperature with Hc~150 Oe for nominal 2 at.% Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles annealed at 675 K. A distinct ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) signal was observed in the EPR spectra of the 2 at.% Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles annealed at 675 K. EPR measurements were used to estimate the number of spins participating in ferromagnetic ordering. Of the total Mn present in the 2 at.% Mn ZnO lattice, 25% of the Mn2+ ions were responsible for ferromagnetic ordering, whereas nearly 5% of the Mn2+ ions remained uncoupled (isolated spins). A well resolved EPR spectrum of 5% Mn-doped ZnO samples annealed at 875-1275 K (g = 2.007, A = 80 G, D = 210 G and E = 15 G) confirmed that Mn was substitutionally incorporated into the ZnO lattice as Mn2+. On increasing the temperature of annealing beyond 1075 K an impurity phase emerges in both the 2 and 5 at.% Mn-doped ZnO samples, which has been identified as a variant of (Zn1-XMn(II)X)Mn(III)2O4 with Tc~15 K. Our results indicate that the observed room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped ZnO can be attributed to the substitutional incorporation of Mn at Zn-sites rather than due to the formation of any metastable secondary phases.

  20. Investigation of some physical properties of ZnO nanofilms synthesized by micro-droplet technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamzaoui

    Full Text Available In this paper, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized using a simple micro-droplets technique from a solution prepared by dissolving zinc acetate di-hydrate [Zn(CH3COO2, 2H2O] in methanol. Microdroplets were deposited on glass substrates heated at 100 °C, the obtained samples of ZnO films were investigated by XRD, AES, AFM, ellipsometry and PL. XRD patterns reveal the wurtzite structure of ZnO where the lattice parameters a and c, calculated from XRD signals, show a nanometric character of ZnO nanoparticles. The chemical composition of ZnO film surfaces was verified by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES. From Auger signals, oxygen (O-KLL and zinc (Zn-LMM Auger transitions indicate well the presence of Zn-O bonding. The surface topography of the samples was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM where ZnO nanoparticles of average size ranging between 20 and 80 nm were determined. Some optical properties as dielectric constants, refractive index, extinction coefficient as well as the optical band gap were determined from ellipsometry analysis. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of both Cauchy parameters and Wemple & Di-Dominico single oscillator model. The photoluminescence (PL measurements exhibited two emission peaks. The first at 338 nm, corresponding to the band gap of ZnO, is due to excitonic emission while the second around 400 nm, is attributed to the single ionized oxygen vacancies. Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, Micro droplets technique, AFM, Auger spectroscopy, Ellipsometry, Photoluminescence (PL

  1. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO4-exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticulates is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles. Although a number of studies have discussed the transformation of nanoparticles during

  2. Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saliani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO NPs (zinc oxide nanoparticles has generated significant scientific interest as a novel antibacterial and anticancer agent. Since oxidative stress is a critical determinant of ZnO NPs-induced damage, it is necessary to characterize their underlying mode of action. Different structural and physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs such as particle surface, size, shape, crystal structure, chemical position, and presence of metals can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS (reactive oxygen species production. However, there are some inconsistencies in the literature on the relation between the physicochemical features of ZnO NPs and their plausible oxidative stress mechanism. Herein, the possible oxidative stress mechanism of ZnO NPs was reviewed. This is worthy of further detailed evaluations in order to improve our understanding of vital NPs characteristics governing their toxicity. Therefore, this study focuses on the different reported oxidative stress paradigms induced by ZnO NPs including ROS generated by NPs, oxidative stress due to the NPs-cell interaction, and role of the particle dissolution in the oxidative damage. Also, this study tries to characterize and understand the multiple pathways involved in oxidative stress induced by ZnO NPs. Knowledge about different cellular signaling cascades stimulated by ZnO NPs lead to the better interpretation of the toxic influences induced by the cellular and acellular parameters. Regarding the potential benefits of toxic effects of ZnO NPs, in-depth evaluation of their toxicity mechanism and various effects of these nanoparticles would facilitate their implementation for biomedical applications.

  3. Piezoelectric Response Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Da-Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important parameter of piezoelectric materials is piezoelectric coefficient (d33. In this study, the piezoelectric ZnO thin films were deposited on the SiNx/Si substrate. The 4 inches substrate is diced into 8 cm× 8 cm piece. During the deposition process, a zinc target (99.999 wt% of 2 inches diameter was used. The vertical distance between the target and the substrate holder was fixed at 5 cm. The piezoelectric response of zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were obtained by using a direct measurement system. The system adopts a mini impact tip to generate an impulsive force and read out the piezoelectric signals immediately. Experimentally, a servo motor is used to produce a fixed quantity of force, for giving an impact against to the piezoelectric film. The ZnO thin films were deposited using the reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. The electric charges should be generated because of the material’s extrusion. This phenomenon was investigated through the oscilloscope by one shot trigger. It was apparent that all ZnO films exhibit piezoelectric responses evaluated by our measurement system, however, its exhibit a significant discrepancy. The piezoelectric responses of ZnO thin film at various deposition positions were measured and the crystal structures of the sputtering pressure were also discussed. The crystalline characteristics of ZnO thin films are investigated through the XRD and SEM. The results show the ZnO thin film exhibits good crystalline pattern and surface morphology with controlled sputtering condition. The ZnO thin films sputtered using 2 inches target present various piezoelectric responses. With the exactly related position, a best piezoelectric response of ZnO thin film can be achieved.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures on noble-metal coated substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikovska, A.Og. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasova, G.B. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Avdeev, G.V. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on Au–Ag alloy coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. • Morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy content in the catalyst layer. • Increasing the Ag content in Au–Ag catalyst layer changes the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures from nanorods to nanobelts. - Abstract: In this work, ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on noble-metal (Au, Ag and Au–Ag alloys) coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared at a substrate temperature of 550 °C, an oxygen pressure of 5 Pa, and a laser fluence of 2 J cm{sup −2} – process parameters usually used for deposition of smooth and dense thin films. The metal layer's role is substantial for the preparation of nanostructures. Heating of the substrate changed the morphology of the metal layer and, subsequently, nanoparticles were formed. The use of different metal particles resulted in different morphologies and properties of the ZnO nanostructures synthesized. The morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy's content of the catalyst layer. It was found that the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures evolved from nanorods to nanobelts as the ratio of Au/Ag in the alloy catalyst was varied. The use of a small quantity of Ag in the Au–Ag catalyst (Au{sub 3}Ag) layer resulted predominantly in the deposition of ZnO nanorods. A higher Ag content in the catalyst alloy (AuAg{sub 2}) layer resulted in the growth of a dense structure of ZnO nanobelts.

  5. Aluminum as catalyst for ZnO nanostructures growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandalazini, C., E-mail: zc@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Física del Sólido, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Villafuerte, M. [Laboratorio de Física del Sólido, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Oliva, M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía, y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Heluani, S.P. [Laboratorio de Física del Sólido, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The efficiency of aluminum as catalyst to grow ZnO nanostructures is proved. • Aluminum as a new catalyst is proposed due to its reduced economic cost. • VSS growth mechanism is the main mechanism using Al as catalyst. • Abrupt diameter change of NWs is discussed due to Al-assisted growth. - Abstract: We report the growth of Al-catalyzed ZnO nanowires (NWs) using a thermal evaporation technique. Before the growth, the substrates were covered with a distribution of Al nano-island that act as seeds. We found that the density of NWs increases as the density of seeds is increased, confirming the catalyst properties of Al. The critical parameters of growth are the substrate temperature, oxygen partial pressure and the thickness of the initial Al layer from which the seeds are formed. The results showed that the oxygen pressure has a strong influence on the structural characteristics: the nanowires exhibit a preferential orientation in the (0 0 l)-planes when they are grown at low oxygen flow, and they become polycrystalline when a high concentration of oxygen in the flow is used. We consider that the growth occurs via a vapor-solid-solid (VSS) process as the predominant growth mechanism.

  6. A Novel Ionic Polymer Metal ZnO Composite (IPMZC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mun Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented research introduces a new Ionic Polymer-Metal-ZnO Composite (IPMZC demonstrating photoluminescence (PL-quenching on mechanical bending or application of an electric field. The newly fabricated IPMZC integrates the optical properties of ZnO and the electroactive nature of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMC to enable a non-contact read-out of IPMC response. The electro-mechano-optical response of the IPMZC was measured by observing the PL spectra under mechanical bending and electrical regimes. The working range was measured to be 375–475 nm. It was noted that the PL-quenching increased proportionally with the increase in curvature and applied field at 384 and 468 nm. The maximum quenching of 53.4% was achieved with the membrane curvature of 78.74/m and 3.01% when electric field (12.5 × 103 V/m is applied. Coating IPMC with crystalline ZnO was observed to improve IPMC transduction.

  7. Carrier recombination in sonochemically synthesized ZnO powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirov M.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ZnO powders with particle size in the nm to μm range have been fabricated by sonochemical method, utilizing zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide as starting materials. Carrier recombination processes in the powders have been investigated using the photoluminescence, FT-IR and surface photovoltage techniques. It has been shown that the photoluminescence spectra exhibit a number of defect-related emission bands which are typically observed in ZnO lattice and which depend on the sonication time. It has been found that the increase of the stirring time results in a faster decay of the photovoltage transients for times shorter than approximately 5 ms. From the obtained data it has been concluded that the sonication modifies the complicated trapping dynamics from volume to surface defects, whereas the fabrication method itself offers a remarkably convenient means of modifying the relative content of the surface-to-volume defect ratio in powder grains and altering the dynamics of photoexcited carriers.

  8. ZnO nanowire arrays - Pattern generation, growth and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, Margit; Subannajui, Kittitat; Menzel, Andreas; Yang, Yang [Faculty of Engineering, Nanotechnology, Institute of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    ZnO nanowires and related materials are in the focus of attention for electronic, optical or sensor applications. However, size, position and arrangement control are essential conditions for the development of future nanowire based devices. Various kinds of template methods including nanosphere lithography and UV laser interference lithography are powerful tools for the preparation of the starting metal catalyst arrays and will be demonstrated and discussed. However, only if the growth mechanism and its guiding parameters are understood in detail, the template will force a pattern arranged growth of nanowires. The paper gives an overview of the various kinds of growth modes for vertical arranged nanowires. Specific experimental conditions establishing the VS or the VLS growth are discussed. In addition, insight is given why the patterning is not all the time conserved and how to overcome these obstacles. In the second part different kinds of applications are summarized. Electronic properties are discussed based on metal-semiconductor-metal devices. The influence of a core-shell nanowire structure on the optical properties is demonstrated. In addition, a simple approach for ZnO nanowire based gas sensors is discussed and shown. As a last example, the transfer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated nanowires into spinel tubes is reported. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Study of the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, Arjuman; Radha, S.; Garje, S. S.

    2013-02-01

    This study focuses on the antibacterial activity of the ZnO nanoparticles against organisms causing skin and wound infections. The nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical route. The method was quick and nanoparticles were obtained in 3 days of incubation in dark. Characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Visible Spectrophotometry. It was observed that the UV-Visible spectrum peak was obtained at 357 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of Zinc oxide. X-Ray diffraction exhibited the 2θ values corresponding to Zinc oxide and the particle size was estimated to be 20 nm. The antibacterial effect of nanoparticles was observed against Staphylococcus spp and Bacillus spp. The significance of the bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles lies in the reduction of using antibiotics against nosocomial infections, especially in prolonged treatments. The bandage material used in wound dressing was coated with ZnO nanoparticles by adsorption method. The textile was found to be efficient in inhibiting the growth of these organisms. The effect of adverse storage conditions on the coated bandage material was also studied. On comparing the results obtained at extreme pH and temperature and those obtained at optimum conditions, it was seen that the nanoparticles were less effective at these extreme conditions.

  10. Excitonic effects in ZnO nanowires and hollow nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, M.; Lozovik, Y. E.; Zhao, Q. X.; Nur, O.; Hu, Q.-H.; Klason, P.

    2007-02-01

    Energy levels and wave functions of ground and excited states of an exciton are calculated by the method of imaginary time. Energy levels as functions of radius of single and double wall nanotube are studied. Asymptotic behavior of energy levels at large and small values of the radius using perturbation theory and adiabatic approximation is considered. Spatially indirect exciton in semiconductor nanowire is also investigated. Experimental result from high quality reproducible ZnO nanowires grown by low temperature chemical engineering is presented. State of the art high brightness white light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) are demonstrated from the grown ZnO nano-wires. The color temperature and color rendering index (CRI) of the HB-LEDs values was found to be (3250 K, 82), and (14000 K, 93), for the best LEDs, which means that the quality of light is superior to one obtained from GaN LEDs available on the market today. The role of V Zn and V ° on the emission responsible for the white light band as well as the peak position of this important wide band is thoroughly investigated in a systematic way.

  11. Optoelectronic properties of doped hydrothermal ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.

    2017-03-10

    Group III impurity doped ZnO thin films were deposited on MgAl2O3 substrates using a simple low temperature two-step deposition method involving atomic layer deposition and hydrothermal epitaxy. Films with varying concentrations of either Al, Ga, or In were evaluated for their optoelectronic properties. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of dopants within the ZnO films. While Al and Ga-doped films showed linear incorporation rates with the addition of precursors salts in the hydrothermal growth solution, In-doped films were shown to saturate at relatively low concentrations. It was found that Ga-doped films showed the best performance in terms of electrical resistivity and optical absorbance when compared to those doped with In or Al, with a resistivity as low as 1.9 mΩ cm and an optical absorption coefficient of 441 cm−1 at 450 nm.

  12. Continuous and Localized Mn Implantation of ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present results derived from continuous and localized 35 keV55Mn+ion implantations into ZnO. Localized implantations were carried out by using self-ordered alumina membranes as masks leading to ordered arrays of implanted volumes on the substrate surfaces. Defects and vacancies in the small implantation volumes of ZnO were generated due to the implantation processes besides the creation of new phases. Rapid thermal annealing was applied in the case of continuous implantation. The samples were characterized by HRSEM, GIXRD, Raman spectroscopy and RBS/C. Magnetic characterization of the samples pointed out appreciable differences among the samples obtained by the different implantation methods. This fact was mainly attributed to the different volume/surface ratios present in the implanted zones as well as to the increase of Mn atom concentrations along the grain frontiers in the nanostructured surfaces. The samples also showed a ferromagnetic transition phase at temperature value higher than room temperature.

  13. A ZnO nanowire bio-hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, Houman; Schaefer, Michael; Yaghoubi, Shayan; Jun, Daniel; Schlaf, Rudy; Beatty, J. Thomas; Takshi, Arash

    2017-02-01

    Harvesting solar energy as a carbon free source can be a promising solution to the energy crisis and environmental pollution. Biophotovoltaics seek to mimic photosynthesis to harvest solar energy and to take advantage of the low material costs, negative carbon footprint, and material abundance. In the current study, we report on a combination of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with monolayers of photosynthetic reaction centers which are self-assembled, via a cytochrome c linker, as photoactive electrode. In a three-probe biophotovoltaics cell, a photocurrent density of 5.5 μA cm-2 and photovoltage of 36 mV was achieved, using methyl viologen as a redox mediator in the electrolyte. Using ferrocene as a redox mediator a transient photocurrent density of 8.0 μA cm-2 was obtained, which stabilized at 6.4 μA cm-2 after 20 s. In-depth electronic structure characterization using photoemission spectroscopy in conjunction with electrochemical analysis suggests that the fabricated photoactive electrode can provide a proper electronic path for electron transport all the way from the conduction band of the ZnO nanowires, through the protein linker to the RC, and ultimately via redox mediator to the counter electrode.

  14. Humic Acid Degradation by ZnO Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekartaji Putri A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic acid (HA is universally present in soils and natural water resources in a yellow-brown form. HA can react with chlorine during drinking water treatment and produce disinfection byproducts (DBPs, such as trihalomethanes (THMs and haloacetic acids (HAAs, which are harmful for health. Therefore, HA has to be eliminated from water environment. The photocatalysis is an effective alternative solution for the degradation of HA in a water environment. This research aims to degrade HA from water environment. The rapid degradation of HA, using zinc oxide nanoparticles, irradiated by ultraviolet light (ZnO/UV, is investigated. The optimum conditions of pertinent factors, which include the light wavelength (UV-A and UV-C, and light intensity, HA concentration, ZnO dose, and contact time are investigated at neutral pH conditions, considered for drinking water treatment. HA degradation efficiency reached more than 80% after 60 min for both types of irradiation in optimum conditions of 0.3 g/L ZnO dose in 180 min of contact time. Comparisons for degradation efficiency under UV-A and UV-C irradiation indicate that UV-C has higher efficiency, up to 150 min of contact time. The reusability of catalyst is performed for three reuses and still revealed effective for beneficial commercial applications.

  15. Facet-Dependent Photoreduction on Single ZnO Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic reactions occur at the crystal–solution interface, and hence specific crystal facet expression and surface defects can play an important role. Here we investigate the structure-related photoreduction at zinc oxide (ZnO) microparticles via integrated light and electron microscopy in combination with silver metal photodeposition. This enables a direct visualization of the photoreduction activity at specific crystallographic features. It is found that silver nanoparticle photodeposition on dumbbell-shaped crystals mainly takes place at the edges of O-terminated (0001̅) polar facets. In contrast, on ZnO microrods photodeposition is more homogeneously distributed with an increased activity at {101̅1̅} facets. Additional time-resolved measurements reveal a direct spatial link between the enhanced photoactivity and increased charge carrier lifetimes. These findings contradict previous observations based on indirect, bulk-scale experiments, assigning the highest photocatalytic activity to polar facets. The presented research demonstrates the need for advanced microscopy techniques to directly probe the location of photocatalytic activity. PMID:28001412

  16. Highly Uniform Epitaxial ZnO Nanorod Arrays for Nanopiezotronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Highly uniform and c-axis-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated in predefined patterns by a low temperature homoepitaxial aqueous chemical method. The nucleation seed patterns were realized in polymer and in metal thin films, resulting in, all-ZnO and bottom-contacted structures, respectively. Both of them show excellent geometrical uniformity: the cross-sectional uniformity according to the scanning electron micrographs across the array is lower than 2%. The diameter of the hexagonal prism-shaped nanorods can be set in the range of 90–170 nm while their typical length achievable is 0.5–2.3 μm. The effect of the surface polarity was also examined, however, no significant difference was found between the arrays grown on Zn-terminated and on O-terminated face of the ZnO single crystal. The transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the single crystalline nature of the nanorods. The current–voltage characteristics taken on an individual nanorod contacted by a Au-coated atomic force microscope tip reflected Schottky-type behavior. The geometrical uniformity, the designable pattern, and the electrical properties make the presented nanorod arrays ideal candidates to be used in ZnO-based DC nanogenerator and in next-generation integrated piezoelectric nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS.

  17. Investigation of confinement effects in ZnO quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranath, D; Sahai, Sonal; Joshi, Amish G; Gupta, Bipin K; Shanker, V, E-mail: haranath@nplindia.or [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr K S Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India)

    2009-10-21

    We report a simple method for the synthesis of Na{sup +} doped and stable zinc oxide quantum dots, using the quantum confinement atom method. An intense broad green photoluminescence (PL) was observed with a maximum located at {approx}535 nm when excited by UV radiation of 332 nm. The PL peak intensity is found to be highly dependent on the size of the quantum dots (QDs). Electron microscopy observation revealed that the radius of the QD was {approx}1 nm, which clearly indicated that the QDs are in the strong quantum confinement region (exciton Bohr radius, r{sub B}, for bulk ZnO is 1.8 nm). Phase purity of ZnO and the presence of Na{sup +} was confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), respectively. The results are well incremented by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies. Intentional ageing of QDs for several days under controlled experimental conditions such as temperature, relative humidity and pH etc, facilitated the formation of various nanostructures with a slight red shift in the PL peak position. Time resolved emission spectroscopy measurements indicated that PL decay time changes from 35 ns for QDs to 1660 {mu}s for nanocrystals. The observed high-intensity and stable green PL emissions have been analyzed and thoroughly discussed.

  18. Sintesis de ceramicos de ZnO dopados con praseodimio y cobalto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Cruz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide, ZnO, is a very interesting compound in science and electronic ceramics technology. ZnO ceramics containing some additives were reported to show varistor action with excellent nonlinearity in current - voltage characteristics. However, investigations were restricted to the ZnO - Bi2O3 ceramic system. Other type of varistor, which contains praseodymium oxide, also present nonlinear behaviour. In this work, results obtained in the synthesis Zn-Pr-Co powder are shown. In order to determine and control the several stages of the chemical method, potentiometric titration was used. The solid phase obtained was pressed and sintered.

  19. Oxygen vacancies: The origin of n-type conductivity in ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lishu; Mei, Zengxia; Tang, Aihua; Azarov, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Xue, Qi-Kun; Du, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen vacancy (VO) is a common native point defects that plays crucial roles in determining the physical and chemical properties of metal oxides such as ZnO. However, fundamental understanding of VO is still very sparse. Specifically, whether VO is mainly responsible for the n-type conductivity in ZnO has been still unsettled in the past fifty years. Here we report on a study of oxygen self-diffusion by conceiving and growing oxygen-isotope ZnO heterostructures with delicately-controlled che...

  20. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagni, O. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Somhlahlo, N.N. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Weichsel, C. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)]. E-mail: andrew.leitch@nmmu.ac.za

    2006-04-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies.

  1. Optical and morphological properties of graphene sheets decorated with ZnO nanowires via polyol enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vinay, E-mail: winn201@gmail.com; Rajaura, Rajveer Singh, E-mail: winn201@gmail.com [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004 (India); Sharma, Preetam K.; Srivastava, Subodh; Vijay, Y. K. [Department of Physics, Thin Film and Membrane Science Lab., University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004 (India); Sharma, S. S. [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer- 305002 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Graphene-ZnO nanocomposites have proven to be very useful materials for photovoltaic and sensor applications. Here, we report a facile, one-step in situ polymerization method for synthesis of graphene sheets randomly decorated with zinc oxide nanowires using ethylene glycol as solvent. We have used hydrothermal treatment for growth of ZnO nanowires. UV-visible spectra peak shifting around 288nm and 307 nm shows the presence of ZnO on graphene structure. Photoluminiscence spectra (PL) in 400nm-500nm region exhibits the luminescence quenching effect. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image confirms the growth of ZnO nanowires on graphene sheets.

  2. INFLUENCE OF POST ANNEALING ON SOL–GEL DEPOSITED ZnO THIN FILMS

    OpenAIRE

    HEMALATA BHADANE; EDMUND SAMUEL; DINESH KUMAR GAUTAM

    2014-01-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on sol–gel deposited ZnO thin films have been studied. The average crystallite size determined from XRD shows that the deposited films are nanocrystalline. FTIR confirms deposition of ZnO thin films. The transmittance of annealed ZnO thin films is greater than 80% in visible region with bandgap ranging from 3.25–3.19 eV. The films annealed at 450°C temperature shows lower resistivity value of 527.241 Ωm. The deposited nanocrystalline films are suitable for ...

  3. Effect of solution molarity on properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Wei-You; Hsu, Hung-Pin; Lee, Jiunn-Chyi; Wu, Ya-Fen

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures were successfully prepared on indium tin oxide glass using different aqueous solution molarities. The effect of solution molarity on the structual and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures were studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The PL intensity ratio of the ultraviolet emission to the visible emission is also calculated. It is found that the crystal quality and the optical properties are improved by raising the solution molarity, but too higher solution molarity should lead to the disorder of ZnO structures, and deteriorate the crystal quality.

  4. Oxygen diffusion in Bi2O3-doped ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Claret Soares Sabioni; Daniel,Antônio Márcio J.M.; Wilmar Barbosa Ferraz; Rafael Witter Dias Pais; Anne-Marie Huntz; François Jomard

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of Bi-doping on oxygen diffusion in ZnO, the bulk and grain boundary oxygen diffusion coefficients were measured in Bi2O3-doped ZnO polycrystals by means of the gas-solid exchange method using the isotope 18O as the oxygen tracer. The experiments were performed on ZnO sintered samples containing 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol% Bi2O3. The diffusion annealings were performed at 942, 1000 and 1092 °C, in an Ar+18O2 atmosphere under an oxygen partial pressure of 0.2 atm. A...

  5. Facile Synthesis of Rambutan-Like ZnO Hierarchical Hollow Microspheres with Highly Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan-like ZnO hierarchical hollow microspheres (ZnO HHMs were constructed under hydrothermal conditions, using carboxyl methyl starch (CMS as a soft template. The resulting products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The experimental parameters and growth mechanism of rambutan-like ZnO HHMs were discussed in some detail. The as-prepared samples displayed improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under ultraviolet (UV irradiation.

  6. Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles for bio-imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Yamauchi, Kazuki; Sato, Moriyuki; Morito, Shigekazu; Ohba, Takuya; Fujita, Yasuhisa [Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue (Japan); Senthilkumar, O. [Research Project Promotion Institute, Shimane University, Matsue (Japan); Nakamura, Morihiko [Department of Cooperative Medical Research, Collaboration Center, Shimane University, Izumo (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by using a gas evaporation method. As ZnO is a luminescent and less toxic material, it can be useful in imaging applications. The nanoparticles prepared in our laboratory showed intense exciton emission in the UV-blue region. They were processed and surface treated to be compatible for bio-conjugation. We were able to prepare good dispersions and water-soluble ZnO nanoparticles from our experiments. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Tuning magnetism in zigzag ZnO nanoribbons by transverse electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Li, Chun; Zhang, Zhuhua; Guo, Wanlin

    2010-04-27

    We show by first-principles calculations that the magnetic moments of zigzag ZnO nanoribbons can be efficiently modulated by transverse electric fields. Depending on the field direction, the total magnetic moment in a zigzag ZnO nanoribbon can be remarkably enhanced or reduced and even completely quenched with increasing field over a threshold strength. However, in weak electric fields below the threshold, the magnetic moment in the zigzag ZnO nanoribbons nearly remains unchanged, which can be explained in terms of intrinsic transverse electric polarization and quantum confinement effects. The threshold electric field required to modulate the magnetic moment decreases significantly with increasing ribbon width, showing practical importance.

  8. Performances of spin coated silver doped ZnO photoanode based dye sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrik Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using silver doped ZnO films deposited on ITO glass by spin coating method. The crystalline nature of ZnO films was analysed with XRD and SEM technique was used for morphological studies. The XRD pattern confirmed the presence of single phase hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure, without the presence of secondary phase. The crystallite size of ZnO decreased from 31 nm to 25 nm with increase in doping to 1.5 mol% of silver. The UV-visible transmission of the prepared ZnO film was found to be 70–90% and it decreased with increase in doping to 0.5 mol% Ag and increased in the film doped with 1.5 mol% Ag. The band gap values of the ZnO films with 0, 0.5 and 1.5 mol% of silver, determined from Tauc plot, were 3.269, 3.235 and 3.257 eV, respectively. The absorbance peaks of the N719 dye loaded ZnO films were obtained at the wavelengths 310, 350 and 538 nm. The N719 dye loaded ZnO film doped with 0.5 mol% Ag has the highest absorbance in the visible region as compared to other two samples. The fill factor values of the pure and ZnO doped with 0.5 and 1.5 mol% Ag were 0.47, 0.48 and 0.42, respectively. The short circuit density values for ZnO, ZnO:Ag0.5% and ZnO:Ag1.5% were found to be 1.50, 1.55 and 1.15 A·m/cm2, respectively. The calculated photon to electron efficiencies for the ZnO films with 0, 0.5 and 1.5 mol% of silver were 0.42%, 0.44% and 0.27%, respectively. Consequently future prospective of such type of dopants in ZnO film based dye sensitized solar cells seems to be bright.

  9. Physical and Electrical Performance of Vapor–Solid Grown ZnO Straight Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical and electrical properties of wurtzitic ZnO straight nanowires grown via a vapor–solid mechanism were investigated. Raman spectrum shows four first-order phonon frequencies and a second-order Raman frequency of the ZnO nanowires. Electrical and photoconductive performance of individual ZnO straight nanowire devices was studied. The results indicate that the nanowires reported here are n-type semi-conductors and UV light sensitive, and a desirable candidate for fabricating UV light nanosensors and other applications.

  10. Optical limiting studies of ZnO nanotops and its polymer nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haripadmam, P. C.; Kavitha, M. K.; John, Honey; Krishnan, Bindu; Gopinath, Pramod

    2012-08-01

    In the present work, we have investigated the optical limiting property of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotop colloids and nanocomposite films of polymer-ZnO nanotops, using Z-scan technique. ZnO nanotops are prepared using two different capping agents. Films of polymethyl methacrylate-ZnO nanotop composite are fabricated for two concentrations of ZnO using spin coating technique. On exposing the nanocolloids to a pulsed nanosecond laser, the two photon absorption coefficient is enhanced with increase in applied fluence and particle size. The efficiency of limiting is found to be enhanced for the composite films, opening a way towards optoelectronic device fabrication.

  11. Synthesis of Imine-Bearing ZnO Nanoparticle Thin Films and Characterization of Their Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Narinder; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Kim, Deuk Young; Sharma, Hemant; Singh, Narinder

    2015-10-01

    We are presenting the first report on the fabrication of imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticle thin films grown on Corning glass by spin coating. The sol was prepared by dissolving imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticles in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The thickness of the films was manipulated to be 125-200 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed hexagonal wurtzite structure of imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticles thin films with a (002) preferential orientation. The stretching of chemical bonds of the imine linkage and Zn-O in imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticle thin films was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The grain size of the films increased with increasing the thickness of the films due to the number of coatings and subsequently dried at 200 °C. The transmittance of imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticle thin films was observed to be ≥94%, which was in close agreement to pure ZnO thin films in the visible region. The bandgap of imine-bearing ZnO nanoparticle thin films (3.04 eV), evaluated from Tauc's plot, was observed to be lower than that of pure ZnO (3.21 eV), which is attributed to the interaction of the ZnO nanoparticles with the imine receptor.

  12. Polarity-Dependent Growth Rates of Selective Area Grown ZnO Nanorods by Chemical Bath Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossuet, Thomas; Appert, Estelle; Thomassin, Jean-Luc; Consonni, Vincent

    2017-06-27

    Polarity is known to affect the growth and properties of ZnO single crystals and epitaxial films, but its effects are mostly unknown in ZnO nanorods. To leave polarity as the only varying parameter, ZnO nanorods are grown by chemical bath deposition under identical conditions and during the same run on O- and Zn-polar ZnO single crystals patterned by electron beam lithography with the same pattern consisting of 15 different domains. The resulting well-ordered O- and Zn-polar ZnO nanorod arrays with high structural uniformity are formed on all the domains. The comparison of their typical dimensions unambiguously reveals that Zn-polar ZnO nanorods have much higher growth rates than O-polar ZnO nanorods for all the hole diameter and period combinations. The distinct growth rates are explained in the framework of the surface reaction-/diffusive transport-limited elongation regime analysis, which yields a much larger surface reaction rate constant for Zn-polar ZnO nanorods. The origin of the difference is attributed to polarity-dependent dangling bond configurations at the top polar c-faces of ZnO nanorods, which may further be affected by polarity-dependent interactions with the ionic species in aqueous solution. These findings show the relevance of considering polarity as an important quantity in ZnO nanorods.

  13. Mutagenicity of ZnO nanoparticles in mammalian cells: Role of physicochemical transformations under the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei M; Wang, Yi C; Wang, Xi N; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jian W; Huang, Qing; Chen, Shao P; Hei, Tom K; Wu, Li J; Xu, An

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) potentially undergo physicochemical transformation in the environment, which may lead to unexpected environmental and health risks. The "aging" process is essential for better understanding the toxicity and fate of NPs in the environment. However, the mutagenic effects of aged ZnO NPs are still unexplored. The present study focused on investigating the physicochemical transformation during aging process and clarifying the mutagenicity of naturally aged ZnO NPs in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells. It was found that ZnO NPs underwent sophisticated physicochemical transformations with aging regardless of original morphology or size, such as the microstructural changes, the formation of hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6) and the release of free zinc ions. Interestingly, the aged ZnO NPs were investigated to be able to result in much lower cytotoxicity while relatively high degree mutation than fresh ZnO NPs. With characterization of the soluble and insoluble fractions of aged ZnO NPs suspension, together with the control measurements using metal chelator (TPEN) and endocytosis inhibitor (Nystatin), it was revealed that the release of zinc ions and nanoparticle uptake made significantly different contributions to the mutagenicity of fresh and aged ZnO NPs. This study clearly demonstrated that the physicochemical transformation of ZnO NPs with aging plays important and comprehensive roles in the ZnO NPs-induced mutagenicity in mammalian cells.

  14. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad; Yun, Ju-Young; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  15. Optimization of growth conditions of ZnO nano thin films by chemical double dip technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, Thirukonda Anandamoorthy; Chandramohan, Rathinam; Thirumalai, Jagannathan [Department of Physics, Sree Sevugan Annamalai College, Devakottai-630 303 (India); Valanarasu, Santiyagu [Department of Physics, Ananda College, Devakottai-630 303 (India); Venkateswaran, Sivasuriyan [Department of Chemistry, Sree Sevugan Annamalai College, Devakottai-630 303 (India); Mahalingam, Thaiyan [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-630 003 (India); Srikumar, Subbiah Ramachandran [Department of Physics, Kalasalingam University, Krishnankoil-626 190 (India)], E-mail: chandru17@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano thin films have been deposited by the chemical double-dip technique using aqueous ZnSO{sub 4} and NaOH solutions. The ZnO films were characterized in terms of surface morphology by x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface morphology. The films exhibited a smooth morphology. The chemical states of oxygen and zinc in the ZnO nano thin films were also investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the present investigations, highly textured ZnO thin films with a preferential (002)-orientation were prepared on glass substrates. The deposition conditions were optimized to obtain device-quality films for practical applications.

  16. Tunable band offset and recombination in ZnO nanowire-CdTe quantum dot heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiping; Gan, Lu; Sun, Luwei; Ye, Zhizhen

    2017-10-01

    ZnO nanowire (NW)-CdTe quantum dot (QD) type-II heterostructures were constructed using hydrothermally grown ZnO and colloidal CdTe QDs. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to investigate the charge transfer and band offset between CdTe QDs and ZnO NWs. The results demonstrated that the PL shows obvious redshift and prolonged lifetime in the heterostructure, indicating that it originates from recombination between electrons localized in ZnO and holes localized in CdTe. The results reveal that the band offset and charge recombination can be tuned by the growth time or size of CdTe QDs. Our results demonstrate that PL can be a useful tool to evaluate the band alignment and charge recombination in type-II semiconductor heterostructures.

  17. Transition metal implanted ZnO. A correlation between structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengqiang

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays ferromagnetism is often found in potential diluted magnetic semiconductor systems. However, many authors question the origin of this ferromagnetism, i.e. if the observed ferromagnetism stems from ferromagnetic precipitates rather than from carriermediated magnetic coupling of ionic impurities, as required for a diluted magnetic semiconductor. In this thesis, this question will be answered for transition-metal implanted ZnO single crystals. Magnetic secondary phases, namely metallic Fe, Co and Ni nanocrystals, are formed inside ZnO. They are - although difficult to detect by common approaches of structural analysis - responsible for the observed ferromagnetism. Particularly Co and Ni nanocrystals are crystallographically oriented with respect to the ZnO matrix. Their structure phase transformation and corresponding evolution of magnetic properties upon annealing have been established. Finally, an approach, pre-annealing ZnO crystals at high temperature before implantation, has been demonstrated to sufficiently suppress the formation of metallic secondary phases. (orig.)

  18. Three-dimensional ZnO hierarchical nanostructures: Solution phase synthesis and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Sun, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been studied extensively in the past 20 years due to their novel electronic, photonic, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Recently, more attention has been paid to assemble nanoscale building blocks into three-dimensional (3D) complex hierarchical...... structures, which not only inherit the excellent properties of the single building blocks but also provide potential applications in the bottom-up fabrication of functional devices. This review article focuses on 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, and summarizes major advances in the solution phase...... synthesis, applications in environment, and electrical/electrochemical devices. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures via different solution methods, with an emphasis on rational control of the morphology and assembly. We then discuss the applications of 3D ZnO hierarchical...

  19. Temperature-dependence on the structural, optical, andparamagnetic properties of ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Violet-blue emitting ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method followed by post-synthesis annealing at different temperatures. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed a morphological transformation upon...

  20. Electronic Band Structures and Native Point Defects of Ultrafine ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Jia; Schouteden, Koen; Amini, Mozhgan N; Ruan, Shuang-Chen; Lu, Yang-Fan; Ye, Zhi-Zhen; Partoens, Bart; Lamoen, Dirk; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2015-05-20

    Ultrafine ZnO nanocrystals with a thickness down to 0.25 nm are grown by a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method. Electronic band structures and native point defects of ZnO nanocrystals are studied by a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and first-principles density functional theory calculations. Below a critical thickness of ∼1 nm ZnO adopts a graphitic-like structure and exhibits a wide band gap similar to its wurtzite counterpart. The hexagonal wurtzite structure, with a well-developed band gap evident from scanning tunneling spectroscopy, is established for a thickness starting from ∼1.4 nm. With further increase of the thickness to 2 nm, VO-VZn defect pairs are easily produced in ZnO nanocrystals due to the self-compensation effect in highly doped semiconductors.

  1. p-Type ZnO materials: Theory, growth, properties and devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fan, J.C; Sreekanth, K.M; Xie, Z; Chang, S.L; Rao, K.V

    2013-01-01

    In the past 10years, ZnO as a semiconductor has attracted considerable attention due to its unique properties, such as high electron mobility, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy...

  2. Preparation and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles Supported on Amorphous SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the primary particle size of zinc oxide (ZnO and eliminate the agglomeration phenomenon to form a monodisperse state, Zn2+ was loaded on the surface of amorphous silica (SiO2 by the hydrogen bond association between hydroxyl groups in the hydrothermal process. After calcining the precursors, dehydration condensation among hydroxyl groups occurred and ZnO nanoparticles supported on amorphous SiO2 (ZnO–SiO2 were prepared. Furthermore, the SEM and TEM observations showed that ZnO nanoparticles with a particle size of 3–8 nm were uniformly and dispersedly loaded on the surface of amorphous SiO2. Compared with pure ZnO, ZnO–SiO2 showed a much better antibacterial performance in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test and the antibacterial properties of the paint adding ZnO–SiO2 composite.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles Supported on Amorphous SiO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Ding, Hao; Sun, Sijia

    2017-08-10

    In order to reduce the primary particle size of zinc oxide (ZnO) and eliminate the agglomeration phenomenon to form a monodisperse state, Zn 2+ was loaded on the surface of amorphous silica (SiO₂) by the hydrogen bond association between hydroxyl groups in the hydrothermal process. After calcining the precursors, dehydration condensation among hydroxyl groups occurred and ZnO nanoparticles supported on amorphous SiO₂ (ZnO-SiO₂) were prepared. Furthermore, the SEM and TEM observations showed that ZnO nanoparticles with a particle size of 3-8 nm were uniformly and dispersedly loaded on the surface of amorphous SiO₂. Compared with pure ZnO, ZnO-SiO₂ showed a much better antibacterial performance in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test and the antibacterial properties of the paint adding ZnO-SiO₂ composite.

  4. First-principles study of ZnO cluster-decorated carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Guo-Liang; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Cheng, Wen-Dan

    2011-11-04

    We have investigated the structural, electronic and carbon monoxide (CO) detection properties of the ZnO cluster-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by using density functional theory (DFT). The stable structures of hybrid ZnO/SWCNT materials are that the ZnO cluster plane is perpendicular to the surface of SWCNTs with the Zn atoms towards the SWCNTs (Zn atom above axial C-C bond or above the C atom). For the ZnO cluster-decorated semiconducting SWCNTs, the SWCNTs present p-type characteristics which may lead to the decrease of conductance upon illumination with ultraviolet (UV) light. The CO can be adsorbed on the hybrid ZnO/SWCNT materials due to the charge transfer between them. Compared with isolated ZnO clusters or bare SWCNTs, the ZnO/SWCNT network would have excellent CO detection ability due to their suitable adsorption energy and conductivity.

  5. Electronic structures and optical properties for Ag-N-codoped ZnO nanotubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feng, Xian-Yang; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Xu, Xi-Jin; Wang, Pei-Ji

    2013-01-01

    The structural and electronic/optical properties of pure and Ag-N-codoped (8,0) ZnO nanotubes have been studied using first-principles calculations in the framework of the local spin density approximation...

  6. Optical and bio-sensing characteristics of ZnO nanotubes grown by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, T; Mandal, S; Mishra, P; Dhar, A; Manna, I; Ray, S K

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on copper substrates by hydrothermal method at an optimized growth temperature of -95 degrees C. Structural properties were investigated by field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Distinct morphologies were found to be formed at different growth times. The formation of nanotubes mainly involved the initial nucleation followed by the growth of nanorods at 95 degrees C, and then with the increase of dissolution time at room temperature, the preferential chemical dissolution of the metastable Zn-rich [0001] polar surfaces resulted in removing the atoms from the surfaces, thus leading to the thinning of the wall of the nanostructures. Completely hollow ZnO nanotubes could be obtained at a high dissolution time. The room temperature photoluminescence and optical absorption properties of ZnO nanotubes have been studied as a function of dissolution time. The efficacy of ZnO nanotubes for glucose sensing applications has been studied.

  7. Effects of ZnO Quantum Dots Decoration on the Field Emission Behavior of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Zhou, Xiongtu; Lin, Zhixian; Guo, Tailiang; Zhang, Yongai; Zeng, Yongzhi

    2016-11-23

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs) have been decorated on graphene deposited on patterned Ag electrodes as a field emission cathode by a solution process. Effects of ZnO QDs on the field emission behavior of graphene are studied by experiment and first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the attachment of ZnO QDs with a C atom leads to the enhancement of electron emission from graphene, which is mainly attributed to the reduction of the work function and ionization potential, and the increase of the Fermi level of graphene after the decoration. A change in the local density distribution and the density of states near the Fermi level may also account for this behavior. Our study may help to develop new field emission composites and expand ZnO QDs in applications for electron emission devices as well.

  8. W ion implantation boosting visible-light photoelectrochemical water splitting over ZnO nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Zhou, Wu; Ren, Feng; Chen, Jie; Cai, Guangxu; Liu, Yichao; Guan, Xiangjiu; Shen, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    W ions were doped into ZnO nanorod arrays hydrothermally grown on the F-doped tin-oxide-coated glass substrates via an advanced ion implantation technique for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light. It was found that W incorporation could narrow the bandgap of ZnO and shift the optical absorption into visible light regions obviously, with the one-dimensional nanorod structure maintained for superior charge transfer. As a result, the W-doped ZnO nanorod arrays exhibit considerable PEC performance relative to ZnO nanorod arrays under visible light illumination (λ>420 nm), with photocurrent density achieved up to 15.2 μA/cm2 at 1.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). The obtained PEC properties indicate that ion implantation can be an alternative approach to develop unique materials for efficient solar energy conversion.

  9. Enhancing blue luminescence from Ce-doped ZnO nanophosphor by Li doping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Qiang; Wang, Changzheng; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Qingru; Zhang, Bingyuan; Wang, Wenjun; Zhang, Junying; Zhu, Hailing

    2014-01-01

    .... The effects of the additional doping with Li ions on the crystal structure, particle morphology, and luminescence properties of Ce-doped ZnO were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron...

  10. Efficient and Environmentally Stable Perovskite Solar Cells Based on ZnO Electron Collection Layer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Jiaxing; Bian, Ji; Zheng, Enqiang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Wenjing; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    ZnO thin films prepared by spin-coating of nanoparticles at low temperature were utilized as the electron collection layer in CH3NH3PbI3-based perovskite solar cells having a planar heterojunction structure...

  11. Flexible ZnO nanorod-based piezoelectric nanogenerators on carbon papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, G. M. Hasan Ul; Park, Il-Kyu

    2017-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of ZnO nanorod (NR)-based flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) on carbon paper (CP). Structural investigations indicate that the ZnO NRs grew well along the porous CP surface. Optical investigation shows that the crystal quality of the ZnO NRs on the CP was comparable to that of NRs grown on Si substrate. As the molar concentration increased from 10-70 mM, the output voltage and current increased consistently from 3.6-6.8 V and 0.79-1.45 μA, respectively. The enhancements of the voltage and current were attributed to the enhanced accumulation of the potentials generated by the increased number of ZnO NRs in the PENG devices. Therefore, the porous CP enhanced the PENG performance due to the higher surface area, and provided a super-flexible self-powering platform.

  12. Hydrothermal growth of wheatear-shaped ZnO microstructures and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shaped ZnO microstructures at alow temperature (85 ∘ C) without the assistance of any template agent. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the samples.

  13. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Rare-Earth Metals Doped ZnO Monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlong Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of rare-earth metals doped ZnO monolayer have been investigated using the first-principles calculations. The induced spin polarization is confirmed for Ce, Eu, Gd, and Dy dopings while the induced spin polarization is negligible for Y doping. The localized f states of rare-earth atoms respond to the introduction of a magnetic moment. ZnO monolayer undergoes transition from semiconductor to metal in the presence of Y, Ce, Gd, and Dy doping. More interestingly, Eu doped ZnO monolayer exhibits half-metallic behavior. Our result demonstrates that the RE-doping is an efficient route to modify the magnetic and electronic properties in ZnO monolayer.

  14. Investigation of photocalalytic activity of ZnO prepared by spray pyrolis with various precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourfaa, F.; Lamri Zeggar, M.; A, A.; Aida, M. S.; Attaf, N.

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysts such as ZnO has attracted much attention in recent years due to their various applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, air and in dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cell. In the present work, ZnO thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis by using different precursors namely: acetate, chloride and zinc nitrate in order to investigate their influence on ZnO photocatalytic activity. The films crystalline structure was studied by mean of X- ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and the films surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films optical properties were studied by mean of UV-visible spectroscopy. The prepared films were tested for the degradation of the red reactive dye largely used in textile industry. As a result, we found that the zinc nitrate is the best precursor to prepare ZnO thin films suitable for a good photocatalytic activity.

  15. Assembly-line flash synthesis of ZnO nanobelts on metal Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qiang; Mo, Shentong; Wang, Yanan; Dang, Mengjiao; Qin, Guoxuan; Fu, Xing; Wang, Hui; Tao, Xue

    2017-09-01

    In this study, ZnO nanobelts were successfully fabricated by flash synthesis without any expensive catalyst at a relatively low temperature (600∘C). The whole process took just ˜30 min. Introducing a solution tank containing a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Zn(AC)2, was an auxiliary process to elevate the quality of the products. The morphology of the ZnO nanobelts was systematically investigated by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FRSEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The products had an average width of 200nm and a length of more than 10μm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the ZnO nanobelts had a typical wurtzite structure. Finally, the growth mechanism of the unique morphology of the ZnO nanobelts is discussed. An assembly-line production method is also proposed based on the results.

  16. Biosynthesis and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles using Trifolium pratense flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO has broad applications in various areas. Nanoparticle synthesis using plants is an alternative to conventional physical and chemical methods. It is known that the biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, eco-friendliness and extensive antimicrobial activity. Also, in this study we report the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Trifolium pratense flower extract. The prepared ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM with Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. Besides, this study determines the antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles against clinical and standard strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and standard strain of E. coli.

  17. Synthesis and annealing study of RF sputtered ZnO thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shushant Kumar, E-mail: singhshushant86@gmail.com; Sharma, Himanshu [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, JLN Marg, Malaviya Nagar, Jaipur-302017 (India); Singhal, R. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Centre, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, JLN Marg, Malaviya Nagar, Jaipur-302017 (India); Kumar, V. V. Siva; Avasthi, D. K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, we have investigated the annealing effect on optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films, synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates simultaneously at a substrate temperature of 300 °C using Argon gas in sputtering chamber. Thickness of as deposited ZnO thin film was found to be ~155 nm, calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). These films were annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C temperature in the continuous flow of oxygen gas for 1 hour in tube furnace. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO thin film along the c-axis (002) orientation. Transmittance of thin films was increased with increasing the annealing temperature estimated by UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. Quality and texture of the thin films were improved with annealing temperature, estimated by Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Characteristics of strontium-doped ZnO films on love wave filter applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Walter [Department of Electronic Englineering, National Formosa University, No 64, Wen-Hwa Rd., Hu-Wei, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wwater@nfu.edu.tw; Yan, Y.-S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tung Nan Institute of Technology, No 152, Sec. 3 PeiShen Rd., Shenkeng, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-13

    The effect of dopant concentrations in strontium-doped ZnO films on Love wave filter characteristics was investigated. Strontium-doped ZnO films with a c-axis preferred orientation were grown on ST-cut quartz by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures and surface morphology of films were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The electromechanical coupling coefficient, dielectric constant, and temperature coefficient of frequency of filters were then determined using a network analyzer. A uniform crystalline structure and smooth surface of the ZnO films were obtained at the 1-2 mol% strontium dopant level. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the 1 mol% strontium-doped ZnO film reaches a maximum of 0.61%, and the temperature coefficient of frequency declines to + 12.87 ppm/deg. C at a 1.5 mol% strontium dopant level.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles Supported on Amorphous SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Ding, Hao; Sun, Sijia

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the primary particle size of zinc oxide (ZnO) and eliminate the agglomeration phenomenon to form a monodisperse state, Zn2+ was loaded on the surface of amorphous silica (SiO2) by the hydrogen bond association between hydroxyl groups in the hydrothermal process. After calcining the precursors, dehydration condensation among hydroxyl groups occurred and ZnO nanoparticles supported on amorphous SiO2 (ZnO–SiO2) were prepared. Furthermore, the SEM and TEM observations showed that ZnO nanoparticles with a particle size of 3–8 nm were uniformly and dispersedly loaded on the surface of amorphous SiO2. Compared with pure ZnO, ZnO–SiO2 showed a much better antibacterial performance in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test and the antibacterial properties of the paint adding ZnO–SiO2 composite. PMID:28796157

  20. Fermi Level Tuning of ZnO Films Through Supercycled Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruomeng; Ye, Sheng; Sun, Kai; Kiang, Kian S.; de Groot, C. H. (Kees)

    2017-09-01

    A novel supercycled atomic layer deposition (ALD) process which combines thermal ALD process with in situ O2 plasma treatment is presented in this work to deposit ZnO thin films with highly tunable electrical properties. Both O2 plasma time and the number of thermal ALD cycles in a supercycle can be adjusted to achieve fine tuning of film resistivity and carrier concentration up to six orders of magnitude without extrinsic doping. The concentration of hydrogen defects are believed to play a major role in adjusting the electrical properties of ZnO films. Kelvin probe force microscopy results evidently show the shift of Fermi level in different ZnO films and are well associated with the changing of carrier concentration. This reliable and robust technique reported here clearly points towards the capability of using this method to produce ZnO films with controlled properties in different applications.

  1. Hydrogenated ZnO thin film with p-type surface conductivity from plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurylev, V.; Useinov, A.; Hsieh, P. Y.; Su, C. Y.; Perng, T. P.

    2017-06-01

    Fabrication of a ZnO p-n homojunction within a single structure by a simple process is a challenging task. In this work, an intrinsic p-type surface conductive layer of ZnO with a controlled concentration of holes over n-type conductive bulk was obtained by a one-step room-temperature process via hydrogen plasma treatment. Non-contact surface sensitive techniques, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive force atomic microscopy, confirmed the existence of surface p-type conductivity through analyzing the distribution and concentration of charge carriers on the topmost surface of hydrogenated ZnO. A theoretical framework was constructed to provide a rationale of the p-type surface conductivity and justify its relation to the treatment time. It is believed that this finding will open a new possibility for the fabrication of ZnO based p-n junction devices.

  2. Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Bo Ram; Jung, Eui Dae; Park, Ji Sun; Nam, Yun Seok; Min, Sa Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Su; Lee, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Friend, Richard H; Kim, Ji-Seon; Kim, Sang Ouk; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    .... Here, we improve the efficiency of inverted polymer light-emitting diodes by introducing a spontaneously formed ripple-shaped nanostructure of ZnO and applying an amine-based polar solvent treatment...

  3. ZnO nanorods for simultaneous light trapping and transparent electrode application in solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2011-10-01

    Efficacy of using vertically grown ZnO nanorod array in enhancing electromagnetic field intensity and serving as the top contact layer (transparent electrodes) for solar cells was investigated. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Removal of Bractive T Blue by Photodegradation and Adsorption Using ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. Nahid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bractive T Blue (BTB partially removed from the aqueous solution at usual pH (~5.6 by adsorption on ZnO and completely removed by degradation in presence of UV light (intensity I=0.18 mW cm-1 and ZnO. The removal process was monitored by recording the change of absorbance at lmax = 617 nm with time. The adsorption of isotherm is of Langmuir type and the nature of adsorption seems to be electrostatic with ion exchange. The photodegradation kinetics follows the Langmuir –Hinshelwood model indicating that the degradation occurs at the surface of the ZnO particles. More than 82% color of 2.3×10-4 M BTB in 80.0 ml suspension contains 0.1g ZnO and vanishes in 90 minutes of illumination. Moreover, FT-IR spectral analysis does not indicate any intermediate formation during adsorption and photodegradation.

  5. Electrical conduction and NO2 gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Yasin; Öztürk, Sadullah; Kılınç, Necmettin; Kösemen, Arif; Erkovan, Mustafa; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2014-06-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC), photoresponse and gas sensing properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were investigated depending on heating rates, illumination and dark aging times with using sandwich type electrode system. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by hydrothermal process. TSC measurements were performed at different heating rates under constant potential. Photoresponse and gas sensing properties were investigated in dry air ambient at 200 °C. For gas sensing measurements, ZnO nanorods were exposed to NO2 (100 ppb to 1 ppm) in dark and illuminated conditions and the resulting resistance transient was recorded. It was found from dark electrical measurements that the dependence of the dc conductivity on temperature followed Mott's variable range hopping (VRH) model. In addition, response time and recovery times of ZnO nanorods to NO2 gas decreased by exposing to white light.

  6. Metastability of heavy lanthanides in the ZnO wurtzite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otal, Eugenio Hernan, E-mail: eugenio.otal@empa.ch [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, Ueberlandstr. 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); CINSO, Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, CONICET, CITEFA, San Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397, (B1603ALO) Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Yoon, Songhak; Aguirre, Myriam; Weidenkaff, Anke [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, Ueberlandstr. 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Introduction of Er in ZnO host lattice by sol-gel method. > The cell parameters obtained by Rietveld refinement confirm the introduction of the lanthahide in the cell. > The lanthanide are stable up to 800 deg. C in the samples with Er < 2% and up to 700 deg. C in the samples with Er > 2%. - Abstract: The introduction and stability of the heavy lanthanide Er, into ZnO was studied by HRTEM, XRD and thermal treatments. The applied synthesis route allows introducing the Er atoms in the lattice in a metastable state. The stability depends on the Er concentration. ZnO with Er concentrations of less than 2% are stable up to 800 deg. C, while higher concentrations result in a phase segregation at T > 700 deg. C. Unit cell parameters obtained from the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns provide a conclusive evidence of the incorporation of the Er ions in the host ZnO matrix.

  7. Synthesis of yttrium doped nanocrystalline ZnO and its photocatalytic activity in methylene blue degradation

    OpenAIRE

    P.K. Sanoop; S. Anas; Ananthakumar, S.; V. Gunasekar; Saravanan, R.; Ponnusami, V.

    2016-01-01

    Yttrium doped zinc oxide was prepared by microwave irradiation of Y (NO3)3·6H2O and Zn(NO3)2·4H2O as precursors, in ethanol–water medium. Highly polar ethanol–water medium (30/70, v/v) with hexamine and urea assist the formation of ZnO nuclei very rapidly in a specific fashion. Furthermore, Y3+ ions infiltration into Zn(OH)2 precipitate was facilitated by microwaves (2.45 GHz, 950 W). Yttrium doped nanocrystalline ZnO (ZnO-99 and ZnO-95) was formed with 1 and 5 mol% yttrium precursor. The pow...

  8. Charge transfer and surface defect healing within ZnO nanoparticle decorated graphene hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Chuyen V.; Repp, Sergej; Thomann, Ralf; Krueger, Michael; Weber, Stefan; Erdem, Emre

    2016-05-01

    To harness the unique properties of graphene and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for novel applications, the development of graphene-ZnO nanoparticle hybrid materials has attracted great attention and is the subject of ongoing research. For this contribution, graphene-oxide-ZnO (GO-ZnO) and thiol-functionalized reduced graphene oxide-ZnO (TrGO-ZnO) nanohybrid materials were prepared by novel self-assembly processes. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL) investigations on bare ZnO NPs, GO-ZnO and TrGO-ZnO hybrid materials, we found that several physical phenomena were occurring when ZnO NPs were hybridized with GO and TrGO. The electrons trapped in Zn vacancy defects (VZn-) within the core of ZnO NPs vanished by transfer to GO and TrGO in the hybrid materials, thus leading to the disappearance of the core signals in the EPR spectra of ZnO NPs. The thiol groups of TrGO and sulfur can effectively ``heal'' the oxygen vacancy (VO+) related surface defects of ZnO NPs while oxygen-containing functionalities have low healing ability at a synthesis temperature of 100 °C. Photoexcited electron transfer from the conduction band of ZnO NPs to graphene leads to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of near band gap emission (NBE) of both GO-ZnO and TrGO-ZnO. Simultaneously, electron transfer from graphene to defect states of ZnO NPs is the origin of enhanced green defect emission from GO-ZnO. This observation is consistent with the energy level diagram model of hybrid materials.To harness the unique properties of graphene and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for novel applications, the development of graphene-ZnO nanoparticle hybrid materials has attracted great attention and is the subject of ongoing research. For this contribution, graphene-oxide-ZnO (GO-ZnO) and thiol-functionalized reduced graphene oxide-ZnO (TrGO-ZnO) nanohybrid materials were prepared by novel self-assembly processes. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL

  9. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface of hierarchical ZnO thin films by using stearic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfen; Li, Benxia; Xu, Chuyang

    2012-01-01

    Flower-like hierarchical ZnO microspheres were successfully synthesized by a simple, template-free, and low-temperature aqueous solution route. The morphology and microstructure of the ZnO microspheres were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bionic films with hydrophobicity were fabricated by the hierarchical ZnO microspheres modified by stearic acid. It was found that the hydrophobicity of the thin films was very sensitive to the added amount of stearic acid. The thin films modified with 8% stearic acid took on strong superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA) almost to be 178° and weak adhersion. The remarkable superhydrophobicity could be attributed to the synergistic effect of micro/nano hierarchical structure of ZnO and low surface energy of stearic acid.

  10. Size-controlled synthesis of ZnO quantum dots in microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejn, Aleksandra; Frégnaux, Mathieu; Commenge, Jean-Marc; Balan, Lavinia; Falk, Laurent; Schneider, Raphaël

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we report on a continuous-flow microreactor process to prepare ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with widely tunable particle size and photoluminescence emission wavelengths. X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, UV-vis, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy measurements were used to characterize the synthesized ZnO QDs. By varying operating conditions (temperature, flow rate) or the capping ligand, ZnO QDs with diameters ranging from 3.6 to 5.2 nm and fluorescence maxima from 500 to 560 nm were prepared. Results obtained show that low reaction temperatures (20 or 35 °C), high flow rates and the use of propionic acid as a stabilizing agent are favorable for the production of ZnO QDs with high photoluminescence quantum yields (up to 30%).

  11. The low coherence Fabry-Pérot interferometer with diamond and ZnO layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrowicz, D.; Den, W.; Hirsch, M.

    2016-09-01

    The authors present a fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer built with the application of diamond and zinc oxide (ZnO) thin layers. Thin ZnO films were deposited on the tip of a standard telecommunication single-mode optical fiber (SMF- 28) while the diamond layer was grown on the plate of silicon substrate. Investigated ZnO layers were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and the diamond films were deposited using Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (μPE CVD) system. Different thickness of layers was examined. The measurements were performed for the fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer working in the reflective mode. Spectra were registered for various thicknesses of ZnO layer and various length of the air cavity. As a light source, two superluminescent diodes (SLD) with central wavelength of 1300 nm and 1550 nm were used in measurement set-up.

  12. Investigation of physicochemical properties of Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by chemical route

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gayathri, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this report we have demonstrated the synthesis of silver doped and pure ZnO nanoparticles using facile chemical precipitation method. The crystal structure, optical and magnetic properties of the synthesized nanocrystals were determined from XRD...

  13. Materialization of single multicomposite nanowire: entrapment of ZnO nanoparticles in polyaniline nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present materialization of single multicomposite nanowire (SMNW-entrapped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs via an electrochemical growth method, which is a newly developed fabrication method to grow a single nanowire between a pair of pre-patterned electrodes. Entrapment of ZnO NPs was controlled via different conditions of SMNW fabrication such as an applied potential and mixture ratio of NPs and aniline solution. The controlled concentration of ZnO NP results in changes in the physical properties of the SMNWs, as shown in transmission electron microscopy images. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity and elasticity of SMNWs show improvement over those of pure polyaniline nanowire. The new nano-multicomposite material showed synergistic effects on mechanical and electrical properties, with logarithmical change and saturation increasing ZnO NP concentration.

  14. Interfacial dominated ferromagnetism in nanograined ZnO: a μSR and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Thomas; Audehm, Patrick; Chen, Yu-Chun; Schütz, Gisela; Straumal, Boris B; Protasova, Svetlana G; Mazilkin, Andrey A; Straumal, Petr B; Prokscha, Thomas; Luetkens, Hubertus; Salman, Zaher; Suter, Andreas; Baretzky, Brigitte; Fink, Karin; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Danilov, Denis; Goering, Eberhard

    2015-03-09

    Diamagnetic oxides can, under certain conditions, become ferromagnetic at room temperature and therefore are promising candidates for future material in spintronic devices. Contrary to early predictions, doping ZnO with uniformly distributed magnetic ions is not essential to obtain ferromagnetic samples. Instead, the nanostructure seems to play the key role, as room temperature ferromagnetism was also found in nanograined, undoped ZnO. However, the origin of room temperature ferromagnetism in primarily non-magnetic oxides like ZnO is still unexplained and a controversial subject within the scientific community. Using low energy muon spin relaxation in combination with SQUID and TEM techniques, we demonstrate that the magnetic volume fraction is strongly related to the sample volume fraction occupied by grain boundaries. With molecular dynamics and density functional theory we find ferromagnetic coupled electron states in ZnO grain boundaries. Our results provide evidence and a microscopic model for room temperature ferromagnetism in oxides.

  15. Light Control of Ferromagnetism in ZnO Films on Pt Substrate at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jihao; Qin, Hongwei; Hao, Yanming; Cheng, Bin; Liu, Weikang; Liu, Liang; Ren, Shaoqing; Zhou, Guangjun; Ji, Ziwu; Hu, Jifan

    2017-04-10

    The control of ferromagnetism by light at room temperature is essential for the development of some optical-magnetic coupling devices, data storage and quantum computation techniques. In the present work, we demonstrate that the ferromagnetism of a semiconducting ZnO film on Pt substrate can be controlled by nonpolarized ultraviolet or violet light. The illumination of light with sufficiently high frequency photons could excite photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the semiconducting ZnO film. The amount of oxygen vacancies in the ZnO film and the appearance of built-in electric field due to the heterostructured ZnO/Pt may play important roles in the light-induced changes in the ferromagnetism of the ZnO film.

  16. Influence of stress in ZnO thin films on its biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shibu; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-11-01

    Highly c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, under varying ambient atmosphere (oxygen and argon reactive gas mixture), were studied for biosensing application. The as-grown ZnO thin films were found to be under compressive stress. Glucose oxidase was chosen as model enzyme for studying biosensing response properties of the ZnO thin films. The present study reveals a good correlation between stress induced during thin film growth and its biosensing response characteristic. The bio-electrodes based on ZnO thin films which are under the influence of higher stress, show better sensitivity and higher enzyme loading along with a prolonged shelf life. The study highlights the importance of physical properties of thin film matrix on its biosensing application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods chemically grown on flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabannia, R.

    2016-08-01

    Vertically aligned undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods array were successfully grown on flexible substrate by chemical bath deposition method at a low 0074emperature. The fabricated materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD analysis showed that Cu doping improves the crystallinity of the fabricated ZnO nanorods. The mean diameter and bending of the ZnO nanorods increase with an increase of Cu doping, but the density of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods almost unchanged. Room temperature PL measurement displayed increased intensity in UV peak and decreased visible peak after Cu doping.

  18. Templated self-assembly of ZnO films on monolayer patterns with nanoscale resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, Luciana Pitta; Gerstel, Peter; Bill, Joachim; Walheim, Stefan; Huang, Cheng; Pfeifer, Joerg; Schimmel, Thomas

    2010-03-16

    Lithographically defined self-growing ZnO films were prepared by a bioinspired chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). We observed a high selectivity of ZnO deposition: Teflon-like per-fluoro-decyl-trichlorosilane (FDTS) monolayers repelled ZnO primary particles, whereas amino-functionalized areas of the substrate were selectively covered by a highly anisotropic, oriented, and compact ZnO film with a thickness of 50 nm. The size of the primary particles in our methanol-based solution was approximately 2.5 nm. On the amino substrate they formed agglomerates not larger than 30 nm. Monolayer patterns made by polymer blend lithography were templated with an edge resolution of 30 nm. By using a specialized derivative of microcontact printing, we prepared layout-defined silane templates, which reliably determined the growth of a layout-defined, patterned oxide film with submicrometer lateral resolution.

  19. DNA-templated synthesis of ZnO thin layers and nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Petia; Weitz, R Thomas; Gerstel, Peter; Srot, Vesna; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Burghard, Marko; Bill, Joachim

    2009-09-09

    In this paper, we report a novel synthetic approach towards electrically conductive ZnO nanowires close to ambient conditions using lambda-DNA as a template. Initially, the suitability of DNA to assemble ZnO nanocrystals into thin coatings was investigated. The ZnO nanowires formed on stretched and aligned lambda-DNA molecules were prepared via chemical bath deposition (CBD) of zinc acetate in methanol solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). After 10 deposition cycles, the nanowires exceed 10 microm in length and the height can be varied from 12 to around 40 nm. The nanocrystalline structure of the ZnO wires was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The electrical conductivity was found to be of the order of several Omega cm at room temperature in two terminal measurements.

  20. Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Using p-Type ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Ming-Pei

    2009-03-11

    Using phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays grown on silicon substrate, energy conversion using the p-type ZnO NWs has been demonstrated for the first time. The p-type ZnO NWs produce positive output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope (AFM) in contact mode. The output voltage pulse is generated when the tip contacts the stretched side (positive piezoelectric potential side) of the NW. In contrast, the n-type ZnO NW produces negative output voltage when scanned by the AFM tip, and the output voltage pulse is generated when the tip contacts the compressed side (negative potential side) of the NW. In reference to theoretical simulation, these experimentally observed phenomena have been systematically explained based on the mechanism proposed for a nanogenerator. © 2009 American Chemical Society.