Sample records for resampling-based significance testing

  1. Efficient p-value evaluation for resampling-based tests

    Yu, K.


    The resampling-based test, which often relies on permutation or bootstrap procedures, has been widely used for statistical hypothesis testing when the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is unavailable or unreliable. It requires repeated calculations of the test statistic on a large number of simulated data sets for its significance level assessment, and thus it could become very computationally intensive. Here, we propose an efficient p-value evaluation procedure by adapting the stochastic approximation Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The new procedure can be used easily for estimating the p-value for any resampling-based test. We show through numeric simulations that the proposed procedure can be 100-500 000 times as efficient (in term of computing time) as the standard resampling-based procedure when evaluating a test statistic with a small p-value (e.g. less than 10( - 6)). With its computational burden reduced by this proposed procedure, the versatile resampling-based test would become computationally feasible for a much wider range of applications. We demonstrate the application of the new method by applying it to a large-scale genetic association study of prostate cancer.

  2. Introduction to Permutation and Resampling-Based Hypothesis Tests

    LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Greevy, Robert A.


    A resampling-based method of inference--permutation tests--is often used when distributional assumptions are questionable or unmet. Not only are these methods useful for obvious departures from parametric assumptions (e.g., normality) and small sample sizes, but they are also more robust than their parametric counterparts in the presences of…

  3. Efficient Monte Carlo evaluation of resampling-based hypothesis tests with applications to genetic epidemiology.

    Fung, Wing K; Yu, Kexin; Yang, Yingrui; Zhou, Ji-Yuan


    Monte Carlo evaluation of resampling-based tests is often conducted in statistical analysis. However, this procedure is generally computationally intensive. The pooling resampling-based method has been developed to reduce the computational burden but the validity of the method has not been studied before. In this article, we first investigate the asymptotic properties of the pooling resampling-based method and then propose a novel Monte Carlo evaluation procedure namely the n-times pooling resampling-based method. Theorems as well as simulations show that the proposed method can give smaller or comparable root mean squared errors and bias with much less computing time, thus can be strongly recommended especially for evaluating highly computationally intensive hypothesis testing procedures in genetic epidemiology.

  4. A resampling-based meta-analysis for detection of differential gene expression in breast cancer

    Ergul Gulusan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer and classification of cancer subtypes has improved over the years with the development of well-established immunohistopathological criteria. More recently, diagnostic gene-sets at the mRNA expression level have been tested as better predictors of disease state. However, breast cancer is heterogeneous in nature; thus extraction of differentially expressed gene-sets that stably distinguish normal tissue from various pathologies poses challenges. Meta-analysis of high-throughput expression data using a collection of statistical methodologies leads to the identification of robust tumor gene expression signatures. Methods A resampling-based meta-analysis strategy, which involves the use of resampling and application of distribution statistics in combination to assess the degree of significance in differential expression between sample classes, was developed. Two independent microarray datasets that contain normal breast, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC samples were used for the meta-analysis. Expression of the genes, selected from the gene list for classification of normal breast samples and breast tumors encompassing both the ILC and IDC subtypes were tested on 10 independent primary IDC samples and matched non-tumor controls by real-time qRT-PCR. Other existing breast cancer microarray datasets were used in support of the resampling-based meta-analysis. Results The two independent microarray studies were found to be comparable, although differing in their experimental methodologies (Pearson correlation coefficient, R = 0.9389 and R = 0.8465 for ductal and lobular samples, respectively. The resampling-based meta-analysis has led to the identification of a highly stable set of genes for classification of normal breast samples and breast tumors encompassing both the ILC and IDC subtypes. The expression results of the selected genes obtained through real

  5. A likelihood and resampling based approach to dichotomizing a continuous biomarker in medical research.

    Su, Min; Fang, Liang; Su, Zheng


    Dichotomizing a continuous biomarker is a common practice in medical research. Various methods exist in the literature for dichotomizing continuous biomarkers. The most widely adopted minimum p-value approach uses a sequence of test statistics for all possible dichotomizations of a continuous biomarker, and it chooses the cutpoint that is associated with the maximum test statistic, or equivalently, the minimum p-value of the test. We herein propose a likelihood and resampling-based approach to dichotomizing a continuous biomarker. In this approach, the cutpoint is considered as an unknown variable in addition to the unknown outcome variables, and the likelihood function is maximized with respect to the cutpoint variable as well as the outcome variables to obtain the optimal cutpoint for the continuous biomarker. The significance level of the test for whether a cutpoint exists is assessed via a permutation test using the maximum likelihood values calculated based on the original as well as the permutated data sets. Numerical comparisons of the proposed approach and the minimum p-value approach showed that the proposed approach was not only more powerful in detecting the cutpoint but also provided markedly more accurate estimates of the cutpoint than the minimum p-value approach in all the simulation scenarios considered.

  6. Significance Testing Without Truth


    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  7. Resampling-based approaches to study variation in morphological modularity.

    Carmelo Fruciano

    Full Text Available Modularity has been suggested to be connected to evolvability because a higher degree of independence among parts allows them to evolve as separate units. Recently, the Escoufier RV coefficient has been proposed as a measure of the degree of integration between modules in multivariate morphometric datasets. However, it has been shown, using randomly simulated datasets, that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size. Also, so far there is no statistical test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations. Here, we (1, using a rarefaction analysis, show that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size also in real geometric morphometric datasets; (2 propose a permutation procedure to test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations; (3 show, through simulations, that such a permutation procedure has an appropriate Type I error; (4 suggest that a rarefaction procedure could be used to obtain sample-size-corrected values of the RV coefficient; and (5 propose a nearest-neighbor procedure that could be used when studying the variation of modularity in geographic space. The approaches outlined here, readily extendable to non-morphometric datasets, allow study of the variation in the degree of integration between a priori defined modules. A Java application--that will allow performance of the proposed test using a software with graphical user interface--has also been developed and is available at the Morphometrics at Stony Brook Web page (

  8. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S


    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  9. Reconstruction of micron resolution mouse brain surface from large-scale imaging dataset using resampling-based variational model.

    Li, Jing; Quan, Tingwei; Li, Shiwei; Zhou, Hang; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun


    Brain surface profile is essential for brain studies, including registration, segmentation of brain structure and drawing neuronal circuits. Recent advances in high-throughput imaging techniques enable imaging whole mouse brain at micron spatial resolution and provide a basis for more fine quantitative studies in neuroscience. However, reconstructing micron resolution brain surface from newly produced neuronal dataset still faces challenges. Most current methods apply global analysis, which are neither applicable to a large imaging dataset nor to a brain surface with an inhomogeneous signal intensity. Here, we proposed a resampling-based variational model for this purpose. In this model, the movement directions of the initial boundary elements are fixed, the final positions of the initial boundary elements that form the brain surface are determined by the local signal intensity. These features assure an effective reconstruction of the brain surface from a new brain dataset. Compared with conventional typical methods, such as level set based method and active contour method, our method significantly increases the recall and precision rates above 97% and is approximately hundreds-fold faster. We demonstrated a fast reconstruction at micron level of the whole brain surface from a large dataset of hundreds of GB in size within 6 hours.

  10. A Resampling-Based Stochastic Approximation Method for Analysis of Large Geostatistical Data

    Liang, Faming


    The Gaussian geostatistical model has been widely used in modeling of spatial data. However, it is challenging to computationally implement this method because it requires the inversion of a large covariance matrix, particularly when there is a large number of observations. This article proposes a resampling-based stochastic approximation method to address this challenge. At each iteration of the proposed method, a small subsample is drawn from the full dataset, and then the current estimate of the parameters is updated accordingly under the framework of stochastic approximation. Since the proposed method makes use of only a small proportion of the data at each iteration, it avoids inverting large covariance matrices and thus is scalable to large datasets. The proposed method also leads to a general parameter estimation approach, maximum mean log-likelihood estimation, which includes the popular maximum (log)-likelihood estimation (MLE) approach as a special case and is expected to play an important role in analyzing large datasets. Under mild conditions, it is shown that the estimator resulting from the proposed method converges in probability to a set of parameter values of equivalent Gaussian probability measures, and that the estimator is asymptotically normally distributed. To the best of the authors\\' knowledge, the present study is the first one on asymptotic normality under infill asymptotics for general covariance functions. The proposed method is illustrated with large datasets, both simulated and real. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  11. Asymptotic Distributions for Tests of Combined Significance.

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    This paper discusses distribution theory and power computations for four common "tests of combined significance." These tests are calculated using one-sided sample probabilities or p values from independent studies (or hypothesis tests), and provide an overall significance level for the series of results. Noncentral asymptotic sampling…

  12. Significance tests and sample homogeneity loophole

    Kupczynski, Marian


    In their recent comment, published in Nature, Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng discuss how P-values are widely abused in null hypothesis significance testing . We agree completely with them and in this short comment we discuss the importance of sample homogeneity tests. No matter with how much scrutiny data are gathered if homogeneity tests are not performed the significance tests suffer from sample homogeneity loophole and the results may not be trusted. For example sample homogeneity loophole was not closed in the experiment testing local realism in which a significant violation of Eberhard inequality was found. We are not surprised that Bell type inequalities are violated since if the contextual character of quantum observables is properly taken into account these inequalities cannot be proven. However in order to trust the significance of the violation sample homogeneity loophole must be closed. Therefore we repeat after Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng that sample homogeneity loophole is probably just the ...

  13. Extraction of mismatch negativity using a resampling-based spatial filtering method

    Lin, Yanfei; Wu, Wei; Wu, Chaohua; Liu, Baolin; Gao, Xiaorong


    Objective. It is currently a challenge to extract the mismatch negativity (MMN) waveform on the basis of a small number of EEG trials, which are typically unbalanced between conditions. Approach. In order to address this issue, a method combining the techniques of resampling and spatial filtering is proposed in this paper. Specifically, the first step of the method, termed ‘resampling difference’, randomly samples the standard and deviant sweeps, and then subtracts standard sweeps from deviant sweeps. The second step of the method employs the spatial filters designed by a signal-to-noise ratio maximizer (SIM) to extract the MMN component. The SIM algorithm can maximize the signal-to-noise ratio for event-related potentials (ERPs) to improve extraction. Simulation data were used to evaluate the influence of three parameters (i.e. trial number, repeated-SIM times and sampling times) on the performance of the proposed method. Main results. Results demonstrated that it was feasible and reliable to extract the MMN waveform using the method. Finally, an oddball paradigm with auditory stimuli of different frequencies was employed to record a few trials (50 trials of deviant sweeps and 250 trials of standard sweeps) of EEG data from 11 adult subjects. Results showed that the method could effectively extract the MMN using the EEG data of each individual subject. Significance. The extracted MMN waveform has a significantly larger peak amplitude and shorter latencies in response to the more deviant stimuli than in response to the less deviant stimuli, which agreed with the MMN properties reported in previous literature using grand-averaged EEG data of multi-subjects.

  14. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    D. Maraun


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  15. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    Şen, Zekai


    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  16. Significance testing as perverse probabilistic reasoning

    Westover Kenneth D


    Full Text Available Abstract Truth claims in the medical literature rely heavily on statistical significance testing. Unfortunately, most physicians misunderstand the underlying probabilistic logic of significance tests and consequently often misinterpret their results. This near-universal misunderstanding is highlighted by means of a simple quiz which we administered to 246 physicians at two major academic hospitals, on which the proportion of incorrect responses exceeded 90%. A solid understanding of the fundamental concepts of probability theory is becoming essential to the rational interpretation of medical information. This essay provides a technically sound review of these concepts that is accessible to a medical audience. We also briefly review the debate in the cognitive sciences regarding physicians' aptitude for probabilistic inference.

  17. Significance testing testate amoeba water table reconstructions

    Payne, Richard J.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; van Bellen, Simon; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Booth, Robert K.; Charman, Dan J.; Ellershaw, Megan R.; Gilbert, Daniel; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Malysheva, Elena A.; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Mazei, Yuri; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Turner, T. Edward; Telford, Richard J.


    Transfer functions are valuable tools in palaeoecology, but their output may not always be meaningful. A recently-developed statistical test ('randomTF') offers the potential to distinguish among reconstructions which are more likely to be useful, and those less so. We applied this test to a large number of reconstructions of peatland water table depth based on testate amoebae. Contrary to our expectations, a substantial majority (25 of 30) of these reconstructions gave non-significant results (P > 0.05). The underlying reasons for this outcome are unclear. We found no significant correlation between randomTF P-value and transfer function performance, the properties of the training set and reconstruction, or measures of transfer function fit. These results give cause for concern but we believe it would be extremely premature to discount the results of non-significant reconstructions. We stress the need for more critical assessment of transfer function output, replication of results and ecologically-informed interpretation of palaeoecological data.

  18. Advances in Significance Testing for Cluster Detection

    Coleman, Deidra Andrea

    Over the past two decades, much attention has been given to data driven project goals such as the Human Genome Project and the development of syndromic surveillance systems. A major component of these types of projects is analyzing the abundance of data. Detecting clusters within the data can be beneficial as it can lead to the identification of specified sequences of DNA nucleotides that are related to important biological functions or the locations of epidemics such as disease outbreaks or bioterrorism attacks. Cluster detection techniques require efficient and accurate hypothesis testing procedures. In this dissertation, we improve upon the hypothesis testing procedures for cluster detection by enhancing distributional theory and providing an alternative method for spatial cluster detection using syndromic surveillance data. In Chapter 2, we provide an efficient method to compute the exact distribution of the number and coverage of h-clumps of a collection of words. This method involves defining a Markov chain using a minimal deterministic automaton to reduce the number of states needed for computation. We allow words of the collection to contain other words of the collection making the method more general. We use our method to compute the distributions of the number and coverage of h-clumps in the Chi motif of H. influenza.. In Chapter 3, we provide an efficient algorithm to compute the exact distribution of multiple window discrete scan statistics for higher-order, multi-state Markovian sequences. This algorithm involves defining a Markov chain to efficiently keep track of probabilities needed to compute p-values of the statistic. We use our algorithm to identify cases where the available approximation does not perform well. We also use our algorithm to detect unusual clusters of made free throw shots by National Basketball Association players during the 2009-2010 regular season. In Chapter 4, we give a procedure to detect outbreaks using syndromic

  19. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments


    This paper raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators. Statistical significance tests are highly controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with s...

  20. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    Schneider, Jesper W


    This paper raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators. Statistical significance tests are highly controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice of such tests, their dichotomous application in decision making, the difference between statistical and substantive significance, the implausibility of most null hypotheses, the crucial assumption of randomness, as well as the utility of standard errors and confidence intervals for inferential purposes. We argue that applying statistical significance tests and mechanically adhering to their results is highly problematic and detrimental to critical thinki...

  1. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg


    This article raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators by Opthof and Leydesdorff (2010). Statistical significance tests are highly...... controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice...... of such tests, their dichotomous application in decision making, the difference between statistical and substantive significance, the implausibility of most null hypotheses, the crucial assumption of randomness, as well as the utility of standard errors and confidence intervals for inferential purposes. We...

  2. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg


    This article raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators by Opthof and Leydesdorff (2010). Statistical significance tests are highly...... controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice...... are important or not. On the contrary their use may be harmful. Like many other critics, we generally believe that statistical significance tests are over- and misused in the empirical sciences including scientometrics and we encourage a reform on these matters....

  3. Statistical significance test for transition matrices of atmospheric Markov chains

    Vautard, Robert; Mo, Kingtse C.; Ghil, Michael


    Low-frequency variability of large-scale atmospheric dynamics can be represented schematically by a Markov chain of multiple flow regimes. This Markov chain contains useful information for the long-range forecaster, provided that the statistical significance of the associated transition matrix can be reliably tested. Monte Carlo simulation yields a very reliable significance test for the elements of this matrix. The results of this test agree with previously used empirical formulae when each cluster of maps identified as a distinct flow regime is sufficiently large and when they all contain a comparable number of maps. Monte Carlo simulation provides a more reliable way to test the statistical significance of transitions to and from small clusters. It can determine the most likely transitions, as well as the most unlikely ones, with a prescribed level of statistical significance.

  4. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.


    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent anal

  5. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.


    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent

  6. Your Chi-Square Test Is Statistically Significant: Now What?

    Donald Sharpe


    Full Text Available Applied researchers have employed chi-square tests for more than one hundred years. This paper addresses the question of how one should follow a statistically significant chi-square test result in order to determine the source of that result. Four approaches were evaluated: calculating residuals, comparing cells, ransacking, and partitioning. Data from two recent journal articles were used to illustrate these approaches. A call is made for greater consideration of foundational techniques such as the chi-square tests.

  7. The Use of Meta-Analytic Statistical Significance Testing

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Terri D.


    Meta-analysis multiplicity, the concept of conducting multiple tests of statistical significance within one review, is an underdeveloped literature. We address this issue by considering how Type I errors can impact meta-analytic results, suggest how statistical power may be affected through the use of multiplicity corrections, and propose how…

  8. Defending the Logic of Significance Testing: A Response to Gorard

    Neale, Dave


    Recently, Stephen Gorard has outlined strong objections to the use of significance testing in social research. He has argued, first, that as the samples used in social research are almost always non-random it is not possible to use inferential statistical techniques and, second, that even if a truly random sample were achieved, the logic behind…

  9. The significance test controversy revisited the fiducial Bayesian alternative

    Lecoutre, Bruno


    The purpose of this book is not only to revisit the “significance test controversy,”but also to provide a conceptually sounder alternative. As such, it presents a Bayesian framework for a new approach to analyzing and interpreting experimental data. It also prepares students and researchers for reporting on experimental results. Normative aspects: The main views of statistical tests are revisited and the philosophies of Fisher, Neyman-Pearson and Jeffrey are discussed in detail. Descriptive aspects: The misuses of Null Hypothesis Significance Tests are reconsidered in light of Jeffreys’ Bayesian conceptions concerning the role of statistical inference in experimental investigations. Prescriptive aspects: The current effect size and confidence interval reporting practices are presented and seriously questioned. Methodological aspects are carefully discussed and fiducial Bayesian methods are proposed as a more suitable alternative for reporting on experimental results. In closing, basic routine procedures...

  10. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya


    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  11. Optimizing significance testing of astronomical forcing in cyclostratigraphy

    Kemp, David B.


    The recognition of astronomically forced (Milankovitch) climate cycles in geological archives marked a major advance in Earth science, revealing a heartbeat within the climate system of general importance and key utility. Power spectral analysis is the primary tool used to facilitate identification of astronomical cycles in stratigraphic data, but commonly employed methods for testing the statistical significance of relatively high narrow-band variance of potential astronomical origin in spectra have been criticized for inadequately balancing the respective probabilities of type I (false positive) and type II (false negative) errors. This has led to suggestions that the importance of astronomical forcing in Earth history is overstated. It can be readily demonstrated, however, that the imperfect nature of the stratigraphic record and the quasiperiodicity of astronomical cycles sets an upper limit on the attainable significance of astronomical signals. Optimized significance testing is that which minimizes the combined probability of type I and type II errors. Numerical simulations of stratigraphically preserved astronomical signals suggest that optimum significance levels at which to reject a null hypothesis of no astronomical forcing are between 0.01 and 0.001 (i.e., 99-99.9% confidence level). This is lower than commonly employed in the literature (90-99% confidence levels). Nevertheless, in consonance with the emergent view from other scientific disciplines, fixed-value null hypothesis significance testing of power spectra is implicitly ill suited to demonstrating astronomical forcing, and the use of spectral analysis remains a difficult and subjective endeavor in the absence of additional supporting evidence.

  12. Significance testing of orbital forcing in deep time

    Kemp, David


    The recognition of orbitally forced (Milankovitch) climate cycles in geological archives marked a paradigm shift in Earth science, revealing a heartbeat within the climate system of general importance and key utility. Resolving orbital cycles in stratigraphic data is, however, problematic owing to the imperfect stratigraphic preservation of climate signals, the masking effects of non-periodic variance, and uncertainties in the expected responses of proxy records to climate change. Power spectral analysis is the primary tool used to facilitate identification of orbital cycles in stratigraphic data, but commonly employed methods for testing the significance of relatively high narrow-band variance of potential orbital origin in spectra have been criticised for inadequately balancing the respective probabilities of type I (false positive) and type II (false negative) errors. This has led to suggestions that the importance of orbital forcing in deep time is overstated [1]. It can be readily demonstrated, however, that the imperfect nature of the stratigraphic record sets an upper limit on the attainable significance of orbital signals. Optimised significance testing is that which minimises the sum of type I and type II errors [2]. Numerical simulations of stratigraphically preserved orbital signals suggest that optimum significance levels at which to reject a null hypothesis of no orbital forcing cluster between 99% and 99.9%. This is lower than recently advocated [1], but higher than the 90-99% levels most commonly employed in the literature. Nevertheless, in consonance with the emergent view from other scientific disciplines, fixed-value null hypothesis significance testing of power spectra is likely ill suited to verifying orbital forcing. In part, this is because the experiments also indicate that the combined probability of making an error in the acceptance or rejection of an orbital hypothesis may be rather high for typical stratigraphic data, and hence the use of

  13. Significance of tests of iron nutrition in pregnancy

    Metz, J.; Turchetti, L.; Combrink, B.; Krawitz, S.


    Tests of iron and folate nutrition have been carried out in early pregnancy and at delivery in 63 Bantu females. Accepted normal values for serum iron, and percentage saturation of transferrin, but not for unsaturated iron-binding capacity, for non-pregnant subjects were found to apply equally well in pregnancy. Concomitant folate deficiency in early pregnancy did not render tests of iron deficiency less valid. The unsaturated iron-binding capacity, percentage saturation, and marrow iron stores in early pregnancy all showed a significant correlation with the haemoglobin value at term. Patients with normal marrow iron stores and a percentage saturation of transferrin of 20 or more at or before the 24th week are unlikely to become anaemic from iron deficiency during pregnancy. PMID:5909700

  14. Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Surveillance Identifies Clinically Significant Beryllium Disease

    Mroz, Margaret M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Strand, Matthew; Silviera, Lori; Newman, Lee S.


    Background Workplace surveillance identifies chronic beryllium disease (CBD) but it remains unknown over what time frame mild CBD will progress to a more severe form. Methods We examined physiology and treatment in 229 beryllium sensitization (BeS) and 171 CBD surveillance-identified cases diagnosed from 1982 to 2002. Never smoking CBD cases (81) were compared to never smoking BeS patients (83) to assess disease progression. We compared CBD machinists to non-machinists to examine effects of exposure. Results At baseline, CBD and BeS cases did not differ significantly in exposure time or physiology. CBD patients were more likely to have machined beryllium. Of CBD cases, 19.3% went on to require oral immunosuppressive therapy. At 30 years from first exposure, measures of gas exchange were significantly worse and total lung capacity was lower for CBD subjects. Machinists had faster disease progression as measured by pulmonary function testing and gas exchange. Conclusions Medical surveillance for CBD identifies individuals at significant risk of disease progression and impairment with sufficient time since first exposure. PMID:19681064

  15. Significant issues in proof testing: A critical appraisal

    Chell, G. G.; McClung, R. C.; Russell, D. A.; Chang, K. J.; Donnelly, B.


    Issues which impact on the interpretation and quantification of proof test benefits are reviewed. The importance of each issue in contributing to the extra quality assurance conferred by proof testing components is discussed, particularly with respect to the application of advanced fracture mechanics concepts to enhance the flaw screening capability of a proof test analysis. Items covered include the role in proof testing of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile instability analysis, deterministic versus probabilistic analysis, single versus multiple cycle proof testing, and non-destructive examination (NDE). The effects of proof testing on subsequent service life are reviewed, particularly with regard to stress redistribution and changes in fracture behavior resulting from the overload. The importance of proof test conditions are also addressed, covering aspects related to test temperature, simulation of service environments, test media and the application of real-time NDE. The role of each issue in a proof test methodology is assessed with respect to its ability to: promote proof test practice to a state-of-the-art; aid optimization of proof test design; and increase awareness and understanding of outstanding issues.

  16. A shift from significance test to hypothesis test through power analysis in medical research

    Singh Girish


    Full Text Available Medical research literature until recently, exhibited substantial dominance of the Fisher′s significance test approach of statistical inference concentrating more on probability of type I error over Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test considering both probability of type I and II error. Fisher′s approach dichotomises results into significant or not significant results with a P value. The Neyman-Pearson′s approach talks of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Based on the same theory these two approaches deal with same objective and conclude in their own way. The advancement in computing techniques and availability of statistical software have resulted in increasing application of power calculations in medical research and thereby reporting the result of significance tests in the light of power of the test also. Significance test approach, when it incorporates power analysis contains the essence of hypothesis test approach. It may be safely argued that rising application of power analysis in medical research may have initiated a shift from Fisher′s significance test to Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test procedure.

  17. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    Staicu, Ana-Maria


    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  18. The ethical significance of diagnostic test results in psychology practice.

    Shefler, Gaby; Ben Shakhar, Gershon; Bilu, Yoram


    "Psychologists base the opinions contained in their recommendations, reports and diagnostic or evaluative statements including forensic testimony on information and techniques sufficient to substantiate their findings". Do expert psychodiagnosticians rely in their professional final reports on the materials and raw data obtained from test materials? How ethical are they in their professional performances? In order to answer this question, expert clinical psychologists were given batteries of psychodiagnostic tests, accompanied by one of two different types of background information, suggesting either a Borderline Personality Disorder, or a Paranoid Personality Disorder. This background information was a full and strongly suggestive story in one experiment, and a mere hypothesis in another. All conditions manifested a confirmation bias: the psychodiagnostic reports were profoundly biased by the background suggestions. The present paper focuses on a content analysis of the reports, and shows that the experts referred very little if at all to the psychodiagnostic materials they received. They were found less professional and as a result- less ethical. The ethical relevance of these findings to the teaching and training of professional psychodiagnosticians is discussed, with an emphasis on the importance of teaching students and interns in clinical psychology to base their diagnostic reports on the test data.

  19. Targeting Tuberculin testing: Significance and application. A survey.

    Nikolaos Karachalios


    Full Text Available Targeted tuberculin testing is a strategic component of tuberculosis (TB control that identifies persons at high risk for developing TB who would benefit by treatment of TB, if detected. The appearance of an indurated area of 5mm or more 48 to 72 hours after administration of purified protein derivative (PPD is considered a positive reaction in persons who have recently had close contact with an individual with active tuberculosis, in persons with radiographic findings consistent with a past history of tuberculosis or in persons with known or suspected human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ten or more millimeters of induration is considered a positive reaction in persons at increased risk of tuberculosis. Induration of 15mm or more is considered a positive result in all other persons. Ten percent to 25% of people with active tuberculosis have false‐negative test results, especially early in treatment. Some people who are not infected have a reaction due to infection with other mycobacterial species or to bacilli Calmette‐Guerin vaccine BCG.

  20. [Prognostic significance of bicycle ergometry test in patients with myocarditis].

    Gavalova, R F; Borodina, V I


    A total of 42 patients with rheumatic carditis were examined in the acute-subacute period and following 3-5 years. Seventeen patients were diagnosed as having primary rheumatic carditis, 9 presented with tonsillogenic rheumatic carditis, and 16 had viral rheumatic carditis. The diagnosis of myocarditis was established on the basis of clinical, immunological, and virological findings. The study involved ECG, PhCG, PCG, and bicycle ergometer testing recordings. Groups of patients with good and poor prognosis were identified. Low threshold exercise, exercise-inadequate tachycardia, complex cardiac arrhythmias, phasic myocardial hypodynamic syndrome and volume exercise syndrome that are formed during performance are prognostically poor indicators. More profound electric and mechanic dysfunctions were observed in patients with tonsillogenic or viral myocarditis.

  1. Clinical significance of SNAP somnography test acoustic recording.

    Galer, Chad; Yonkers, Anthony; Duff, Wallace; Heywood, Barbara


    To examine the clinical significance of acoustic data recorded by the SNAP home polysomnography system (SNAP Laboratories, Glenview, IL). Retrospective analysis of SNAP data from 59 patients undergoing evaluation for sleep apnea at the University of Nebraska Medical Center and an associated private practice in Omaha, NE. Snoring did not correlate with anthropometric variables such as body mass index and neck circumference. Statistical analysis showed no correlation between respiratory disturbance index and the maximum or average loudness of snoring. Average loudness was predictive of the presence of sleep apnea. Spectral analysis of snoring sonography found that the proportion of snoring events associated with a palatal source correlated strongly with the loudness of snoring. These data suggest that analysis of snoring has limited utility in the evaluation of the patient with sleep apnea but may be able to select patients who would benefit from palatal procedures to reduce snoring.

  2. "What If" Analyses: Ways to Interpret Statistical Significance Test Results Using EXCEL or "R"

    Ozturk, Elif


    The present paper aims to review two motivations to conduct "what if" analyses using Excel and "R" to understand the statistical significance tests through the sample size context. "What if" analyses can be used to teach students what statistical significance tests really do and in applied research either prospectively to estimate what sample size…

  3. Understanding the Sampling Distribution and Its Use in Testing Statistical Significance.

    Breunig, Nancy A.

    Despite the increasing criticism of statistical significance testing by researchers, particularly in the publication of the 1994 American Psychological Association's style manual, statistical significance test results are still popular in journal articles. For this reason, it remains important to understand the logic of inferential statistics. A…

  4. Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS

    O'Gorman, Thomas W


    Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma

  5. Significant Progress in Pilot Test of Polymer Flooding in Daqing Oilfield

    Liu Heng; Fu Dewu


    @@ Daqing oilfields have been developed with water injection for over thirty years. Currently,the pilot tests of polymer flooding for enhanced oil recovery are being conducted and significant progress has been made.


    Liviana Niminet


    Full Text Available The Small but Significant Nontransitory Increase in Price Test was designed to define the relevant market by concepts of product, geographical area and time. This test, also called the ,,hypothetical monopolistic test” is the subject of many researches both economical and legal as it deals with economic concepts as well as with legally aspects.

  7. Null hypothesis significance tests. A mix-up of two different theories

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg


    Null hypothesis statistical significance tests (NHST) are widely used in quantitative research in the empirical sciences including scientometrics. Nevertheless, since their introduction nearly a century ago significance tests have been controversial. Many researchers are not aware of the numerous......-Bayesian interpretations. This is undoubtedly a major reason why NHST is very often misunderstood. But NHST also has intrinsic logical problems and the epistemic range of the information provided by such tests is much more limited than most researchers recognize. In this article we introduce to the scientometric community...

  8. Position Weight Matrix, Gibbs Sampler, and the Associated Significance Tests in Motif Characterization and Prediction

    Xuhua Xia


    Full Text Available Position weight matrix (PWM is not only one of the most widely used bioinformatic methods, but also a key component in more advanced computational algorithms (e.g., Gibbs sampler for characterizing and discovering motifs in nucleotide or amino acid sequences. However, few generally applicable statistical tests are available for evaluating the significance of site patterns, PWM, and PWM scores (PWMS of putative motifs. Statistical significance tests of the PWM output, that is, site-specific frequencies, PWM itself, and PWMS, are in disparate sources and have never been collected in a single paper, with the consequence that many implementations of PWM do not include any significance test. Here I review PWM-based methods used in motif characterization and prediction (including a detailed illustration of the Gibbs sampler for de novo motif discovery, present statistical and probabilistic rationales behind statistical significance tests relevant to PWM, and illustrate their application with real data. The multiple comparison problem associated with the test of site-specific frequencies is best handled by false discovery rate methods. The test of PWM, due to the use of pseudocounts, is best done by resampling methods. The test of individual PWMS for each sequence segment should be based on the extreme value distribution.

  9. Research on the significance of TSPOT.TB test in diagnosing the atypical pulmonary tuberculosis

    Jin Li; Qi-Huang Chen; Yan-Yu Pan; Wei-Zheng Chen; Wen-Feng Lin; Sai-Li Zeng


    Objective:To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the TSPOT.TB test in diagnosing the atypical pulmonary tuberculosis.Methods:A total of 100 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were diagnosed by TSPOT.TB test and TST, and the difference between the two detection methods was compared.Results:The positive detection rate in the atypical pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly higher than that in the pulmonary tuberculosis group. The sensitivity (94.21), specificity (94.50), PPV (74.20), NPV (94.17), and LR+ (6.14) in the atypical pulmonary tuberculosis group by TSPOT.TB test were significantly higher than those by TST, while LR-(0.13) was significantly lower than that by TST.Conclusions:When compared with TST, TSPOT. TB test has a higher clinical application value, possesses advantages of rapidness and sensitivity, and plays a vital role in diagnosing atypical pulmonary tuberculosis.

  10. An Intercomparison of Rules for Testing the Significance of Coupled Modes of Singular Value Decomposition Analysis


    This paper clarifies the essence of the significance test of singular value decomposition analysis (SVD),and investigates four rules for testing the significance of coupled modes of SVD, including parallel analysis,nonparametric bootstrap, random-phase test, and a new rule named modified parallel analysis. A numerical experiment is conducted to quantitatively compare the performance of the four rules in judging whether a coupled mode of SVD is significant as parameters such as the sample size, the number of grid points, and the signal-to-noise ratio vary.The results show that the four rules perform better with lower ratio of the number of grid points to sample size. Modified parallel analysis and nonparametric bootstrap perform best to abandon the spurious coupled modes, but the latter is better than the former to retain the significant coupled modes when the sample size is not much larger than the number of grid points. Parallel analysis and random-phase test are robust to abandon the spurious coupled modes only when either (1) the observations at the grid points are spatially uncorrelated, or (2) the coupled signal is very strong for parallel analysis and is not weak for random-phase test. The reasons affecting the accuracy of the test rules are discussed.

  11. [Tests of statistical significance in three biomedical journals: a critical review].

    Sarria Castro, Madelaine; Silva Ayçaguer, Luis Carlos


    To describe the use of conventional tests of statistical significance and the current trends shown by their use in three biomedical journals read in Spanish-speaking countries. All descriptive or explanatory original articles published in the five-year period of 1996 through 2000 were reviewed in three journals: Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral [Cuban Journal of Comprehensive General Medicine], Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, and Medicina Clínica [Clinical Medicine] (which is published in Spain). In the three journals that were reviewed various shortcomings were found in their use of hypothesis tests based on P values and in the limited use of new tools that have been suggested for use in their place: confidence intervals (CIs) and Bayesian inference. The basic findings of our research were: minimal use of CIs, as either a complement to significance tests or as the only statistical tool; mentions of a small sample size as a possible explanation for the lack of statistical significance; a predominant use of rigid alpha values; a lack of uniformity in the presentation of results; and improper reference in the research conclusions to the results of hypothesis tests. Our results indicate the lack of compliance by authors and editors with accepted standards for the use of tests of statistical significance. The findings also highlight that the stagnant use of these tests continues to be a common practice in the scientific literature.

  12. Markov chain order estimation with parametric significance tests of conditional mutual information

    Papapetrou, Maria


    Besides the different approaches suggested in the literature, accurate estimation of the order of a Markov chain from a given symbol sequence is an open issue, especially when the order is moderately large. Here, parametric significance tests of conditional mutual information (CMI) of increasing order $m$, $I_c(m)$, on a symbol sequence are conducted for increasing orders $m$ in order to estimate the true order $L$ of the underlying Markov chain. CMI of order $m$ is the mutual information of two variables in the Markov chain being $m$ time steps apart, conditioning on the intermediate variables of the chain. The null distribution of CMI is approximated with a normal and gamma distribution deriving analytic expressions of their parameters, and a gamma distribution deriving its parameters from the mean and variance of the normal distribution. The accuracy of order estimation is assessed with the three parametric tests, and the parametric tests are compared to the randomization significance test and other known ...

  13. Clinical significance of HPV-DNA testing for precancerous cervical lesionS

    Moarcăs, M; Georgescu, IC; Brătilă, E; Badea, M.; Cîrstoiu, ECM


    Cervical screening by using cytology was proven efficient in reducing the mortality secondary to cervical cancer, but this method has limitations. High risk HPV infection is essential for cervical cancer development so HPV testing is a new tool used for screening patients for cervical neoplasia. HPV testing was proven most useful for women over 30 years old, in cases in which cytology identified ASC-US and after treatment for CIN. This article outlines the clinical significance of HPV-DNA tes...

  14. Use of power analysis to develop detectable significance criteria for sea urchin toxicity tests

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.


    When sufficient data are available, the statistical power of a test can be determined using power analysis procedures. The term “detectable significance” has been coined to refer to this criterion based on power analysis and past performance of a test. This power analysis procedure has been performed with sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development data from sediment porewater toxicity tests. Data from 3100 and 2295 tests for the fertilization and embryological development tests, respectively, were used to calculate the criteria and regression equations describing the power curves. Using Dunnett's test, a minimum significant difference (MSD) (β = 0.05) of 15.5% and 19% for the fertilization test, and 16.4% and 20.6% for the embryological development test, for α ≤ 0.05 and α ≤ 0.01, respectively, were determined. The use of this second criterion reduces type I (false positive) errors and helps to establish a critical level of difference based on the past performance of the test.

  15. Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

    As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…

  16. Recent Literature on Whether Statistical Significance Tests Should or Should Not Be Banned.

    Deegear, James

    This paper summarizes the literature regarding statistical significant testing with an emphasis on recent literature in various discipline and literature exploring why researchers have demonstrably failed to be influenced by the American Psychological Association publication manual's encouragement to report effect sizes. Also considered are…

  17. Thermal issues in test: An overview of the significant aspects and industrial practice

    Alt, J.; Bernardi, P.; Bosio, A.; Cantoro, R.; Kerkhoff, H.; Leininger, A.; Molzer, W.; Motta, A.; Pacha, C.; Pagani, A.; Rohani, A.; Strasser, S.


    Thermal phenomena occurring along test execution at the final stages of the manufacturing flow are considered as a significant issue for several reasons, including dramatic effects like circuit damage that is leading to yield loss. This paper tries to redeem those bad guys in order to exploit them t

  18. Thermal issues in test: An overview of the significant aspects and industrial practice

    Alt, J.; Bernardi, P.; Bosio, A.; Cantoro, R.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Leininger, A; Molzer, W.; Motta, A.; Pacha, C.; Pagani, A; Rohani, A.; Strasser, S.

    Thermal phenomena occurring along test execution at the final stages of the manufacturing flow are considered as a significant issue for several reasons, including dramatic effects like circuit damage that is leading to yield loss. This paper tries to redeem those bad guys in order to exploit them

  19. A Critical Assessment of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing in Quantitative Communication Research

    Levine, Timothy R.; Weber, Rene; Hullett, Craig; Park, Hee Sun; Lindsey, Lisa L. Massi


    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the most widely accepted and frequently used approach to statistical inference in quantitative communication research. NHST, however, is highly controversial, and several serious problems with the approach have been identified. This paper reviews NHST and the controversy surrounding it. Commonly…

  20. A critical discussion of null hypothesis significance testing and statistical power analysis within psychological research

    Jones, Allan; Sommerlund, Bo


    The uses of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and statistical power analysis within psychological research are critically discussed. The article looks at the problems of relying solely on NHST when dealing with small and large sample sizes. The use of power-analysis in estimating...

  1. Prognostic significance of performing universal HER2 testing in cases of advanced gastric cancer.

    Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Sánchez Lorenzo, Maria Luisa; Plazas, Javier Gallego; Custodio, Ana; Hernández, Raquel; Garrido, Marcelo; García, Teresa; Echavarría, Isabel; Cano, Juana María; Rodríguez Palomo, Alberto; Mangas, Monserrat; Macías Declara, Ismael; Ramchandani, Avinash; Visa, Laura; Viudez, Antonio; Buxó, Elvira; Díaz-Serrano, Asunción; López, Carlos; Azkarate, Aitor; Longo, Federico; Castañón, Eduardo; Sánchez Bayona, Rodrigo; Pimentel, Paola; Limón, Maria Luisa; Cerdá, Paula; Álvarez Llosa, Renata; Serrano, Raquel; Lobera, Maria Pilar Felices; Alsina, María; Hurtado Nuño, Alicia; Gómez-Martin, Carlos


    Trastuzumab significantly improves overall survival (OS) when added to cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine as a treatment for HER2-positive advanced gastric cancers (AGC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the gradual implementation of HER2 testing on patient prognosis in a national registry of AGC. This Spanish National Cancer Registry includes cases who were consecutively recruited at 28 centers from January 2008 to January 2016. The effect of missing HER2 status was assessed using stratified Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression. The rate of HER2 testing increased steadily over time, from 58.3 % in 2008 to 92.9 % in 2016. HER2 was positive in 194 tumors (21.3 %). In the stratified Cox PH regression, each 1 % increase in patients who were not tested for HER2 at the institutions was associated with an approximately 0.3 % increase in the risk of death: hazard ratio, 1.0035 (CI 95 %, 1.001-1.005), P = 0.0019. Median OS was significantly lower at institutions with the highest proportions of patients who were not tested for HER2. Patients treated at centers that took longer to implement HER2 testing exhibited worse clinical outcomes. The speed of implementation behaves as a quality-of-care indicator. Reviewed guidelines on HER2 testing should be used to achieve this goal in a timely manner.

  2. Information-theoretic indices and an approximate significance test for testing the molecular clock hypothesis with genetic distances.

    Xia, Xuhua


    Distance-based phylogenetic methods are widely used in biomedical research. However, distance-based dating of speciation events and the test of the molecular clock hypothesis are relatively underdeveloped. Here I develop an approximate test of the molecular clock hypothesis for distance-based trees, as well as information-theoretic indices that have been used frequently in model selection, for use with distance matrices. The results are in good agreement with the conventional sequence-based likelihood ratio test. Among the information-theoretic indices, AICu is the most consistent with the sequence-based likelihood ratio test. The confidence in model selection by the indices can be evaluated by bootstrapping. I illustrate the usage of the indices and the approximate significance test with both empirical and simulated sequences. The tests show that distance matrices from protein gel electrophoresis and from genome rearrangement events do not violate the molecular clock hypothesis, and that the evolution of the third codon position conforms to the molecular clock hypothesis better than the second codon position in vertebrate mitochondrial genes. I outlined evolutionary distances that are appropriate for phylogenetic reconstruction and dating.

  3. A common misapplication of statistical inference: Nuisance control with null-hypothesis significance tests.

    Sassenhagen, Jona; Alday, Phillip M


    Experimental research on behavior and cognition frequently rests on stimulus or subject selection where not all characteristics can be fully controlled, even when attempting strict matching. For example, when contrasting patients to controls, variables such as intelligence or socioeconomic status are often correlated with patient status. Similarly, when presenting word stimuli, variables such as word frequency are often correlated with primary variables of interest. One procedure very commonly employed to control for such nuisance effects is conducting inferential tests on confounding stimulus or subject characteristics. For example, if word length is not significantly different for two stimulus sets, they are considered as matched for word length. Such a test has high error rates and is conceptually misguided. It reflects a common misunderstanding of statistical tests: interpreting significance not to refer to inference about a particular population parameter, but about 1. the sample in question, 2. the practical relevance of a sample difference (so that a nonsignificant test is taken to indicate evidence for the absence of relevant differences). We show inferential testing for assessing nuisance effects to be inappropriate both pragmatically and philosophically, present a survey showing its high prevalence, and briefly discuss an alternative in the form of regression including nuisance variables.

  4. Does It Matter If Non-Powerful Significance Tests Are Used in Dissertation Research?

    Heping Deng


    Full Text Available This study examines the statistical power levels presented in the dissertations completed in the field of educational leadership or educational administration. Eighty out of 221 reviewed dissertations were analyzed and overall statistical power levels were calculated for 2,629 significance tests. The statistical power levels demonstrated in the dissertations were satisfactory for detecting Cohen's large effect (d=0.80 and medium effect (d=0.50 but quite low for small effect (d=0.20. Therefore, the authors of analyzed dissertations had a very low probability of finding true significance when looking for Cohen's small effect.

  5. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Grier Thomas J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  6. Using the Bootstrap Method for a Statistical Significance Test of Differences between Summary Histograms

    Xu, Kuan-Man


    A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.

  7. Significance of Landsat-7 Spacecraft Level Thermal Balance and Thermal Test for ETM+Instrument

    Choi, Michael K.


    The thermal design and the instrument thermal vacuum (T/V) test of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument were based on the Landsat-4, 5 and 6 heritage. The ETM+ scanner thermal model was also inherited from Landsat-4, 5 and 6. The temperature predictions of many scanner components in the original thermal model had poor agreement with the spacecraft and instrument integrated sun-pointing safehold (SPSH) thermal balance (T/B) test results. The spacecraft and instrument integrated T/B test led to a change of the Full Aperture Calibrator (FAC) motor stack "solar shield" coating from MIL-C-5541 to multi-layer insulation (MLI) thermal blanket. The temperature predictions of the Auxiliary Electronics Module (AEM) in the thermal model also had poor agreement with the T/B test results. Modifications to the scanner and AEM thermal models were performed to give good agreement between the temperature predictions and the test results. The correlated ETM+ thermal model was used to obtain flight temperature predictions. The flight temperature predictions in the nominal 15-orbit mission profile, plus margins, were used as the yellow limits for most of the ETM+ components. The spacecraft and instrument integrated T/B and TN test also revealed that the standby heater capacity on the Scan Mirror Assembly (SMA) was insufficient when the Earth Background Simulator (EBS) was 1 50C or colder, and the baffle heater possibly caused the coherent noise in the narrow band data when it was on. Also, the cooler cool-down was significantly faster than that in the instrument T/V test, and the coldest Cold Focal Plane Array (CFPA) temperature achieved was colder.

  8. Significance of Landsat-7 Spacecraft Level Thermal Balance and Thermal Test for ETM+Instrument

    Choi, Michael K.


    The thermal design and the instrument thermal vacuum (T/V) test of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument were based on the Landsat-4, 5 and 6 heritage. The ETM+ scanner thermal model was also inherited from Landsat-4, 5 and 6. The temperature predictions of many scanner components in the original thermal model had poor agreement with the spacecraft and instrument integrated sun-pointing safehold (SPSH) thermal balance (T/B) test results. The spacecraft and instrument integrated T/B test led to a change of the Full Aperture Calibrator (FAC) motor stack "solar shield" coating from MIL-C-5541 to multi-layer insulation (MLI) thermal blanket. The temperature predictions of the Auxiliary Electronics Module (AEM) in the thermal model also had poor agreement with the T/B test results. Modifications to the scanner and AEM thermal models were performed to give good agreement between the temperature predictions and the test results. The correlated ETM+ thermal model was used to obtain flight temperature predictions. The flight temperature predictions in the nominal 15-orbit mission profile, plus margins, were used as the yellow limits for most of the ETM+ components. The spacecraft and instrument integrated T/B and TN test also revealed that the standby heater capacity on the Scan Mirror Assembly (SMA) was insufficient when the Earth Background Simulator (EBS) was 1 50C or colder, and the baffle heater possibly caused the coherent noise in the narrow band data when it was on. Also, the cooler cool-down was significantly faster than that in the instrument T/V test, and the coldest Cold Focal Plane Array (CFPA) temperature achieved was colder.

  9. Confidence intervals permit, but do not guarantee, better inference than statistical significance testing.

    Coulson, Melissa; Healey, Michelle; Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff


    A statistically significant result, and a non-significant result may differ little, although significance status may tempt an interpretation of difference. Two studies are reported that compared interpretation of such results presented using null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), or confidence intervals (CIs). Authors of articles published in psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and medical journals were asked, via email, to interpret two fictitious studies that found similar results, one statistically significant, and the other non-significant. Responses from 330 authors varied greatly, but interpretation was generally poor, whether results were presented as CIs or using NHST. However, when interpreting CIs respondents who mentioned NHST were 60% likely to conclude, unjustifiably, the two results conflicted, whereas those who interpreted CIs without reference to NHST were 95% likely to conclude, justifiably, the two results were consistent. Findings were generally similar for all three disciplines. An email survey of academic psychologists confirmed that CIs elicit better interpretations if NHST is not invoked. Improved statistical inference can result from encouragement of meta-analytic thinking and use of CIs but, for full benefit, such highly desirable statistical reform requires also that researchers interpret CIs without recourse to NHST.

  10. Confidence intervals permit, but don't guarantee, better inference than statistical significance testing

    Melissa Coulson


    Full Text Available A statistically significant result, and a non-significant result may differ little, although significance status may tempt an interpretation of difference. Two studies are reported that compared interpretation of such results presented using null hypothesis significance testing (NHST, or confidence intervals (CIs. Authors of articles published in psychology, behavioural neuroscience, and medical journals were asked, via email, to interpret two fictitious studies that found similar results, one statistically significant, and the other non-significant. Responses from 330 authors varied greatly, but interpretation was generally poor, whether results were presented as CIs or using NHST. However, when interpreting CIs respondents who mentioned NHST were 60% likely to conclude, unjustifiably, the two results conflicted, whereas those who interpreted CIs without reference to NHST were 95% likely to conclude, justifiably, the two results were consistent. Findings were generally similar for all three disciplines. An email survey of academic psychologists confirmed that CIs elicit better interpretations if NHST is not invoked. Improved statistical inference can result from encouragement of meta-analytic thinking and use of CIs but, for full benefit, such highly desirable statistical reform requires also that researchers interpret CIs without recourse to NHST.

  11. Hypersensitivity testing for Aspergillus fumigatus IgE is significantly more sensitive than testing for Aspergillus niger IgE.

    Selvaggi, Thomas A; Walco, Jeremy P; Parikh, Sujal; Walco, Gary A


    We sought to determine if sufficient redundancy exists between specific IgE testing for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger to eliminate one of the assays in determining Aspergillus hypersensitivity. We reviewed regional laboratory results comparing A fumigatus-specific IgE with A niger-specific IgE using the Pharmacia UniCAP system (Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI). By using the Fisher exact test as an index of concordance among paired results, we showed a significant difference between 109 paired samples for the presence of specific IgE to A fumigatus and A niger (P niger; no specimen was positive for A niger and negative for A fumigatus. We conclude that A fumigatus-specific IgE is sufficient to detect Aspergillus hypersensitivity. The assay for A niger-specific IgE is redundant, less sensitive, and unnecessary if the assay for specific IgE for A fumigatus is performed.

  12. Prognostic significance of silent myocardial ischemia on a thallium stress test

    Heller, L.I.; Tresgallo, M.; Sciacca, R.R.; Blood, D.K.; Seldin, D.W.; Johnson, L.L. (Columbia Univ., College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (USA))


    The clinical significance of silent ischemia is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence or absence of angina during a thallium stress test positive for ischemia was independently predictive of an adverse outcome. Two hundred thirty-four consecutive patients with ischemia on a thallium stress test were identified. Ischemia was defined as the presence of defect(s) on the immediate postexercise scans not in the distribution of prior infarctions that redistributed on 4-hour scans. During the test 129 patients had angina, defined as characteristic neck, jaw, arm, back or chest discomfort, while the remaining 105 patients had no angina. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 8.2 years (mean 5.2 +/- 2.1) and was successfully obtained in 156 patients. Eighty-two of the 156 patients had angina (group A) and 74 had silent ischemia (group S). Group A patients were significantly older (62 +/- 8 vs 59 +/- 8 years, p less than 0.05). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of sex, history of prior infarction or presence of left main/3-vessel disease. A larger percentage of patients in group A were receiving beta blockers (60 vs 41%, p less than 0.05) and nitrates (52 vs 36%, 0.05 less than p less than 0.10). There was a large number of cardiac events (myocardial infarction, revascularization and death) in both groups (37 of 82 (45%) in group A; 28 of 72 (38%) in group S) but no statistically significant difference between the groups. Similarly, life-table analysis revealed no difference in mortality between the 2 groups.

  13. Significance tests to determine the direction of effects in linear regression models.

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Michael; von Eye, Alexander


    Previous studies have discussed asymmetric interpretations of the Pearson correlation coefficient and have shown that higher moments can be used to decide on the direction of dependence in the bivariate linear regression setting. The current study extends this approach by illustrating that the third moment of regression residuals may also be used to derive conclusions concerning the direction of effects. Assuming non-normally distributed variables, it is shown that the distribution of residuals of the correctly specified regression model (e.g., Y is regressed on X) is more symmetric than the distribution of residuals of the competing model (i.e., X is regressed on Y). Based on this result, 4 one-sample tests are discussed which can be used to decide which variable is more likely to be the response and which one is more likely to be the explanatory variable. A fifth significance test is proposed based on the differences of skewness estimates, which leads to a more direct test of a hypothesis that is compatible with direction of dependence. A Monte Carlo simulation study was performed to examine the behaviour of the procedures under various degrees of associations, sample sizes, and distributional properties of the underlying population. An empirical example is given which illustrates the application of the tests in practice.

  14. Laboratory testing for monoclonal gammopathies: Focus on monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma.

    Willrich, Maria A V; Murray, David L; Kyle, Robert A


    Monoclonal gammopathies (MG) are defined by increased proliferation of clonal plasma cells, resulting in a detectable abnormality called monoclonal component or M-protein. Detection of the M-protein as either narrow peaks on protein electrophoresis and discrete bands on immunofixation is the defining feature of MG. MG are classified as low-tumor burden disorders, pre-malignancies and malignancies. Since significant disease can be present at any level, several different tests are employed in order to encompass the inherent diverse nature of the M-proteins. In this review, we discuss the main characteristics and limitations of clinical assays to detect M-proteins: protein electrophoresis, immunofixation, immunoglobulin quantitation, serum free light chains and heavy-light chain assays, as well as the newly developed MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric methods. In addition, the definitions of the pre-malignancies monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), as well as monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) are presented in the context of the 2014 international guidelines for definition of myeloma requiring treatment, and the role of the laboratory in test selection for screening and monitoring these conditions is highlighted. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A critical discussion of null hypothesis significance testing and statistical power analysis within psychological research

    Jones, Allan; Sommerlund, Bo


    The uses of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and statistical power analysis within psychological research are critically discussed. The article looks at the problems of relying solely on NHST when dealing with small and large sample sizes. The use of power-analysis in estimating...... the potential error introduced by small and large samples is advocated. Power analysis is not recommended as a replacement to NHST but as an additional source of information about the phenomena under investigation. Moreover, the importance of conceptual analysis in relation to statistical analysis of hypothesis...

  16. An improved method to set significance thresholds forβdiversity testing in microbial community comparisons

    Gülay, Arda; Smets, Barth F.


    -community. The proposed technique was applied to several in silico generated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) libraries and experimental 16S rRNA pyrosequencing libraries. The latter represented microbial communities from different biological rapid sand filters at a full-scale waterworks. We observe that β diversity......, after subsampling, is inflated by intra-sample differences; this inflation is avoided in the proposed method. In addition, microbial community evenness (Gini > 0.08) strongly affects all β diversity estimations due to bias associated with rarefaction. Where published methods to test β significance often...

  17. Prevention of significant deterioration application for approval to construct SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site


    The following application is being submitted by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352, pursuant to WAC 173-403-080, and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing a Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for a new source of airborne radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The new source, the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site, will be located in the 309 Building of the 300 Area. The US Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the US Department of Defense (DOD) have entered into an agreement to jointly develop space nuclear reactor power system technology. The DOE has primary responsibility for developing and ground testing the nuclear subsystem. A ground test of a reactor is necessary to demonstrate technology readiness of this major subsystem before proceeding with the flight system development and demonstration. The SP-100 GES Test Site will provide a location for the operation and testing of a prototype space-based, liquid metal-cooled, fast flux nuclear reactor in an environment closely simulating the vacuum and temperature conditions of space operations. The purpose of the GES is to develop safe, compact, light-weight and durable space reactor power system technology. This technology will be used to provide electric power, in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts, for a variety of potential future civilian and military space missions requiring long-term, high-power level sources of energy. 20 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. A powerful test of independent assortment that determines genome-wide significance quickly and accurately.

    Stewart, W C L; Hager, V R


    In the analysis of DNA sequences on related individuals, most methods strive to incorporate as much information as possible, with little or no attention paid to the issue of statistical significance. For example, a modern workstation can easily handle the computations needed to perform a large-scale genome-wide inheritance-by-descent (IBD) scan, but accurate assessment of the significance of that scan is often hindered by inaccurate approximations and computationally intensive simulation. To address these issues, we developed gLOD-a test of co-segregation that, for large samples, models chromosome-specific IBD statistics as a collection of stationary Gaussian processes. With this simple model, the parametric bootstrap yields an accurate and rapid assessment of significance-the genome-wide corrected P-value. Furthermore, we show that (i) under the null hypothesis, the limiting distribution of the gLOD is the standard Gumbel distribution; (ii) our parametric bootstrap simulator is approximately 40 000 times faster than gene-dropping methods, and it is more powerful than methods that approximate the adjusted P-value; and, (iii) the gLOD has the same statistical power as the widely used maximum Kong and Cox LOD. Thus, our approach gives researchers the ability to determine quickly and accurately the significance of most large-scale IBD scans, which may contain multiple traits, thousands of families and tens of thousands of DNA sequences.

  19. Clinical significance of the mixing test in laboratory diagnoses of lupus anticoagulant: the fate of the mixing test in integrated lupus anticoagulant test systems.

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Hwang, Sang Mee; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Hyun Kyung


    The mixing test is used to determine the presence of inhibitors in laboratory diagnoses of lupus anticoagulant. Updated international guidelines state that an integrated lupus anticoagulant test system does not require the mixing test; an appraisal of the mixing tests in integrated lupus anticoagulant test systems is, therefore, required. We investigated the clinical relevance of mixing tests by using the best cutoff value of the mixing test through thrombotic risk analysis. A retrospective analysis was performed on 525 specimens with positive screening tests by using two integrated lupus anticoagulant tests: diluted Russell's Viper venom (dRVVT) and silica clotting time. The diagnostic performance of two interpretation formulas (percentage correction, Rosner index) was assessed, and the thrombotic risk of a subgroup based on the mixing results was investigated. Finally, the thrombotic risk of lupus anticoagulant positivity based on the integrated lupus anticoagulant test system procedures was assessed for the appraisal of mixing test exclusion in integrated lupus anticoagulant test systems. The best cutoff values of mixing test interpretation methods based on dRVVT were as follows: 60.1% for percentage correction and 15.7 for Rosner index. There was no substantial difference in the thrombotic risk between percentage correction and the Rosner index. The mixing-positive group showed a higher lupus anticoagulant titer and higher thrombotic risk than the mixing-negative group. However, even the mixing-negative group carried a significant risk of thrombosis. Finally, lupus anticoagulant positivity determined by the updated two-step procedure (screening and confirmation tests) showed higher thrombotic risk than that determined by the traditional three-step procedure (screening, mixing, and confirmation tests). Although a positive mixing result can predict a high risk of thrombosis, negative mixing results are also associated with a substantial thrombotic risk. The

  20. Association between micronucleus frequency and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade in Thinprep cytological test and its significance.

    Shi, Yong-Hua; Wang, Bo-Wei; Tuokan, Talaf; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Jing


    A micronucleus is an additional small nucleus formed due to chromosomes or chromosomal fragments fail to be incorporated into the nucleus during cell division. In this study, we assessed the utility of micronucleus counting as a screening tool in cervical precancerous lesions in Thinprep cytological test smears under oil immersion. High risk HPV was also detected by hybrid capture-2 in Thinprep cytological test smears. Our results showed that micronucleus counting was significantly higher in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and invasive carcinoma cases compared to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and non-neoplastic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that micronucleus counting possessed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for identifying HSIL and invasive carcinoma. Cut-off of 7.5 for MN counting gave a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 66.7% (P = 0.024 and AUC = 0.892) for detecting HSIL and invasive carcinoma lesions. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only HSIL and invasive cancer lesions not age, duration of marital life and number of pregnancy are significantly associated with MN counting. The positive rate of high risk HPV was distinctly higher in LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer than that in non-neoplstic categories. In conclusions, MN evaluation may be viewed as an effective biomarker for cervical cancer screening. The combination of MN count with HPV DNA detection and TCT may serve as an effective means to screen precancerous cervical lesions in most developing nations.

  1. Clinical features of congenital adrenal insufficiency including growth patterns and significance of ACTH stimulation test.

    Koh, Ji Won; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Yu, Jeesuk


    Congenital adrenal insufficiency is caused by specific genetic mutations. Early suspicion and definite diagnosis are crucial because the disease can precipitate a life-threatening hypovolemic shock without prompt treatment. This study was designed to understand the clinical manifestations including growth patterns and to find the usefulness of ACTH stimulation test. Sixteen patients with confirmed genotyping were subdivided into three groups according to the genetic study results: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH, n=11), congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (n=3) and X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (n=2). Bone age advancement was prominent in patients with CAH especially after 60 months of chronologic age (n=6, 67%). They were diagnosed in older ages in group with bone age advancement (Pcongenital adrenal insufficiency. ACTH stimulation test played an important role to support the diagnosis and serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were significantly elevated in all of the CAH patients. The test will be important for monitoring growth and puberty during follow up of patients with congenital adrenal insufficiency.

  2. A Multi-Core Parallelization Strategy for Statistical Significance Testing in Learning Classifier Systems.

    Rudd, James; Moore, Jason H; Urbanowicz, Ryan J


    Permutation-based statistics for evaluating the significance of class prediction, predictive attributes, and patterns of association have only appeared within the learning classifier system (LCS) literature since 2012. While still not widely utilized by the LCS research community, formal evaluations of test statistic confidence are imperative to large and complex real world applications such as genetic epidemiology where it is standard practice to quantify the likelihood that a seemingly meaningful statistic could have been obtained purely by chance. LCS algorithms are relatively computationally expensive on their own. The compounding requirements for generating permutation-based statistics may be a limiting factor for some researchers interested in applying LCS algorithms to real world problems. Technology has made LCS parallelization strategies more accessible and thus more popular in recent years. In the present study we examine the benefits of externally parallelizing a series of independent LCS runs such that permutation testing with cross validation becomes more feasible to complete on a single multi-core workstation. We test our python implementation of this strategy in the context of a simulated complex genetic epidemiological data mining problem. Our evaluations indicate that as long as the number of concurrent processes does not exceed the number of CPU cores, the speedup achieved is approximately linear.

  3. Diagnostic significance of haematological testing in patients presenting at the Emergency Department

    Giuseppe Lippi


    Full Text Available The use of simple and economic tests to rule out diseases of sufficient clinical severity is appealing in emergency department (ED, since it would be effective for contrasting ED overcrowding and decreasing healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of simple and economic haematological testing in a large sample of adult patients presenting at the ED of the Academic Hospital of Parma during the year 2010 with the five most frequent acute pathologies (i.e., acute myocardial infarction, renal colic, pneumonia, trauma and pancreatitis. Both leukocyte count and hemoglobin showed a good diagnostic performance (Area Under the Curve [AUC] of 0.85 for leukocyte count and 0.76 for hemoglobin; both p < 0.01. Although the platelet count was significantly increased in all patients groups except pancreatitis, the diagnostic performance did not achieve statistical significance (AUC 0.53; p = 0.07. We also observed an increased RDW in all groups, except in those with trauma and the diagnostic performance was acceptable (AUC 0.705; p < 0.01. The mean platelet volume (MPV was consistently lower in all patients groups and also characterized by an efficient diagnostic performance (AUC 0.76; p < 0.01. This evidence led us to design an arbitrary formula, whereby MPV and hemoglobin were multiplied, and further divided by the leukocyte count, obtaining a remarkable AUC (0.91; p < 0.01. We conclude that simple, rapid and cheap hematological tests might provide relevant clinical information for decision making to busy emergency physicians, and the their combination into an arbitrary formula might further increase the specific diagnostic potential of each of them.




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades Candida has accounted for the most serious opportunistic infections especially in the immuno-compromised individuals. Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections & the rates of resistance to standard antifungal therapies are on the rise. Awareness regarding fungal infections has compelled the clinicians and laboratories to lay more emphasis on the detection of fungi; as speciation and antifungal tests are not routinely done. Over the past decade significant progress has been made with standardization of the methods for antifungal susceptibility testing, correlation between in-vitro results & patient outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to isolate, identify & determine the susceptibility pattern of clinically significant Candida species and study the spectrum of Non-albicans Candida species, thus contributing to overall reduction in the cost of treatment and duration of hospital stay. METHODS: The study was carried out at department of microbiology MVJ Medical Hospital Bangalore for one year from Aug 2010 – July 2011. 50 Candida species which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. They were identified by using various media & identification methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done on Yeast nitrogen base agar by disk diffusion method & analyzed. RESULTS: Non-albicans Candida (NAC emerged as the commonest species with [39(22%] causing fungal infection followed by Candida albicans [11(22%]. Among the NAC isolates Candida tropicalis was predominant followed by Candida krusei, Candida glabrata & Candida guilliermondi. CONCLUSION: Studying the speciation & susceptibility patterns of Candida will help us understand the etio-pathology and might assist in better patient care

  5. Use of the Chi-square Test to Determine Significance of Cumulative Antibiogram Data

    Rocco J. Perla


    Full Text Available An important function of a hospital’s Infectious Disease and Pharmacy programs is to review and compare the most recent antibiogram with that of the previous year to determine if significant changes in antibiotic susceptibility results are noted and to communicate this information and its consequences to the medical staff. However, there are currently no formal analytical (decision-making models in use to determine if the rate of resistance to an antibiotic from one year to the next has significantly changed more or less than one would expect due to sampling error and test reliability. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate the utility of using a well-established and simple nonparametric statistical technique (chi-square for analyzing annual variations in cumulative antibiogram data and to determine whether such variations are significantly different from chance and to what to degree. The chi-square model outlined here is a simple, practical, quick, low burden and easy to understand and execute approach that greatly improves the analysis of antibiogram data and decision-making by practitioners. More work and research is needed to develop additional inferential statistical methods and models that can be applied to antibiogram data.

  6. The clinical significance comparison of a latex agglutination based syphilis screening test at low antibody titer.

    Wang, Hua-Cheng; Chen, Cha; Wang, Li-Na; Long, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Wei-Zheng; Li, You-Qiang; Xiao, Qian; Yuan, Hui


    The rapid increase of syphilis underscores a tremendous need to carefully evaluate many new serological tests for syphilis and choose efficient and economical strategies for syphilis screening, especially in the case of primary infection with low antibody titer. Between 2011 and 2012, 73 patients' sera samples were included in this retrospective study. They were either TRUST or TPPA reactive, either LA (latex agglutination) based auto3 TP or CLIA (chemiluminescence assay) based Architect Syphilis TP assay reactive. The contradictory weak response samples were further examined by FTA-Abs method. TPPA could not give reactive results in samples with antibody concentration less than 10 mIU. Auto3 TP reagent shows good linearity at low antibody titers and was more sensitive than TPPA, while the former does not show significant superiority compared to the Architect Syphilis TP assay at low antibody titer, except that it is suitable for adaptation on diverse automated chemistry analyzers.

  7. Technical note: A significance test for data-sparse zones in scatter plots

    Vetrova, V. V.; Bardsley, W. E.


    Data-sparse zones in scatter plots of hydrological variables can be of interest in various contexts. For example, a well-defined data-sparse zone may indicate inhibition of one variable by another. It is of interest therefore to determine whether data-sparse regions in scatter plots are of sufficient extent to be beyond random chance. We consider the specific situation of data-sparse regions defined by a linear internal boundary within a scatter plot defined over a rectangular region. An Excel VBA macro is provided for carrying out a randomisation-based significance test of the data-sparse region, taking into account both the within-region number of data points and the extent of the region. Example applications are given with respect to a rainfall time series from Israel and also to validation scatter plots from a seasonal forecasting model for lake inflows in New Zealand.

  8. An adaptive resampling test for detecting the presence of significant predictors

    McKeague, Ian W.; Qian, Min


    This paper investigates marginal screening for detecting the presence of significant predictors in high-dimensional regression. Screening large numbers of predictors is a challenging problem due to the non-standard limiting behavior of post-model-selected estimators. There is a common misconception that the oracle property for such estimators is a panacea, but the oracle property only holds away from the null hypothesis of interest in marginal screening. To address this difficulty, we propose an adaptive resampling test (ART). Our approach provides an alternative to the popular (yet conservative) Bonferroni method of controlling familywise error rates. ART is adaptive in the sense that thresholding is used to decide whether the centered percentile bootstrap applies, and otherwise adapts to the non-standard asymptotics in the tightest way possible. The performance of the approach is evaluated using a simulation study and applied to gene expression data and HIV drug resistance data. PMID:27073292

  9. Contribution of molecular testing to thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology of "follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance".

    Ohori, N Paul; Nikiforova, Marina N; Schoedel, Karen E; LeBeau, Shane O; Hodak, Steven P; Seethala, Raja R; Carty, Sally E; Ogilvie, Jennifer B; Yip, Linwah; Nikiforov, Yuri E


    "Follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance" is a heterogeneous category of cases that cannot be classified into 1 of the other established categories. The use of ancillary molecular studies has not been widely explored for this diagnosis. All thyroid cytology cases diagnosed as follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance were retrieved from April 2007 to December 2008. During this time period, samples were collected routinely at the time of aspiration for cytologic and molecular studies. Analysis for BRAF and RAS gene mutations and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARgamma gene rearrangements were performed and correlated with the cytologic features and surgical pathology outcome. From a total of 513 follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases identified, 455 had adequate molecular results. Of these, 117 cases had cytologic-histologic correlation. In this group, 35 (29.9%) cases had a neoplastic outcome and 20 (17.1%) cases from 19 patients were carcinoma. Positive molecular results were found in 12 cases, all of which were papillary carcinoma. There were no false-positive molecular results. In correlating the molecular results with surgical pathology outcome, we found that the cancer probability for follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases with molecular alteration was 100%, while the probability for follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance cases without molecular alteration was 7.6% (P undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance specimens represent cases that are intermediate in risk between the benign and "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" categories. Although not all papillary carcinoma cases are detected by molecular testing, a positive molecular test result is very helpful in refining follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of

  10. Significance of fully automated tests for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Oku, Kenji; Amengual, Olga; Kato, Masaru; Bohgaki, Toshiyuki; Horita, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Naoya; Ieko, Masahiro; Norman, Gary L; Atsumi, Tatsuya


    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) can vary both immunologically and functionally, thus it is important to effectively and correctly identify their presence when diagnosing antiphospholipid syndrome. Furthermore, since many immunological/functional tests are necessary to measure aPLs, complete examinations are often not performed in many cases due to significant burden on the testing departments. To address this issue, we measured aPLs defined according to the classification criteria (anticardiolipin antibody: aCL) IgG/IgM and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibody (aβ2GPI) (IgG/IgM) as well as non-criteria antibodies (aCL IgA, aβ2GPI IgA and aβ2GPI domain I), in a cohort of 211 patients (61 APS, 140 disease controls and 10 healthy individuals). APLs were measured using a fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassay instrument (BIO-FLASH®/ACL AcuStar®) and with conventional ELISA tests. We demonstrated that both sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosis of aCL IgG and aβ2GPI IgG were high, in agreement with the past reports. When multiple aPLs were examined, the accuracy of diagnosis increased. The proportion of APS patients that were positive for 2 or more types of aPLs (47/61, 77%) was higher than that of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)(3/37, 9%), those with non-SLE connective tissues diseases (1/53,2%), those with other diseases or healthy volunteers. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassay instrument, which allows the simultaneous evaluation of many types of aPLs, offers clear advantages for a more complete, more rapid and less labor-intensive alternative to running multiple ELISA and could help in better diagnosis for suspected APS patients.

  11. Prognostic significance of sinus deceleration during dobutamine stress echocardiography test following acute myocardial infarction

    Šalinger Sonja


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Chronotropic incompetence during exercise stress testing after acute myocardial infarction is an indicator of ischemia or impaired left ventricular function. On the other side, infusion of dobutamine leads to a typical dose-dependent increase in heart rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate of paradoxical sinus deceleration during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE, as the sign of ischemia and impaired left ventricular function, or the consequence of infarction localization, and the estimation of prognostic significance after acute myocardial infarction. Methods. Our investigation comprised 81 patients hospitalized because of the acute myocardial infarction, and all of them had uncomplicated infarction. Fifty five patients were treated with thrombolytic therapy (67.9%; 53 patients (65.4% had anterior myocardial infarction, and 28 patients (34.6% had inferoposterior localization of myocardial infarction. After 10-12 days all of them underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography examination. During the next 3-6 months, the patients underwent coronary angiography. The average follow-up period was 36±22 months. Results. A decrease in heart rate occurred at the dobutamine doses increasing from 15-40mcg/kg/min in 9 (11.1% of the patients, in 1 patient with an anterior localization and in 8 patients with an inferoposterior localization. The decrease was sudden in 4 (44.4%, and gradual in 5 (55.6% of the patients. In 3 patients (33.3% junction rhythm was developed, and in 2 patients (22.2% AV block II-III. Only in 2 of them, there was a worsening of regional function during a high dose dobutamine infusion, but 7 of them showed an improvement during a low dose. In 7 (77.8% of the patients there was a simultaneous decrease in blood pressure. Coronary angiographic examination showed that in 4 (44.4% of the patients there was a significant coronary artery disease and they underwent the revascularization procedure. During the follow

  12. Significance of Nueroelectrophysiological Tests in the Early Diagnosis of Sub-clinical Neuropathay with Diabetes Mellitus

    LI Zhijun; HU Xiaoqing; TANG Nai


    To evaluate the application of nueroelectrophysiological tests in early diagnosis of sub-clinical neuropathy in diabetes mellitus (DM), The routine nerve conductive velocity (NCV),F-wave and sympathetic skin response (SSR) were detected in 27 patients with diabetes mellitus but without symptoms and signs of lesions of nerve system. Our results showed that 48.1%, 44.4 %, 51.9 % of the patients were found to have abnormal NCV, F-wave and SSR respectively. The abnormalities were mainly characterized by prolonged latency, reduced velocity and absence of wave-form.There were significant differences between the controls and the DM group (P<0.05). Both the distal and proximal segments of nerves were affected and the distal lesions took place earlier than proximal ones and the changes in low extremities were more severe than those of upper extremities. F-wave can be used as a sensitive indicator for the early diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy and it can help to detect the subclincial lesions. SSR can be used for the evaluation of functional status of autonomic nerves in DM patients.

  13. 77 FR 19861 - Certain Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule


    .... Testing to identify where and in what concentrations a chemical substance or mixture may become present in... attributed to the greater use of c-PBDEs in North America (Refs. 29 and 30). The concentration and... congener and the media tested (Ref. 31). PBDE congeners with four to ten bromine atoms are highly...

  14. Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization

    Cameron Christopher JF


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to both the new datasets as well as previously studied datasets. This methodology is rigorous and statistically grounded, and ultimately culminates in a Wilcoxon significance test that proves the effectiveness of the system. We further include a complete generalization of the specific technique to arbitrary grammars and datasets using a mathematical abstraction that allows researchers in different domains to apply the method to their own work. Background Our work can be viewed as an alternative to existing methods to solve the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR problem. To this end, we review a number approaches both from a methodological and also a performance perspective. In addition to these approaches, we also examined a number of chemical properties that can be used by generic classifier systems, such as feed-forward artificial neural networks. In studying these approaches, we identified a set of interesting benchmark problem sets to which many of the above approaches had been applied. These included: ACE, AChE, AR, BBB, BZR, Cox2, DHFR, ER, FXa, GPB, Therm, and Thr. Finally, we developed our own benchmark set by collecting data on toxicology. Results Our results show that our system performs better than, or comparatively to, the existing methods over a broad range of problem types. Our method does not require the expert knowledge that is necessary to apply the other methods to novel problems. Conclusions We conclude that our success is due to the ability of our system to: 1 encode molecules losslessly before presentation to the learning system, and 2

  15. Everyday cognitive functioning in cardiac patients: relationships between self-report, report of a significant other and cognitive test performance.

    Elliott, Peter C; Smith, Geoff; Ernest, Christine S; Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Le Grande, Michael R; Goble, Alan J; Andrewes, David; Tatoulis, James


    Candidates for cardiac bypass surgery often experience cognitive decline. Such decline is likely to affect their everyday cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac patients' ratings of their everyday cognitive functioning against significant others' ratings and selected neuropsychological tests. Sixty-nine patients completed a battery of standardised cognitive tests. Patients and significant others also completed the Everyday Function Questionnaire independently of each other. Patient and significant other ratings of patients' everyday cognitive difficulties were found to be similar. Despite the similarities in ratings of difficulties, some everyday cognitive tasks were attributed to different processes. Patients' and significant others' ratings were most closely associated with the neuropsychological test of visual memory. Tests of the patients' verbal memory and fluency were only related to significant others' ratings. Test scores of attention and planning were largely unrelated to ratings by either patients or their significant others.

  16. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III: Psychometric properties and significance for application

    Nataša Bucik


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the content, conceptual structure and methodological steps of the latest revision of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III, which is a highly functional and valuable vocabulary test that has been in use since 1959 in different language and cultural surroundings. On the case of the PPVT-III we are presenting the procedure of development and standardization of such vocabulary tests as well as its translation and adaptation from one language and cultural milieu to another. We also note the practical use of the PPVT-III for research purposes. In Slovenian language no vocabulary tests were developed or adapted so far; PPVT-III is presented in this context, too.

  17. Methodology to identify risk-significant components for inservice inspection and testing

    Anderson, M.T.; Hartley, R.S.; Jones, J.L. Jr.; Kido, C.; Phillips, J.H.


    Periodic inspection and testing of vital system components should be performed to ensure the safe and reliable operation of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear processing facilities. Probabilistic techniques may be used to help identify and rank components by their relative risk. A risk-based ranking would allow varied DOE sites to implement inspection and testing programs in an effective and cost-efficient manner. This report describes a methodology that can be used to rank components, while addressing multiple risk issues.



    Tests of preoperative visual function and prediction of postoperative E chart visual acuity(ECVA) using laser interferometric visual acuity(LIVA) and electroretinogram(ERG) were performed in 16 cases(19 eyes) of cataract. The results showed that the coincident rate between preoperative LIVA and postoperative ECVA was 63.2%, and there was a parallel correlation between preoperative amplitude of photopic ERG b-wave and postoperative ECVA in 79.0% of the eyes. Comparing these two methods, the test of LIVA ...

  19. Many Tests of Significance: New Methods for Controlling Type I Errors

    Keselman, H. J.; Miller, Charles W.; Holland, Burt


    There have been many discussions of how Type I errors should be controlled when many hypotheses are tested (e.g., all possible comparisons of means, correlations, proportions, the coefficients in hierarchical models, etc.). By and large, researchers have adopted familywise (FWER) control, though this practice certainly is not universal. Familywise…

  20. A Comparison of Two Tests for the Significance of a Mean Vector.


    package” based upon the technique of Marsaglia [6] for generating standard normal deviates. A random observation from the bivariate normal population...Marcel Dekker, Inc. (6] Lehmann , E. L. (1959) . Testing Statistical Hypotheses, New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (7] Marsaglia , G. ( 1961

  1. Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space


    disturbed 11 areas. 12 9. Population Dynamics. Mechanisms that tend to damp down fluctuations in populations, increase 13 overpopulation ...would be heard on the ground; however, all aircraft would be above 3,000 feet except when landing at Edwards AFB. Installation of New Urban ...Operations Complex and Targets and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Targets for Nevada Test and Training Range Urban target sites are being constructed

  2. The diagnostic significance of the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in anemic dogs

    Slappendel, R.J.


    The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was positive in 134 (36.1%) of 371 anemic dogs with internal diseases. Four principal types of reaction were recognized: IgG alone in 15 (11.2%), IgG + C′ in 41 (30.6%), C′ alone in 74 (55.2%) and IgM + C′ in 2 (1.5%). Rarely, IgM and/or IgA reactions occurred in a

  3. The diagnostic significance of the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in anemic dogs

    Slappendel, R.J.


    The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was positive in 134 (36.1%) of 371 anemic dogs with internal diseases. Four principal types of reaction were recognized: IgG alone in 15 (11.2%), IgG + C′ in 41 (30.6%), C′ alone in 74 (55.2%) and IgM + C′ in 2 (1.5%). Rarely, IgM and/or IgA reactions occurred in a

  4. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Naidoo, S; Perovic, O; Richards, G A; Duse, A G


    BACKGROUND. Increasing resistance to some antimicrobial agents among anaerobic bacteria has made susceptibility patterns less predictable. METHOD. This was a prospective study of the susceptibility data of anaerobic organisms isolated from clinical specimens from patients with suspected anaerobic infections from June 2005 until February 2007. Specimens were submitted to the microbiology laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, where microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing were performed the using E test® strip minimum inhibitory concentration method. Results were interpreted with reference to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, metronidazole, penicillin, ertapenem, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and piperacillin-tazobactam. RESULTS. One hundred and eighty anaerobic isolates were submitted from 165 patients. The most active antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol (100% susceptible), ertapenem (97.2%), piperacillin-tazobactam (99.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.7%). Less active were metronidazole (89.4%), cefoxitin (85%), clindamycin (81.7%), ceftriaxone (68.3%) and penicillin (33.3%). CONCLUSION. Susceptibility testing should be performed periodically to identify emerging trends in resistance and to modify empirical treatment of anaerobic infections.

  5. The forensic and investigative significance of reverse paternity testing with absent maternal sample.

    Pretty, Iain A; Hildebrand, Dean P


    The authors are involved in the extraction of DNA material from calcified tissues, oftentimes teeth, and analysis of such material to assist the investigative process, frequently by confirming the identity of the victim. Biologic or molecular techniques for the purposes of human identification have evolved to allow increasingly discriminating tests for use in criminal and noncriminal death investigations, as well as paternity disputes. The goal of such tests is to either include 2 samples (ie, they are from the same person, or in the case of paternity, they are from related individuals) or exclude 2 samples (ie, they are from different people or from unrelated individuals). Regardless of the system used and when data error has been eliminated, an exclusionary conclusion is irrefutable. The probability of excluding the falsely accused has steadily increased over the years as new methods are developed. Conventional ABO blood typing, for example, has a probability of exclusion (PE) of only 17%. This value increases to 53% with the inclusion of the Rh and MN systems. Additional serological markers can provide a probability of exclusion of greater than 99%. Today, the current method of choice for human identification is the polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) multiplexes. This paper discusses the implications of nonpaternity in reverse paternity testing when only paternal DNA is available.

  6. Avoidance bio-assays may help to test the ecological significance of soil pollution

    Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Universidad de Navarra, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Zoologia y Ecologia, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Lors, Christine [Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Salmon, Sandrine [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France)]. E-mail:


    We measured the short-term (100 min) avoidance of a soil heavily polluted by hydrocarbons by the soil springtail Folsomia candida, at six rates of dilution in a control, unpolluted soil. We compared the results with those of long-term (40-day) population tests. Five strains were compared, of varying geographical and ecological origin. When pure, the polluted soil was lethal in the long-term and avoided in the short-term by all strains. Avoidance tests, but not population tests, were able to discriminate between strains. Avoidance thresholds differed among strains. Two ecological consequences of the results were discussed: (i) toxic compounds may kill soil animals or deprive them from food, resulting in death of populations, (ii) pollution spots can be locally deprived of fauna because of escape movements of soil animals. Advantages and limitations of the method have been listed, together with proposals for their wider use in soil ecology and ecotoxicology. - Polluted soils are avoided by soil animals, a phenomenon which can be used as a cheap, sensitive tool for the early detection of environmental risk.

  7. Analysis of pumping tests: Significance of well diameter, partial penetration, and noise

    Heidari, M.; Ghiassi, K.; Mehnert, E.


    The nonlinear least squares (NLS) method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in confined and unconfined aquifers with finite diameter and partially penetrating pumping wells, and with partially penetrating piezometers or observation wells. It was demonstrated that noiseless and moderately noisy drawdown data from observation points located less than two saturated thicknesses of the aquifer from the pumping well produced an exact or acceptable set of parameters when the diameter of the pumping well was included in the analysis. The accuracy of the estimated parameters, particularly that of specific storage, decreased with increases in the noise level in the observed drawdown data. With consideration of the well radii, the noiseless drawdown data from the pumping well in an unconfined aquifer produced good estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities and specific yield, but the estimated specific storage was unacceptable. When noisy data from the pumping well were used, an acceptable set of parameters was not obtained. Further experiments with noisy drawdown data in an unconfined aquifer revealed that when the well diameter was included in the analysis, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and vertical hydraulic conductivity may be estimated rather effectively from piezometers located over a range of distances from the pumping well. Estimation of specific storage became less reliable for piezemeters located at distances greater than the initial saturated thickness of the aquifer. Application of the NLS to field pumping and recovery data from a confined aquifer showed that the estimated parameters from the two tests were in good agreement only when the well diameter was included in the analysis. Without consideration of well radii, the estimated values of hydraulic conductivity from the pumping and recovery tests were off by a factor of four.The nonlinear least squares method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in

  8. Strategies for Testing Statistical and Practical Significance in Detecting DIF with Logistic Regression Models

    Fidalgo, Angel M.; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza


    This study examines three controversial aspects in differential item functioning (DIF) detection by logistic regression (LR) models: first, the relative effectiveness of different analytical strategies for detecting DIF; second, the suitability of the Wald statistic for determining the statistical significance of the parameters of interest; and…

  9. Significance of the Trendelenburg test in total hip arthroplasty. Influence of lateral approaches.

    Pai, V S


    The effects of lateral approaches to total hip arthroplasty on abductor weakness and limp were studied in 264 patients with primary osteoarthritis. The Hardinge approach was used in 82 patients, the transtrochanteric approach in 94, and the Liverpool approach in 88. There was no difference in functional level, range of movement, and limp among three lateral approaches. There was no increase in Trendelenburg gait after the Hardinge or Liverpool approach compared with the transtrochanteric approach. It is evident that the Trendelenburg test is a useful part of clinical examination if performed and interpreted correctly.

  10. In Vitro Chemosensitivity Testing of Primary and Recurrent Breast Carcinomas and Its Clinical Significance

    Zhi LI; Haiping SONG; Wenshan HE; Yuan TIAN; Tao HUANG


    In this study, in vitro chemosensitivity testing was conducted on primary cultured breast cancer cells from 96 patients with breast cancer, and the results showed that the cells from a few patients with primary breast cancer developed multidrug resistance (MDR) prior to the first chemotherapy exposure. All the cells from the recurrent cancer patients had MDR. The findings suggested that patients having MDR would benefit from high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) regimens. In vitro chemosensitivity screening, which was aimed at improving the therapeutic efficacy and minimizing side effects, helps in choosing individualized treatment for breast cancer.

  11. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost


    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  12. Conditional probability based significance tests for sequential patterns in multi-neuronal spike trains

    Sastry, P S


    In this paper we consider the problem of detecting statistically significant sequential patterns in multi-neuronal spike trains. These patterns are characterized by an ordered sequences of spikes from different neurons with specific delays between spikes. We have previously proposed a data mining scheme to efficiently discover such patterns which are frequent in the sense that the count of non-overlapping occurrences of the pattern in the data stream is above a threshold. Here we propose a method to determine the statistical significance of these repeating patterns and to set the thresholds automatically. The novelty of our approach is that we use a compound null hypothesis that includes not only models of independent neurons but also models where neurons have weak dependencies. The strength of interaction among the neurons is represented in terms of certain pair-wise conditional probabilities. We specify our null hypothesis by putting an upper bound on all such conditional probabilities. We construct a proba...

  13. Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete-making materials

    Pielert, James H


    Reflects a decade of technological changes in concrete industry! The newest edition of this popular ASTM publication reflects the latest technology in concrete and concrete-making materials. Six sections cover: (1) General information on the nature of concrete, sampling, variability, and testing laboratories. A new chapter deals with modeling cement and concrete properties. (2) Properties of freshly mixed concrete. (3) Properties of hardened concrete. (4) Concrete aggregates—this section has been revised and the chapters are presented in the order that most concerns concrete users: grading, density, soundness, degradation resistance, petrographic examination, reactivity, and thermal properties. (5) Materials other than aggregates—the chapter on curing materials now reflects the current technology of materials applied to new concrete surfaces. The chapter on mineral admixtures has been separated into two chapters: supplementary cementitious materials and ground slag. (6) Specialized concretes—contains a ...

  14. Frequency and Prognostic Significance of Abnormal Liver Function Tests in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock.

    Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Parissis, John; Pulkki, Kari; Sionis, Alessandro; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Køber, Lars; Banaszewski, Marek; Spinar, Jindrich; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Tolonen, Jukka; Carubelli, Valentina; diSomma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Lassus, Johan


    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a cardiac emergency often leading to multiple organ failure and death. Assessing organ dysfunction and appropriate risk stratification are central for the optimal management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs), as well as early changes of LFTs and their impact on outcome in CS. We measured LFTs in 178 patients in CS from serial blood samples taken at 0 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The associations of LFT abnormalities and their early changes with all-cause 90-day mortality were estimated using Fisher's exact test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was abnormal in 58% of the patients, more frequently in nonsurvivors. Abnormalities in other LFTs analyzed (alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and total bilirubin) were not associated with short-term mortality. An increase in ALT of >20% within 24 hours (ΔALT>+20%) was observed in 24% of patients. ΔALT>+20% was associated with a more than 2-fold increase in mortality compared with those with stable or decreasing ALT (70% and 28%, p +20% was associated with increased 90-day mortality independent of other known risk factors. In conclusion, an increase in ALT in the initial phase was seen in 1/4 of patients in CS and was independently associated with 90-day mortality. This finding suggests that serial ALT measurements should be incorporated in the clinical assessment of patients in CS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SmileFinder: a resampling-based approach to evaluate signatures of selection from genome-wide sets of matching allele frequency data in two or more diploid populations.

    Guiblet, Wilfried M; Zhao, Kai; O'Brien, Stephen J; Massey, Steven E; Roca, Alfred L; Oleksyk, Taras K


    Adaptive alleles may rise in frequency as a consequence of positive selection, creating a pattern of decreased variation in the neighboring loci, known as a selective sweep. When the region containing this pattern is compared to another population with no history of selection, a rise in variance of allele frequencies between populations is observed. One challenge presented by large genome-wide datasets is the ability to differentiate between patterns that are remnants of natural selection from those expected to arise at random and/or as a consequence of selectively neutral demographic forces acting in the population. SmileFinder is a simple program that looks for diversity and divergence patterns consistent with selection sweeps by evaluating allele frequencies in windows, including neighboring loci from two or more populations of a diploid species against the genome-wide neutral expectation. The program calculates the mean of heterozygosity and FST in a set of sliding windows of incrementally increasing sizes, and then builds a resampled distribution (the baseline) of random multi-locus sets matched to the sizes of sliding windows, using an unrestricted sampling. Percentiles of the values in the sliding windows are derived from the superimposed resampled distribution. The resampling can easily be scaled from 1 K to 100 M; the higher the number, the more precise the percentiles ascribed to the extreme observed values. The output from SmileFinder can be used to plot percentile values to look for population diversity and divergence patterns that may suggest past actions of positive selection along chromosome maps, and to compare lists of suspected candidate genes under random gene sets to test for the overrepresentation of these patterns among gene categories. Both applications of the algorithm have already been used in published studies. Here we present a publicly available, open source program that will serve as a useful tool for preliminary scans of selection

  16. Predictive significance of residual ischemia proved by dobutamine stress: Echocardiography test in patients early after the first uncomplicated myocardial infarction

    Karanović Nevena


    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the long-term prognostic value of dobutamine stress-echocardiography (ECG test for new coronary events (new episodes of angina pectoris, cardiac-related deaths, and reinfarctions early after the first uncomplicated myocardial infarction. Methods. Dobutamine stress-echocardiography tests were performed in all of 104 patients 10-20 days after the first myocardial infarction. Patients were followed-up for 36 (29 ± 7 months. Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curves were tested by Breslow test (Log Rank. Results. Two cardiac deaths (1.92%, nine nonfatal myocardial infarctions (8.65%, and three cases of recurrent angina pectoris (2.88% occurred during the prospective follow-up. Cumulative survival curves showed that in patients with negative findings of dobutamine stress-echocardiography test, survival time without significant events was 35.31 months, while in the group with positive findings of dobutamine stress-echocardiography test it was 30.91 months (log Rank 7.22; p<0.01. Prognostic value of dobutamine stress-echocardiography test was analyzed by Cox regression model and was 2.92, meaning that the risk of significant events was 2.92 times higher in the group of patients with positive findings of dobutamine stress-echocardiography test. Conclusion. Patients with negative findings of dobutamine stress-echocardiography test were with significantly higher possibility of surviving without significant events in comparison with the patients in whom the findings of dobutamine stress-echocardiography test were positive. In combination with clinical signs and ECG results, the results of dobutamine stress-echocardiography test improved prognostic value in the patients with the first uncomplicated myocardial infarction, and in that way influenced the strategy of their further treatment.

  17. Testing reanalysis datasets in Antarctica: Trends, persistence properties and trend significance

    Wang, Yang; Havlin, Shlomo


    The reanalysis datasets provide very important sources for investigating the climate dynamics and climate changes in Antarctica. In this paper, three major reanalysis data are compared with Antarctic station data over the last 35 years: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (NCEP1), NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 (NCEP2), and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim). In our assessment, we compare the linear trends, the fluctuations around the trends, the persistence properties and the significance level of warming trends in the reanalysis data with the observational ones. We find that NCEP1 and NCEP2 show spurious warming trends in all parts of Antarctica except the Peninsula, while ERA-Interim is quite reliable except at Amundsen-Scott. To investigate the persistence of the data sets, we consider the lag-1 autocorrelation $C(1)$ and the Hurst exponent. While $C(1)$ varies quite erratically in differ...

  18. Test the Overall Significance of p-values by Using Joint Tail Probability of Ordered p-values as Test Statistic

    Fang, Yongxiang; Wit, Ernst


    Fisher’s combined probability test is the most commonly used method to test the overall significance of a set independent p-values. However, it is very obviously that Fisher’s statistic is more sensitive to smaller p-values than to larger p-value and a small p-value may overrule the other p-values a

  19. Significant cost savings achieved by in-sourcing urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management.

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Snyder, Marion L; Darragh, Alicia; Quade, Cathleen; Jarolim, Petr


    Reference laboratory testing can represent a significant component of the laboratory budget. Therefore, most laboratories continually reassess the feasibility of in-sourcing various tests. We describe the transfer of urine drug testing performed for monitoring medication compliance in pain management from a reference laboratory into an academic clinical laboratory. The process of implementing of both screening immunoassays and confirmatory LC-MS/MS testing and the associated cost savings is outlined. The initial proposal for in-sourcing this testing, which included the tests to be in-sourced, resources required, estimated cost savings and timeline for implementation, was approved in January 2009. All proposed testing was implemented by March 2011. Keys to the successful implementation included budgeting adequate resources and developing a realistic timeline, incorporating the changes with the highest budget impact first. We were able to in-source testing in 27 months and save the laboratory approximately $1 million in the first 3 year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of the Significance Test as a Protection against Spuriously High Standardized Effect Sizes: Introduction of the Protected Effect Size.

    Barnette, J. Jackson; McLean, James E.

    The level of standardized effect sizes obtained by chance and the use of significance tests to guard against spuriously high standardized effect sizes were studied. The concept of the "protected effect size" is also introduced. Monte Carlo methods were used to generate data for the study using random normal deviates as the basis for sample means…

  1. Human papillomavirus mRNA and DNA testing in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    Thomsen, Louise T; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette


    In this prospective cohort study, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA and DNA testing of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) during cervical cancer screening. Using a nationwide Danish pathology register, we identified women aged 30...

  2. A New Method for Assessing the Statistical Significance in the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT) Framework

    Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S.; Nanda, Alice O.


    A new item parameter replication method is proposed for assessing the statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index associated with the differential functioning of items and tests framework. In this new method, a cutoff score for each item is determined by obtaining a (1-alpha ) percentile rank score…

  3. [Effects and significance of methacholine bronchial provocation tests and salbutamol bronchial dilation test on measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in patients with asthma].

    Liu, Jielu; Yu, Huapeng; Tan, Xiaomei; Wu, Shuhan; Zhang, Pan; Fang, Zekui; Wang, Cuilan; He, Xi


    To study the effects and significance of methacholine (Mch) bronchial provocation tests and salbutamol bronchial dilation test on measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in patients with asthma. This was a prospective study conducted between November 2014 and August 2015. A total of 135 patients with asthma visiting the respiratory clinic of Zhujiang Hospital were enrolled. The patients received either Mch bronchial provocation test or salbutamol bronchial dilation test based on their FEV1/FVC values and cooperative degree. Mch bronchial provocation test was performed by using Astograph Jupiter-21 (Astograh group) or APS-Pro airway reaction testing apparatus (APS group), and salbutamol bronchial dilation test was performed by using Jaeger spirometer (Dilation group). We compared the differences between FeNO values measured before examinations (Pre-FeNO) and 5 min after completion of these examinations (Post-FeNO). The geometric mean of Pre-FeNO and Post-FeNO was 28.07 ppb and 24.08 ppb respectively in the Astograh group, with a significant decrease of the FeNO value after the examination (Z=-3.093, P=0.002). A significant difference between Pre-FeNO and Post-FeNO was found in patients who had positive provocation results in the Astograh group (Z=-2.787, P=0.005), but not in the patients with negative results (Z=-1.355, P=0.176). The geometric mean of FeNO in the APS group decreased significantly from 27.95 ppb to 23.15 ppb after the examination was completed (Z=-5.170, P=0.000); both in patients with positive saline or Mch provocation results and in patients with negative provocation results, the differences between Pre-FeNO and Post-FeNO in the APS group being significant (Z=-2.705, -3.709, -2.371, P=0.002, 0.000, 0.018). No difference of FeNO change(ΔFeNO) was observed between the 2 Mch bronchial provocation test groups (Uppb and that of Post-FeNO was 34.79 ppb in the Dilation group; the difference being not significant (Z=-1.281, P=0.200). Our

  4. Prognostic significance of cardiopulmonary exercise testing for 10-year survival in patients with mild to moderate heart failure.

    Koike, A; Koyama, Y; Itoh, H; Adachi, H; Marumo, F; Hiroe, M


    Although a number of studies have investigated the prognostic significance of exercise variables, they have focused only on short-term prognosis in relatively severe heart failure. This study was carried out to determine whether the indices obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing have prognostic significance during a 10-year follow-up in mild to moderate heart failure. Three hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients with cardiac disease performed 4 min of 20-W warm-up, followed by a symptom-limited incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. In addition to the measurements of peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and gas exchange (anaerobic) threshold, the time constant of VO2 kinetics during the onset of warm-up exercise was calculated using a single exponential equation. Data on mortality were available for follow-up in 260 patients. After 3,331+/-610 days of follow-up, 29 cardiovascular-related deaths occurred. The time constant of VO2 in the nonsurvivors was 76.7+/-43.3 s and was significantly prolonged compared with that of survivors (55.3+/-30.6 s, p=0.001). Peak VO2 and gas exchange threshold were both significantly lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for 10 years of follow-up demonstrated a survival rate of 89.0% for patients with a normal VO2 time constant ( or = 80 s), showing a significant difference in survival (p=0.0028). Respiratory gas parameters obtained during exercise testing, particularly the time constant of VO2 kinetics, were found to be useful for predicting long-term prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure. These results suggest that cardiopulmonary exercise testing could be more applicable in ambulatory patients with minimal symptoms or minimal functional impairment.

  5. Orienting response elicitation by personally significant information under subliminal stimulus presentation: demonstration using the concealed information test.

    Maoz, Keren; Breska, Assaf; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon


    Considerable evidence suggests that subliminal information can trigger cognitive and neural processes. Here, we examined whether elicitation of orienting response by personally significant (PS) verbal information requires conscious awareness of the input. Subjects were exposed to the Concealed Information Test (CIT), in which autonomic responses for autobiographical items are typically larger than for control items. These items were presented subliminally using two different masking protocols: single or multiple presentation of the masked item. An objective test was used to verify unawareness to the stimuli. As predicted, PS items elicited significantly stronger skin conductance responses than the control items in both exposure conditions. The results extend previous findings showing that autonomic responses can be elicited following subliminal exposure to aversive information, and also may have implications on the applied usage of the CIT.

  6. Testing the significance of a correlation with nonnormal data: comparison of Pearson, Spearman, transformation, and resampling approaches.

    Bishara, Anthony J; Hittner, James B


    It is well known that when data are nonnormally distributed, a test of the significance of Pearson's r may inflate Type I error rates and reduce power. Statistics textbooks and the simulation literature provide several alternatives to Pearson's correlation. However, the relative performance of these alternatives has been unclear. Two simulation studies were conducted to compare 12 methods, including Pearson, Spearman's rank-order, transformation, and resampling approaches. With most sample sizes (n ≥ 20), Type I and Type II error rates were minimized by transforming the data to a normal shape prior to assessing the Pearson correlation. Among transformation approaches, a general purpose rank-based inverse normal transformation (i.e., transformation to rankit scores) was most beneficial. However, when samples were both small (n ≤ 10) and extremely nonnormal, the permutation test often outperformed other alternatives, including various bootstrap tests.

  7. Functional testing strategy for coding genetic variants of unclear significance in MLH1 in Lynch syndrome diagnosis.

    Hinrichsen, Inga; Schäfer, Dieter; Langer, Deborah; Köger, Nicole; Wittmann, Margarethe; Aretz, Stefan; Steinke, Verena; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Trojan, Jörg; König, Rainer; Zeuzem, Stefan; Brieger, Angela; Plotz, Guido


    Lynch syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations in the MLH1 gene, but genetic variants of unclear significance frequently preclude diagnosis. Functional testing can reveal variant-conferred defects in gene or protein function. Based on functional defect frequencies and clinical applicability of test systems, we developed a functional testing strategy aimed at efficiently detecting pathogenic defects in coding MLH1 variants. In this strategy, tests of repair activity and expression are prioritized over analyses of subcellular protein localization and messenger RNA (mRNA) formation. This strategy was used for four unclear coding MLH1 variants (p.Asp41His, p.Leu507Phe, p.Gln689Arg, p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met). Expression was analyzed using a transfection system, mismatch repair (MMR) activity by complementation in vitro, mRNA formation by reverse transcriptase-PCR in carrier lymphocyte mRNA, and subcellular localization with dye-labeled fusion constructs. All tests included clinically meaningful controls. The strategy enabled efficient identification of defects in two unclear variants: the p.Asp41His variant showed loss of MMR activity, whereas the compound variant p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met had a defect of expression. This expression defect was significantly stronger than the pathogenic expression reference variant analyzed in parallel, therefore the defect of the compound variant is also pathogenic. Interestingly, the expression defect was caused additively by both of the compound variants, at least one of which is non-pathogenic when occurring by itself. Tests were neutral for p.Leu507Phe and p.Gln689Arg, and the results were consistent with available clinical data. We finally discuss the improved sensitivity and efficiency of the applied strategy and its limitations in analyzing unclear coding MLH1 variants.

  8. Significance of specificity of Tinetti B-POMA test and fall risk factor in third age of life.

    Avdić, Dijana; Pecar, Dzemal


    As for the third age, psychophysical abilities of humans gradually decrease, while the ability of adaptation to endogenous and exogenous burdens is going down. In 1987, "Harada" et al. (1) have found out that 9.5 million persons in USA have difficulties running daily activities, while 59% of them (which is 5.6 million) are older than 65 years in age. The study has encompassed 77 questioned persons of both sexes with their average age 71.73 +/- 5.63 (scope of 65-90 years in age), chosen by random sampling. Each patient has been questioned in his/her own home and familiar to great extent with the methodology and aims of the questionnaire. Percentage of questioned women was 64.94% (50 patients) while the percentage for men was 35.06% (27 patients). As for the value of risk factor score achieved conducting the questionnaire and B-POMA test, there are statistically significant differences between men and women, as well as between patients who fell and those who never did. As for the way of life (alone or in the community), there are no significant statistical differences. Average results gained through B-POMA test in this study are statistically significantly higher in men and patients who did not provide data about falling, while there was no statistically significant difference in the way of life. In relation to the percentage of maximum number of positive answers to particular questions, regarding gender, way of life and the data about falling, there were no statistically significant differences between the value of B-POMA test and the risk factor score (the questionnaire).

  9. Performance of a New Rapid Immunoassay Test Kit for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Significant Bacteriuria.

    Stapleton, Ann E; Cox, Marsha E; DiNello, Robert K; Geisberg, Mark; Abbott, April; Roberts, Pacita L; Hooton, Thomas M


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered in clinical practice and most commonly caused by Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative uropathogens. We tested RapidBac, a rapid immunoassay for bacteriuria developed by Silver Lake Research Corporation (SLRC), compared with standard bacterial culture using 966 clean-catch urine specimens submitted to a clinical microbiology laboratory in an urban academic medical center. RapidBac was performed in accordance with instructions, providing a positive or negative result in 20 min. RapidBac identified as positive 245/285 (sensitivity 86%) samples with significant bacteriuria, defined as the presence of a Gram-negative uropathogen or Staphylococcus saprophyticus at ≥10(3) CFU/ml. The sensitivities for Gram-negative bacteriuria at ≥10(4) CFU/ml and ≥10(5) CFU/ml were 96% and 99%, respectively. The specificity of the test, detecting the absence of significant bacteriuria, was 94%. The sensitivity and specificity of RapidBac were similar on samples from inpatient and outpatient settings, from male and female patients, and across age groups from 18 to 89 years old, although specificity was higher in men (100%) compared with that in women (92%). The RapidBac test for bacteriuria may be effective as an aid in the point-of-care diagnosis of UTIs especially in emergency and primary care settings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Significance of Vestibular Testing on Distinguishing the Nerve of Origin for Vestibular Schwannoma and Predicting the Preservation of Hearing

    Yu-Bo He; Chun-Jiang Yu; Hong-Ming Ji; Yan-Ming Qu; Ning Chen


    Background:Determining the nerve of origin for vestibular schwannoma (VS),as a method for predicting hearing prognosis,has not been systematically considered.The vestibular test can be used to investigate the function of the superior vestibular nerve (SVN) and the inferior vestibular nerve (IVN).This study aimed to preoperatively distinguish the nerve of origin for VS patients using the vestibular test,and determine if this correlated with hearing preservation.Methods:A total of 106 patients with unilateral VS were enrolled in this study prospectively.Each patient received a caloric test,vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test,and cochlear nerve function test (hearing) before the operation and 1 week,3,and 6 months,postoperatively.All patients underwent surgical removal of the VS using the suboccipital approach.During the operation,the nerve of tumor origin (SVN or IVN) was identified by the surgeon.Tumor size was measured by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging.Results:The nerve of tumor origin could not be unequivocally identified in 38 patients (38/106,35.80%).These patients were not subsequently evaluated.In 26 patients (nine females,seventeen males),tumors arose from the SVN and in 42 patients (18 females,24 males),tumors arose from the IVN.Comparing with the nerve of origins (SVN and IVN) of tumors,the results of the caloric tests and VEMP tests were significantly different in tumors originating from the SVN and the IVN in our study.Hearing was preserved in 16 of 26 patients (61.54%) with SVN-originating tumors,whereas hearing was preserved in only seven of 42 patients (16.67%) with IVN-originating tumors.Conclusions:Our data suggest that caloric and VEMP tests might help to identify whether VS tumors originate from the SVN or IVN.These tests could also be used to evaluate the residual function of the nerves after surgery.Using this information,we might better predict the preservation of hearing for patients.

  11. The Changes of Baroreflex Sensitivity During Head -up Tilt Test and Its Clinical Significance in the Patients with Vasovagal Syncope

    胡兆霆; 吕艳青; 杨钧国


    Objective To study the changes of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) during head -up tilt test (HUT) in patients with vasovagal syncope (VS),and to examine the relationship between baroreflex sensitivity and neurohormonal factors. Furthermore, to investigate the effects of the changes of BRS on VS.Methods Forty- two patients with unexplained syncope (Among the 42 patients, there were 22 patients with positive HUT and 20 patients with negative HUT respectively) and 20 healthy volunteers (with negative HUT) underwent passive head-up tilt testing, Antecubital vein blood samples were taken before and after HUT, or at syncope. The fasting plasma endothelin ,serum nitric oxide (NO), serum NE were measured. The BRS was assessed on the basis of the linear regression slope the RR interval versus systolic arterial blood pressure during the increment in blood pressure after intravenous administration of phenylephrine. Results ( 1 )During the syncope, the BRS significantly reduced in HUT( + ) group than baseline. At the end of tilt, the level of plasma ET, serum NO in patients with positive HUT significantly increased compared with baseline or normal controls, and the plasma concentration of NE also had the trend of increase. ( 2 ) By multiple regression analysis, a significant negative correlation was found between baroreceptor sensitivity and the plasma ET, NO at the end of HUT in patients with positive HUT, but there was no relationship between BRS and NE. Conclusions During the syncope occure, the BRS in patients with VS decreased significantly compared with normal controls. The abnormal plasma ET, NO concentration might contribute to the mechanism of VS.

  12. Significance of serum antibody test for toxocariasis in healthy healthcare examinees with eosinophilia in Seoul and Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

    Kim, Hong Seok; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Young Ha; Yoon, Cheong Ha; Hwang, Eui-Hyuk; Kang, Hun; Ahn, Sang-Yong; Kim, Gi Jin; Hong, Sung-Tae


    There have been numerous reports on the relationship between eosinophilia and toxocariasis. The present study investigated seropositive rates of toxocariasis among healthy people with or without eosinophilia in urban and rural areas, and assessed risk factors for positive antibody test. A total of 610 healthy people, who visited health check-up (Medicheck®, Korea Association of Health Promotion), 310 from Seoul and 300 from Gyeongsangnam-do, were subjected for this study. Their serum samples were tested by ELISA with the crude antigen of Toxocara canis larvae. Cross-reactions with other tissue invading helminth antigens were also investigated. Total antibody positive rate of toxocariasis was 8.7% of the 610 subjects. When the subjects were grouped into 3 by their eosinophil counts, the antibody positive rates significantly differed by the groups; 5.9% (18/306) in the group500/µL (P=0.028). A total of 22 serum samples cross-reacted with other tissue-invading helminth antigens. A questionnaire analysis recognized drinking alcohol and smoking as significant risk factors of toxocariasis. In conclusion, toxocariasis antibody positive rate is correlated with eosinophil counts. It is recommended that healthy subjects with eosinophilia by routine health examination and risk factors undergo Toxocara serology by multiantigen ELISA to investigate etiology.

  13. The Statistical Significance Test of Regional Climate Change Caused by Land Use and Land Cover Variation in West China

    WANG Hanjie; SHI Weilai; CHEN Xiaohong


    The West Development Policy being implemented in China is causing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China. With the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) that characterizes the lower boundary conditions, the regional climate model RIEMS-TEA is used to simulate possible impacts of the significant LULC variation. The model was run for five continuous three-month periods from 1 June to 1 September of 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, and the results of the five groups are examined by means of a student t-test to identify the statistical significance of regional climate variation. The main results are: (1) The regional climate is affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed. (2) The integrated impact of the LULC variation on regional climate is not only limited to West China where the LULC varies, but also to some areas in the model domain where the LULC does not vary at all. (3) The East Asian monsoon system and its vertical structure are adjusted by the large scale LULC variation in western China, where the consequences are the enhancement of the westward water vapor transfer from the east oast and the relevant increase of wet-hydrostatic energy in the middle-upper atmospheric layers. (4) The ecological engineering in West China affects significantly the regional climate in Northwest China, North China and the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there are obvious effects in South, Northeast, and Southwest China, but minor effects in Tibet.

  14. Clinical Significance of Abnormal Heart Rate Recovery after Treadmill Exercise Test in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    Li-feng HONG; Hao ZHANG; Ye-xin MA; He-song ZENG; Yuan WEN


    Objectives To evaluate the values of abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) after treadmill exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods One hundred and seventy-eight consecutive cases of suspected CAD who underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise test (TET) and coronary angiography (CAG) were enrolled and di-vided into normal and abnormal HRR group based on the status of the values of HRR one or two minutes after TET. The clinical characteristics, TET parameters and CAG results of the two groups were compared attempted to assess the value of HRR on patients with CAD. Results (1) The cases of smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM) and ST segment de-viation at rest in abnormal HRR group were more significantly than those in normal HRR group (all P < 0. 05). (2) The subjects of abnormal HRR usually had higher basal heart rate, more cases exhibited ST segment abnormality and or exercise-limited angina during or after TET(P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), but lower level of peak heart rate attained (P<0.05) than those in normal group. The values of metabolism equivalents and duration of TET between the two groups displayed phenomenal difference (P<0.05). There were more samples acquired moderate to high level of Duke test score and chronotropic incompetence in the group of abnormal HRR, compared to the normal HRR group (P<0.01). (3) The cases of negative CAG results in the group of normal and abnormal HRR group were 73 (66.97 % ) and 24 (34.78 %). Cases of significant coronary lesions (at least one major coronary vessel ≥ 50 % stenosis) a-mongst the subgroup of positive CAG were 36 (33.03 % ) and 45 (65.22 %), severe coronary lesions (three-vessel, left main or the equivalents of left main) were 10 (9.17 % ) and 17 (24.64 %) for normal and abnormal HRR respec-tively (P<0.01). Accordingly, the Gensini scores in the subunit of abnormal HRR increased. (4)Linear correlation analysis indicate there was a negative correlation between the values of HRR in

  15. Who is more skilful? Doping and its implication on the validity, morality and significance of the sporting test

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Møller, Rasmus Bysted


    In this article, we explore if and in what ways doping can be regarded as a challenge to the validity, morality and significance of the sporting test. We start out by examining Kalevi Heinilä’s analysis of the logic of elite sport, which shows how the ‘spiral of competition’ leads to the use...... the line of argumentation set forth by philosopher Torbjörn Tännsjö on how our admiration of sporting superiority based on natural talent or ‘birth luck’ is immoral. We analyse his argument in favour of eliminating the significance of meritless luck in sport by lifting the ban on doping and argue that its...... rationale is incompatible with the purpose of sport. We hereby show that although there certainly are morally problematic features of anti-doping the idea that doping must be banned can be defended by reference to the constitutive function of physical differences in sport. In conclusion we show...

  16. A review of 20 years of naive tests of significance for high-dimensional mean vectors and covariance matrices

    Hu, Jiang; Bai, ZhiDong


    In this paper, we will introduce the so called naive tests and give a brief review on the newly development. Naive testing methods are easy to understand and performs robust especially when the dimension is large. In this paper, we mainly focus on reviewing some naive testing methods for the mean vectors and covariance matrices of high dimensional populations and believe this naive test idea can be wildly used in many other testing problems.

  17. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    Motl Robert W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2 over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001 such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84. Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking.

  18. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H


    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry.

  19. The Long-Term Prognostic Significance of 6-Minute Walk Test Distance in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Lee Ingle


    Full Text Available Background. The 6-minute walk test (6-MWT is used to assess patients with chronic heart failure (CHF. The prognostic significance of the 6-MWT distance during long-term followup (>5 years is unclear. Methods. 1,667 patients (median [inter-quartile range, IQR] (age 72 [65–77]; 75% males with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic impairment undertook a 6-MWT as part of their baseline assessment and were followed up for 5 years. Results. At 5 years’ followup, those patients who died (n = 959 were older at baseline and had a higher log NT pro-BNP than those who survived to 5 years (n = 708. 6-MWT distance was lower in those who died [163 (153 m versus 269 (160 m; P 360 m. 6-MWT distance was a predictor of all-cause mortality (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96-0.97; Chi-square = 184.1; P < 0.0001. Independent predictors of all-cause mortality were decreasing 6-MWT distance, increasing age, increasing NYHA classification, increasing log NT pro-BNP, decreasing diastolic blood pressure, decreasing sodium, and increasing urea. Conclusion. The 6-MWT is an important independent predictor of all-cause mortality following long-term followup in patients with CHF.

  20. Chinese Students' Perceptions of the Value of Test Preparation Courses for the TOEFL iBT: Merit, Worth, and Significance

    Ma, Jia; Cheng, Liying


    Test preparation for high-stakes English language tests has received increasing research attention in the language assessment field; however, little is known about what aspects of test preparation students attend to and value. In this study, we considered the perspectives of 12 Chinese students who were enrolled in various academic programs in a…

  1. The lag time in initiating clinical testing of new drugs in combination with radiation therapy, a significant barrier to progress?

    Blumenfeld, P; Pfeffer, R M; Symon, Z; Den, R B; Dicker, A P; Raben, D; Lawrence, Y R


    Background: The clinical development of new drugs with radiation appears to be limited. We hypothesised that phase I clinical trials with radiation therapy (RT) are initiated too late into a new drug's lifetime, impeding the ability to complete RT–drug development programmes before patent expiration. Methods: We identified novel drug–radiation phase I combination trials performed between 1980 and 2012 within the PubMed and databases. Data gathered for each drug included: date the initial phase I trial with/without RT was opened/published, date of the published positive phase III trials, and patent expiration dates. Lag time was defined as the interval between opening of the phase I trial without RT and the opening of the phase I with RT. Linear regression was used to model how the lag time has changed over time. Results: The median lag time was 6 years. The initial phase I trial with RT was typically published 2 years after the first published positive phase III trial and 11 years before patent expiration. Using a best-fit linear model, lag time decreased from 10 years for phase I trials published in 1990 to 5 years in 2005 (slope significantly non-zero, P<0.001). Conclusions: Clinical drug development with RT commences late in the life cycle of anti-cancer agents. Taking into account the additional time required for late-phase clinical trials, the delay in initiating clinical testing of drug–RT combinations discourages drug companies from further pursuing RT-based development. Encouragingly, lag time appears to be decreasing. Further reduction in lag time may accelerate RT-based drug development, potentially improving patient outcomes. PMID:25117813

  2. Using the Coefficient of Determination "R"[superscript 2] to Test the Significance of Multiple Linear Regression

    Quinino, Roberto C.; Reis, Edna A.; Bessegato, Lupercio F.


    This article proposes the use of the coefficient of determination as a statistic for hypothesis testing in multiple linear regression based on distributions acquired by beta sampling. (Contains 3 figures.)

  3. Using the Coefficient of Determination "R"[superscript 2] to Test the Significance of Multiple Linear Regression

    Quinino, Roberto C.; Reis, Edna A.; Bessegato, Lupercio F.


    This article proposes the use of the coefficient of determination as a statistic for hypothesis testing in multiple linear regression based on distributions acquired by beta sampling. (Contains 3 figures.)

  4. Significance of pregnancy test false negative results due to elevated levels of β-core fragment hCG.

    Johnson, Sarah; Eapen, Saji; Smith, Peter; Warren, Graham; Zinaman, Michael


    Very high levels of β-core fragment human chorionic gonadotrophin (βcf-hCG) are reported to potentially cause false negative results in point-of-care (POC)/over-the-counter (OTC) pregnancy tests. To investigate this further, women's daily early morning urine samples, collected prior to conception and during pregnancy, were analysed for intact, free β-, and βcf-hCG. The proportion of βcf-hCG was found to be related to that of hCG produced and in circulation. Therefore, best practice for accuracy testing of POC/OTC pregnancy tests would be to test devices against clinical samples containing high levels of βcf-hCG as well as standards spiked with biologically relevant ratios.

  5. DOD Operational Testing: Oversight Has Resulted in Few Significant Disputes and Limited Program Cost and Schedule Increases


    14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 38 19a...DOT&E Director, Operational Test and Evaluation FOT&E Follow-on operational test and evaluation FSST Full ship shock trial IOT &E, doctrine, tactics, survivability or operational security , vulnerability, and threat. Operational suitability defines the Background

  6. [Different significance in normal subjects and in glaucoma patients tested with Optopol PTS-910, in the galucoma program].

    Dascalu, Ana Maria; Cherecheanu, Alina Popa; Stana, Daniela; Serban, Dragoş


    to quantify the inter-test variability (dB) for the Optopol PTS automated perimeter, Glaucoma Fast threshold program. A prospective study was performed on 166 glaucomatous patients and a control group of 30 normal subjects, tested by complete ophthalmological exam and automated perimetry (Optopol PTS-910). The visual field was tested weekly for 4 consecutive weeks. The visual field defects were classified according to the Aulhorn-Karmeyer descriptive scale. For the control group, the medium inter-test variability was of 1.57 +/- 0.24 dB, lower next to fixation and increasing towards the 50 degree isopter. The medium inter-test variability increases along with the perimetric stage :1.57 +/- 0.66 dB for pre-perimetric glaucoma, 2.13 + 1.04 dB for non-specific defects group, 3.23 + 1.01 dB for the stage 1, 3.52 + 2.61 dB, for the stage 2, 3.65 + 1.19dB for the stage 3 and 5.82 +/- 1.67dB for the stage 4. For the cases of preperimetric glaucoma and non-specific defects, a similar profile of variability to the normal subjects can be observed. For the stages 2-4, the profile of the areas with maxim inter-test variability moves towards the relative scotoma and the surrounding area. A better description of the inter-test variability and the evolution of this intricate parameter of the retinal light sensitivity is useful for the differential diagnostic between the real change and the "background noise" in early detection of the functional progression in glaucoma.

  7. Clinical significance of benign endometrial cells found in papanicolaou tests of Turkish women aged 40 years and older

    Gozde Kir


    Conclusions: According to our study, reporting BEC for women aged between 40 and 50 years has minor clinical significance but is significant for women older than 50 years, regardless of menopausal status. Larger sample size would be appropriate to confirm the results of the current study.

  8. Significance and application of microbial toxicity tests in assessing ecotoxicological risks of contaminants in soil and sediment

    Beelen P van; Doelman P; ECO


    Micro-organisms are vital for soil fertility and for the degradation of organic matter and pollutants in soils and sediments. Due to their function and ubiquitous presence the microflora can act as an environmentally very relevant indicator of pollution. Microbial tests should be used discriminatory

  9. Significance of the 'bow and lean test' for the diagnosis of benign horizontal semicircular canal paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Ying CHEN


    Full Text Available Objective To observe and assess the positive rate and accuracy of 'bow and lean test' in the horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HSC-BPPV. Methods Ninety-two HSC-BPPV patients who were diagnosed by head roll test (HRT were enrolled, and then further tested with 'bow and lean test' (BLT between Oct 1, 2010 and Sep 30, 2011. They were treated by Barbecue maneuver or Brandt-Daroff exercise on the basis of HRT and BLT tests. The positive rate of BLT test was analyzed, and its accuracy for diagnosis and success rate for treatment of HSC-BPPV were compared between HRT and BLT. Results Among the 92 patients, 83(90.2% of them showed BLT nystagmus. Fifty-seven of 83 (68.7% patients showed both bowing nystagmus and leaning nystagmus, and 18(21.7% and 8(9.6% respectively showed bowing nystagmus alone or leaning nystagmus alone. Among 92 patients, 74(80.4% of them the affected side could be determined by HRT with 69 BLT positive and 5 BLT negative. Among the 69 BLT-positive patients, 60 patients showed the same result of HRT, and successful result was achieved by manipulation. 9 patients showed different result between BLT and HRT, in whom manipulation failed according to the result of HRT, but succeeded when manipulation was performed according to BLT. In 18 patients(19.6% it was not able to determine the affected side by HRT, but in 14 patients manipulation was successful when BLT result was applied. In 4 patients BLT failed to evoke nystagmus, but after practicing Brandt-Daroff exercise, vertigo and HRT nystagmus disappeared 3 days later. Among the 92 patients, 65(70.7% were cured according to HRT, while 83(90.2% got successful result according to BLT(P < 0.05. Conclusion The positive rate and accuracy for HSC-BPPV by BLT are high. It is a useful method for determining the affected side in HSC-BPPV, and to provide the basis for selecting effective manipulation treatment.

  10. Implementation and Operational Research: Expedited Results Delivery Systems Using GPRS Technology Significantly Reduce Early Infant Diagnosis Test Turnaround Times.

    Deo, Sarang; Crea, Lindy; Quevedo, Jorge; Lehe, Jonathan; Vojnov, Lara; Peter, Trevor; Jani, Ilesh


    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of a new technology to communicate the results of an infant HIV diagnostic test on test turnaround time and to quantify the association between late delivery of test results and patient loss to follow-up. We used data collected during a pilot implementation of Global Package Radio Service (GPRS) printers for communicating results in the early infant diagnosis program in Mozambique from 2008 through 2010. Our dataset comprised 1757 patient records, of which 767 were from before implementation and 990 from after implementation of expedited results delivery system. We used multivariate logistic regression model to determine the association between late result delivery (more than 30 days between sample collection and result delivery to the health facility) and the probability of result collection by the infant's caregiver. We used a sample selection model to determine the association between late result delivery to the facility and further delay in collection of results by the caregiver. The mean test turnaround time reduced from 68.13 to 41.05 days post-expedited results delivery system. Caregivers collected only 665 (37.8%) of the 1757 results. After controlling for confounders, the late delivery of results was associated with a reduction of approximately 18% (0.44 vs. 0.36; P < 0.01) in the probability of results collected by the caregivers (odds ratio = 0.67, P < 0.05). Late delivery of results was also associated with a further average increase in 20.91 days of delay in collection of results (P < 0.01). Early infant diagnosis program managers should further evaluate the cost-effectiveness of operational interventions (eg, GPRS printers) that reduce delays.

  11. Quantitative coronary angiography in the estimation of the functional significance of coronary stenosis: correlations with dobutamine-atropine stress test

    J.M.P. Baptista da Silva (José); M. Arnese (Mariarosaria); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); D.T.J. Keane (David); J. Escaned (Javier); C. di Mario (Carlo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Boersma (Eric)


    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of quantitative coronary angiography in the assessment of the functional significance of coronary stenosis as judged from the development of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine-atropine

  12. Quantitative coronary angiography in the estimation of the functional significance of coronary stenosis: correlations with dobutamine-atropine stress test

    J.M.P. Baptista da Silva (José); M. Arnese (Mariarosaria); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); D.T.J. Keane (David); J. Escaned (Javier); C. di Mario (Carlo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Boersma (Eric)


    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of quantitative coronary angiography in the assessment of the functional significance of coronary stenosis as judged from the development of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine-atropine s

  13. Clinical Significance of Low Result of 1-hour 50-g Glucose-Challenge Test in Pregnant Women.

    Oawada, Nozomi; Aoki, Shigeru; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Obata, Soichiro; Seki, Kazuo; Hirahara, Fumiki


    To examine the effect of low glucose value on the 1-hour 50-g Glucose Challenge Test (GCT) on neonatal body weight in low-risk Asian singleton pregnant women. We retrospectively analyzed women who delivered a singleton neonate at term at a tertiary center and underwent GCT at 24-28 weeks of gestation between June 2001 and June 2015. Low GCT group was defined as result (Standardized coefficient (β)(β); GCT 0.071, height 0.188, prepregnancy BMI 0.143). Neonatal body weight was only slightly influenced by low GCT result, but markedly influenced by maternal physique, such as height and prepregnancy BMI.

  14. Limitations of Significance Testing in Clinical Research: A Review of Multiple Comparison Corrections and Effect Size Calculations with Correlated Measures.

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Morey, Timothy E; Dhatariya, Ketan; Rice, Mark J


    Modern clinical research commonly uses complex designs with multiple related outcomes, including repeated-measures designs. While multiple comparison corrections and effect size calculations are needed to more accurately assess an intervention's significance and impact, understanding the limitations of these methods in the case of dependency and correlation is important. In this review, we outline methods for multiple comparison corrections and effect size calculations and considerations in cases of correlation and summarize relevant simulation studies to illustrate these concepts.

  15. Contributory factors to the results of gravity-assisted pivot-shift test for anterior cruciate ligament injury: the significance of muscle torque around the knee.

    Hiraoka, Hisatada; Yashiki, Motohisa; Sakai, Hiroya


    Gravity-assisted pivot-shift (GAPS) test is a newly advocated test for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. It induces anterolateral rotatory instability with valgus stress to the knee applied by gravitational force during patient's active knee motion. We investigated prospectively the relationships between the results of the GAPS test and the possible contributory factors and sought to clarify the determinant factors of the GAPS test. A total of 54 knee joints of 54 patients with unilateral ACL injury (29 males, 25 females, average 23.4 +/- 9.0 years old) were enrolled in this study and were divided into two groups, i.e., positive GAPS test group and negative GAPS test group. Muscle torque around the knee joints measured before surgery, configuration of the femoral condyle and tibial posterior slope angle measured on lateral radiograph, and other clinical factors were compared between the two groups using Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. According to the results of these analyses, factors having a statistically significant difference were additionally evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis to reveal items with strong relevance to a positive GAPS test. The results of the multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the flexor/extensor peak torque ratio of contralateral uninjured knees and sex had a significant correlation with the results of the GAPS test. The relatively less flexor muscle torque compared with extensor muscle torque, and being a female patient were considered to be the determinant factors of a positive GAPS test.

  16. Batch effects correction improves the sensitivity of significance tests in spectral counting-based comparative discovery proteomics.

    Gregori, Josep; Villarreal, Laura; Méndez, Olga; Sánchez, Alex; Baselga, José; Villanueva, Josep


    Shotgun proteomics has become the standard proteomics technique for the large-scale measurement of protein abundances in biological samples. Despite quantitative proteomics has been usually performed using label-based approaches, label-free quantitation offers advantages related to the avoidance of labeling steps, no limitation in the number of samples to be compared, and the gain in protein detection sensitivity. However, since samples are analyzed separately, experimental design becomes critical. The exploration of spectral counting quantitation based on LC-MS presented here gathers experimental evidence of the influence of batch effects on comparative proteomics. The batch effects shown with spiking experiments clearly interfere with the biological signal. In order to minimize the interferences from batch effects, a statistical correction is proposed and implemented. Our results show that batch effects can be attenuated statistically when proper experimental design is used. Furthermore, the batch effect correction implemented leads to a substantial increase in the sensitivity of statistical tests. Finally, the applicability of our batch effects correction is shown on two different biomarker discovery projects involving cancer secretomes. We think that our findings will allow designing and executing better comparative proteomics projects and will help to avoid reaching false conclusions in the field of proteomics biomarker discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Nevada Test Site Development Corporations's Desert Rock Sky Park at the Nevada Test Site



    The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1300) (EA) which analyzes the potential environmental effects of developing operating and maintaining a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site, between Mercury Camp and U.S. Highway 95 and east of Desert Rock Airport. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of infrastructure improvements necessary to support fill build out of the 512-acre Desert Rock Sky Park. Two alternative actions were evaluated: (1) Develop, operate and maintain a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site, and (2) taking no action. The purpose and need for the commercial industrial park are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment. Section 4.0 the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternative. Cumulative effects are addressed in Section 5.0. Mitigation measures are addressed in Section 6.0. The Department of Energy determined that the proposed action of developing, operating and maintaining a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site would best meet the needs of the agency.

  18. Human papillomavirus mRNA and DNA testing in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: A prospective cohort study.

    Thomsen, Louise T; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Schledermann, Doris; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K


    In this prospective cohort study, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA and DNA testing of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) during cervical cancer screening. Using a nationwide Danish pathology register, we identified women aged 30-65 years with ASC-US during 2005-2011 who were tested for HPV16/18/31/33/45 mRNA using PreTect HPV-Proofer (n = 3,226) or for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (n = 9,405) or Linear Array HPV-Genotyping test (LA) (n = 1,533). Women with ≥1 subsequent examination in the register (n = 13,729) were followed for up to 9.5 years for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. After 3 years' follow-up, mRNA testing had higher specificity for CIN3 or worse (CIN3+) than HC2 testing (88.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 86.8-89.6%] versus 59.3% [95% CI: 58.1-60.4%]) and higher positive predictive value (PPV) (38.2% [95% CI: 33.8%-43.1%] versus 19.5% [95% CI: 17.8-20.9%]). However, the sensitivity of mRNA testing was lower than that of HC2 testing (66.7% [95% CI: 59.3-74.5%] versus 97.0% [95% CI: 95.5-98.4%]), and women testing mRNA negative had higher 3-year risk for CIN3+ than those testing HC2 negative (3.2% [95% CI: 2.2-4.2%] versus 0.5% [95% CI: 0.3-0.7%]). Patterns were similar after 18 months and 5 years'; follow-up; for CIN2+ and cancer as outcomes; across all age groups; and when comparing mRNA testing to hrHPV DNA testing using LA. In conclusion, the HPV16/18/31/33/45 mRNA test is not optimal for ASC-US triage due to its low sensitivity and the substantial risk for precancer following a negative test.

  19. Comparison of the clinical performance of an HPV mRNA test and an HPV DNA test in triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)

    Waldstrom, M; Ornskov, D


    The effect of triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has been well documented. New tests detecting HPV E6/E7 mRNA are emerging, claiming to be more specific for detecting high-grade disease. We evaluated...... the clinical performance of two HPV tests: the Linear Array HPV genotyping test (LA) detecting HPV DNA from 37 oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types and the Aptima HPV assay detecting E6/E7 mRNA from 14 oncogenic HPV types....

  20. The effect of hearing impairment in older people on the spouse: development and psychometric testing of the significant other scale for hearing disability (SOS-HEAR).

    Scarinci, Nerina; Worrall, Linda; Hickson, Louise


    The effects of hearing impairment on the person with the impairment and on their significant others are pervasive and affect the quality of life for all involved. The effect of hearing impairment on significant others is known as a third-party disability. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically test a scale to measure the third-party disability experienced by spouses of older people with hearing impairment. The Significant Other Scale for Hearing Disability (SOS-HEAR) was based on results of a previous qualitative study investigating the effect of hearing impairment on a spouse's everyday life. Psychometric testing with 100 spouses was conducted using item analysis, Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis, and test-retest reliability. Principal components analysis identified six key underlying factors. A combined set of 27 items was found to be reliable (alpha = 0.94), with weighted kappa for items ranging from fair to very good. The SOS-HEAR is a brief, easy to administer instrument that has evidence of reliability and validity. The SOS-HEAR could serve as a means of identifying spouses of older people with hearing impairment in need of intervention, directed towards either the couple or the spouse alone.

  1. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis


    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  2. A new direction for prenatal chromosome microarray testing: software-targeting for detection of clinically significant chromosome imbalance without equivocal findings

    Joo Wook Ahn


    Full Text Available Purpose. To design and validate a prenatal chromosomal microarray testing strategy that moves away from size-based detection thresholds, towards a more clinically relevant analysis, providing higher resolution than G-banded chromosomes but avoiding the detection of copy number variants (CNVs of unclear prognosis that cause parental anxiety.Methods. All prenatal samples fulfilling our criteria for karyotype analysis (n = 342 were tested by chromosomal microarray and only CNVs of established deletion/duplication syndrome regions and any other CNV >3 Mb were detected and reported. A retrospective full-resolution analysis of 249 of these samples was carried out to ascertain the performance of this testing strategy.Results. Using our prenatal analysis, 23/342 (6.7% samples were found to be abnormal. Of the remaining samples, 249 were anonymized and reanalyzed at full-resolution; a further 46 CNVs were detected in 44 of these cases (17.7%. None of these additional CNVs were of clear clinical significance.Conclusion. This prenatal chromosomal microarray strategy detected all CNVs of clear prognostic value and did not miss any CNVs of clear clinical significance. This strategy avoided both the problems associated with interpreting CNVs of uncertain prognosis and the parental anxiety that are a result of such findings.

  3. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability

    Crewther Sheila G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. Methods The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. Results In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Conclusion Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  4. A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India

    Gufran Ahmed M. Bijapur


    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its interpretation. Method: We performed the standard Widal tube agglutination test on the serum samples of 250 individuals of the local population selected by using appropriate criteria of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A majority (74.8% of the subjects were non-reactive. Prevalence of anti-TO antibody was highest (25.2% followed by that of anti-TH antibody (15.2%, anti-AH antibody (6.8% and anti-BH antibody (0.8%. Based on the distribution of titre values, the baseline titres determined were 40 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies and <20 for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies. Any value obtained in Widal test over and above these values, i.e., ≥80 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies can be considered as significant. Similarly, for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies, values of ≥20 can be considered as significant for diagnosis in an appropriate clinical setting. Conclusion: The baseline Widal titres of the local population were lower than those found in most other parts of India.

  5. Detecting the Relationship Between Summer Rainfall Anomalies in Eastern China and the SSTA in the Global Domain with a New Significance Test Method

    LU Chuhan; GUAN Zhaoyong; WANG Panxing; DUAN Mingkeng


    It is suggested that the multiple samples in a correlation map or a set of correlation maps should be examined with sig-nificance tests as per the Bernoulli probability, model. Therefore, both the contemporaneous and lag correlations of summertime pre-cipitation R in any one of the three regions of Northern China (NC), the Changjiang-Huaihe River Valley (CHRV), and Southern China (SC) with the SSTA in the global domain have been tested in the present article, using our significance test method and the method proposed by Livezey and Chen (1983) respectively. Our results demonstrate that the contemporaneous correlations of sum-mer R in CHRV with the SSTA are larger than those in NC. Significant correlations of SSTA with CHRV R are found to be in some warm SST regions in the tropics, whereas those of SSTA with NC R, which are opposite in sign as compared to the SSTA-CHRV R correlations, are found to be in some regions where the mean SSTs are low. In comparison with the patterns of the contemporaneous correlations, the 1 to 12 month lag correlations between NC R and SSTA, and those between CHRV summer R and SSTA show simi-lar patterns, including the magnitudes and signs, and the spatial distributions of the coefficients. However, the summer rainfall in SC is not well correlated with the SSTA, no matter how long the lag interval is. The results derived from the observations have set up a relationship frame connecting the precipitation anomalies in NC, CHRV, and SC with the SSTA in the global domain, which is criti-cally useful for our understanding and predicting the climate variabilities in different parts of China Both NC and CHRV summer R are connected with El Nino events, showing a'--'pattern in an El Nino year and a'+ +'pattern in the subsequent year.

  6. Contribution of the ELFG test in algorithms of non-invasive markers towards the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Jean-Pierre Zarski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to determine the best algorithms for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients using all available parameters and tests. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the database from our study of 507 patients with histologically proven CHC in which fibrosis was evaluated by liver biopsy (Metavir and tests: Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, Hepascore®, Apri, ELFG, MP3, Forn's, hyaluronic acid, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1, MMP1, collagen IV and when possible Fibroscan™. For the first test we used 90% negative predictive value to exclude patients with F≤1, next an induction algorithm was applied giving the best tests with at least 80% positive predictive value for the diagnosis of F≥2. The algorithms were computed using the R Software C4.5 program to select the best tests and cut-offs. The algorithm was automatically induced without premises on the part of the investigators. We also examined the inter-observer variations after independent review of liver biopsies by two pathologists. A medico-economic analysis compared the screening strategies with liver biopsy. RESULTS: In "intention to diagnose" the best algorithms for F≥2 were Fibrometer ®, Fibrotest®, or Hepascore® in first intention with the ELFG score in second intention for indeterminate cases. The percentage of avoided biopsies varied between 50% (Fibrotest® or Fibrometer®+ELFG and 51% (Hepascore®+ELFG. In "per-analysis" Fibroscan™+ELFG avoided liver biopsy in 55% of cases. The diagnostic performance of these screening strategies was statistically superior to the usual combinations (Fibrometer® or Fibrotest®+Fibroscan™ and was cost effective. We note that the consensual review of liver biopsies between the two pathologists was mainly in favor of F1 (64-69%. CONCLUSION: The ELFG test could replace Fibroscan in most currently used algorithms for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis including for those patients

  7. The Discrepancy between Fisher and Neyman- Pearson on Hypothesis Testing and the Controversy on the Null Hypothesis Significance Test in Psychology%Fisher与Neyman-Pearson的分歧与心理统计中的假设检验争议



    Understanding the difference between Fisher's and Neyman-Pearson's hypothesis testing models is vital to addressing the current controversy about the null hypothesis significance test in psychological studies. As the most prominent experts of hypothesis testing, Fisher and Neyman-Pearson differed sharply in the conceptualization of statistical model, the property of two types of errors, the nature of significance level, and the proper function of hypothesis testing. Fisher constructed his significance test theory based on the vague concept of hypothetical population, which he postulated as a vital pretence that made scientific inference possible. Fisher never believed that a type Ⅱ error was necessary in the statistical testing, and argued that significance test contained no criterion for accepting a hypothesis and did not lead to any probability about the real world, but to a change in the investigator's attitudes towards the hypothesis under consideration. Hence, tests of significance served as a useful but conceptual tool of inductive inference, but not a practical tool of inductive behavior. However, Neyman-Pearson argued that the type Ⅱ error was the cornerstone of the hypothesis testing theory, without which no purely probabilistic test was possible. The two errors were interpreted from a strict frequency perspective, based on the same vague and unrealistic proposition of repeated sampling of the identical population. Uniformly most powerful tests or unbiased uniformly most powerful tests were recommended as perfect statistical testing procedures, though their applications were rather limited due to the difficulty in calculating the power of a test. Hypothesis testing implied a decision rule that either accepting the null hypothesis or rejecting it when certain events were observed and calculated. Their elegant verification won their theory considerable popularity among statisticians. It was widely considered as a refinement of Fisher's significance

  8. Clinical Significance of an HPV DNA Chip Test with Emphasis on HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 Detection in Korean Gynecological Patients

    Yeo, Min-Kyung; Lee, Ahwon; Hur, Soo Young; Park, Jong Sup


    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Methods: We evaluated the clinical significance of the HPV DNA chip genotyping assay (MyHPV chip, Mygene Co.) compared with the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) chemiluminescent nucleic acid hybridization kit (Digene Corp.) in 867 patients. Results: The concordance rate between the MyHPV chip and HC2 was 79.4% (kappa coefficient, κ = 0.55). The sensitivity and specificity of both HPV tests were very similar (approximately 85% and 50%, respectively). The addition of HPV result (either MyHPV chip or HC2) to cytology improved the sensitivity (95%, each) but reduced the specificity (approximately 30%, each) compared with the HPV test or cytology alone. Based on the MyHPV chip results, the odds ratio (OR) for ≥ high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) was 9.9 in the HPV-16/18 (+) group and 3.7 in the non-16/18 high-risk (HR)-HPV (+) group. Based on the HC2 results, the OR for ≥ HSILs was 5.9 in the HR-HPV (+) group. When considering only patients with cytological diagnoses of “negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy” and “atypical squamous cell or atypical glandular cell,” based on the MyHPV chip results, the ORs for ≥ HSILs were 6.8 and 11.7, respectively, in the HPV-16/18 (+) group. Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the MyHPV chip test are similar to the HC2. Detecting HPV-16/18 with an HPV DNA chip test, which is commonly used in many Asian countries, is useful in assessing the risk of high-grade cervical lesions. PMID:27345180

  9. Clinical Significance of an HPV DNA Chip Test with Emphasis on HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 Detection in Korean Gynecological Patients

    Min-Kyung Yeo


    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV is a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Methods: We evaluated the clinical significance of the HPV DNA chip genotyping assay (MyHPV chip, Mygene Co. compared with the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 chemiluminescent nucleic acid hybridization kit (Digene Corp. in 867 patients. Results: The concordance rate between the MyHPV chip and HC2 was 79.4% (kappa coefficient, κ = 0.55. The sensitivity and specificity of both HPV tests were very similar (approximately 85% and 50%, respectively. The addition of HPV result (either MyHPV chip or HC2 to cytology improved the sensitivity (95%, each but reduced the specificity (approximately 30%, each compared with the HPV test or cytology alone. Based on the MyHPV chip results, the odds ratio (OR for ≥ high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs was 9.9 in the HPV-16/18 (+ group and 3.7 in the non-16/18 high-risk (HR-HPV (+ group. Based on the HC2 results, the OR for ≥ HSILs was 5.9 in the HR-HPV (+ group. When considering only patients with cytological diagnoses of “negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy” and “atypical squamous cell or atypical glandular cell,” based on the MyHPV chip results, the ORs for ≥ HSILs were 6.8 and 11.7, respectively, in the HPV-16/18 (+ group. Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the MyHPV chip test are similar to the HC2. Detecting HPV-16/18 with an HPV DNA chip test, which is commonly used in many Asian countries, is useful in assessing the risk of high-grade cervical lesions.

  10. Effect modification of air pollution on Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine by genotypes: an application of the multiple testing procedure to identify significant SNP interactions

    Christiani David C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is associated with adverse human health, but mechanisms through which pollution exerts effects remain to be clarified. One suggested pathway is that pollution causes oxidative stress. If so, oxidative stress-related genotypes may modify the oxidative response defenses to pollution exposure. Methods We explored the potential pathway by examining whether an array of oxidative stress-related genes (twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs in nine genes modified associations of pollutants (organic carbon (OC, ozone and sulfate with urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxygunosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of oxidative stress among the 320 aging men. We used a Multiple Testing Procedure in R modified by our team to identify the significance of the candidate genes adjusting for a priori covariates. Results We found that glutathione S-tranferase P1 (GSTP1, rs1799811, M1 and catalase (rs2284367 and group-specific component (GC, rs2282679, rs1155563 significantly or marginally significantly modified effects of OC and/or sulfate with larger effects among those carrying the wild type of GSTP1, catalase, non-wild type of GC and the non-null of GSTM1. Conclusions Polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes modified effects of OC and/or sulfate on 8-OHdG, suggesting that effects of OC or sulfate on 8-OHdG and other endpoints may be through the oxidative stress pathway.

  11. 确证试验评价梅毒患者感染现状的意义%Significance of Confirmation Test of Serum for Syphilis Patients

    王莉; 程志英; 马雪平; 张丽萍; 杨晓莉; 王贝晗; 王海燕


    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationship between the infection status and therapentic efficacy among syphilis patients. METHODS The positive samples with Treponema pallidum passive agglutinatim (TPPA) test and titers of rapid plasma reagin test for syphilis (RPR) were detected, compared the results of fluorescence treponemal antibody absorption test for syphilis (FTA-ABS) between the RPR positives and RPR negatives and test the density of RPR and FTA-ABS after therapy. RESULTS There was significant difference between the positive and the negatives of RPR (P<0.005). With the descent of density of RPR, the positive rate of FTA-ABS was decreased. With the degree of RPR descended after therapy, the density of FTA-ABS was also descended at the same time. CONCLUSIONS To observe the curative effect, FTA-ABS should be tested for the descent of RPR. When RPR and FTA-ABS are negative, the therapy can be stopped.%目的 分析梅毒患者的感染现状与治疗疗效的关系.方法 用苍白密螺旋体(梅毒密螺旋体)被动血凝试验(TPPA)法确证抗梅毒抗体阳性,并测定它们的梅毒心磷脂反应素(RPR)滴度,分别对比RPR阳性组和阴性组血清与荧光密螺旋体抗体吸收试验(FTA-ABS)的检测结果;追踪检测梅毒感染者治疗的RPR滴度与FTA-ABS的抗体强度.结果 RPR阳性组与RPR阴性组的FTA-ABS阳性检出率分别为77.5%与37.5%,差异有统计学意义(X~2=24.47,P<0.05);随着RPR滴度的降低,FTA-ABS的阳性检出率也降低;经过治疗RPR滴度下降的病例,其FTA-ABS检测的抗体强度也随之下降.结论 观察梅毒治疗疗效,在监测RPR的下降程度时,也应检测FTA-ABS,两者均为阴性时再停止治疗.

  12. Evaluating the effective numbers of independent tests and significant p-value thresholds in commercial genotyping arrays and public imputation reference datasets.

    Li, Miao-Xin; Yeung, Juilian M Y; Cherny, Stacey S; Sham, Pak C


    Current genome-wide association studies (GWAS) use commercial genotyping microarrays that can assay over a million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The number of SNPs is further boosted by advanced statistical genotype-imputation algorithms and large SNP databases for reference human populations. The testing of a huge number of SNPs needs to be taken into account in the interpretation of statistical significance in such genome-wide studies, but this is complicated by the non-independence of SNPs because of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Several previous groups have proposed the use of the effective number of independent markers (M(e)) for the adjustment of multiple testing, but current methods of calculation for M(e) are limited in accuracy or computational speed. Here, we report a more robust and fast method to calculate M(e). Applying this efficient method [implemented in a free software tool named Genetic type 1 error calculator (GEC)], we systematically examined the M(e), and the corresponding p-value thresholds required to control the genome-wide type 1 error rate at 0.05, for 13 Illumina or Affymetrix genotyping arrays, as well as for HapMap Project and 1000 Genomes Project datasets which are widely used in genotype imputation as reference panels. Our results suggested the use of a p-value threshold of ~10(-7) as the criterion for genome-wide significance for early commercial genotyping arrays, but slightly more stringent p-value thresholds ~5 × 10(-8) for current or merged commercial genotyping arrays, ~10(-8) for all common SNPs in the 1000 Genomes Project dataset and ~5 × 10(-8) for the common SNPs only within genes.

  13. Significance Testing Needs a Taxonomy: Or How the Fisher, Neyman-Pearson Controversy Resulted in the Inferential Tail Wagging the Measurement Dog.

    Bradley, Michael T; Brand, Andrew


    Accurate measurement and a cutoff probability with inferential statistics are not wholly compatible. Fisher understood this when he developed the F test to deal with measurement variability and to make judgments on manipulations that may be worth further study. Neyman and Pearson focused on modeled distributions whose parameters were highly determined and concluded that inferential judgments following an F test could be made with accuracy because the distribution parameters were determined. Neyman and Pearson's approach in the application of statistical analyses using alpha and beta error rates has played a dominant role guiding inferential judgments, appropriately in highly determined situations and inappropriately in scientific exploration. Fisher tried to explain the different situations, but, in part due to some obscure wording, generated a long standing dispute that currently has left the importance of Fisher's p < .05 criteria not fully understood and a general endorsement of the Neyman and Pearson error rate approach. Problems were compounded with power calculations based on effect sizes following significant results entering into exploratory science. To understand in a practical sense when each approach should be used, a dimension reflecting varying levels of certainty or knowledge of population distributions is presented. The dimension provides a taxonomy of statistical situations and appropriate approaches by delineating four zones that represent how well the underlying population of interest is defined ranging from exploratory situations to highly determined populations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Quantitative renal perfusion measurements in a rat model of acute kidney injury at 3T: testing inter- and intramethodical significance of ASL and DCE-MRI.

    Fabian Zimmer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To establish arterial spin labelling (ASL for quantitative renal perfusion measurements in a rat model at 3 Tesla and to test the diagnostic significance of ASL and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI in a model of acute kidney injury (AKI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ASL and DCE-MRI were consecutively employed on six Lewis rats, five of which had a unilateral ischaemic AKI. All measurements in this study were performed on a 3 Tesla MR scanner using a FAIR True-FISP approach and a TWIST sequence for ASL and DCE-MRI, respectively. Perfusion maps were calculated for both methods and the cortical perfusion of healthy and diseased kidneys was inter- and intramethodically compared using a region-of-interest based analysis. RESULTS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both methods produce significantly different values for the healthy and the diseased kidneys (P<0.01. The mean difference was 147±47 ml/100 g/min and 141±46 ml/100 g/min for ASL and DCE-MRI, respectively. ASL measurements yielded a mean cortical perfusion of 416±124 ml/100 g/min for the healthy and 316±102 ml/100 g/min for the diseased kidneys. The DCE-MRI values were systematically higher and the mean cortical renal blood flow (RBF was found to be 542±85 ml/100 g/min (healthy and 407±119 ml/100 g/min (AKI. CONCLUSION: Both methods are equally able to detect abnormal perfusion in diseased (AKI kidneys. This shows that ASL is a capable alternative to DCE-MRI regarding the detection of abnormal renal blood flow. Regarding absolute perfusion values, nontrivial differences and variations remain when comparing the two methods.

  15. Glycated hemoglobin test of important clinical significance%406例糖化血红蛋白检测的临床分析



    目的:探讨糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)的检测对糖尿病患者的临床意义。方法对包括1型糖尿病、2型糖尿病、正常人群在内的406例受试者进行连续12周每周1次空腹血糖和1次餐后2h 血糖外周静脉血糖监测,同时在试验前及试验过程中每4周测1次 HbAlc。结果 HbA1c 与糖尿病平均血糖之间显示良好的相关性。结论 HbA1c 可以给临床工作带来指导性工作。%[Abstract ]Objective To study the glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c)in detection of important clinical significance in patients with diabe-tes. Methods 406 cases of type 1 diabetes,type 2 diabetes,normal peoplewere checked the fasting blood sugar and 1 times a week for 12 weeks 1 blood sugar 2 hours after meal peripheral venous blood sugar monitoring,at the same time before the experiment and experimental process once HbA1c test every 4 weeks. Results By analyzing the results of these intensive testing on observations show that no mat er to which a group of peo-ple,showed a good correlation between HbA1c and average blood sugar. Conclusion HbA1c can bring guidance to clinical work.

  16. Correcting the optimal resampling-based error rate by estimating the error rate of wrapper algorithms.

    Bernau, Christoph; Augustin, Thomas; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure


    High-dimensional binary classification tasks, for example, the classification of microarray samples into normal and cancer tissues, usually involve a tuning parameter. By reporting the performance of the best tuning parameter value only, over-optimistic prediction errors are obtained. For correcting this tuning bias, we develop a new method which is based on a decomposition of the unconditional error rate involving the tuning procedure, that is, we estimate the error rate of wrapper algorithms as introduced in the context of internal cross-validation (ICV) by Varma and Simon (2006, BMC Bioinformatics 7, 91). Our subsampling-based estimator can be written as a weighted mean of the errors obtained using the different tuning parameter values, and thus can be interpreted as a smooth version of ICV, which is the standard approach for avoiding tuning bias. In contrast to ICV, our method guarantees intuitive bounds for the corrected error. Additionally, we suggest to use bias correction methods also to address the conceptually similar method selection bias that results from the optimal choice of the classification method itself when evaluating several methods successively. We demonstrate the performance of our method on microarray and simulated data and compare it to ICV. This study suggests that our approach yields competitive estimates at a much lower computational price.

  17. Resampling-Based Gap Analysis for Detecting Nodes with High Centrality on Large Social Network


    c© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 T. Cao et al. (Eds.): PAKDD 2015, Part I, LNAI 9077, pp. 135–147, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319...corpus: a new dataset for email classification research. In: Boulicaut, J.-F., Esposito, F., Giannotti, F., Pedreschi, D. (eds.) ECML 2004 . LNCS (LNAI...vol. 3201, pp. 217–226. Springer, Heidelberg ( 2004 ) 10. Kurant, M., Markopoulou, A., Thiran, P.: Towards unbiased bfs sampling. IEEE Journal on

  18. Numerical study identifying the factors causing the significant underestimation of the specific discharge estimated using the modified integral pumping test method in a laboratory experiment.

    Sun, Kerang


    A three-dimensional finite element model is constructed to simulate the experimental conditions presented in a paper published in this journal [Goltz et al., 2009. Validation of two innovative methods to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 106 (2009) 51-61] where the modified integral pumping test (MIPT) method was found to significantly underestimate the specific discharge in an artificial aquifer. The numerical model closely replicates the experimental configuration with explicit representation of the pumping well column and skin, allowing for the model to simulate the wellbore flow in the pumping well as an integral part of the porous media flow in the aquifer using the equivalent hydraulic conductivity approach. The equivalent hydraulic conductivity is used to account for head losses due to friction within the wellbore of the pumping well. Applying the MIPT method on the model simulated piezometric heads resulted in a specific discharge that underestimates the true specific discharge in the experimental aquifer by 18.8%, compared with the 57% underestimation of mass flux by the experiment reported by Goltz et al. (2009). Alternative simulation shows that the numerical model is capable of approximately replicating the experiment results when the equivalent hydraulic conductivity is reduced by an order of magnitude, suggesting that the accuracy of the MIPT estimation could be improved by expanding the physical meaning of the equivalent hydraulic conductivity to account for other factors such as orifice losses in addition to frictional losses within the wellbore. Numerical experiments also show that when applying the MIPT method to estimate hydraulic parameters, use of depth-integrated piezometric head instead of the head near the pump intake can reduce the estimation error resulting from well losses, but not the error associated with the well not being fully screened.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA A1555G mutation screening using a testing kit method and its significance in preventing aminoglycoside-related hearing loss

    LIU Xin; YANG Weiyan; HAN Dongyi; JIN Zhengce; GUAN Minxin; DAI Pu; HUANG Deliang; YUAN Huijun; LI Weiming; YU Fei; ZHANG Xin; KANG Dongyang; CAO Juyang


    To report a new screening method for mitochondrial DNA 1555A→G mutation and the results of genotype analysis in 19 maternal inherited deafness pedigrees. Method Five hundred and forty-six non-syndromic neuro-sensory hearing loss patients were tested for 1555A→G mutation using a new compact testing kit, which allows clear distinction between wild type and 1555 A→G mutated mtDNAs. Results Nineteen subjects among the 546 patients (3.48%) were found to carry mtDNA A1555G mutation. The results were confirmed by sequencing in an ABI 3100 Avant sequencer. Conclusions Maternal inherited deafness families are a frequently seen in outpatient group. The detection ofmtDNA 1555 A→G mutation with a low cost, ready to use detection kit is needed and suitable in China for large scale screening and preventive testing before usage of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  20. Exploring Differential Effects across Two Decoding Treatments on Item-Level Transfer in Children with Significant Word Reading Difficulties: A New Approach for Testing Intervention Elements

    Steacy, Laura M.; Elleman, Amy M.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Compton, Donald L.


    In English, gains in decoding skill do not map directly onto increases in word reading. However, beyond the Self-Teaching Hypothesis, little is known about the transfer of decoding skills to word reading. In this study, we offer a new approach to testing specific decoding elements on transfer to word reading. To illustrate, we modeled word-reading…

  1. Exploring Differential Effects across Two Decoding Treatments on Item-Level Transfer in Children with Significant Word Reading Difficulties: A New Approach for Testing Intervention Elements

    Steacy, Laura M.; Elleman, Amy M.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Compton, Donald L.


    In English, gains in decoding skill do not map directly onto increases in word reading. However, beyond the Self-Teaching Hypothesis, little is known about the transfer of decoding skills to word reading. In this study, we offer a new approach to testing specific decoding elements on transfer to word reading. To illustrate, we modeled word-reading…


    Nataša Bakić-Mirić


    Full Text Available The purpose of a diagnostic English language testing is to help students to assess the level of English language skills and to provide students with effective training tools to improve their English language skills. This kind of test is usually designed and intended for students who reached lower intermediate level of communicative competence in reading, listening, speaking and writing skills and it is based on comprehensive needs analysis. However, it can also be adjusted for students who have reached intermediate, upper-intermediate and advanced knowledge of the English language. Conjointly, this paper also examines the use of qualitative data analysis to improve students’ English language performance while taking an ESP course, which gives an insight into what teacher needs for a successful English language course and lesson planning, and that means having an overlook into gray areas of the English language that largely cause problems for students.

  3. Significant Breakthrough in Industrial Test of the "Methanol to Olefins" Process Developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences


    @@ A process of "Methanol or Dimethylether to Olefins" developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), designated as the DMTO process, has attained great success in industrial scaling up testing. DICP, by collaborating with the Xinxing Coal Chemical Co., Ltd. of Shaanxi Province and the Luoyang Petrochemical Engineering Co. of the SINOPEC Group, operated successfully a 50t(methanol)/d unit for the conversion of methanol to lower olefins, with a methanol conversion of close to 100%, and a selectivity to lower olefins(ethylene, propylene and butylenes) of higher than 90%. On 23rd August, the industrial test project has passed a state appraisal. The experts of the Appraisal Group, headed by Prof.

  4. Test

    Bendixen, Carsten


    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  5. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.


    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  6. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.


    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  7. Effect of GLP-1 and GIP on C-peptide secretion after glucagon or mixed meal tests: Significance in assessing B-cell function in diabetes.

    Guglielmi, C; Del Toro, R; Lauria, A; Maurizi, A R; Fallucca, S; Cappelli, A; Angeletti, S; Lachin, J M; Pozzilli, P


    The aim of the study was to investigate the different B-cell responses after a glucagon stimulation test (GST) versus mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT). We conducted GST and MMTT in 10 healthy people (aged 25-40 years) and measured C-peptide, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) at different time points after the administration of 1 mg i.v. glucagon for GST or a liquid mixed meal for MMTT. The GST stimulated C-peptide showed a mean increase of 147.1%, whereas the mean increase of MMTT stimulated C-peptide was 99.82% (Δincrease = 47.2%). Maximum C-peptide level reached with the MMTT was greater than that obtained with the GST (C-pept max MMTT = 2.35 nmol/L vs C-pep max GST = 1.9 nmol/L). A positive and linear correlation was found between the GST incremental area under the curve C-peptide and the MMTT incremental area under the curve C-peptide (r = 0.618, P = .05). After GST, there was no increment of GIP and glucagon like peptide-1 levels compared to baseline levels. A positive and linear correlation between GIP and C-peptide levels was observed only for the MMTT (r = 0.922, P = .008) indicating that in the GST, the C-peptide response is independent of the incretin axis response. Although the 2 stimulation tests may elicit a similar response in C-peptide secretion, B-cell response to MMTT depends on a functionally normal incretin axis. These results may have implications when investigating the B-cell response in people with diabetes and for studies in which stimulated C-peptide secretion is used as primary or secondary outcome for response to therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The use of the standard exercise test to establish the clinical significance of mild echocardiographic changes in a Thoroughbred poor performer : clinical communication

    C. Meyer


    Full Text Available A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding racehorse was referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital (OVAH with a history of post-race distress and collapse. In the absence of any obvious abnormalities in the preceding diagnostic work-up, a standard exercise test was performed to determine an underlying cause for the post-race distress reported. In this particular case oxygen desaturation became evident at speeds as slow as 6 m/s, where PO2 was measured at 82.3 mm Hg. Similarly at a blood pH of 7.28, PCO2 had dropped to 30.0mm Hg indicating a combined metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the distress was attributed to a severe hypoxia, with an associated hypocapnoea, confirmed on blood gas analyses, where PO2 levels obtained were as low as 56.6 mm Hg with a mean PCO2 level of 25.4 mm Hg during strenuous exercise. Arterial oxygenation returned to normal immediately after cessation of exercise to 106.44 mm Hg, while the hypocapnoeic alkalosis, PCO2 25.67 mm Hg, persisted until the animal's breathing normalized. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise. The combination of an aortic stenosis and a mitral valve insufficiency may have resulted in a condition similar to that described as high-altitude pulmonary oedema, with respiratory changes and compensation as for acute altitude disease. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise and substantiate the fact that an extensive diagnostic regime may be required to establish a cause for poor performance and that the standard exercise test remains an integral part of this work-up.

  9. [The significance of the results of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities for the prevention of the traffic road accidents].

    Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Grigoryan, V G; Gusarov, A A; Kucheryavets, Yu O

    The disabling injuries inflicted during road traffic accidents (RTA) create a serious challenge for the public health services and are at the same time a major socio-economic problem in the majority of the countries throughout the world. The injuries to the lower extremities of the pedestrians make up the largest fraction of the total number of the non-lethal RTA injuries. Most of them are responsible for the considerable deterioration of the quality of life for the participants in the accidents during the subsequent period. The objective of the present study was to summarize the currently available results of experimental testing of the biomechanical models of the pedestrians' lower extremities in the framework of the program for the prevention of the road traffic accidents as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). The European Enhanced Safety Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has developed a series of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities simulating the vehicle bumper-pedestrian impact. The models are intended for the assessment of the risk of the tibia fractures and the injuries to the knee joint ligaments. The experts of EEVC proposed the biomechanical criteria for the acceleration of the knee and talocrural parts of the lower limbs as well as for the shear displacement of the knee and knee-bending angle. The engineering solution of this problem is based on numerous innovation proposals being implemented in the machine-building industry with the purpose of reducing the stiffness of structural elements of the bumper and other front components of a modern vehicle designed to protect the pedestrians from severe injuries that can be inflicted in the road traffic accidents. The activities of the public health authorities (in the first place, bureaus of forensic medical expertise and analogous facilities) have a direct bearing on the solution of the problem of control of road traffic injuries because they are possessed of

  10. Which cities produce worldwide more excellent papers than can be expected? A new mapping approach--using Google Maps--based on statistical significance testing

    Bornmann, Lutz


    The methods presented in this paper allow for a spatial analysis revealing centers of excellence around the world using programs that are freely available. Based on Web of Science data, field-specific excellence can be identified in cities where highly-cited papers were published. Compared to the mapping approaches published hitherto, our approach is more analytically oriented by allowing the assessment of an observed number of excellent papers for a city against the expected number. With this feature, this approach can not only identify the top performers in output but the "true jewels." These are cities locating authors who publish significantly more top cited papers than can be expected. As the examples in this paper show for physics, chemistry, and psychology, these cities do not necessarily have a high output of excellent papers.

  11. Testing Model Atmospheres for Young Very-low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Infrared: Evidence for Significantly Underestimated Dust Opacities

    Tottle, Jonathan; Mohanty, Subhanjoy


    We test state-of-the-art model atmospheres for young very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the infrared, by comparing the predicted synthetic photometry over 1.2-24 μm to the observed photometry of M-type spectral templates in star-forming regions. We find that (1) in both early and late young M types, the model atmospheres imply effective temperatures ({{T}eff}) several hundred Kelvin lower than predicted by the standard pre-main sequence (PMS) spectral type-{{T}eff} conversion scale (based on theoretical evolutionary models). It is only in the mid-M types that the two temperature estimates agree. (2) The {{T}eff} discrepancy in the early M types (corresponding to stellar masses ≳ 0.4 {{M}⊙ } at ages of a few Myr) probably arises from remaining uncertainties in the treatment of atmospheric convection within the atmospheric models, whereas in the late M types it is likely due to an underestimation of dust opacity. (3) The empirical and model-atmosphere J-band bolometric corrections are both roughly flat, and similar to each other, over the M-type {{T}eff} range. Thus the model atmospheres yield reasonably accurate bolometric luminosities ({{L}bol}), but lead to underestimations of mass and age relative to evolutionary expectations (especially in the late M types) due to lower {{T}eff}. We demonstrate this for a large sample of young Cha I and Taurus sources. (4) The trends in the atmospheric model J-Ks colors, and their deviations from the data, are similar at PMS and main sequence ages, suggesting that the model dust opacity errors we postulate here for young ages also apply at field ages.

  12. 18F-FDG PET/CT makes a significant contribution to diagnosis of malignancy in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy: a study using optimal scale regression tests

    OUYANG Lin; SHI Zhao-yin; LIN Zhi-gang


    Background The specificity and precision of lymphadenopathy assessment using US,CT and MRI are generally unsatisfactory,while fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) can support this process by providing additional information about the lymph node features.However,which image features of 18F-FDG PET/CT play the key role in the diagnosis and cutoffs of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy still needs to be determined by further studies.Our study aimed to identify 18F-FDG PET/CT abnormalities that would assist in making a reliable diagnosis of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy in enlarged cervical lymph nodes of patients with unknown primary diseases.Methods One hundred and ninety-one consecutive patients of cervical lymphadenopathy with unknown primary causes were examined by 18F-FDG PET/CT from May 2007 to October 2011 and a definite diagnosis was established by pathologic biopsy.18F-FDG PET/CT images were evaluated to identify the relevant abnormalities.All image features were analyzed by optimal scale regression tests to determine the important factors that were predictive for the diagnosis of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy and the cutoffs.Results The factors studied in 18F-FDG PET/CT images for predicting malignant cervical lymphadenopathy were sex,age,node location,size,shape,margins,maximum standard uptake value (SUV),mean SUV,FDG uptake pattern and number of nodes.It was found that mean SUV,maximum SUV,FDG uptake pattern,location,size and margins were the important risk factors of cervical lymph nodes that could predict malignant cervical lymphadenopathy.Signs of mean SUV≥2.5 (or maximum SUV≥3.5),nodular FDG uptake pattern,location of ⅡA,Ⅲ,Ⅳ,ⅤB,Ⅵ and Ⅶ regions,size≥1.5 cm and vague margins had their optimal diagnostic accuracy (Ac) and Youden index (YI),further,combination of any three factors of these six important risk factors would led to the best diagnosticAc of 96% and YI of 0

  13. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    Seniuk, P.J.


    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  14. Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections.

    Frenk, Steven M; Yang, Yang Claire; Land, Kenneth C


    In recently developed hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models, inferential questions arise: How can one assess or judge the significance of estimates of individual cohort and period effects in such models? And how does one assess the overall statistical significance of the cohort and/or the period effects? Beyond statistical significance is the question of substantive significance. This paper addresses these questions. In the context of empirical applications of linear and generalized linear mixed-model specifications of HAPC models using data on verbal test scores and voter turnout in U.S. presidential elections, respectively, we describe a two-step approach and a set of guidelines for assessing statistical significance. The guidelines include assessments of patterns of effects and statistical tests both for the effects of individual cohorts and time periods as well as for entire sets of cohorts and periods. The empirical applications show strong evidence that trends in verbal test scores are primarily cohort driven, while voter turnout is primarily a period phenomenon.

  15. The highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptor antagonist, EMD 281014, significantly increases swimming and decreases immobility in male congenital learned helpless rats in the forced swim test.

    Patel, Jignesh G; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Edwards, Emmeline; Ashby, Charles R


    We examined the effect of the highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile HCl (EMD 281014) in congenital learned helpless male rats in the forced swim test. The administration of EMD-281014 (0.3-30 mg/kg i.p.) to congenital learned helpless rats dose-dependently and significantly (at 10 and 30 mg/kg) decreased immobility and increased swimming compared to vehicle-treated animals. Thus, EMD 281014 produces effects in the forced swim test resembling those of antidepressants.

  16. Only a small fraction of high-grade cervical lesions are discovered after an interpretation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance when using imager-assisted, liquid-based papanicolaou tests and the Bethesda 2001 system.

    Khan, Kelly A; Smith, Debora A; Thrall, Michael J


    Previous work has reported that most high-grade cervical neoplasia is seen in patients with preceding Papanicolaou test results of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. This information was based on conventional test results and the Bethesda 1991 reporting system and was determined before the current treatment guidelines. Our objective was to perform a retrospective review of all histologically confirmed, high-grade cervical neoplasia to determine the diagnosis of the preceding liquid-based Papanicolaou test. A total of 189 histologically confirmed, high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases grade 2 and greater were identified for a 1-year period. Of the 189 cases, 10 (5.3%) had a previous diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 55 (29.1%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; 31 (16.4%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, unable to rule out a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 21 (11.1%) had atypical squamous cells, unable to rule out a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 68 (36%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; 1 (0.5%) had atypical glandular cells; 1 (0.5%) had adenocarcinoma in situ; and 2 (1%) had invasive carcinoma. Combined "low grade" Papanicolaou test results (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) preceded 51 of 103 cases of CIN 2 (49.5%) and 14 of 103 cases (13.6%) of CIN 3/cancer, whereas "high grade" Papanicolaou test results (atypical squamous cells, unable to rule out a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, unable to rule out a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; atypical glandular cells; adenocarcinoma in situ; and invasive carcinoma) preceded 52 of 103 CIN 2 cases (50.5%) and 72 of 103 CIN 3/cancer cases (69.9%). Our data show that we can now more-reliably predict high

  17. 基于差异显著性检验的图书馆服务质量评估方法探析%Evaluation Method Study of Library Service Quality Based on the Significant Difference Test

    胡秀梅; 贾哲


    借鉴SERVQUAL工具的思想,编制西南交通大学图书馆服务质量调查问卷。通过计算用户对图书馆服务质量各指标的实际感受值与最低要求值、实际感受值与期望值的差值,并对各差值进行显著性检验,对西南交通大学犀浦校区图书馆服务质量进行实证研究。研究结果表明,差异显著性检验方法在图书馆服务质量评估中具备客观性、科学性、针对性及可操作性。%By using the idea of SERVQUAL for reference, the library service quality questionnaires of Southwest Jiaotong University is compiled. By calculating the difference between perceived value and minimum demand value, perceived value and desired value of user library' s service quality and testing the statistical significance of these differences, an empirical study of Xipu Library' s service quality of Southwest Jiaotong University is completed. The results show that the significant different test is objective, scientific, specific and operational for the evaluation on library service quality.

  18. Spectral resampling based on user-defined interband correlation filter: C3 and C4 grass species classification

    Adjorlolo, C


    Full Text Available In this paper, a user-defined inter-band correlation filter function was used to resample hyperspectral data and thereby mitigate the problem of multicollinearity in classification analysis. The proposed resampling technique convolves the spectral...

  19. Spectral resampling based on user-defined inter-band correlation filter: C3 and C4 grass species classification

    Adjorlolo, Clement; Mutanga, Onisimo; Cho, Moses A.; Ismail, Riyad


    In this paper, a user-defined inter-band correlation filter function was used to resample hyperspectral data and thereby mitigate the problem of multicollinearity in classification analysis. The proposed resampling technique convolves the spectral dependence information between a chosen band-centre and its shorter and longer wavelength neighbours. Weighting threshold of inter-band correlation (WTC, Pearson's r) was calculated, whereby r = 1 at the band-centre. Various WTC (r = 0.99, r = 0.95 and r = 0.90) were assessed, and bands with coefficients beyond a chosen threshold were assigned r = 0. The resultant data were used in the random forest analysis to classify in situ C3 and C4 grass canopy reflectance. The respective WTC datasets yielded improved classification accuracies (kappa = 0.82, 0.79 and 0.76) with less correlated wavebands when compared to resampled Hyperion bands (kappa = 0.76). Overall, the results obtained from this study suggested that resampling of hyperspectral data should account for the spectral dependence information to improve overall classification accuracy as well as reducing the problem of multicollinearity.

  20. 效应量在外语研究独立样本T检验中的应用及意义%Application and Significance of Effect Sizes of Independent Sample T-test in Foreign Language Research

    秦学锋; 杨东益; 杨东英


    The level of statistical significance doesn’t mean the magnitude of practical significance in experimental research. Effect sizes can be a useful adjunct to evaluate the practical significance of research outcomes. By computing and analyzing the effect sizes from 33 independent samples T-test results, this thesis argues that measures of effect sizes have a legitimate place in the advancement of current foreign language research, and that meta-analysis is conducted based on effect sizes.%统计上的显著意义不能等同于实验结果的实际意义显著。效应量可来辅助评价研究结果的实际意义大小。通过对33个独立样本T检验研究效应量的计算分析,建议外语研究者重视对效应量的研究与运用,并进一步开展元分析研究。

  1. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  2. Patch testing with 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) formaldehyde instead of 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2) detects significantly more contact allerg

    Pontén, Ann; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Agner, Tove


    .To validate earlier patch test results for comparison of 1% (wt/vol) and 2% (wt/vol) formaldehyde in water, and to investigate co-reactivity with quaternium-15. Materials and methods.In 12 dermatology clinics, 3591 patients were routinely patch tested simultaneously with 2.0% (wt/vol) (0.60 mg/cm(2) ) and 1.......0% (wt/vol) (0.30 mg/cm(2) ) formaldehyde. Micropipettes were used for delivering the exact dosage of the allergen. Results.Significantly more patients reacted to 2.0% formaldehyde than to 1.0% (3.4% versus 1.8%, p 2.0......% and 1.0%. Of 25 quaternium-15-positive patients, 4 (0.1%) reacted positively without reacting to formaldehyde. Conclusion.On the basis of the results of this multicentre study, as well as of previous studies, it can be suggested that 2.0% (wt/vol) in water formaldehyde should be used in routine patch...

  3. HPV-DNA分型检测在ASCUS患者分流管理中的价值%Value of Human Papillomavirus Testing in Triage of Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance

    王华; 郭广林; 任红英; 庞雁; 王玉婷


    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of HPV-DNA testing in the distribution and management of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance ( ASCUS) . Methods The patients diagnosed as ASCUS by liquid-based cytologic test received colposcopy for tissue studies and were examined with HPV-DNA testing simultaneously. Results (l)The detective rates of HPV was 9.0% and 66. 7% in chronic cervicitis and condylomatous disease ,76. 7% and 90. 0% in CINI and CINII, respectively. There were statistically difference between two stage of cevercal lesions (P <0. 05) . (2)The positive rate of HPV testing was both 100% in cervical cancer and CINIII, there was statistical difference compare with CINI and CINII. (3)The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of HPV testing in diagnosed CIN and ICC were 94.7% ,70.1% ,27.4% and 99.0% .respectively. Conclusion HPV-DNA can effectively screen CIN and cervical cancer cases from ASCUS,which is an effective method for the distribution and management of ASCUS patients.%目的:评价人乳头瘤病毒(HPV) DNA分型检测在未明确诊断意义的官颈非典型鳞状上皮细胞(atypicalsquamous cells of undetermined significance,ASCUS)患者中的应用价值.方法:对薄层液基细胞学检查结果为AS-CUS的患者进行阴道镜检查及组织病理学检查,并同时行HPV-DNA分型检测.结果:(1)165例ASCUS患者中,组织学诊断为慢性宫颈炎、湿疣、CINⅠ、CINⅡ中HPV-DNA的检出率分别为9.0%、66.7%、76.7%、90.0%;(2)组织学诊断为CINⅢ和侵袭性子宫颈癌(invasive cervical cancer,ICC)的患者HPV-DNA检出率均为100%,与CINⅠ和CI-NⅡ相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);(3)HPV检测CIN和ICC的灵敏度为94.7%,特异度70.1%,阳性预测值27.4%,阴性预测值99.0%.结论:HPV-DNA分型检测可有效检出宫颈细胞学ASCUS中CIN及宫颈癌患者,可对患者进行有效分流管理.

  4. GDM患者D-二聚体、CRP和尿酸检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of D-Dimer, c-reactive protein and uric acid test in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

    聂艳华; 赵丽萍


    目的:探讨妊娠期糖尿病( GDM)患者血浆D-二聚体、C反应蛋白( CRP)和尿酸检测的临床意义。方法检测108例GDM孕妇血浆D-二聚体、CRP和尿酸的水平,同时选择108例健康孕妇作为对照,分析血浆D-二聚体、CRP和尿酸在GDM诊断中的临床意义。结果 GDM患者血浆D-二聚体、CRP和尿酸与健康孕妇相应参数比较,差异均有统计学意义( t值分别为2.33、8.61、7.73,均P<0.05)。结论 D-二聚体、CRP和尿酸的测定在GDM的诊断和预后判断中具有重要临床价值。%Objective To explore the clinical significance of D-dimer, c-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid test in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM) .Methods Plasma D-dimer, CRP and uric acid level of 108 cases of GDM were tested , and 108 healthy pregnant women were selected as controls .The clinical significance of D-dimer, CRP and uric acid level in the diagnosis of GDM was analyzed.Results Plasma D-dimer, CRP and uric acid level in patients with GDM were significantly different from those of the controls (t value was 2.33, 8.61 and 7.73, respectively, all P<0.05).Conclusion The determination of D-dimer, CRP and uric acid has important clinical value in the diagnosis and prognosis judgment of GDM .

  5. Clinical significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide test in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%测定慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼出气一氧化氮的临床意义



    目的 探讨呼出气一氧化氮(fraction of exhaled nitric oxide,FENO)测定在慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)患者诊治中的临床意义.方法 2011年6月至2012年10月诊断为支气管哮喘和慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者及健康对照组共81例.对所有研究者均进行FENO检测及肺功能测定,评估3组患者FENO水平差别及与肺功能的相关性.结果 三组入选者中稳定期COPD患者FENO水平(36.31±11.78) ppb低于哮喘组(74.12±12.34) ppb,高于健康对照组(17.78±12.25) ppb,差异均具有统计学意义.稳定期COPD患者FENO值与健康对照组FENO值间存在重叠.稳定期COPD患者FENO水平与FEV1% pred呈负相关(r=-0.715,P<0.01).结论 测定FENO值不能作为诊断COPD的指标,然而可作为一个早期的提示COPD患者肺损伤程度的一个很好的指标.%Objective To explore The clinical significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide test in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods Patients With chronic obstructive pulmonary disease、 asthma and normal control group were studied, spirometry and FENO test were performed in all subjects,assess the FENO level difference and the correlation with spirometry and FENO level in 3 groups of patients. Results Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls ( 36. 31 ± 11. 78 vs 17. 78 ± 12. 25; P < 0. 05) but lower than the subjects with asthma (36. 31 ±11.78 vs 74. 12 ±12. 34 P <0. 05). The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEVl/pred% ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. Conclusions FENO value cannot be used as a diagnostic index of COPD, but can be used as a good indicator to indicate the pulmonary injury severity in COPD patient.

  6. 生物多样性和均匀度显著性的随机化检验及计算软件%Randomization tests and computational software on statistic significance of community biodiversity and evenness

    张文军; 齐艳红; 等


    Diversity and evenness indices were widely used in community ecology and biodiversity researches. However, shortage of statistic tests on these indices restricted their reliability. To develop statistic test methods on diversity is one of the focuses in biodiversity researches. In present study, some randomization tests on statistic significance of diversity and evenness indices, confidence interval of diversity and evenness, and randomization test on statistic significance of between-community differences were presented. Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson diversity index, McIntosh diversity index, Berger-Parker diversity index, Hurlbert diversity index, Brillouin diversity index, and corresponding evenness indices are included in the randomization test procedure. The web-based computational software for the statistic tests, BiodiversityTest, which is comprised of seven Java classes and an HTML file, is developed. It can be run on various operational systems and java-enabled web browsers and, may read ODBC linked databases such as MS Access, Excel, FoxPro, dBASE, etc. Rice arthropod diversity (15 sampling sites, 125 arthropod species, 17 functional groups) was recorded on September,1996 in IRRI rice farm using RiceVac apparatus and bucket enclosure. The data were analysed using BiodiversityTest with Shannon-Wiener index and Berger-Parker index respectively, and the results showed that the changes of diversity and evenness can be effectively detected by these tests. The randomization tests will correct the possible wrong conclusions aroused in direct comparison of arthropod diversity which was used in most of the researches up to now. The development of randomization tests on biodiversity will provide a quantitative tool for stricter statistic comparison of biodiversity between communities and present an absolute criterion fordiversity measuring. BiodiversityTest will make the computation realistic and accessible on Internet.%多样性指数和均匀

  7. Prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+ using HPV DNA testing after a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US in Catalonia, Spain

    Ibáñez Raquel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening cytology. In addition, Human Papillomavirus (HPV was offered as a triage test for women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US. HPV testing was recommended within 3 months of ASC-US diagnosis. According to protocol, HPV negative women were referred to regular screening including a cytological exam every 3 years while HPV positive women were referred to colposcopy and closer follow-up. We evaluated the implementation of the protocol and the prediction of HPV testing as a triage tool for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade two or worse (CIN2+ in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US. Methods During 2007-08 a total of 611 women from five reference laboratories in Catalonia with a novel diagnosis of ASC-US were referred for high risk HPV (hrHPV triage using high risk Hybrid Capture version 2. Using routine record linkage data, women were followed for 3 years to evaluate hrHPV testing efficacy for predicting CIN2+ cases. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for CIN2 +. Results Among the 611 women diagnosed with ASC-US, 493 (80.7% had at least one follow-up visit during the study period. hrHPV was detected in 48.3% of the women at study entry (mean age 35.2 years. hrHPV positivity decreased with increasing age from 72.6% among women younger than 25 years to 31.6% in women older than 54 years (p At the end of the 3 years follow-up period, 37 women with a diagnosis of CIN2+ (18 CIN2, 16 CIN3, 2 cancers, and 1 with high squamous intraepithelial lesions -HSIL were identified and all but one had a hrHPV positive test at study entry. Sensitivity to detect CIN2+ of hrHPV was 97.2% (95%confidence interval (CI = 85.5-99.9 and specificity was 68.3% (95%CI

  8. The Significance of the Lupus Band Test of Rosacea%皮肤狼疮带试验在酒渣鼻皮损中的检测意义

    石岩; 吴秀娟; 靳颖; 普雄明


    Objective To explored the clinical significance of the lupus band test in rosacea,and compared with system lupus erythematosus.Methods By using the direct immunofluoresence,we detected the presence of immunoglobulin and complenent C3,which was deposited on the basement membrane zone of rosacea and lesions or normal skin of system lupus erythematosus,and made statistical analysis with the resuh and major signs of rosacea and system lupus erythematosus.Results The total positive rate of lupus band test in 73 rosacea cases was 19.18% (14/73).The deposit pattern was IgA 15.07%,C3 12.33%,lgG 10.95%,IgM 9.59% and fibrinogen (0%) respectively.The total positive rate of lupus band test in 150 system lupus erythematosus cases was 85.33%(128/150).The deposit pattern was IgM 72.67%,IgG 68.00%,IgA 61.33%,C3 55.33%,and fibrinogen 28.67% respectively.Conclusion The lupus band test had a certain positive rate in rosacea.Therefore,when lupus band test used for clinical diagnosis,we should pay attention to the comprehensive assessment with the clinical manifestations and laboratory examination.%目的 探讨皮肤狼疮带试验(LBT)在酒渣鼻中的检测意义,并与系统性红斑狼疮进行比较.方法 用直接免疫荧光技术检测酒渣鼻患者皮损,以及系统性红斑狼疮患者外观正常皮肤或皮损中真表皮交界处免疫球蛋白或补体的沉积,并同时与其主要临床症状进行统计分析.结果 酒渣鼻73例,LBT阳性有14例,阳性率19.18% (14/73).免疫球蛋白阳性率分别是IgA(15.07%)、C3 (12.33%)、IgG (10.95%)、IgM(9.59%)和纤维蛋白原(0%).系统性红斑狼疱150例,LBT阳性128例,阳性率85.33%(128/150).其中,IgM阳性率最高(72.67%)、依次是IgG (68.00%)、IgA(61.33%)、补体C3(55.33%)和纤维蛋白原(28.67%).结论 皮肤狼疮带试验在酒渣鼻中具有一定的阳性率,其用于临床诊断时应注意结合临床表现及实验室相关检查综合评估.

  9. 生长激素激发试验在矮小儿童临床诊断中的价值%Clinical significance of the provocative GH testing in clinical diagnosis of short children

    孙海玲; 班博; 潘慧; 朱慧娟; 张梅; 李萍


    Objective To explore clinical significance of the provocative GH testing in clinical diagnosis of short children.Methods Retrospective analysis of two hundred and forty-three cases of short children from February 201 3 to April 201 4,who were tested with levodopa and insulin test.Determing growth basic values and growth values after 30,60,90,1 20 min of giving medicine.Results Sixty-eight cases (27.98%)with complete lack of growth hormone,ninty-eight patients (40.33%)with partial growth hormone deficiency,sixty-six cases (27.1 6%)with idiopathic short stature,seven cases (2.88%)with Turner syndrome,four cases with other causes (1 .65%).Growth hormone deficiencies was the first cause. Comparing with the partial growth hormone deficiency,there was a significant difference(χ2 =6.533,P 0.05 );The peak of growth hormone in L-dopa provocation tests appeared in 60 min,(one hundred and nineteen cases,48.97%),the peak of growth hormone in insulin stimulates test in 30 min,60 min respectively (one hundred and thirteen cases,46.50%;one hundred and twenty-one cases,49.80%).Conclusion Provocation GH testing of levodopa and insulin can be used as diagnostic test of short children with growth hormone deficiency.%目的探讨生长激素激发试验在矮小儿童临床诊断中的价值。方法回顾性分析济宁医学院附属医院内分泌科2013年2月至2014年4月诊治的243例矮小症儿童的临床资料,均行左旋多巴、胰岛素生长激素激发试验,测定生长激素基础值及用药后30、60、90及120 min 时生长激素水平。采用 SPSS 17.0统计软件进行统计学分析,药物激发生长激素峰值强度结果以均数±标准差表示,采用 t 检验;病因分布计数资料采用四格表χ2检验。结果68例(27.98%)患儿生长激素完全缺乏,98例(40.33%)部分缺乏,66例(27.16%)为特发性矮小,先天性卵巢发育不全(Turner 综合征)7例,占2.88%,其他4例(1.65%

  10. 血液检验在贫血鉴别诊断中的临床意义%The clinical significance of blood test in the differential diagnosis of anemia



    Objective:To explore the clinical significance of blood test in the differential diagnosis of anemia.Methods:120 cases with anemia were selected from 2011 to 2012.They were divided into the mediterranean anemia group(64 cases) and iron deficiency anemia group(56 cases) according to the conditions of patients.50 cases of healthy adult were selected as the control group.The blood cells of all participants were detected.We observed the difference in blood RBC,MCV,Hb,MCH,RDW,RBC/MCV indicators.Results:In the mediterranean anemia group,RBC/MCV,the RBC index were significantly higher than those of iron deficiency anemia group and the control group.In iron deficiency anemia group,Hb,RBC were lower than those of the control group and the mediterranean anemia group.In the control group,MCV and MCH were significantly higher than those of the mediterranean anemia and iron deficiency anemia group.The difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:In the blood testing,the indicators are helpful in the diagnosis of anemia and to identify the type of anemia.It has high value.%目的:探讨血液检验在贫血鉴别诊断中的意义。方法:2011-2012年收治贫血患者120例,并根据患者情况分成地中海贫血组(64例)以及缺铁性贫血组(56例),并选取健康成人50例作对照组,对所有参与者血细胞进行检测,观察血液中 RBC、MCV、Hb、MCH、RDW、RBC/MCV 各项指标差异性。结果:地中海贫血组中 RBC/MCV、RBC指标均明显高于缺铁性贫血组以及对照组,缺铁性贫血组中Hb、RBC两项指标则明显低于对照组及地中海贫血组,对照组中 MCV 和 MCH 明显高于地中海贫血组和缺铁性贫血组,组间对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:血液检验中各项指标有助于诊断贫血并鉴别贫血类型,具有较高价值。

  11. 尿微量白蛋白对早期糖尿病视网膜病变的临床意义%Diagnostic significance of urine microalbumin test for early diabetic retinopathy

    乔宇; 王平


    ? Diabetic retinopathy is one of those significant complications of diabetes.With the increasing number of diabetic patients, blind caused by diabetic retinopathy is a serious threat to human health which cannot be neglected, but there is no highly effective treatment for it. Consequently, early detection and preventive treatment for it are important.Currently, studies have found that urine microalbumin had a close relation with diabetic retinopathy and that urine microalbumin might play an important role in early predicting of diabetic retinopathy. The review is about the diagnostic significance of urine microalbumin test for early diabetic retinopathy.%糖尿病视网膜病变是糖尿病非常重要的并发症之一。目前对于糖尿病视网膜病变的治疗并没有非常有效的治疗手段,所以在糖尿病视网膜病变的前期,早期发现与预防治疗显得格外的重要,近年研究发现尿微量蛋白与糖尿病视网膜病变密切相关,对于早期防治糖尿病视网膜病变具有重要意义,本文就尿微量白蛋白在早期的糖尿病视网膜病变中的临床意义作一综述。

  12. The significance of vaterite occurrence in tube blocking tests using Na-K-Ca-Cl-HCO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O brines at 120degC

    Mulshaw, Sean [Imperial Coll., TH Huxley School of Environment, Earth Science and Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Locardel, Beatrice [BP Exploration, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)


    CaCO{sub 3} scaling at 120degC and formation water flow along well tubing during production, is modelled using tube blocking experiments utilising Na-K-Ca{sub C}l-HCO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O brines. All tests produced scale assemblages dominated by aragonite, vaterite ({<=}45%) and some calcite. Vaterite is a rare form of CaCO{sub 3} so its occurrence is particularly significant. Vaterite precipitation was initiated by rapid CaCO{sub 3} supersaturation, driven by lower CaCO{sub 3} solubility at 120degC, combined with high relative concentrations of HCO{sup -}{sub 3} in the brine (HCO{sup -}{sub 3}/Ca=12). Few accounts of oil field scaling focus on carbonate mineralogy. The formation of mixed-carbonates in this study emphasizes that more attention should be paid to mineralogical characterisation of carbonate scale in relation to production conditions, formation water chemistry and inhibitor selection. This could lead to improvements in both scale prediction and inhibitor efficiency. (Author)

  13. 高危HPV检测及随访对宫颈癌预防的临床意义%Clinical significance of the testing and follow up of high risk HPV on the prevention of cervical cancer

    张桂香; 周自秀; 崔彭华; 冯振波; 邵雪斋; 庄新荣


    Objective:To test HR-HPV infection by HC-Ⅱ assay,and follow up the positive patients by combination with TCT,colposcopy,cervical biopsy and LEEP.Relationship between HR-HPV infection and cervical precancerous lesions were analyzed and the clinical significance of HR-HPV testing to the prevention of cervical cancer was evaluated.Methods:From the out-patient clinic patients of our hospital during Jan.2008 to Dec.2009,3 842 unpregnancy patients who were 25-45 years and received cervical cancer screening were selected.They were tested for HR-HPV by HC-Ⅱ and TCT.Patients with HPV positive simply were referred for reviewing regularly.Patients with HPV positive,and ASCUS,ASC-H or LSIL in cytology were referred for colposcopy and biopsy.Patients with HPV positive,and HSIL in cytology were referred for LEEP and diagnosed by histopathology result.783 cases of HPV positive patients were followed up for 3 years.SPSS 13.0 software was used for data processing and statistical analysis.Results:The positive rate of HR-HPV infection was 22.62% by HC-Ⅱ,which was higher than the rate of abnormal cytology by TCT which was only 5.62%.During the following up,only 16.72% HR-HPV positive cases turned to negative in the NILM group,however,more than 60% patients who had CIN and received treatment turned to negative.Conclusion:Testing HR-HPV infection during the TCT process,and giving treatment to the symptomatic HR-HPV infected patients is an effective method to prevent CIN and cervical cancer.%目的:采用HC-Ⅱ方法对HR-HPV感染进行检测,联合TCT、阴道镜检查、宫颈活检、宫颈锥切术,对HR-HPV阳性患者随访,分析高危型HPV感染与宫颈癌前病变的关系,从而评估HR-HPV检测对宫颈癌预防的临床意义.方法:选取自愿接受宫颈癌筛查的25~ 45岁非孕期患者3 842例为研究对象,同时进行TCT及HC-Ⅱ法HR-HPV检测.对单纯HPV阳性患者,予以定期观察;对HPV阳性,细胞学检查为ASCUS、ASC-H、LSIL,予

  14. 高危型HPV检测联合细胞学检查在宫颈病变中的意义%Significance of high - risk HPV test combined with cytological examination in cervical lesions

    宋萌颖; 陈东梅


    目的:探讨高危型HPV检测联合细胞学检查在宫颈病变中的意义,为预防宫颈癌的发生及早期诊断与治疗提供进一步的指导依据.方法:该院2008年1月~2011年1月门诊自愿接受官颈癌筛查的妇女2 697例,分别进行HR - HPV-DNA、TCT、HR - HPV - DNA+ TCT检查,阳性病例均进行阴道镜活检.结果:2 697例进行筛查的妇女中标本发现异常涂片266例,占9.86%,其中意义不明的不典型鳞状细胞(ASCUS) 170例,占6.30%,低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL) 74例,占2.74%,高度鳞状上皮内病变(HSIL) 72例,占2.67%,鳞状细胞癌(SCC)8例,占0.30%.266例TCT检测细胞学异常(ASCUS及以上)标本中高危型HPV阳性162例,HPV感染率60.90%.不同类型标本高危型HPV感染情况结果显示:ASCUS、LSIL、HSIL各组间的HPV感染率有统计学差异(P<0.01).结论:将高危型HPV检测与TCT检测技术相结合应用于早期宫颈癌及癌前病变筛查中,提高了筛查宫颈病变的准确性.%Objective-. To explore the significance of high - risk HPV test combined with cytological examination in cervical lesions, provide further guidance and reference for prevention of occurrence, early diagnosis, and treatment of cervical cancer. Methods; A total of 2 697 women who received cervical screening voluntarily in outpatient department of the hospital from January 2008 to January 2011 were selected, then they underwent HR - HPV - DNA detection, TCT, and HR - HPV - DNA detection combined with TCT, the positive cases received biopsy under colposcope. Results: Among 2 697 cases, 266 cases were found with abnormal smears, accounting for 9. 86% , 170 cases were found with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) , accounting for 6. 30% , 74 cases were found with low - grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) , accounting for 2. 74% , 72 cases were found with high - grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), accounting for 2. 67% , 8 cases were

  15. 妊娠期骨密度检测对孕期的指导作用%Guiding Significance of Bone Mineral Density Testing During Pregnancy for Pregnant Women



    Objective To investigate the significance of Bone Mineral Density testing during pregnancy for pregnant women through the study of bone mineral density changes.Methods Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA),Bone Mineral Density(BMD),speed of sound(SOS)were recorded for 498 pregnant women of different gestational age and compared the data.ResultsThe bone density detection results of BUA,BMD,SOS and Z-Score Value for Pregnant Women showed a downward trend with the increase of the gestational age and the incidence of osteoporosis had a tendency to increase with the gestational age.Conclusion Bone Mineral Density Testing during Pregnancy which is convenient and effective,can predict the body lack of nutrition timely,and then ensure the pregnant women and fetus healthy through the appropriate nutritional intervention.%目的:通过对孕期骨密度变化的研究,探讨骨密度检测对孕期的指导作用。方法检测不同孕期498例孕妇的超声振幅衰减(BUA)、骨密度(BMD)、超声传导速度(SOS),并进行比较分析。结果孕妇跟骨BUA、BMD、SOS及Z-Score值随着月份的增加而表现出下降的趋势;与孕早期组相比,孕中期组和孕晚期组的骨量减少和骨质疏松的发生率均提高,骨质疏松的发生率随着孕周的增加而增加。结论妊娠期骨密度检测方便有效,可及时预测出机体的营养缺失情况,进而通过合适的营养干预,保证孕妇和胎儿的健康。

  16. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  17. 冠心病患者实施同型半胱氨酸检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of the Homocysteine testing in the Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease



    Objective To explore the clinical significance of the Homocysteine testing in the Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease . Methods Choosing 53 cases of patients with the Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease for the experimental group,and 50 cases of healthy check-up for the control group,testing the Homocysteine,Creatine Kinase and MB Iso Enzyme of Creatine Kinase,analyze the results comprehensively. Results Compared with the control group, there were significantly higher of the experimental group of the Homocysteine,Creatine Kinase and MB Iso Enzyme of Creatine Kinase results(P 0.05). Clinical specimens correlation analysis results show that the Homocysteine and the correlation of clinical diagnosis result is good(Kappa=0.81). Conclusion There is a good indicators for the Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease diagnosis of the Homocysteine,which has good positive rate and clinical compliance.%目的:探讨同型半胱氨酸浓度水平的检测对于早期诊断急性心肌梗死的应用价值。方法选择2013年1月~2013年12月确诊为冠心病的患者53例为试验组,选择同期进行体检且结果显示为健康的50例为对照组,试验组和对照组均进行同型半胱氨酸、肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶的测定,对结果进行综合分析。结果试验组的患者血清同型半胱氨酸、肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶的浓度水平较对照组均有明显上升趋势,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);阳性检出率分析,试验组患者的的同型半胱氨酸、肌酸激酶和肌酸激酶同工酶的检测结果阳性率分别为84.91%(45/53)、81.13%(43/53)、83.02%(44/53),同型半胱氨酸检测结果阳性率分别与肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶两两比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);临床标本相关性分析,同型半胱氨酸检测结果和临床诊断结果的相关性好,Kappa值等于0.81。结论同型半胱氨酸是一种辅助诊断冠心病的

  18. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Spady, William G.


    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  19. The Significance of Water Environmental Isotope Test Analysis on Mine Hydrogeological Condition Differentiation%水环境同位素测试分析对判别矿井水文地质条件的意义

    田秀荣; 魏芳; 魏甜


    水环境同位素的测试对分析水文地质条件,判断地下水的补给来源有着重要的意义.东北某煤矿自投产以来多次发生涌、突水事故,威胁生产安全.采取了河水、泉水、湖水、钻孔各目的层地下水及矿井涌水共26个水样,通过系统分析各水样点的氚、氘、氧18组成及含量变化特征,间接分析矿井水的补给来源.分析研究证实矿区地下水来源于大气降水,矿井涌、突水来源为浅部河水,为指导煤矿采取防水治水措施、维护矿井安全指明了方向.%The water environmental isotope test has fundamental significance on hydrogeological condition analysis and groundwater re-charging source estimation. A coalmine in Northeast China had multiple water inrush and water bursting accidents since put into pro-duction, threatening operation safety. Totally 26 water samples have been sampled from river, spring, lake, borehole target layer ground-water and mine water inrush. Through systematic analysis of tritium, deuterium and oxygen 18 composition and content variation fea-tures, indirectly analyzed mine water recharging sources. The analytic study has confirmed that the source of mine area groundwater is from atmospheric precipitation, mine water inrush, bursting are from shallow part river water. The result can be the guidance for coalmine water control measures and pointed out orientation for mine safety maintenance.

  20. Significance of the Auditory Evoked Potential Test in the Medicolegal Identification of Hearing Loss%听觉诱发电位检查在听力下降法医学鉴定中的意义



    目的 研究听觉诱发电位检查在外伤性听力下降临床法医学鉴定中的意义.方法 通过对57例外伤后导致听力损伤的临床法医学鉴定案例进行分析,研究听觉诱发电位检查对临床法医学鉴定听力损伤程度的重要性,从而对听觉诱发电位检查结果 和听力下降程度的相关性进行统计学分析.结果 听觉诱发电位等客观检查结果 与被鉴定人的听力损伤下降程度相符;在听力受损伤后,听觉诱发电位检查结果 对比显示被鉴定人的听力损伤有不同程度的恢复;听力损伤程度与造成听力损害的损伤部位有密切关系.结论 应用ABR-click和40 Hz AERP-Tone-500 Hz,结合纯音测听、电测听、声导(阻)抗、耳声发射等可以客观公正的对听力障碍进行鉴定,并识别伪聋和明显夸大听力障碍者,在法医学鉴定中有重要意义.%Objective To study the significance of the auditory evoked potential test( AEPT )in the medicolegal identification of traumatic hearing loss. Methods 57 cases of traumatic hearing impairment in the clinical medicolegal identification were analyzed so as to study the importance of AEPT in the medicolegal identification of the severity of hearing impairment and conduct the statistical analysis on the correlation between AEPT results and hearing loss degree. Results The results of the objective items of AEPT were coincident with hearing loss degree for the persons to be identified. After hearing impairment, the comparison of AEPT results indicated that the hearing loss for the persons to be identified was recovered to different extents. The hearing loss degree was closely relevant with the injury location of hearing. Conclusion ABR -click and 40 Hz AERP - Tone - 500 Hz can objectively and righteously identify hearing impairment in association with pure tone audiometry, electric audiometry, acoustic resistance, otoacoustic emission and others and distinguish feigned deafness and

  1. 心脑血管疾病患者血清同型半胱氨酸检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of serum homocysteine test in patients with cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases

    刘启波; 李蔼文; 谭俊青; 邓超


    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of serum homocysteine( HCY)test in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods:A total of 100 patients treated in Guangdong Second Provincial Hospital for cerebro-and cardiovascular diseases( 50 cases of cerebral infarction,50 cases of coronary heart disease)and 50 healthy volunteers( control group)were randomly recruited between March 2013 and March 2014. For these three groups of patients,we detection serum levels of HCY and lipids. Results:Before treatment,patients with coronary heart disease( CHD ) and patients with cerebral infarction had significantly higher serum levels of HCY,TG,TC,HDL-C and LDL-C compared with the controls(P0.05). After treatment,patients with CHD and those with cerebral infarction showed significant improvement in serum HCY,TG,TC,HDL-C and LDL-C levels compared with baseline values(P0. 05 ). Conclusion:Elevation in serum HCY level is an important risk factor for development and progression of cerebro-and cardiovascular diseases,and may also induce dyslipidemia. Timely determination of serum HCY level is the key to start management and improve outcomes of cerebro-and cardiovascular diseases.%目的:探讨血清同型半胱氨酸( HCY)水平检测对于心脑血管疾病临床诊疗的意义。方法:随机选取2013年3月至2015年3月广东省第二中医院收治的100例心脑血管疾病患者(脑梗塞50例、冠心病50例)与50例健康体检者(对照组)作为研究对象,检测3组患者HCY水平和血脂水平。结果:冠心病组和脑梗死组治疗前HCY、TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C水平均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),且冠心病组与脑梗死组间比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。冠心病组和脑梗死组治疗后HCY、TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C水平均较各自治疗前明显改善(P<0.05),且冠心病组与脑梗死组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论

  2. The dynamic serological test results of 28 patients with acute brucellosis and clinical significance%28例急性布鲁杆菌病患者血清学动态检测结果及临床意义

    于占水; 程大伟; 陈雪英; 谢福杰; 李福兴


    between serological test results and diagnosis,curative effect and prognosis of brucellosis.Methods Twenty eight patients(infected with sheep brucellosis) with acute brucellosis in the Department of Brucellosis in Heilongjiang Provincial Land Reclamation Headquarters General Hospital were selected as research subjects,and their serological changes were tested by means of tube agglutination test (SAT)and clinical outcomes were compared before and after each stage of treatment.In addition,symptoms of fever,weakness,sweating,joint pain,swollen lymph nodes and biochemical parameters [alanine aminotransferase (ALT),lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] were also tested 3,6 and 9 weeks after the treatment.Results Antibody titer reached the peak at the third week,1 ∶ 400(++),which accounted for 39.29% (11/28); 2857%(8/28) of the patients became negative at the sixth week; 50.00% (14/28) became negative at the ninth week.Before the treatment,20(71.43%) patients had the symptom of fever,8 (28.57%) patients had the symptom of hyperhidrosis,28 (100.00%) patients had the symptom of joint pain,7(25.00%) patients had the symptom of lymph node enlargement,28 (100.00%) patients' ALT was elevated,and 26(92.86%) patients' LDH was elevated.After three weeks of treatment,except the three patients (10.71%) who occasionally had fever,the rest of the patient's temperature was returned to normal.Also the numbers of patients with the symptoms of fatigue,sweating and joint pain were significantly reduced,and specifically,the conesponding number was 13(46.43%),2(7.14%),and 21 (75.00%)patients,respectively.ALT and LDH returned to normal(only one patient's ALT was out of the range).At the sixth week,all the patients' symptoms of fever and hyperhidrosis disappeared.The number of patients with the symptoms of joint pain and lymph node enlargement reduced to 12(42.86%) and 3(10.71%),respectively.The results of biochemical tests(ALT and LDT) returned to normal.At the ninth week

  3. 血常规及Hb电泳在孕期筛查地中海贫血的临床价值分析%Clinical significance of blood routine test and Hb electrophoresis in prenatal screening of thalassemia

    李娟; 黄楠


    目的::探讨产前筛查地中海贫血的临床意义。方法:通过回顾性分析,对就诊的2284例中孕期孕妇进行血常规、血红蛋白电泳检查进行地中海贫血筛查分析,对表型阳性的样本进一步行地中海贫血基因检测。结果:2284例孕妇中,地中海贫血筛查阳性的有139例(6.09%),经基因检测确诊为地中海贫血的125例(5.60%),地中海贫血筛查的诊断符合率较高89.93%(125/139)。结论:地中海贫血基因检测要求高,方法繁琐,地中海贫血筛查方法简单,诊断符合率较高,可用于基层医院筛查地中海贫血。%Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of prenatal screening of thalassemia. Methods2284 cases of pregnant women in the second trimester, screened for thalassemia phenotype through blood routine test and hemoglobin electrophoresis were retrospectively analyzed, and the positive samples were further detected for thalassemia gene. ResultsIn 2284 cases of pregnant women,139 cases ware positive(6.09%), and 125 cases were confirmed by thalassemia gene detection (5.60%). The diagnosis rate of screening of thalassemia was higher,89.93% (125/139). Conclusions Thalassemia gene detection is expensive and complicated, while the screening method is more simple, and the rate of diagnosis is relatively high. Therefore,it can be used in basic hospital.

  4. Risk Factors of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Clinical Significance of its Preventive Testing%糖尿病足溃疡的危险因素及预防性检查的临床意义

    李鸿燕; 赵萍; 安欣儒


    Objective To investigate the risk factors and clinical values of preventive testing for diabetic foot ulcer, and to provide evidences for the clinical practice. Methods Fifty patients with diabetes mellitus hospitalized in the Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University from October 2009 to October 2012 were selected to serve as the research objects. They were divided into diabetic foot group and non - diabetic foot group (each n= 25). 20 physical examinees were simultaneously chosen as controls. The coagulation indexes, lower limb EMG and ultrasound results of all objects were observed. Results The diabetes patients' peripheral vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy and the changes of foot biomechanics were all risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers. The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) of diabetes patients were all significantly increased, there were statistically significant differences in above indicators between diabetes patients and healthy controls (P<0.05) as well as between diabetic foot group and non-diabetic foot group (P<0.05). The abnormal proportions of lower limb electromyography and ultrasound in diabetic foot patients were 84. 0% and 92.0% , respectively, which were both significantly higher than those of other two groups, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions Peripheral vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy and changes in foot biomechanics are risk factors for occurring foot ulcer in diabetic patients. The coagulation indexes, lower limb EMG and ultrasound results show clinical values in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot ulcer, which can be used as the preventive examination items.%目的 分析糖尿病足溃疡的危险因素及预防性检查的临床情况,为临床工作提供参考依据.方法 选择河北大学附属医院2009年10月-2012年10月收治的糖尿病患者50例作为研究对象,其中糖尿病足及非糖尿病足者各25

  5. A Significant Play

    梁海光; 陈明


    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  6. Evaluation of preoperative pulmonary function test in severe scoliosis and its cilinical significance%重度脊柱侧凸患者术前肺功能检查及其临床意义

    劳立峰; 沈建雄; 翁习生; 邱贵兴


    目的:评估重度脊柱侧凸患者术前肺功能检查及术后肺部并发症情况,分析相关影响因素。方法回顾分析2000年3月至2009年3月脊柱中心收治的脊柱侧凸患者908例,其中重度脊柱侧凸60例(主弯Cobb角≥100°)。根据侧凸严重度、肺功能受限程度及手术路径,对影响术后肺部并发症的相关因素进行分析。结果重度侧凸与轻中度脊柱侧凸相比较,两组在Cobb角、FVC、FVCR、FEV1、FEV1R方面存在显著统计学差异( P<0.01)。908例脊柱侧凸矫形术的肺部并发症发生率是5.07%,60例重度脊柱侧凸矫形术的肺部并发症发生率是15.0%。术后肺部并发症包括胸腔积液,呼吸衰竭,肺不张,血胸,气胸,低氧血症,再次机械通气等。肺部并发症发生率在术前肺功能受限轻度组(2.52%)、中度组(5.0%)和重度组(19.6%)之间存在统计学差异。是否开胸手术与术后肺部并发症无相关性,但是胸廓成形术显著增加术后肺部并发症(P<0.001,OR=20)。结论重度侧凸患者肺功能明显受限,重度肺功能受限的患者术后更易出现各种肺部并发症,胸廓成形术是引起术后肺部并发症的重要危险因素。%Objective To evaluate preoperative pulmonary function test and postoperative complication and explore the related factors .Methods A retrospective study of 908 cases with scoliosis registered in our spinal center between 2003.3 and 2009.3.Among them,60 cases had coronary main Cobb angle≥100°on standing position. According to the severity of scoliosis , pulmonary function and operative procedures , all the factors related to the postoperative complications were analyzed .Results Compared with mild and moderate scoliosis groups ,there were significant differences in Cobb,FVC,FVCR,FEV1,FEV1R in severe scoliosis group.The incidence of pulmonary complication was 5.07% in 908 cases,while the incidence of

  7. Significant Tsunami Events

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.


    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website

  8. Clinical significance of liquid-based Thinprep Cytology Test and TBS for cervical diseases screening%液基薄层细胞学结合TBS系统对宫颈癌筛查的临床意义

    张蕾; 赵计端


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the differences between the Thinprep Cytology Test (TCT) and pathological results, and to evaluate the accuracy of TCT for cervical lesions screening in clinic. METHODS All 800 cases cytologic screening were analyzed retrospectively. 510 cases of 800 cases cytologic screening were received by biopsies. The results of TCT were compared with that of biopsy. RESULTS Among the 800 cases, there were 484 cases (60.5%, 484/800) of NLIM, 316 cases (39.5%, 316/800) of abnormal epithelial cells, which included 8 cases of ASC-US, 32 cases of ASC-H, 15 cases of AGUS, 118 cases of HSIL, 136 cases of LSIL, 5 cases of SCC, 2 cases of AC. The positive rate of lesions up to LSIL was 51.18 % (261/ 510) in TCT and 56.47% (288/510) in biopsy. There was no significant difference between them (x2=2.88, P> 0.05). The coincidence rate of LSIL was 80.88%, HSIL was 93.22%, SCC was 80.0% and AC was 100%. CONCLUSION The liquid -based TCT is a vital method for cervical cancer screening, which can be adopted combined with biopsy to detect precancerous lesions of uterine cervix. TCT is an effective and perfect method for the cervical cancer screening and treatment.%目的 比较宫颈液基薄层细胞学(TCT)与组织病理学检查结果的差异,评价TCT在宫颈病变诊断中的临床价值.方法 回顾性分析800例行TCT的患者,其中有510例行阴道镜下多点活检或宫颈锥切术后行组织病理学检查,对TCT与组织病理学检查结果进行统计学分析.结果 TCT报告NILM 484例(60.5%,484/800);上皮细胞异常316例(39.5%,316/800);其中ASC-US 8例;ASC-H 32例;AGUS 15例;HSIL 118例;LSIL 136例;SCC 5例;AC2例.细胞学诊断LSIL以上病变的阳性率为51.18% (261/510),组织病理学诊断CIN Ⅰ以上病变的阳性率为56.47%(288/510),两者比较差异无统计学意义(x2=2.88,P>0.05).Spearman等级相关分析显示细胞学和组织学检查结果呈高度正相关(r2=0.949,P< 0.05).细胞学诊断

  9. A Significant Step Forward


    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  10. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  11. Patch testing with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone 200 ppm aq. detects significantly more contact allergy than 100 ppm. A multicentre study within the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    Bruze, Magnus; Isaksson, Marléne; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;


    BACKGROUND: Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) are the active ingredients in commonly used preservative systems (e.g. Kathon CG(®) ). MCI/MI is present in the European baseline patch test series at 100 ppm aq. Since 1986, 200 ppm (dose 0.006 mg/cm(2) ) has been used...... in 3300 consecutively tested dermatitis patients at eight European patch test clinics and one US patch test clinic. With the Finn Chambers(®) technique (diameter 8 mm), 15 µl was micropipetted on to the filter paper in the chamber. The corresponding volume for Van der Bend(®) chambers was 20 µl......, and that for IQ Chambers(®) was 25 µl. RESULTS: Contact allergy to MCI/MI at 100 and 200 ppm was found in 1.2% and 2.1% of patients, respectively (p contact allergy than the presently used concentration of 100 ppm (dose...

  12. 肺功能检测指导儿童哮喘治疗的临床意义%Pulmonary function testing of clinical significance for guiding the treatment of children asthma

    汤昱; 李敏; 李晓燕


    To determine pulmonary function testing in guiding the treatment of childhood asthma clinical status.Methods:Our hospital diagnosed asthma clinic for children, children with bronchial asthma, 100 cases, the standard asthma treatment after 1 month, 3 months, 6 months visit pulmonary function tests on a regular basis.Results:The pulmonary function test results is closely related to the degree of control with the condition of the patients, and to guide the next treatment is critical.Conclusion:Pulmonary function testing guide children bronchial asthma treatment is crucial.%目的:判定肺功能检测在指导儿童哮喘治疗中的临床地位。方法:选择我院哮喘门诊确诊为儿童支气管哮喘的患儿100例,经规范哮喘治疗后1个月、3个月、6个月复诊时定期进行肺功能检测。结果:肺功能检测结果与患儿病情的控制程度密切相关,且对指导下一步治疗十分关键。结论:肺功能检测指导儿童支气管哮喘治疗至关重要。

  13. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen


    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  14. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Saugstad, L F


    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  15. Meaning and significance of

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela


    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  16. Objectives and significance of stipulation for"regulation on national management of HIV laboratory testing"%颁布《全国艾滋病检测工作管理办法》的目的和意义



    HIV感染的实验室检测是HIV感染者和AIDS患者的最基本诊断依据.但是,HIV检测不是单纯的业务项目,与其他传染病实验室检测项目不同,特别要求HIV检测的敏感度和特异度几近100%.如果其结果假阳性,会影响个人、家庭和社会的稳定,甚至导致受检者过激行为,有自杀举动;如果是假阴性,则会造成受检者不能及时接受医学干预,可以通过血液和性生活辗转传播,增加对社会的传染性.截至2007年底,全国已批准了HIV筛查实验室6 918家,确认实验室202家.为此卫生部正式颁布的(下称办法),其目的 是使HIV检测工作走上法制化管理,是当前AIDS作为我国重点防治疾病的一项技术保障措施.本文还就发展和出台的过程,以及当前医院检验科要特别关注对执行过程中某些条款的理解,均作了简要说明.%Laboratory testing for HIV infection is the most basic diagnosis evidence for HIV infection and case with AIDS.However,HIV testing is not only professional issue but also quite psychologically different from other tests for infectious diseases.It requires that the HIV test need reach up nearly both 100% of the sensitivity and specificity.If false positivity occurs,it may cause personal,familial and social problems,even result in extremist behavior such as action of suicide.If false negativity occur,it may lead not to receive medical intervention prompdy and to increase infection for society due to blood and sexual transmission modes.As of December 2007,there were 6 918 HIV screening labs and 202 HIV confirmatory labs,which has been approved in China.Therefore,the purpose of"the regulation on national management of HIV laboratory testing"(Management)is to require the management of HIV laboratory testing work legally and to ensure the testing as a technical protection measure for priority prevention and control of AIDS in the country.This paper presents the development and formulation of the Management

  17. 贫血临床诊断与鉴别诊断中血液检验的应用及意义探究%The Application and Significance of Blood Test in Clinical Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis for Anemia



    Objective To study the clinical application value of blood test in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis for anemia.Methods Randomly selected anemia patients in our hospital, according to different types of anemia, 60 cases patients were divided into group A and group B, patients in group A were Mediterranean anemia, patients in group B were iron deficiency anemia, analysed and tested the blood samples, and observed the various items of indexes.Results The MCHC index of the patients in group A was higher than those in group B, but MCV and RDW were lower than group B, the difference had statistical signiifcance (P0.05). The blood test sensitivity and speciifcity in two groups were both high.Conclusion For patients with anemia, blood test method has a certain value in the clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis.%目的:对血液检验在贫血临床诊断与鉴别诊断中的应用价值进行研究。方法对在我院进行治疗的贫血患者进行随机选取,根据患者贫血类型的差异将60例患者分为A组以及B组,A组患者为地中海贫血,B组患者则为缺铁性贫血,分析检验其血液标本,并观察其中的各项指标。结果 A组患者的MCHC指标比B组高,但是RDW以及MCV都比B组低,上述差异经检验有统计学意义(P<0.05),而两组之间的另一项指标差异则无统计学意义(P>0.05)。另外两组患者使用血液检验的灵敏度、符合率以及特异性都较高。结论对于贫血患者,使用血液检验方法在其临床诊断以及鉴别诊断中都能有使用价值。

  18. Significance of testing hepatitis B virus protein molecules in patients with liver cirrhosis%HBV蛋白大分子在乙型肝炎后肝硬化患者中检测的意义

    张欣; 张国梁; 张国君


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical significance of large protein (LHBs) detection in hepatitis B patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS A total of 36 cases of liver cirrhosis patients in our hospital from Jan. 2008 to Jan. 2011 were enrolled in the study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the serum levels of LHBs, and results were compared with healthy control over the same period. RESULTS As the child-pugh classification increased in the patients with liver cirrhosis, the expression level of LHBs, HBV NA, ALT showed an upward trend in each group and were significantly higher than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 05). And the expression of class-C LHBs, HBV NA, ALT levels were significantly higher than that in class A and B, but no significant difference existed in A, B-class. In HBsAg ( + ) patients with cirrhosis LHBs positive rate was 92. 3%, and HBV DNA positive rate was 100%, which were significantly higher than those in HBsAg (-) patients with cirrhosis, the difference was statistically significant. Primary liver cancer occurred more commonly in LHBs ( + ) group of patients than in LHBs ( -) group, the difference was statistically significant, but other complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, abdominal infection, electrolyte imbalance, liver and kidney syndrome were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION Serum LHBs and HBV-DNA reflects the HBV replication in vivo in hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis, and can assess the severity. HBV replication in vivo, disease severity classification and prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis are of significance in the clinical evaluation of the effectiveness.%目的 探讨乙型肝炎后肝硬化患者乙型肝炎病毒大蛋白(LHBs)检测的临床意义.方法 选择医院2008年1月-2011年1月36例乙型肝炎后肝硬化患者作为研究对象,应用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测血清中的LHBs水平,

  19. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet


    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  20. 单纯疱疹病毒检测在宫颈疾病中的价值%Study on significance of high-risk type HSV antibody testing in screening of cervical diseases

    赵杨; 李晓平


    目的 探讨单纯疱疹病毒(HSV)感染在宫颈疾病中的临床特点以及价值.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)对患者血清标本进行单纯疱疹(HSV-1及HSV-2)特异性病毒抗体(IgM)检测.结果 1095例患有子宫颈糜烂、滴虫性和霉菌性阴道炎及淋病患者血清标本HSV-IgM阳性检出率分别为32.5%、23.4%、15.7%、22.8%,除淋病组与滴虫组、霉菌组与淋病组比较差异无统计学意义外,其他几组都有HSV感染率均有显著性差异.378例宫颈糜烂患者根据程度不同HSV阳性率分别为16.6%、33.6%、43.5%,三组之间有显著性差异,且随糜烂程度加重HSV阳性率增高.86例不同病理分型患者HSV阳性检出率分别为26.1%、40%、50、62.5%,HSV阳性检出率随病理分级严重程度呈趋势增高,但无显著性差异.结论 HSV感染可以与上述疾病单发或混合感染,HSV是宫颈疾病发生、进展的关键因素之一;HSV感染的检测对妇女生殖疱器疹的诊断及治疗,对围产医学和优生优育等工作均有重大作用.%Objective To evaluate clinical features and significance of herpes simplex virus infection in patients with cervical diseases. Methods Serum levels of anti - HSV -1 and anti - HSV - 2 specific IgM antibodies in patients were detected by using enzyme - linked immu-nosorbent assay ( ELISA ). Results The positive rates of serum anti - HSV - IgM in 1095 patients with cervical erosion, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis or fungal vaginitis were 32. 5% , 22. 8% , 23.9% and 15. 6% respectively. There was significant difference in HSV infection rates among patients in all groups except gonorrhea group with trichomoniasis group and fungus infection group with gonorrhea group. The positive rates of anti - HSV -IgM in 378 patients with different degrees of cervical erosion were 16.6% , 33. 6% and 43.5% respectively, and there was significant difference among these three groups. The positive rate of anti - HSV IgM was raised following the

  1. 液基薄层制片法在泌尿系统肿瘤诊断中的意义%The Significance of ThinPrep liquid based cytology test (TCT) in Diagnosis of tumor in urinary system

    张娟; 续薇


    目的 比较液基薄层制片法与传统涂片对尿液标本中肿瘤检出率的差异.方法 随机选取2010年4月至2010年12月吉林大学第一医院门诊及泌尿科住院患者尿液标本120例,采用新柏氏2000液基细胞自动制片机及传统涂片的方法 制片,巴氏染色后,显微镜下观察,比较两种方法 肿瘤细胞检出率的差异.结果 判读采用巴氏5级分类诊断标准,诊断结果 均与病理对照.结果 120例尿液标本共检出阳性例数为41例,其中液基薄层制片法检出阳性31例,灵敏度为75.6%,传统法检出阳性17例,灵敏度为41.5%,液基薄层制片灵敏度提高了34.1%,经χ2检验,P<0.05,有统计学意义,其诊断结果 与病理结果 基本一致.结论 液基薄层制片技术其阳性检出率及符合率均高于传统涂片,因此使用液基薄层制片技术可提高对泌尿系统肿瘤诊断的灵敏度.%Objective To make comparison of the detection rates of tumor in urine system between ThinPrcp liquid based cytology test (TCT) and conventional Pap smears. Methods 120 urine specimens of patients from out-patient clinics and urology in-patient department of the first hospital of Jilin University were randomly selected from April to December in 2010, Adopt ThinPrcp 2000 liquid-based Pap smear sampling devices and conventional cytology method to prepare smears respectively. After Pap staining,compare the detection rate of tumor between the two methods under a microscope. Five-category classification diagnosis criteria were used in diagnosis, test results compared with pathology diagnose. Results There were 41 postitivc result cases of 120 specimens, included 31 postitive result cases of TCT,of which the sensitivity was 75. 6% ,and 17 postitivc result cases of conventional cytology method,of which the sensitivity was 41.5% . The sensitivity of TCT improved 34. 1 %. Utilize chi-squarc test, P values <0. 05 , there was statistical sig-nificancc and the diagnosis was

  2. 毛细支气管炎患儿单次潮气肺功能测定的临床意义%Clinical significance of single tidal breathing testing in bronchiolitis

    李睿; 王吉安; 许家增; 杨慧敏


    目的:探讨毛细支气管炎患儿测定单次潮气肺功能的临床意义。方法检测和比较住院且<1岁的756例初次喘息毛细支气管炎患儿和115例支气管肺炎患儿的单次潮气肺功能。部分达峰时间比≤第20百分位和≥第80百分位的毛细支气管炎患儿出院1年后电话随访其喘息情况。结果毛细支气管炎患儿与支气管肺炎患儿比较,达峰时间比,达峰容积比,吸气时间,吸呼比,呼出25%、50%潮气容积时的呼气流速的差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。达峰时间比≤第20百分位的毛细支气管炎患儿1年内再喘息的比例为37.5%;达峰时间比≥第80百分位的毛细支气管炎患儿1年内再喘息比例为11.3%,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论单次潮气肺功能测定提示,阻塞程度较重的毛细支气管炎患儿再次喘息的可能性较大。%Objective To study clinical signiifcance of single tidal breathing testing in bronchiolitis. Methods Infants with bronchiolitis at ifrst wheezing (bronchiolitis group, n=756), and 115 infants with bronchopneumonia (bronchopneumonia group) hospitalized were enrolled. Tidal breathing parameters were analyzed in two groups. Bronchiolitis group was divided according to percentiles of the fraction of exhaled time at peak tidal expiratory lfow to total expiratory time (TPTEF/TE). The episodes of recurrent wheezing of infants below the 20th or above the 80th percentile of TPTEF/TE were followed up by phone calls within 1 year after discharge from the hospital. Results There were signiifcant differences in TPTEF/TE, VPEF/VE, Ti, Ti/Te, TEF75 and TEF50 between bronchiolitis group and bronchopneumonia group. The recurrent wheezing rate of infants with bronchiolitis below the 20th percentile of TPTEF/TE was signiifcantly higher than that above the 80th percentile of TPTEF/TE (37.5%vs 11.3%). Conclusions There is the greater possibility of recurrent wheezing in the infants with the

  3. Study on clinical significance of SF,LDH and gamma GT testing in diagnosis of breast cancer%SF、LDH和γ-GT检测在乳腺癌诊断治疗中的临床应用价值

    张勇; 刘爱胜; 文艳


    目的:探讨血清铁蛋白( SF)、乳酸脱氢酶( LDH)和γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(γ-GT)检测在临床乳腺癌诊断及治疗疗效判断中的应用价值。方法收集2010年2月至2013年8月乳腺癌患者42例,乳腺良性肿瘤患者57例和正常健康女性85例,分别用化学发光免疫法测定SF,用生化速率法测定LDH和γ-GT的含量,并对所测数据进行分组比较分析。结果乳腺癌血清中SF、LDH和γ-GT含量显著高于乳腺良性肿瘤患者和正常健康女性,两组差异有显著性( P <0.01);SF、LDH和γ-GT含量随乳腺癌临床分期的增加而显著增加,随手术或治疗效果好转而迅速下降,复发时再次增高;SF、LDH和γ-GT对乳腺癌诊断的敏感度分别为64.9%、81.2%和87.5%。结论 SF、LDH和γ-GT含量检测对乳腺癌临床诊断有一定的参考价值,特别对乳腺癌治疗效果的判断有极为重要的临床应用价值。%Objective Toexplorethediagnosticsignificanceofserumferritin(SF),lactatedehydrogenase(LDH)andγ-glutamyl-transpeptidase(γ-GT)indiagnosisandjudgementofefficacyintreatmentofbreastcancer.Methods Theclinicaldataof42patientswith breast cancer,57 patients with breast benign tumour and 85 normal healthy women during February 2010 to August 2013 were collected for this study. Serum ferritin( SF)was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay,the levels of LDH and γ-GT were determined by biochemical method,andtheirresultsweregroupedandcomparativelyanalyzed.Results TheserumlevelsofSF,LDHandγ-GTinpatientswithbreast cancer were significantly higher than those of patients with breast benign tumour and normal healthy women,and the difference in results between them was statistically significant( P <0. 01). The levels of SF,LDH andγ-GT were significantly increased followed with the increase of clinical staging of breast cancer,and they were rapidly dropped after surgery or improved after treatment,and they were increased again with the

  4. The clinical significance of testing serum calcium and sodium in children with febrile convulsion%热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠检测及其临床意义



    To investigate the variation of Serum calcium and sodium concentration in children with febrile convulsion and its significance.Methods:Detect the serum calcium and sodium levels using automatic biochemical analyzer in 76 cases of children with febrile convulsion and 69 cases of the control group with fever,and compared it.Results:Serum calcium and sodium in febrile convulsion group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Children with febrile convulsion is in low calcium and low blood sodium.Reciprocal causation between febrile convulsion and low calcium and low sodium.For the treatment of febrile seizure,we should pay attention to correct the low calcium hyponatremia in addition to conventional anti convulsion and cooling,in order to prevent repeated attack of convulsion,and alleviate the damage on brain and other important organs.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠浓度变化及其意义。方法:采用全自动生化测定仪检测76例热性惊厥患儿和对照组69例发热患儿的血清钙、钠水平,并进行比较分析。结果:热性惊厥组血清钙、钠明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:热性惊厥患儿存在低血钙、低血钠。热性惊厥与低钙、低钠之间互为因果,针对热性惊厥治疗时除常规止惊、降温外应注意纠正低钙低钠血症,预防惊厥反复发作,减轻脑组织和其他重要脏器的损害。

  5. 乙肝病毒感染对ANA检测结果的影响及临床意义%The function and clinical significance of hepatitis B virus infection on ANA test results

    宋泽蓉; 潘云峰; 郭欣; 魏秋静; 郭兴华; 方霖楷


    Objective The expression of ANA in the chronic HBV,then explore its relationship with misdiagnosis of chronic HBV and the methods to reduce misdiagnosis.Methods To detect the titer of ANA and the concentration of ALT and AST were detected in 614 HBV patients's serum.In these patients,the HBV markers were also detected,including HBsAg,HBsAb,HBeAb,HBcAb and HBeAg.The positive rate of ANA was compared in HBV activity group with non-active group,and compared the positive rate of such HBV inspective items in ANA positive group with the ANA negative group,conducted the correlation analysis of ANA and HBV inspective items,then compare the ANA test results of the normal liver function group with the abnormal liver function group.Results The positive rate of ANA was higher in the HBV activity group compare to the non-active group( P < 0.001) ;there was no difference of the positive rate of ANA in normal liver function group and abnormal liver function group( P >0.05) ;the positive rates of HBsAb and HBeAb were higher in the ANA positive group compare to the ANA negative group( P < 0.001) ;there is positive correlation between ANA and HBeAg(P < 0.05).Conclusion The damage of liver cells cause the cell components release into blood,it may lead to the positive of ANA in chronic HBV.In clinical,to combine biochemical tests,history,clinical manifestation and others supplementary means can increase the diagnostic accuracy and reduce misdiagnosis.%目的 研究抗核抗体(ANA)在慢性乙型肝炎中的表达情况,并探讨其与慢性乙型肝炎误诊的关系及降低误诊发生的措施.方法 检测614例乙型肝炎患者血清中ANA滴度,生化指标丙氨酸转移酶(ALT)和天冬氨酸转移酶(AST),及乙肝病毒标志物,即乙肝表面抗原(HBsAg),乙肝表面抗体(HBsAb),乙肝e抗体(HbeAb),乙肝核心抗体(HBcAb),乙肝e抗原(HBeAg).比较乙肝活动组与非活动组的ANA阳性率,ANA阳性组与ANA阴性组间各乙肝检测项目的 阳性

  6. Clinical significance of several autoantibodies test in patients with lupus nephritis%多种自身抗体检测在狼疮肾炎中的临床意义

    黄清水; 鞠北华; 乐爱平; 罗忠勤; 万腊根


    目的 通过检测系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)、狼疮肾炎(LN)患者血清抗nRNP、抗Sm、抗dsDNA、ANCA及ANuA等自身抗体,探讨几种自身抗体在狼疮肾炎患者中的临床意义.方法 狼疮肾炎患者55例,非狼疮肾炎的SLE患者60例为对照组,血清抗dsDNA、ANCA采用间接免疫荧光法测定,ANCA间接免疫荧光法阳性者用免疫印迹法进一步确认,抗nRNP、抗Sm及ANuA采用欧蒙斑点法测定.结果 两组病程差异有统计学意义(P<0.001),LN发病率为SLE患者的47.8%,抗nRNP及抗Sm阳性率LN组较对照组高,但无统计学意义(P=0.395、P=0.483);LN组抗dsDNA、ANCA及ANuA阳性率较对照组高且差异有统计学意义(P=0.028、P=0.024,P<0.001).结论 SLE病程是合并LN的重要因素之一,血清抗dsDNA、ANCA及ANuA等自身抗体检测均有助于LN的诊断.%Objective To assess the clinical significance of several autoantibodies including antiribonucleoprotein(anti-nRNP),anti-Smith antibody(anti-Sin),anti-double stranded DNA(anti-dsDNA),anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody(ANCA)and anti-nucleosome antibody(ANuA)in patients with lupus nephritis.Methods One hundred and fifteen patients with SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group(n=55)and non-lupus nephritis control group(n=60).Serum anti-dsDNA and ANCA were measured with indirect immunofluorescence assay(IFL),and IFL positive result for ANCA was confirmed by Western blotting.Anti-Sm and ANuA were detected with Euroassay.Results There was statistical difference of disease course between the two groups(P<0.001).There weren't significant difference of the positive rates of anti-nRNP and anti-Sm between the two groups(P=0.395,P=0.483 respectively).The positive rates of anti-dsDNA,ANCA and ANuA were much higher in lupus nephritis group than those of control group(P=0.028,P=0.024 respectively,both P <0.001).Conclusion We speculate that disease duration of SLE might play an important role in LN.Detection of serum anti-dsDNA,ANCA and Anu

  7. Clinical Significance of Establishing Relationship between the HBsAg Test and HBV DNA%乙肝五项测定结果与HBV DNA的关系及其临床意义

    李昕; 张荣波


    Objective To explore the internal relationship and the clinical significance of HBVM( HBsAg, Anti-HBs,HBeAg,Anti-HBe, Anti-HBc )and HBV DNA( Hepatitis B Virus DNA ). Methods HBVM and HBV-DNA of 300 HBV patients were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA )and quantitative fluorescence PCR technique respectively. Results Of all the clinical results of 300 HBV patients,110 patients showed HBsAg( + ),HBeAg( + ),HBcAb( + )( HBV DNA positive rate 99. 1% ),85 patients showing HBsAg( + ), HBeAb( + ),HBcAb( + )( HBV DNA positive rate 69.4% ), 39 patients showing HBsAg( + ),HBcAb( + )( HBV DNA positive rate 53.8% ),53 patients showing HBeAb( + ),HBcAb( + )( HBV DNA positive rate 35.8% ). HBV DNA positive rate of HBsAg( + ),HBeAg( + ),HBcAb( + ) and HBsAg( + ), HBeAb( + ), HBcAb( + ) were different significantly( x2 = 35. 406, P < 0.05 ). Conclusion The results of HBsAg and HBV-DNA are closely related with different clinical meanings,which makes it necessary to combine the two results for a correct diagnosis and treatment.%目的探讨乙型肝炎(乙肝)五项结果和HBV DNA检出情况间的关系和临床意义.方法运用聚合酶链反应法检测300例乙肝血清的HBV DNA,并用酶联免疫吸附实验法进行乙肝五项的测定,对结果进行比较分析.结果 300例乙肝门诊的患者中乙肝五项的结果为110例HBsAg(+)、HBeAg(+)、HBcAb(+)(大三阳),其HBV DNA的阳性率为99.1%,85例HBsAg(+)、HBeAb(+)、HBcAb(+)(小三阳),其HBV DNA的阳性率为69.4%,39例HBsAg(+)、HBcAb(+),其HBV DNA的阳性率为53.8%,53例HBeAb(+)、HBcAb(+),其HBV DNA的阳性率为35.8%.大三阳和小三阳的HBV DNA阳性率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=35.406,P<0.05).结论乙肝五项的结果与HBV DNA的结果有着密切的联系,并且都具备各自的临床意义,因此两者必须结合才能正确地对乙肝患者的病情作出正确分析和判断.

  8. 脓毒症患者CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞检测的临床意义%Clinic significance of Testing CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in patients with sepsis

    邵敏; 刘宝; 王锦权; 陶晓根; 周树生; 金魁; 张翠萍


    目的 探讨脓毒症患者CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞(Treg)的水平与机体细胞免疫状态的关系及其检测的临床意义.方法 将脓毒症患者40例按照疾病严重程度分为3组:脓毒症组14例,严重脓毒症组15例,脓毒症休克组11例.所有入选的40例脓毒症患者在入选当天行流式细胞术检测血中CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞的比例和CD3+、CD4+、CD8+和CD4+/CD8+水平.比较脓毒症组、严重脓毒症组和脓毒症休克组血中CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞比例变化和CD3+、CD4+、CD8+和CD4+/CD8+水平变化.同时选取20例健康人为对照组.结果 健康对照组CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞表达率脓毒症休克组最高,严重脓毒症组次之,脓毒症组最低,三组间两两比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).脓毒症组CD3+、CD4+和CD4+/CD8+较正常对照组明显升高(P<0.05),CD8+较正常对照组差异不明显(P>0.05).严重脓毒症组和脓毒症休克患者CD3+、CD4+、CD4+/CD8+较正常对照组明显降低(P<0.05),CD8+较正常对照组改变不明显(P>0.05).结论 脓毒症患者外周血CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞表达增加,可能导致CD3+、CD4+、CD4+/CD8+水平降低,免疫抑制加强.提示CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞在脓毒症的免疫发病机制中可能起着重要作用,对评估患者预后有临床价值.%Objective To study the level and significance of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and CD3+、 CD4+、 CD8+ cells in peripheral blood of patients with sepsis. Methods 40 patients with sepsis Patients were divided into three groups: sepsis group(n=14), severe sepsis group(n=l5), and septic shock group (n=11).The expression of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and CD3+、 CD4+、 CD8+ cells of 40 patients on the day 1 was detected by flow cytometry. The comparision in the expression of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and CD3+、 CD4+、 CD8+ cells within groups was made. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls. Results The expression rate. The expression of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells was the highest

  9. Clinical significance of autologous serum skin test (ASST) in the diagnosis of chronic urticaria%自体血清皮肤试验对诊断慢性荨麻疹的临床意义

    何晓蕾; 雷铁池; 刘小明; 范智峰; 史赢


    further subclassified into wheal plus flare (W+F) pattern and wheal-only (W) pattern,negative results into flare-only (F) pattern and no response pattern.Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the content of histamine released by autologous serum-induced basophils and serum levels of IgG anti-FcεRI autoantibodies.Results Of the 60 patients,19 (31.7%)were positive for ASST,including 16 (84.2%) presenting W+F pattern and 3 presenting W pattern; 41 were negative for ASST,including 3 (7.3%) giving F pattern and 38 giving no response pattern.The histamine release rate was significantly higher in ASST-positive patients than in ASST-negative patients (33.38% ± 9.83% vs.4.06% ±1.44%,t =5.13,P< 0.01),and was nearly twice as high as that in basophils induced by 10 μmol/L formylmethionyleucylphenylalanine (Fmlp).The serum levels of IgG anti-FcεRI autoantibodies were high in only patients giving (W+F) pattern (757.64 ± 168.99 ng/L),but low in the normal human controls (43.25 ± 16.63 ng/L).Conclusions The positive ASST result of wheal plus flare pattern is associated with high serum levels of IgG anti-FcεRI autoantibodies,and is suggestive of a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune chronic urticaria (ACU).

  10. The significance of religious affiliation on marriage, HIV testing, and

    Denise Dion Hallfors


    Oct 20, 2016 ... Apostolic churches and that control group participants were twice as likely to marry as those ..... to complications from giving birth were both married to men ..... control. In almost all cases, they said they were on pills or hormo-.

  11. 数字连接实验和数字符号实验联合应用诊断轻微肝性脑病价值研究%Significance of number connection test and digit symbol tests for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    翟慧勤; 范红; 寻琳婷; 王芸


    Objective To explore the significance of number connection test (NCT) and digit symbol test (DST) for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Methods A total of 65 patients with hepatitis B-associated cirrhosis were recruited from the department of gastroenterology, the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province. We also enrolled ninety healthy volunteers with an educational background for > 12 years as normal controls. The NCT-A and DST were employed for assessment. Results The diagnostic yield for the combination of NCT-A and DST was 46% (30/65). Prolonged duration of NCT-A was linked to the increasing severity of Child-Pugh stages (P < 0. 05), which was associated with progressively reduced DST score (P < 0. 05). Conclusion Featured by high feasibility and convenience, the combination of NCT-A and DST is useful to the diagnosis of MHE and may reduce the rates for misdiagnosis and underdiagnosis. In view of high cost-effectiveness, the combination may be particularly suitable for out-patient screening and long-term follow-up investigation following patients' discharge from the hospital.%目的 探讨数字连接实验(NCT)和数字符号实验(DST)诊断轻微肝性脑病的应用价值.方法 以2011年10月至2012年4月云南省第一人民医院消化科收治的65例乙肝肝硬化患者为病例组,选择至少接受12年以上教育的健康志愿者90例作对照,两组均采用NCT-A、DST进行检测.以NCT-A大于正常对照两个标准差为异常,DST小于正常对照两个标准差为异常.结果 随着年龄的增加NCT值升高,DST值下降.NCT-A、DST两项均异常者38例,其中男22例,女16例;年龄21~69岁,平均(52.7±11.8)岁.NCT-A时间随着患者Child肝功能分级的严重程度增加而延长(P<0.05),DST得分随着患者Child肝功能分级严重程度而降低(P<0.05).结论 NCT-A、DST联合用于检测MHE,简便易行,对减少MHE的漏诊、误诊具有较大作用,从经济学的角度考虑其价格

  12. Different instructions during the ten-meter walking test determined significant increases in maximum gait speed in individuals with chronic hemiparesis Diferentes instruções durante teste de velocidade de marcha determinam aumento significativo na velocidade máxima de indivíduos com hemiparesia crônica

    Lucas R. Nascimento


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different instructions for the assessment of maximum walking speed during the ten-meter walking test with chronic stroke subjects. METHODS: Participants were instructed to walk under four experimental conditions: (1 comfortable speed, (2 maximum speed (simple verbal command, (3 maximum speed (modified verbal command-"catch a bus" and (4 maximum speed (verbal command + demonstration. Participants walked three times in each condition and the mean time to cover the intermediate 10 meters of a 14-meter corridor was registered to calculate the gait speed (m/s. Repeated-measures ANOVAs, followed by planned contrasts, were employed to investigate differences between the conditions (α=5%. Means, standard deviations and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. RESULTS: The mean values for the four conditions were: (1 0.74m/s; (2 0.85 m/s; (3 0.93 m/s; (4 0.92 m/s, respectively, with significant differences between the conditions (F=40.9; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes instruções para avaliação da velocidade de marcha máxima de indivíduos hemiparéticos durante o teste de caminhada de 10 metros. MÉTODOS: Os indivíduos deambularam em quatro condições experimentais: (1 velocidade habitual, (2 velocidade máxima (comando verbal simples, (3 velocidade máxima (comando verbal modificado: pegar ônibus, (4 velocidade máxima (comando verbal + demonstração. Solicitou-se a cada participante que deambulasse três vezes em cada condição, e a média do tempo necessário para percorrer os 10 metros intermediários de um corredor de 14 metros foi utilizada para cálculo da velocidade (m/s. A ANOVA de medidas repetidas, com contrastes pré-planejados, foi utilizada para comparação dos dados (α=5%, sendo apresentados valores de média, desvio-padrão e intervalos de confiança (IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: As médias de velocidade para as quatro condições foram: (1 0,74m/s; (2 0,85m/s; (3 0,93m/s; (4

  13. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S


    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  14. Clinical significance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA test combining TCT test to detect early cervical dysplasia%HPV E6/E7联合液基细胞学检查在宫颈癌前病变筛查中的意义

    夏作利; 陈国荣; 潘丹; 林萍; 金茹


    目的:探讨宫颈E6/E7检测及液基细胞学检查两种方法联合检测在宫颈癌筛查中的意义。方法:筛选温州市人民医院2014年6月至2015年9月间同时行液基细胞学、E6/E7及组织学检查的病例377例,以组织学检查作为金标准。结果:联合检测可以提高检查的敏感性,对低级别鳞状上皮内病变的敏感性为94.41%;对高级别鳞状上皮内病变的敏感性为96.36%。 E6/E7检查对高级别鳞状上皮内病变诊断的敏感性为90%,特异性为60.67%,PPV和NPV分别为48.53%、92.49%。液基细胞学对高级别鳞状上皮内病变诊断的敏感性为72.73%,特异性为75.28%,PPV和NPV分别为54.79%、87.01%。结论:E6/E7检查的敏感性比液基细胞学高,而液基细胞学检测特异性较高。 E6/E7检测NPV的意义大于液基细胞学。 E6/E7及液基细胞学两种方法联合检测可以提高宫颈癌前病变筛查的敏感性,而特异性相似。%Objective To investigate the value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA test combining liquid-based cytology test in cervical cancer screening. Methods A total of 377 samples from Wenzhou People's Hospital from June 2014 to September 2015 were collected and screened by HPV E6/E7 mRNA test combining with liquid-based cytology test , and the results was compared with the findings from the gold criteria of histology and pathology. Results The combination of HPV E6/E7 mRNA test and liquid-based cytology test can enhance the testing sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity of the combination of HPV E6/E7 mRNA test and liquid-based cytology test for the diagnosis of LSIL was 94.41%, and that for the diagnosis of HSIL was 96.36%. Based on the gold criteria of histology and pathology , the sensitivity , specificity , positive-predictive value and negative predictive value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA test for the diagnosis of HSIL was 90%, 60.67%, 48.53% and 92.49%respectively. The

  15. How do we make sense of significance?

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone


    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...... sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons...

  16. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P


    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  17. Can Educationally Significant Learning Be Assessed?

    Stolz, Steven A.


    This article argues that assessment is a central feature of teaching, particularly as a means to determine whether what has been taught has been learnt. However, I take issue with the current trend in education which places a significant amount of emphasis upon large-scale public testing, which in turn has exacerbated the…

  18. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Simonia, I.


    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  19. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  20. Clinical significance of ANA test on initial response to high-dose Dex therapy in adult ITP%抗核抗体对成人免疫性血小板减少性紫癜治疗的临床意义



      目的探讨抗核抗体(ANA)对成人免疫性血小板减少性紫癜(ITP)患者的临床特征及对大剂量地塞米松(Dex)疗效的影响。方法回顾性分析大剂量Dex治疗的94例(ANA阳性者26例)ITP病例资料,比较ANA阳性与阴性患者之间的临床特征及疗效的差异。结果 ANA对患者的临床特征无影响。ANA阴性ITP对大剂量Dex治疗总反应率高于ANA阳性者,但二者之间差异无显著统计学意义(P>0.1)。ANA阴性ITP的完全反应(CR)率显著高于ANA阳性(P<0.001),并且ANA阴性ITP患者血小板的平均增值(109.838×109/L)显著高于ANA阳性者(49.423×109/L)(P<0.001)。结论 ANA可以作为预测大剂量Dex治疗ITP疗效的有效指标,ANA阳性ITP患者对大剂量Dex治疗的初始疗效较差。%Objective To determine the clinical significance of a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) test on the presentation and initial response to high-dose dexamethasone(Dex) therapy in adult immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).Methods The medical records of 94 patients who were diagnosed with ITP and treated with high-dose Dex were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 94 patients, only 26 had positive ANA tests. The differences of presentation and initial response between positive and negative ANA patients were compared with statistical methods. Results There was no association between the ANA and any of the patients’ characteristics at presentation. One week after treatment, the patients with positive ANA test and those with negative ANA were not significantly different in the rate of total response(P>0.1). But the rate of complete response (CR)was significantly higher for patients who had a negative ANA test (57.4%)compared to those with a positive ANA test (P<0.001). Furthermore, the average increase in platelet counts of negative ANA patients(109.838×109/L) was significantly higher compared to positive ANA patients(49.423×109/L)(P<0

  1. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Kai Kammers


    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  2. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry


    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  3. Clinical Testing of Blood Glucose Meter Rapid Clinical Significance and Ap-plication of Conventional Biochemical Analyzer%刍议临床血糖检验中快速血糖仪与常规生化仪应用的临床意义



    目的:研究快速血糖仪以及常规生化仪应用于临床血糖检验工作中发挥的效果。方法选择2013年5月-2014年5月该院68例患者,按每组34例分别设置对照组和观察组,对照组选择常规生化仪开展血糖检验工作,观察组通过快速血糖仪对患者血糖进行临床检验,比较两组检验结果。结果对照组患者最终测出的血糖值为(7.73±3.26)mmol/L;观察组患者最终的血糖检验值为(7.26±3.13)mmol/L,两组患者的检测结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论针对患者的临床血糖检验工作,采用快速血糖仪以及常规生化仪所检出的结果不存在显著区别,应用效果不存在明显差异,但是快速血糖仪在检验操作上更为快捷和方便,应用优势较突出。%Objective To study the fast blood glucose meter and biochemical analyzer used in clinical routine blood test work, play effect. Methods From May 2013 to May 2014 in our hospital 68 patients, 34 cases in each group were set ac-cording to the control group and observation group and control group selection routine blood chemistry analyzer to carry out inspection work, study group patients by rapid blood glucose meter clinical blood test, the test results were compared. Re-sults The final group of patients measured blood glucose value (7.73 ± 3.26) mmol / L; Observation group were eventually glucose test is ( 7.26±3.13)mmol/ L, the test results of the two groups were not significantly different, not statistically sig-nificance (P>0.05). Conclusion For patients with clinical blood test work, using rapid blood glucose meter and convention-al biochemical analyzer results are detected significant differences do not exist, there is no significant difference in the ef-fect of the application, but a more rapid glucose meter quick and easy on the test operation, the application more prominent advantages.

  4. How do we make sense of significance?

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone


    sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons......' sense-making, including important differences in the way individuals screen and scope. These patterns concern what we notice, how fast we frame the choice, and when we are critical about the provided information. The indications provide a basis for reflections on practice and on how to organise EA...

  5. Significant communities in large sparse networks

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Derlen, Mattias; Rosvall, Martin


    Researchers use community-detection algorithms to reveal large-scale organization in biological and social networks, but community detection is useful only if the communities are significant and not a result of noisy data. To assess the statistical significance of the network communities, or the robustness of the detected structure, one approach is to perturb the network structure by removing links and measure how much the communities change. However, perturbing sparse networks is challenging because they are inherently sensitive; they shatter easily if links are removed. Here we propose a simple method to perturb sparse networks and assess the significance of their communities. We generate resampled networks by adding extra links based on local information, then we aggregate the information from multiple resampled networks to find a coarse-grained description of significant clusters. In addition to testing our method on benchmark networks, we use our method on the sparse network of the European Court of Just...

  6. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Yongxiang Lu


    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  7. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?


    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  8. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    Fortnow, Lance


    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  9. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta


    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  10. The significance of constitutional values

    HN Nisihara


    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constitute “constitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  11. The significance of small streams

    Wohl, Ellen


    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  12. [Hypertriglyceridemia: concept and clinical significance].

    Hirano, Tsutomu


    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder as well as hypercholesterolemia. However clinical significance of hypertriglyceridemia is not fully understood because of its heterogeneous lipoprotein phenotypes and complex etiology. Severe hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia are usually accompanied by other cardiovascular related disorders, such as central obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver steatosis. Ectopic fat accumulation is often seen in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and various organ injuries are developed by the lipotoxicity. Hypertriglyceridemia is strongly associated with remnant lipoprotein accumulation, increased small dense LDL, and low HDL-cholesterol. All these lipid abnormalities are recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism related to the hypertriglyceridemia is summarized in this brief review.

  13. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G


    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.


    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  15. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Taha, Kamal


    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  16. Oedometer Tests

    Thorsen, Grete


    The paper describes the results of oedometer tests carried out with samples from Eemian fresh-water deposits and the methods used to determine the preconsolidation pressure from the test results. The influence of creep in the material on the apparent preconsolidation pressure is estimated from...... a model set up by Moust Jacobsen in 1992. The test results do not show any significant difference in the determined values of the overconsolidation ratio (OCR) for the samples from Hollerup and Solsø, east and west of the main stationary line for the last ice sheet in Weichselian, respectively...

  17. 丙肝抗体联合丙肝核心抗原检测在丙型肝炎早期诊断中的意义%The significance of hepatitis C antibody combined hepatitis C virus core antigen test in the early diagnosis of hepatitis C

    杜坤; 毛元英


    目的:探讨丙肝抗体联合丙肝核心抗原检测在丙型肝炎早期诊断中的意义。方法:选取2013年1月到2014年12月在我院进行体检的人群23771例,所有体检者都进行了丙肝抗体检测,而21928例体检者进行了丙肝核心抗原检测,检测方法都为ELISA法。结果:ELISA法对于丙肝抗体与丙肝核心抗原的检测阳性率分别为0.70%和0.10%。结论:丙肝抗体联合丙肝核心抗原检测在丙型肝炎早期诊断中的应用能有效判定丙型肝炎的传染性,值得推广应用。%Objective To discuss the significance of hepatitis C antibody combined hepatitis C virus core antigen test in the early diagnosis of hepatitis C.Methods We selected 23771 cases of physical examination from January 2013 to December 2014 in our hospital, all subjects were detected for hepatitis C antibody, 21928 subjects were tested for hepatitis C core antigen, detection method is ELISA. Results ELISA method was used to detect the positive rate for hepatitis C antibody and hepatitis C core antigen were 0.70% and 0.10%. Conclusion Hepatitis C antibody combined hepatitis C virus core antigen test can determine effectively hepatitis C infectivity in the early diagnosis of hepatitis C, it is worthy of popularization and application.

  18. Detection of the Antibodies to Treponema Pallidum in the serum of the Primary Syphilis with 19S- IgM- TPPA Test and Clinical Significance%19S-IgM-TPPA测定一期梅毒患者血清中梅素螺旋体抗体及其意义

    蒋月婷; 肖庆忠; 林路洋


    Objective To explore the clinical signification of the detection of the antibodies to treponema pallidum in the serum of the Primary Sybhilis with 19S - IgM - TPPA test. Methods The antibodies to treponema pallidum in the serum of 80 patients with primary syphilis without any treatment were measured with TRUST,TPPA and 19S- IgM- TPPA,respectively. To analyse the sensitivity of these method in this study. Among them,31 patients with primary syphilis had been followed - up and collected their serum at days 90,180,270 post- treatment with drugs. Meanwhile,the antibodies to treponema pallidum in these serum were also measured with three methods as above. Results The sensitivity of 19S - IgM - TPPA, TPPA and TRUST was 95% ,86.2% , and 77. 5%, respectively. There was a significantly difference between 19S- IgM- TPPA and TPPA. After treating 90,180,270 days with drugs, the seroconversion of TP - IgM occurred in 17,27 and 30 patients with primary syphilis,and the rate of seroconversion of TP- IgM were higher than that of TRUST. Conclusion Detection of the antibodies to treponema pallidum in the serum of the Primary Syphilis with 19S- IgM- TPPA test maybe helpful for early diagnosis and following up for patients with primary syphilis.

  19. B-test in late pregnancy on the thickness of the lower uterine segment cesarean section scar significance%B超检测妊娠晚期子宫下段瘢痕厚度对再次剖宫产的意义



    Objective To investigate the B-test trimester uterine segment cesarean section scar vicious value again. Methods In accordance with scar thickness is<3mm, 94 cases of cesarean section will be divided into maternal<3mm group and ≥ 3mm each group 47 cases. Comparison of two blood loss, the number of cases of postpartum hemorrhage and oxytocin usage to re-evaluation of the value of B-test cesarean scar thickness. Results <3mm group blood loss was 336.9 ± 118.4mL, the number of cases of postpartum hemorrhage in 9 cases (19.15%), oxytocin usage was 90.1±18.7 U, significantly higher than the index≥3mm group(P<0.05). Conclusion B-test scar thickness can effectively guide cesarean section has important clinical significance.%目的:探讨B超检测妊娠晚期子宫下段瘢痕厚度对再次剖宫产的价值。方法将94例再次剖宫产孕产妇按照子宫下段瘢痕厚度分为<3 mm组和≥3 mm组各47例,比较2组术中出血量、产后出血例数和缩宫素使用量,以评价B超检测瘢痕厚度对再次剖宫产的价值。结果<3 mm组术中出血量为(336.9±118.4)mL,产后出血例数有9例(19.15%),缩宫素使用量为(90.1±18.7)U,均明显高于≥3 mm组(P<0.01)。结论通过B超检测子宫瘢痕厚度可以有效地指导再次剖宫产,具有重要的临床意义。

  20. GLUT1与PCNA蛋白在子宫内膜样腺癌组织中的表达及相关研究%Significance of testing GLUT1 with PCNA in pathological tissues of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma

    张颖; 陈海玲; 梁艳红


    Objective To explore the significance of testing GLUT1 with PCNA in pathological tissues ofendometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Methods Collecting 1 I0 lesion specimens of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma, testing GLUT1 and PCNA by SP method, and analyzing their correlation. Results The positive rate of GLUT1 was 26.67%, 57.78%, 81.54% respectively in normal proliferative endometrium, atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma, showing an increasing trend, and the positive rate of PCNA also showed the same increasing trend. There were significant differences (P<0.01), and the two indicators had positive correlation (r=0.41, P<0.01). Conclusion GLUT1 and PCNA have close relationship with endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma, and they can reflect the progression of lesions, even testing GLUT1 with PCNA can be used to evaluate the proliferation index and biological behavior of the lesion.%目的 探讨葡萄糖转运蛋白1(GLUT1)与增殖细胞抗原(PCNA)联合检测在子宫内膜增殖症及癌变组织中的意义.方法 收集110例子宫内膜增殖症及子宫内膜样腺癌病变标本,采用SP法检测其GLUT1与PCNA含量,分析二者的相关性.结果 在正常增生期子宫内膜、非典型增生子宫内膜、子宫内膜癌中,GLUT1阳性表达率分别为26.67%、57.78%、81.54%,呈递增趋势,PCNA蛋白的表达亦呈递增趋势,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01),且两者具有正相关性(r=0.41,P<0.01).结论 GLUT1、PCNA与子宫内膜增殖症及癌变组织密切相关,可以间接反映病变的发展程度,联合检测可用于评价病变的增殖指数和生物学行为.

  1. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.


    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  2. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat


    Recently, we encountered 2 cases of diffuse iron deposition in gastric antral and fundic glandular epithelium, which in 1 patient eventually led to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron medications. However, the prevalence of various patterns of iron deposition in the gastric mucosa and their clinical significance have not been studied in detail. The 2 index cases mentioned above and 500 additional consecutive gastric biopsies examined over a period of 8 months at our institution were stained for iron by the Prussian blue method. In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3). The location of iron deposition [stromal cells (endothelium, fibroblasts, macrophages), glandular epithelium, or extracellular] was recorded and subjectively graded as 1+ to 3+ according to the severity of deposition within the mucosa. Relevant histologic changes (inflammation, presence of H. pylori, ulceration) and clinical features were reviewed. Three patterns of GS were identified: A) "nonspecific GS" with predominant iron deposition in the stromal cells including macrophages, and focally in epithelium; B) "iron-pill gastritis" with often mild gastritis and reactive gastropathy type changes, and mostly extracellular deposition with focal stromal cells and epithelial deposition; and C) predominant deposition in antral and fundic glandular epithelium. Of the 500 cases studied, a total of 18 (3.6%) cases were found to have GS. Of these 18 cases, 11 (2.2%) showed pattern A, 4 (0.8%) showed pattern B, and 3 (0.6%) showed pattern C. The GS in patterns A and B was always focal or patchy (1+ to 2+), whereas in pattern C it was generally diffuse and strong (2+ to 3+). A history of oral

  3. TVS卵泡监测序贯尿LH试纸预测排卵在计划妊娠中的指导意义%The guiding significances of follicular monitoring by transvaginal ultrasonography and sequential urine LH test-paper in prognosis of ovulation during planning pregnancy

    王艳华; 吴琳; 李墨林


    目的:探讨阴道超声(TVS)监测卵泡发育序贯尿黄体生成素(LH)试纸预测排卵的科学性和准确性及在计划妊娠中的指导意义.方法:选择有意向妊娠且无明显不孕因素的育龄妇女分为两组:A组:于自然月经第9~17天行阴道超声监测卵泡发育,隔日一次,追踪观察卵泡生长状况,至成熟、排卵为止;待发现优势卵泡近排卵期时,序贯采用尿LH试纸检测尿LH,每晨一次,呈阳性、达顶峰24 h内性生活,指导早日受孕;若阴性,再辅以血LH测定,预测排卵时间并了解卵巢功能.B组:随机抽取50例无任何监测方法的自然受孕妇女作对照.结果:A组46例共监测84个月经周期,B超监测到成熟卵泡67个周期,证实排卵周期63个,占75.0%;71个月经周期出现尿LH峰,阳性率为84.5%;两种监测排卵方法排卵周期符合率无统计学差异.46例中有15例在监测周期受孕,故监测周期的受孕率为32.6%(15/46),4~6个月间4例自然奸娠,自然妊娠率为8.7%.B组3个月内自然受孕4例,占8.0%,4~6个月间妊娠6例,受孕率为12.0%.两组3个月内受孕率差异有统汁学意义(P<0.05).结论:TVS监测卵泡生长直观、动态、科学;尿LH试纸检测简便易行,准确可靠,两者结合既能监测卵泡从生长至成熟卵泡的动态过程,又能预测排卵时间,为尽快受孕找到了最佳时机.因此,阴道超声监测卵泡发育序贯尿黄体生成素试纸预测排卵在计划妊娠中具有积极、科学的指导意义,并在优生优育领域起到重要作用.%Objective: To explore the scientificity and accuracy of follicular monitoring by transvaginal ultrasonography and sequential urine luteinizing hormone (LH) test- paper in prognosis of ovulation, and the guiding significances of the two methods during planning pregnancy. Methods: The women of child - bearing age without apparent infertile factors and with the purpose of pregnancy were selected and divided into two groups: 46

  4. Study on the diagnostic significance of T cells spot test in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected patients with pleural effusion%结核分枝杆菌T细胞斑点试验对结核性胸腔积液诊断价值的研究

    许雪成; 茅利明


    目的:探讨结核分枝杆菌(MTB)T细胞斑点试验(T-SPOT)在疑似MTB感染伴胸腔积液患者快速诊断中的应用价值。方法疑似MTB感染伴胸腔积液患者124例,应用T-SPOT检测外周血淋巴细胞对MTB特异性分泌蛋白EAST-6和CFP-10的免疫反应。利用MTB DNA法检测胸腔积液中的MTB,同时用免疫金标法检测血清MTB抗体,并进行统计学分析。结果124例疑似患者经过痰和胸腹水抗酸染色镜检、痰液和胸腹水MTB培养、结核菌素皮肤试验、MTB DNA和MTB抗体等试验确诊结核病患者44例,阳性检出率为35.5%。 T-SPOT的阳性检出率为33.06%(41/124),MTB DNA的阳性检出率为14.52%(18/124),血清MTB抗体的阳性检出率为9.68%(12/124)。对已确诊的44例结核病患者进行数据分析,T-SPOT、MTB DNA和血清MTB抗体的准确率分别为86.36%(38/44)、27.27%(12/44)和18.18%(8/44)。 T-SPOT的阳性检出率和结核诊断的准确率均显著高于其它2种方法(P<0.05)。 T-SPOT对疑似MTB感染的胸腔积液患者诊断的阳性预测值为92.68%,阴性预测值为92.77%。结论 T-SPOT对疑似MTB感染伴胸腔积液患者的诊断具有快速、高敏感性和高特异性的优点,优于MTB DNA和血清MTB抗体试验,可以作为一种新的技术应用于人体 MTB感染的诊断。%Objective To investigate the application significance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( MTB) T cells spot test ( T-SPOT) in the rapid diagnosis for suspected MTB infected patients with pleural effusion .Methods The 124 patients with pleural effusion which were suspected as having suspected MTB infection were enrolled .T-SPOT was used to detect the immune response of peripheral blood lymphocyte against MTB special secreted protein EAST -6 and CFP-10. The MTB DNA method was used to detect MTB in pleural effusion , meanwhile serum anti-MTB antibody was detected by

  5. The clinical significance of testing LTB4 and TNF-α in exhaled breath condensate and serum of oatients with OSAHS%OSAHS患者呼出气冷凝液和血清中LTB4和TNF-α检测的临床意义

    姚苏梅; 陶一江; 丁松云; 朱杰; 陈建荣


    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of testing inflammation factor in exhaled breath condensate (EBC)of patients with OSAHS.Methods 50 patients with OSAHS diagnosed by PSG (30 patients with treatment for about 3 months) and 30 age matched controls were enrolled in the study.Leukotriene B4 and tumor necrosis factor α levels were measured by enzyme linked immunesothent assay.Results ①The levels of LTB and TNF-α in EBC and serum with OSAHS were significanfiy higher than that in the control group (all P <0.05 ) ②LTB4 and TNF-α levels in EBC were positively correlated with AHI and negatively correlated with LSpO2 and MSpO2.③During the period of three months'treatment there was such a further significant decrease in LTB4 and TNF-α in EBC in 30 patients with OSAHS.Conclusions There was important clinical significance of detection of inflammation factors in EBC in monitoring the severity and treatment of OSAHS.%目的 探讨阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中炎症因子检测的临床意义.方法 选择经多导睡眠监测确诊的OSAHS患者50例和正常对照30例,采用酶联免疫技术分别检测EBC和血清中白三烯B4、肿瘤坏死因子-α的浓度,30例OSAHS患者经治疗三月后再次检测.结果 ①OSAHS组EBC和血清中LTB4及TNF-α水平均明显高于对照组,P均<0.05.②OSAHS患者EBC中LTB4和TNF-α水平与AHI正相关;与睡眠中LSpO2、MSpO2负相关.③OSAHS患者治疗后EBC中LTB4和TNF-α水平较治疗前下降,差异有统计学意义,P<0.01.结论 EBC中炎症因子检测对判断OSAHS患者病情严重程度和治疗效果具重要意义.

  6. 宫颈液基细胞学检查、HPV分型、LEEP环状电切术在宫颈疾病中的诊治意义%Diagnostic and therapeutic significance of thinprep cytologic test, HPV genotyping and loop electrosurgical excision procedure for cervical diseases

    谷新; 邓雷


    Objective To investigate the diagnostic and therapeutic significance and clinical value of thinprep cytologic test, HPV genotyping and loop electrosurgical excision procedure for cervical diseases. Methods From January to December 2010 in Enshi center hospital, 4 613 patients were taken gynecological examination and thinprep cytologic test, 336 cases with the positivity of thinprep cytologic test were taken electronic colposcopy and colposcopic cervical biopsy, diagnosed 125 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-like lesions and cervical cancer, they were taken HPV genotyping. cervical severe erosion and repeated physical therapy chronic cervicitis of CIN Ⅱ and some CIN I , and early diagnosis of cervical cancer conization were treated with loop electrosurgical excision procedure, the surgical removal of tissue were taken pathological examination. Results The diagnosis rate was 98.6% for cervical liquid-based brush cytology proposed line cervical biopsy of electronic colposcopy and colposcopy, HPV genotyping check, HPV genotyping check positive 125 cases and the the loop electrosurgical excision procedure after excision pathological examination, no case of intraoperative bleeding in the surgery, 5 cases with cervical wound after the scab off bleeding, and no case of postoperative infection. Conclusion Electronic colposcopy, thinprep cytologic test, HPV genotyping and cervical biopsy has important diagnostic value for cervical precancerous lesions; the loop electrosurgical excision procedure in the treatment of cervical disease has small risk of surgery, and simple operation, less bleeding and high success rate, loop electrosurgical excision has important clinical value in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical disease.%目的 探讨宫颈液基细胞学检查、HPV分型、LEEP环状电切术在宫颈疾病中的诊治意义及临床价值.方法 对2010年1~12月在恩施州中心医院就诊的4 613例患者行妇检、宫颈液基细胞学刷片检查,

  7. Clinical significance of serum ANCA combining with ANA tests in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus%抗中性粒细胞胞浆抗体与抗核抗体联合检测在系统性红斑狼疮中的临床意义

    楼洪萍; 洪理泉


    目的:探讨系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者血清中抗中性粒细胞胞浆抗体(ANCA)及抗核抗体(ANA)联合检测的临床意义.方法:采用间接免疫荧光技术(IIF)检测并回顾性分析84例SLE患者和52例健康体检者(正常对照组)血清ANCA阳性率及荧光免疫模型,同时采用酶标免疫吸附法(ELISA)进行抗核抗体(ANA)检测.结果:84例SLE患者中,ANCA阳性28例(33.3%),正常对照组无ANCA阳性.28例ANCA阳性组中,狼疮活动18例(64%),56例ANCA阴性组中狼疮活动22例(39.3%),两组阳性率差别有统计学意义(P<0.01);84例SLE患者中ANA检出58例(69.0%),正常对照组52例中2例ANA阳性,阳性率为(3.84%).ANCA与ANA联合检测,ANCA阳性ANA阳性共70例,敏感性为83.3%,显著高于两者单独检测时的敏感性(P<0.01).结论:联合ANCA、ANA检测有助于提高SLE的诊断的敏感性,ANCA与狼疮活动力具有相关性.%Objective; To study the clinical significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody ( ANCA) combining with antinuclear antibody( ANA) tests in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods; The apectrums of ANCA in SLE group (n = 84) and healthy control group ( n = 52 ) were tested by indirect immune fluorescence ( IIF) , and ANA were detected by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay( ELISA). Results: In SLE group ,28 cases were ANCA positive with the positive rate of 33.3% , and no ANCA positive case was found in the healthy control group. 18 of 28 ANCA positive cases were lupus activity (64% ), and 22 of 56 ANCA negative cases were lupus activity (39. 3% ) , the positive rates between the two groups had statistical significance ( P < 0. 01). 58 of 84 cases with systemic lupus erythematosus were ANA positive (69.0% ). In healthy control group, there were 2 cases with ANA positive (3.84% ). With ANCA and ANA joint detection, ANCA positive and ANA positive were 70 cases in the 84 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, the sensitivity was 83. 3

  8. The Predictive Significance of Immunofecal Occult Blood Test in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease%粪便隐血试验在慢性肾脏病患者发生结直肠病变的预测意义

    周慧; 杨海芸; 牟姗; 王琴; 施蓓莉; 顾乐怡; 杭瑛; 倪兆慧


    目的:通过研究慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者粪便隐血阳性的发生率,探讨粪便隐血试验在慢性肾脏病患者发生结直肠病变的预测意义.方法:使用免疫法粪便隐血试验(IFOBT)检测2007年03月~2007年06月于我院肾脏科就诊的176例CKD患者和同期我院体检中心180例健康体检者,比较粪便隐血阳性发生率,同时对CKD患者的临床、生化等指标进行统计分析.结果:176例CKD患者IFOBT阳性率17%,180例正常对照组IFOBT阳性率5%,CKD组高于正常对照组(χ2=13.236,P<0.01).CKD组血红蛋白低于正常对照组[(105.59±27.03)g/dl vs (121.00±25.62)g/dl,P<0.05],血沉[(59.77±32.91)mm/h vs (9.54±3.21)mm/h,P<0.05]、血肌酐[203.75(74.50~567.25)μmol/L vs 68.00 (45.00~95.00)μmol/L,P<0.05]高于正常对照组.CKD组中,IFOBT阳性的患者与IFOBT阴性的患者相比,年龄大(P<0.01)、血沉升高(P<0.05)、C反应蛋白升高(P<0.05),而血红蛋白(P<0.05)及肾小球滤过率(P<0.01)降低.IFOBT阳性患者血红蛋白随肾小球滤过率下降而降低,血沉、血磷、iPTH随GFR下降而升高.相关法分析显示CKD患者IFOBT检测值与GFR(r=-0.191,P<0.05)呈负相关;与年龄呈正相关(r=0.175,P<0.05).对CKD患者IFOBT阳性的30例患者行肠镜检查,结果发现结肠癌2例(6.7%),结直肠腺瘤性息肉11例(36.7%),活动期溃疡性结肠炎4例(13.3%),出血性肠炎9例(30%),4例患者未见明显异常(13.3%).结论:CKD患者易发生结直肠出血性疾病,随着患者GFR的下降,发生病变的几率升高.而IFOBT是可行有效地检测方法,对于CKD患者结直肠病变的预测具有重要的临床意义.%Objective: To study the incidence of fecal occult blood in chronic kidney diseased CKD ) patients, and to discuss the predictive significance of immunofecal occult blood test( IFOBT ) in patients with chronic kidney disease occurs colorectal lesions. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 176 patientsnts with CKD and 180 persons as a normal control

  9. Significant new quantitative EGG patterns in fibromyalgia

    Jorge Navarro López


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: We analyzed the EEG recordings of a sample of fibromyalgia patients, with the goal of looking for new, more objective indicators on the diagnosis and severity assessment of this pathology, and looking also to establish the relationship of these new indicators with different psychological and neuropsychiatric tests. Methods: We compared the EEG recordings of a group of 13 fibromyalgia patients with a normalized database built into the software of the equipment used (Neuronic, and also with a control group of 13 individuals; both groups were selected under the same criteria of inclusion-exclusion. Patients and controls underwent quantitative EEG (eyes closed, according to international 10-20 EEG system and were specifically evaluated throughout various neuropsychiatric and psychological questionnaires. Results: We obtained the absolute powers of QEEG (quantitative for the different electrode sites and frequency bands, we determined the corresponding values of the deviation from normal (Z-scores, and estimated various indicators and ratios, as well as correlations with the results of psychological tests. Interestingly, the ratios of theta and beta frequencies in relation with alpha appear as one of the most relevant indicators of the severity of the pathology; significant differences were also found in the peak frequency (maximum power per Hz of the alpha band, and in the frequency peak of the total spectrum. Conclusions: The consistency of the abnormal EEG patterns of fibromyalgia patients revealed the presence of systemic dysfunction at the central nervous system level, beyond possible peripheral anomalies and specific tissue pathologies. Among the indicators and benchmarks achieved, the most important changes concern the frequencies theta, alpha and beta, and still more significant were the values of their ratios in the comparison between patients and controls. The relative values of peak frequencies are also of

  10. 急性心肌梗死疾病实施心型脂肪酸结合蛋白浓度水平检测意义的探讨%To explore the clinical significance of the early Acute myocardial infarction diagnosis by the Heart-type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein testing

    陈明; 韩帅


    Objective To explore the clinical significance of the early Acute myocardial infarction diagnosis by the Heart-type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein testing.Methods Choosing 86 cases of patients with Acute myocardial infarc-tion disease for the experimental group,according to the time we can be divided for the (0-3 h)group of 30 cases,the (3-6 h)group of 28 cases and(≥6 h)group of 28 cases,and 30 cases of healthy check-up for the control group,testing the Heart-type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein and Ischemia Modified Albumin,analyze the results comprehensively.Results Compared with the control group,there were significantly higher of the experimental group of the Heart-type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein and Ischemia Modified Albumin results(P0.05).Clinical specimens correlation analysis results show that the Heart-type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein and the correlation of clinical diagnosis result is good(Kappa=0.81).Conclusion There is a good indicators for the early Acute myocardial infarction diagnosis which as same as to the Ischemia Modified Albumin,and worthy to clin-ical promotion.%目的:探讨检测心型脂肪酸结合蛋白浓度水平对于早期诊断急性心肌梗死疾病的应用价值。方法选择86例确诊为急性心肌梗死的患者设为试验组,根据疾病发作时间可分为(0-3 h)组30例、(3-6 h)组28例和(≥6 h)组28例,并选择同期进行健康体检且结果为健康的人30例设为参照组,所以纳入对象均进行心型脂肪酸结合蛋白浓度水平的检测,同时进行缺血修饰白蛋白浓度水平检测,对结果进行综合分析。结果与参照组比较,(0-3 h)组、(3-6 h)组和(≥6 h)组的患者检测心型脂肪酸结合蛋白浓度水平和缺血修饰白蛋白浓度水平均有显著性升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);阳性检出率分析可见,试验各组的心型脂肪酸结合蛋白和缺血修饰白蛋白的阳性检出率均在80.00%以上且两

  11. 对比分析视黄醇结合蛋白在高血压肾病早期检测的临床价值%To compare and analyse the clinical significance of the early diagnosis of the Hypertensive Renal Disease by the Retinol binding protein testing



    Objective To analyse the clinical significance of the early diagnosis of the Hypertensive Renal Disease by the Retinol binding protein testing, in order to provide reference for clinic.Methods Choosing 113 samples of patients with Hypertensive Renal Disease for the experimental group, according to the course of hypertension can be divided into the first group of 40 patients, the second group of 36 patients and the third group of 37 patients, and choosing 40 samples of healthy for the control group,then all of them were testing the Retinol binding protein and the Cystatin C, and statistical analysis of data.Results Compared to the control group, there was obviously increased of the concentration level of the Retinol binding protein and the Cystatin C(P0.05) . The detection rate of the one phase group can be significantly improved than the single detection(P<0.05).Conclusions There is a certain clinical value of the Retinol binding protein detection for the patient monitoring, it can be effectively reduce the rate of missed diagnosis by jointing detection of the Retinol binding protein and the Cystatin C.%目的:探讨分析高血压肾病早期检测视黄醇结合蛋白的临床价值,为临床提供参考依据。方法:选择113例确诊为高血压肾病的患者设为试验组,根据高血压病程可分为一期组40人,二期组36人和三期组37人,选择同期体检健康者40人设为对照组,同时检测患者和对照者的血清视黄醇结合蛋白浓度水平和胱抑素C浓度水平,统计分析结果。结果:试验三个小组的患者视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素C浓度水平均明显高于对照组,差异有显著性(p<0.05),随着患者病程的增长,试验三个小组间的患者视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素C浓度水平呈现正相关升高(r=0.9997和r=0.9947);各组患者的视黄醇结合蛋白阳性检出率分别与对应组患者的胱抑素C阳性检出率两两比

  12. Coliforms in processed mango: significance and control.

    O'Connor-Shaw, R E; Guthrie, J A; Dunlop, K J; Roberts


    The aims of this investigation were to enumerate coliforms in fresh mangoes, puree, cheeks, and cheeks-in-puree in order to determine the source of these organisms in the processed products, to determine methods for their control, and to identify coliforms isolated from cheeks-in-puree to determine whether they have any public health significance. Product from four processors was tested on two occasions. The retail packs of cheeks-in-puree having the highest coliform counts were those in which raw puree was added to the cheeks. Coliform counts in these samples ranged between 1.4 x 10(3) and 5.4 x 10(4) cfu/g. Pasteurisation reduced the coliform count of raw puree to Klebsiella pneumoniae using the ATB 32E Identification System. Klebsiella strains were tested for growth at 10 degrees C, faecal coliform response, and fermentation of D-melizitose, to differentiate the three phenotypically similar strains, K. pneumoniae, K. terrigena and K planticola. Results indicated that 41% of K. pneumoniae isolates gave reactions typical of K. pneumoniae. A further 44% of strains gave an atypical reaction pattern for these tests and were designed 'psychrotrophic' K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumoniae counts of between 2.1 x 10(3) and 4.9 x 10(4) cfu/g were predicted to occur in the retail packs of mango cheeks-in-puree produced by the processors who constituted this product with raw puree. In view of the opportunistic pathogenic nature of K. pneumoniae, its presence in these products is considered undesirable and steps, such as pasteurisation of puree, should be taken in order to inactivate it.

  13. Practical significance of weld strength matching

    Sloterdijk, W. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands); Schipaanboord, W.N. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)


    Defect tolerance in welds in pipelines constructed in modern high strength material depends on the balance in strength between weld material and pipe material. The Guidelines on the assessment of girth weld defects published by the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) define in Tier 2 defect limits assuming that the (actual) weld metal yield strength is equal or greater than the yield strength of the parent material. The defect limits according to Tier 2 exceed the defect limits in `workmanship standards` (l>25 mm). Nevertheless, the draft European welding standard EN 288 does not yet require a test to measure and verify the weld metal yield strength. Gasunie has performed a test program with the aim to look at the practical significance of weld strength matching in a strain controlled situation and to verify the relevance of limits given in the European welding and line pipe codes, in combination with the EPRG Guidelines. It is concluded that the results of the tests confirm the defect acceptance limits according to Tier 2 of the EPRG Guidelines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Zulaessigkeit von Fehlern in Rundschweissnaehten in Rohrleitungen aus modernen hochfesten Baustaehlen haengt von dem Verhaeltnis der Werkstofffestigkeit des Schweissgutes zu der des Grundwerkstoffs ab. Die von der European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) veroeffentlichte Richtlinie zur Bewertung von Schweissnahtfehlern gibt in der zweiten Bewertungsstufe (Tier 2) Werte fuer zulaessige Schweissnahtfehlergroessen unter der Bedingung an, dass die Dehngrenze des Schweissgutes groesser oder gleich der Dehngrenze des Grundwerkstoffs ist. Die nach Tier 2 zulaessigen Fehler sind groesser als die in `Good-workmanship`-Regelwerken angegebenen Fehlerlaenge (l>25 mm). Demgegenueber fehlt im Entwurf der europaeischen Schweissnorm EN 288 bislang ein solcher Dehngrenzennachweis. Gasunie hat ein Versuchsprogramm durchgefuehrt, um die Bedeutung der Schweissgutfestigkeit bei dehnungskontrollierter Belastung sowie

  14. Clinical Significance of the detection of CA153,CA125,CEA and SF Serum Test in Breast Cancer%肿瘤标志物CA153、CA125、CEA和SF联合检测对乳腺癌的诊断价值

    刘征宇; 温蔚


    目的 探讨肿瘤标志物CA153、CA125、CEA和SF联合检测在乳腺癌中的临床应用价值.方法 利用化学发光免疫方法检测60例乳腺良性疾病(乳腺良性疾病组)和40例健康体检者(对照组)以及60例乳腺癌患(乳腺癌组)治疗前后血清CA15-3、CA125、CEA和SF的水平,并进行分析.结果 乳腺癌组治疗前CA153、CA125、CEA、SF水平[(52.8±21.3)u/ml、(44.2±20.1)ng/ml、(8.9±5.2)ng/ml、(350.5±113.8)ng/ml]均显著高于乳腺良性疾病组[(17.3±8.8)u/ml、(15.6±8.5)u/ml、(2.0±0.8)u/ml、(1220.7±46.91)ng/ml](t=2.671,t=2.684,t=2.898,t=2.844,P均<0.01);乳腺癌组患者血清CA15-3、CA125、CEA和SF治疗前的水平(同上)明显高于治疗后[(25.5±3.7)u/ml、(15.0±8.4)u/ml、(4.6±3.3)ng/ml、(98.5±58.6)ng/ml](t=2.210,t=2.165,t=2.224,t=2.234,P均<0.05);乳腺良性疾病组与正常对照组差异无统计学意义(t=1.644,t=1.757,t=1.67,t=1.741,P均>0.05);乳腺癌组CA153+CA125+CEA+SF四项联检阳性率53.3%低于CA153(56.7%)、CA125(58.3%)、CEA(63.3%)、SF(68.3%)(χ~2=2.52,χ~2=2.652,P>0.05;χ~2=3.85,χ~2=3.90,χ~2=3.98,P<0.05).结论 血清CA15-3、CA125、CEA、SF联合检测可提高乳腺癌的阳性检出率,对乳腺癌的早期诊断、疗效监测以及预后判断均有重要意义.%Objective To study the clinical significance of sernm CA153,CA125 and CEA test in breast cancer.Methods The levels of CA153,CA125,carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)and ferritin were measured in 60 patients with breast cancer(breast cancer group),36 patients with benign breast diseases(benign breast diseases group)and 40 healthy people(control group)by chemiluminometry.The four indices were compared and analyzed for their complementary diagnostic value to breast cancer.Results The levels of CA153,CA125,CEA,SF[(52.8±21.3)u/ml,(44.2±20.1)ng/ml,(8.9±5.2)ng/ml,(350.5±113.8)ng/ml]in breast cancer group were significantly higher than that of benign breast disease group[(17.3±8.8)u/ml,(15.6±8.5)u

  15. 重症甲型 H1N1流感病毒基因与特异性抗体检测的诊断意义%Clinical diagnostic significance of tests of viral genes and specific antibodies for severe H1N1 influenza A

    李玉香; 汪杨; 鲍万国; 张凯宇; 王峰; 于振香


    目的:探讨重症甲型 H1N1流感患者中甲型H1N1流感病毒RNA和特异性抗体的诊断价值。方法收集2009年10月-2010年3月医院45例甲型 H1N1流感住院患者的鼻咽拭子和血清各64份,采用巢式 RT‐PCR、血凝抑制法检测不同时期甲型 H1N1流感患者咽拭子中的甲型 H1N1 RNA、血清中的特异性抗体。结果甲型H1N1流感患者咽拭子中新型甲型 H1N1流感病毒、通用病毒IV‐NP、流感通用病毒IV‐MRNA阳性率,分别为51.11%、88.89%、93.33%,特异性抗体的阳性率为68.89%,抗体效价均>1∶320,其中14份样品抗体效价>1∶5120;两种方法检测均阳性占20.00%,单独抗‐甲型 H1N1阳性48.89%,单独甲型 H1N1 RNA阳性31.11%,两者联合会提高H1N1检出率;45例甲型 H1N1流感患者不同时期采取的血清及咽拭子数共有64份,在发病1~7 d组抗‐甲型H1N1、甲型H1N1RNA检出率RNA阳性率分别为26.09%、86.96%,在发病8~13 d组及14~30 d组抗‐甲型 H1N1、甲型 H1N1RNA 检出率 RNA 阳性率分别为64.00%、4.00%及87.50%、12.50%。结论甲型H1N1流感病毒RNA和抗‐甲型 H1N1流感病毒特异性抗体均可用于甲型 H1N1流感的诊断,甲型H1N1流感病毒RNA多存在于感染早期,抗‐甲型H1N1多在病后1周检测出,两者相结合可提高甲型H1N1流感病毒的检出率。%OBJECTIVE To explore the diagnostic significance of RNA of H1N1 influenza A virus and specific antibodies for H1N1 influenza A .METHODS Totally 64 nasopharyngeal swab samples and 64 serum samples from 45 patients with severe H1N1 influenza A during Oct .2009 to Mar .2010 were collected .The specific antibody in the serum samples and the H1N1 RNA in the nasopharyngeal swab at different stages were detected by the blood clots suppression method and the nest‐RT‐PCR assay .RESULTS The detection rate of H1N1 influenza virus A , universal virus IV

  16. 膀胱癌术后灌注化疗中检测尿HGF和NMP22含量的临床意义%Clinical significance of HGF and NMP22 of voided urine tests for post-operative bladder cancer

    张延继; 于正刚; 朱广博; 侯瑞鹏; 李健; 冯起庆; 李昭夷; 张纪军; 苏彦慧; 王小波


    目的:探讨膀胱尿路上皮癌术后检测尿肝细胞生长因子(HGF)和核基质蛋白22(NMP22)表达水平在肿瘤复发监测中的临床价值.方法:2005年1月~2009年6月收治膀胱尿路上皮癌患者92例(接受TURBT或膀胱部分切除术者),术后2周开始规律性膀胱灌注化疗药物吡柔比星(THP).采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)分别检测灌注前、灌注6周、6个月和12个月时尿中HGF和NMP22的含量;对照组为31例健康人.结果:92例膀胱癌患者术后12个月有11例复发,复发率12%.未复发者尿HGF和NMP22含量随膀胱灌注时间的延长呈下降趋势,肿瘤复发时却明显升高,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);尿HGF、NMP22含量和尿脱落细胞学检查(VUC)对膀胱尿路上皮癌术后复发诊断的敏感性分别为91%、73%和45%,特异性分别为58%、48%和98%,阳性预测值分别为100% 、80%和71.4%,阴性预测值分别为57% 、48%和93%.结论:检测尿HGF和NMP22含量可以作为膀胱尿路上皮癌术后肿瘤复发监测及早期诊断的有效指标,二者结合具有较高的敏感性和预测性.%Objective:To evaluate clinical significance of Hepatocyte Growth Factor(HGF) and Nuclear Matrix Protein 22CNMP22) of voided urine tests in detecting the relapse of post-operative bladder cancer. Method: A total of 92 patients (males 79, females 13) with bladder cancer and 31 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study were classified into two groups: post-operative patients with bladder cancer were used pirarubicin(THP) ; 31 heathly volunteers. The voided urine of all the patients in before, 6weeks, 6 months, 12 months post perfusion were recovered selectively. HGF and NMP22 kits were used to detect bladder cancer. Voided urine cytology(VUC) was used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the screening test. Result:There were 11 cases who relapsed in 92 patients with perfusion in 12 months. The level of HGF and NMP22

  17. The significance of throat swab testing in the diagnosis of neonatal herpes simplex virus congenital infection%新生儿咽拭子检测在诊断单纯疱疹病毒先天性感染中的意义

    任鹏; 陈敬贤; 王明丽; 姚娟; 金艳; 葛俊; 李法锦; 汪晓婷; 吉阳; 赵蕾; 江龙凤


    Objective To detect and confirm the gene-sequence of herpes simplex virus l( HSV-1 )gD gene and HSV-2 gG gene from the cord blood, and explore the significance of HSV-1 gD gene and HSV-2 gG gene of neonatal throat swabs for diagnosis of congenital HSV infection. Methods 35 cord blood and 35 throat swabs of birth neonatal were collected. HSV-1 gD gene and HSV-2 gG gene in cord blood and throat swab samples were detected by PCR. After confirming the DNA-positive amplification results of throat swab and cord blood, the detected results of throat swab and cord blood, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were compared. Weather neonatal throat swab testing could provide the basis for the diagnosis of HSV congenital infection. Results Cord blood HSV-1 positive rate was 28. 6% ( 10/35 ), throat swab HSV-1 positive rate was 25. 7% (9/35 ), there was not statistically significant difference. Cord blood HSV-2 positive rate was 22. 8% ( 8/35 ), throat swab HSV-2 positive rate was 28. 6% ( 10/35 ), there was not statistically significant difference. Two specimens HSV-1 consistent rate was 68. 6% ( 24/35 ), and HSV-2 consistent rate was 77. 1%. Throat swab HSV-1, HSV-2 detection sensitivity were 40. 0% and 62. 5% , specificity were 80% and 84. 6% , positive predictive values were 44. 4% and 50% , negative predictive values were 76. 9% and 88% respectively. Conclusion The test results of cord blood and throat swab have a high consistency, which suggested that the use of neonatal throat swab has important clinical value for the diagnosis of HSV congenital infection.%目的 以巢式PCR检测新生儿脐带血中单纯疱疹病毒1型(HSV-1)gD基因和HSV-2 gG基因并用测序确认的结果为参比,分析利用新生儿咽拭子检测相应病毒基因在诊断新生儿HSV先天性感染中的意义.方法 采集顺产新生儿抗凝脐带血35份,同时采集咽拭子35份.采用检测HSV-1 gD基因和HSV-2 gG基因的PCR法检测

  18. The significance of serum thymidine kinase 1 test in malignant tumor diagnosis and prediction of treatment effect%血清胸苷激酶1检测对恶性肿瘤诊断及疗效评估的意义

    李清茹; 赵久涛; 桑士标; 袁航; 苏成海; 吴翼伟; 张旻; 周际; Ellen He; Sven Skog


    Objective Thymidine kinase (TK1) is an enzyme involved in DNA synthesis and hence a cell eyele dependent marker. TK1 in serum ( STK1 ) in healthy controls is rather low and inereases during tumor growth. The purpose of this study was to explore the significance of STK1 as a tumor marker and its significance in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment effect of malignancy. Methods A sensitive chemiluminescence dot-blot assay was used to measure STK1 level in 53 eases of malignant tumor patients before and after treatment, 49 cases of health-cheek persons and 18 healthy individuals as control group. Paired t-test was used for comparison of serum STK1 level in the tumor patients before and after treatment. Independent staples t-test was used for means comparison of serum STK1 level in the tumor patients before treatment as well as the tumor patients after treatment vs the health-cheek and the health control groups, re-spectively. Results The mean value of STK1 was 0.3-11.3 (2.4±2.0 ) pmol/L in tumor patients before treatment, 0.3-5.0 (0.9±0.8 ) pmol/L in tumor patients after treatment, 0.1-2.1(0.8±0.3) pmol/L in the health-eheek group and 0.5-1.2 (0.7±0.2) pmol/L in the control group. There was significantly higher STK1 level in the tumor patients before treatment as compared to the same group of patients after treatment (t=5.257, P0.05) and health-check group (t=0.715,P>0.05). Conclusion STK1 assay shows high sensitivity and specifieity for monitoring the effec-tiveness of tumor treatment and may be of value in predicting the risk of malignant tumor in routine health checks.%目的 探讨血清胸苷激酶1(TK1)作为肿瘤细胞增殖标志物对恶性肿瘤诊断及疗效评估的意义.方法 应用免疫印迹-增强化学发光法检测恶性肿瘤组(53例)治疗前后、体格检查组(49例)以及健康对照组(18名)的血清TK1水平.治疗前与治疗后比较用配对t检验,治疗前和后分别与健康对照组、体格检查组比较采用两

  19. 妊高症早期肾损伤检测视黄醇结合蛋白浓度水平的意义%Significance of testing the retinol binding protein in the early kidney injury of the pregnancy-induced hypertenision syn-drome diagnosis



    目的:探讨妊高症早期肾损伤检测视黄醇结合蛋白浓度水平的意义,为临床诊治提供依据。方法选择2011年2月-2013年10月确诊为妊高症的孕妇100例设为试验组,选择同期健康孕检妊娠者100例设为对照组,分别检测视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素 C 的浓度水平,对结果进行分析。结果试验组孕妇的视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素 C浓度水平明显高于对照组,差异显著(P <0.05),且随着患者病情的加重呈现递增的趋势;试验各组患者孕妇的视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素 C 的阳性检出率分别两两比较均无明显差异(P >0.05),且患者的视黄醇结合蛋白阳性检出率均超过85.0%;临床确诊结果与视黄醇结合蛋白检测结果的 Kappa 一致性分析得出 Kappa 值等于0.86。结论视黄醇结合蛋白是一种同胱抑素 C 一样对妊高症早期肾损伤具有诊断价值的有效指标,具有较高的灵敏度和临床符合性。%Objective To explore the application meaning of the early kidney injury of the Pregnancy-induced hyper-tension syndrome diagnosis by the retinol binding protein testing,and providing the basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods Choosing 100 cases of the Pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome patients for the experimental group and 100 cases healthy check-upes for the control group,testing the retinol binding protein and Cystatin C,analy-zing the results.Results Compared with the control group,there were significantly increased of retinol binding protein and Cystatin Cof the experimental group (P 0.05),and the positive rate of the retinol binding protein of the experimental group was more than 85.00%.The Kappa of the retinol binding protein results and the clinical diagnosis was 0.86.Conclusion There is a good indicators of the retinol binding protein whcih as the Cystatin C for the early kidney injury of the Preg-nancy-induced hypertension syndrome

  20. Significance of application of high-sensitive HBsAg ELISA kits in qualified blood donors determined by routine screening tests%超敏HBsAg ELISA检测试剂在常规检测合格的献血者中应用的意义

    桑列勇; 傅立强; 庄培芬; 方放


    Objective;To assess the significance of the application of high - sensitive HBsAag ELISA kits in qualified blood donors determined by routine screening tests. Methods: HBsAg was determined in 8692 blood donors by one imported high - sensitive ELISA kit and two domestical produced ELISA kits, respectively. The results were further confirmed by three nested - PCRs specific for different regions in HBV - DNA and other serologic markers of HBV. Results; 48 out of 8692 blood donors were HBsAg positive. Among them, 32 were detected by Hepanostika? HBsAg ELBA kit, 22 by InTec PRODUCTS kit and 14 by Kehua Bio - engineering kit. The "a" epitope was detected in 40 out of 8692 samples by HBV - DNA analysis. Among those, 13 were determined as HBsAg positive and 8 negative by all three ELISA kits. In another 8 samples, HBsAg could be detected only by high - sensitive Hepanostika? HBsAg ELISA kit. Conclusion: Although the application of high - sensitive HBsAg ELISA kit can significantly decrease the risk of HBV infection in blood transfusion, the possibility of missing detection still remains. Therefore, the current strategy should focus on increasing the sensitivity of ELISA kit and promoting the use of DNA analysis technology. The combination of ELISA determination and DNA analysis can profoundly ensure the safety of blood transfusion.%目的:探讨在无偿献血HBsAg筛查中使用超敏HBsAg ELISA的意义.方法:使用一种进口超敏HBsAg试剂和两种国产HBsAg试剂对8692例无偿献血标本进行平行检测,并使用不同区域的三套巢式PCR和检测乙肝三系其他指标对HBsAg结果进行验证.结果:8692例标本中共检测出HBsAg阳性48例,其中Hepanostika HBsAg ELISA试剂32例,英科新创HBsAg ELISA试剂22例,科华HBsAg ELISA试剂14例,对8692例标本进行HBV-DNA测定,有40例获得a表位基因,其中13例为三种HBsAg ELISA试剂检测均阳性,8例为三种HBsAg ELISA试剂检测均阴性,8例为Hepanostika.HBsAg ELISA试剂检测

  1. Testing? Testing? In Literature?

    Purves, Alan C.

    The assumptions behind secondary school literature course tests--whether asking students to recall aspects of literary works, to relate literary works to each other, or to analyze unfamiliar literary works--are open to question. They fail to acknowledge some of the most important aspects of literature which, if properly taught, should provide a…

  2. Test Under Test


    China’s national college entrance examination, regarded as a make-or-break test by many students, leaves much to be desired “We’ve bribed the exam supervisors, paying each one 20,000 yuan. They will make everything go smooth during the exams,” Li Feng, a teacher from No.2 High School in

  3. Erroneous analyses of interactions in neuroscience: a problem of significance

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.


    In theory, a comparison of two experimental effects requires a statistical test on their difference. In practice, this comparison is often based on an incorrect procedure involving two separate tests in which researchers conclude that effects differ when one effect is significant (P < 0.05) but the

  4. Test plan :

    Dwyer, Stephen F.


    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  5. 77 FR 24613 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances


    ... screening test (OECD Test Guideline 422) and a mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test (OECD Test Guideline... Test Guideline 870.5100); and a mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.5395... SNURs and on the basis for significant new use designations, including provisions for developing...

  6. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs

    Chindelevitch Leonid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. Results First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds. Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical

  7. Changes of plasma intermedin during head-up tilt test in children with postural tachycardia syndrome and its significance%体位性心动过速综合征患儿直立倾斜试验中血浆中介素的变化及意义

    李红霞; 廖莹; 憨贞慧; 王瑜丽; 刘平; 张清友; 蔺婧; 唐朝枢; 金红芳


    ,female 15) with POTS,the mean age (12.4 ±3.1) years old,admitted into Peking University First Hospital from November 2013 to June 2014.The control group consisted of 32 healthy children (male 17,female 15).Their mean age was (11.6 ± 2.2) years old,who were confirmed as healthy by physical examination and HUTT.Finapres Medical System was used to continuously monitor heart rate and blood pressure during HUTT,and electrocadiogram was performed.Supine systolic and diastolic blood pressure,mean arterial pressure (MAP),△MAP (standing mean arterial pressure-supine MAP),supine heart rate and △HR (standing HR-supine HR) were compared between POTS group and control group.Sandwich immunoluminescence assay was used to test plasma IMD.The plasma IMD level was compared in supine between POTS and control group.The plasma IMD level in supine was compared with HUTT in POTS group.Result No significant differences were found in age,height,weight,supine systolic and diastolic blood pressure,MAP,△MAP and supine heart rate between POTS group and control group (P >0.05).△HR in POTS group was significantly higher than that of control group ((48 ± 10) vs.(22 ± 7) beats/min,t =9.797,P < 0.05).The plasma IMD level in POTS group was lower than that of control group in supine position ((497 ±61) × 10-6 vs.(529 ±58) × 10-6 mg/L,t =2.117,P <0.05).But,it was higher during HUTT than supine IMD in POTS group ((537 ±57) × 10-6 vs.(497 ±61) × 10-6 mg/L,t =-2.464,P < 0.05).The plasma delta IMD level (HUTT vs.supine) was positively correlated with delta HR in POTS group (r =0.435,P < 0.05).Conclusion The excessively high heart rate during HUTT have a positive correlation with plasma IMD,which may play a role in the pathogenesis of POTS in children.

  8. Thyroid Tests

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  9. Pinworm test

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  10. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.


    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  11. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso


    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  12. Test Anxiety

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  13. Pregnancy Tests

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  14. Coombs test

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  15. Ham test

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  16. Randomization techniques for assessing the significance of gene periodicity results

    Vuokko Niko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern high-throughput measurement technologies such as DNA microarrays and next generation sequencers produce extensive datasets. With large datasets the emphasis has been moving from traditional statistical tests to new data mining methods that are capable of detecting complex patterns, such as clusters, regulatory networks, or time series periodicity. Study of periodic gene expression is an interesting research question that also is a good example of challenges involved in the analysis of high-throughput data in general. Unlike for classical statistical tests, the distribution of test statistic for data mining methods cannot be derived analytically. Results We describe the randomization based approach to significance testing, and show how it can be applied to detect periodically expressed genes. We present four randomization methods, three of which have previously been used for gene cycle data. We propose a new method for testing significance of periodicity in gene expression short time series data, such as from gene cycle and circadian clock studies. We argue that the underlying assumptions behind existing significance testing approaches are problematic and some of them unrealistic. We analyze the theoretical properties of the existing and proposed methods, showing how our method can be robustly used to detect genes with exceptionally high periodicity. We also demonstrate the large differences in the number of significant results depending on the chosen randomization methods and parameters of the testing framework. By reanalyzing gene cycle data from various sources, we show how previous estimates on the number of gene cycle controlled genes are not supported by the data. Our randomization approach combined with widely adopted Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing method yields better predictive power and produces more accurate null distributions than previous methods. Conclusions Existing methods for testing significance

  17. To test or not to test

    Rochon, Justine; Gondan, Matthias; Kieser, Meinhard


    (Strategy II) had passed the preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test for normality; otherwise, Mann-Whitney’s U test was conducted. By simulation, we separately estimated the conditional Type I error probabilities for the parametric and nonparametric part of the two-stage procedure. Finally, we assessed the overall......Background: Student's two-sample t test is generally used for comparing the means of two independent samples, for example, two treatment arms. Under the null hypothesis, the t test assumes that the two samples arise from the same normally distributed population with unknown variance. Adequate...... control of the Type I error requires that the normality assumption holds, which is often examined by means of a preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test. The following two-stage procedure is widely accepted: If the preliminary test for normality is not significant, the t test is used; if the preliminary test rejects...

  18. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  19. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.


    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  20. On combining significances. Some trivial examples

    Krasnikov, N V


    For Poisson distribution $Pois(n, \\lambda)$ with $\\lambda \\gg 1$, $n \\gg 1$ we propose to determine significance as $S = \\frac{n_{obs}-\\lambda}{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}$. The significance $S$ coincides up to sign with often used significance. For experiments which measure the same quantities the natural but not unique rule for significance combining is $S_{comb}(S_1, S_2) = \\frac{S_1\\sigma_1+S_2\\sigma_2}{\\sqrt{\\sigma^2_1+\\sigma^2_2}}$, where $\\sigma_1$ and $\\sigma_2$ are variations. We also propose the rule for significances combining for the case with systematic errors.

  1. 提出和探讨新变量ST×t作为平板运动试验诊断标准的意义%The diagnostic significance of ST × t used in exercise treadmill test for detection of coronary artery disease

    郭晓碧; 郭衡山


    Objective To develop and evaluate "ST × t" as the new detective variable of treadmill exercise test for detection of coronary artery disease. Methods To compare and analyze the results of three kinds of diagnostic criteria of exercise treadmill test in 76 cases by using exercise radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT) as comparison. One of the criteria developed by us is as follows: the detective variable of treadmill is "ST × t", in which ST is the maximal ST segment depression or elevation during the test, t is a coefficient of the con tinual time of ST segment depression or elevation. To take the t as follows: the time < 1 min, t is 0.5; the time ≥ 1 min and < 2 min, t is 1; the time≥2 min, t is 2. The positive is "ST × t" ≥ 1. Results The sensitivity of ST × t used in exercise treadmill test for detection of CHD was 81.4%, the specificity and accuracy were 93.9% and 86.7 %, respectively. Conclusion The new detective variable ST × t used in exercise treadmill test for detection of CHD is better and more convenient than the old criteria.%目的提出新变量ST×t作为平板运动试验诊断冠心病标准并评价其临床意义。方法给76例患者在2周内分别做运动核素心肌显像和平板运动试验检查,依据自身对照设计原理,以三种平板试验阳性判定方法对每一例的平板试验结果进行分析。其中之一是新提出的以变量ST×t作为诊断标准的方法。并以运动核素心肌显像结果做对照, 计算三种评定方法对冠心病诊断的准确率、敏感性和特异性,并加以比较。结果以ST×t作为平板运动试验新的诊断标准,其准确率、敏感性和特异性高于或达到目前普遍使用的方法。结论以ST×t作为平板运动试验新的诊断标准,在操作上更为简便,优于传统的判定方法。

  2. To test or not to test

    Rochon, Justine; Gondan, Matthias; Kieser, Meinhard


    control of the Type I error requires that the normality assumption holds, which is often examined by means of a preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test. The following two-stage procedure is widely accepted: If the preliminary test for normality is not significant, the t test is used; if the preliminary test rejects...... the null hypothesis of normality, a nonparametric test is applied in the main analysis. Methods: Equally sized samples were drawn from exponential, uniform, and normal distributions. The two-sample t test was conducted if either both samples (Strategy I) or the collapsed set of residuals from both samples......, the most important one being the selection mechanism due to the preliminary test. Interestingly, the overall Type I error rate and power of the entire two-stage procedure remained within acceptable limits. Conclusion: The two-stage procedure might be considered incorrect from a formal perspective...

  3. Test Madness

    Hedrick, Wanda B., Ed.


    There's accountability and then there's the testing craze an iatrogenic practice that undermines real learning. Hedrick documents the negative effects of testing, giving teachers another weapon in their arsenal against mindless preparation for high-stakes tests.

  4. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    ... what you want to learn. Search form Search Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing ... people avoid harmful reactions to medication. What Is Pharmacogenomics? Did you ever wonder why a medicine doesn' ...

  5. Predictive Testing

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  6. Laboratory Tests

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  7. Significance of prostatic weight in prostatism

    Jensen, K M; Bruskewitz, R C; Iversen, P


    In addition to routine evaluation, 68 patients with prostatism underwent blinded urodynamic testing prior to transurethral prostatectomy and were reexamined symptomatologically and urodynamically at 3 and 12 months after surgery to determine if prostatic weight could predict postoperative outcome...

  8. Randomization tests

    Edgington, Eugene


    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  9. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  10. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  11. A Differentiated Program: Significant Curriculum Adaptations.

    Alonso, Juan A.


    This article describes a model for curricular adaptations for gifted students. A distinction is made between non-significant curriculum adaptations that can be easily made by the regular teacher and significant curriculum adaptations that involve deep changes in aims, content, and evaluation criteria. (Contains references.) (DB)

  12. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Oberhofer, E. S.


    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  13. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per


    threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore......, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity...

  14. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)


    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  15. The expression and clinical significance of survivin gene in leukemia



    Objective To investigate the expression of survivin in leukemia and the prognostic significance in acute leukemia(AL). Methods The expression of survivin mRNA was measured in 105 AL and 21 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients with semi-quantity reverse transcription (RT)-PCR.15 adults were tested as normal

  16. Significance of CSF-LDH in various types of meningitis

    Vekaria, Parul N; Jasani, Jasmin H; Dhruva, Gauravi; Kotadia, Tarun


    The cerebrospinal fluid concentration of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was studied in patients with pyogenic and tubercular meningitis. Significant increase in LDH level (P<0.001) were observed in the test group when compared to the control group. LDH may  useful in differentiating viral from other meningitis. It may act as corroborative evidence of meningitis.

  17. Tissue tests

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.


    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  18. Tissue tests

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.


    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  19. 77 FR 61117 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances


    ... reverse mutation test (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.5100); a mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test (OPPTS... micronucleus test (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.5395) by the intraperitoneal route; a combined repeated dose... SNURs and on the basis for significant new use designations, including provisions for developing...

  20. Significance of the Metaphor and Sarcasm Scenario Test for differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%隐喻和讽刺情景测试对高功能孤独症谱系障碍与注意缺陷多动障碍的鉴别诊断意义

    戴美霞; 林勤英; 金宇; 李咏梅; 唐春; 静进


    目的 探讨高功能孤独症谱系障碍(autism spectruum disorder,ASD)儿童和注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)儿童在隐喻和讽刺情景测试(metaphor and sarcasm scenario test,MSST)的表现特征,为二者的鉴别诊断提供依据.方法 选取ASD、ADHD和对照组儿童各40名(三组年龄、智力水平均衡可比),采用修订版MSST和蜡笔盒测试进行检测和分析比较.结果 ASD与ADHD儿童在MSST中的总分、隐喻分均低于对照组(P<0.01);ADHD组与对照组的讽刺分无差异,但ASD组得分明显低于对照组(P<0.016 7)与ADHD组(P<0.016 7);蜡笔盒测试中,ASD组通过率(65.0%)低于ADHD组(87.5%) (P<0.05).结论 ASD与ADHD儿童的隐喻理解能力均较正常儿童差,但ASD儿童表现出特异性的讽刺理解能力缺陷.因此,MSST可为鉴别ASD和ADHD提供特异性辅助依据.

  1. The studies on diagnostic significance of integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%整合视听持续性操作测试对注意缺陷多动障碍的诊断价值

    杨春何; 周克英; 黄若谷; 高美好; 张蔚; 陈言钊; 张小园


    目的:探讨整合视听持续性操作测试(integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test,IVA-CPT )在诊断注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD) 中的应用价值.方法:把在深圳市学龄儿童健康调查中家长有注意缺陷或多动之主诉及在深圳市人民医院小儿神经专科门诊中以注意缺陷或多动之主诉就诊的220例儿童按是否符合第4 版(DSM-Ⅳ) ADHD诊断标准及Conners多动(症)指数评分标准分为DSM-Ⅳ+ Conners组、DSM-Ⅳ组、Conners组及非ADHD组,均进行IVA-CPT,分析其在ADHD诊断中的应用价值.结果:DSM-Ⅳ + Conners组130例,IVA-CPT异常118例(90.77%);DSM-IV组36例,IVA-CPT异常 29例(80.56%);Conners组31例,IVA-CPT异常26 例(83.87%),3组间差异无显著性(P < 0.05).非ADHD组23例,IVA-CPT异常4例(17.39%),与DSM-Ⅳ + Conners组、DSM-Ⅳ组及Conners组比较差异均有显著性(P < 0.05).结论:IVA-CPT作为一种客观检查方法,有助于ADHD的正确诊断.

  2. Therapeutic Non Thermal Plasma, Significance and Challenges

    Wameath Sh. Abdul-Majeed


    general consequences that could result from plasma treatment. Therefore, it becomes necessary to conduct efficacy and safety studies before inducing a new plasma device for human clinical applications. In this sense, our research team started an endeavour to treat cattle infected by coxiella burnetii, a zoonotic pathogens, in selected areas of south of Iraq by applying a custom-made dielectric barrier discharge plasma atomizer. Our preliminary experiments indicated some promising results compared with medical drugs. In line with our research plan and objectives, we proposed a hot topic theme entitled “Therapeutic non thermal plasma, significance and challenges” as a special issue of Letters in Applied NanoBioScience aimed to concise the up-to-date results and observations of recent researches undertaken in this field, which would represent a considerable add to the knowledge reported so far. It was our pleasure and appreciation to receive several submissions from respected researchers in the field and accordingly all received manuscripts were subjected to peer review process. Unfortunately, not all of the received manuscripts fulfilled the requirements and thereby excluded. Though, we were so delighted to discriminate and accept three fruitful researches for publication in the special issue, as in the following details: Haertel et al., Differential Effect of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Angiogensis: This study focused on the effects of plasma on angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and rat aortic ring (AOR test, in which plasma-treated PBS or medium was applied. Barni et al., Effects of a Pulsed Operation on Ozone Production in Dielectric Barrier Air Dischargees: An experimental investigation of ozone production in a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor was performed, in which measurements of ozone in the gas-phase as a function of the power level was undertaken. Zhu et al., Review of Mercury Removal from Fue

  3. 新生儿胆红素脑病脑脊液胆红素及脑干听觉诱发电位检测的临床意义%The clinical significance of cerebrospinal fluid bilirubin and brainstem auditory evoked potential tests in neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy

    李先红; 张健; 查萍; 王丽丽; 孔萤; 孙璐路; 郑洪


    Objective To explore the clinical significance of cerebrospinal fluid bilirubin level and brainstem auditory evoked poten -tial in neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy .Methods All the cases with hyperbilirubinemia were selected from July 2011 to July 2013 in our department,and were divided into the bilirubin encephalopathy group (44 cases) and the non-bilirubin encephalopathy group (79 cases).Ce-rebrospinal fluid ,serum bilirubin level and brainstem auditory evoked potential ( BAEP ) changes were compared between the two groups of children .Results The cerebrospinal fluid bilirubin level in bilirubin encephalopathy group was higher than that of non -bilirubin encephalopa-thy group [(11.0 +3.9) tendency/L vs (7.4 +4.0) tendency/L],and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01).The inci-dence of abnormal BAEP (61.4%) in bilirubin encephalopathy group was higher than that of non-bilirubin encephalopathy group (16.5%), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01).Conclusion Cerebrospinal fluid bilirubin can be used as a reliable indicator for bilirubin encephalopathy in the early diagnosis ,and newborn infants with bilirubin encephalopathy accompanied by higher incidence of hearing damage require early intervention treatment .%目的:探讨新生儿胆红素脑病脑脊液胆红素水平及脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)检查的临床意义。方法选取高胆红素血症新生儿为研究对象,分为胆红素脑病组(44例)和非胆红素脑病组(79例),比较两组患儿脑脊液、血清胆红素水平以及BAEP变化。结果胆红素脑病组患儿脑脊液胆红素水平高于非胆红素脑病组[(11.0±3.9) mol/L VS (7.4±4.0) mol/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);胆红素脑病组BAEP异常发生率(61.4%)高于非胆红素脑病组(16.5%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论脑脊液胆红素水平检测可作为新生儿胆红素脑病早期诊断的可

  4. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.


    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  5. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.


    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  6. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard


    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  7. 儿童ADHD视听整合持续操作测验的诊断意义及与血铅、铁、锌相关研究%Clinical significance of integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test on attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder diagnosis and its correlation with blood lead, iron &zinc

    高铁英; 喻书彻; 史秀兰; 赵婵娟


    [目的]探讨铅暴露和微量元素血锌铁与儿童注意损害之间的关系;验证视听整合持续性操作测验(integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test,IVA-CPT)在诊断儿童注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)上的客观意义和临床价值.[方法]应用视听整合持续性操作评估软件对一组符合DSM-Ⅳ诊断标准的多动症儿童和正常儿童进行检查.采用阳极溶出伏安法测定血中铅水平.采用全血原子吸收法测定血锌、铁.[结果]IVA-CPT诊断ADHD的敏感度为87.5%,特异度87.88%.ADHD组与对照组相比,IVA-CPT的综合控制商数、综合注意力商数、听觉反应控制商数、听觉注意力商数和视觉注意力商数均显著低于对照组(P均<0.001),视觉反应控制商数也明显低于对照组(P<0.01).两组间比较,血铅、锌、铁值及铅中毒率差异均无显著性(P>0.05).ADHD组血铅、锌、铁值与IVA-CPT商数间做相关分析,差异无显著性(P>0.05).[结论]IVA-CPT能够较有效地区分ADHD儿童与正常儿童持续注意水平,对ADHD的诊断有较高的参考价值.ADHD组儿童的血铅值、铅中毒率、血锌、铁水平不一定是导致ADHD儿童注意损害的根本原因.

  8. Determining the clinical significance of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a SEER-Medicare population analysis.

    Go, Ronald S; Gundrum, Jacob D; Neuner, Joan M


    Clinical guidelines have recommended annual follow-up examinations of most patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); however, evidence supporting this practice is lacking. We performed a population-based study to examine the patterns of disease presentation and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancies) comparing those with or without a previous MGUS follow-up examination. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancy from 1994 through 2007 were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database and divided into 2 cohorts: those with follow-up (MGUS follow-up examination preceding the diagnosis) and those with no follow-up (no such follow-up examination). We compared the outcomes, including the rates of major complications at cancer diagnosis (acute kidney injury, cord compression, dialysis use, fracture, and hypercalcemia) and survival using propensity score adjustment and Cox proportional hazard models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Of the 17,457 study patients, 6% had undergone MGUS follow-up. After multivariable modeling, the follow-up group had significantly fewer major complications at diagnosis (odds ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.80) and better disease-specific (median, 38 vs. 29 months, P < .001; hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94) and overall (median, 23 vs. 19 months, P < .001; HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95) survival. Patients with MGUS follow-up preceding the diagnosis of a monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancy can experience fewer major complications and have longer survival than those without such follow-up examinations. Future studies replicating our findings in the non-Medicare population and determining the optimal schedule and cost-effectiveness of MGUS follow-up are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. What's Worth Teaching? Extracting Significant Content.

    Switzer, Thomas J.


    A model which secondary social studies teachers could apply to their content area suggests an interplay between the inductive and the deductive--where students first identify a proposition from an examination of evidence and then test the proposition to assess its power in helping students understand the complex nature of social reality.…

  10. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu


    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  11. How Significant Is a Boxplot Outlier?

    Dawson, Robert


    It is common to consider Tukey's schematic ("full") boxplot as an informal test for the existence of outliers. While the procedure is useful, it should be used with caution, as at least 30% of samples from a normally-distributed population of any size will be flagged as containing an outlier, while for small samples (N less than 10) even extreme…

  12. How Significant Is a Boxplot Outlier?

    Dawson, Robert


    It is common to consider Tukey's schematic ("full") boxplot as an informal test for the existence of outliers. While the procedure is useful, it should be used with caution, as at least 30% of samples from a normally-distributed population of any size will be flagged as containing an outlier, while for small samples (N less than 10) even extreme…

  13. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  14. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)


    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  15. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    Marrocco, Geraldine F


    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Significance of the combined detection of routine blood test, serum iron and hemoglobin electrophoresis in screening thalassemia in non-high incidence area%血常规、血清铁及血红蛋白电泳联合检测在地中海贫血非高发地区的筛查意义

    吴蓓颖; 江岑; 王也飞; 顾燕英; 林琳; 蔡刚


    目的 通过分析血常规、血清铁含量及血红蛋白电泳对地中海贫血(地贫)检出率的影响,寻找在地贫非高发区高效的联合检测方法.方法 抽取上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院门诊血液科及妇产科1 000例疑诊地贫患者外周血,EDTA抗凝管及血清管.抽提全血DNA,以跨越裂口PCR(GAP-PCR)及反向斑点杂交法进行地贫常见突变基因检测;进行血常规及血红蛋白电泳检测;GAP-PCR及Sanger法测序进行稀有α及β地贫基因检测;作血清铁含量测定.结果 1 000份标本经常规基因检测,诊断α地贫225例(22.5%),其中静止型28例,标准型138例及HbH病59例;β地贫403例(40.3%),其中β地贫携带者390例,β双重杂合子7例以及β纯合子6例;αβ复合地贫15例(1.5%);未检出常见突变的有357例.1 000例患者中红细胞平均体积(MCV)或红细胞平均血红蛋白含量(MCH)增高的有38例,无一例检出地贫基因;血清铁含量增高且MCV不增高的48例患者,42例(87.5%)检出地贫基因;血红蛋白电泳异常的38例患者中35例为HbH病,另3例为HbF含量高的其他类型地贫患者,符合率为100%.1 000例患者中,有5例患者血红蛋白电泳异常并伴有MCV及MCH降低、血清铁不低,虽常规基因检测未发现突变,经进一步测序分析,均发现稀有突变.结论 MCV及MCH不低于正常参考范围可基本排除地贫,血清铁含量高为地贫提示及分类指标,血红蛋白电泳异常提示地贫可能.此三者联合检查结果均异常而基因检测未显示异常的,建议进一步进行稀有分型的测序分析.三者联合检测可提高非地贫患者的排除率及地贫患者的检出率.%Objective To evaluate the role of combined detections of routine blood test,serum iron and hemoglobin electrophoresis in screening thalassemia in non-high incidence area.Methods Peripheral blood and serum samples of 1 000 outpatients from the department of hematology and the

  17. Significance of Studies of Stylistics and Rhetoric



    Stylistics is a scientific study of style. It is a mode of encoding and decoding language and can be associated with various fields. In this paper,we talk about the great significances of stylistic and rhetoric studies. It refers to great help in expressing and understanding languages;in combining the linguistics and literary criticism and linguistics;great help in promoting and developing computer science and information technology;great significance in sharing heritage of human civilizations.

  18. Tensile testing


    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  19. Objective Tests versus Subjective tests



    objective test has only one correct answer, while subjective test has a range of possible answers. Because of this feature, reliability will not be difficult to achieve in the marking of the objective item, while the marking of the subjective items is reliable. On the whole, a good test must contain both subjective and objective test items.

  20. 阿尔茨海默病血清Aβ42检测方法的建立及其临床意义%Establishment of the test method of the Aβ42 in the serum of the alzheimer disease patient and its clinical significance

    王华成; 罗金刚; 刘学军; 杨梦心; 王英; 许英; 段朝晖


    -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for detecting the β-amyloid peptide 42 ( Aβ42 ) and explore its clinical meaning for diagnosis and treatment in the early stages of the alzheimer disease ( AD).Methods Using the Aβ42 single chain variable fragment constructed by phage antibody library display system as coat antibody,associated with the Aβ42 polyclonal antibody acquired by Aβ42 immunized rabbit and HRP labeled goat anti rabbit IgG to establish ELISA method for detecting the Aβ42 in peripheral blood.The method was used it to test the Aβ42 in 120 vascular dementia VD) or cerebral vessel infarction patients and 120 AD patients and 120 controls.The methodology performance were evaluated.Results The inter and intra coefficient of variable (CV) of this self-established ELISA method was 3.6% and 3.5%,6.8% and 7.1% respectively.The recovery rate was 97.2% -103.1%.The linear range was 0.050 - 2 μg,/L.Its reactivity decreased < 12% when it was put in both 37 ℃ for 6 days and 4 ℃ for 6 months.Compared with the Belgium INNOTEST reagent by testing 90 samples simultaneously,the results of self-established method was (0.207 ± 0.039 ) μg/L,the results of INNOTEST was (0.206± 0.038 ) μg/L; the regression equation was Y =1.011X - 0.003,R2 =0.979,P <0.01.The Aβ42 in blood of AD group was (0.247 ± 0.032 ) μg/L,VD or cerebral vessel infarction group was (0.173 ±0.028) μg/L,control group was (0.172 ±0.032) μg/L.The Aβ42 in AD group was higher than that in the VD or cerebral vessel infarction group and control group (q =18.867,18.907respectively,P < 0.01 ).The cut off value was 0.212 μg/L decided by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.The reference interval was 0 -0.212 μg/L.The sensitivity of this ELISA method was 86.7%(104/120) and specificity was 90.8% (218/240).Conclusions The ELISA method for detecting Aβ42 in peripheral blood established by the study is sensitive and specific and has good precision and stability.It could provide a

  1. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    Hibberd, Rachel


    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered.

  2. TORCH Test

    ... Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies , Chickenpox and Shingles Tests , Parvovirus B19 All content on Lab Tests Online has ... enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus , varicella-zoster virus , and parvovirus B19 . ^ Back to top When is it ordered? ...

  3. Malnutrition Tests

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Malnutrition Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Symptoms | Tests | Treatment | Related Pages Tests Malnutrition will often be noticeable to the doctor's trained ...

  4. String test

    Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... may be a sign parasite infection such as giardia . ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 58. Hill DR, Nash TE. Giardia lamblia. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  5. Nationale test


    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  6. Prenatal Tests

    ... may recommend you have an invasive test, like amniocentesis , to confirm the results. Chorionic villus sampling (also ... done at 15 to 22 weeks of pregnancy. Amniocentesis (also called amnio). Tests the amniotic fluid from ...

  7. VMA Test

    ... page helpful? Also known as: VMAU Formal name: Vanillylmandelic Acid, urine Related tests: Catecholamines , Plasma Free Metanephrines , Urine ... I should know? How is it used? The vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) test is primarily used to detect and ...

  8. Nationale test


    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  9. Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules

    Smith Andrew D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.

  10. Nationale Test


    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie:

  11. 接受48周高效抗逆转录病毒治疗的艾滋病患者细胞内HIV DNA定量检测及其意义%Cellular HIV DNA quantitative testing and its significance in Chinese AIDS patients during 48 weeks' highly-active antiretroviral treatment

    郑煜煌; 姚运海; 林一鹤; 谌资; 周华英; Diallo Mamadou Alius; 陈霞; 何艳; 贺波; 贺梅; 王红艳; 肖水灵; 罗艳


    目的 观察中国艾滋病患者外周血T淋巴细胞及单核细胞作为HIV-1病毒储存库的情况,了解其在接受48周高效抗逆转录病毒治疗( HAART)中的动态变化及其临床意义.方法 35例慢性HIV-1感染的成人在初治HAART的0、24、48周,使用流式细胞仪测定血T淋巴细胞亚群数量,使用磁珠分选法从外周血单个核细胞中分离T淋巴细胞和单核细胞并提取细胞DNA,采用实时荧光定量RT-PCR法检测血清HIV RNA、用SYBR Green实时PCR对T淋巴细胞和单核细胞内的前病毒HIV DNA载量进行定量测定;使用SPSS 18.0软件对收集的数据进行分析.结果 35例艾滋病患者在HAART初次启动的0、24、48周,外周血HIV RNA水平分别为(4.12±1.41)、≤1.69、≤1.69lg拷贝/ml,CD4+ T淋巴细胞数分别为(196±101)、(321±112)、(392±127)个/μl;在T淋巴细胞中HIV DNA水平分别为(4.03±0.53)、(2.74±1.16)、(2.45±0.41)lg拷贝/106细胞,在单核细胞中HIV DNA水平分别为(2.51 ±0.68)、(2.16±0.34)、(2.03±0.25) lg拷贝/106细胞.统计学分析显示,在48周HAART过程中,外周血HIV RNA水平与CD4+ T淋巴细胞数呈负相关,与T淋巴细胞及单核细胞中的前病毒HIV DNA水平均呈正相关;T淋巴细胞中的HIV DNA下降速度慢于单核细胞;外周血CD4+ T淋巴细胞与T淋巴细胞前病毒HIV DNA载量呈负相关.结论 HIV感染者T淋巴细胞和单核细胞均可作为HIV病毒储存库,而淋巴细胞是更主要的储存库细胞;细胞内HIV DNA水平与血HIV RNA水平变化正相关,与血CD4+T淋巴细胞数呈负相关,T淋巴细胞内前病毒HIV DNA水平变化可能作为HAART中AIDS病程进展的观察指标之一.%Objective To observe the dynamic changes of peripheral blood T lymphocytes and monocytes,which serve as HIV-1 viral reservoirs,in Chinese HIV-infected patients receiving highly-active antiretroviral treatment ( HAART ) for 48 weeks and its clinical significance. Methods A total of 35

  12. The allergenic significance of certain fungi rarely reported as allergens.

    Giannini, E H; Northey, W T; Leathers, C R


    The allergenic significance of seven different species of fungi was investigated. Included were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Podaxis pistillaris, Stemonitis ferruginea, Lycogala epidendrum, Fuligo septica, Ustilago maydis and Puccinia cynodontis. All of these fungi have wide distribution patterns and aerially disseminated spores but, because of their unique growth characteristics, are usually not reported in atmospheric fungal surveys. Seventy-eight patients were treated for dermal sensitivity to extracts of the organisms after the spores were extracted in 50% glycerinated Coca's solution. The results represent a six-month test period. Forty-four patients, representing 56% of the total number tested, demonstrated dermal reactivity toward one or more of the extracts.

  13. HIV Testing

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  14. Test Anxiety

    ... A A What's in this article? What Is Test Anxiety? What Causes It? Who's Likely to Have Test Anxiety? What Can You Do? en español Ansiedad ante ... prevent them from doing their best on a test. continue What Causes It? All anxiety is a reaction to anticipating something stressful. Like ...

  15. Ferritin Test

    ... helpful? Also known as: Serum Ferritin Formal name: Ferritin, serum Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Hemoglobin , Hematocrit , Serum Iron , TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin , Iron Tests , Zinc Protoporphyrin , Soluble Transferrin ... else I should know? How is it used? The ferritin test is ordered to assess a person's iron ...

  16. Language Testing

    Upshur, John A.


    It is suggested in this column that trends in language testing in the last 15 years have followed trends in modern language teaching. Language testing adopted the tenets of audiolingualism and contrastive analysis, then incorporated test-making procedures of psychometrics, and finally became more eclectic in its approach. (SW)

  17. Detection of HCV core antigen and its diagnostic significance

    YANG Jie


    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the abilities of the hepatitis C virus (HCV core antigen (cAg test and the HCV RNA assay for confirming anti-HCV presence in order to determine the clinical utility of the HCV-cAg as an alternative or confirmatory diagnostic tool. MethodsSerum samples collected from 158 patients diagnosed with HCV infection were subjected to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based HCV-cAg test. The optical density (OD measured values were used to calculate the ratio of specimen absorbance to the cutoff value (S/CO. Simultaneously, the serum samples were subjected to PCR-based nucleic acid amplification quantitative fluorescence detection of HCV RNA. ResultsNone of the serum samples had a S/CO value <1 for the HCV-cAg test (100% negative, but all of the samples had a S/CO value >5 (100% positive. The HCV-cAg test sensitivity was 87.05%, specificity was 76.67%, positive predictive value was 9653%, and negative predictive value was 44.23%. As the S/CO value gradually increased, the significantly higher positive coincident rate of the HCV RNA test decreased. The HCV RNA negative coincident rate was significantly higher than that of the HCV-cAg test. HCV-cAg S/CO values between 1 and 2 corresponded to an HCV RNA values between 1.0×103 copies/ml and 1.0×104 copies/ml. The highest S/CO value obtained was 1.992. ConclusionThe HCV-cAg test is comparable to the HCV RNA assay for diagnosing HCV infection.

  18. Significance of oxygen transport through aquaporins

    Zwiazek, Janusz J.; Xu, Hao; Tan, Xiangfeng; Navarro-Ródenas, Alfonso; Morte, Asunción


    Aquaporins are membrane integral proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. Despite their well-acknowledged importance in water transport, their significance in gas transport processes remains unclear. Growing evidence points to the involvement of plant aquaporins in CO2 delivery for photosynthesis. The role of these channel proteins in the transport of O2 and other gases may also be more important than previously envisioned. In this study, we examined O2 permeability of various human, plant, and fungal aquaporins by co-expressing heterologous aquaporin and myoglobin in yeast. Two of the most promising O2-transporters (Homo sapiens AQP1 and Nicotiana tabacum PIP1;3) were confirmed to facilitate O2 transport in the spectrophotometric assay using yeast protoplasts. The over-expression of NtPIP1;3 in yeasts significantly increased their O2 uptake rates in suspension culture. In N. tabacum roots subjected to hypoxic hydroponic conditions, the transcript levels of the O2-transporting aquaporin NtPIP1;3 significantly increased after the seven-day hypoxia treatment, which was accompanied by the increase of ATP levels in the apical root segments. Our results suggest that the functional significance of aquaporin-mediated O2 transport and the possibility of controlling the rate of transmembrane O2 transport should be further explored. PMID:28079178

  19. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  20. Social significance of community structure: statistical view.

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J


    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p-value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  1. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    Hinzen, Wolfram


    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  2. Significant Workplace Change: Perspectives of Survivors

    Kohut, Ann Marie


    The ever-increasing pace of workplace change is well documented in the literature, yet little is known about how an individual adapts to significant change in the workplace. Continuous learning is key to successful adaptation; however, are employees' adaptation to change influenced by their approaches to learning? The purpose of this study was to…

  3. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.


    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  4. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J.


    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p -value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  5. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Cassell, Macgorine A.


    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  6. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  7. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)


    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  8. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argues...

  9. Significance of Literature in Foreign Language Teaching

    Babaee, Ruzbeh; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Bt Wan


    This research aims to consider literature as a significant tool for teaching fundamental language skills including speaking, listening, reading and writing. Reasons for the use of literature in language classrooms and major factors for choosing appropriate kinds of literary texts in such classes should be highlighted in order to make readers aware…

  10. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin


    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his...

  11. Significant determinants of mouse pain behaviour.

    Michael S Minett

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse behavioural analysis has furthered our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying damage sensing and pain. However, it is not unusual for conflicting data on the pain phenotypes of knockout mice to be generated by reputable groups. Here we focus on some technical aspects of measuring mouse pain behaviour that are often overlooked, which may help explain discrepancies in the pain literature. We examined touch perception using von Frey hairs and mechanical pain thresholds using the Randall-Selitto test. Thermal pain thresholds were measured using the Hargreaves apparatus and a thermal place preference test. Sodium channel Nav1.7 knockout mice show a mechanical deficit in the hairy skin, but not the paw, whilst shaving the abdominal hair abolished this phenotype. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 knockout mice show deficits in noxious mechanosensation in the tail, but not the paw. TRPA1 knockout mice, however, have a loss of noxious mechanosensation in the paw but not the tail. Studies of heat and cold sensitivity also show variability depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Deleting Nav1.7, Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 in Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons attenuates responses to slow noxious heat ramps, whilst responses to fast noxious heat ramps are only reduced when Nav1.7 is lost in large diameter sensory neurons. Deleting Nav1.7 from all sensory neurons attenuates responses to noxious cooling but not extreme cold. Finally, circadian rhythms dramatically influence behavioural outcome measures such as von Frey responses, which change by 80% over the day. These observations demonstrate that fully characterising the phenotype of a transgenic mouse strain requires a range of behavioural pain models. Failure to conduct behavioural tests at different anatomical locations, stimulus intensities, and at different points in the circadian cycle may lead to a pain behavioural phenotype being misinterpreted, or missed altogether.

  12. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivatives in perfumes

    Rastogi, S.C.; Johansen, Jeanne Duus


    , especially isoeugenyl acetate, are used instead. Isoeugenyl acetate is probably metabolized in the skin to isoeugenol and gives positive patch test reactions in 1/3 of isoeugenol-sensitized individuals. Objectives: To investigate the content of isoeugenol, isoeugenyl acetate, and two isoeugenol ethers...... in perfumes/aftershaves. Materials and Methods: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometery. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. Results: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...

  13. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    Schroeder, T


    . Examination of periorbital flow direction or oculoplethysmography could be used as a screening procedure. Negative tests most certainly rule out any severe pressure gradient across the stenosis, irrespective of the luminal reduction. A positive result, on the other hand, should be further quantified since...... cerebral hemodynamics in terms of increased flow through the reconstructed vessel and elimination of pressure gradients. The cerebral blood flow, though remains unchanged in the majority of patients, at least when measured at baseline. Only in those patients with a reduction in perfusion pressure can...

  14. Significance of prostatic weight in prostatism

    Jensen, K M; Bruskewitz, R C; Iversen, P


    In addition to routine evaluation, 68 patients with prostatism underwent blinded urodynamic testing prior to transurethral prostatectomy and were reexamined symptomatologically and urodynamically at 3 and 12 months after surgery to determine if prostatic weight could predict postoperative outcome....... Resected prostatic weight correlated with estimated weight at cystoscopy and with obstructive symptoms, but not with urodynamic variables of infravesical obstruction. Patients with small prostates improved symptomatologically to the same degree as patients with larger glands, although they did not improve...... to the same degree urodynamically. Prostatic weight, therefore, could not be used to predict the outcome of transurethral surgery....

  15. Topological Test Spaces

    Wilce, Alexander


    A test space is the set of outcome-sets associated with a collection of experiments. This notion provides a simple mathematical framework for the study of probabilistic theories -- notably, quantum mechanics -- in which one is faced with incommensurable random quantities. In the case of quantum mechanics, the relevant test space, the set of orthonormal bases of a Hilbert space, carries significant topological structure. This paper inaugurates a general study of topological test spaces. Among ...

  16. On significance of VLBI/Gaia offsets

    Petrov, L


    We have cross matched the Gaia Data Release 1 secondary dataset that contains positions of 1.14 billion objects against the most complete to date catalogue of VLBI positions of 11.4 thousand sources, almost exclusively active galactic nuclei. We found 6,064 matches, i.e. 53% radio objects. The median uncertainty of VLBI positions is a factor of 4 smaller than the median uncertainties of their optical counterparts. Our analysis shows that the distribution of normalized arc lengths significantly deviates from Rayleighian shape with an excess of objects with small normalized arc lengths and with a number of outliers. We found that 8% matches have radio optical offsets significant at 99% confidence level. Therefore, we conclude there exists a population of objects with genuine offsets between centroids of radio and optical emission.


    Yu-Jia Hu


    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  18. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    Li, Hui-Jia


    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks, which can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of community structure partitioned is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a novel framework analyzing the significance of social community specially. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using log-likelihood sco...

  19. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    Erasmus, Christiaan, E-mail: [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Kok, Schalk [Advanced Mathematical Modelling, CSIR Modelling and Digital Science, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hindley, Michael P. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)


    Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux fields and constant stress fields, but it does not allow for the effect of movement of stress locations around a graphite component during life, nor does it allow primary creep to be applied rate-dependently to graphite components subject to lower fast neutron flux. This paper shows that a differential form of primary irradiation creep in graphite combined with the secondary creep formulation proposed by Kennedy et al. performs well when predicting creep behaviour in experimental samples. The significance of primary irradiation creep in particular in regions with lower flux is investigated. It is shown that in low flux regions with a realistic operating lifetime primary irradiation creep is significant and is larger than secondary irradiation creep.

  20. Representativeness and significance factors in ESP texts

    Alejandro Curado Fuentes


    Full Text Available The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language . Particularly in the work with academic genres, in science and technology (EST settings such as our own institution, the need for determining these factors is ever growing. The application of empirical resources such as specific language corpora, in fact, becomes convenient. In this paper, the aim is to specify the type of corpus linguistic representativeness and significance sought in the case of teaching English to our groups of Computer Science students. In that scope, we present data and samples on which to base our suggestions and claims regarding the exploitation of textual material.

  1. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S


    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort.

  2. Significance analysis and statistical mechanics: an application to clustering.

    Łuksza, Marta; Lässig, Michael; Berg, Johannes


    This Letter addresses the statistical significance of structures in random data: given a set of vectors and a measure of mutual similarity, how likely is it that a subset of these vectors forms a cluster with enhanced similarity among its elements? The computation of this cluster p value for randomly distributed vectors is mapped onto a well-defined problem of statistical mechanics. We solve this problem analytically, establishing a connection between the physics of quenched disorder and multiple-testing statistics in clustering and related problems. In an application to gene expression data, we find a remarkable link between the statistical significance of a cluster and the functional relationships between its genes.

  3. Evaluative meaning and its cultural significance

    Drazdauskiene, Maria Liudvika


    In the framework of traditional descriptive semantics, evaluative meaning is defined as an aspect of affective meaning. By virtue of its general positive and negative evaluation, evaluative meaning finds its place in the compartment of interpersonal meaning in functional linguistics. The concept of evaluative meaning is also in agreement with the categorisation of meaning in contemporary stylistics. Having stated its spread and disagreement with logic, the cultural significance of...

  4. Small colony variants and their clinical significance

    Venkataramana Venkataramana


    Full Text Available Among the many factors that contribute to bacterial colonization, persistence and development of infection, the ability of microorganisms to form small colony variants (SCVs assumes great significance. Although bacteria require intrinsic virulence factors to cause pathogenesis, some of them regularly evolve mechanisms to evade immune mechanisms, become resistant to antibiotics, and sustain in the human/animal cells to cause chronic infections. This mini review highlights the recent advances in the study of SCVs.

  5. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow

    Alldredge, Alice L.; Silver, Mary W.

    Macroscopic aggregates of detritus, living organisms and inorganic matter known as marine snow, have significance in the ocean both as unique, partially isolated microenvironments and as transport agents: much of surface-derived matter in the ocean fluxes to the ocean interior and the sea floor as marine snow. As microhabitats, marine snow aggregates contain enriched microbial communities and chemical gradients within which processes of photosynthesis, decomposition, and nutrient regeneration occur at highly elevated levels. Microbial communities associated with marine snow undergo complex successional changes on time scales of hours to days which significantly alter the chemical and biological properties of the particles. Marine snow can be produced either de novo by living plants and animals especially as mucus feeding webs of zooplankton, or by the biologically-enhanced physical aggregation of smaller particles. By the latter pathway, microaggregates, phytoplankton, fecal pellets, organic debris and clay-mineral particles collide by differential settlement or physical shear and adhere by the action of various, biologically-generated, organic compounds. Diatom flocculation is a poorly understood source of marine snow of potential global significance. Rates of snow production and breakdown are not known but are critical to predicting flux and to understanding biological community structure and transformations of matter and energy in the water column. The greatest challenge to the study of marine snow at present is the development of appropriate technology to measure abundances and characteristics of aggregates in situ.

  6. Least significant qubit algorithm for quantum images

    Sang, Jianzhi; Wang, Shen; Li, Qiong


    To study the feasibility of the classical image least significant bit (LSB) information hiding algorithm on quantum computer, a least significant qubit (LSQb) information hiding algorithm of quantum image is proposed. In this paper, we focus on a novel quantum representation for color digital images (NCQI). Firstly, by designing the three qubits comparator and unitary operators, the reasonability and feasibility of LSQb based on NCQI are presented. Then, the concrete LSQb information hiding algorithm is proposed, which can realize the aim of embedding the secret qubits into the least significant qubits of RGB channels of quantum cover image. Quantum circuit of the LSQb information hiding algorithm is also illustrated. Furthermore, the secrets extracting algorithm and circuit are illustrated through utilizing control-swap gates. The two merits of our algorithm are: (1) it is absolutely blind and (2) when extracting secret binary qubits, it does not need any quantum measurement operation or any other help from classical computer. Finally, simulation and comparative analysis show the performance of our algorithm.

  7. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    Aditya Galih Prihartono


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable through bucket. The result showed that loyalty has a significant effect on profitability either directly or indirectly. It was concluded that direct loyalty effect on profitability is lower than that of the indirect effect through bucket. The conclusion could be made by analyzing the available data from personal loan customers in one of the biggest multinational bank in indonesia during October 2010 until March 2011.

  8. On detection and assessment of statistical significance of Genomic Islands

    Chaudhuri Probal


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the available methods for detecting Genomic Islands (GIs in prokaryotic genomes use markers such as transposons, proximal tRNAs, flanking repeats etc., or they use other supervised techniques requiring training datasets. Most of these methods are primarily based on the biases in GC content or codon and amino acid usage of the islands. However, these methods either do not use any formal statistical test of significance or use statistical tests for which the critical values and the P-values are not adequately justified. We propose a method, which is unsupervised in nature and uses Monte-Carlo statistical tests based on randomly selected segments of a chromosome. Such tests are supported by precise statistical distribution theory, and consequently, the resulting P-values are quite reliable for making the decision. Results Our algorithm (named Design-Island, an acronym for Detection of Statistically Significant Genomic Island runs in two phases. Some 'putative GIs' are identified in the first phase, and those are refined into smaller segments containing horizontally acquired genes in the refinement phase. This method is applied to Salmonella typhi CT18 genome leading to the discovery of several new pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and metabolic islands that were missed by earlier methods. Many of these islands contain mobile genetic elements like phage-mediated genes, transposons, integrase and IS elements confirming their horizontal acquirement. Conclusion The proposed method is based on statistical tests supported by precise distribution theory and reliable P-values along with a technique for visualizing statistically significant islands. The performance of our method is better than many other well known methods in terms of their sensitivity and accuracy, and in terms of specificity, it is comparable to other methods.

  9. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya


    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  10. 基于压缩感知/重采样的NMR噪声抑制新方法%A Compressed Sensing and Resampling Based Noise Suppression Method for NMR

    聂莉莎; 蒋滨; 张许; 刘买利


    发展高灵敏检测方法是分析化学的永恒主题之一,提高信号强度和降低噪声水平是增强灵敏度的根本途径。在核磁共振波谱(NMR)分析中,通常采用高磁场强度的谱仪或复杂的脉冲实验方法来提高信号强度,或通过使用超低温探头来降低噪声水平,但这无疑会提高实验成本或增加实验难度。相较而言,利用数据后处理方法辨识和抑制噪声,是更为经济的提高信噪比(SNR)的途径。因此,该文在前期研究中发展的基于统计学中重采样原理的数据后处理方法(NASR)的基础上,通过引入压缩感知(CS)技术,对重采样方法进行了优化改进,所发展的NMR数据处理新方法(CS_NASR)可有效排除主观因素影响,提高处理结果的鲁棒性。%Sensitivity enhancement is an everlasting topic in analytical chemistry, for which the two most common approaches are signal enhancing and noise suppressing. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, signal enhancement can be achieved by utilizing high field spectrometers, cryogenic probes and/or using sophisticated pulse sequences. However, these approaches are often associated with dramatically increased cost. The other way to enhance sensitivity is to de-noise the data by post-processing, which is obviously more cost-effective and attractive. Based on the statistical resampling principle, we previously developed an NMR data post-processing method named NASR (An Effective Approach for Simultaneous Noise and Artifact Suppression in NMR Spectroscopy), which is effective to reduce unwanted noises and suppress artifacts in one-dimensional and multiple-dimensional NMR experiments. In practice, however, the optimal parameter setting for NASR is often difficult to achieve. In this study, compressed sensing (CS) was incorporated into the original NASR approach, resulting in a novel and robust noise suppression method for NMR experiments (CS_NASR), in which the subjective factors of the handlers are negligible.

  11. A method of detecting re-sampling based on expectation maximization applied in audio blind forensics%音频盲取证中一种基于EM的重采样检测方法

    陈雁翔; 吴玺


    盲取证指针对篡改信号无需添加任何附加信息就可鉴别出信号的真伪,而音频篡改中篡改者经常利用重采样以达到更好的篡改效果,因此重采样检测作为音频盲取证的重要组成部分得到了高度的重视.对信号的重采样会引入相关性,这种相关性是周期出现的,本文通过基于期望最大化的检测方法揭示这种相关性,并通过判断这种相关性是否呈现周期性达到检测目的.在检测流程中采取了奇异防止、低频段去除、归一化三阶原点矩等措施,达到了更好的检测效果.实验验证了该方法对于各种插值函数的鲁棒性,以及不同重采样率下和音频拼接篡改时检测的有效性.%Blind forensics can discriminate such tampered signal without any additional information. During the audio tampering tampers often use re-sampling to achieve better results, thus re-sampling detection obtained the high value as an important aspect of blind forensics. Re-sampling will introduce correlation and this relationship is often periodic. We use method based on Expectation Maximization to reveal the correlation and reach the purpose of detection by checking whether the correlation is periodic. To achieve better effect, we also take the steps of singularity prevention, low-band elimination and normalized 3-order origin moment. The experiment results show the robustness of interpolating functions, and the validity of detection under different re-sampling rates as well as during splice tampering.

  12. Significance and importance: some common misapprehensions about statistics

    Currey, John; Paul D Baxter; Pitchford, Jonathan W


    Abstract This paper attempts to discuss, in a readily understandable way, some very common misapprehensions that occur in laboratory-based scientists? thinking about statistics. We deal mainly with three issues 1) P-values are best thought of as merely guides to action: are your experimental data consistent with your null hypothesis, or not.? 2) When confronted with statistically non-significant results, you should also think about the power of the statistical test jdc1@york....

  13. Performance and clinical significance of direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing on urine from hospitalized patients

    Breteler, K.B.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Verkaart, G.; Sturm, P.D.J.


    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections in the community and the hospital. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, specifically in the Gram-negative uropathogens, reliable, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility data would be useful to guide antimicrobial treatment. Direct an

  14. A fast statistical significance test for baseline correction and comparative analysis in phase locking

    Kunjan Dinesh Rana


    Full Text Available Human perception, cognition, and action are supported by a complex network of interconnected brain regions. There is an increasing interest in measuring and characterizing these networks as a function of time and frequency, and inter-areal phase locking is often used to reveal these networks. This measure assesses the consistency of phase angles between the electrophysiological activity in two areas at a specific time and frequency. Noninvasively, the signals from which phase locking is computed can be measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG. However, due to the lack of spatial specificity of reconstructed source signals in MEG and EEG, inter-areal phase locking may be confounded by false positives resulting from crosstalk. Traditional phase locking estimates assume that no phase locking exists when the distribution of phase angles is uniform. However, this conjecture is not true when crosstalk is present. We propose a novel method to improve the reliability of the phase-locking measure by sampling phase angles from a baseline, such as from a prestimulus period or from resting-state data, and by contrasting this distribution against one observed during the time period of interest.

  15. Significance tests for the relationship between "El Niño" phenomenon and precipitation in Mexico



    Describimos el comportamiento estadístico de la significancia de las diferencias en la precipitación en México durante la presencia de El Niño , La Niña o condiciones neutrales. La principal diferencia con otros trabajos similares es el análisis de significancia estadística de las diferencias en la precipitación entre diferentes condiciones del fenómeno El Niño - Oscilación del Sur (ENOS). El análisis se llevó a cabo para la estación húmeda (junio, julio, agosto y septiembre), la estación ...

  16. Evolutionary significance of phenotypic accommodation in novel environments: an empirical test of the Baldwin effect

    Alexander V Badyaev


    ... (later termed the Baldwin effect) by which non-heritable developmental accommodation of novel inputs, which makes an organism fit in its current environment, can become internalized in a lineage and affect the course of evolution...

  17. Performance and clinical significance of direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing on urine from hospitalized patients

    Breteler, K.B.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Verkaart, G.; Sturm, P.D.J.


    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections in the community and the hospital. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, specifically in the Gram-negative uropathogens, reliable, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility data would be useful to guide antimicrobial treatment. Direct an

  18. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    Hulsen, T.; Vlieg, J. de; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Groenen, P.M.


    BACKGROUND: In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical s

  19. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    Hulsen, T.; Vlieg, de J.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Groenen, P.


    Background - In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical

  20. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  1. Fair Testing


    We investigate the notion of fair testing, a formal testing theory in the style of De Nicola and Hennessy where divergences are disregarded as long as there are visible outgoing transitions. The usual testing theories, such as the standard model of failure pre-order, do not allow such fair interpretations because of the way in which they ensure their compositionality with respect to abstraction from observable actions. This feature is usually present in the form of a hiding-operator (CSP, ACP...

  2. test title


    Realistic replication of such attacks is necessary to thoroughly test detection and defense mechanisms. The common response to this risk is to...particular user, desired behavior may be to deny service or disrupt connectivity in the experimental network, to test a new worm or to maintain some...scripting environment whose syntax enables specification of control flows that depend on controlled program outputs, thus automating system testing

  3. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)


    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  4. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Lusso Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  5. Significance of Jane Eyre' s Independence



    Jane Eyre, by far the best known of Charlotte Bronte' s literary production, published 1847. Jane, the heroine, a governess's rebelliousness, her hate ot servility, her insistence on equality with her master, and her declaration that she has a right to feelings and passions that impresses me most. This paper, from what Jane Eyre experiences and what she thinks about the happenings, analyses Jane Eyreg independent characters and spirits in five segments each with its own setting: Gateshead, Lowood, Thnmfield, Moor House, Femdean, points out the significance of Jane Eyre's independence in her ages.

  6. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivaties in perfumes

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus


    in perfumes/aftershaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. RESULTS: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. CONCLUSIONS: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization....

  7. Significance of Conflict Talk in interpersonal Relationships

    柯建华; 罗丹


    Conflict talks occur in almost every field of human life such as medicine, school, court, and some other social organizations where the interaction results are of much significance to the conversationalists, or in others words, to their status in the organization and honor in the society. A lot of conflicts go unresolved. Oppositional exchanges in a conflict may be used by participants to achieve certain goals, for instance, exploring and developing verbal skills as candidates in a debate competition do, and maintaining social hierarchies within groups or organizations such as leaders giving orders in an institution. Dealing with conflict helps to promote interpersonal relationships.

  8. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism



    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  9. IQ testing

    ... Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales Differential Ability Scales Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Functioning abilities that are measured by these tests ...

  10. Significance and popularity in music production

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio


    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  11. Significance and popularity in music production.

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio


    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.


    Douglas Batista Mazzinghy


    Full Text Available The mining industry is famous for many paradigms regarding different flowsheet designs and the use of new technologies and equipment. In this context, a question often performed to process engineers is: what grinding circuit is more efficient, the direct or the reverse? A precise answer could only be given by experimental data and simulations. Simulations were performed using ModSimTM software considering parameters obtained by batch mill tests of an iron ore sample. The simulations, preliminarily, indicated no significant differences between the two circuit configurations for the sample tested. Subsequently, tests were conducted on a pilot scale with detailed measurement of all the variables necessary for a correct interpretation of the differences between the direct and reverse circuits. The test results confirmed the prediction obtained by simulation. This work provides the basis to test other ores and to understanding better the real differences between grinding circuit configurations. Thus, it is expected that some myths of the mineral industry, with respect to flowsheet choices, are overcome.

  13. Pregnancy test

    ... called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of ... A pregnancy test is done using blood or urine. There are 2 types of ... how much HCG is present The blood test is done by drawing ...

  14. Iron Test

    ... as: Serum Iron; Serum Fe Formal name: Iron, serum Related tests: Ferritin ; TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Reticulocyte Count ; Zinc Protoporphyrin ; Iron Tests ; Soluble Transferrin Receptor ... I should know? How is it used? Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) , and/or ...

  15. Nationale test

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Puck, Morten Rasmus

    Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Det er lærerne og skolelederne enige om. Men særligt skolelederne ser også muligheder for at bruge testen til at få viden om elevernes faglige kompetencer og om undervisningen. Det kommer til udtryk i rapporten Nationale test: Danske lærere...

  16. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Karabasil Neđeljko


    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  17. Urban building recognition during significant temporal variations

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


    In literature, existing researches on building recognition mainly concentrate on scales, rotations, and viewpoints variance. In urban environment, large temporal variations of weather and lighting conditions should also be considered as major challenges for robust recognition. For instances......, there are differences between images captured during daytime and nighttime, especially significant changes in building appearances between seasons because of the differences in light setting. To date, these large temporal variation issues have not been fully investigated. In this paper, we therefore focus...... on constructing a system that deals with the temporal difference factors in recognizing urban buildings. In order to build such a system, two main criteria are raised, namely the efficiency of the recognition algorithm and the speed for interactive search purpose. For recognition purpose, we exploit the MOPS...

  18. The origins and significance of contemporary terrorism

    Cooper, B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)


    Terrorism has been the subject of many presidential and prime ministerial statements over the years. Sixteen weeks before the attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon, the American Secretary of State, referred to a report that indicated an 8 per cent increase in international terrorist attacks during year 2000 and stated that terrorism shows the dark side of globalization. Of the 423 recorded attacks, 200 were directed against the United States. This paper emphasizes three points to understand the significance of terrorism. First, it is necessary to understand the context within which terrorist acts are carried out, namely the modern world in its spiritual and its material dimensions. It is also necessary to understand the direction and trajectory of recent trends in terrorism and what can be done to stop it. 97 refs.

  19. Human error: A significant information security issue

    Banks, W.W.


    One of the major threats to information security human error is often ignored or dismissed with statements such as {open_quotes}There is not much we can do about it.{close_quotes} This type of thinking runs counter to reality because studies have shown that, of all systems threats, human error has the highest probability of occurring and that, with professional assistance, human errors can be prevented or significantly reduced Security analysts often overlook human error as a major threat; however, other professionals such as human factors engineers are trained to deal with these probabilistic occurrences and mitigate them. In a recent study 55% of the respondents surveyed considered human error as the most important security threat. Documentation exists to show that human error was a major cause of the consequences suffered at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Bhopal, and the Exxon tanker, Valdez. Ironically, causes of human error can usually be quickly and easily eliminated.


    Elena RUSE


    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  1. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing


    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CNOOC Sales Revenues Rise Significantly in 2008


    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC),the country's third largest oil and gas producer,saw its full year sales revenues of 2008 rose 22.4 percent from a year ago to 98.3 billion yuan (US$14.37 billion).By the end of 2008,the total assets of the company were 428.5 billion yuan,up 267 percent from five years earlier.The company's listed ann CNOOC Ltd.said in mid-January it planed to lift its 2009 crude and gas production by 16 percent to 18 percent,as some significant projects are expected to come online this year.Total production will be 225 million to 231 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE),compared with the estimated production of 194 million to 196 million BOE for 2008.

  3. On Imaginative Criminology and Its Significance

    Jon Frauley


    Full Text Available In growing numbers criminologists are discovering the value of imaginative and creative approaches for enquiry. There is now a critical mass of criminological work that engages substantively and theoretically with cultural artefacts such as film, fiction, music, dance, art, photography and cultural institutions. In doing so these works highlight criminology’s persistent epistemological and methodological weaknesses. The broad and fragmented “imaginative criminology” movement offers a challenge to an orthodox criminology that is guided by the coercive and constraining bureaucratic categories of criminal justice administration and the criminal law. Imaginative criminology displaces these as the governing categories of criminological thought and practice. Drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Louis Althusser, and C. Wright Mills this paper considers the movement’s epistemological significance and the challenge posed to criminological orthodoxy.

  4. [Pathogenesis and significance of diabetic dyslipidemia].

    Zeman, M; Zák, A


    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at the higher risk of development of on arteriosclerosis based cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that diabetic dislipidemia with hypertriglyceridemia, presence of small dense LDL subfraction, low concentration of HDL-cholesterol and increased postprandial lipemia can represent a serious threat. Several studies have found significant decrease of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after a treatment of diabetic dislipidemia, namely by statins and fibrates. Contemporary therapeutic algorhithms of European and American professional societies for the hyperlipidemia treatment classify diabetes mellitus as an equivalent of already developed complication of atherosclerosis. Our article presents pathophysiology of the diabetic dislipidemia, recommended target values of pasma lipids in diabetic patients and an overview of present possibilities of pharmacotherapy of the diabetic dislipidemia.

  5. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter



    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  6. Biotechnological significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

    Camacho, F Garcia; Rodríguez, J Gallardo; Mirón, A Sánchez; García, M C Cerón; Belarbi, E H; Chisti, Y; Grima, E Molina


    Dinoflagellates are microalgae that are associated with the production of many marine toxins. These toxins poison fish, other wildlife and humans. Dinoflagellate-associated human poisonings include paralytic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and ciguatera fish poisoning. Dinoflagellate toxins and bioactives are of increasing interest because of their commercial impact, influence on safety of seafood, and potential medical and other applications. This review discusses biotechnological methods of identifying toxic dinoflagellates and detecting their toxins. Potential applications of the toxins are discussed. A lack of sufficient quantities of toxins for investigational purposes remains a significant limitation. Producing quantities of dinoflagellate bioactives requires an ability to mass culture them. Considerations relating to bioreactor culture of generally fragile and slow-growing dinoflagellates are discussed. Production and processing of dinoflagellates to extract bioactives, require attention to biosafety considerations as outlined in this review.

  7. Vitronectin significantly influences prognosis in osteosarcoma.

    Shi, Kai; Lan, Rui-Long; Tao, Xuan; Wu, Chao-Yang; Hong, Hai-Feng; Lin, Jian-Hua


    Vitronectin (Vn), a multifunctional adhesive protein, is found in association with tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis in a variety of (human) tumors. But no studies concerning its correlation to osteosarcoma prognosis were found. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Vitronectin (Vn) in osteosarcoma. Here, we studied the expression of VN in the tumor tissues from 67 patients with osteosarcoma and 20 patients with osteochondroma using immunohistochemistry and estimated the effects of VN expression in osteosarcoma on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier curve and COX proportional hazards regression model. Increased expression of VN in osteosarcoma tissue compared to no VN expression in osteochondroma tissue was shown in immunohistochemical assay. No associations were observed between VN expression and osteosarcoma patients' gender (P = 0.675), age (P = 0.813), tumor size (P = 0.436), histologic subtype (P = 0.0.543) or tumor location (P = 0.456). Univariate survival analysis demonstrated significant correlations of high VN expression with shorter PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.001); multivariate survival analysis revealed high VN expression as a significant independent prognostic indicator for shorter PFS (HR 2.788, P = 0.003) and OS (HR2.817, P = 0.003). In conclusion, the high expression of VN in tumor cells independently indicated poor clinical prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma, other than large tumor size and non-neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, suggesting that VN may serve as a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.

  8. Immunophenotyping in leukemia and its diagnostic significance

    S. B. Kresno


    Full Text Available The identification of cell surface markers, defined as clusters of differentiation antigens (CD’s could be used to classify and sub-classify leukemia. Although the same antigens are expressed on normal cells, the phenotype on malignant cells are aberrantly and frequently asynchronously expressed and may be present in combinations not observed in normal blood or bone marrow. Aberrant expression of surface antigens corresponds with poor therapeutic response and short survival. Additional surface marker analysis complementary to morphologic evaluation and cytochemical staining has greatly improved our ability to characterize hematologic malignancies. A review and illustration on the diagnostic significance of immunophenotyping in leukemia will be presented. Data from 225 patients having complete assessments including morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping in the period of 1994-2001 were collected and analyzed. Based on morphologic evaluation and cytochemistry, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia were established in 51.1% and 48.9% of cases, respectively. Based on immunophenotyping AML was found in 49.0% of the cases. ALL could be classified into 4.9% pre-B-ALL, 18.7% B-ALL, and 14.7% T-ALL. Cases expressing cross-lineage antigens were found in 12.7%. The prognostic significance of these aberrant expression of antigens for those cases has yet to be established but some of the cases responded poorly to therapy. Immunophenotyping provides the tool to: 1 distinguish normal from clonal populations of leukemic cells; 2 define lineage and reveal the stage of maturation; 3 identify inappropriate expression of lineage associated antigens; 4 provides more informations to establish diagnosis and prognosis compared to standard methods. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 195-202 Keywords: Immunophenotyping, clusters of differentiation antigens, lineage associated antigens

  9. The significance of the integumentary profile.

    Satravaha, S; Schlegel, K D


    Profile analysis was performed on 180 Thai female subjects with ages ranging from 16 to 21 years. Seventy were of Chinese origin. The determination of the profile analysis mean values was based on the methods of Schwarz, Subtelny, Ricketts, Burstone, and Schwartz. The results were compared to Caucasian standards and to the findings of our previous study on a Javanese population. For the profile forms, our investigated groups showed mainly prognathic faces (75% to 84%). A "shift backward" profile flow dominated. We found a "prognathic face" combined with a "shift backward" in 50% to 60% of the Asian subjects analyzed. Our soft-tissue profile results (approximately 165 +/- 6 degrees) showed less convexity than that of the Caucasians and there was no significant difference in overall profile between the 2 Thai groups (approximately 134 +/- 5 degrees); this is in the range given by Subtelny (141 degrees to 131 degrees) except for that of the Javanese subjects. For the lip analysis, we listed a posterior position or a lip position upon the esthetic line between 60% to 70% of both Thai groups with respect to the upper lip and only 28% to 33% for the lower lip. The Javanese group, however, showed 90% anterior position of the upper lip and 93% of the lower lip to this line. It is significant that proper blending of the integumentary profile produces an esthetically pleasing face and this varies in different ethnic groups. A good combination could even make a "prognathic face shift backward" very acceptable as illustrated by a profile analysis of Miss Thailand, 1984.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions.

    Grant, Adam M


    Does task significance increase job performance? Correlational designs and confounded manipulations have prevented researchers from assessing the causal impact of task significance on job performance. To address this gap, 3 field experiments examined the performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance. In Experiment 1, fundraising callers who received a task significance intervention increased their levels of job performance relative to callers in 2 other conditions and to their own prior performance. In Experiment 2, task significance increased the job dedication and helping behavior of lifeguards, and these effects were mediated by increases in perceptions of social impact and social worth. In Experiment 3, conscientiousness and prosocial values moderated the effects of task significance on the performance of new fundraising callers. The results provide fresh insights into the effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance, offering noteworthy implications for theory, research, and practice on job design, social information processing, and work motivation and performance.

  11. Significance of perfectionism in understanding different forms of insomnia

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja


    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies consistently show a connection between perfectionism as a multidimensional construct with various psychological and psychopathological states and characteristics. However, studies that analyze the connection between this concept and sleep disturbances, especially modalities of insomnia, are rare. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine whether dimensions of perfectionism can explain different forms of insomnia; difficulties initiating sleep (insomnia early, difficulties during the sleep (insomnia middle, waking in early hours of the morning (insomnia late and dissatisfaction with sleep quality (subjective insomnia. Methods. The sample consisted of 254 students of the School of Medicine in Belgrade. Predictive significance of nine perfectionism dimensions, measured by Frost’s and Hewitt’s and Flett’s scales of multi-dimensional perfectionism, related to four modalities of insomnia, measured by a structured questionnaire, was analyzed by multiple linear regression method. Results. Perfectionism dimensions are significant predictors of each of the tested forms of insomnia. Doubt about actions significantly predicts initial insomnia; to other-oriented perfectionism in the negative pole and socially prescribed perfectionism underlie the difficulties during the sleep, while organization and parental criticism underlie late insomnia. Significant predictors of subjective insomnia are personal standards and organization and to other-oriented perfectionism on the negative pole. Three of nine analyzed dimensions were not confirmed as significant; concern over mistakes, parental expectations and self-oriented perfectionism. Conclusion. Various aspects of perfectionism can be considered as a vulnerability factor for understanding some forms of insomnia. Out of all forms of insomnia tested, perfectionism as the personality trait proved to be the most significant for understanding subjective insomnia.

  12. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Quinn, Patrick D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda


    Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests administered in the context of low-stakes research situations. Specifically, we completed a meta-analysis of random-assignment experiments testing the effects of material incentives on intelligence-test performance on a collective 2,008 participants. Incentives increased IQ scores by an average of 0.64 SD, with larger effects for individuals with lower baseline IQ scores. Second, we tested whether individual differences in motivation during IQ testing can spuriously inflate the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. Trained observers rated test motivation among 251 adolescent boys completing intelligence tests using a 15-min “thin-slice” video sample. IQ score predicted life outcomes, including academic performance in adolescence and criminal convictions, employment, and years of education in early adulthood. After adjusting for the influence of test motivation, however, the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes was significantly diminished, particularly for nonacademic outcomes. Collectively, our findings suggest that, under low-stakes research conditions, some individuals try harder than others, and, in this context, test motivation can act as a third-variable confound that inflates estimates of the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. PMID:21518867

  13. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura.

    Stephenson, L S; Holland, C V; Cooper, E S


    An estimated 1049 million persons harbour T. trichiura, including 114 million preschool-age children and 233 million school-age children. The prevalence of T. trichiura is high and may reach 95% in children in many parts of the world where protein energy malnutrition and anaemias are also prevalent and access to medical care and educational opportunities is often limited. The Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) associated with heavy T. trichiura, which includes chronic dysentery, rectal prolapse, anaemia, poor growth, and clubbing of the fingers constitutes an important public health problem, as do lighter but still heavy infections, even if not strictly TDS, especially in children. The profound growth stunting in TDS can be reversed by repeated treatment for the infection and, initially, oral iron. However findings from Jamaica strongly suggest that the significant developmental and cognitive deficits seen are unlikely to disappear without increasing the positive psychological stimulation in the child's environment. The severe stunting in TDS now appears likely to be a reaction at least in part to a chronic inflammatory response and concomitant decreases in plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa and peripheral blood (which likely decrease appetite and intake of all nutrients) and a decrease in collagen synthesis. Improvements in cognitive performance have been found after treatment for relatively heavy infections (without chronic dysentery) in school-going children; it is unclear precisely how much T. trichiura interferes with children's ability to access educational opportunities, but treatment of infections whenever possible is obviously sensible. The blood loss that can occur in T. trichiura infection is likely to contribute to anaemia, particularly if the child also harbours hookworm, malaria and/or has a low intake of dietary iron. Community control is

  14. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold


    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing


    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  16. [The significance of meat quality in marketing].

    Kallweit, E


    Food quality in general and meat quality in particular are not only evaluated by means of objective quality traits but the entire production process is gaining more attention by the modern consumer. Due to this development quality programs were developed to define the majority of the processes in all production and marketing steps which are again linked by contracts. Not all of these items are quality relevant, but are concessions to ethic principles (animal welfare etc.). This is demonstrated by the example of Scharrel-pork production. The price differentiation at the pork market is still influenced predominantly by quantitative carcass traits. On the European market quality programs still are of minor significance. Premiums which are paid for high quality standards are more or less compensated by higher production costs and lower lean meat percentages, which must be expected in stress susceptible strains. The high efforts to establish quality programs, however, help to improve the quality level in general, and secure the market shares for local producers.

  17. Novalike Cataclysmic Variables are Significant Radio Emitters

    Coppejans, Deanne L; Miller-Jones, James C A; Rupen, Michael P; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Groot, Paul J


    Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a VLA pilot survey of four close and optically-bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. RW Sex, V603 Aql and the old nova TT Ari were detected in both of the epochs, while V1084 Her was not detected (to a $3\\sigma$ upper-limit of 7.8 $\\mu\\rm{Jy}\\,\\rm{beam}^{-1}$). These observations clearly show that the sensitivity of previous surveys was typically too low to detect these objects and that non-magnetic CVs can indeed be significant radio emitters. The three detected sources show a range of properties, including flaring and variability on both short ($\\sim$200 s) and longer-term (days) time-scales, as well as circular polarization level...

  18. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    Mikito; Inokuchi; Sho; Otsuki; Yoshitaka; Fujimori; Yuya; Sato; Masatoshi; Nakagawa; Kazuyuki; Kojima


    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer(GC),although outcomes remain unfavorable.Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed,and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC.Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor,c-MET(MET),play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells.Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC.This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC.Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or smallmolecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells.These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC.

  19. The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel


    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology).


    F Z Zangeneh


    Full Text Available "nPsoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious skin condition characterized by inflamed and scaly lesions of skin. Whilst the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not known, psychological stress has been implicated as a potential trigger in the onset and exacerbation of the condition. Psychiatric and psychological factors play an important role in at least 30% of dermatologic disorder and pathophysiologic link between psychological stress (PS and disease expression remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated PS-induced alterations in permeability barrier homeostasis, mediated by increased endogenous glucocorticoids. As activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA is critical to a successful stress response, we investigated this in patients with psoriasis. This study was performed on 55 patients (40 females and 15 males visited our clinic for treatment of psoriasis in pharmacology department. We measured the rate of activation of HPA by hormonal changes. These patients displayed higher fasting blood sugar (FBS, epinephrine (Ep, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, aldosterone, prolactin, growth hormone and estradiol hormones value but diminished cortisol and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF. These results show that HPA and psychoneuroendocrine hormones have a significant role in psoriasis.

  1. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others


    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  2. Object caching in corvids: incidence and significance.

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena; Mioduszewska, Berenika; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex


    Food caching is a paramount model for studying relations between cognition, brain organisation and ecology in corvids. In contrast, behaviour towards inedible objects is poorly examined and understood. We review the literature on object caching in corvids and other birds, and describe an exploratory study on object caching in ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws. The captive adult birds were presented with an identical set of novel objects adjacent to food. All three species cached objects, which shows the behaviour not to be restricted to juveniles, food cachers, tool-users or individuals deprived of cacheable food. The pattern of object interaction and caching did not mirror the incidence of food caching: the intensely food caching ravens indeed showed highest object caching incidence, but the rarely food caching jackdaws cached objects to similar extent as the moderate food caching New Caledonian crows. Ravens and jackdaws preferred objects with greater sphericity, but New Caledonian crows preferred stick-like objects (similar to tools). We suggest that the observed object caching might have been expressions of exploration or play, and deserves being studied in its own right because of its potential significance for tool-related behaviour and learning, rather than as an over-spill from food-caching research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala


    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  4. Significance of duon mutations in cancer genomes

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Smith, Kyle S.; Flinders, Colin; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; de, Subhajyoti


    Functional mutations in coding regions not only affect the structure and function of the protein products, but may also modulate their expression in some cases. This class of mutations, recently dubbed “duon mutations” due to their dual roles, can potentially have major impacts on downstream pathways. However their significance in diseases such as cancer remain unclear. In a survey covering 4606 samples from 19 cancer types, and integrating allelic expression, overall mRNA expression, regulatory motif perturbation, and chromatin signatures in one composite index called REDACT score, we identified potential duon mutations. Several such mutations are detected in known cancer genes in multiple cancer types. For instance a potential duon mutation in TP53 is associated with increased expression of the mutant allelic gene copy, thereby possibly amplifying the functional effects on the downstream pathways. Another potential duon mutation in SF3B1 is associated with abnormal splicing and changes in angiogenesis and matrix degradation related pathways. Our findings emphasize the need to interrogate the mutations in coding regions beyond their obvious effects on protein structures.

  5. The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction.

    Biondi, Bernadette; Cooper, David S


    Subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) is defined as serum free T(4) and free T(3) levels within their respective reference ranges in the presence of abnormal serum TSH levels. SCTD is being diagnosed more frequently in clinical practice in young and middle-aged people as well as in the elderly. However, the clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction is much debated. Subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism can have repercussions on the cardiovascular system and bone, as well as on other organs and systems. However, the treatment and management of SCTD and population screening are controversial despite the potential risk of progression to overt disease, and there is no consensus on the thyroid hormone and thyrotropin cutoff values at which treatment should be contemplated. Opinions differ regarding tissue effects, symptoms, signs, and cardiovascular risk. Here, we critically review the data on the prevalence and progression of SCTD, its tissue effects, and its prognostic implications. We also examine the mechanisms underlying tissue alterations in SCTD and the effects of replacement therapy on progression and tissue parameters. Lastly, we address the issue of the need to treat slight thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in relation to the patient's age.

  6. Death, Catastrophe, and the Significance of Tragedy

    Jennifer Ballengee


    Full Text Available This NANO note will examine the tension between representation, memorial, and the catastrophe of death that emerges in the space of tragedy, as the problem arises in two quite different works: Oedipus at Colonus, a fairly typical fifth-century Greek tragedy, and Falling Man, Don DeLillo’s novel that, in its attempt to address the events of 9/11, reflects in form and subject matter many of Aristotle’s terms of tragic representation. It is not the intent of this note to engage with the recent proliferation of work in “performance theory.” Rather than being concerned with an imagined exchange between audience and actor, this study examines how the supplementary relationship of gesture and speech in tragedy disrupts the public/private distinction, and how this articulation effects and enables the public memorialization of death. Thus, this paper will consider the representation of death as an event whose catastrophic, and somewhat mysterious, collision of the public and the private lends it its tragic significance.

  7. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L


    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.


    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  9. Pseudogene redux with new biological significance.

    Salmena, Leonardo


    The study of pseudogenes, originally dismissed as genomic relics of evolutionary selection, has seen a resurgence in scientific literature, in addition to being a peculiar topic of discussion in theological debates. For a long time, pseudogenes have been touted as a beacon of natural selection and a definitive proof of evolution due to the slow mutation rate that differentiated them from their parental genes and ultimately caused their genetic demise as functional genes. It now seems that "creationists" have co-opted some recent reports identifying unheralded biological functions to pseudogens and other noncoding RNAs as evidence to undermine the existence of evolution and supporting intelligent design. This issue of Methods in Molecular Biology focused on pseudogenes will certainly not end, nor enter this debate; however, scientists who are also genomics and pseudogene enthusiasts will certainly appreciate that many scientists are thinking about these particular genetic elements in new and interesting ways. With this new interest in a biological significance and "non-junk" role for pseudogenes and other noncoding RNAs, new methods and approaches are being developed to unlock the mystery of these ancient artifacts we know as pseudogenes. In this brief introductory chapter we highlight the renewed interest in pseudogenes and review a rationale for intensification of pseudogene-related research.

  10. Augustine, his sermons, and their significance

    Johannes Van Oort


    Full Text Available Augustine’s sermons provide a unique source in explaining his influence from the 5th century onwards as a theologian and pastor, a minister of the Word preached and celebrated in the sacrament. Of particular value in this regard are his sermons on the Psalms. Issues of authenticity are also considered in this article. The influence of Augustine’s sermons was widespread through their tradition and adaptation by others. A substantial and reliable corpus of his sermons is available today. As a pastor, Augustine was anxious to challenge heresy in his preaching, especially to confront the Donatists, Manichaeans and Pelagians. His preaching is considered in the wider context of congregational worship with its origins in the synagogue. Of special importance are his preaching techniques, while his doctrine of ‘the inner teacher’ (magister interior is equally significant. Essential elements of Augustine’s theory and practice became influential in the early days of the Protestant Reformation (Luther, Calvin and others. The author briefly touches on the question of their relevance for today’s congregational worship.

  11. Significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences

    Gaur Ajay


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the molecular level in scales smaller than 1 µm, normally 1-100 nm, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components, which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control. In addition, as the need for the development of new medicines is pressing, and given the inherent nanoscale functions of the biological components of living cells, nanotechnology has been applied to diverse medical fields such as oncology, cardiovascular medicine, and in treatment of other chronic diseases. Indeed, nanotechnology is being used to refine discovery of biomarkers, molecular diagnostics, and drug discovery and drug delivery, which could be applicable to management of these patients. In this review, we will focus upon significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences, as well as the plausible side effects related to their use.

  12. Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and adaptive significance.

    Kelly, Scott A; Panhuis, Tami M; Stoehr, Andrew M


    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential adaptive significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity.

  13. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A


    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  14. Measurement and significance of sperm morphology

    Roelof Menkveld; Cas AG Holleboom; Johann PT Rhemrev


    The measurement or evaluation and clinical significance of human sperm morphology has always been and still is a controversial aspect of the semen analysis for the determination of a male's fertility potential.In this review the background of the development of the evaluation criteria for sperm morphology will be discussed.Aspects of criticism on the strict criteria definition and use of the criteria for sperm morphology evaluation will be discussed as well as possible reasons for the decline in normal sperm morphology values and how we can compromise for this phenomenon resulting in the very low normal reference value as published in the 2010 WHO manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.One of the possible solutions may be to give more attention to a limited number of abnormal sperm morphology categories and the inclusion of sperm morphology patterns.It is concluded in this review that if done correctly and with care and with strict application of existing guidelines as outlined in the 2010 WHO manual,sperm morphology measurement still has a very important role to play in the clinical evaluation of male fertility potential.

  15. Estimating Hydraulic Parameters When Poroelastic Effects Are Significant

    Berg, S.J.; Hsieh, P.A.; Illman, W.A.


    For almost 80 years, deformation-induced head changes caused by poroelastic effects have been observed during pumping tests in multilayered aquifer-aquitard systems. As water in the aquifer is released from compressive storage during pumping, the aquifer is deformed both in the horizontal and vertical directions. This deformation in the pumped aquifer causes deformation in the adjacent layers, resulting in changes in pore pressure that may produce drawdown curves that differ significantly from those predicted by traditional groundwater theory. Although these deformation-induced head changes have been analyzed in several studies by poroelasticity theory, there are at present no practical guidelines for the interpretation of pumping test data influenced by these effects. To investigate the impact that poroelastic effects during pumping tests have on the estimation of hydraulic parameters, we generate synthetic data for three different aquifer-aquitard settings using a poroelasticity model, and then analyze the synthetic data using type curves and parameter estimation techniques, both of which are based on traditional groundwater theory and do not account for poroelastic effects. Results show that even when poroelastic effects result in significant deformation-induced head changes, it is possible to obtain reasonable estimates of hydraulic parameters using methods based on traditional groundwater theory, as long as pumping is sufficiently long so that deformation-induced effects have largely dissipated. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2011 National Ground Water Association.

  16. Crowdsourcing for Usability Testing

    Liu, Di; Kuipers, Rebecca; Bias, Randolph


    While usability evaluation is critical to designing usable websites, traditional usability testing can be both expensive and time consuming. The advent of crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower offer an intriguing new avenue for performing remote usability testing with potentially many users, quick turn-around, and significant cost savings. To investigate the potential of such crowdsourced usability testing, we conducted two similar (though not completely parallel) usability studies which evaluated a graduate school's website: one via a traditional usability lab setting, and the other using crowdsourcing. While we find crowdsourcing exhibits some notable limitations in comparison to the traditional lab environment, its applicability and value for usability testing is clearly evidenced. We discuss both methodological differences for crowdsourced usability testing, as well as empirical contrasts to results from more traditional, face-to-face usability testing.

  17. Insulin Test

    ... especially as a result of taking non-human (animal or synthetic) insulin, these can interfere with insulin testing. In this case, a C-peptide may be performed as an alternative way to evaluate insulin production. Note also that ...

  18. Procalcitonin Test

    ... CRP) , cultures (e.g., blood culture , urine culture ), lactate , blood gases , complete blood count (CBC) , and cerebrospinal ... of procalcitonin can be seen with medullary thyroid cancer , but the test is not used to diagnose ...

  19. Albumin Test

    ... interfere with its production, increase protein breakdown, increase protein loss, and/or expand plasma volume (diluting the blood). Depending on the person's medical history, signs and symptoms, and physical exam, additional testing ...

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    Gilbert, George L.


    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  1. VDRL test

    ... syphilis . The bacteria that cause syphilis is called Treponema pallidum. Your health care provider may order this test ... 59. Radolf JD, Tramont EC, Salazar JC. Syphilis ( Treponema pallidum ). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  2. Lactate Test

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  3. Troponins Test

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  4. DHEAS Test

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  5. Chloride Test

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  6. PTH Test

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  7. Glucose Tests

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  8. PTT Test

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  9. Rubella Test

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  10. Tests computarizados

    R. Fernando Prialé Z.


    Full Text Available En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT.   The impact of microcomputers is discussed as a cultural fact that will bring profound changes in the near future: a society with an ubiquous capacity for treating big amounts of information. The importance of tests for the development of psychology is then analysed. Finaly, the possibility of applying microcomputers to psychometry is discussed trough a concrete example: The BARSIT test.

  11. RPR test

    ... may cause a false-positive test, including: IV drug use Lyme disease Certain types of pneumonia Malaria Pregnancy Systemic lupus erythematosus and some other autoimmune disorders Tuberculosis (TB)

  12. Magnesium Test

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Magnesium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Mg; Mag Formal name: Magnesium Related tests: Calcium , Potassium , Phosphorus , PTH , Vitamin D ...

  13. Test Ship

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  14. Pap test

    ... cells - Pap; AGUS - Pap; Atypical squamous cells - Pap; HPV - Pap; Human papilloma virus - Pap cervix - Pap; Colposcopy - Pap ... test to check for the presence of the HPV virus types most likely to cause cancer Cervix cryosurgery- ...

  15. Test report :

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.


    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  16. Cholesterol Test

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  17. Antithrombin Test

    ... Homocysteine ; Lupus Anticoagulant ; Proteins C & S ; PT ; PT 20210 ; Factor V Leiden All content on Lab Tests Online has been ... such as a protein C or S deficiency , a factor V leiden mutation , or oral contraceptive use, then the person ...

  18. Knowledge Test

    Sørensen, Ole Henning


    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  19. Test report :

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.


    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

  20. Triglycerides Test

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Triglycerides Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: TG; TRIG Formal name: Triglycerides Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct ...