WorldWideScience

Sample records for requiring environmental protection

  1. The Property Right and the Requirements of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental protection has lately become an essential component of the concept of sustainable development, along with the economic, social and cultural components. Being an objective of public interest, the environmental protection and conservation are essential to ensure the habitat necessary for continuing the human existence. Considering this aspect, the limitation of ownership required by certain laws has both a social and moral justification, the environmental protection having a direct link with the level of public health, which is a value of national interest. The legal limits of the ownership are restrictions brought by the law, considering aspects regarding the general interest of society. In this article we intend to emphasize, on the analysis and comparison of legislation and case law, the nature of the relationship between ownership of property and environmental rights, as well as the limitations of property rights in favor of environmental protection. As a conclusion, the environmental easements meet a wide national and international recognition and guarantee, the holder of the property having to exercise it in the interest of the whole community, including the protection and conservation of the environment. At the same time, we must consider that the right to property and environment are fundamental rights guaranteed by the Romanian Constitution itself, which makes us conclude that they converge and mutually enrich across the fundamental duties as well.

  2. Review of orders and regulations requiring environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.; Cunningham, R.; Michael, D.

    1996-01-01

    With the increased awareness of and interest in potential ecological risks associated with past, current, and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities, DOE's Defense Programs (DP) Office of Technical and Environmental Support sponsored a study to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the current compliance-driven environmental protection and assessment efforts relative to ecological concerns; (2) explore the need for a more focused, integrated approach to address ecological impacts; and (3) identify the requirements for an integrated approach. The study explored four questions. (a) Which federal regulations and DOE orders either explicitly require ecological assessments or implicitly require them through environmental protection language? (b) What currently is being done at selected DOE facilities to implement these regulations and orders? (c) What are private sector industries doing in terms of ecological risk assessments and how do industry approaches and issues compare with those of DOE? (d) What, if anything, in addition to current efforts is needed to ensure the protection of ecological resources associated with DOE facilities, to support defensible decision making, and to improve efficiency? The results of this study are presented in a report titled open-quotes Integrated, Comprehensive Ecological Impact Assessments In Support of Department of Energy Decision Makingclose quotes. This report is a companion document to that report. This report provides a more detailed discussion of the document reviews of the relevant environmental protection regulations and current and pending DOE orders. The main goal of the document reviews was to understand existing requirements for ecological data collection and impact assessments

  3. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  4. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137 Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  6. Meeting United States re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection using innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    Procedure for meeting re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection and an overview of several new and emerging technologies regarding the development of ways to prevent fish passage through hydraulic turbines at hydroelectric power dams is described. Fish mortality and injury has long been a concern in the hydroelectric industry and research and development efforts have been ongoing since the 1970s to prevent fish passage through turbines. Several new and emerging technologies are examined that have the potential for wide-spread cost-effective applications

  7. Environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable

  8. 75 FR 80287 - Environmental Protection Agency Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... of omnibus drug legislation on November 18, 1988. Federal agencies issued an interim final common...; FRL- 9242-2] Environmental Protection Agency Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace... Protection Agency is removing its regulation implementing the Governmentwide common rule on drug-free...

  9. Environmental protection economically viable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartsch, B.; Hildebrandt, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Technology Forum for Industry and Research (Utech) was held for the fifth time this year at the International Congress Centre in Berlin. The main themes of this year's Utech were additive environmental protection, production-integrated environmental protection, management and economic aspects of environmental protection, research and development in environmental protection as well as environmental information legislation. (orig.) [de

  10. [High voltage objects and radiocommunication investments in view of requirements of the environmental protection act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, Marek

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the most important elements of the localization procedure of high voltage overhead lines and substations and radiocommunication objects which are the source of electromagnetic fields. These fields are perceived as a major threat to human health. The point of departure to make a choice of investments is the special classification of technical installations described in one of the executive directive issued by virtue of the Environmental Protection Act. This special executive directive enumerates a lot of technical objects (installation), classified in the group of investments which have significant impact on the environment and some objects which could be classified in this group. For all this technical installations (e.g., overhead high voltage power lines) the provisions of the Environmental Protection Act impose an obligation to take particular steps to assure transparency of the environmental protection procedures, transborder procedures and the protection of areas included in the Natura 2000 network.

  11. 32 CFR Enclosure 2 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a serious public health risk; or (2) a physical project that is prohibited or strictly regulated in... of global importance designated for protection by the President or, in the case of such a resource... studies—bilateral or multilateral environmental studies, relevant or related to the proposed action, by...

  12. Environmental research and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry for Research and Technology, the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen' (AGF) presented in 1972 an information brochure called 'Activities in the field of environmental research and environmental protection', closely associated with the environmental programme of the Federal government (1971). The information brochure reports on those activities of the working group's members which are closely, or less closely, connected with questions concerning environmental research and protection, however, investments for the protection of the individual facilities in internal operation are excluded. The AGF programme 'Environmental research and environmental protection' comprises contributions, brought up to date, of member companies. From the 'AGF programme survey 1974' it contains 'Environmental research' as well as aspects of nuclear development with environmental relevance. Technologies not harmful to the environment developed by the research facilities are only mentioned very briefly. (orig.) [de

  13. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    This ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities

  14. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  15. Environmental Protection Agency, Protecting Children's Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Protecting Children's Environmental Health Children are often more vulnerable to pollutants ... during development. Learn more about children's health, the environment, and what you can do. Basic Information Children ...

  16. Radiation protection in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of radiation protection with environmental protection, the sources that may give rise to the environmental radiation contamination, and the system of radiation protection and the fundamental principles and requirements for radiation environmental management are introduced. Some special radiation protection problems faced with in the radiation environmental management are discussed. (author)

  17. Radiation protection and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zi; Dong Liucan; Zhang Yongxing

    1994-01-01

    A collection of short papers is presented which review aspects of research in radiation and environmental protection carried out by the Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy in 1991. The topics covered are: the analysis of Po 210 in the gaseous effluent of coal-fired boilers; the determination of natural radionuclide levels in various industrial waste slags and management countermeasures; assessment of the collective radiation dose from natural sources for the Chinese population travelling by water; the preliminary environmental impact report for the multipurpose heavy water research reactor constructed by China for the Islamic Republic of Algeria. (UK)

  18. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all SST and DST waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm ESD implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  1. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  2. Regulatory requirements for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.A.; Cunningham, R.E.; Hard, J.E.; Mattson, R.J.; Smith, R.D.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for radiation protection have evolved and matured over several decades. Due to the wide adoption of recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), there exists international agreement on the principles to be followed for radiation protection. This foundation will be increasingly important due to the growing need for international agreements and standards for radiation protection and radioactive materials management. During the infancy of the commercial nuclear industry, primary reliance was placed on the protection of the individual, both in the work force and as a member of the public. With the growth of nuclear power in the 1960's and 1970's, environmental impact assessments and expert reviews of bio-effects data have focused attention on statistical risks to large population groups and the use of the collective dose commitment concept to estimate potential effects. The potential release of long-lived radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle requires further consideration of radionuclide accumulation in the biosphere and calls for controls conceived and implemented at the international level. The initial development efforts for addressing these concerns already have been instituted by the ICRP and the IAEA. However, formal international agreements and a unified set of international standards may be required to implement the recommendations of these groups. Further international efforts in the field of radiation protection are also called for in developing waste management practices and radioactive effluent control technology, in site selection for fuel reprocessing plants and waste dispersal facilities, and for ensuring safe transport of high-level wastes in various forms. Since the regulation of very low dose rates and doses will be involved, it will be useful to reexamine dose-effect relationships and societal goals for health protection. Improved criteria and methodologies for ''as low as readily

  3. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  4. Environmental protection at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramigk, D.; Bramigk, G.

    1989-12-01

    The primer for households clarifies in a popular scientific form, how environmental protection can be practised in the domestic family circle. It is pointed out to the fact in how for a first step to the reduction of water and energy consumption can be made through a critical self control. Important hinds are given for waste avoidance and waste reutilization. It can be achieved through information and deliberation that the environment conscious household keeps away from products and arises endangering the health and impacting the environment. (orig./BBR) [de

  5. Environmental protection and petroleum business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    This report is a summary of panel discussion concerning environmental protection and petroleum business. Summarized here are country presentations from Iraq, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela, comments by two Japanese panelists from petroleum companies, questions, answers, and discussions, and summary by the session moderator. The country presentation centered on pollution problems and environmental protection policies in each country, national policy regarding environmental problems, and comprehensive planning for environmental protection in specific industrial areas. The panelists' reports mainly concerned the legal framework for environmental protection in Japan and the importance of investment for environmental protection. Questions and answers clarified the problems. The moderator, when summarizing the panel discussion, stressed that environmental problems should be addressed on a global level and that early preventive measures should be taken, and also emphasized the polluter pays principle.

  6. GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency helps state and local governments protect the environment by encouraging good environmental management and by regulating human activities to ensure clean air and water. At the Corvallis research laboratory for the EPA, we improve the ways t...

  7. 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ... displacement and environmental protection present a vicious cycle which today has ... Thus, issues of environmental protection viz-a-viz investment and .... out the conditions for product or process standards, the use of best available ...

  8. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan

  9. 40 CFR 191.15 - Individual protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual protection requirements. 191.15 Section 191.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION... Individual protection requirements. (a) Disposal systems for waste and any associated radioactive material...

  10. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  11. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Acid rain Brownfields Drinking water Lead Mold PFAS Radon Superfund A-Z index | Browse environmental topics ... Beach Grants for Pacific Islands Territories New England PFAS Community Session, June 25 Idaho Delegated Pollutant Discharge ...

  12. Environmental Protection in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's efforts to protect human health and the environment of federally recognized Indian tribes by supporting implementation of federal environmental laws consistent with the federal trust responsibility, and the government-to-government relationship.

  13. Environmental radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, L.D.G.; Morley, F.; Kelley, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

  14. Environmental protection and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrlaender, H.

    1993-01-01

    The area 'Environmental protection and competition policy' follows the introductory guideline by Sir Leon Brittan, vice-president of the EC-Commission: 'We must seek the most market driven, dynamic approach to solutions, such that competition and technological advance bring the maximum economic and environmental benefits'. From this concrete measures are derived. (HSCH) [de

  15. Radiological protection and environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Fonseca, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the beginning of its industrial activity twenty five years ago, the Juzbado Factory of Enusa Group has always upheld a strong commitment with Radiological Protection and environmental respect and protection. Consequently, the evolution of dose shows a downward trend over the years. Although production has been increased gradually, the average doses to workers have stayed below 1 mSv. In order to identify and prevent the potential environmental impacts of its industrial activity and minimize its impact on the surroundings, the facility develops and environmental management system according to UNE-EN-ISO 14001 since 1999. (Author)

  16. 49 CFR 214.505 - Required environmental control and protection systems for new on-track roadway maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operative positive pressurized ventilation systems: (1) Ballast regulators; (2) Tampers; (3) Mechanical... or sold. (e) If the ventilation system on a new on-track roadway maintenance machine or a designated... respiratory protective equipment shall be provided for each such employee until the machine is repaired in...

  17. Environmental Protection and Value Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizah Darus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The managers of corporations can play a significant role to protect the natural environment. This study aims to examine the environmental disclosure of 200Shariah compliant companies for 2013 and the subsequent effect of such disclosure for the organizations. The results of content analyses of the annual reports revealed that managers from the Plantation industry disclosed more environmental information. The regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between environmental information provided and the subsequent value created for the organizations. The findings of the study can help managers to position better their environmental strategy to enhance the overall value of their organizations.

  18. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  19. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  20. 40 CFR 158.1300 - Environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transformation products. 7. Environmental chemistry methods used to generate data associated with this study must... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental fate data requirements table. 158.1300 Section 158.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  1. Inequality, Environmental Protection and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsiliani, L.; Renstrom, T.I.

    2000-01-01

    Why do Scandinavian countries perform better in terms of environmental protection than other European Union countries? In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that societies characterised by low income inequality (such as the nordic European countries) generate political-economic equilibria where

  2. Student Leadership Role for Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Isabel S. Ramirez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the role of student organizations in the promotion of environmental education and protection. It assessed the student organizations’ initiatives and activities that address the environmental issues and problems. It determined whether student leadership can be an effective tool in addressing environmental concerns and promote environmental education. Descriptiveevaluative methods of research were used in the study. Documentary analysis was used to determine the programs, projects and activities conducted by the different student organizations along environmental education and protection. Interview and focused group discussions were employed to validate the secondary data and identify problems and constraints encountered by the organization. Results of the study showed that the University supports student leadership through the student organizations. Student organizations are empowered and given rights and privileges’ as stipulated in the student handbook. There were more than forty accredited student organizations in CBSUA. All of them initiated programs/projects and activities that are environment related as required by the university. Student leadership through student organizations is an effective tool in promoting environmental education and protection. Student empowerment through student organizations can promote student involvement in the most pressing concerns of environment protection.

  3. ENEA's role in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The 1990-1994 Five-Year Plan of ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) stipulates that the Agency must reconcile its objectives related to energy with those related to the environment by aiming at a more efficient and rational exploitation of energy sources. This necessity has been reiterated in Italian Law 282/91 which assigns ENEA the task of providing technical and scientific support to the Ministry of the Environment. The aims, work schedule and financing of this task have been laid down in an environmental protection program whose main goals include: the protection and use rationalization of water supplies; the development of waste processing and disposal systems which incorporate energy and materials recovery systems; and the setting up of environmental monitoring networks. Within the framework of these activities, this paper reports on the management and organization aspects of five integrated projects which involve research efforts on: the reduction of the environmental impact of industrial activities; the characterization, status and dynamics of the environment; the interrelationships between environmental quality and the health of human populations; the effects of agricultural-industrial activities on global climate; the effects of human activities on the environmental quality of the Mediterranean Sea

  4. Water power and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshelm, J.

    1992-01-01

    This study illuminates the first large environmental debate after World War 2: the struggle against the harnessing of the northern Swedish rivers. The fascinating question is raised of how it was possible for an unparliamentary environmental protection movement to make itself heard, and influence the Swedish energy policy, though their arguments were contrary to the outspoken interests of the industry, the trade unions, and the social democratic government. This was the more fascinating because the values the opinion stressed wore of ethic, esthetic, biological, and conservation economical nature

  5. Electron accelerators for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide information suitable for electron accelerators implementation in facilities applying radiation technology for environmental protection. It should be noticed that radiation processing has been successfully used in the fields of crosslinking polymer curing and medical products sterilization for more than 40 years. Practical application of radiation technology today extends on SO 2 and NO x removal from the flue gas (one of major power intensive radiation processing), destruction and removal of organic chemicals from water, decreasing bacteria content in the irradiated sludge and waste water. On the other hand the increased awareness of environmental pollution hazards and more stringent waste regulations in many countries may open stronger support for environmentally oriented technologies. This publication provides an evaluation of electron accelerators capabilities in respect of environmental applications where technological and economical criteria are now well defined. In order to determine the potential of electron accelerators, the literature data were examined as well visits and meetings with various accelerator manufacturers were performed by the author. Experience of the author in accelerator facilities construction and exploitation including those which were used for environmental protection are significant part of this publication. The principle of accelerator action was described in Chapter 1. Early development, accelerator classification and fields of accelerators application were included to this chapter as well. Details of accelerator construction was described in Chapter 2 to illustrate physical capability of accelerators to perform the function of ionizing radiation source. Electron beam extraction devices, under beam equipment, electron beam parameters and measuring methods were characterized in this chapter as well. Present studies of accelerator technology was described in Chapter 3, where

  6. Environmental protection using social costing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.

    1993-01-01

    Emissions and other residual wastes come from industrial production, commercial and household activities, and transportation. These wastes damage the environment, including human health. As economies grow, so does concern about balancing that growth with the desire for environmental protection. At issue is how much environmental protection we should have. We address this issue using the concept of social costing. The issue is discussed in the context of electric power generation. There is particular concern about the use of fossil fuels such as petroleum, the major fuel used in the Republic of China, and coal which is the most common fuel used in the U. S. Electric power generation is a major source of airborne pollutants such as SO 2 , NO x particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, CO, and CO 2 . It also results in liquid and solid wastes, and other effects such as changes in land use. To generate electric power, fuel (such as petroleum, coal or enriched uranium) or some other resource (e.g., wind or geothermal) is needed. A fuel cycle consists of a sequence of activities and processes involved in generating electric power. These activities include fuel extraction, treatment and processing; fuel conversion into electricity; transmission; waste disposal; and transportation of fuel and wastes between the different stages of the fuel cycle. Each stage results in emissions or other residuals. Several recent-studies have been about the environmental costs of electricity

  7. Environmental protection and management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    In British Columbia, oil and gas activities on private or Crown land are subject to regulations in terms of environmental practices. This environmental protection and management guidebook seeks to provide information on the Oil and Gas Activities Act. All sections from the regulation: water, riparian values, wildlife and wildlife habitat, conserving soil, forest health, invasive plants, natural range barriers, seismic lines, areas to be restored and old growth management areas, resource features and cultural heritage resources, are covered in this document. The minimum acceptable operational standards and practices for oil and gas activities in British Columbia are described. This guide is intended to provide clients and stakeholders with recommendations concerning the planning phase, before any permits are applied for, and concerning permissions or authorizations generally for oil and gas activities in British Columbia.

  8. National environmental protection in the Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middeke, A.

    1994-01-01

    In consideration of the awful ecological situation, the further development of environmental protection is the task of the Community institutions and the individual member states. The environmentalists advance this improvement by increasingly setting further protectionist measures within their power, such as those already existing in other member states or those community established. The legally motivated environment protection measures of individual member states could create a non-tariff trade barrier between member states; business and industry situated there must adapted to the environmental conditions of the particular member state, if they wish to launch their product in that state. These safeguard clauses, concerning environmental law are of different nature, are thoroughly analysed and systematized by the author. The thesis gives priority to Article 100A, paragraph 4 and 5, and to Article 130T or 130R, paragraph 2, subparagraph 2, which has recently been introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht for the European Union. These articles are represented concerning their substantive and adjective requirements and are critically reviewed. Problems that have arisen in the course of the review are dealt with dogmatically and are discussed at length. The problems of national discrimination and the consideration of fundamental rights in the Community law are treated as well as the mixture of competences in the environmental law of the Community or the options on legal protection against national environmental acts, which can be made use of by Community institutions and by member states. (orig./HP) [de

  9. EG and G Idaho Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the EG G Idaho strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.1. Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy--Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG G Idaho program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG G organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. EG and G Idaho Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the EG G Idaho, Inc. strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.1. Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy -- Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG G Idaho Program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG G Idaho organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. EG and G Idaho Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.1. Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy -- Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG ampersand G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG ampersand G Idaho Program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG ampersand G Idaho organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. EG and G Idaho environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, R.C.

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the EG ampersand G Idaho strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.0 Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy -- Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG ampersand G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG ampersand G Idaho Program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG ampersand G organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Forbidden immisions and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Serbian Law and in the most of jurisdictions, there are limits on exercising the right of property. A real estate owner must refrain from activities by which the use of other real estate is being imploded through the emission of excessive gasses, vapors, smoke, heat, noise, the draining of waste water, etc. Neighboring real estate owners must endure such harmful effects if they do not exceed the limit of usual endurance, taking into account the nature and purpose of such real estate, as well as local conditions. The property owner who is affected by emissions exceeding the set limit, has the right to request a stop of emissions which exceeded the allowed volume of emissions. If the imissions originate from some industrial plants, within the activity allowed by a state authority, one cannot request a cessation of such activities, but can simply seek damages. The issue of the environmental protection in the Republic of Serbia is regulated by a number of particular substantive laws, with a Law of environmental protection of 2009. as fundamental Law.

  14. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work; Anforderungen an den Um- und Ausbau des Hoechstspannungsstromnetzes. Aus der Sicht von Naturschutz und Kulturlandschaftspflege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  15. Classified facilities for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-02-01

    The legislation of the classified facilities governs most of the dangerous or polluting industries or fixed activities. It rests on the law of 9 July 1976 concerning facilities classified for environmental protection and its application decree of 21 September 1977. This legislation, the general texts of which appear in this volume 1, aims to prevent all the risks and the harmful effects coming from an installation (air, water or soil pollutions, wastes, even aesthetic breaches). The polluting or dangerous activities are defined in a list called nomenclature which subjects the facilities to a declaration or an authorization procedure. The authorization is delivered by the prefect at the end of an open and contradictory procedure after a public survey. In addition, the facilities can be subjected to technical regulations fixed by the Environment Minister (volume 2) or by the prefect for facilities subjected to declaration (volume 3). (A.B.)

  16. Environmental protection and procedural law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutschler, U.

    1978-01-01

    For the power industry which is 'independent of licensing', the Ule/Laubinger statement as well as its discussion on the 52th German legal experts' day are of considerable importance. It is therefore absolutely necessary to critically investigate the statements of this expert's opinion and the considerations on which they are based. This investigation is limited to those licensing procedures which in the terminology of experts, are 'similar to the plan approval procedure'. This applies mainly to the procedures according to paragraph 4 ff of the Federal Act on the Protection Against Nuisances and paragraph 7 of the Atomic Energy Law: Preliminaries publication of documents, inspection of files, public hearing, taking of evidence, persons with special responsibilities, administrative proceedings, actions by associations. The deficiencies in the execution of environmental procedural law is briefly mentioned. The notes in the article refer only to air pollution. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually

  18. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

  19. Environmental impact statement requirements for CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciurciolo, Melisa N.; Mender, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the legal framework on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regarding the activities of the National Atomic Energy Commission (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), and particularly, the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements of CNEA (PN-PR-027). According to the distribution of powers stated in article 41 of the National Constitution, the environmental legal framework is constituted by National minimum standards for environmental protection and complementary provincial and municipal regulations. As a result, the EIA legal framework is not uniform across the Nation, and therefore, it differs according to the jurisdiction in which the activity subject to EIA is developed. Notwithstanding, the General Statute of the Environment (25.675) requires EIA for any project or activity developed in the National territory, which may cause a significant degradation to the environment, any of its components, or affect the populations' quality of life in a significant way. Since CNEA develops activities along the National territory, it is not possible to determine a uniform legal EIA framework for the entire Institution. Consequently, the binding requirements for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of CNEA activities differ among the activities developed in the different locations and atomic centers. In order to achieve a uniform environmental performance in CNEA, it has been considered necessary to uniform, in the internal sphere, the binding requirements for EIS, by means of a procedure written within the framework of the Environmental Management System of the Institution. The purpose of the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements is to determine the requirements to be complied by the atomic centers, locations and enterprises associated with CNEA, regarding EIS Management. This Procedure shall apply to those projects and activities subjected to EIA, according to a

  20. Protection of industrial and business secrets in environmental protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author investigates the relation between environmental protection and data protection, especially concerning the protection of industrial and business secrets. For this kind of conflict there are only general administrative and procedural provisions with little systematic order. Special provisions of data protection covering all aspects of industrial and business secrets, as for example in social or tax law, do not exist in German law until now. (WG) [de

  1. Environmental protection the European way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaborsky, J.

    2006-01-01

    What does a businessman do when he has a legal responsibility for potential damage? If he has at least some common sense he takes out insurance and forgets about the issue. When something happens the insurance will take care of it. However it can happen that the legal liability cannot be fully covered by an insurance policy. And this is the situation created by the European Commission Directive on environmental liability. Although according to the Directive it is not obligatory to have an insurance policy, it does stipulate that a polluter is responsible for remedying the damage. Slovak legislation that will enter into force in May next year already covers the insurance issue. 'According to the Directive we are obliged to establish a system of remedying environmental damages. And so the regulation requires either insurance or an adequate financial guarantee,' explained Darina Kobzova from the Ministry of Environment. The legislation does not define a minimal scope of insurance, i.e. it is up to each business to decide on the extent of insurance coverage. So this cannot be considered to be mandatory insurance. Businesses without insurance will run the risk of a 200-thousand Sk (5 555 EUR) penalty. Insurance companies took part in the commenting process and are thus fully informed regarding the new legislation. But they also stress that they will not be in the position to create products that cover all aspects of the legal liability. 'There are too many unknowns which we cannot take into consideration,' explained the head of QBE Poistovna, Marian Batovsky. What would happen if for instance an ecological disaster kills endemic species that do not live anywhere else? Will the responsible person have to pay for each dead animal in addition to remedying the damage? And if so, what would be the price taking into account how rare these animals are? Neither the EU nor the Ministry of Environment can answer this question. The businessman should not count on such a case not

  2. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  3. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M.

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields

  4. International Organizations and Environmental Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik; Kaiser, Wolfram

    . This volume is the first to comprehensively explore the environmental activities of professional communities, NGOs, regional bodies, the United Nations, and other international organizations during the twentieth century. It follows their efforts to shape debates about environmental degradation, develop...

  5. A proposed approach to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of my presentation today is to present our thinking to date on the subject of environmental protection at nuclear facilities. What I intend to present is not a finished product, but the first steps in establishing a new and systematic approach to environmental protection. An important factor that will affect the progress of this process is the current assessment of radionuclides (released from nuclear facilities) under the aegis of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). It is expected that the CEPA assessment will take in the order of two years to complete. In keeping with this schedule, we expect the overall process of establishing a new and systematic approach to environmental protection to be a long-term project taking up to five years to complete. It will start with the establishment of an AECB policy regarding environmental protection and continue with the development of programs, procedures, guides, standards and criteria to implement the policy. (author)

  6. 22 CFR 161.11 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. 161.11 Section 161.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Coordination of Other Requirements... comments. (d) Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 16 U.S.C. 661 et seq. (e) Section 309 of the Clean Air...

  7. Inspection control and the environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Dragan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is the task of many administrative bodies, but the activity of the environmental inspection is of special importance. According to the Law on Environmental Protection, inspection's tasks in this area belong to the competence of republican bodies, ie. Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection. Autonomous province and local self-government have only delegated competence in this field, under condition that this is explicitly regulated in special laws. Environmental inspection's activity consists in preventive actions, certain prior - preparatory activities and the audit itself. In addition, following the intervention of the Inspector issue of the control may be corrective or repressive. According to the Law on Inspection Control and the Law on Environmental Protection, the inspectors have a number of powers and responsibilities, which enable them to ensure the lawful and proper conduct of individuals and legal entities.

  8. Environmental Protection Versus Foundry Engineering Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Maj M.; Werrtz J.; Piekło J.

    2017-01-01

    • Theory and practice of environmental protection in the case of foundries in Europe and Asia • Experience resulting from the cooperation with the foundries in a few European countries, China and India • Phenomena and factors affecting the pollution of the natural environment and the implementation of measures aiming at the environmental protection. Every specialist dealing with foundry processes and their impact on environmental pollution must have encountered in their professional careers n...

  9. Environmental protection: Shifting the focus toward the protected object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the rationale which led to developments in the law of environmental protection in a direction of an even more efficient protection of environment from human beings. There has been a transformation of the constitutionally protected right to a healthy environment to the Constitutional guarantee which involves both duty and responsibility for its protection. There has also been a shift from declaratory protection toward enforceable prohibitions and orders. These transformations have occurred when the society faced, under dramatic circumstances, the situation which shows that failure to protect the common good could lead to catastrophic consequences. The system of environmental protection, which enables sustainable development, is based on the primacy of the precautionary principle which deals with prevention and reduction of probability of harm, as well as on the no fault liability of the polluter for the environmental harm even in the absence of the claim for damages. The efficacy of the environmental protection could be improved by raising the awareness of the preservation of environment. The understanding that the protection of environment amounts to a survival of a mankind could lead to creating rights for the environment as such.

  10. Environmental protection in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This workbook is a compilation of the most important facts and data that are relevant today for environmental protection in thermal power plants. Unlike the other issues the text is not in the form of a random collection of data but in the form of a complete presentation. Possible elaboration projects for pupils can be easily derived from the individual sections. These deal with: the discussion about environmental protection; forest decline; sources of emission; nuisances in the Federal Republic of Germany; environmental protection in fossil-fuel power plants - clean air - cooling water utilization and water protection - noise; environmental protection in nuclear power plants - radioactive material produced in nuclear reactors and the retention of such materials - radioactive waste materials - monitoring of radioactive emissions; accessory materials and hints. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields.

  12. Issues regarding environmental protection in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Draghicescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental protection” activity in our country should be approached by taking into consideration its entire complexity, and the most reliable solutions may be provided only by direct and permanent reference to the vast issue of social development in its entirety. The present work aims to draw attention towards pollution, the main cause of environmental deterioration in Romania, as well as towards the management of waste materials, while taking into account the national strategy. In Romania, environmental protection is a distinct domain of the national policy, establishing the priority objectives by “The National Strategy for Environmental Protection”, according to the communitarian strategy, as well as to the tendencies and initiatives existing at global level. Our country’s efforts over the past years with respect to environmental protection are very important in the framework of contemporary economy and are reflected in the expenses incurred for environmental protection.

  13. Environmental protection in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, N.

    1977-01-01

    With the contributions by Norbert Knauer, the Akademie Sankelmark presents one of the results of its activities. Prof. Knauer is head of the department of grassland management, cropping and landscape ecology at Kiel University. He is a member of the Experts Commission for Problems of Environmental Protection of the Schleswig-Holstein Government, of the Schleswig-Holstein Curatory for Environmental Protection as well as of the regional planning council. He is also regional supervisor for nature and landscape conservation of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. All these functions have made him an expert in the field of landscape conservation and environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  14. Environmental protection for subsea wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, R.J.; Osborne, R.S.; Elwood, J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for receiving and containing surplus fluid from a subsea well installation on the ocean floor including a subsea wellhead assembly disposed in an enclosed protective chamber. It comprises a fluid-carrying conduit connected to the exterior of the protective chamber in fluid communication with the interior of the protective chamber; an inflatable dracon disposed upon and against the ocean floor in protective relation thereto when deflated and releasably connected in fluid communication to an outlet of the conduit; and pressure-balanced relief valve means disposed in the conduit between the outlet and the protective chamber for communicating surplus fluid from the interior of such chamber to the dracon when the fluid pressure within such chamber exceeds a predetermined value. This patent describes a method of completing an underwater well. It comprises installing a hollow cylindrical silo body with attached conductor guide casing into the sea floor; drilling and casing a well through the silo body and conductor guide casing; installing a wellhead assembly on top of the drilled and cased well inside of the silo body; installing a pressure-containing lid on top of the silo body, forming an enclosed protective chamber and isolating the interior of the chamber from the surrounding hydrostatic head of the sea water

  15. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA Pub Central

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PubMed Central (PMC) is a full-text, online archive of journal literature operated by the National Library of Medicine. The EPA is using PMC to permanently preserve...

  16. Administrative and economic tools of environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Staničová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with administrative and economic instruments of environmental protection, which represent the most important groups of instruments of environmental protection. Administrative and economic instruments are means and methods that affect human behavior in relation to environment. The thesis is systematically divided into two main parts and each of them is subdivided into chapters and subchapters. The first part of the thesis is focused generally and provides overview of ...

  17. Environmental protection and employment: the link for a worthwhile future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Driven by increasing environmental awareness as well as numerous environmental policy measures, the market for environmental goods has expanded over the last few years, bringing a growing number of jobs. A study of leading German economics research institutes shows that the employment effects of environmental protection have attained considerable dimensions, with nearly a million jobs in 1994 alone, with the service sector being the main beneficiary. And of particular importance: In terms of both population and economic performance, the new Laender are in a better position than the old Laender (the former FRG states) in respect of environmental jobs. In the new Laender important impulses towards creating and safeguarding jobs have emerged from environmental clean-up and development. The concern of this publication is not to promise a job-creation miracle by means of environmental protection alone. Nor is it a matter of legitimising environmental protection in terms of employment policy, for environmental protection does not require employment policy for legitimisation. Rather, the paper wants to provide up-to-date background information to point out the synergies between environmental and employment objectives. It also presents fields of activity which can be helpful to address both environmental and employment policy problems. I do hope that this study can provide some incentives for further action. (orig.)

  18. Listed installations for environmental protection in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullot, J.U.; Chaulet, J.F.; Thual, A.; Lafon, M.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the implications of different French rules and regulations concerning the environmental protection in hospitals. A special place is given to listed installations for environmental protection, because of their importance. A summary of important regulatory texts is presented concerning these installations, and also an inventory of installations or activities concerned, and the definition of the necessary procedures. Some ideas are also given about the much needed creation of an 'environmental network' inside hospitals, in order to cope with these concerns. Then, we briefly deal with more recent developments concerning the environmental protection, which will, no doubt, extend to hospitals, such as the French water law, air law, and procedures for the management of medical waste. Finally, the stakes of environmental decisions in hospitals and the chemist's place in these decisions are debated. (authors)

  19. Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1991--November 9, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, A.R.; Evans, R.B.

    1991-11-01

    DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Program,'' established environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to assure that the Department of Energy (DOE) operations are in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 required that each field organization prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order by no later than November 9, 1989, and update the plan annually. Therefore, the Department of Energy/Field Office, Nevada (DOE/NV) has prepared this second annual update of its Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP). The Order and corresponding guidances also require estimated budgetary resources necessary for implementation of the Order be identified in the Environmental Protection Implementation Plan. To satisfy this requirement, the estimated costs to effectuate necessary changes in existing programs or processes and to institute new programs or processes for compliance with the Order are provided in the following sections of this plan. The DOE/NV Assistant Manager for Operations (AMO), in consultation with other organizations responsible for line management of plan implementation, is responsible for annual plan revisions. 7 figs

  20. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  1. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made great progress in addressing some major environmental problems. These successes were framed within EPA’s statutory mandates which are largely media-specific and receptor-focused and follow a segmented risk-based construct. Today’s environmental problems are increasingly complex, and new approaches are needed to achieve sustainable solutions that protect the environment and public health. Objectives: We provide an overview of environmental protection at EPA and highlight today’s environmental challenges. We provide case examples of systems approaches that consider the links between environment and human health. We offer a strategic framework for tackling challenges so EPA can continue to protect the environment and public health.Discussion: Expanded approaches will be transdisciplinary, informed by vast new sources of data, and build upon new stakeholder partnerships. A systems approach to environmental protection looks at problems holistically, includes the drivers and stressors that impact the issue and the dimensions that frame it, and integrates various types of data from health, ecological, and social sciences, with the goal of formulating sustainable solutions to environmental issues. Conclusions: The natural environment and human health are inextricably linked, and human health, well-being, and economic prosperity depend on healthy ecosystems. EPA research is leading an evolution in

  2. Radiological Protection and Environmental Monitoring in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez Pacheco, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the main activities of the Department of Radiological Protection, Nuclear Energy Commission of Bolivia. The following topics are covered: organization, environmental control of air, water, milk and plants, personal dosimetry, instrumentation and calibration, protection in uranium mines. Standard setting and international cooperation aspects are also presented

  3. THE PLACE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GTP to advocate better environmental protection in the country in the years ..... energy sector implies, inter alia, using clean energy such as solar and wind ..... accelerate growth; creating the balance between economic development and .... Establishment Proclamation No 575, and Radiation Protection Proclamation No 571.

  4. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, A.T.

    1993-10-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP covers the time period of November 9, 1993, through November 8, 1994. It will be updated annually. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies. Contents of this report are: (1) general description of the UMTRA project environmental protection program; (2) notifications; (3) planning and reporting; (4) special programs; (5) environmental monitoring programs; (6) quality assurance and data verification; and (7) references

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, A.T.

    1993-10-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP covers the time period of November 9, 1993, through November 8, 1994. It will be updated annually. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies. Contents of this report are: (1) general description of the UMTRA project environmental protection program; (2) notifications; (3) planning and reporting; (4) special programs; (5) environmental monitoring programs; (6) quality assurance and data verification; and (7) references.

  7. Economy and environmental protection. Wirtschaft und Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyhaupt, F.J.; Geissler, A.; Hausmann, K.; Hulpke, H.; Kunert, K.H.; Markmann, H.; Massing, H.; Seeliger, J.; Storm, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    The meeting on the topic of 'Economy and environmental Protection' was held at the end of 1985 in the 'German Academy of Judges'. The book contains a major part of the lectures held there. The aim of the meeting was to gain insight into the pollution of the environment due to industry and into the maximum limits of pollution which the environment can bear. Among others, the lectures deal with the following questions: what effects do the environmental protection measures have upon the safeguarding of jobs. Do economical development on one hand, and environmental protection on the other, really represent such a big conflict of interests which will never be solved. Which problems arise e.g. from water pollution abatement, from mining and firing of hard coal, from offences involving environmental damage. (HSCH).

  8. Environmental radiation protection - a brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapantis, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of ionising radiation on man has been studied intensely for decades, and the system of radiation protection for man has been continually refined in the light of those studies. That system assumes that if man is protected, non-human biota at the species level will also be adequately protected. However, an increasing recognition of the need to protect the environment, and international agreements signed in 1992, have resulted in that paradigm being questioned, with the onus shifting slowly towards demonstrating that the environment is protected. Further, radiation protection agencies and environmental protection agencies around the world have now started considering the issue of developing a system of radiation protection for the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are also active in this area. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline some of the issues confronting environmental and radiation protection specialists, and to mention some of the initiatives being taken by the international community to resolve those issues

  9. Environmental Protection Versus Foundry Engineering Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available • Theory and practice of environmental protection in the case of foundries in Europe and Asia • Experience resulting from the cooperation with the foundries in a few European countries, China and India • Phenomena and factors affecting the pollution of the natural environment and the implementation of measures aiming at the environmental protection. Every specialist dealing with foundry processes and their impact on environmental pollution must have encountered in their professional careers numerous situations in which the theory of environmental protection confronts the stark reality. The discrepancy between theory and practice can particularly be noticed in foundry engineering in developing countries where the contrasts between different countries and casting plants are extremely striking. The comparison of working conditions in European and Asian foundries provides a vast scope for further observations and analyses. Environmental protection seems not only a concern of manufacturers of castings, but also of their customers whose opinion exerts a significant influence on both the acceptability of working conditions and on the approach to environmental pollution adopted in metal casting industry. The article presents a number of examples of various outlooks on environmental issues in foundries manufacturing a wide range of cast steel and cast iron castings, where different technologies and production processes are applied.

  10. Perspectives on environmental protection of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perking, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Alloys of refractory metals which combine high strength to weight ratios with useful low-temperature toughness and ductility have been designed to meet the requirements for the next generation of high-temperature aerospace structural materials with one exception: long term resistance to oxidation. It is considered unlikely that refractory metal alloys can be modified to possess useful resistance to oxidation as bulk materials or that coating can be designed to provide high reliability fail-safe protection for the structural alloys developed to date. Recent developments indicate that bulk alloys of W and Mo can be designed to possess short term resistance to oxidation, providing a base material which can be coated to extend useful life with fail-safe protection in the event of random coating failures. Current research on silicide coatings indicates that significant improvements in coating reliability and performance also are feasible. The technical basis for these conclusions is presented in this paper and the direction of future work that could lead to environmentally stable refractory metal alloy/coating systems is discussed

  11. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP is updated annually. This version covers the time period of 9 November 1994, through 8 November 1995. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project environmental protection implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP is updated annually. This version covers the time period of 9 November 1994, through 8 November 1995. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies.

  13. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarska-Pempkowaik, Hanna; Bolt, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  14. Nuclear power for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Marques de, J.A.; Bennett, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    Nuclear power does not produce CO 2 or other greenhouse gases, and also does not produce any SO 2 , NO x or other gases which contribute to acid rain. These characteristics of nuclear power are especially important in comparison to coal-fired generation of electricity. As an example, in comparison with a coal-fired power plant of the same size, with abatement systems, a 1300 MW(e) nuclear power plant eliminates annually emissions to the air of about: 2000 t of particulates; 8.5 million t of CO 2 : 12,000 t of SO 2 ; and 6,000 t of NO x , the precise quantities being dependent on coal quality, power plant design and thermal efficiency, and on the effectiveness of the abatement systems. Opponents of nuclear power concede these facts, but argue that nuclear power is such a small part of the world energy balance that it is insignificant to the big issue of CO 2 . This is hardly correct. Today, 16% of the world's electricity (and 5% of the world's total primary energy) is generated using nuclear power. If this electricity were to have been generated using coal, it would have resulted in about 1600 million tons of CO 2 annually. This is 8% of the 20,000 million tons of CO 2 now emitted annually from the burning of fossil fuels, an amount which the Toronto Conference proposed should be cut by 20% up to the year 2005. A further major difference in the two energy systems is that the relatively smaller amount of nuclear wastes is fully isolated from the environment. In addition to discussing the global contributions of nuclear power to environmental improvement, the paper presents actual results achieved in a number of countries, demonstrating the positive contribution which nuclear power has made to reducing the environmental impacts of electricity production. 7 figs, 12 tabs

  15. A memorandum of understanding between Alberta Environmental Protection and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board regarding coordination of release notification requirements and subsequent regulatory response : informational letter IL 98-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Text outlining the process to be used by the upstream oil and gas industry to notify either Alberta Environmental Protection or the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) whenever a spill or other form of release has occurred, is provided. This MOU further clarifies the release notification requirements for any release that is capable of causing damage to the environment, human health or safety. Industry operators are required to orally notify the appropriate regulatory authority as soon as they become aware of a reportable release of unrefined products such as conventional crude oil, LPG, diluent, condensate, synthetic crude, sour gas, produced water, and other produced fluids resulting from pipeline fractures or from incidents involving oilfield wastes. For releases of refined products such as diesel, gasoline, sulphur and solvents, industry operators are required to orally notify the Pollution Control Division as soon as they become aware of the problem. 3 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Nuclear low and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vencato, A.C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The imperceptible character of nuclear radiation on the human senses and their harmful effects on living beings and the environment is emphasised. This is based on a review of published works about the concepts of energy and ecology. The potential hazards of a possible nuclear accident and the damage it would cause to a community as well as the problem of radioactive waste disposal are raised. The conclusions and recommendations of the Brazilian Physics Society's Report on Nuclear Pollution are endorsed. The general guidelines of Brazilian Legislation are presented. The legal aspects of nuclear reactor licensing in West Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Brazil are shown from the point of view of the applicable legal system, the licensing bodies, the general frame and scope, public participation, technical safety bodies, as well as the inspection procedures. The concepts of absolute and objective civil responsibility for nuclear damage are reviewed. The judicial principle of equity is considered in view of the exceptional character of the nuclear risk. The main aspects of the international Conventions of Paris, Brussels and Viena on civil ability of nuclear damage are presented. Some philosphical and judicial questions are discussed emphasising the instrumentality of the law control and effective protection. The final suggestion is the exchange of ideas with a view to obtain the maximum safety in the operation of nuclear installations. (author) [pt

  17. Monaco and marine environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, Albert II Prince

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the protection of the marine environment for sustainable development and economy of coastal countries, like Monaco, is well known. Sadly, this environment has been under continuous threats from development, tourism, urbanisation and demographic pressure. The semi-enclosed Mediterranean sea is challenged by new pollutant cocktails, problems of fresh water management, over-fishing, and now increasingly climate change impacts. Monaco has a long history in the investigation of the marine environment. Prince Albert I, was one of the pioneers in oceanographic exploration, organizer of European oceanographic research and founder of several international organizations including the Musee Oceanographique. The International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1961 its Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, the only marine laboratory in the United Nations system. More than 40 years ago the IAEA joined forces with the Grimaldi family and several interested governments to establish the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. Their first purpose-built facilities, dedicated to marine research, launched a new era in the investigation of the marine environment using radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers for better understanding of processes in the oceans and seas, addressing their pollution and promoting wide international cooperation. The Government of the Principality of Monaco has been actively engaged in these developments and is continuously supporting activities of the Monaco Laboratory

  18. Environmental restoration remedial action quality assurance requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document (DOE/RL 90-28) defines the quality assurance program requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. This paper describes the objectives outlined in DOE/RL 90-28. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency

  19. Environmental radiation protection. The new ICRP concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaps, C.; Lorenz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of the environment regarding radiation protection was so far reduced to the concept: if man is protected the environment is protected well enough. This was derived from the radiosensitivity curve, according to which highly developed organisms are more sensible to radiation than less highly developed. ICRP publication 103 put this simple concept in question. Even before, ICRP set up a committee to discuss this theme. End of 2012 ICRP released a new concept of environmental protection regarding different exposure situations and brought it up for discussion in the internet. This concept is based on Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) and analogous to the concept of the protection for man. The exposure for representative organisms regarding ionizing radiation shall be estimated and compared with Derived Consideration Reference Levels (DCRLs). If the DCRLs are reached or exceeded there is a need to react. This concept raises several questions. (orig.)

  20. Legal protection in French environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromont, M.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents a comparison of the French and the Federal German legal provisions providing for preliminary legal protection in connection with proceedings where protection of the environment is involved. The author also discusses proceedings in contentious administrative matters in connection with the licensing of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as the protection of the laws in subject matters concerning airborne pollution control and environmental protection in general. One of the most outstanding different features is the fact that in legal proceedings on administrative matters in France, protection of the existing legal system is the main issue rather than the protection of individual rights, as is the case in the Fed. Republic of Germany. (HP) [de

  1. Food and environmental quality protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1975-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques are now well established as a powerful research tool. In combination with chromatographic and other fractionation techniques they are widely used for basic studies of the behaviour, fate and significance of residues of pesticides (e.g. insecticides, fungicides, herbicides), drugs, detergents, industrial chemicals and wastes, etc. which find their way as trace contaminants into food, environment and living organisms. Radiotracer studies on metabolism and fate of pesticides are no longer just a means of satisfying academic curiosity on compounds which are already in use; on the contrary, they are now generally a necessary and critical step in understanding the persistence and action of a pesticide before it enters actual use. The use of stable isotopes as tracers, as distinct from the knowledge of their existence, was effectively made possible by H.C. Urey in 1931 by his successful concentration of deuterium ( 2 H), and used as a tracer, also by Hevesy, soon afterwards. given a novel and powerful research tool it is tempting to build a programme on problems which fit the tool. The value of this approach is debatable. There is, however, no doubt at isotope techniques coupled with their almost invariably associated facilities (high standards of laboratory design and safety, instrument maintenance, expertise, etc.) have a major contribution to our understanding of the behaviour and significance of chemical and radioactive contaminants and indeed of the capacities of environmental ecosystems themselves to receive such contaminants without unacceptable effects. Moreover, it might be argued cogently that such understanding deserves higher priority than at present if the really critical situations or pathways are to be identified and 'monitoring' programmes developed more rationally

  2. FASSET - An European project for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchertseifer, F.

    2003-01-01

    The European research project ''FASSET'' (Framework ASSessment of Enviromental ImpacT) will provide a framework of the environmental impact of the effects of ionising radiation and will identify protection aims for the environmental protection. This project represent a collaboration of different organisations from the European community: Sweden, Norway, Finland, Great Britain, Spain, France and Germany. The German participants are the GSF-research centre for environment and health and the German radiation protection office. The project is founded by the 5 th EC research programme. The existing national and international radiation protection regulations are focused to the humans. Other species, like plants and animals, are protected indirectly, if their habitat are close to urban areas or they represent a part of the food chain. The ICRP position ''if the man is protected, nature is protected as well'' is now under reconsideration by a ICRP-Taskgroup. The identification of perilled real reference organism by the FASSET-project is an working tool for the definition of the protection aims. For that purpose the project is divided into three working packages: dosimetry, exposure pathways and effects. Another working package is responsible for the developing of the concept using the results provided by the other working packages. (orig.)

  3. Economic growth - environmental protection - quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumm, J.

    1975-01-01

    This is an investigation into the assumption that uncontrolled economic growth puts a burden on the natural environment and lowers the quality of life. This analysis of the natural, technical, economic, and social environment answers the following questions: 1) which development will production and consumption take up to the year 2000; 2) extent of environmental burden to be expected as a result thereof; 3) influence of needs and valid standard of values thus prevailing; 4) administrative measures for environmental policies; 5) influence of environmental policies on the quality of life; 6) possibility of economic growth while the natural environment is sufficiently protected at the same time. The man-environment model presented elucidates the interrelations between economic development and the natural and social environment; it checks the effectiveness of alternate environmental protection measures. (HP) [de

  4. Effective construction of environmental protection agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, H.F.

    1995-01-01

    By now 170 international agreements are designed to protect air, ground, water and organisms from man-made hazards. Nevertheless are innovative approaches required for global conventions to make the Earth a sanctuary of life for good. (orig.) [de

  5. 40 CFR 6.201 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 6.201 Section 6.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA ACTIONS EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.201 Coordination with other...

  6. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  7. Environmental Protection Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State... Steve Fruh, Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Radiation, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20460 Phone: 919 541-2837 Fax: 919 541-4991 Email: fruh.steve@epamail.epa.gov RIN: 2060-AP69...

  8. Environmental and Radiological Protection Department - DEPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The activities and purposes of the Environmental and Radiological Protection Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry form Brazilian CNEN are presented. It is also presented an historical review of its activities, its personnel and its sections. (J.A.M.M.)

  9. Environmental protection in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, G.

    1989-01-01

    One of a series of articles on the work of the Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region (OSS) and its Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute (ARRRI), this discusses the environmental protection function of the OSS and the role of the ARRRI in achieving this

  10. Radiological protection, environmental implications, health and risk management: forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Topics related to the radioactivity or radiation are presented. The importance of protection and security measures that are required both for public health, occupational health and the medical radiation is analyzed. In addition, it emphasizes the risks faced by professionals who work with radioactivity. Issues that confront the serious environmental implications of such activities are also showed [es

  11. Utilization of Zeolites in environmentally protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallo, D. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Chemical Research Center, Institute of Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2000-07-01

    It has been attempted to present the most important fields of natural zeolite applications in environmental protection. Realized and approved utilizations were demonstrated inciting the reader to take these materials into consideration for solution of similar problems. The outlined properties can be used for other purposes not discussed in this review. They can be applied, e.g., in fish farming, transportation of living fishes when simultaneous ammonium and carbon dioxide removals is required: ammonium is exchanged for calcium present in the zeolite and CO{sub 2} is then precipitated in the form of CaCO{sub 3}; in treatment of diluted manure when undesired organics can be fixed and bactericide effects can be attained. Natural zeolites are used, therefore, as deodorant of litter of dogs or cats. Small amounts of metal cations, e.g., Cu{sup 2+}, Ag{sup +} or Zn{sup 2+}, introduced by ion exchange may disinfect contacting water. Due to water adsorption and desorption capability natural zeolite as construction materials exert some conditioning effect without any mechanical accessory. It seems likely the human ingenuity will continue to discover new applications in the future.

  12. EC Competition law and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, M.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the increasing attention paid on environmental protection, by the European Community, the Member States and the consumers, undertakings are forced to adjust their policies to meet the new demands posed by public authorities and the market. This has an inevitable impact on competition. No matter how acceptable the goals were, the means are to be assessed also from the competition law point of view. The objective of this study is to analyze the situations where conflicts may take place, the main sources of research being the principles of law relating to the Treaty ,the judgements of the European Court of Justice, the Commission Decisions and other official documents of the Community as well as legal literature. This study classifies the Community and Member State instruments which are used for environmental protection into four categories. These are legislative, market-based, horizontal and financial supporting instruments. Undertakings` environmental practices, which are capable of affecting competition, are examined under Articles 85 and 86 EC, some attention being paid also to Article 90 EC. The touching points of competition policy and environmental protection in such cases are scrutinized under three headings. These are the two, in this case, most relevant public instruments, ie. legislative and market-based measures, and the voluntary actions of undertakings. (42 refs.)

  13. International viewpoints on environmental protection: goals and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.A.; Carroll, S.; Stephenson, A.D.; Stringer, R.L.; Santillo, D.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental protection of natural ecosystems against the effects of radiation has been largely predicated upon human radiological protection regimes. It has been explicitly assumed that if human populations are adequately protected then this will also confer protection to other species at the population level and hence to the 'environment'. Accordingly, non-human organisms have principally been incorporated into regulatory and assessment frameworks in recognition of their role as part of diverse critical pathways of radionuclide transfer to human populations. Hence, the utility of these non-human organisms in assessing hazards to ecosystems is strictly limited since their selection for monitoring purposes relates more to human perspectives than to their role and importance in natural ecosystems. By contrast, a multispecies ecosystem level approach should work on the basis of selecting 'keystone' species and evaluating the effects of radiation upon natural ecosystem dynamics. This would accommodate the full range of sub-lethal effects, differential life-stage sensitivity, reproductive sensitivity and interspecific interactions. While such an approach would undoubtedly improve the current situation, experience from chemical ecotoxicology suggests that the selection and verification of suitable endpoints will prove difficult beyond an organismal level. Thus, a regulatory regime based upon this approach is almost certain to be less than effective at protecting the environment. The precautionary approach to environmental protection has largely grown from an awareness of the limitations of ecotoxicological studies and protocols. This paper, therefore, considers the need for application of such an approach in relation to environmental protection requirements of the nuclear industry

  14. Environmental protection - Penal Law. 2nd ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sack, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The 18th Amendment of the Penal Law - Law on the Abatement of Environmental Delinquency - (18. StrAendG) has now been passed. It has been promulgated on March 28, 1980 and has come into force on July 1, 1980. Through this amendment, a large number of the provisions of the environmental law regarding sanctions has been incorporated into the Penal Code. Persons concerned with environmental protection and pollution control will also in future need such a textbook with comments as a guide to the most important provisions on sanctions and fixed penalties. The 18th Amendment of the Penal Code does not cover all the provisions on sanctions to be applied in the field of environmental protection, a number of regulations still remains part of other, special laws. The same applies to the provisions on penalties which are laid down in a variety of individual laws and regulations, as a comprehensive code of environmental laws still remains to be established. This first part of the textbook in loose-leaf form deals mainly with the new provisions of sections 311d, 311e, 324, and 325. The other facts of the 18th Amendment will be discussed in the second part. As the regulations have, for the most part, not been completly revised or newly inserted, parts 1/3 of the first edition of this textbook can still be used as a help in analysing the existing provisions. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Environmental protection - Penal Law. Umweltschutz-Strafrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sack, H J

    1980-01-01

    The 18th Amendment of the Penal Law - Law on the Abatement of Environmental Delinquency - (18. StrAendG) has now been passed. It has been promulgated on March 28, 1980 and has come into force on July 1, 1980. Through this amendment, a large number of the provisions of the environmental law regarding sanctions has been incorporated into the Penal Code. Persons concerned with environmental protection and pollution control will also in future need such a textbook with comments as a guide to the most important provisions on sanctions and fixed penalties. The 18th Amendment of the Penal Code does not cover all the provisions on sanctions to be applied in the field of environmental protection, a number of regulations still remains part of other, special laws. The same applies to the provisions on penalties which are laid down in a variety of individual laws and regulations, as a comprehensive code of environmental laws still remains to be established. This first part of the textbook in loose-leaf form deals mainly with the new provisions of sections 311d, 311e, 324, and 325. The other facts of the 18th Amendment will be discussed in the second part. As the regulations have, for the most part, not been completly revised or newly inserted, parts 1/3 of the first edition of this textbook can still be used as a help in analysing the existing provisions.

  16. Environmental protection - a permanent task in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laermann, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of practical environment politics can be summarized as follows: 1) Environmental policy measures do not necessarily induce restrictive effects on economic growth but also positive ones. 2) A serious conflict situation only presents itself, when with limited time available and short-term aims in mind hybernetic interrelations are disregarded and the views of an effluent society are hung onto. 3) Environmental protection measures are to be applied from the point of view of the national economy as a whole. (orig.) [de

  17. Thermal power stations and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerking, E.

    1975-01-01

    In this book, the advantages of an optimum cooling concept for waters are compared with the disadvantages of an uncontrolled thermal pollution of waters by waste waters from thermal power plants. The book focuses on the problem of the cost of measures for environmental protection which has not yet received a detailed and complete treatment. The author suggests that perfectionist solutions and superfluos measures be abandoned in favour of a far-reaching, efficient environmental protection concept with a low expenditure of fuel and capital. A detailed treatment is given to false conclusions in the present estimations of the effects of thermal pollution of the waters and to the advantages of freshwater cooling and cooling in general. Also discussed are immission problems and attempts at their solution. (ORU/AK) [de

  18. Manual of plant producers and services in environmental protection. Database in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serve, C.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of an enquiry, the Stuttgart Chamber of Industry and Commerce produced a database of the services offered by regional and supraregional companies in the field of environmental protection. The data are presented in this manual, classified as follows: noise protection systems; sanitation systems and services; other systems and services. (orig.) [de

  19. Radiation protection requirements to dental clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenobio, Madelon A.F.; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology consists of an ionizing radiation source to which the man are more exposed. The importance of radiographic exam in Dentistry made it a diagnostic supplemental resource and a treatment guide used by the dentistry area professionals. After studying all the risks related to X-ray on medical and odontological diagnostics, this study intends to realize a literature review in relation to the radiological protection requirements, among then, the article 453, that aim to promote the reduction of radiation doses to beings involved with diagnostic radiology without damaging or even improving the exam quality and the data on it included. (author)

  20. Ethical foundations of environmental radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, D H

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the potential ecological impact of ionising radiation raises a number of ethical questions. These include fundamental questions such as what exactly constitutes harming the environment, and how the environment should be valued, as well as links to political protection principles such as sustainability and biodiversity. Starting from developments within ecological risk assessment, this paper summarises some of the ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of different philosophical and cultural world views on valuing the environment in a context of radiation risk. Chapter 3 addresses some recent challenges to proposed environmental protection frameworks, including practical applications following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, and some scientific developments such as the ecosystem approach. Finally, Chapter 4 offers some recommendations on how ethical evaluation can help produce a more robust and transparent approach to the protection of the environment. In conclusion, there is a need for a holistic evaluation of the environmental impacts of ionising radiation that not only considers the direct consequences on the health of humans and non-human species, but also the more complex social, ethical, and economic consequences of both human and non-human exposures. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  1. The European standard on planetary protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, André

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of solar system exploration, numerous spacecrafts have been sent towards others worlds, and one of the main goals of such missions is the search for extraterrestrial forms of life. It is known that, under certain conditions, some terrestrial entities are able to survive during cruises in space and that they may contaminate other planets (forward contamination). At another level, possible extraterrestrial life forms are unknown and their ability to contaminate the Earth's biosphere (back contamination) in the frame of sample return missions cannot be excluded. Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty (London/Washington, January 27, 1967) requires the preservation of planets and the Earth from contamination. All nations taking part in this Treaty must prevent forward and back contamination during missions exploring our solar system. Consequently, the United Nations (UN-COPUOS) has delegated COSPAR (Committee of Space Research) to take charge of planetary protection and, at present, all space-faring nations must comply with COSPAR policy and consequently with COSPAR planetary protection recommendations. Starting from these recommendations and the "CNES Planetary Protection Standard" document, a working group has been set up in the framework of the "European Cooperation for Space Standardization" (ECSS) to establish the main specifications for preventing cross-contamination between target bodies within the solar system and the Earth-moon system.

  2. Environmental protection: Streamlining petroleum exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum industry is inherently subject to a tremendous degree of volatility through fluctuation in world market prices and vagaries of world politics. A more recent stressful demand on the existing domestic petroleum exploration and production system has been the burgeoning number of environmental regulations imposed on this segment of the industry. Prudent and acceptable oil-field practices must now include agency-regulated environmental protection measures. Many independent producers are unfamiliar not only with the regulatory agencies, but also with the jargon and ambiguities, of regulations that very widely from state to state. Whereas some companies perceive only the restrictions and added cost of regulatory compliance, other companies have sought to optimize benefits while minimizing financial burdens by approaching this modern necessity more creatively, thereby discovering numerous means to become even more competitive. The domestic oil field of the 1990s will be increasingly affected by environmental regulation and public opinion. A number of companies have taken a proactive position on environmental issues. Industry examples include Louisiana Land and Exploration Company's history of wetlands conservation and Chevron's SMART (Save Money and Reduce Toxics). The future of the quality of life of this nation, and indeed the planet as a whole, lies in our capability to deal concurrently with the issues of a petroleum-based economy while protecting the natural environment that sustains life

  3. Environmental requirements for oil and gas operations in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystuen, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The administration and regulation of environmental issues regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. The political and cultural differences in Saskatchewan that make environmental processes distinct from its neighbouring jurisdictions were described. The following Saskatchewan legislation deals with environmental requirements: Environmental Management and Protection Act, Environmental Assessment Act, Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Wildlife Habitat Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Planning and Development Act, Forest Act, Water Corporation Act, Heritage Property Act, and Parks Act. The Saskatchewan Department of Energy and Mines (SEM) is the primary regulator of the upstream oil and gas industry. It regulates the construction, operation, reporting and abandonment requirements for oilfield operations. SEM also manages crude oil prior to refining and manages the wastes contaminated with crude oil. Provisions of the relevant Acts regarding drilling in environmentally sensitive areas, flaring requirements, transporting and disposing of oilfield wastes, road-building, operating restrictions, emergency response plans, spill clean-up responsibilities, well abandonment and site reclamation responsibilities were discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  5. POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF NANOMETALS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Malina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great interest in metallic nanoparticles has been observed, both because of their unlimited application possibilities, and also because of the unusual biological, chemical and physical features. It is expected that developments in nanotechnology will become the main promoter of scientific and technological innovations in the coming decades. Searching for a new and safe alternative to chemical pesticides, high hopes are associated with nanotechnology development. Particularly useful may be preparations containing nanoscale metal particles with strong antimicrobial properties. Importantly, safe and non-toxic for the plant components of biological origin may be used in nanoparticles synthesis. This article is a description of the potential applications of nanomaterials in environmental protection, which may become the basis for developing of new protection plant products with antimicrobial properties relative to plant pathogens and non-toxic to higher organisms.

  6. Environmental Restoration Remedial Action quality assurance requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document defines the quality assurance requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program at the Hanford Site. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency. This document combines quality assurance requirements from various source documents into one set of requirements for use by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and other Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program participants. This document will serve as the basis for developing Quality Assurance Program Plans and implementing procedures by the participants. The requirements of this document will be applied to activities affecting quality, using a graded approach based on the importance of the item, service, or activity to the program objectives. The Quality Assurance Program that will be established using this document as the basis, together with other program and technical documents, form an integrated management control system for conducting the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program activities in a manner that provides safety and protects the environment and public health

  7. 1982 UCC-ND/GAT environmental protection seminar: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This environmental protection seminar was divided into seven sessions: (1) general environmental protection, (2) air and water pollution control, (3) spill control and countermeasures, (4) toxic materials control, (5) hazardous materials control, (6) environmental protection projects, and (7) cost benefit analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 41 papers presented therein

  8. 1982 UCC-ND/GAT environmental protection seminar: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This environmental protection seminar was divided into seven sessions: (1) general environmental protection, (2) air and water pollution control, (3) spill control and countermeasures, (4) toxic materials control, (5) hazardous materials control, (6) environmental protection projects, and (7) cost benefit analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 41 papers presented therein. (ACR)

  9. Economic instruments in environmental protection in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date status on the current use of economic instruments in Danish environmental protection. The report focuses on the implementation and enforcement aspects of the Danish experience. Thereby, the report is intended to provide a contribution to the international efforts to collate and disseminate such experience, and to provide a means of experience sharing and example sharing. It is envisaged that the report may be of use also to countries in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States where the emerging market economies offer an opportunity for an enhanced use of economic instruments. Lastly, the report's emphasis on actual implementation and enforcement aspects renders it highly applicable also to undergraduate and postgraduate students in environmental and/or economic disciplines. (au)

  10. Ultrasound in environmental protection - Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.J. [Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom). School of Science and the Environment

    2002-07-01

    There can be little doubt that there is an increasing interest in the development of new methods for environmental protection and remediation. Driven by the interests of scientists and engineers but increasingly by legislation a very wide range of new technologies is being examined. Amongst these power ultrasound is proving to be a front-runner and offers a wide range of applications. Not all of these are likely to become industrial realities nevertheless there are a few which have a real chance of adoption. Some of the stronger contenders are reviewed below. (orig.)

  11. Environmental protection and nuclear energy. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The present energy supply has to be reconsidered based on the continous increase of CO 2 -concentration in the air. For this, questions on environmental protection, nuclear energy, safety of usable plants and estimation of technical subsequences serve for contributions to a discussion as a result of the consideration, 10 theses on an ethic of energy technology have been elaborated. The Union of Catholic Employers is considered that the improved reactor technology has a new chance in our country. The minimization of risks and damages of this technology has proceeded in a way that it can be shared with regard to Christian responsibility. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in Environmental Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2010-01-01

    Environmental health researchers often need to make difficult decisions on how to protect privacy and confidentiality when they conduct research in the home or workplace. These dilemmas are different from those normally encountered in clinical research. Although protecting privacy and confidentiality is one of the most important principles of research involving human subjects, it can be overridden to prevent imminent harm to individuals or if required by law. Investigators should carefully consider the facts and circumstances and use good judgment when deciding whether to breach privacy or confidentiality.

  13. World Tourism Organization - 30 years of commitment to environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleford, P

    1985-01-01

    The paper traces 30 years of commitment to environmental values of tourism by the intergovernmental World Tourism Organization. Such commitment was almost unfashionable in the 1950s but gradually what began as an article of faith was vindicated by results of market research showing that the protection, enhancement and improvement of man's physical and human environment were among the fundamental requirements for the harmonious development of tourism. The establishment of the United Nations Environmental Program at last gave WTO a partner with the necessary authority with which the world body could walk towards mutually agreed goals.

  14. World Tourism Organization - 30 years of commitment to environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleford, P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper traces 30 years of commitment to environmental values of tourism by the intergovernmental World Tourism Organization. Such commitment was almost unfashionable in the 1950s but gradually what began as an article of faith was vindicated by results of market research showing that the protection, enhancement and improvement of man's physical and human environment were among the fundamental requirements for the harmonious development of tourism. The establishment of the United Nations Environmental Program at last gave WTO a partner with the necessary authority with which the world body could walk towards mutually agreed goals.

  15. Environmental impact statements: new legal technique for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M F

    1975-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) has required Federal agencies to re-examine all their programs affecting the environment, to consider alternative policies, to coordinate their actions with other agencies, and to disclose their environmental analyses to the public. In short, it has attempted to change decision processes markedly, in order to respond to wide-spread public concern about a deteriorating natural and human environment. The mandates of the policy are listed, but knowing that these were not sufficient to change existing agency practices, Congress established what has been called an ''action-forcing mechanism.'' Each federal agency must ''include in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, a detailed statement by the responsible official.'' This statement must cover the following five points as specified in Section 102(2)(c): the environmental impact of the proposed action; any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented; alternatives to the proposed action; the relationship between local and short-term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented. Section 102 has been considered the heart of the National Environmental Policy Act. The specific five-point environmental report--known as an environmental impact statement--is the visible evidence of an agency's compliance with the environmental policy articulated by Congress. (MCW)

  16. Rio conference global environmental protection Agenda 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchera, G. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Area Energia, Ambiente e Salute)

    1992-10-01

    In reviewing the work packages included in the Rio Earth's Summit Agenda 21, intended as an activities guideline for international cooperation to ensure environmental protection with sustainable growth for all nations, this paper points out the areas which present the greatest obstacles in the establishment of common accords and discusses the directions being taken to surmount these obstacles. A major obstacle concerns uncertaindes in specifying limits on carbon dioxide emissions and their effects on world climate. Another concerns suitable methods to help finance effective technology transfer to developing countries. With regard to the former problem, a 'no regret' approach has been proposed to limit current C02 reduction interventions to those levels which, in all certainty, would not incur any future regrets once scientific knowledge has advanced enough to allow more accurate assessments of greenhouse gas/climate change inter-relationships. With regard to the latter problem, attempts are being made to reduce possible negative impacts on the petroleum industry due to energy surcharges suggested as a source of funding for technology transfer/environmental protection programs.

  17. 76 FR 9987 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Amendments to the Section 608 Leak Repair Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Stratospheric Ozone: Amendments to the Section 608 Leak Repair Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection... rule in the December 15, 2010, Federal Register proposing changes to the leak repair regulations...- mail address [email protected] . More information about EPA's leak repair requirements under Section...

  18. Regulation and decision-making in environmental radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The EC-funded project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental impact), which completed in 2003, has developed an assessment framework for evaluating the environmental impact of ionising radiation on biota in natural ecosystems. The FASSET framework comprises: source characterisation and initial hazard analysis; ecosystem description and selection of reference organisms (ca 30, with defined geometry and life history); exposure analysis, including conversion of input data to external and internal radionuclide concentrations, and subsequent conversion to dose rates; effects analysis, supported by an effects database; and, guidance for interpretation. The framework provides practical and scientific support to the international development of recommendations for radiological protection of the environment through the International Commission on Radiological Protection (cf. ICRP Publication 91). However, on the basis of experiences from FASSET and other recent developments, it can be concluded that there are challenges remaining before environmental radiological protection can be seen as a natural component of general environmental protection. The major future challenge is the development of an integrated approach where decision-making can be guided by sound scientific judgements. This requires, inter alia, filling in gaps in basic knowledge of relevance to assessment and protection, through targeted experimental, theoretical (including expert judgements) and real case studies; development of risk characterisation methodologies, based on both theoretical and experimental studies; development of screening standards, where appropriate; development of user-friendly assessment tools; and stakeholder involvement, including development of supporting communication strategies. A new EC-funded project, ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and management), has recently started. The project has four operational work packages, being devoted to

  19. Environmental Protection Tools in Agricultural Management Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Taszakowski, Jaroslaw; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bozek, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Land consolidation is a fundamental instrument for agricultural management. It facilitates comprehensive changes in the agricultural, social, and ecological domains. Consolidation and post-consolidation development-related investments are an opportunity to improve living conditions in rural areas, and simultaneously ensure its positive impact on the environment. One of the primary goals of consolidation, directly specified in the Act on land consolidation, is to improve farming conditions. In Poland, consolidation is possible due to EU funds: RDP 2007-2013 and RDP 2014-2020. In order for individual villages to be granted EU funds for consolidation and post-consolidation development under the Rural Development Programme 2014-2020, their consolidation has to implement actions with positive impact on the environment and the landscape. The goal of this paper is to analyse documentation in the form of assumptions for a land consolidation project enclosed to an RDP 2014-2020 grant application and project information sheets as the basis for environmental impact assessment in the context of detailed presentation of environmental protection solutions that ensure a positive impact of the project on the environment and landscape. The detailed study involved 9 villages in the Malopolskie Voivodeship, which applied for EU grants for land consolidation in the current financial perspective. The paper specifies the existing state of the analysed villages as regards the natural environment, lists agricultural management instruments that have a positive impact on the environment, and demonstrates that planning of actions aimed at environmental protection is a necessary element of assumptions for land consolidation projects.

  20. Environmental compliance requirements for uranium mines in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggit, P.; Zapantis, A.; Triggs, M.

    2001-01-01

    The current phase of uranium mining in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia began in the late 70's and is governed by a large number of legislative and administrative requirements. The primary responsibility for environmental regulation rests with the Northern Territory Government but the legislative framework is complex and involves agencies of the Commonwealth Government as well as the Aboriginal traditional owners. Two of the current uranium mining projects, Ranger and Jabiluka, are surrounded by the World Heritage listed Kakadu National Park. Thirteen former mines are located within the Park and one former mine, Nabarlek, is in the same catchment as part of the Park, in West Arnhem Land. For these reasons, environmental management at the operating mines has to be of the highest standard and environmental requirements are attached to all laws and agreements controlling the operating facilities. The paper describes the spirit and rationale behind the regulations as well as the operating details and methodology of the regulatory system in place for the operating mines. An integral part of the overall environmental protection regime is a bi-annual program of Environmental Audits and Environmental Performance Reviews and regular reporting to a stakeholder committee. Other elements include internal and external environmental auditing at the minesites as well as programs of routine monitoring, check monitoring and reporting on a scale and frequency rarely seen elsewhere. Public concern and perception is considered to be a valid issue requiring attention

  1. Highlighting some important requirements in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A number of issues are listed that will need to be considered by an operator. A new operator does need to be familiar with many issues that may become significant, in the short-term. There are some issues that may become significant in the long term, Radiation practices must undertake monitoring of personal and of the environment. It is likely that that all uranium operations will be required to do different types of monitoring. For example, baseline-radiation monitoring is needed at the start of a new operation to provide information on background radiation levels that are needed during an operation, These can be used for background correction, and at the end of an operation. Baseline monitoring is an indication of background radiation before any operational footprint is left. Environmental monitoring is needed to establish a baseline of radiation exposures before an operation commences because it is difficult to convince stakeholders that monitoring can reflect a preoperational phase, after an operation is in full production. It would be unfortunate for an operation to approach the end of its life and discover that necessary details should have been obtained at the start.

  2. Globalisation and National Incentives for Protecting Environmental Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Alkuin Kölliker

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to explain national incentives for protecting environmental goods either autonomously or collectively; it explores how globalisation has affected those incentives; and it suggests how national environmental policy might respond so as to ensure its effectiveness. The central argument is that national incentives for environmental protection may to a considerable extent be explained by a combination of the type of environmental good to be protected (in terms of public goods th...

  3. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure - Policy Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  4. Environmental protection and fight against poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, L.T.

    1992-01-01

    Effective global environmental protection can be achieved only when industrialized countries provide developing nations with 'clean' energy technological know-how along with the necessary financial assistance necessary for its application. The World Bank is directly involved in actuating this exchange. The main directions currently being taken by the World Bank in order to meet the difficulties of developing countries struggling, with limited financial and technological resources, to sustain growing populations, are: to ensure that these countries develop systems for adequate water supplies; to sponsor research for the development of better agricultural techniques; to encourage industrialized countries to practice energy conservation so as to alleviate pressure on the world's energy resources; to sponsor wide-scale re- forestation; and to help third world countries put greater emphasis on family planning, health and education programs

  5. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Reitz, T.C.; Tobin, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology

  6. Environmental protection and fight against poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, L T [World Bank, Washington, DC (USA)

    1992-10-01

    Effective global environmental protection can be achieved only when industrialized countries provide developing nations with 'clean' energy technological know-how along with the necessary financial assistance necessary for its application. The World Bank is directly involved in actuating this exchange. The main directions currently being taken by the World Bank in order to meet the difficulties of developing countries struggling, with limited financial and technological resources, to sustain growing populations, are: to ensure that these countries develop systems for adequate water supplies; to sponsor research for the development of better agricultural techniques; to encourage industrialized countries to practice energy conservation so as to alleviate pressure on the world's energy resources; to sponsor wide-scale re- forestation; and to help third world countries put greater emphasis on family planning, health and education programs.

  7. Environmental radiation protection standards for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been given the responsibility of setting site-specific health and safety standards for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The same legislation that gave the Agency that responsibility, mandated a study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to provide input into the bases for the EPA standards. The NAS has completed and presented a report to the Agency; this paper summarizes the report's recommendations and conclusions. Following receipt of the report, the Agency opened a comment period and held public meetings to gather comments; the major issues from the comments are summarized. Based upon the report from NAS and the public comments, EPA has started formulating proposed standards which will be known as 40 CFR Part 197. It is planned for the proposal of 40 CFR Part 197 to occur in the summer of 1996

  8. Large-scale projects between regional planning and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the work discusses the current law of land-use planning, municipal and technical construction planning, and licensing under the atomic energy law and the federal law on immission protection. In the second part some theses suggesting modifications are submitted. In the sector of land-use planning substantial contributions to the protection of the environment can only be expected from programs and plans (aims). For the environmental conflicts likely to arise from large-scale projects (nuclear power plant, fossil-fuel power plant) this holds good for the most part of site selection plans. They have bearings on environmental protection in that they presuppose thorough examination of facts, help to recognize possible conflicts at an early date and provide a frame for solving those problems. Municipal construction planning is guided by the following principles: Environmental protection is an equivalent planning target. Environmental data and facts and their methodical processing play a fundamental part as they constitute the basis of evaluation. Under the rules and regulations of the federal law on immission protection, section 5, number 2 - prevention of nuisances - operators are obliged to take preventive care of risks. That section is not concerned with planning or distribution. Neither does the licensing of nuclear plants have planning character. So far as the legal preconditions of licensing are fulfilled, the scope for rejection of an application under section 7, subsection 2 of the atomic energy law in view of site selection and requirement of a plant hardly carries any practical weight. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 7, Groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) uses large quantities of groundwater for drinking, processing, and non-contact cooling. Continued industrial and residential growth along with additional agricultural irrigation in areas adjacent to SRS will increase the demand for groundwater. This increasing demand will require a comprehensive management system to ensure the needed quality and quantity of groundwater is available for all users. The Groundwater Protection Program and the Waste Management Program establish the overall framework for protecting this resource. Ground water under SRS is monitored extensively for radiological, hazardous, and water quality constituents. Groundwater quality is known to have been affected at 33 onsite locations, but none of the contaminant plumes have migrated offsite. Onsite and offsite drinking water supplies are monitored to ensure they are not impacted. The site has more than 1800 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological constituents. SRS is complying with all applicable regulations related to groundwater protection, waste treatment, and waste disposal. The existing waste storage facilities are permitted or are being permitted. Existing hazardous- and mixed-waste storage facilities are being included in the site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit. Part B permitting has been initiated for many of the planned hazardous- and mixed-waste treatment and disposal facilities

  10. Environmental radiological protection of Bariloche Atomic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, Pablo A.; Levanon, Izhar S.

    2013-01-01

    This plan of monitoring radiological environmental routine fits on environmental policy of CNEA, satisfying national and international recommendations for licensed facilities. Sampling matrices are related to direct routes of exposure: air and water (river, lake, sediments, drinking water). Soil samples are also analyzed for having integrated matrices. They are considered as minimum three points of measurement: a white point (water or winds up), a point of maximum (water or winds down) and a point corresponding to the location of the individual representative or a point of public interest. Measurements in air estimate KERMA rate with thermoluminescent dosimeters, bi-monthly, and concentrations of particulate material and aerosols. For water samples (monthly), soil and sediments (quarterly), radionuclides that have download limits are analyzed, according to its importance in the dosages produced in the representative individual. In these cases artificial radionuclides using gamma spectrometry, beta total and Sr-90 by radiochemical techniques if the value of total screening (1 Bq/L) is exceeded. Foods are not included because no possible matrices were detected, either by their distance. by located not predominant wind direction. They are however still looking for milk producers that fulfills the minimum requirements.The data collected are compared with environmental baselines to set trends that might point to future significant changes in the environment during the life of the facilities. So far it was not observed significant differences with respect to baseline values

  11. 40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2150 Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

  12. Legal significance of environmental protection in foreign investments law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field is going to be the strengthening of the bond between international investments and environmental protection. It is insisted on the attitude that our law needs to approach adequately to the matter of legal valorization of the environmental protection issue. This requires the creating of a complex, coherent approach that should be based on adequate legal superstructure and amendments to the existing Law on Foreign Investments. The main direction of changes implies that the current obligation of foreign investors in this field should be raised onto a higher level and foreign investments should be placed in the function of accomplishing of the concept of sustainable development. However, such an approach has to be accompanied by appropriate mechanism of control and supervision in the given field, if its full effectiveness is to be achieved.

  13. What the new EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) rules mean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, A.E.; Friedland, D.M.

    1990-02-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has issued its first proposed New Source Performance Standards for municipal incinerators in 18 years. EPA's 1971 NSPS set only particulate limits. The new NSPS also sets combustion standards, acid gas and dioxin emission limits, and a materials separation requirement. The latest NSPS, plus proposed emission guidelines for existing facilities, both regulate municipal waste combustors (MWCs) under the Clean Air Act. They both contain new emission limitations for the various pollutants emitted by MWCs, and materials separation requirements. The emission limitations, and the control technologies on which they are based, are different for different size facilities. The proposed regulations also contain operating requirements, testing and record-keeping provisions, and requirements for operator certification and training. The New Source Performance Standards are summarized. The emission guidelines for existing facilities are then described. These include: best demonstrated technology, combustion controls, and materials separation.

  14. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  15. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  16. Estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements: Case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhifeng; CUI Baoshan; LIU Jingling

    2005-01-01

    Supplying water to the ecological environment with certain quantity and quality is significant for the protection of diversity and the realization of sustainable development. The conception and connotation of eco-environmental water requirements, including the definition of the conception, the composition and characteristics of eco-environmental water requirements, are evaluated in this paper. The classification and estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements are then proposed. On the basis of the study on the Huang-Huai-Hai Area, the present water use, the minimum and suitable water requirement are estimated and the corresponding water shortage is also calculated. According to the interrelated programs, the eco-environmental water requirements in the coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are estimated. The result indicates that the minimum and suitable eco-environmental water requirements fluctuate with the differences of function setting and the referential standard of water resources, and so as the water shortage. Moreover, the study indicates that the minimum eco-environmental water requirement of the study area ranges from 2.84×1010m3 to 1.02×1011m3, the suitable water requirement ranges from 6.45×1010m3 to 1.78×1011m3, the water shortage ranges from 9.1×109m3 to 2.16×1010m3 under the minimum water requirement, and it is from 3.07×1010m3 to 7.53×1010m3 under the suitable water requirement. According to the different values of the water shortage, the water priority can be allocated. The ranges of the eco-environmental water requirements in the three coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are 4.49×1010m3-1.73×1011m3, 5.99×10m3?2.09×1011m3, and 7.44×1010m3-2.52×1011m3, respectively.

  17. Food and environmental protection newsletter. V. 1, no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of food irradiation, environmental impacts of pesticides; radionuclide migration and related topics. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in food and environmental protection.

  18. Food and environmental protection newsletter. V. 1, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of food irradiation, environmental impacts of pesticides; radionuclide migration and related topics. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in food and environmental protection

  19. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by

  20. Environmental protection - global and regional relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.

    1992-01-01

    In the broadest sense, environmental protection is a task of extraordinary urgency, needed to conserve water, soil and air in a state which preserves the health of flora and fauna. In the foreseeable future, there will be widespread changes leading to the substantial decimation of mankind, unless men themselves, i.e. those in responsible positions in the industrial nations, take immediate serious steps, supported by a high level of resources, to ensure their own survival. The following measures are necessary in order to avert the impending catastrophe: 1. Radical reduction of CO 2 , methane and FCC emissions to stop the greenhouse effect and the growth of the ozone hole. 2. Removal of CO 2 and methane from the atmosphere. 3. Radical reduction of the birth-rate. 4. Prevention of further growth in desert and steppe regions and reclamation of new fertile areas. 5. Development of technical systems for producing large quantities of cheap energy, to stop the greenhouse effect and supply fresh water for the irrigation of steppe and desert areas. Apart from exploitation of alternative energy sources, which will not themselves suffice, nuclear fusion and nuclear power should be extended and developed. (orig.) [de

  1. Environmental monitoring well housing and protection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenner, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for housing and protecting an environmental monitoring well having a well pipe disposed in a well bore with an upper and extending toward the surface of the ground. It comprises: placing an enclosure ins aid well bore around the upper end of the well pipe, the enclosure being of unitary construction and having an upper opening, a lower opening and an inwardly-protruding ledge between the upper opening and the lower opening, placing sealing means in the well bore between the outter surface of the well pipe and the inner surface of the enclosure, the sealing means being a composition distinct from the well pipe; placing on the ledge a flexible gasket having a shape substantially identical to the shape of the surface of the ledge; placing on the gasket within the enclosure a cover having an upper surface and a peripheral shape substantially identical to the shape of the interior of the enclosure, and attaching the cover to the enclosure so that the upper opening of the enclosure and the upper surface of the cover are substantially flush with the surface of the ground

  2. Application of radiation to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Machi, Sueo

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made to investigate the current applications of radiations to environmental protection. Electron irradiation is used for desulfurization and denitration of flue gas. Flue gas generated from combusted fossil fuel such as coal and oil is irradiated with electrons to oxidize sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which are then removed to clean the flue gas. Ammonia or lime may be added before irradiation to convert sulfer dioxide and nitrogen oxides into ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate or convert sulfur dioxide into calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. Radiations are helpful for treatment of waste water. When water is irradiated with radiations, most of the energy is absorbed by water to cause decomposition of water molecules, resulting in the production of highly reactive species such as OH radical and H atom. Contaminants then react with these species and are oxidized into carbon dioxide and water. Other methods are also available for applying radiations to water treatment. Sludge contains a large amount of organic substances that serve as fertilizer components. Thus, radiations can be used to sterilize and compost sludge. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the ‘legal requirement’ discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The ‘common ground’ regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less

  4. Protected areas for environmental sustainability in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Key words: Protected Areas, Aesthetics, Cultural Heritage, Guidebook. ... International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). ... and tourism within the city of Evanston, U.S.A ... that were protected and designated as forest reserves.

  5. Application of radiological protection measures to meet different environmental protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recognises that there is no simple or single universal definition of ‘environmental protection’, and that the concept differs from country to country and from one circumstance to another. However, there is an increasing need to be able to demonstrate that the environment is protected from radioactive substances released under authorisation for various reasons, such as for wildlife conservation requirements, or wildlife management for commercial reasons, or simply as part of pollution control. The Commission is developing the concept of Representative Organisms, which may be identified from any specific legal requirements or from more general requirements to protect local habitats or ecosystems. Such organisms may be the actual objects of protection or they may be hypothetical, depending on the objectives of the assessment. They may be similar to, or even congruent with, one or more of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). Where this is not the case, attempts can be made to consider the extent to which the Representative Organisms differ from the nearest RAP in terms of known radiation effects upon it, basic biology, radiation dosimetry, and pathways of exposure. This paper discusses the practical implications of such an approach.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIC FACTOR IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU Doru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.

  7. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section 501.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule or order that imposes a prohibition, order that...

  8. Reports from the Bavarian Office for Environmental Protection (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This issue, No. 108, contains the 1990 annual report of the Bavarian Environmental Office, as well as contributions on the subjects of environmental protection, radiation protection, noise abatement, waste management and conservations. Several contributions have been recorded separately in this database. (BBR) [de

  9. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Directeur(s) : Veena Jha. Maison(s) d'édition : Edward Elgar, IDRC. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN : 184542512X. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 155250185X.

  10. European workshop on technologies for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesing, J H; Pippich, B [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Current European research activities in the field of environmental technologies are discussed under the following headings: photocatalysis; emission abatement - catalytic processes (mainly NO{sub x} reduction catalysts for vehicles and industrial boilers); emission abatement - biological and chemical processes; biological wastewater treatment; chemical and physical wastewater treatment; integrated wastewater treatment; environmental technologies in pulp and paper industry; environmental technologies in surface treatment; selected examples of `clean technologies`; environmental technologies in ceramic and cement industry and policy and strategies.

  11. United States Department of Energy Richland Field Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1991--November 9, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable Federal, State and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each DOE Field Office prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update the plan annually. Therefore, this update to the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1989a), initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued

  12. United States Department of Energy Richland Field Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1992--November 9, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable Federal, State and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each DOE Field Office prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update the plan annually. This update to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1989a), initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued to comply with the order

  13. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF); Boden, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cowley, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Dattoria, Vince [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Desai, Narayan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Goldstone, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregurick, Susan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological Systems Science Division; Houghton, John [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program; Izaurralde, Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Joseph, Renu [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Pritchard, Matt [British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), Oxon (United Kingdom); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Strand, Gary [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Stuart, Cory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tatusova, Tatiana [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Thomas, Brian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zurawski, Jason [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  14. Protected areas for environmental sustainability in Nigeria | Imasuen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is focused on protected areas for environmental sustainability in Nigeria. It has examined what protected areas are the meaning, especially as defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). A thorough investigation was done to identify the areas that were and are still protected in ...

  15. Organizational and legal mechanism of the environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Гетьман

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational and legal mechanisms of environmental protection are defined by the author of the article as a mechanism of organization and system of activities of state executive power bodies and local self-government bodies in the field of environmental public relations arising in connection with environmental protection and environmental safety provision. The rules of administrative law are its legal basis, alongside with the norms of environmental law. The former designed to reflect the specifics of the subject, objects, subjects and principles of legal regulation of social relations in this area. The latter define common goals, objectives and functions of state public relations management nature.

  16. Tunable Polarity Carbon Fibers, a Holistic Approach to Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa García-Valverde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of environmental resources is an issue of social concern worldwide. Chemistry is essential for the design of decontamination strategies and analytical approaches to detect and monitor the contamination. Sorptive materials are usually required in both approaches and green synthesis should be used to minimize their own environmental impact. Carbon fibers (CFs obtained by the pyrolysis of natural cellulose-rich materials fulfill these requirements. In this article, thirty CFs obtained under different conditions are chemically characterized and their sorption ability towards selected pollutants, covering a wide range of polarity, is evaluated. This study provides more profound knowledge related to the polarity of these materials, their interactions with chemical substances and allows the prediction of more appropriate materials (pyrolysis temperature and time in order to remove the given pollutant. Furthermore, the use of CFs as sorptive materials for the extraction of contaminants from water samples to assist with their instrumental detection is outlined. In this sense, the use of CFs and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the detection of selected pollutants in the low ng/mL range. Thus, this article provides an integrated approach to the potential of CFs for environmental protection.

  17. Tunable Polarity Carbon Fibers, a Holistic Approach to Environmental Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valverde, M Teresa; Ledesma-Escobar, Carlos A; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad

    2018-04-27

    The pollution of environmental resources is an issue of social concern worldwide. Chemistry is essential for the design of decontamination strategies and analytical approaches to detect and monitor the contamination. Sorptive materials are usually required in both approaches and green synthesis should be used to minimize their own environmental impact. Carbon fibers (CFs) obtained by the pyrolysis of natural cellulose-rich materials fulfill these requirements. In this article, thirty CFs obtained under different conditions are chemically characterized and their sorption ability towards selected pollutants, covering a wide range of polarity, is evaluated. This study provides more profound knowledge related to the polarity of these materials, their interactions with chemical substances and allows the prediction of more appropriate materials (pyrolysis temperature and time) in order to remove the given pollutant. Furthermore, the use of CFs as sorptive materials for the extraction of contaminants from water samples to assist with their instrumental detection is outlined. In this sense, the use of CFs and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the detection of selected pollutants in the low ng/mL range. Thus, this article provides an integrated approach to the potential of CFs for environmental protection.

  18. 13 CFR 500.206 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental assessment. (i) The Executive Director will...) Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement. (i) If after an environmental... integrated use of the natural and social sciences and the environmental design arts.” 42 U.S.C. 4332(A). If...

  19. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the environmental...

  20. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will describe the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation's (FERMCO) Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RlDs) Program, the unique process used to implement it, and the status of the program. We will also discuss the lessons learned as the program was implemented. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Fernald site to produce uranium metals for the nation's defense programs in 1953. In 1989, DOE suspended production and, in 1991, the mission of the site was formally changed to one of environmental cleanup and restoration. The site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO's mission is to provide safe, early, and least-cost final clean-up of the site in compliance with all regulations and commitments. DOE has managed nuclear facilities primarily through its oversight of Management and Operating contractors. Comprehensive nuclear industry standards were absent when most DOE sites were first established, Management and Operating contractors had to apply existing non-nuclear industry standards and, in many cases, formulate new technical standards. Because it was satisfied with the operation of its facilities, DOE did not incorporate modern practices and standards as they became available. In March 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 90-2, which called for DOE to identify relevant standards and requirements, conduct adequacy assessments of requirements in protecting environmental, public, and worker health and safety, and determine the extent to which the requirements are being implemented. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of DOE embraced the recommendation for facilities under its control. Strict accountability requirements made it essential that FERMCO and DOE clearly identify applicable requirements necessary, determine the requirements' adequacy, and assess FERMCO's level of compliance

  1. Requirements to obtain the recognition of radiological protection experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguelles, R.; Villarroel, R.; Senderos, V.; Campos, R.; Pinos, M.; Ponjuan, G.; Franco, P.; Rueda, D.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to summarize the general requirements related to education, training and skill of the individual to obtain the recognition of radiological protection experts on ionizing radiation (experts on radiological protection- RP). There has been established two levels according to the grade of responsibility: Qualified expert provided with a diploma given by de Nuclear Safety Council. Technician expert on radiological protection whose certification is made by the Qualified expert that supervise their work. To obtain the diploma of qualified expert is required an official degree, a title of Architecture, Engineering or equivalent in case of no national degrees; specific training on radiological protection (300 hours) and the knowledge on safety and radiological protection of the facilities to be supervised. Three years of experience on radiological protection must be proved. To get the recognition of technician expert on radiological protection is required Formacion Profesional de Grado Superior or equivalent and specific training on safety and radiological protection. Knowledge on basis and principles of radiological protection are required. According to the type of the facilities to be supervised there are two models: A model: to deal with facilities included in RD 1836/1999 (nuclear and radioactive facilities). B model: to deal with medical X rays facilities approved under RD 1891/1991 three months of experience on the selected model must be proved. (Author)

  2. Priority actions (Environmental protection in Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The priority actions were based on environmental needs in the short to medium term, keeping in mind that there are severe budgetary constraints and the environmental institutions are still being developed. The private sector will be encouraged to participate, wherever possible in implementing the priority actions.Based on the evaluation of all the environmental priorities, the following are considered priority actions which should be addressed within the next five years: air quality improvement; water quality improvement; solid waste management; biodiversity conservation; renewal and preservation of forests; technical assistance. (author)

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND EDUCATION SYSTEM IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Falencka-Jabłońska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environmental education and the effectiveness of its methods are a necessity, decisive for preserving natural resources for successive generations. Educating proper attitudes towards the surrounding nature must be based on sound knowledge gained, supported by observation, experience and experiment. Teaching conducted at all levels environmental science should be based not on boxed knowledge, but on causal thinking skills. Establishing hypotheses and their verification, as well as the variety of methods of understanding the laws of nature, will influence the effective prevention of environmental degradation in the 21st century.

  4. Promoting environmental protection in Nigeria through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pollution, land degradation, water security, forest fires, deforestation, climate ... The importance of environmental education has been strongly emphasized not just ... also through training in business and industry, through community activities ...

  5. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  6. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  7. MOTOR FUEL TAXES AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Ptak

    2011-01-01

    Motor fuel taxes are primarily revenue-raising taxes. However, due to high fuel consumption these taxes can be quite an efficient source of general budget revenue in many countries. It seems that the taxes on motor fuels may also be useful instruments for environmental policy or climate change policy. Environmental objectives can be achieved through change of behavior of drivers. The paper presents theoretical basis for taxes levied on motor fuels. Attention is paid to the problem of external...

  8. Environmental Restoration Program quality system requirements for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.F.

    1993-11-01

    This document defines the quality system requirements for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Program at the Hanford Site. The Quality System Requirements (OSR) for the Hanford Site integrates quality assurance requirements from the US Department of Energy Orders, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), and applicable industry standards into a single source document for the development of quality systems applicable to the Environmental Restoration Program activities. This document, based on fifteen criteria and divided intro three parts, provides user organizations with the flexibility to incorporate only those criteria and parts applicable to their specific scopes of work. The requirements of this document shall be applied to activities that affect quality based on a graded approach that takes into consideration the risk inherent in, as well as the importance of, specific items, services, and activities in terms of meeting ER Program objectives and customer expectations. The individual quality systems developed in accordance with this document are intended to provide an integrated management control system that assures the conduct of ER Program activities in a manner that protects human health and the environment

  9. The Canadian experience in frontier environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Early Canadian frontier exploration (from 1955 onshore and from 1966 for offshore drilling) caused insignificant public concern. The 1967-1968 Torrey Canyon Tanker and Santa Barbara disasters roused public opinion and governments. In Canada, 1969-1970 Arctic gas blowouts, a tanker disaster, and damage to the 'Manhattan' exacerbated concerns and resulted in new environmental regulatory constraints. From 1970, the Arctic Petroleum Operations Association learned to operate safely with environmental responsibility. It studied physical environment for design criteria, and the biological and human environment to ameliorate impact. APOA's research projects covered sea-ice, permafrost, sea-bottom, oil-spills, bird and mammal migration, fish habitat, food chains, oceanography, meteorology, hunters'/trappers' harvests, etc. In 1971 Eastcoast Petroleum Operators' Association and Alaska Oil and Gas Association followed APOA's cooperative research model. EPOA stressed icebergs and fisheries. Certain research was handled by the Canadian Offshore Oil Spill Research Association. By the mid-1980s these associations had undertaken $70,000,000 of environmental oriented research, with equivalent additional work by member companies on specific needs and similar sums by Federal agencies often working with industry on complementary research. The frontier associations then merged with the Canadian Petroleum Association, already active environmentally in western Canada. Working with government and informing environmental interest groups, the public, natives, and local groups, most Canadian frontier petroleum operations proceeded with minimal delay and environmental disturbance

  10. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschner, P.; Koenig, W.; Andreas, M.; Trinius, W.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients. (author)

  11. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschner, P; Koenig, W [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Andreas, M [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Fachrichtung Stomatologie; Trinius, W [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik

    1976-03-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients.

  12. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Complete Enterprise Dataset Inventory (EDI) listing all agency data assets for compliance with federal Project Open Data mandate (https://project-open-data.cio.gov/).

  13. Requirements of radiation protection and safety for nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements of radiation protection and safety for nuclear medicine services are established. The norms is applied to activities related to the radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutics and 'in vivo' diagnostics purposes. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Report on environmental protection. Pt. 5: Soil protection. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Bois, W.; Stock, P.; Friedrich, K.; Lehmann, L.

    1991-08-01

    The main subject of the report on soil protection is the traffic related heavy metal load of agricultural and alotment used soil in the federation area. The occasion for this report were similar studies of the country of Hesse and the city of Frankfurt - with quite not definite results - as well as the lack of corresponding data for the federation area. On behalf of the surrounding federation of Frankfurt, soil areas in a width of up to 200 m have been tested and analyzed for the first time on both sides of streets outside the location. A considerable increase of the content of heavy metal in the soil - especially of lead - has been ascertained near of street and thus, documented their dependence on the traffic. The level of the soil load is also influenced by the soil condition, the vicinity to the conurbation of Frankfurt, wind carrying load as well as by heavy metal furnishes from other pollutant sources. (orig.) [de

  15. Joint stock company memorandum of association and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint stock company memorandum of association and environmental protection 2011 Company Act stipulates that prevailing purpose of enterprise is mandatory element of memorandum of association. Connection between memorandum of association and environmental protection is based on provision that registration or doing certain business may be subject to license granted by relevant body. This is the case with 2009 Waste Management Act which provides for license granted by state authorities for doing one or more activities in waste management.

  16. Environmental protection - can it be regarded as a basic right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soell, H.

    1986-01-01

    The question of the necessity of an 'environmental basic right' is to be seen in connection with the doctrine of the duty of the State to protect the basic rights. Under the present law this obligation of the State applies only to third party intervention, it does not take effect if it is a matter of protecting the environment as such. Therefore the introduction of an 'environmental basic right' is necessary. (WG) [de

  17. Independence and the Irish Environmental Protection Agency: A Comparative Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Shipan, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is one of the most prominent regulatory agencies in Ireland. Created in 1992, one of the hallmarks of this agency is its independence from other parts of government. Yet little is known about the actual extent of its independence. Independence and the Irish Environmental Protection Agency: A Comparative Assessment addresses several key questions about the agency's independence. Why was independence such a primary justification for the creation of this a...

  18. Environmental protection, a task of chemical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, H

    1980-12-01

    The environmental burden in air and water in Germany is surveyed. The terms 'eco-unobjectionable technology' and 'disposal technology' are then considered with the aid of examples. These are fundamental chemical engineering approaches for reducing or eliminating environmental burdens due to industrial production processes. 'Eco-unobjectionable processes' are those in which undesired pollutants are not even formed, i.e. when possible emissions are eliminated at source. If this is only partly possible, or impossible, then disposal measures are adopted. This means removal of unavoidable pollutants from waste gases and waste water, and the disposal of other wastes.

  19. Sweden's radiation protection regulations for spent fuel and nuclear waste: Requirements and compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norden, M.; Jensen, M.; Larsson, C.M.; Avila, R.; Bergman, S.S.; Wiebert, A.; Wiklund, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Swedish regulations on radiation protection in connection with spent fuel and nuclear waste disposal concern protection of human health and the environment. The reasoning behind the regulations is in observance with the Rio declaration, in the sense that they take into consideration sustainable development also in continued presence of multiple sources of radioactive effluents. Optimisation and best available technique are used as methods for risk reduction. For human health, a risk concept is used, whereas for environmental protection, focus is set on protection of biological resources and diversity. Compliance with the health and environmental goals is discussed using generic definition of the environment. The hypothetical outflow from a repository takes place in the different compartments and the resulting spread in doses are discussed and compared to the requirements of the individual dose standard, and other environmental effects are assessed. (author)

  20. Ecology and environmental protection - a scientific and political problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenkler, H

    1983-09-01

    The strategy for life in the inter-relationship between way of life and the environment and also the cause of ecological crises and assumptions about biological innovations are indicated in this paper. The aim of man has always been to adapt animate and inanimate nature to his needs. With the help of environmental protection measures it has been possible to extent the ecological load-bearing capacity of the human population. The acceleration of cycles of elements important for the process of life and business which is wide ranging and required on a world wide basis have become a serious problem. Sensible measures for conserving the resources of the environment are a responsibility of the state.

  1. Marine environmental protection, sustainability and the precautionary principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.; Santillo, D.; Stringer, R.

    1999-01-01

    The global oceans provide a diverse array of ecosystem services which cannot be replaced by technological means and are therefore of potentially infinite value. While valuation of ecosystem services is a useful qualitative metric, unresolved uncertainties limit its application in the regulatory and policy domain. This paper evaluates current human activities in terms of their conformity to four principles of sustainability. Violation of any one of the principles indicates that a given activity is unsustainable and that controlling measures are required. Examples of human uses of the oceans can be evaluated using these principles, taking into account also the transgenerational obligations of the current global population. When three major issues concerning the oceans: Land based activities, fisheries and climatic change are examined in this way, they may easily be shown to be globally unsustainable. It is argued that effective environmental protection can best be achieved through the application of a precautionary approach. (author)

  2. Competitiveness and environmental protection in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, E.

    2000-01-01

    In presenting his Ministry's annual report for 1999, the Italian Environment Minister pointed out that after years of emergency-driven policies, Italy has finally embarked on far-reaching environmental reform designed to generate sustainable, lasting and high-quality development [it

  3. Environmental Protection: Can We Afford It

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    losing ground to Japan, Germany, and the Asian Tigers . Closer to home, Mexico, with its abundant work force, low wages, and slack environmental enforce...pollution (such as respiratory cancer, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema, asthma , and the common cold) to be about $2 billion.Y In a 1991 report

  4. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L. [comps.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  5. Safety and Environmental Protection Division 1975 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.; Ash, J.A.

    1976-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other environmental pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory during 1975 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in precipitation; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk, grass and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory

  6. Environmental aspects at radiological protection in ArcelorMittal Monlevade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Cleber Marques; Soares Filho, Mauricio; Franco, Jose Otavio Andrade; Leite, Roberto Paulo; Goncalves, Breno Cunha; Costa, Jose Gustavo de Souza

    2010-01-01

    ArcelorMittal Monlevade Environmental Management of Radiological Protection is based on radiological protection team training, start up of radioactivity materials detection equipment in several steps of industrial processes and internal procedures according to CNEN - Nuclear Energy National Commission guidelines. At this way ArcelorMittal Monlevade seeks to guarantee the safety of employees, community, customers, equipment and the environment and their business. (author)

  7. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  8. 7 CFR 3550.5 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Policy. RHS will consider environmental quality as equal with economic, social, and other relevant factors in program development and decision-making processes. RHS will take into account potential environmental impacts of proposed projects by working with RHS applicants, other federal agencies, Indian tribes...

  9. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs

  10. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  11. Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

  12. Extension of the protection of the individual against environmental encroachments - a task for private and public law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.; Wolf, R.

    1986-01-01

    In the opinion of the author an substantial extension of the protection of the individual against environmental encroachments is not necessary. In many fields of law, for instance in the atomic law or the law for the protection against nuisance, the protection of the individual can be improved by minor corrections. In civil law the same improvement can be gained by an interpretation of existing provisions taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. (WG) [de

  13. Environmental protection systems for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The transportation of petroleum products and other chemicals can involve spillage and leaks despite being closely controlled. Human error in the loading of road tankers or consumers refuelling their vehicles at service stations can lead to spillage accidents. Seepage through permeable concrete and its expansion joints can occur for diesel underground tanks with serious environmental consequences. This article describes methods which could be adopted by the petroleum industry to prevent these accidental incidents from causing environmental pollution. Service station forecourts could be constructed, using precast concrete hexagonal blocks with dry sand between them and then have a coating of sealant to prevent spills from seeping into ground water. Secondary containment for underground tanks should be given an elastomeric membrane coating. (UK)

  14. Environmental protection issues in uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    1999-01-01

    The extent to which the environment in the vicinity of the Ranger uranium mine has been protected throughout the past twenty years has been assessed on the basis of radiological, chemical and biological monitoring. Based on this experience, a risk assessment of the proposed development of the Jabiluka mine has been carried out. It is concluded that mining of uranium at Ranger has not given rise to adverse effects on the people or the ecosystems of Kakadu National Park and the natural values of the Park are not threatened by the development of the Jabiluka mine

  15. Nuclear energy, environmental protection and international conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke-Glueckert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Some general and some critical remarks on: nuclear energy as an image for politics; nuclear energy as a model for research planning; nuclear controversy; the principle of precaution in nuclear and radiation protection law; reactor safety on probation; advantages and economy of nuclear energy; communication difficulties; the special role of nuclear energy; the need for European site planning; supervision of fissionable materials; the world's energy household in danger; global structure politics and nuclear energy; nuclear energy with a capacity for social innovations. (HP/LN) [de

  16. Ecological education and environmental protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejuniene, E.

    1998-01-01

    One of important directions of teaching processes in Lithuania now is ecological education and environment protection training. The real possibility to involve scientists into students, teachers ecological education appeared since 1993 when scientific programme 'Ignalina NPP and the Environment' was launched. Scientists working at Drukshiai Ecological Station together with specialists from Pedagogical University and Institute of Pedagogy prepared teaching programmes, methodical aids. During 1993 - 1997 31 measures - ecological camps for schoolchildren and students as well as seminars and workshops for teachers were organized; 551 participants took part. (author)

  17. 16 CFR 1211.7 - Inherent entrapment protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from the full upmost position both with and without any external entrapment protection device... that represents the most severe operating condition. Any accessories having an effect on the intended... the requirement. The means supplied to comply with the requirement in paragraph (a) of this section...

  18. Environmental futures research at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Olson

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research on environmental futures has been carried out in the United States. An exception is the long-running futures research that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting since the 1970s. This paper reviews past and current efforts toward developing a capacity for environmental foresight within the EPA, and discusses some...

  19. Metrology of radiation protection. Pt. 1. Physical requirements and terminology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S R

    1979-10-01

    Starting from a general consideration of the needs for radiation protection the physical requirements of a relevant metrology are developed. The expedient physical quantities are introduced and problems in the realization and dissemination of their units discussed. It is shown that owing to these difficulties, derived or operational quantities have to be developed for the construction and calibration of practical measuring instruments. Finally the relations between the metrology of radiation protection and of medical radiology are pointed out and commented. (orig.).

  20. Regulatory requirements of radiation protection for veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst-Elz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The application of radionuclides for diagnostic and therapy in veterinary medicine requires permission by terms of German radiation protection ordinance. Conditions for granting this licence are described. Preconditions are the requisite qualification of the veterinarian and the structural conditions of radiation protection. It is necessary to consider the possible exposure of the public by radioactive waste and by animals after their discharge from treatment. (orig.)

  1. Computer science handbook. Vol. 13.3. Environmental computer science. Computer science methods for environmental protection and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, B.; Hilty, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental computer science is a new partial discipline of applied computer science, which makes use of methods and techniques of information processing in environmental protection. Thanks to the inter-disciplinary nature of environmental problems, computer science acts as a mediator between numerous disciplines and institutions in this sector. The handbook reflects the broad spectrum of state-of-the art environmental computer science. The following important subjects are dealt with: Environmental databases and information systems, environmental monitoring, modelling and simulation, visualization of environmental data and knowledge-based systems in the environmental sector. (orig.) [de

  2. Training for effective environmental protection in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.; Brake, J.; Hickman, C.; Tamm, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the role of environmental training in the delivery of effective environmental protection programs for construction projects in the nuclear industry. The paper uses a case study approach, based on Point Lepreau Generating Station's Refurbishment Project, to demonstrate how the underpinning principles of 'training, awareness and competence' can be delivered within a structured environmental management framework, to achieve sustained excellence in environmental management and performance. Key issues addressed by the paper include the early identification of different target audiences, making effective use of communication themes, and the importance of reinforcement and follow-up in support of training goals. (author)

  3. Biofouling protection for marine environmental sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Delauney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, pH or fluorescence. Emphasis has to be put on the long term quality of measurements, yet sensors may face very short-term biofouling effects. Biofouling can disrupt the quality of the measurements, sometimes in less than a week.

    Many techniques to prevent biofouling on instrumentation are listed and studied by researchers and manufacturers. Very few of them are implemented on instruments and of those very few have been tested in situ on oceanographic sensors for deployment of at least one or two months.

    This paper presents a review of techniques used to protect against biofouling of in situ sensors and gives a short list and description of promising techniques.

  4. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  5. Optimal conservation outcomes require both restoration and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possingham, Hugh P; Bode, Michael; Klein, Carissa J

    2015-01-01

    Conservation outcomes are principally achieved through the protection of intact habitat or the restoration of degraded habitat. Restoration is generally considered a lower priority action than protection because protection is thought to provide superior outcomes, at lower costs, without the time delay required for restoration. Yet while it is broadly accepted that protected intact habitat safeguards more biodiversity and generates greater ecosystem services per unit area than restored habitat, conservation lacks a theory that can coherently compare the relative outcomes of the two actions. We use a dynamic landscape model to integrate these two actions into a unified conservation theory of protection and restoration. Using nonlinear benefit functions, we show that both actions are crucial components of a conservation strategy that seeks to optimise either biodiversity conservation or ecosystem services provision. In contrast to conservation orthodoxy, in some circumstances, restoration should be strongly preferred to protection. The relative priority of protection and restoration depends on their costs and also on the different time lags that are inherent to both protection and restoration. We derive a simple and easy-to-interpret heuristic that integrates these factors into a single equation that applies equally to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service objectives. We use two examples to illustrate the theory: bird conservation in tropical rainforests and coastal defence provided by mangrove forests.

  6. Optimal conservation outcomes require both restoration and protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh P Possingham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation outcomes are principally achieved through the protection of intact habitat or the restoration of degraded habitat. Restoration is generally considered a lower priority action than protection because protection is thought to provide superior outcomes, at lower costs, without the time delay required for restoration. Yet while it is broadly accepted that protected intact habitat safeguards more biodiversity and generates greater ecosystem services per unit area than restored habitat, conservation lacks a theory that can coherently compare the relative outcomes of the two actions. We use a dynamic landscape model to integrate these two actions into a unified conservation theory of protection and restoration. Using nonlinear benefit functions, we show that both actions are crucial components of a conservation strategy that seeks to optimise either biodiversity conservation or ecosystem services provision. In contrast to conservation orthodoxy, in some circumstances, restoration should be strongly preferred to protection. The relative priority of protection and restoration depends on their costs and also on the different time lags that are inherent to both protection and restoration. We derive a simple and easy-to-interpret heuristic that integrates these factors into a single equation that applies equally to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service objectives. We use two examples to illustrate the theory: bird conservation in tropical rainforests and coastal defence provided by mangrove forests.

  7. Groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Jaeger, G.K.; McMahon, W.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Project. This plan is prepared based on the assumption that the ERDF will receive waste containing hazardous/dangerous constituents, radioactive constituents, and combinations of both. The purpose of this plan is to establish a groundwater monitoring program that (1) meets the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, (2) documents baseline groundwater conditions, (3) monitors those conditions for change, and (4) allows for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program. Groundwater samples indicate the occurrence of preexisting groundwater contamination in the uppermost unconfined aquifer below the ERDF Project site, as a result of past waste-water discharges in the 200 West Area. Therefore, it is necessary for the ERDF to establish baseline groundwater quality conditions and to monitor changes in the baseline over time. The groundwater monitoring program presented in this plan will provide the means to assess onsite and offsite impacts to the groundwater. In addition, a separate leachate management program will provide an indication of whether the liners are performing within design standards

  8. Guidelines for the environmental protection in peat mining; Turvetuotannon ympaeristoensuojeluohje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The objective of these guidelines is to accelerate environmental protection in peat mining and to reduce the harmful effects caused by its related activities. The guidelines promote achievement of environmental objectives set both in legislation and government programmes through uniform practices and interpretations. The guidelines are based on current valid legislation. The guidelines provide up-to-date information on best practices in peat mining, especially in water protection but also in reducing noise and dust. They are intended to ease the work of both peat producers and the licensing and controlling authorities. The guidelines are not legally binding and must be applied on case-by-case basis. The current guidelines replace the 'Guidelines for environmental protection in peat mining' given in 2008. (orig.)

  9. Planning required in the development of radiation protection guidance for underground engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R H [U.S. Public Health Service, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The potential variety of engineering applications from the peaceful uses of underground nuclear explosives indicates an increased need for applicable radiation protection guidance to protect the public health of potentially exposed populations. To insure the orderly development of such uses, additional operational data as well as bioeffects data will be required to develop appropriate criteria and guidance to inform health officials and the public of the significance of possible exposures. The required planning includes an evaluation of the potential benefits and risks as well as the size and age of population, multiplicity of sources, likely and unlikely future uses, and the total environmental impact. (author)

  10. Planning required in the development of radiation protection guidance for underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1969-01-01

    The potential variety of engineering applications from the peaceful uses of underground nuclear explosives indicates an increased need for applicable radiation protection guidance to protect the public health of potentially exposed populations. To insure the orderly development of such uses, additional operational data as well as bioeffects data will be required to develop appropriate criteria and guidance to inform health officials and the public of the significance of possible exposures. The required planning includes an evaluation of the potential benefits and risks as well as the size and age of population, multiplicity of sources, likely and unlikely future uses, and the total environmental impact. (author)

  11. BIODIESELS AS A FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Babić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As of July 1st 2013. the Republic of Croatia will be a member of the European Union, which will primarily bring necessary harmonisation of ecological standards and requirements. Biodiesel, as a renewable source of energy, can be produced from algae, vegetable oil, and animal fats, and thus it is biodegradable. Biodiesel in Croatia is mainly produced from oilseed rape which, as an agricultural plant, has an increasing share in the past three years and records positive trends. This paper analyses the trend of production in the Republic of Croatia, and compares it with the production and consumption of fossil fuels. On the grounds of Croatia’s favourable agriculture-related climatic characteristics, in particular in the region of Slavonija and Baranja, more intense exploitation of farm land under the cultures intended for biodiesel production can be organised aiming at bumper yield and production. Croatia has already harmonised its standards of production of biodiesel, and by 2020 the consumption of biodiesel is bound to reach 20%. The data used in this paper are obtained from the sources available by Croatian Institute of Statistics, Market Information System in Agriculture, as well as Eurostat, and the rest used here are translated from the sources in the English language. The reviewed are the surfaces planted with oilseed rape in the period between 2007. and 2011., an average yield, and overall production. On the grounds of available information, the calculations of the quantity of bio fuel to be consumed in Croatia by 2020. and the percentage of the land surfaces planted with oilseed rape have been made.

  12. Domestic environmental requirements, new and projected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, B.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The paper outlines and/or gives data on the following: environmental concerns; goal of Title IV; national SO{sub 2} emissions; reductions in wet sulfate deposition; SO{sub 2} allowance program--benefits and costs; utility NO{sub x} emissions; NO{sub x} compliance options; cost effectiveness of NO{sub x} control; electric power regulations timeline; Clean Air power initiative; what a new approach would look like; and an analysis of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} cap and trade scenarios.

  13. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...

  14. 16 CFR 1211.8 - Secondary entrapment protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary entrapment protection requirements. 1211.8 Section 1211.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112, Telephone (800) 854-7179 or Global...

  15. Development and implementation of a construction environmental protection program at a solid radioactive waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Bishop, T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada); Hickman, C.N. [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Refurbishment of ageing nuclear stations has great economic and environmental benefits, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions. The Government of New Brunswick (NB) decided in 2005 to refurbish the Point Lepreau Generating Station with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) as the general contractor. The project includes construction of additional radioactive waste management facilities. AECL developed, for the construction project, an environmental protection program to comply with commitments made during the environmental assessment process, and regulatory requirements. The program covers detailed environmental plans, training courses, and engagement of consultants to provide training and conduct monitoring of the construction activities. Construction related environmental effects have been successfully mitigated and the monitoring results indicate compliance with all environmental requirements. (author)

  16. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  17. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 8, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    being adopted as Guidelines by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (see details in the Past Events section of this issue). The future activities of the Food and Environmental Protection sub-programme will include a coordinated and comprehensive 'farm to fork' approach to food production systems, i.e., strengthening compliance with food and environmental safety standards through good agricultural practices. This will include the enhancement of Member State capabilities to reduce food safety hazards and protect the environment through the application of nuclear and related analytical techniques and the identification, development and adoption of good agricultural practices that reduce the risks to food safety and the environment from chemical, microbiological and radionuclide contamination. These practices aim to limit the introduction of hazards at their source while at the same time emphasizing the application of agrochemicals in amounts and timing appropriate to agronomic, food safety and environmental requirements, including withholding periods. Laboratories and trained staff capable of establishing reliable sampling and analytical regimes for quantifying potential hazards within specific production practices or in products are indispensable for informed decision making and improved food safety and environmental protection. In this regard, the Food and Environmental Protection Section has been assigned seventeen new IAEA technical cooperation projects for the 2005-2006 biennium covering, among other areas, the use of irradiation for sanitary and phytosanitary purposes and in the implementation of quality assurance and quality control procedures in both pesticide and veterinary drug residue laboratories. The Joint Division also welcomes the strengthening of our current technical inputs to other inter-agency initiatives, including in the adaptation and validation of screening and confirmatory methodologies for veterinary drugs, pesticides and other contaminants; the

  18. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 8, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    being adopted as Guidelines by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (see details in the Past Events section of this issue). The future activities of the Food and Environmental Protection sub-programme will include a coordinated and comprehensive 'farm to fork' approach to food production systems, i.e., strengthening compliance with food and environmental safety standards through good agricultural practices. This will include the enhancement of Member State capabilities to reduce food safety hazards and protect the environment through the application of nuclear and related analytical techniques and the identification, development and adoption of good agricultural practices that reduce the risks to food safety and the environment from chemical, microbiological and radionuclide contamination. These practices aim to limit the introduction of hazards at their source while at the same time emphasizing the application of agrochemicals in amounts and timing appropriate to agronomic, food safety and environmental requirements, including withholding periods. Laboratories and trained staff capable of establishing reliable sampling and analytical regimes for quantifying potential hazards within specific production practices or in products are indispensable for informed decision making and improved food safety and environmental protection. In this regard, the Food and Environmental Protection Section has been assigned seventeen new IAEA technical cooperation projects for the 2005-2006 biennium covering, among other areas, the use of irradiation for sanitary and phytosanitary purposes and in the implementation of quality assurance and quality control procedures in both pesticide and veterinary drug residue laboratories. The Joint Division also welcomes the strengthening of our current technical inputs to other inter-agency initiatives, including in the adaptation and validation of screening and confirmatory methodologies for veterinary drugs, pesticides and other contaminants; the

  19. United States Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1990--November 9, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasch, R.A.

    1991-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable federal, state and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each field organization prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update this plan annually. Therefore, this update to the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued. Responsibility for coordinating preparation of the annual update of this plan is assigned to the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Safety and Environment Division's Environmental Oversight Branch

  20. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  1. Economic factor environmental protection. Extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Vertiefende Analyse zu Umweltschutz und Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, Dietmar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Blazejczak, Juergen [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany); Walz, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Innovations- und Systemforschung (FhG ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Within the bounds of a research project, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on an extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation. The stocktaking and evaluation of more important documents prove that despite the differences in the estimation of individual ranges an international consent insists according to central ecological challenges on global level. The consent covers the following target areas: Climate protection, preservation of the biological variety, water supply including waste water disposal and water protection, health protection. It is to be expected that in the next decades its validity will keep these ecological challenges although defusing or new environmental problems may result in single areas. It is to be expected that due to the world-wide economic development some emphasis of important ecological challenges will shift gradually to developing countries, in particular China and India.

  2. 7 CFR 2201.16 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capital loan means money used by an ongoing business concern to fund its existing operations. (3..., or in other cases, potentially affect: (A) A floodplain; (B) A wetland; (C) Important farmlands, or... that such studies are objective and comprehensive in scope and in depth. (4) NEPA requires that the...

  3. Practical approach to environmental protection in the exploration and production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection is a major issue throughout the world. Effective environmental protection techniques exist that are simple, creative, practical, and often cost effective. The cornerstone of cost effective environmental protection is an environmental management system. Various techniques are also available for reducing wastes, minimizing spills, remediating soils, reducing air emissions, and protecting groundwater and surface water in exploration and production operations

  4. Linking Environmental Protection and Poverty Reduction in Africa: An Analysis of the Regional Legal Responses to Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poverty has been identified as the main cause and consequence of environmental degradation in Africa . It follows that if poverty is the main cause of environmental degradation in Africa , then policies, programmes and legal provisions designed to protect the environment in the region will be unsuccessful without a significant improvement in the living standards, wellbeing and livelihoods of the poor. In the same breath, since poverty is a consequence of environmental degradation, then the protection of the environment is critical to the achievement of poverty reduction initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals in Africa . Hence, it can be argued that there is a mutual relationship between the achievement of environmental protection and reduction of poverty in Africa . This article therefore examines the extent to which the various regional legal instruments for the protection of the environment in Africa recognise this mutual linkage by providing for the promotion of poverty reduction and socio-economic development as integral aspect of their objective of ensuring the protection of the environment in the region.

  5. Evaluation Of The Risk Of Financing Projects Of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia PICIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research project approaches multidimensionally the financing of environmental protection from the perspective of directing, correlating and consolidating the financial flows circumscribed to the regeneration of an economy affected by environmental deterioration due to the very activities defining the economic mechanisms and circuits. The purpose of the project is to identify, by scientific, methodological and empirical analysis of the concepts, principles and arguments imposed by the economic theory, the risks of financing the projects of environmental projects and to evaluate their effects because their neglecting, individual approach or erroneous dimensioning might have unfavourable and unforeseen consequences in terms of the efficiency of the environmental strategies and policies. The objective of the study is the reveal the interdependency and interaction between the flows and circuits financing the environmental projects, showing the necessity for punctual, distributive, correlative and multiplicative financing of the environmental protection. This must be done from an expanded and prospective spatial and temporal vision by a compositional approach of the risk for environmental investments within the complex network of the social, economic and financial risks generated by the global system of the human praxis focused on the binomial of the human-environment interdependence.

  6. Protection and environmental supervision activities at ROMAG PROD Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilom, Rodica

    2002-01-01

    The protection and environmental supervision activity at ROMAG PROD heavy water plant is embodied in the very production process. The environmental supervision is done by: 1. the sensing system for H 2 S which monitors H 2 S and other gases 24 h/day on three zones of production storage and transport of H 2 S; 2. daily tightness checking of the installations working with H 2 S; 3. daily analytical checking of the air and water pollutants at seven air sampling checking points in dwelled zones, at the industrial area boundary and at purification stations and water waste discharge points. The water and air environmental components are protected through safe operation of the heavy water installations and of the flue gas installation. The water protection is ensured through optimal operation of the purification facilities, namely: the purification of the water resulting from the isotopic exchange; acid water neutralization station which process the waste water collected from the whole plant; neutralization reservoir for water resulting from ionic exchange; purification station of the sulfate waters resulting from the H 2 S fabrications installation; mud pool. The ROMAG PROD Plant operates according to the ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 standards and reports regularly its activity to the Environmental Protection and Water System Management Authority

  7. Ship Inspection Strategies: Effects on Maritime Safety and Environmental Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlobal trade depends for a large part on maritime transport, and safe ships are needed not only to protect precious cargo but also to prevent environmental damage. Flag state and port state authorities spend much effort in ship safety inspections to ensure a minimum safety level and to

  8. Ship inspection strategies: effects on maritime safety and environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, C.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Global trade largely depends on maritime transport, and appropriate ships are needed to protect cargo but to minimize environmental damage and to this end, flag and port state authorities expend considerable effort in ship safety inspections. This paper investigates the safety gains of current

  9. Energy supply and environmental protection as conflicting targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, G.

    1976-01-01

    The conflict between sufficient energy supply and efficient environmental protection is didactically analysed as a complex of topics for the political education. Education principles and sequencies basing on opinions of supporters and opponents of nuclear energy are shown. Aims of education are briefly shown with the examples of the energy supply of the FRG and the energy problems of Europe. (HP) [de

  10. 75 FR 22723 - Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ..., 784, 816, and 817 RIN 1029-AC63 Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Office... streams from the adverse impacts of surface coal mining operations. We are requesting comments for the... mining activities may be conducted in or near perennial or intermittent streams. That rule, which this...

  11. Novel roles for genetically modified plants in environmental protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Tomáš; Kotrba, Pavel; Svatoš, Aleš; Nováková, Martina; Demnerová, K.; Macková, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2008), s. 146-152 ISSN 0167-7799 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055204; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : transgenic plant * environmental protection * insect pheromone * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 6.624, year: 2008

  12. Environmental protection technologies and prospect for uranium mining and metallurgy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie

    2002-01-01

    Based on practices of production and environmental protection of China's uranium mining and metallurgy, control and protection of the three wastes in uranium mining and metallurgy are discussed. Prospects for environmental protection technologies of uranium mining and metallurgy is made

  13. Balancing requirements for radioactive waste management and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.; Lefevre, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors recall the principles of radiation protection and their application to radioactive waste management. The dose limitation system applies to every stage in management. The accepted risk limits should be compared with the level of risk from other sources, particularly from natural radiation. The uncertainties associated with long-term estimates should not lead to unrealistic requirements. The optimum rules are to be obtained by discussion among those responsible for radiation protection, nuclear safety and radioactive waste management. Satisfactory, applicable rules can be worked out in the present state of the art [fr

  14. Recent developments in environmental protection in India: Pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, H [NOIDA, Disst, Ghaziabad, Pin (IN)

    1989-01-01

    In India, pollution and environmental degradation have reached alarming dimensions due to poverty, deforestation, industrial development without adequate environmental safeguards, and sheer greed. Fortunately, public concern, rooted in the country's past, has revived. Major pollutants and critically affected areas have been identified. Pollution control of water, air and land has been established by both official and private organizations and the work on environmental protection is steadily growing. The Ganga purification plan is a representative case study. Poverty alleviation is a long-term process. It is India's major problem and is being tackled with help from private enterprise and by international assistance. Simultaneously environmental protection through pollution control is also receiving administrative and legislative support and fiscal assistance through direct and indirect tax incentives. The country's courts are rendering valuable help to environmentalists by pronouncing far-reaching decisions in public-interest litigation. To boost the existing environment-protection movement, greater emphasis is urgently needed for environmental education, peoples' participation, population control, and cost-effective pollution control measures.

  15. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappelle, H.H.; Donahoe, R.L.; Kato, T.T.; Ordway, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implemented, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills

  16. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority's Environmental Unit - 10 years in the Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) established an Environmental Unit at the Polar Environmental Centre in Tromsoe in the summer of 1999. The aim of establishing the unit in Tromsoe was to further the monitoring programmes of the NRPA in the Arctic and to the promote collaboration within the Polar Environmental Centre. Over the last 10 years, the NRPA's Environmental Unit has undertaken a range of research and monitoring activities in close cooperation with other institutes in the Polar Environmental Centre that have helped to further understand the current radiological status of the Norwegian Arctic. (Author)

  17. Environmental improvement with additional instruments for environmental protection in port areas

    OpenAIRE

    MARINSKI, Jordan; FLOQI, Tania; DROUMEVA, Gergana; BRANCA, Tatiana; VATRALOVA, Albena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract1. The context analysis of environmental situation in Corridor8 ports shows growing sensibility of the management authorities to the environmental issues and objective difficulties for development of appropriate environmental policies due to the following reasons: the complex legislation which has not found yet the balance between the business interests in sea transport and the environment protection and poor enforcement of the regulations. In order to mitigate the negative impact of ...

  18. Environmental protection: private vegetable gardens on water protected areas in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strajnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scale agriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmental protection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production and large number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have been investigated in detail. We combined data from fi eld work with numerous measurements of phytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.

  19. Veterinarians in environmental protection; Il veterinario nella protezione ambientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioppolo, A; Achene, L; Cappella, M G [eds.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria

    1999-07-01

    The main contributions of the Fifth and Sixth Courses: Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination, held at the Italian National Institute of Health on October 27-31 1997, and September 28-October 2 1998, are presented. The volume is divided into three sections: general concepts (evolution of environmental protection in the European community, veterinary drugs in Europe, drugs and environmental contamination, aquaculture and environmental contamination); problematic aspects and methodologies applied to the environmental pollution (animal pathologies and environmental quality, toxic algae and aquaculture, aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental contamination, use of arthropods to assess environmental quality); field experiences (monitoring of chemical contaminants by an experimental institute of veterinary services, quality of compost in the light of aspects of management and market). [Italian] Sono riportati alcuni interventi presentati al quinto e al sesto corso di medicina veterinaria ed inquinamento ambientale che si sono svolti rispettivamente il 27-31 ottobre 1997 e il 28 settembre-2 ottobre 1998 presso l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Il volume e' diviso in tre sezioni: contributi generali (evoluzione della tutela ambientale nella Comunita' Europea, i farmaci veterinari in Europa), utilizzo di farmaci e inquinamento (patologie degli animali e inquinamento, alghe tossiche e acquacultura, metodi per la valutazione della qualita' ambientale con organismi acquatici, artropodi terrestri come bioindicatori); esperienze sul campo (compostaggio di qualita'); problematiche gestionali e di mercato, esperienze di un monitoraggio di contaminanti chimici in un istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale.

  20. Veterinarians in environmental protection; Il veterinario nella protezione ambientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioppolo, A.; Achene, L.; Cappella, M.G. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria

    1999-07-01

    The main contributions of the Fifth and Sixth Courses: Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination, held at the Italian National Institute of Health on October 27-31 1997, and September 28-October 2 1998, are presented. The volume is divided into three sections: general concepts (evolution of environmental protection in the European community, veterinary drugs in Europe, drugs and environmental contamination, aquaculture and environmental contamination); problematic aspects and methodologies applied to the environmental pollution (animal pathologies and environmental quality, toxic algae and aquaculture, aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental contamination, use of arthropods to assess environmental quality); field experiences (monitoring of chemical contaminants by an experimental institute of veterinary services, quality of compost in the light of aspects of management and market). [Italian] Sono riportati alcuni interventi presentati al quinto e al sesto corso di medicina veterinaria ed inquinamento ambientale che si sono svolti rispettivamente il 27-31 ottobre 1997 e il 28 settembre-2 ottobre 1998 presso l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Il volume e' diviso in tre sezioni: contributi generali (evoluzione della tutela ambientale nella Comunita' Europea, i farmaci veterinari in Europa), utilizzo di farmaci e inquinamento (patologie degli animali e inquinamento, alghe tossiche e acquacultura, metodi per la valutazione della qualita' ambientale con organismi acquatici, artropodi terrestri come bioindicatori); esperienze sul campo (compostaggio di qualita'); problematiche gestionali e di mercato, esperienze di un monitoraggio di contaminanti chimici in un istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale.

  1. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands

  2. Environmental protection and international law: the case of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagicour, F.

    2002-03-01

    Given the very hazardous nature of its activity, the nuclear industry has often been considered to be without a future. Concerns over climate change and increasing international energy needs have, however, shone a new light on the positive aspects of nuclear energy. As the only clean, stable and inexpensive energy source, available, nuclear energy promises a constant supply of electricity while protecting the atmosphere. This new relationship between the environment and nuclear energy calls for an analysis of the international regulation of the risks posed by nuclear energy production. Since the beginning of the nuclear age, the long term, unknown, and large geographic scope of the risks and effects of this activity have led to the adoption of a set of normative rules outside of the scope of international environmental law. The norms that now regulate this new, ultra-hazardous activity resulted in a set of rules aimed at protecting the environment in the face of high risk activities that now form the heart of international environmental law. Unwilling relinquish national sovereignty, States adopted a system of non-binding regulation to protect the environment and promote the nuclear industry. The Chernobyl accident later pointed to the weakness of this approach. Despite this weakness, the adoption of a soft law approach has led to progress in environmental protection in an area where States have been loathe to give up their sovereignty. (author)

  3. Radiation and Environmental Protection Programme for the First Upcoming Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahrir

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia plans to operate the first nuclear power plant (NPP) by 2016. A radiation and environmental protection arrangement for NPPs is part of the whole safety system which is embedded in every practice involved radiation exposure to workers and members of public. A radiation and environmental protection programme for the NPP should adhere to international standards and mainstream in order to be acceptable to the public and international communities. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended a radiation protection standard for NPPs as studied in this paper. Focus is given to the operational aspects of radiation protection program and discharge control to the environment. Some documents related to Safety Analysis Reports were used as working examples on its implementation. The study includes the classification of working areas and access control; local rules and supervision of work; work planning and work permits; protective clothing and protective equipment; facilities, shielding and equipment; application of the principle of optimization of protection; and removal or reduction in intensity of sources of radiation. The radiological protection aspects blend together in the whole NPP practices, each individual has his/her own responsibility in association with the radiation protection program implementation. It also present in the whole steps of NPP preparation up to its decommissioning. Promise on safety improvement and significant dose reduction in the recent development in NPP technology should scrutinized so that the option of proven technology as required in commercial power reactor licensing considers this tendency. (author)

  4. Environmental radiation protection of non-human vertebrate species: considerations for environmental monitoring and assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The risk to non-human species from activities associated with the nuclear fuel waste cycle is coming under increased scrutiny from the public and regulators. In the past, protection of the environment was assumed to be an outcome of the protection of humans living in the same area. Thus it was assumed that if nuclides were maintained at low enough levels in water, air and soil to protect humans, then plants and animals inhabiting the same area would be protected. This approach of relying on humans as a sensitive indicator implicitly protects all species, at least at the population level. To adequately predict exposure and response in wild communities requires a detailed knowledge of the ecosystem under study and a method of predicting both the transfer of nuclides to individual species and the consequence of exposure. Detailed environmental, or ecological, risk estimation requires information on the normal levels of radiation and general physiological stress in the exposed group, an estimate of the additional radiation exposure from all pathways and a prediction of the consequences of the total exposure. The purpose of this paper is to review these requirements in the context of ecological radiation protection in the Canadian environment using examples of birds and mammals from the Canadian shield. Our goal is to develop methods which provide better estimates of potential risk to wild animals

  5. Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padash, A.; Jozi, S. A.; Nabavi, S. M. B.; Dehzad, B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

  6. The application of recycled aluminum and plastics in environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tepić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a serious problem facing the modern world. Precisely for this reason, in this work, the authors explore its different aspects. From the perspective of conservation of natural resources and energy savings, the replacement of primary materials through recycling is explored as a potential solution in the elementary processes related to the parasol production. Such parasols would be used in designing “urban forest” solutions, which significantly contribute to the protection of the planet from global warming, as well as the preservation of life and survival.

  7. 24 CFR 1000.18 - What environmental review requirements apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What environmental review requirements apply? 1000.18 Section 1000.18 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.18 What environmental...

  8. Ecology - environmental protection - survival grisis. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitte, J.

    1983-01-01

    The concept developed aims to contribute towards the solution of the crisis of human survival by promoting - ecologic knowledge - environmental awareness - environment-protecting behaviour. In substance it comprises five points of emphasis: 1. long-term aspects of the environmental crisis - an introduction into the ecology of civilization, 2. 'Space-ship earth' - terrestrial atmosphere - air pollution, 3. Water - waste water - hydrobiology, 4. Sewage treatment plants - waste water treatment technology, 5. Nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle - the Harrisburg accident, USA, March 28, 1979 -. A comprehensive bibliography is appended. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. INVESTMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investment decision can be regarded as one of the most important decisions taken by the management company. By the correct foundation of investment decisions depend the market position of the company, increasing its market share and gain a competitive advantage over competitors. Investments for environmental protection brings together all available money-makers, private and mixed distribute to finance activities and actions aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution and other forms of environmental degradation resulting from production processes or consumption of goods and services.

  10. Environmental protection directory. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    For the first time in this form in Germany, this handbook provides a comprehensive collection of mainly non-commercial environmental protection addresses. It covers the federal, community, scientific and jounalistic areas as well as business and society associations and groups, educational and advisory services and institutions. The addressbook contains the addresses and telephone numbers of the seperate institutions, as well as the names and extension numbers of public officials, representatives and media relations personned of the associations, the party environmental spokesperson and assigned people from the churches, and the ecology editors in media, radio and television. (orig.) [de

  11. PESTEL Model Analysis and Legal Guarantee of Tourism Environmental Protection in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of summarizing the general situation of tourism environmental protection in China, this paper analyses the macro factors of tourism environmental protection by using PESTEL model. On this basis, this paper explores the improvement paths of tourism environmental protection based on PESTEL model. Finally, it puts forward the legal guarantee suggestion of tourism environment protection.

  12. What can information technology do for environmental protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauboth, H.

    1987-01-01

    Information technology plays an important role in the accomplishment of an effective environmental protection. Prerequisite for its comprehensive implementation is the legal and economic achievement of closed material cycles for supply and waste discharge in production and consumption as well as in nuclear technology. Modern information processing may be used for the inventory of natural and emission sources, to gain knowledge on the functioning mechanisms of nature, for the planning of a considerate exploitation of natural recources and for the ecology-oriented monitoring and control of industrial plants. The state of the art of the corresponding information technology and new areas of research especially in measurement technology are shown. The breadth of the great opportunities of information technology for environmental protection is discribed. (orig.) [de

  13. Environmental protection in exploration and production by AGIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossena, G.; Di Luise, G.; Ceffa, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a panorama of environmental protection activities being undertaken by AGIP (Italian General Petroleum Company). The Company has developed a wide-ranging program based on 20 years experience in world-wide on- and off-shore exploration and production. The research studies on technologically innovative on-site waste management, noise abatement and subsidence control and monitoring techniques are co-operative efforts involving the joint participation of national research institutions, universities and leading international petroleum companies. Given the intense oil carrier traffic along Italy's tourism dependent coastlines, one of the key projects is the creation of a national emergency plan to deal with oil spills. AGIP is also actively involved in the training of national and foreign site personnel in environmental protection techniques

  14. Private power development and environmental protection in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Wilbanks, T.J.

    1997-12-01

    This report assesses relationships between private power development in India and environmental protection in that country. The central question is whether private firms generating and distributing electricity in developing countries will do a better or a worse job in environmental protection, as a part of their overall corporate responsibility, than public-sector institutions. After reviewing the fundamental question, why it is asked, and the context in which it operates in the nation of India, this report continues with an analysis of available information, quantitative and qualitative, that can help to resolve the issues in the particular case of India. Finally, it ends with conclusions from the analysis and recommendations for reducing remaining uncertainties in the future.

  15. Reassessment of planetary protection requirements for Venus missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, J.; Riemer, R.; Smith, D.; Rummel, J.

    In 2005 the US Space Studies Board SSB was asked by NASA to reexamine the planetary protection requirements for spacecraft missions to Venus In particular the SSB was tasked to 1 Assess the surface and atmospheric environments of Venus with respect to their ability to support the survival and growth of Earth-origin microbial contamination by future spacecraft missions and 2 Provide recommendations related to planetary protection issues associated with the return to Earth of samples from Venus The task group established by the SSB to address these issues assessed the known aspects of the present-day environment of Venus and the ability of Earth organisms to survive in the physical and chemical conditions found on the planet s surface or in the clouds in the planet s atmosphere As a result of its deliberations the task group found compelling evidence against there being significant dangers of forward or reverse biological contamination as a result of contact between a spacecraft and the surface of Venus or the clouds in the atmosphere of Venus regardless of the current unknowns The task group did however conclude that Venus is a body of interest relative to the process of chemical evolution and the origin of life As a result the task group endorses NASA s current policy of subjecting missions to Venus to the requirements imposed by planetary protection Category II rather than the less restrictive Category I recommended by COSPAR

  16. Legal significance of environmental protection in foreign investments law

    OpenAIRE

    Divljak Drago

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field i...

  17. Environmental protection in actual circumstances of EPS recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a brief summary of the state of environmental protection in the vicinity of Electric Power Industry of Serbia (EPS) power facilities, both when economy of FR Yugoslavia (FRY) was at an acceptable level and the current situation resulting from a drastic decline of economic power of country and EPS itself, from unfavourable political development from the past period, from the sanctions imposed by UN Security Council, from a prolonged isolation from modern courses worldwide as well as from bombing of facilities during NATO aggression against Yugoslavia. The paper is focused on the analysis of the possibilities of taking certain activities aimed at environmental protection under expected realistic circumstances of EPS recovery and its further development, in accordance with the overall economic recovery and development of the country, and to estimate the price of all environmental protection measures which, would otherwise have been realised in the course of the past period if sanctions of UN Security Council have not been imposed on FR Yugoslavia. (author)

  18. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully

  19. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  20. Bacteriophages encode factors required for protection in a symbiotic mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kerry M; Degnan, Patrick H; Hunter, Martha S; Moran, Nancy A

    2009-08-21

    Bacteriophages are known to carry key virulence factors for pathogenic bacteria, but their roles in symbiotic bacteria are less well understood. The heritable symbiont Hamiltonella defensa protects the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum from attack by the parasitoid Aphidius ervi by killing developing wasp larvae. In a controlled genetic background, we show that a toxin-encoding bacteriophage is required to produce the protective phenotype. Phage loss occurs repeatedly in laboratory-held H. defensa-infected aphid clonal lines, resulting in increased susceptibility to parasitism in each instance. Our results show that these mobile genetic elements can endow a bacterial symbiont with benefits that extend to the animal host. Thus, phages vector ecologically important traits, such as defense against parasitoids, within and among symbiont and animal host lineages.

  1. Modern environmental ethics and the possible implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Environmental ethics is concerned with the moral relations that hold between humans and the natural world. The ethical principles governing those relations determine our duties, obligations, and responsibilities with regard to the Earth's natural environment and the animals and plants that inhabit it. When a life-centered view is accepted as has been done by Taylor, the obligations and responsibilities we have with respect to the wild animals and plants of the Earth are seen to arise from certain moral relations between ourselves and the natural world itself. Considering the shift of ethical values that have occurred in the world, we may now be at a point in history when it is timely and when there also exist scientific reasons to set up a protection policy equivalent to the ICRP principles for protection of humans (justification, optimisation and dose limits) for the protection of environment (including animals) against the harmful effects of radiation

  2. The environmental protection in the Republic of Lithuania. Information bulletin No 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Collection of Lithuanian laws regulating environmental protection in Lithuania is presented. The main of them is the Law on environmental protection of the Republic of Lithuania. This law establish the main rights and duties of legal and natural persons guaranteeing the right of the population of the Republic of Lithuania to healthy and safe environment, harmonic development of the interaction between the society and nature. Among general principles of environment protection, regulation of economic activities and introduction of basis of taxation for environment pollution, the law defines the main requirements for the production and usage of radioactive materials, management of radioactive waste. According to the article 21 usage of radioactive materials for the production of nuclear weapons is prohibited. By the article 23 importation of radioactive waste into the Republic of Lithuania for storage, treatment and disposal is prohibited. Two governmental institutions - Environmental Protection Department and Ministry of Health are responsible for the preparation of regulations for the record-keeping, transportation, storage, disposal of radioactive materials as well as norms of radiation protection. The full text of the Law on taxes on the state natural resources, Law on taxes on environmental pollution are also included in this publication

  3. The environmental protection in the Republic of Lithuania. Information bulletin No 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Collection of Lithuanian laws regulating environmental protection in Lithuania is presented. The main of them is the Law on environmental protection of the Republic of Lithuania. This law establish the main rights and duties of legal and natural persons guaranteeing the right of the population of the Republic of Lithuania to healthy and safe environment, harmonic development of the interaction between the society and nature. Among general principles of environment protection, regulation of economic activities and introduction of basis of taxation for environment pollution, the law defines the main requirements for the production and usage of radioactive materials, management of radioactive waste. According to the article 21 usage of radioactive materials for the production of nuclear weapons is prohibited. By the article 23 importation of radioactive waste into the Republic of Lithuania for storage, treatment and disposal is prohibited. Two governmental institutions - Environmental Protection Department and Ministry of Health are responsible for the preparation of regulations for the record-keeping, transportation, storage, disposal of radioactive materials as well as norms of radiation protection. The full text of the Law on taxes on the state natural resources, Law on taxes on environmental pollution are also included in this publication.

  4. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known

  5. Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Basic protection requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braestrup, C.B.; Vikterloef, K.J.

    1974-01-01

    The manual as a whole deals with the radiation protection of patients, occupationally exposed persons, and the public. Volume 1, on basic protection requirements, is a general review common to all medical applications of ionizing radiation and radionuclides. Radiation protection is required for patients and staff, and with regard to medical research and chemical trials of new methods; radiation equipment and operating procedures are discussed in connection with diagnostic x-ray installations, x-ray beam therapy, gamma-ray installations for teletherapy, brachytherapy, unsealed sources for therapeutic use, and the diagnostic use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine. In planning of radiation facilities, attention is paid to levels at which medical care is given, the centralization and decentralization of radiation facilities, diagnostic x-ray facilities and therapy facilities, and nuclear medicine and therapy with unsealed sources. Shielding design is discussed applicable to diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and the therapeutic use of radionuclides. Assignment of responsibilities, legal responsibilities, safety checks, refresher courses and symposia are discussed in the context of organizing radiation protection. Radiation surveys are necessary, and such surveys are described for x-ray and gamma-ray beams, sealed radioactive sources and nuclear medicine. A whole section is devoted to personnel monitoring and health surveillance. An annex gives a list of commonly used radionuclides, another deals with the design of protective shielding

  6. Mobile laboratory-based environmental radioactivity analysis capability of the US Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, G.; Poppell, S.

    1999-01-01

    This poster presentation will highlight the capability of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air to process and analyze environmental and emergency response samples in mobile radiological laboratories. Philosophy of use, construction, analytical equipment, and procedures will be discussed in the poster presentation. Accompanying the poster presentation, EPA will also have a static display of its mobile laboratories at the meeting site. (author)

  7. Human Rights and the Environmental Protection: The Naïveté in Environmental Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Adhitya Anggriawan Wisadha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are growing trends in the human rights to substantially extend the values to protect the environment or moreover to welcome the ideas of the rights to environment, not to mention the rights of environment. The purpose is to inclusively embrace the environmental problems wherein the humanity challenges posited on, but this agenda may leave a room of doubt how far the human rights body can address the environmental destruction as it needs the interplay of culture and environmental ethics to promoting such concepts. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the justification of how human rights in the environmental protection in the contemporary discourse are bringing to light, as many current cases attempt to linkage the environmental approach to the human rights instrument, such as the rights to life, healthy environment, and intergenerational equity. To analyse further, the theoretical framework in this paper will be explicated by environmental culture paradigm which illustrates the egalitarian concept between human and environment to elicit the clear thoughts of how human rights is naïve to protect the environment. This article will firstly depict the human rights and the environmental protection discourse and then, explore the naïveté narratives of environmental culture about the ecological crisis roots that are fundamentally anthropogenic, as to reflect the ground realities how this nexus will play out. Finally, this paper found the moral justification per se relies on the effort of elaborating the human prudence in their relationship with nature, albeit bringing the naïveté.

  8. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2007-01-01

      The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...... that the solution may be relaxed enforcement of the regulatory framework and/or self-regulation, e.g. by codes of conduct. However, the article argues that other possible solutions should be considered, e.g. the use of specific symbols and sounds that - like road traffic rules - could help the consumer to navigate...

  9. Standards applicable to owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; liability coverage requirements--Environmental Protection Agency. Final rule and notice of extension of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-13

    The effective date for qualifications of insurers providing liability insurance used to satisfy liability coverage requirements applicable to owners or operators of hazardous waste management facilities, as such requirements are included in 40 CFR Parts 264 and 265, is extended from July 15, 1982, to October 16, 1982. The effective date for the rest of the liability coverage requirements remains July 15, 1982. This extension is being provided to allow 6 months between the date of promulgation and the effective date for the insurer qualification provision, in accordance with Section 3010(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended. During the period between July 15 and October 16, 1982, owners or operators may use certificates of insurance or policy endorsements that do not certify to the qualifications of the insurer.

  10. Radiation protection instrumentation for personnel dosimetry, area and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    Several kinds of personal dosimeter exist and their performance is reviewed in the light of requirements for an ideal instrument. The requirements of portable instruments are reviewed and the extent to which they are met in one example is described. Where permitted environmental doses are larger than the fluctuations in natural backgrounds, certain types of thermoluminescent dosimeters provide a cheaper and reliable alternative measuring system

  11. In-service training and expertise requirements in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.; Heribanova, A.

    2003-01-01

    Proper selection of staff and their special education and training in radiation protection are important factors when assuring faultless man-machine interaction and thereby a reduced likelihood of human factor failure in hazardous practices. University-level institutions can only provide education in the individual partial segments of the multidisciplinary area of radiation protection, whereas the proper practices are learned by graduate personnel on the job, by performing operational tasks at their particular workplace. The scope o expertise of subjects providing radiation protection surveillance and the requirements for their special education and training are outlined. Supervising persons appointed by the radiation source handling licensee to perform a number of operational tasks at the workplace assume a prominent position. Alternatively, systematic supervision at the workplace can be contracted by the licensee from an external body, provided that the latter has acquired appropriate licence from the State Office for Nuclear Safety. The provisions of the Atomic Act and the related implementing regulations with respect to special training and to the examination of professional competence before an expert commission are briefly outlined. (author)

  12. Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

  13. Emergency environmental monitoring for the decision-aiding on public protective actions during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Choi, Geun Sik; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo

    2005-01-01

    In a nuclear emergency, protective actions for the public should be taken in time. It is internationally proposed that Generic Intervention Levels (GILs) and generic action levels, determined based on cost-benefit analyses, be used as the decision criteria for protective actions. Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) are directly or easily measurable quantities corresponding to these generic levels. To assess the necessity of protective actions in a nuclear emergency, it is important that the environmental monitoring data required for applying and revising OILs should be promptly produced. It is discussed what and how to do for this task in the course of the emergency response. For an emergency environmental monitoring to be performed effectively, a through preparedness has to be made including maintenance of the organization and equipments, establishment of various procedure manuals, development of a supporting computer system and periodical training and exercises. It is pointed out that Korean legal provisions concerning GILs and OILs need to be amended or newly established

  14. WINRE '92 - 3rd workshop on information management in nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoepfner, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The workshop puts much emphasis on the exchange of experience between experts from the West and from the Central and Eastern European countries. The representatives from the various countries and organisations are going to introduce their respective data banks, products, or services. The combination of papers and practical presentations will provide all with a qualified and comprehensive insight into the tried and tested as well as the new information management technologies in the specialist areas of nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection. Furthermore, it should also contribute to the promotion of the transfer of know-how between experts throughout the whole of Europe. (orig./DG)

  15. Environmental protection: Researches in National Inst. of Radiological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ban-nai, T.; Doi, M.; Fujimori, A.; Ishii, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kawaguchi, I.; Kubota, Y.; Maruyama, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Nakamori, T.; Takeda, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yanagisawa, K.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies for radiological protection of the environment have been made at the National Inst. of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Transfer of radionuclides and related elements has been investigated for dose estimation of non-human biota. A parameter database and radionuclide transfer models have been also developed for the Japanese environments. Dose (rate)-effect relationships for survival, growth and reproduction have been investigated in conifers, Arabidopsis, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, duckweeds, daphnia and medaka. Also genome-wide gene expression analysis has been carried out by high coverage expression profiling (HiCEP). Effects on aquatic microbial communities have been studied in experimental ecosystem models, i.e., microcosms. Some effects were detected at a dose rate of 1 Gy day -1 and were likely to arise from inter-species interactions. The results obtained at NIRS have been used in development of frameworks for environmental protection by some international bodies, and will contribute to environmental protection in Japan and other Asian countries. (authors)

  16. Protection of historic buildings against environmental pollution of vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska-Koczwara Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historic buildings in Poland are largely neglected objects that small percentage is preserved in its original form. Unrelenting in the case of historic buildings is a time that brings with it the natural processes of aging of buildings, but also the history of the object which is often marked by military conflicts, fires or even incompetently carried out reconstruction. Nowadays historic buildings are also destroyed by the rapid development of infrastructure and residential construction. This development could lead to changes of water in the soil, make changes in the geologic al structure or cause exposure of the historic building to the new influences (eg. traffic vibrations, to which building has not been subjected so far. Vibrations are often omitted in environmental issues, although the protection against noise and vibration has its place in the Law on Environmental Protection. This article presents the methodology for the measurement and interpretation of vibration influence on historic buildings and the assessment methods of technical condition of historic building on the example of dynamic measurements made on St. Nicholas Church in Krakow. The importance of well-done crack-by-crack documentation and characterization of damages based on damage index is shown. Difficulties that can be encountered when determining the causes of technical condition of historic buildings are also shown. Based on the example of the Church in the article are also given the possible protection solutions of historic structures from vibrations.

  17. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S H; Jin, J H; Kim, J B

    2002-01-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting...

  18. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 9, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    As indicated in the July 2005 issue of our newsletter, future 2006-2007 activities of the Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint Programme and the Agrochemicals Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf will encompass a coordinated and comprehensive 'farm to fork' approach to food production systems, i.e. strengthening compliance with food and environmental safety standards through good agricultural practices. Laboratories and trained staff capable of establishing reliable sampling and analytical regimes for quantifying potential hazards within specific production practices or in individual food products are indispensable for informed decision-making and improved food safety and environmental protection. In this regard, we recently concluded a training workshop on an Introduction to QA/QC Measures in Pesticide Residue Analytical Laboratories at our Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf from 12 September to 7 October 2005. The Workshop was attended by 23 participants from 22 developing countries and to date, both verbal and written feedback indicates that the workshop was very successful. We are planning to hold similar workshops on an annual basis in the future so that we might better respond to our Member State requests for laboratory training that further strengthens our efforts in enhancing good agricultural practices. Further details on the workshop are highlighted in the Feature Article Section of this newsletter

  19. Amendments to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health and environmental radiation protection standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (40 CFR PART 197) - 16156

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Raymond L.; Czyscinski, Kenneth; Rosnick, Reid J.; Schultheisz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, as directed by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued public health and environmental radiation protection standards for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Several parties sued the Agency on numerous aspects of the rule. A Federal Court upheld EPA on all counts except for the compliance period associated with the individual-protection standard, which the Agency had limited to 10,000 years for a number of technical and policy reasons. However, the National Academy of Sciences WAS) had recommended that the standard be set for the time of peak risk, within the limits imposed by the long-term stability of the geologic environment, which NAS estimated at 1 million years. EPA's standards required that the Department of Energy (DOE) project doses to the time of peak dose but did not apply a compliance standard to these longer term projections. The Court ruled that EPA's 10,000-year compliance period was inconsistent with the NAS recommendation. This aspect of the rule was vacated and remanded to the Agency for revision. In 2005, EPA proposed amendments to the standards. Following public hearings and a public review period, the final amendments were issued in September 2008. This paper discusses the new requirements. (authors)

  20. Auxiliaries for the textile industry and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, sustainable management of wastes. In this study, the surfactant categories used in the textile industry that fulfil the conditions of environment protection, are presented. Some exemplifications were made involving the existing surfactants in Romanian textile industry, obtained from both domestic and external production. Also, some recommendation are suggested regarding the utilization of surfactants manufactured from either vegetal oils or chemical/petrochemical wastes, with similar properties as those from import having decreased prices an that affect as small as possible the environment.

  1. Environment: renewable energy, environmental protection and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The second in the series of IPPSO policy papers for discussion deals with the place of renewable energy sources and environmental protection in relation to the soon-to-be deregulated electricity industry in Ontario. The paper provides a broad statement of principles, defines the issues, identifies the problems, and discusses the various options under consideration. Some of the more important design questions regarding a renewable portfolio standard were discussed, among them the technologies to be included, the treatment of existing generators and expansions, establishment of minimum amounts and targets, responsibility for and means of compliance, compensation for the intermittent nature of some of the renewable resources, mandatory disclosure and labelling, development by the IMO of environmental dispatch protocols, research and development funding for renewable energy technologies, emission caps with tradeable targets, and concerns about the operation of a system benefits fund for energy efficiency. 5 refs

  2. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Amadu, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power systems in most countries in the region. Ghana, which isthe focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two....... The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implicationsof changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor...

  3. Environmental Performance and Financing Decisions Impact on Sustainable Financial Development of Chinese Environmental Protection Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Quan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection firms need to improve their ability to access financing while maintaining good economic performance under mounting environmental pressures. After the integration of trade-off and stakeholder theories, we have constructed a number of mathematical models to investigate the relationship among financing decisions, environmental performance (EP, and economic performance. Unbalanced panel data from environmental protection companies listed on Chinese stock exchanges from 2007 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Our results have confirmed that debt financing has a significant impact on short- and long-term economic performance. Firms prefer long-term debt over short-term debt to improve their financial sustainability. Internal financing is positively related to performance because the cost of financing is lower. Environmental performance can cause extra financial burden in the short run, but will improve stakeholder relations and profitability in the long run. Our study suggests that environmental performance affects the relationship between financing decisions and economic performance. When EP initiatives are high, debt financing has a greater negative influence on short-term performance, and the effect on long-term performance is mitigated. High EP also reduces the impact of internal financing on performance.

  4. EUROPEAN POLICY CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR - WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Union environmental policy, as was established in the EC Treaty aims at ensuring environmental sustainability activities through its inclusion in EU sectoral policies, by developing measures to prevent by following the basic principles of sustainable development and by taking joint responsibilities. Environmental legislation is one of those tools that combine management of natural resources with the prevention and control of the pollution. These laws attempt to prevent, or at least limit the effects of environmental degradation caused by the phenomenon of pollution. Environmental legislation should primarily be flexible in the sense to allow the fulfillment of current and the future goals in order to stimulate sustainable development concept and to base on general criteria for the purposes of allowing the extension to complex environmental problems. The environmental legislation is due to focus on integrating the source - effect policy, that is to focus on regulations for issuing permits for pollution, but also the responsibility of companies and citizens.Despite the significant improvements that have occurred especially in reducing air and water pollution, European legislation should be developed further. It is true that there are still many points that require completion and perfection, but the path followed is the best. In the European Union the process of implementation and adoption of new regulations on environmental protection (regulations, directives, decisions,recommendations to combat the causes of degradation of environmental quality and life quality time with them continues.

  5. Effective construction of environmental protection agreements; Wirksame Gestaltung von Umweltschutzabkommen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, H.F. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    By now 170 international agreements are designed to protect air, ground, water and organisms from man-made hazards. Nevertheless are innovative approaches required for global conventions to make the Earth a sanctuary of life for good. (orig.) [Deutsch] Schon mehr als 170 internationale Vertraege sollen Luft, Boden, Wasser und die Organismen vor Gefaehrdungen durch den Menschen bewahren. Gleichwohl sind innovative Ansaetze fuer globale Vereinbarungen erforderlich, damit die Erde auf Dauer ein sicherer Hort des Lebens ist. (orig.)

  6. Safety requirements and radiological protection for ore installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This norm establishes the safety and radiological protection requirements for mining installations which manipulates, process and storing ores, raw materials, steriles, slags and wastes containing radionuclides of the uranium and thorium natural series, simultaneously or separated, and which can cause undue exposures to the public and workers, at anytime of the functioning or pos operational stage. This norm applies to the mining installations activities, suspended or which have ceased their activities before the issue date of this norm, destined to the mining, physical, chemical and metallurgical processing, and the industrialization of raw materials and residues containing associated radionuclides from the natural series of uranium and thorium, including the stages of implantation, operation and decommissioning of the installation

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  8. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreter, M.; Gray, M.; Falck, E.; Bonne, A.; Bell, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  9. The role of international organizations with regard to environmental protection - the situation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, T.

    1986-01-01

    The international organisations more readily than most of the states accepted the idea that environmental protection cannot be achieved by compensation for damage or remedial actions in case of emergencies. They soon fostered an environmental policy intended to prevent pollution by creating a suitable, internationally accepted concept of requirements and procedures. Their activities in the last two decades largely contributed to an eventual reappraisal of approach by the states, which lead from a rather incoherent series of regional or national activities to an international, much more coherent concept of environmental policy. The international organisations also realised that efficient enforcement of pollution control measures will be guaranteed only by an adequate system of international laws, which still is to be agreed upon by the states. There still is a considerable lack of certainty of the law, with environmental problems increasingly pressing for a solution. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Environmental requirements in thermochemical and biochemical conversion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frings, R.M.; Mackie, K.L.; Hunter, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many biological and thermochemical processing options exist for the conversion of biomass to fuels. Commercially, these options are assessed in terms of fuel product yield and quality. However, attention must also be paid to the environmental aspects of each technology so that any commercial plant can meet the increasingly stringent environmental legislation in the world today. The environmental aspects of biological conversion (biogasification and bioliquefaction) and thermal conversion (high pressure liquefaction, flash pyrolysis, and gasification) are reviewed. Biological conversion processes are likely to generate waste streams which are more treatable than those from thermal conversion processes but the available data for thermal liquefaction are very limited. Close attention to waste minimisation is recommended and processing options that greatly reduce or eliminate waste streams have been identified. Product upgrading and its effect on wastewater quality also requires attention. Emphasis in further research studies needs to be placed on providing authentic waste streams for environmental assessment. (author)

  11. 24 CFR 970.13 - Environmental review requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq., or a disaster that has been... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental review requirements. 970.13 Section 970.13 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  12. Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Final Rule and Notice. Part III: Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Register, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a final rule under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) to require all local education agencies (LEAs) to identify asbestos-containing materials in their school buildings and take appropriate action to control release of asbestos fibers. The LEAs are required to describe their activities in…

  13. Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Susceptible Subpopulations From Environmental Health Risks: Liberty, Utility, Fairness, and Accountability for Reasonableness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B.; MacDougall, D. Robert; Smith, Elise M.

    2018-01-01

    Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main ethical rationale for providing these protections is to ensure that environmental health risks are distributed fairly. In this article, we (1) consider how several influential theories of justice deal with issues related to the distribution of environmental health risks; (2) show that these theories often fail to provide specific guidance concerning policy choices; and (3) argue that an approach to public decision making known as accountability for reasonableness can complement theories of justice in establishing acceptable environmental health risks for the general population and susceptible subpopulations. Since accountability for reasonableness focuses on the fairness of the decision-making process, not the outcome, it does not guarantee that susceptible subpopulations will receive a maximum level of protection, regardless of costs or other morally relevant considerations. PMID:29466133

  14. Opinion Formation on Environmental Protection: Understanding the Origins of Attitudes toward Resource Enhancement and Protection in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Farnall, Olan; Geske, Joel; Peterson, Jane W.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 483 Iowa citizens and state legislators found that self-interest had the strongest effect on formation of opinions toward environmental protection; sociotropic and symbolic politics models were also effective. Results indicate that campaign messages must stress the benefits of environmental protection to the individual. (JOW)

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CSR POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Mihai Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSR policy of companies occupy a privileged environment through coaching programs to other interests such as employees, suppliers, customers, authorities and various NGOs. This is why we wanted to see what the environment is important for managers on companies in Romania, the company's CSR policy. In the literature the definition of social responsibility and ways to implement this in practice are often encountered. Some authors claim that societal marketing concept has not found its way into the language of business. From here, there were other terms that had a greater impact on the business environment such as social responsibility. Increasing the company's impact on the environment, the pressure exerted by stakeholders, and identifying positive elements of socially responsible approach have been the main stimulus for development of social responsibility. From that a lot of studies on academic and commercial problem. And the present study fit the same line we conducted a research on 50 companies,it was an exploratory research. As respondents were chosen only marketing managers or general managers or even owners compnaie depending, in other words I tried to go directly to company decision makers in developing and building its image. While this one sample is statistically representative of the point of view we have covered with him in all areas of business activities and of all sizes can say that the results provide a clear enough picture of managersmentality in companies in Romania on business activities with the problem of intereactiunii environment Managers of companies in Romania recognize the environmental problems and say they are implicating in various actions to protect the environment. On the declarative level social environment is one of the most important areas being the most nominated as one of the top three areas of social nature that would involve having the greatest opportunity for development in coming years, over 60% of

  16. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  17. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for an Environmental Restoration Management Contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the Standards/Requirements Identification Program, developed partially in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, was to identify applicable requirements that established the Environmental Restoration Management Contractor's (ERMC) responsibilities and authorities under the Environmental Restoration Management Contract, determine the adequacy of these requirements, ascertain a baseline level of compliance with them, and implement a maintenance program that would keep the program current as requirements or compliance levels change. The resultant Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RIDs) consolidate the applicable requirements. These documents govern the development of procedures and manuals to ensure compliance with the requirements. Twenty-four such documents, corresponding with each functional area identified at the site, are to be issued. These requirements are included in the contractor's management plan

  18. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  19. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon; Hudson, Malcolm D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  20. System requirements and design description for the environmental requirements management interface (ERMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Environmental Requirements Management Interface (ERMI). The ERMI database assists Tank Farm personnel with scheduling, planning, and documenting procedure compliance, performance verification, and selected corrective action tracking activities for Tank Farm S/RID requirements. The ERMI database was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This document was prepared by SAIC and edited by LMHC

  1. History of US Presidential Assaults on Modern Environmental Health Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Leif; Sellers, Christopher; Dillon, Lindsey; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Shapiro, Nicholas; Sullivan, Marianne; Bocking, Stephen; Brown, Phil; de la Rosa, Vanessa; Harrison, Jill; Johns, Sara; Kulik, Katherine; Lave, Rebecca; Murphy, Michelle; Piper, Liza; Richter, Lauren; Wylie, Sara

    2018-04-01

    The Trump administration has undertaken an assault on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an agency critical to environmental health. This assault has precedents in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. The early Reagan administration (1981-1983) launched an overt attack on the EPA, combining deregulation with budget and staff cuts, whereas the George W. Bush administration (2001-2008) adopted a subtler approach, undermining science-based policy. The current administration combines both these strategies and operates in a political context more favorable to its designs on the EPA. The Republican Party has shifted right and now controls the executive branch and both chambers of Congress. Wealthy donors, think tanks, and fossil fuel and chemical industries have become more influential in pushing deregulation. Among the public, political polarization has increased, the environment has become a partisan issue, and science and the mainstream media are distrusted. For these reasons, the effects of today's ongoing regulatory delays, rollbacks, and staff cuts may well surpass those of the administrations of Reagan and Bush, whose impacts on environmental health were considerable.

  2. History of US Presidential Assaults on Modern Environmental Health Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Christopher; Dillon, Lindsey; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Shapiro, Nicholas; Sullivan, Marianne; Bocking, Stephen; Brown, Phil; de la Rosa, Vanessa; Harrison, Jill; Johns, Sara; Kulik, Katherine; Lave, Rebecca; Murphy, Michelle; Piper, Liza; Richter, Lauren; Wylie, Sara

    2018-01-01

    The Trump administration has undertaken an assault on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an agency critical to environmental health. This assault has precedents in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. The early Reagan administration (1981–1983) launched an overt attack on the EPA, combining deregulation with budget and staff cuts, whereas the George W. Bush administration (2001–2008) adopted a subtler approach, undermining science-based policy. The current administration combines both these strategies and operates in a political context more favorable to its designs on the EPA. The Republican Party has shifted right and now controls the executive branch and both chambers of Congress. Wealthy donors, think tanks, and fossil fuel and chemical industries have become more influential in pushing deregulation. Among the public, political polarization has increased, the environment has become a partisan issue, and science and the mainstream media are distrusted. For these reasons, the effects of today’s ongoing regulatory delays, rollbacks, and staff cuts may well surpass those of the administrations of Reagan and Bush, whose impacts on environmental health were considerable. PMID:29698097

  3. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  4. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  5. Environmental law. Important laws and ordinances for environmental protection. As of July 1, 1989. 5. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment.The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (orig.) [de

  6. Environmental restoration disposal facility applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements study report. Revision 00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, F.V.; Vedder, B.L.; Rugg, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) will be a landfill authorized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and will comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) substantive requirements. The facility will also comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), including portions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), and to-be-considered (TBC) elements such as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. In considering the requirements of CERCLA, a detailed analysis of various alternatives for ERDF was completed using the nine CERCLA criteria, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), and public comments. The ERDF record of decision (ROD) selected an alternative that includes a RCRA-compliant double-lined trench for the disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes resulting from the remediation of operable units (OU) within the National Priorities List (NPL) sites in the 100, 200, and 300 Areas. Only wastes resulting from the remediation of Hanford NPL sites will be allowed in the ERDF. Of the various siting and design alternatives proposed for ERDF, the selected alternative provides the best combination of features by balancing the nine CERCLA criteria, ARAR compliance, environmentally protective site, and various stakeholder and public recommendations. The ERDF trench design, compliant with RCRA Subtitle C minimum technical requirements (MTR), will be double lined and equipped with a leachate collection system. This design provides a more reliable system to protect groundwater than other proposed alternatives. The ERDF is located on the Hanford Site Central Plateau, southeast of the 200 West Area

  7. International environmental issues and requirements for new power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J.R. [Golder Associates Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States); Maltby, J.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation was to discuss the emerging role of financial entities in determining environmental requirements for international power projects. The paper outlines the following: emerging conditions; examples of announced privatization energy projects by country; types of government and international financial entity sources; problems for IPPs; similarity and differences between the World Bank and the USEPA; comparison of the international standards and regulations for power plants; recent trends/issues involving international power project approval; and recommendations for understanding/expediting the financial entities` environmental approval process and how to expedite this process.

  8. Local environmental conditions and the stability of protective layers on steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J P [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bursik, A

    1996-12-01

    Local environmental conditions determine whether the protective layers on steel surfaces are stable. With unfavorable local environmental conditions, the protective layers may be subject to damage. Taking the cation conductivity of all plant cycle streams <0.2 {mu}S/cm for granted, an adequate feed-water and - if applicable - boiler water conditioning is required to prevent such damage. Even if the mentioned conditions are met in a bulk, the local environmental conditions may be inadequate. The reasons for this may be the disregarding of interactions among material, design, and chemistry. The paper presents many possible mechanisms of protective layer damage that are directly influenced or exacerbated by plant cycle chemistry. Two items are discussed in more detail: First, the application of all volatile treatment for boiler water conditioning of drum boiler systems operating at low pressures and, second, the chemistry in the transition zone water/steam in the low pressure turbine. The latter is of major interest for the understanding and prevention of corrosion due to high concentration of impurities in the aqueous liquid phases. This is a typical example showing that local environmental conditions may fundamentally differ from the overall bulk chemistry. (au) 19 refs.

  9. Redesigning current instruments as a precondition for a more effective environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžemović Mesud R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of environment and evaluation of natural capital belong to the phenomenology of externalities, and the requirements of environmental economics are ever more oriented towards the elaboration of the ecological–economic category of the externalization of internal expenses, wherefrom reasons for the introduction of ecological–economic instruments, before all payments for pollutions, ensue. Demystification of the negative conviction relating ecological payments as taxes is very important, since it must be shown that ecological payments correct, mitigate or remove externalities. Environmental protection is a complex system and it consists in a set of rules, measures and instruments that are applied for the surveillance of pollution sources, and shaping of instruments for environmental protection is a complex process intended for the accomplishment of established ecological goals. Among all instruments available for bridging the gap of internalization and exerting a significant effect on polluters to diminish their emissions of pollution, the ecological and economic ones are most important. The results of our investigation have demonstrated that it is necessary to reshape the current set of instruments regarding protection of vital functions of nature and an efficient environmental protection, and one of the key cognitions is that the scientific and professional public must not be excluded from the appraisals of creating and redesigning the instruments of environmental protection. These assertions have their foundation in the premise that the significance of elements of the social dimension in sustainable development is to a great extent determined by the level of environmental degradation and reduction in capacity of renewable sources. The paper, approach and data processing of the conducted research offer a new model and new elements of methodology for establishing the state and quality of the environment, whereby social

  10. Environmental protection in Italy: ENEA's role and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    With reference to the objectives of the Italian National Energy Plan, calling for contemporaneous rational energy use, renewable energy source development and pollution abatement, a survey is made of the responsibilities assigned to ENEA (Italian Commission for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), and the skills acquired by the Commission in over a decade of research in related technologies. The various activities in which ENEA is involved span the complete range of technological expertise required for environmental ecosystem characterization, and air, land and water pollution monitoring, control and abatement. ENEA also acts as the Italian Government's consultant in matters concerning environmental policy planning and implementation. On an international level, ENEA is currently involved in coordinated efforts for the preparation of global climate models and the performance of technical-economical feasibility studies relative to international proposals for the abatement of greenhouse gases and the containment of the effects of any future global climatic change

  11. Uptake of hazardous radionuclides within layered chalcogenide for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Pranesh, E-mail: praneshsengupta@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dudwadkar, N.L. [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Vishwanadh, B. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pulhani, V. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Rao, Rekha [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tripathi, S.C. [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Layered chalcogenide with CdI{sub 2} crystal structure prepared by hydrothermal route. • Exploration of the possibilities for radionuclides’ uptake using layered chalcogenide. • Proposing ‘topotactic ionic substitution’ as major uptake mechanism. -- Abstract: Ensuring environmental protection in and around nuclear facilities is a matter of deep concern. Toward this, layered chalcogenide with CdI{sub 2} crystal structure has been prepared. Structural characterizations of layered chalcogenide suggest ‘topotactic ionic substitution’ as the dominant mechanism behind uptake of different cations within its lattice structure. An equilibration time of 45 min and volume to mass ratio of 30:1 are found to absorb {sup 233}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 85+89}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am radionuclides to the maximum extents.

  12. Environmental protection uranium recovery issues in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peake, R.T.; Cherepy, A.; Rosnick, R.; Schultheisz, D.; Setlow, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Uranium recovery activities in the United States were at a standstill just a few years ago. Demand for processed uranium yellowcake has increased, as has its price, though the price is down since the Fukushima reactor accident. Interest in producing uranium has increased, too. Currently the most preferred, low-cost uranium extraction method in the United States is in-situ leach (ISL) recovery where the geohydrology is conducive to injection, mobilization and pumping. A number of applications for new ISL and conventional mills have recently been submitted or are expected to be submitted for licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings under the authority of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). These standards are found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 192 (40 CFR Part 192). The NRC develops implementing regulations for 40 CFR Part 192 and then NRC or delegated States enforce the NRC and EPA regulations. Facilities regulated under 40 CFR Part 192 include conventional uranium and thorium mills as well as in-situ leach operations, which are considered to be 'milling underground' for regulatory purposes. However, there are no explicit standards for ISL operations in 40 CFR Part 192. In addition, EPA has determined that portions of the operations at uranium recovery operations, specifically the radon emissions from tailings impoundments, are covered by Section 112 of the Clean Air Act as a source of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA addresses these operations in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart W. EPA is in the process of reviewing both 40 CFR Part 192 and 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart W for possible revision. This paper presents some of the issues related to uranium recovery that are being considered in the current regulatory review. (author)

  13. Future requirements for petroleum fuels - an environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental impacts of fuel emissions were discussed. Emissions from petroleum fuels are the largest contributor to a wide range of environmental problems including damage to the ozone layer and risks to human health. Forecasts indicate that future demand for fossil fuels for energy will continue to grow. The transportation sector is the largest single source of air emissions in Canada. The environmental requirements for all fuels will become progressively more stringent. The pollutants of primary concern include toxics, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulates. The U.S. auto-oil research program has conducted considerable research to understand the impact of fuel parameters of vehicle tailpipe emissions. In Canada, lead was removed from Canadian gas a decade ago. Since January 1998, low sulphur diesel (less than 500 ppm) is required for on-road use. Regulations have also been passed to reduce the level of benzene in gasoline to less than one per cent by mid-1999. It will be necessary to manage our fossil fuels to minimize the environmental impacts from combustion. In the longer term, it will be necessary to minimize fossil fuel use through conservation and shift to less polluting fuels

  14. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  15. Institutionalizing environmental protection through self-regulation: the case of environmental standards adoption in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bileisis, Mantas; Misiune, Ieva

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of human activity in the environment have a global dimension, but there are no effective global governance instruments to enforce environmental standards. At the same time, many national governments lack incentives to pursue strict environmental policies. In this context, self-regulation is seen as an alternative venue to address environmental challenges. This work aims to identify factors that influence companies to engage in environmental self-regulation? For this aim in March 2015 a survey of 482 companies was conducted. The target group were companies operating in Lithuania that hold ISO14001 certificates - one of the most prolific instruments for self-regulation. The questionnaire was designed to test assumptions developed in new institutionalist literature which claim that common practices can emerge through isomorphism.- The results showed that the main motive for environmental self-regulation is the desire to improve company image, rather than protecting the environment per se. Another important finding was that the main source of pressure to adopt self-regulation was based less on the perceived demands but the customers. Rather the driver for the adoption was a feeling of a need no to fall behind industry leaders. Thus, normative isomorphism is the main mechanism through which environmental self-regulation proliferates. We claim for a rapid proliferation of environmental self-regulation perceived industry leaders need to be identified and they need to be persuaded that environmental standards are key for the development of the industry. However, this also raises questions of sustainability. Few industries have long standing leaders, and through successful investment and technological development new actors can arise and this may risk stalling or even reversing self-regulation.

  16. Environmental assessments required to support nomination of sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussler, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 establishes a schedule for siting the nation's first repository for nuclear waste and spent fuel. The Act assigns the primary responsibility for conducting this siting program to the Department ofEnergy. The provisions of the Act are reviewed, including six legal requirements that must be considered for each environmental assessment, each of which is discussed in detail

  17. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet as protective against environmental contaminants, levels of concern about exposure to environmental contaminants, and interest in learning about protective food-related…

  18. An Analysis of the Problems of Developing Environmental Education in Brazilian Federal Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Cristina A. R.; Filho, Walter Leal; Hale, William H. G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the problems encountered in developing environmental education in federally protected areas in Brazil. Suggests that the development of environmental education in those protected areas has several limitations including financial resources, lack of training, material resources, and lack of policy on environmental education. (Author/CCM)

  19. Environmental protection through energy conservation: A free lunch at last?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    A cautious analysis of demand-side management programs is presented. Utility demand-side management (DSM) programs deserve to be given full and careful consideration as a potential way to give consumers better end-use energy services for their money, utilities an edge in an increasingly competitive market, and society a way to reduce the environmental costs of energy production. But in each of these areas, DSM programs offer no free lunches and have no inherent advantages over supply-side programs. If energy conservation makes sense on economic and business grounds, it can meet the standard economic and business tests applied to most of the rest of the economy; it neither requires nor deserves to be exempt from market concepts and disciplines. If utility DSM programs make sense on environmental grounds, they should be able to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness relative to other, primarily supply-side measures society is willing to undertake in order to control environmental effects. Subsidizing DSM measures in the hope that something good will happen far upstream can waste much money and cause disappointment and frustration

  20. Defining Requirements and Applying Information Modeling for Protecting Enterprise Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Stephen C.; Volk, Jennifer H.

    The advent of terrorist threats has heightened local, regional, and national governments' interest in emergency response and disaster preparedness. The threat of natural disasters also challenges emergency responders to act swiftly and in a coordinated fashion. When a disaster occurs, an ad hoc coalition of pre-planned groups usually forms to respond to the incident. History has shown that these “system of systems” do not interoperate very well. Communications between fire, police and rescue components either do not work or are inefficient. Government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and private industry use a wide array of software platforms for managing data about emergency conditions, resources and response activities. Most of these are stand-alone systems with very limited capability for data sharing with other agencies or other levels of government. Information technology advances have facilitated the movement towards an integrated and coordinated approach to emergency management. Other communication mechanisms, such as video teleconferencing, digital television and radio broadcasting, are being utilized to combat the challenges of emergency information exchange. Recent disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina and the tsunami in Indonesia, have illuminated the weaknesses in emergency response. This paper will discuss the need for defining requirements for components of ad hoc coalitions which are formed to respond to disasters. A goal of our effort was to develop a proof of concept that applying information modeling to the business processes used to protect and mitigate potential loss of an enterprise was feasible. These activities would be modeled both pre- and post-incident.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1720 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.1720 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720 Protective... shall be used. (e) Suitable protective footwear. [36 FR 19497, Oct. 7, 1971, as amended at 39 FR 7175...

  2. Comparative evaluation of different approaches to environmental protection against ionising radiation in view of practicability and consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Hornung, L.; Mundigl, S.; Kirchner, G.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations, including ICRP, IAEA and UNSCEAR, and the international scientific community are currently engaged in work on the protection of non-human species against ionising radiation as a complement to the existing framework centred on humans. The basic ideas and conceptual approaches developed during the last decade substantially agree with each other. The EC funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) summarizes and reviews the current knowledge of radiation effects on biota, provides basic dosimetric models for fauna and flora and suggests an assessment framework. Protection of the environment against ionising radiation, on the one hand, aims to close a conceptual gap in radiation protection. Therefore, current frameworks for environmental protection conceptually follow radiation protection of man. On the other hand, preservation of natural resources, habitats and the biological diversity are common objectives of environmental protection against radioactive as well as chemical pollutants, suggesting an integrated approach based on the fundamental ideas of conventional environmental protection. In essence, a conceptual framework encompassing protection of man as well as of fauna and flora against chemical and radioactive pollutants would be highly desirable in view of coherence, consistency and transparency. Such an umbrella concept communicates the positive message that similar issues are treated in a conceptually similar manner, thus facilitating scientific justification and public communication and increasing acceptance. This paper discusses different concepts and approaches to radiation protection of man, radiation protection of non-human biota and environmental protection against chemical pollutants, identifies common principles and differences, addresses conflicting requirements and evaluates the feasibility and limitations of such an encompassing framework. (authors)

  3. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients' needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL's Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs

  4. Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues

  5. United States Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1989 to November 9, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasch, R.A.

    1989-11-01

    Protection of the environment at the Hanford Site is being ensured through several dedicated activities. These dedicated activities include: Routine effluent monitoring to ensure operations control emissions to the environment and environmental surveillance to characterize and assess impacts of operations on the environment; Corrective activities including permitting of facilities and upgrading of systems to come into full compliance with environmental regulations; Activities for maintaining compliance with federal and state statutes regulating both active and inactive waste sites; Environmental restoration activities for cleanup of inactive sites; Oversight activities to ensure conduct of responsive and integrated programs for environmental protection; and Recognition of additional requirements of new or revised regulations and DOE orders and implementation of means for meeting these requirements

  6. Change of direction required. Climate protection in the transport sector. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    The transport sector is currently responsible for about one-fifth of Germany's greenhouse gas emissions. While in other sectors since 1990 partly clear emission reductions have been achieved, are the emissions of traffic during the same period even slightly increased. In his special report the German Council of Environmental Advisors (SRU) points out which strategic course should be set for the change in transport policy. The decarbonisation of the transport sector requires a consistent overall concept. It should be done as soon as possible, a switch to alternative drives. In traffic electromobility is to be accelerated, because of direct electrification the primary energy consumption is kept as low as possible. The extraction and recycling of the raw materials required for electromobility should be made sustainable. In addition, the energy consumption of motorized transport must also be be significantly further reduced, especially by on-board efficiency measures. In addition to technological changes a fundamental change of transport systems and mobility patterns is also necessary. The avoidance and relocation of traffic not only contributes to climate protection, but also to reduce its other environmental and health burdens. In order to promote cost transparency in the transport sector, taxes, levies and subsidies should be consistently aligned with climate, environmental and health policy objectives. For the SRU, this also includes the introduction of a route-dependent car toll. [de

  7. Objectives, Scope and Organization of Radiological and Environmental Protection in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massalleras, E.; Zamorano, W.

    1979-01-01

    The report covers the activity of the Radiation Protection Department concerning radiation protection of persons involved in the application of radiation sources and the monitoring of environmental radioactivity. (author)

  8. Environmental radiation protection-future challenges with regard to science and decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C. M.

    2004-01-01

    With Publication 91 on the impact of ionizing radiation on non-human species, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has taken a major step towards the integration of environmental issues into radiological protection. The conceptual framework has developed in response to public demand and concern for environmental issues, and is underpinned by technical development undertaken by several organisations at both national and international levels. The EC-funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact), completed in 2004, has developed an assessment framework that includes: source characterisation and initial hazard analysis; ecosystem description and selection of reference organisms; exposure analysis including conversion to dose rates; effects analysis; and, guidance for interpretation. On the basis of experience from FASSET and other recent developments, it can be concluded that (i) there is substantial agreement in terms of conceptual approaches between different frameworks currently in use being or proposed, and that (ii) differences in technical approaches can be largely attributed to differences in ecosystems of concern or in national regulatory requirements. A major future challenge is the development of an integrated approach where decision-making can be guided by sound scientific judgements. This requires, inter alia: filling gaps in basic knowledge of relevance to assessment and protection, through targeted experimental, theoretical (including expert judgements) and real case studies; development of risk characterisation methodologies; development of screening standards, where appropriate; development of user-friendly assessment tools; and, stakeholder involvement, including the development of supporting communication strategies. These issues will be addressed in the ERICA project (Environmental Risks from Ionizing Contaminants Assessment and Management) launched under the EC 6th Framework Programme during the

  9. Environmental Protection of Foreign Firms in Germany: Does the country of origin matter?

    OpenAIRE

    John P. Weche Geluebcke; Isabella Wedl

    2013-01-01

    Only recently have the aspects of pollution and environmental protection entered into the empirical literature about international firm activities. The present paper is the first firm-level study on the link between foreign ownership and environmental protection in Germany. We find that, ceteris paribus, foreign owned firms in Germany are more likely to invest in environmental protection. They also invest on a larger scale in terms of add-on measures as well as integrated measures. These resu...

  10. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Byung Jong

    2002-04-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting more interested in terms of on-line data acquisition and analysis for the validation of the numerical simulation models. The experiment using radiotracer becomes an important part of the method to solve the problems happening in coastal environment, as it supplies data with high confidence in the field. On the basis of the experience obtained from the researches for industrial application of radiotracer technology, KAERI is going to make its first step to the development of the radiotracer technology for costal environmental studies

  11. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Sihang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-09-29

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  12. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents. PMID:28961188

  13. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiu Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  14. Environmental Protection Issues that Should Be Taken in Consideration in the Preparatory Phase of the Croatian Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramilac, S. Z.; Lebegner, J.; Vrankic, K.

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the existing national legislation, the process of launching new power plants in Croatia is carried out in tight relationship with respect to their impact on environment. Preparation for the construction of first NPP in Croatia can't be any exception - contrary, strong public interest is expected at every stage of implementation of the national nuclear power plant project. In order to fulfil requirements of the environmental protection, numerous national and international acts should be taken into consideration. The intention of this paper is to be an inventory process of steps in the area of environmental protection in the pre-construction phase of the national NPP project. In this regard, following issues will be elaborated: identification of main organizations responsible for environmental protection in the process of launching NPP project on the national level (Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection, State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety, etc.), dentification of existing and still missing (if any) national legislation which will form the basis for the future process of site and technology assessment and approving, process of environmental impact assessment production, including strategic environmental impact assessment, initiation of transboundary impact of the project according to requirements of international conventions ratified by Croatia (Espoo and Aarhus Conventions) and specific project workflow containing all obligatory steps in approving commission of first NPP in Croatia from environmental point of view.(author).

  15. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkson, J.K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Amadu, M.B. [Kumasi Inst. of Technology, Energy and Environment, Kumasi (Ghana)

    1999-09-01

    The electric utility industries in most African countries are confronted by the twin-problem of deficient capacity and lack of adequate financial resources to undertake capacity expansion of their respective systems. The critical aspects of power sector reform taking place in many countries are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power system in most countries in the region. Ghana, which is the focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two dams (Akosombo and Kpong hydropower plants) are built is increasingly becoming uncertain, and besides, the power output from the two plants is insufficient to meet the increasing electricity demand of the country. The alternative is to build thermal power plants to complement the two hydropower plants. The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implications of changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor and enforce regulations in the emerging electricity industry. The study uses a spreadsheet-based simulation model to determine the potential levels of certain air pollutants - CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} - that would result from changes in fuel mix for electricity generation. Using different capacity expansion options proposed for The Volta River Authority (VRA) between 1997-2013, the levels of these air pollutants are estimated. The study further describes other potential environmental impacts of changes in fuel mix in power generation. (au)

  16. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The new management of Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture looks forward to strengthening our collaboration with, among others, related units in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the World Trade Organization. These efforts will include subjects addressing overall food security, including food quality, food safety, plant health and the promotion of food trade in the areas of food irradiation and methods of analysis and sampling for contaminants, with a specific emphasis on developing countries. Increased efforts will also be applied in the application of safe technologies through the provision of training and support in the utilization of sound analytical methods, research, and web-based information systems for both sanitary and phytosanitary measures. It also plan to enhance the preparedness of our Member States in the application of the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan and in strengthening links with other Units of the Division and the Seibersdorf Laboratories, specifically in the areas of agrochemicals, biotechnology and radionuclides. There are numerous activities planned in the form of Research Coordination Meetings, Workshops and Seminars on subjects ranging from pesticide residue analysis and formulation control, the use of irradiation to ensure the quality and safety of foods and the transfer of radionuclides from soils to plants

  17. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 5, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The new management of Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture looks forward to strengthening our collaboration with, among others, related units in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the World Trade Organization. These efforts will include subjects addressing overall food security, including food quality, food safety, plant health and the promotion of food trade in the areas of food irradiation and methods of analysis and sampling for contaminants, with a specific emphasis on developing countries. Increased efforts will also be applied in the application of safe technologies through the provision of training and support in the utilization of sound analytical methods, research, and web-based information systems for both sanitary and phytosanitary measures. It also plan to enhance the preparedness of our Member States in the application of the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan and in strengthening links with other Units of the Division and the Seibersdorf Laboratories, specifically in the areas of agrochemicals, biotechnology and radionuclides. There are numerous activities planned in the form of Research Coordination Meetings, Workshops and Seminars on subjects ranging from pesticide residue analysis and formulation control, the use of irradiation to ensure the quality and safety of foods and the transfer of radionuclides from soils to plants.

  18. Food and environmental protection newsletter. V.1, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The activities of the Food and Environmental Protection Section are gaining momentum through the combined strength of the staff members of the former Food Preservation and Agrochemical and Residues Section. In addition to the encouraging outcomes of existing CRPs in the field of food irradiation and pesticides, this issue reports two new CRPs which have either been initiated or are in the processes of being initiated. Any research institutes which wish to participate in any of these two new CRPs should contact us as soon as possible. The status of various on going CRPs and new CRPs is also described in this issue. The activities of the FAO/IAEA Training and Reference Centre of Food and Pesticide Control for this year are described in this issue. Reports of some activities which have just been implemented during the first half of 1998, including the Workshop on Introduction of QA/QC Principles in Pesticide Residue Analysis held in Hungary in March, are summarized in this issue

  19. Annual report 2004. Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, L.; Zevenhoven, R. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This fifth annual report in this series, covering year 2004, gives an overview of the research, education and other activities of the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. From the research point of view, the laboratory continues in the Nordic Energy Research Program (2003-2006) in the field of CO{sub 2} capture and storage, and in the EU project 'ToMeRed' on toxic trace elements emissions control. The laboratory is also the operating agent for the IEA project 'Energy systems integration between society and industry'. The bulk of the research can be classified into three groups, in short: energy systems; spraying and combustion and combustion and waste treatment. This research takes mainly place in national and international consortia, but sometimes also in a direct cooperation with one industry partner. Some of the work involves the use and development of models and sub- models for the simulation and optimisation of energy systems and processes. Commercial softwares like Aspen Plus and Prosim are important tools for our work as well. Besides this, single particle modelling can be applied to fuel droplets, fuel particles or particles found in metallurgical industry. We make CFD calculations with commercial codes are made as well, while working on the improvement of (sub-) models for multiphase fluid dynamics.

  20. Shielded chamber control stations: an answer to radiological protection requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaboudiniere, Catherine.

    1979-06-01

    This study, carried out at the radiometallurgy laboratory of the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre, is based on an ergonomic approach. It shows that the shielded chamber control station, designed for human protection against ionizing radiations, demands an effort of adaptation on the part of the operator. This station does in fact meet radiological protection obligations but would benefit from certain improvements aimed at reducing the secondary fatigue of manipulators already under the strain of adapting to the machine. Fields in which improvements and/or changes are desirable have been investigated with special reference to telemanipulators. New and better designed instruments will soon appear on the telemanipulator market [fr

  1. Opportunism Motivation of Environmental Protection Activism and Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study of environmental protection issues for more than forty years, research on the impact of financial performance on environmental protection has been one of the important branches. In the framework of principal-agent theory, this paper explores the opportunism motives in a company’s environmental protection activism and the moderating role of corporate governance using the data of Chinese listed companies from 2005 to 2016. The study finds that: (1 the company’s environmental protection activism is driven by the opportunist motives of policymakers who want to mask their inability; and (2 environmental protection activism does not enhance the company’s future performance and value creation capability. Further studies find that corporate governance mechanisms play different moderating roles. Fund Shareholders play a positive governance role and reduce the correlation between financial performance and environmental protection activism. However, independence of the board of directors intensifies the opportunist motives. This paper provides new theoretical explanations for environmental protection decision-making, provides novel enlightenment for the protection of environmental protection policies in developing countries and regions.

  2. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to consider final environmental impact...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.94 Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. The final environmental impact statement...

  3. Considerations on the environmental aspects of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    After a short history of radiation protection, the relationships between man and environment are considered. In particular it is discussed if the protection of man assures also the protection of the environment. Then the evolution of radioecological research is recorded with some details concerning the major goals achieved. Finally, the present situation of the radiation protection and the environment is considered emphasizing the important influence of politicians and authorities with relevant consequences on future standards or safety for the public. (author). 44 refs

  4. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J. [Center for Resource Solutions (United States); Rabago, K. [Rocky Mountain Inst. (United States); Wiser, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described.

  5. Environmental globalization, organizational form, and expected benefits from protected areas in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max J. Pfeffer; John W. Schelhas; Catherine Meola

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like - food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for such conservation...

  6. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  7. Exclusory and Transformative Dimensions of Adult Environmental Education in Two Brazilian Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Mayla Willik; de Oliveira, Haydée Torres; Logarezzi, Amadeu José Montagnini

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the limitations and potential for the development of an adult environmental education program in two protected areas in Brazil. The investigation was based on critical communicative methodology and involved 25 people variously related to puma conservation and environmental education. We found that the staff of protected areas…

  8. Roots & Shoots: A model for active environmental protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar is facing severe environmental problems. One approach to engage possible future stakeholders and to raise awareness for environmental concerns is the Roots & Shoots program. On the following the program and its philosophy are presented.

  9. Proposal for elicitation and analysis of environmental requirements into the construction design process: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Proposal: As new demands from sustainable development, environmental requirements arise as another challenge to design process management. It is already known that companies which design buildings are usually exposed to many managerial difficulties. Faced to the environmental demands, these companies require new facilities to align environmental requirements to the business goals and to include them properly in design process. This paper is based on a case study in a construction company, which was developed through interviews and document analysis. It is intended to present a procedure for the project environmental requirements elicitation, organization and analysis, which is based on the requirements engineering (ER concepts. As results it was concluded that the ER concepts are useful for the environmental requirements integration into the design process and that strategic planning should give directions for the effective environmental requirements adherence. Moreover, a procedure for environmental requirements modeling is proposed. Key-words: Design process, Requirements management, Environmental requirements, Construction

  10. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent open-quotes Murder Board.close quotes Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters' budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management

  11. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent {open_quotes}Murder Board.{close_quotes} Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters` budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management.

  12. Environmental protection technology. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstner, U.

    1993-01-01

    The book deals on a broad basis with subjects related to environmental pollution. Both ecological and economic aspects are covered; technical means of avoiding and remedying environmental damage are discussed. Included are also an ethical evaluation and the legal aspects of the environmental pollution problem. (UT). 120 figs [de

  13. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Biological and Environmental Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  14. Internal environmental protection audits: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Habegger, L.; Surles, T.

    1983-08-01

    This manual has been prepared for use by any DOE facility as an aid for conducting an internal environmental-protection audit. The manual is organized in modular format, with each module covering a separate area of environmental protection. The questions within each module were developed from existing DOE orders, executive orders, federal statutes, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations issued pursuant to specific environmental legislation. A bibliography of such legislation is included at the end of this section. Each module also includes questions about a facility's use of industrial standards of practice

  15. Separation from the budget of the Republic of Serbia environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Boban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The term 'budget' has international significance for national income and expenditure plan and used by most countries in the world. Symbolizes the bag Minister of Finance by the same 'opening' during the presentation to parliament plan of government revenues and expenditures. The main sources of environmental financing in the Republic of Serbia, the State Budget and fee income. Elements of the system of financing environmental regulations are defined in different areas. To collect data on the financing of environmental protection at the national level the fundamental importance of the Agency for Environmental Protection. The environment must have a much higher priority than it currently has in Serbia. Environmental protection is one of the most important activities of the company, it impinges on all aspects of people's daily lives. The analysis of economic instruments in environmental protection is very important, because it shows how much this activity is effectively implemented at the state and local level.

  16. Development of plasma cutting process at observation of environmental requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czech, J.; Matusiak, J.; Pasek-Siurek, H.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma cutting is one of the basic methods for thermal cutting of metals. It is characterized by high productivity and quality of the cut surface. However, the plasma cutting process is one of the most harmful processes for environment and human health. It results from many agents being a potential environmental risk The large amount of dust and gases emitted during the process as well as an intensive radiation of electric arc and excessive noise are considered as the most harmful hazards. The existing ventilation and filtration systems are not able to solve all problems resulting from the process. Plasma cutting under water is worthy of notice, especially during an advancement of plasma cutting process, because of human safety and environment protection. Such a solution allows to reduce considerably the emission of dust and gases, as well as to decrease the noise level and ultraviolet radiation. An additional advantage of underwater plasma cutting is a reduction in the width of material heating zone and a decrease in strains of elements being cut. However, the productivity of this process is a little lower what results in an increase in cutting cost. In the paper, it has been presented the results of the investigations made at the Institute of Welding in Gliwice on the area of plasma cutting equipment with energy-saving inverter power supplies used in automated processes of underwater plasma cutting as well as the results of testing of welding environment contamination and safety hazards. (author)

  17. THE ROLE OF CITIES IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Krstinic Nizic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to being characterised by the rapid population growth, the cities have long represented the centres of knowledge and the sources of growth and innovation, with unique cultural and architectural features, offering exceptional capacity for economic development. The cities are linked to the perception of urban lifestyle and are conventional areas of economic activity and trade. The modern cities’ structures are affected by technical, technological and industrial changes, the improvements in the fields of service and transport, as well as the strong progress in the fields of all forms of communication. Parallel to this, more and more of the population is concentrated in the suburbs, forming concentrations of poverty, work zones or elite residential areas. Furthermore, the cities are increasingly faced with a variety of demographic problems, social inequality, social exclusion of certain population groups, the lack of adequate housing, and particularly the problems associated with the environment, i.e. the main goal of this paper. Each community needs to ensure the basic requirements such as peace, education, safe housing, stability of the ecosystem and social justice. In other words, since health is an important factor determining the quality of life, various economic, political, cultural, and social factors affect its actualisation both positively and negatively. Therefore, the basic aim of this paper is demonstrating that cities can resist pollution and improve environmental quality, and thus, using economic instruments, improve the health of their citizens.

  18. 10 CFR 73.37 - Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fuel in transit. 73.37 Section 73.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.37 Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit. (a) Performance objectives. (1...

  19. Does unbelted safety requirement affect protection for belted occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Narayanaswamy, Prabha; Reed, Matthew P; Andreen, Margaret; Neal, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsu

    2017-05-29

    Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seat belt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted-only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses. In this study, 2 validated finite element (FE) vehicle/occupant models (a midsize sedan and a midsize SUV) were selected. Restraint design optimizations under standardized crash conditions (U.S.-NCAP and FMVSS 208) with and without unbelted requirements were conducted using Hybrid III (HIII) small female and midsize male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in both vehicles on both driver and right front passenger positions. A total of 10 to 12 design parameters were varied in each optimization using a combination of response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm. To evaluate the field performance of restraints optimized with and without unbelted requirements, 55 frontal crash conditions covering a greater variety of crash types than those in the standardized crashes were selected. A total of 1,760 FE simulations were conducted for the field performance evaluation. Frontal crashes in the NASS-CDS database from 2002 to 2012 were used to develop injury risk curves and to provide the baseline performance of current restraint system and estimate the injury risk change by removing the unbelted requirement. Unbelted requirements do not affect the optimal seat belt and airbag design parameters in 3 out of 4 vehicle/occupant position conditions, except for the SUV passenger side. Overall, compared to the optimal designs with unbelted requirements, optimal designs without unbelted requirements generated the same or lower total injury risks for

  20. Nitrogen Requirements and Balance of Protected Cucumber in Coastal Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Protected cultures are widespread along the Lebanese narrow coastline, encouraged by mild winter conditions. Although one of the most intensive production systems, water and nutrients managements are mostly empirical, based on the experience of the grower himself or of his workers. So far, water has been available in Lebanon, but it will become scarce within ten years. The conservation of water quality by a rational addition of nutrients is particularly relevant to protected cultures. This is important as greenhouses are developed on imported shallow soils that could be fragile and highly vulnerable to pollution. Sound management includes the amount and the forms of fertilizers as well as the modality of fertigation. An experiment was conducted during two spring seasons in a location along the northern coast in a typical unheated greenhouse. The cucumber response to two frequencies and modalities of fertigation was followed: continuous T2C and T3C and discontinuous T2D and T3D every two and three days respectively. Nitrogen recovery by the crop was possible through the use of 15 N-labeled fertilizers. An evaluation of the nitrogen fertilizer fate in the plant-soil system was undertaken in 1999, despite large proportions of Ndff(%) plant N fertilizer recovery was smaller than in the previous season and did not exceed 55% of N inputs

  1. What You Can Do to Protect Children from Environmental Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tips for protection from pesticides, chemical poisoning, lead poisoning, respiratory problems, carbon monoxide poisoning, contaminated fish, radon, too much sun, and mercury. Also how to promote healthier communities.

  2. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 6, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    commercial applications in order to further elaborate Annex 1 of the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) No. 18, Guidelines for the Use of Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Measure. Other activities arising from the working group recommendations include the proposed convening of a Seminar on the Application of Irradiation for Sanitary and Phytosanitary Purposes in conjunction with the FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators Building Effective Food Safety Systems, which will be held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 12-14 October 2004. These are but a few examples of continuing activities within the Food and Environmental Protection Section focused on the application of irradiation for sanitary and phytosanitary purposes

  3. Newly Discovered Orangutan Species Requires Urgent Habitat Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Sean; Supriatna, Jatna; Campbell, Mason J; Alamgir, Mohammed; Laurance, William F

    2018-05-03

    Nater, et al.[1] recently identified a new orangutan species (Pongo tapanuliensis) in northern Sumatra, Indonesia-just the seventh described species of living great ape. The population of this critically-endangered species is perilously small, at only ∼800 individuals [1], ranking it among the planet's rarest fauna. We assert that P. tapanuliensis is highly vulnerable to extinction because its remaining habitat is small, fragmented, and poorly protected. While road incursions within its habitat are modest-road density is only one-eighth that of northern Sumatra-over one-fifth of its habitat is zoned for agricultural conversion or is comprised of mosaic agricultural and regrowth/degraded forest. Additionally, a further 8% will be affected by flooding and infrastructure development for a hydroelectric project. We recommend urgent steps to increase the chance that P. tapanuliensis will persist in the wild. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethics and data protection in human biomarker studies in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, Ludwine; Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Anwar, Wagida A

    2013-08-01

    Human biomarker studies in environmental health are essential tools to study the relationship between health and environment. They should ultimately contribute to a better understanding of environmentally induced adverse health effects and to appropriate preventive actions. To ensure the protection of the rights and dignity of study participants a complex legal and ethical framework is applied, consisting of several international directives, conventions, and guidelines, whether or not translated in domestic laws. Main characteristics of ethics and data protection in studies using biomarkers in the field of environmental health are summarized and current discussions on related questions and bottlenecks highlighted. In the current regulatory context, dominated by the protection of the individual study participant, difficulties are reported due to the different interpretation and implementation of the regulations of concern within and across borders. Advancement of consistency and compatibility is recommended and efforts are ongoing. An increasing demand for secondary use of data and samples poses additional challenges in finding a right balance between the individual rights of the study participants on the one hand and the common interest of, and potential benefit for the public or community at large on the other. Ethics committees could play a key role in assessing problems originating from the sometimes competing needs at individual and societal level. Building trust in science amongst (potential) study participants and within the community allows the inclusion of arguments from the societal perspective. This requires increased attention for respectful communication efforts. Striving for public participation in decision making processes may promote policy relevant research and the related translation of study results into action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. NiCrNx interlayer thickness dependence of spectral performance and environmental durability of protected-silver mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Li, Bincheng; He, Wenyan; Wang, Changjun; Wei, Ming

    2018-04-01

    Gemini-style protected-silver mirror (Sub / NiCrNx / Ag / NiCrNx / SiNx / Air) is a suitable choice for optical instruments requiring both long-term environmental durability and high broadband reflectance. Three Gemini-style protected-silver mirrors with NiCrNx interlayer thicknesses between 0.1 and 0.6 nm were prepared by magnetron sputtering, and the dependences of spectral properties and environmental durability of these protected-silver mirrors on the thickness of NiCrNx interlayer between the silver layer and SiNx layer were investigated in-depth. The reflectance, transmittance and total scattering loss measurements, optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope imaging were employed to characterize the spectral properties and surface morphology, and accelerated environmental tests, including humidity test and salt fog test, were applied to investigate the environmental durability. The experimental results showed that both optical and corrosion-resistant properties of protected-silver mirrors were NiCrNx interlayer thickness dependent, and an optimum NiCrNx interlayer thickness should be ˜0.3 nm for Gemini-style protected-silver mirrors to have reasonably both high reflectance in a broadband spectral range from visible to far infrared and good corrosion resistance for long-lifetime applications in harsh environments.

  6. Dose assessment in environmental radiological protection: State of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Goméz-Ros, José M; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Lindbo Hansen, Elisabeth; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Kapustka, Lawrence A; Wood, Michael D; Bradshaw, Clare; Real, Almudena; McGuire, Corynne; Hinton, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to radiation is a potential hazard to humans and the environment. The Fukushima accident reminded the world of the importance of a reliable risk management system that incorporates the dose received from radiation exposures. The dose to humans from exposure to radiation can be quantified using a well-defined system; its environmental equivalent, however, is still in a developmental state. Additionally, the results of several papers published over the last decade have been criticized because of poor dosimetry. Therefore, a workshop on environmental dosimetry was organized by the STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) Network of Excellence to review the state of the art in environmental dosimetry and prioritize areas of methodological and guidance development. Herein, we report the key findings from that international workshop, summarise parameters that affect the dose animals and plants receive when exposed to radiation, and identify further research needs. Current dosimetry practices for determining environmental protection are based on simple screening dose assessments using knowledge of fundamental radiation physics, source-target geometry relationships, the influence of organism shape and size, and knowledge of how radionuclide distributions in the body and in the soil profile alter dose. In screening model calculations that estimate whole-body dose to biota the shapes of organisms are simply represented as ellipsoids, while recently developed complex voxel phantom models allow organ-specific dose estimates. We identified several research and guidance development priorities for dosimetry. For external exposures, the uncertainty in dose estimates due to spatially heterogeneous distributions of radionuclide contamination is currently being evaluated. Guidance is needed on the level of dosimetry that is required when screening benchmarks are exceeded and how to report exposure in dose-effect studies, including quantification of uncertainties. Further

  7. Crispin: capital requirements and reinsurance protect against insolvency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispin, C

    2001-12-01

    Charles Crispin is president of Evergreen Re, a managed care consulting firm with expertise in the reinsurance industry. Before Joining Evergreen Re, Crispin served as a consultant to the managed care industry. He is a member of the American Association of Integrated Delivery Systems, Glen Allen, Virginia, and the Provider Excess Loss Association, Princeton, New Jersey. Crispin recently talked with HFM about risk-based capital requirements for health plans and the Impact these solvency guidelines could have on healthcare providers.

  8. Lithological-morphological map of Italy: Instrument for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe', L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development by ENEA (Italian Commission for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) of a map which identifies and coordinates the principal lithological and morphological features of Italy's environmental ecosystems. The map is intended especially for use in site characterization studies and environmental impacts assessments in construction projects involving hydroelectric power dams and geothermal power plants

  9. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  10. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOME COPPER BASED FUNGICIDES ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga GRĂDILĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data demonstrating the functionality of biological systems reconstituted with aquatic organisms developed under Good Laboratory Practice testing facility within Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection Bucharest for environmental risk assessment of four fungicides based on copper, according to Good Laboratory Practice requirements. For risk assessment, according to GLP were made the following steps: Good Laboratory Practice test facility was established, we have ensured adequate space for growth, acclimatization and testing for each test species, it was installed a complex water production instalation needed to perform tests, it was achieved control system for checking environmental conditions and have developed specific operating procedures that have been accredited according to Good Laboratory Practice.The results showed that biological systems model of the Good Laboratory Practice test facility in Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection meet the requirements of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines regarding GLP, and after testing copper-based fungicides in terms of acute toxicity Cyprinus carpio and to Daphnia magna revealed that three of them (copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide and copper sulphate showed ecological efficiency, ie low toxicity. Metallic copper based fungicides showed a higher toxicity, resulting in fish toxicity symptoms: sleep, sudden immersion, faded, weakness, swimming in spiral, lack of balance, breathing slow and cumbersome, spasms and mortality.

  12. Competition policy and environmental protection, obstacles to competition in the waste sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, J.; Marttinen, K.; Steiner, N.

    2000-08-01

    This study deals with the legal rules that affect the conditions of competition in the waste sector at both the EU level and national level in Finland. This study describes further, on a more general level, the relation between the EC's internal market rules and competition rules and the actions involving environmental protection taken by public authorities (EG, Member States) and enterprises. Hazardous waste is not studied in this report. The study comprises two parts: The first part deals with the free movement of waste, EG rules on the transportation of waste between Member States, and the specific EG rules and Finnish laws and regulations on waste. The aim of this study has been, on the one hand, to discuss cases where restrictions of competition in the waste sector are a direct consequence of EG rules on waste and, on the other hand, situations where EG rules or the large margin of manoeuvre left with the Member States create problems with a view to a well functioning competition at the national level. Part two deals with the application of EG rules and Finnish competition rules to companies' agreements on actions involving environmental protection and especially waste management, and to their operations in general and, in certain cases, also to the measures taken by Member States. The EG rules on waste do not pay enough attention to competition aspects. The different requirements set by Member States result in distortion of competition while the rules governing the shipments of waste are not effective enough. From the internal market point of view, more binding and detailed rules are motivated. Competition rules are fully applicable to enterprises' measures aimed at environmental protection that restrict competition. Environmental protection aspects in connection with a case-to-case consideration of interests is, however, gaining importance. Those restrictions of competition in the waste sector that EC has dealt with have without exception concerned the

  13. Acoustic Leak Detection Requirements for a SFR Steam Generator Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Joon; Jeong, Ji-Young; Oeh, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Byung-Ho; Yughay, Valery S.

    2008-01-01

    A large volume of fast reactor research has been executed in Russia, Japan, France, India and the United Kingdom. At present, an unique fast reactor named BN- 600 is operating in Russia. Also, the operation of research reactors such as Phenix (France), JOYO (Japan), BOR-60 (Russia) and FBTR (India) proceeds. The last project to be completed was the reactor Monju (Japan) which is now stopped. In addition activities for the development of fast reactors are being conducted in China, India, and South Korea. Fast reactors are a choice for the subsequent nuclear power generation in Korea, and their increased safety is one of the basic requirements. The basis for a tightening of the requirements on safety is the emergencies in NPPs in Russia, USA, France, Japan and other countries. These emergencies testify that the existing monitoring systems do not fully provide a well-timed detection of the distresses arising in a NPP, because of a poor sensitivity and response, thus the necessity for a better diagnostic system is obvious. In accordance with the USA GNEP initiative in Obninsk, Russia, 2007 the main efforts should be directed toward a sodium-water steam generator safety increase due to improvement of the hydrogen monitoring system and the acoustic leak detection system

  14. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, M

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  15. Minimum power requirement for environmental control of aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, Juan Carlos; Bejan, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Four models are proposed and optimized. In the first, the ECS operates reversibly, the air stream in the cabin is mixed to one temperature, and the cabin experiences heat transfer with the ambient, across its insulation. The cabin temperature is fixed. In the second model, the fixed cabin temperature is assigned to the internal solid surfaces of the cabin, and a thermal resistance separates these surfaces from the air mixed in the cabin. In the third model, the ECS operates irreversibly, based on the bootstrap air cycle. The fourth model combines the ECS features of the third model with the cabin-environment interaction features of the second model. It is shown that in all models the temperature of the air stream that the ECS delivers to the cabin can be optimized for operation at minimal power. The effect of other design parameters and flying conditions is documented. The optimized air delivery temperature is relatively insensitive to the complexity of the model; for example, it is insensitive to the size of the heat exchanger used in the bootstrap air cycle. This study adds to the view that robustness is a characteristic of optimized complex flow systems, and that thermodynamic optimization results can be used for orientation in the pursuit of more complex and realistic designs

  16. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of ... are sometimes perceived in developing countries as nontariff barriers to trade. ... In some cases, products that had initially been refused access to a ...

  17. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  18. Application of radiation technology for industry and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueo Machi

    1996-01-01

    The world population today is 5.7 billion and increasing by 94 million per year. In order to meet the increasing consumption of food and energy due to the tremendous population growth, unproved technologies which are environmentally friendly, are indispensable. In this context. a number of advanced technologies have been brought about by the LISC of radiation and isotopes. This paper highlights radiation technology, applications in industry, environmental conservation, and agriculture

  19. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - 05/12/2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point locations for sites in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 which are documented as being part of the National Priorities List as of May 12, 2014....

  20. The impact of immersion protection requirements on hair dryer electrocutions in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Gregory B; Garland, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the immersion protection requirements of a voluntary safety standard for portable handheld hair dryers in preventing electrocution deaths in the USA. The present work was an interrupted time series study design. Data on annual hair dryer-related electrocution deaths resulting from water contact were developed for the 1980-2007 study period. A multivariate Poisson regression model for rate data was used to evaluate the impact of the immersion protection requirements during the post-intervention period. The analysis controlled for the estimated number of hair dryers in use and the estimated number of US homes equipped with ground fault circuit interrupters, safety devices that would address hair dryer electrocutions even in the absence of the immersion protection requirements of the voluntary standard. The implementation of the 1987 and 1991 immersion protection requirements of the voluntary standard for portable handheld hair dryers was the intervention studied. The main outcome measure was the estimated reduction in the hair dryer electrocution rate associated with the immersion protection requirements of the voluntary standard. After controlling for covariates, the immersion protection requirements were estimated to reduce the rate of hair dryer immersion electrocution deaths by 96.6% (95% CI, 90.8% to 98.8%). This suggests the prevention of about 280 immersion electrocution deaths involving hair dryers during the post-intervention period (1987-2007). The immersion protection requirements of the voluntary safety standard for hair dryers have been highly effective in reducing hair dryer electrocutions.

  1. Environmental Protection Agency EIT Procurement Checklist for Section 508 Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Includes examples of items that are considered electronic information technology (EIT), and some that are not, explanations of each exemption and requirement, and how to provide required documentation to justify exemption or undue burden.

  2. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  3. Notification: Review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Purchase Card and Convenience Check Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, December 20, 2012. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  4. Managing Uncertainty in Runoff Estimation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Stormwater Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Stormwater Calculator (NSWC) simplifies the task of estimating runoff through a straightforward simulation process based on the EPA Stormwater Management Model. The NSWC accesses localized climate and soil hydrology data, and opti...

  5. [Environmental protection techniques used in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Zelimira

    2006-09-01

    Within the framework of the programme "Partnership for Sustainable Development" The Ministry of Environment of the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg has come up with a project "Study Visit--Environmental Protection Techniques". It was intended as a three-week study visit for environmental protection experts from Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to learn about the environmental protection techniques used in this federal state. Visits were paid to companies producing, applying or installing plants based on the state-of-the-art environmental protection techniques. The project started in 2005 and will last five years. The first visit to Baden-Württemberg was scheduled for 25 September-14 October 2005 for 12 experts from 12 countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine.

  6. Notification: Assessment of the Qualifications of Environmental Protection Agency Personnel With Significant Security Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OMS-FY12-0006, February 15, 2012. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research for the subject project, which will be performed by a contractor.

  7. Interpretation and evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment guidelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murray, K

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate a common understanding, on-going debate and increasing application of ecological risk assessment (ERA) in South Africa, the ERA process of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been summarised and evaluated...

  8. Qualifications of persons working in radiation user's organization and radiation protection training required for competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The Guide sets out the requirements governing the qualifications of persons working in userAes organizations and the radiation protection training required for such competence. It also sets out the requirements for training organizations arranging radiation safety officer training and exams. The Guide applies only to uses of radiation requiring a afety licence. The requirements for userAes organizations are set out in Guide ST 1.4

  9. Towards feasible and sustainable environmental protection for all

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Proper concepts and technologies for attaining a sustainable, robust and social-economically affordable protection of the life environment for all people are available. They consist of concepts of Decentralised Sanitation and Resource Recovery and Reuse that are comprised of the use of treatment

  10. Critical considerations on the environmental protection. On the technical regulatory guide of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, R

    1978-11-01

    The author critically examines the problem of environmental protection maintaining living conditions even with further development of technology. He deals in detail with the success-promising slogans put forth plastics and hydrochloric acid, nuclear energy, as well as keeping the air clean, sulfur dioxide as main topic from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Furthermore, the technical regulatory guides in maintaining clean air and flue gas purification are treated.

  11. Differential Requirements for T Cells in Viruslike Particle- and Rotavirus-Induced Protective Immunity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutt, Sarah E.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    Correlates of protection from rotavirus infection are controversial. We compared the roles of B and T lymphocytes in protective immunity induced either by intranasally administered nonreplicating viruslike particles or inactivated virus or by orally administered murine rotavirus. We found that protection induced by nonreplicating vaccines requires CD4+ T cells and CD40/CD40L. In contrast, T cells were not required for short-term protective immunity induced by infection, but both T-cell-dependent and -independent mechanisms contributed to long-term maintenance of protection. Our findings indicate that more than one marker of protective immunity exists and that these markers depend on the vaccine that is administered. PMID:18184712

  12. 76 FR 82115 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Full Fare Price Advertising Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ...] RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Full Fare Price Advertising Requirements AGENCY... amending the time period for compliance with the full fare and other advertising requirements in 14 CFR 399... advertising requirements from January 24, 2012, to January 26, 2012, to provide regulatory relief to...

  13. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information. In addition, OFP will have the authority to approve and modify any statement, analysis, and... the costs of preparing any necessary Environmental Assessment (EA) or Environmental Impact Statement... review and prepare an EA or EIS, as appropriate, and who does not have a financial or other interest in...

  14. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."

  15. Energy development and environmental protection: we can have both

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This article is excerpted from a speech given by Ruth Caplan, Chair, National Energy Committee, Sierra Club, at Energy Magazine's Fourth Annual International Energy Conference, Hotel Roosevelt, New York City, November 24-25, 1980. When the environmental community speaks of alternative energy it is referring to renewable energy sources. Its preferred energy future begins with energy conservation and development of renewables. This path will relieve pressure for developing all our fossil resources at once. It will allow us to begin leasing in the least environmentally sensitive areas; to develop a small number of shale processing facilities and to study the impacts before building more; to be sure that the synthetic fuel processes which are commercialized minimize environmental and health impacts; to be sure that strip mined land can be reclaimed and that water resources are husbanded for foods as well as fuel; and to proceed without dismantling the Clean Air Act. Environmental concerns are set forth on the following: strip coal mining; oil shale development; oil and gas leasing along the Overthrust Belt; and nuclear waste disposal

  16. Environmental protection - a national and international problem to solve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, O.; Iacob, S.; Marciu, R.; Jedlicska, M.; Jemna, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents solutions for two major environmental problems - decreasing of thermal power plants pollution and air quality monitoring in ares with heavy industrial pollution. The solutions are applied in the most important Romanian fossil power plants in parallel with the retrofitting of the electrostatic precipitators. The air monitoring system, set in one of the 'hotspot' areas in Romania Baia-Mare, is described

  17. The Interface between Human Needs and Environmental Protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case study which is the focus of this article is the proposed development of a nuclear power plant at Thyspunt in the Eastern Cape which has become a contentious environmental dispute. The case examines the perceptions of key stakeholders, namely members of the St Francis Residents and Ratepayers Association, ...

  18. 19 A Glance on Environmental Protection in Africa: Theological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    the environmental problems in Africa for the ... wood in the pond of Congo because it risks ..... to stimulate a responsible behavior in the life .... rebellion damaged the relationship between .... that is also why they confer sacred character to trees ...

  19. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2006 ... Environmental Regulation and Food Safety intéressera les artisans des politiques et les ONG , les chercheurs et les spécialistes de l'économie ... This funding will help strengthen the Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization's (STIPRO) role as a credible public policy institution in ...

  20. 75 FR 34666 - Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... rule means that we will need to prepare a new environmental impact statement rather than the supplement.... Establishing corrective action thresholds. Land Forming and Fill Optimization. Revising the backfilling and... Original Contour Exceptions. Limiting variances and exceptions from approximate original contour...

  1. Environmental protection and penal law in Greece - a comparison with the German penal code on environmental matters. Der strafrechtliche Umweltschutz in Griechenland unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Deutschen Umweltstrafrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanidis, G.

    1985-01-01

    The first chapter outlines the ecological situation of Greece, while the second chapter presents the legal foundations of environmental protection in Greece. Secondary laws are mentioned, as these are generally the laws in which penal liabilities are stated. The present environmental protection regulations are found to be unsatisfactory and unfit for preventing environmental damage. A new legislative structure is proposed on the basis of German environmental protection standards. (orig./HSCH).

  2. The future of environmental protection: A U.S. regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. has the largest number of nuclear installations of any country in the world. This puts us at an extreme end of the spectrum. As a result, I have touched on many issues relative to environmental protection. Therefore in summary, let me list these issues: Before moving ahead, look at what has been done thus far. Executive policy and a national regulatory infrastructure. - Environmental Impact Statements. - Environmental Justice. Standards determined by law or courts. Consultation with other national agencies and countries. Improving the timetable for issuing regulations and supporting guidance. Improved communications and training of staff. Transparency and flexibility throughout the regulatory process. Differences in regulatory approaches are OK, as long as the end result is to achieve sound national environmental and public health and safety policy. I believe that this series of conferences represents an excellent opportunity to come to resolution about the future of environmental regulations and policies. Having this information will assist us in harmonizing any proposed recommendation(s) for radiological protection of the environment involving commodities containing radioactive materials or unrestricted release of slightly radioactive materials by using the existing environmental radiation protection framework as a starting point. Doing so in an open, encompassing manner will, in my opinion, go a long way towards resolving some of the current controversies about radiation protection standards in the U.S., as well as around the world, with the desirable end result of increasing public confidence in our environmental radiation protection programs. (author)

  3. Environmental radiation protection and information expectations of the public - past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, Anneli

    1999-01-01

    The development of 'environmental radiation protection' and changes in information expectations and needs during the past half a century is approached from three angles, namely changes in the importance of the sources of radionuclides, including the targets of the studies; in protection criteria; and in the society, including the expectations and needs of information. (au)

  4. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S COMPUTATIONAL TOXCIOLOGY PROGRAM - METABOLISM AND METABONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to safeguard public health and the environment from adverse effects that may be caused by exposure to pollutants in the air, water, soil and food. Protecting human health and the environment carries with it the ch...

  5. Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

  6. Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM). Operational safety, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. Release: December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report overviews the monitoring activities of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection at the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM), focussing the ERAM inventory of radioactive waste and the measures and results of geomechanical and hydrogeological monitoring, operational radiation protection, the monitoring of discharges of radioactive substances, environmental monitoring, and the dose levels expected from discharges of radioactive substances. (orig.)

  7. Science to Support Informed Decision-Making: Examples from the US Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is to protect human health and the environment. We work to achieve our mission through a combination of applied research and technical guidance for localities, states, tribes, and regions to best manage the...

  8. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  9. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors. Each nonpower reactor licensee who, pursuant to the... perform their duties. (6) Prior to entry into a material access area, packages shall be searched for...

  10. 7 CFR 3407.8 - Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement. 3407.8 Section 3407.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.8 Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement. An...

  11. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  12. 10 CFR 205.328 - Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits-Alternative 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.328 Environmental... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits... responsible for the costs of preparing any necessary environmental document, including an Environmental Impact...

  13. 18 CFR 380.6 - Actions that require an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 380.6 Section 380.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.6 Actions that require an environmental impact statement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an environmental impact statement will normally be prepared first...

  14. The radiation protection environmental assesment for 60Co irradiation room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Meiyang; Jin Guohua; Shen Genfang

    2010-01-01

    60 Co source is applied in the process such as sterilizing agricultural products in irradiation room of some Academy of Agricultural Sciences, which is very effective in agricultural applications. However, 60 Co is highly toxic, once the leak, the consequences would be disastrous. So it is necessary to summarize the radiation protection and safety evaluation of the irradiation room indoor and outdoor, to ensure the health and lives of the staff and the surrounding population. The radiation detectors monitor six points around the irradiation room. Results show that design of irradiation room of Academy of Agricultural Sciences are mostly safe and reliable, regardless of the source in working condition. And consequences also show 60 Co source in the normal operating will not put adverse effects on the surrounding environment. In addition, the outer radiation protective measures are also outlined, in view of 60 Co own identity. (authors)

  15. Guideline on radiation protection requirements for ionizing radiation shielding in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The guideline which entered into force on 1 May 1988 stipulates the radiation protection requirements for shielding against ionizing radiation to be met in the design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants

  16. Functional Fit Evaluation to Determine Optimal Ease Requirements in Canadian Forces Chemical Protective Gloves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay-Lutter, Julie

    1995-01-01

    A functional fit evaluation of the Canadian Forces (CF) chemical protective lightweight glove was undertaken in order to quantify the amount of ease required within the glove for optimal functional fit...

  17. Radiation-chemical disinfection of dissolved impurities and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, N.V.; Putilov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-chemical neutralization of dissolved toxic impurities formed in the production processes of different materials, while modern plants being in use, is considered. For the first time the processes of deep industrial waste detoxication and due to this peculiarities of practically thorough neutralization of dissolved toxic impurities are considered. Attention is paid to devices and economic factors of neutralization of dissolved toxic impurities. The role of radiation-chemical detoxication for environment protection is considered

  18. Environmentally friendly hybrid coatings for corrosion protection: silane based pre-treatments and nanostructured waterborne coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Fedel, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers a nanotechnology approach based on the production of metals pre-treatments and organic coatings (a complete protection system at all) designed from the nanoscale. The final aim is to develop protection systems with improved corrosion protection properties and a low environmental impact. In particular, multifunctional silane hybrid molecules were used to design sol-gel pre-treatments for metals and to modify the inner structure of UV curable waterborne organic coatings...

  19. ANIMAL WASTE IMPACT ON SOURCE WATERSAIDED BY EPA/NSF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) SOURCE WATER PROTECTION PILOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) was established in 1995 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to encourage the development and commercialization of new environmental technologies through third part testing and reporting of performance data. By ensur...

  20. Papers of All-Polish Conference on Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings comprise papers presented at All-Polish Conference on nuclear techniques in industry, medicine, agriculture and environmental protection. Most of the papers are in the field of uses of radiation sources and particle beams in industry, radiation chemistry, nuclear medicine and dosimetry, environmental sciences

  1. Environmental protection in the frame of radiation protection. Recommendation of the Commission on radiological protection including justification and explanation; Schutz der Umwelt im Strahlenschutz. Empfehlung der Strahlenschutzkommission mit Begruendung und Erlaeuterung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The environmental protection is part of the radiation protection but without defined regulations concerning the protection of non-human species and the ecological systems. In 2008 the SSK (Strahlenschutzkommission) was asked to elaborate measures for environmental radiation protection. Part of the recommendation was the application of sustainability concepts on radioactive materials.

  2. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996, revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses discourses with ambiguities of organizational practice stemming from two themes. At the end, a case study of Antena completes the discussion. Data was collected with documental research and semi-structured interviews. We made use of Discourse Analysis methodology (Fiorin, 1989. In conclusion, the concern with social responsibility and its environmental thematic lie within the organization. It is found in the discourse and actions at a high administration level including managers and a high number of technical workers. The silence about the limits of this responsibility is fulfilled by a technical workers group that reveals dissimulation when openness menaces some objectives.

  3. Environmental management for dredging sediments - the requirement of developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research has characterized the effects of dredging, an underwater excavation process for navigational purposes or material extraction, and has shown its association with a number of chemical, physical and biological impacts. Due to this, much environmental management has been applied in the dredging industry in order to manage its detrimental effects. However, developing nations may have different approaches towards their dredging environmental management to compare to their companions with higher economic strength. Moreover, scientific evidence to make an informed decision is often lacking, hence affecting the number of research executed at these nations, limiting their efforts to preserve the environment. This paper reviews the dredging environmental impacts and its two important factors, dredging technology and sediment characteristic, that determine the magnitude of impacts through literature review, and discusses the need for a more integrated dredging environmental management to be developed for developing nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modernization of the WWER 440/230 nuclear power plant environmental protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikheev, N.V.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Kulyukhin, S.A.; Novichenko, V.L.; Rumer, I.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Antonov, B.V.; Kornienko, A.G.; Meshkov, V.M.; Rogov, M.F. [Rosenergoatom Concern, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The papers reports a new approach to the problem of increasing environmental protection during severe accidents at WWER 440/230 nuclear power plants. The environmental protection system that we propose has three, not two protection levels, and can be introduced with minor modernization of the equipment available at WWER 440/230 nuclear power plants: 1. a jet-vortex condenser; 2. the sprinkler system; 3. a sorption module. The proposed modernization not only makes it possible to avoid emergency discharge of radioactive air and steam mix into the environment under any accident scenario, but also would substantially contribute to the safety of WWER 440/230 nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. A methodological approach of 'environmental engineering' for the rescue and protection of a territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cautilli, F.; Polizzano, C.; Tassoni, E.; Zarlenga, F.

    1989-02-01

    In this report the methodological process, that should be followed when an environmental protection and restoration problem is dealt with, is described. Moreover the actions that 'the environmental engineer' has to carry out to study every multidisciplinary problem on territory protection and restoration are synthesized, keeping in mind that the territory knowledge and the geological hazard specification are the essential bases for research work. Finally, some typical territory protection actions against the hydrogeological failures, the quarry excavation activity and the hazardous waste disposal impact, are briefly described. (author)

  6. Supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the Swedish nuclear facilities 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in 1999. A summary of the inspections during 1999 and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given. The inspections during 1999 have focused on the management of liquid discharges and components containing induced activity at some of the nuclear facilities. Also, routines for filing environmental samples, discharge water samples and documents were inspected at all the different nuclear facilities. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  7. The development of an environmental protection programme for the population based on concepts and standards inspired by radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, P.

    1977-01-01

    Following the United Nations Conference in Stockholm, 1972, on the protection of the environment a certain number of principles and methods have been put forward to national authorities which put into effect environmental protection programmes. Several of these principles have been taken directly from and inspired by the field of application of radiological protection; it is not without interest to draw comparisons between those which have been conceived and applied in health physics for the prevention of a radioactivity risk as it applies to the population, and those which already exist or which are envisaged vis-a-vis the risks from non radioactive pollutants. It is opportune to remember that the ICRP publications, in particular those published in and after 1958, included recommendations on radiological protection, and that these recommendations laid down the bases for both the theoretical steps and the practical methodology of which the main components are still in existence today; a remarkable achievement which merits emphasis. The ICRP recommendations included in publication 1 and more particularly publications 7, 9 and 22 introduced the basic concepts of a health physics policy which can be recognized as having been beneficial for the protection of man and his environment and which can be utilized as a basis for consideration, if not action, as it concerns the non-radioactive environmental pollutants [fr

  8. The Effects of Mothers' Educational Levels on University Students' Environmental Protection Commitments and Environmental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraçli, Sinan; Yilmaz, Veysel; Arslan, Talha

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The damage caused by recent environmental problems has led to increased environmental concerns and the development of environment-friendly consumption behaviours in almost every society. Environment-friendly consumption involves the consideration of environmental benefits by minimizing any damage done to the environment at all…

  9. Scientific research and development facing environmental protection: needs and deontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soete, G.G. de (Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    The research needs required by energy-producing and consuming industries are addressed and the deonotological implications of both these human activities with respect to planetary ecology are highlighted. (author).

  10. Radiological protection and environmental management; La proteccion radiologica y la gestion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Fonseca, A.

    2010-07-01

    From the beginning of its industrial activity twenty five years ago, the Juzbado Factory of Enusa Group has always upheld a strong commitment with Radiological Protection and environmental respect and protection. Consequently, the evolution of dose shows a downward trend over the years. Although production has been increased gradually, the average doses to workers have stayed below 1 mSv. In order to identify and prevent the potential environmental impacts of its industrial activity and minimize its impact on the surroundings, the facility develops and environmental management system according to UNE-EN-ISO 14001 since 1999. (Author)

  11. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... process. Environmental Review Procedures ...

  12. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND PROTECTION: A TYPOLOGY WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Natasha K; Lee, Jung-Sook; Weller, Bridget E

    2007-01-01

    Social environmental assessments can play a critical role in prevention planning in schools. The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of conducting social environmental assessments, demonstrate that complex social environmental data can be simplified into a useful and valid typology, and illustrate how the typology can guide prevention planning in schools. Data collected from 532 3(rd) through 5(th) graders using the Elementary School Success Profile were analyzed in the study. A latent profile analysis based on eight child-report social environmental dimensions identified five patterns of social environmental risk and protection. The classes were labeled High Protection, Moderate Protection, Moderate Protection/Peer Risk, Little Protection/Family Risk, and No Protection//School Risk. Class membership was significantly associated with measures of well-being, social behavior and academic performance. The article illustrates how the typology can be used to guide decisions about who to target in school-based preventions, which features of the social environment to target, and how much change to seek. Information is provided about online resources for selecting prevention strategies once these decisions are made.

  13. Acceptance criteria for the physical protection upgrade rule requirements for fixed sites. Information guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.

    1980-09-01

    This document has been developed as a tool to assist in providing consistent evaluation of upgraded physical security plans submitted in response to the Physical Protection Upgrade Rule, effective March 25, 1980. It presents a means for assuring licensee compliance with every regulatory requirement of particular significance to the protection of the public health and safety. Acceptance criteria are included to determine the extent to which each licensee meets the regulatory requirements. The format parallels Regulatory Guide 5.52, Standard Format and Content of a Licensee Physical Protection Plan for Strategic Special Nuclear Material at Fixed Sites

  14. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective Against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-08-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet being protective against environmental contaminants, their levels of concern about exposure, and their interest in learning about protective food-related strategies. A needs assessment to collect such information has not been conducted among older adults. Health fair survey results showed that they perceived diet as beneficial against contaminants, were concerned about health implications of exposure, and were interested in learning how to protect health through diet-related strategies. Results suggest that a nutrition-focused curriculum addressing how dietary strategies can help protect against environmental contaminants is needed for Extension professionals.

  15. Laying Stress on Energy-Saving and Environmental Protection of Thermal Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The most attraetive spot of the 11th Five-Year Plan is to change China's present mode of cconomic growth and take a road of circulative cconomy based on effective utilization of resources and environmental protection. Electric power as a basic industry,energy conservation and environmental protection will become one of its working cmphases in a period of time to come. In this connection, the journalist (Zhao Ran) from China Electric Power has exclusively interviewed Tang Yunlin, the former president of the China Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute. He thought that the most important thing for power industry to save energy and protect environment is to bring about the energy conservation and environmental protection in thermal power plants rather than first devclop hydropower, nuclear power and renewable energy. His viewpoints and suggestions have been recognized by many insiders.

  16. Legal study on water environmental protection of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG He

    2007-01-01

    Water environment security of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area has become a more extensive concern since the impoundment of the reservoir. This paper describes the existing water environmental hazards and defects in current legal system for water environmental protection in this area, and also discusses their possible causes and potential problems in the future based on first hand materials and other literature. According to the theories of integrated river basin management and environmental equity principle, legal proposals are put forward, which include building an unitary legal system dedicated to the Reservoir Area, setting up a basin authority of the Yangtze River to preside over the resources protection and development, using interests' compensation system to solve interest conflicts among different reaches, and making concrete regulations to direct public participation in water environmental security protection of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  17. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  18. Comparative analysis of the EU criminal law for environmental protection and the Albanian one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Petrela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of two main parts where the first one presents the path how the environmental issue was included in the primary legislation of the European Union (EU, starting this theoretical panorama from the first founding treaty – Treaty of Rome, in 1957. It shows that with the passing of years the environmental protection has become one of the most important fields of action of the European Community supported by the primary and secondary legislation of the EU and its several bodies with competencies in this field. The second part of the paper starts with the commitments on the environmental protection that the Albanian state has made upon signature and entrance into force of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU. In addition, this article presents a summary of the legislative activity in Albania regarding environmental protection in the last two decades with special focus on the time period after the approval of the current Constitution of 1998, which is the basis and origin of every legislative initiative. Furthermore, there are presented the key features of the Albanian environmental legislation, as well as the protection mechanism from the criminal legislation point of view. The presentation of the European and national reality with special focus on environmental protection serves to a comparative purpose between the two models. It also serves to draw conclusions and propose suggestions on how the Albanian legislation should be developed and improved in order to be in line with that of the European Union and effective in practice to serve the ultimate goal of environmental protection and prevention from further environmental degradation.

  19. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Beck, Larry; Liu, Xia; Abbott, Allison; Eye, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  20. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Peter A., E-mail: westone47@gmail.com [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J. [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Scott, Michael D. [Mikonics, Inc., 40 B Old Road South, Santa Fe, NM 87540 (United States); Beck, Larry [L. Robert Payne School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, San Diego State University, Room PSFA 445, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Liu, Xia [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Abbott, Allison [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Eye, Rachel [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  1. Requirements of radiation protection and physical protection for facilities of petroleum well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessa, Eunícia João

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum is generated from the transformation of the organic matter accumulated in the sedimentary rocks, when submitted to the appropriate thermal conditions and is found both in the marine and terrestrial subsoil. In order to determine the volume of petroleum existing in a deposit oil wells technique is used which consists of a set of operations in which are recorded as a function of the depth, some characteristics of the geological layers along the well, such as permeability and porosity with the use of radioactive sources. The sources used in this practice belong to category 3, among five categories of categorization considered dangerous and in case of accident represents a higher level of radiological risk. The present work aims to present the main requirements of radiological safety and physical security to be applied in the licensing of an oil well profiling plant. In this work, the author supported the bibliographical review, which consisted in the collection of the essential literature related to the theme. The literature is composed of theoretical references published in books, theses, Brazilian norms, Mozambican laws, IAEA manuals and some published on the internet. The methodology used in this work was the bibliographical review with the objective of obtaining information on the formation of oil, oil well profiling concept, the radioactive sources used in this practice, for information on the main applicable radiological security and safety requirements radioactive sources and oil well profiling facilities. The inventory of radioactive sources, the use of shielding and the smear tests in radioactive sources are technical requirements that integrate the radiological safety and physical safety that must be followed by the licensees of the oil well profiling. (author). (author)

  2. MO-E-213-03: Newer Radiation Protection Requirements in Last Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, J. [Kaiser Permanente (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The focus of work of medical physicists in 1980’s was on quality control and quality assurance. Radiation safety was important but was dominated by occupational radiation protection. A series of over exposures of patients in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and observation of skin injuries among patients undergoing interventional procedures in 1990’s started creating the need for focus on patient protection. It gave medical physicists new directions to develop expertise in patient dosimetry and dose management. Publications creating awareness on cancer risks from CT in early part of the current century and over exposures in CT in 2008 brought radiation risks in public domain and created challenging situations for medical physicists. Increasing multiple exposures of individual patient and patient doses of few tens of mSv or exceeding 100 mSv are increasing the role of medical physicists. Expansion of usage of fluoroscopy in the hands of clinical professionals with hardly any training in radiation protection shall require further role for medical physicists. The increasing publications in journals, recent changes in Safety Standards, California law, all increase responsibilities of medical physicists in patient protection. Newer technological developments in dose efficiency and protective devices increase percentage of time devoted by medical physicists on radiation protection activities. Without radiation protection, the roles, responsibilities and day-to-day involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology becomes questionable. In coming years either medical radiation protection may emerge as a specialty or medical physicists will have to keep major part of day-to-day work on radiation protection. Learning Objectives: To understand how radiation protection has been increasing its role in day-to-day activities of medical physicist To be aware about international safety Standards, national and State regulations that require higher attention to radiation

  3. Data for Summary of the Development the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) Using Data from Nine Multigenerational Medaka Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to various legislative mandates the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) formed its Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), which...

  4. Capacity and principles of participation of the provincial fund of environmental protection and water management in Cracow in Cracow program of elimination of low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolek, K.; Sarzynski, H. [Provincial Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management in Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In general, the principles of environmental protection was determined by Law issued January 31, 1980. Certain detailed solutions have been included in several amendments in subsequent years and the uniformed text of the Law on Environmental Protection and Creation was published in 1994. The Provincial Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management was established in 1989 but until 1993 the Fund has no legal status. The main purpose of the creation of such fund was to assign certain financial means to the defined tasks related to environmental protection. This way the fund accumulates financial means from the fees paid for the usage of the natural environmental for business purposes and from penalties becoming due in the case of non-observance of the environmental protection standards. On the other hand, the Fund spends money for tasks in the field of environmental protection requiring urgent implementation. It should be added that - after few amendments brought into force - the Provincial Funds are able to assign a greater amount of money to the implementation of these tasks. The basic purposes of Provincial Fund activity, defined by Law, determine the policy and criteria of the selection of undertaking. This is also a base for making programs of activity and for creation of the list of priorities. The environmental protection problems in the individual provinces are different. Therefore, the scope of works partly financed by the Fund is very differentiated both in essence and in the method of financing. The former system of subsidies is now being replaced with a wide range of partial financing of undertakings in the field of environmental protection. The system of selection of these undertakings has been changed essentially. The selection of tasks and methods of their financing is based on economic criteria.

  5. Overview of environmental radiological monitoring program of Institute of Radiation Protection And Dosimetry - IRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Sarah Barreto Oliveira de Christo; Peres, Sueli da Silva, E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br, E-mail: sarah.barreto1@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioproteção

    2017-07-01

    As a branch of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) performs extensive activities in the fields of radiation protection, metrology, and dosimetry, as well as specific education, onto a wide operational scope that includes the technical support to national regulatory authorities in the licensing process for nationwide nuclear and radioactive facilities. IRD has several laboratories where are performed radiometric and radiochemical analyses and others radioactivity evaluation procedures in different types of samples obtained in the inspection activities, production of radioactivity metrological standards and reference material by National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LMNRI), besides others research activities. In this laboratories can be used sealed or unsealed radioactive sources and radiation-producing devices and are classified with radioactive installations in accordance to national regulations. This way, radioactive liquid effluents can be eventually produced and released into the environment in the course of such activities and an effluent monitoring program to control and reduce the releases to environment is carried out. Additionally, IRD maintains the Radioactive Waste Management Program and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program (ERMP) in accordance to national regulations requirements. The primary focus of ERMP comprises the validation of the dose prognostics for the public members due to effluents discharge and the provision of consistent projections of the radiation levels at the monitoring sites. In this study, a long term ERMP data survey is discussed, spanning the last thirteen years of activities. On the basis of such discussions and prognostics, it could be observed that the radiological environmental radiological impact due to operation of IRD installations is negligible. (author)

  6. Overview of environmental radiological monitoring program of Institute of Radiation Protection And Dosimetry - IRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Sarah Barreto Oliveira de Christo; Peres, Sueli da Silva

    2017-01-01

    As a branch of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) performs extensive activities in the fields of radiation protection, metrology, and dosimetry, as well as specific education, onto a wide operational scope that includes the technical support to national regulatory authorities in the licensing process for nationwide nuclear and radioactive facilities. IRD has several laboratories where are performed radiometric and radiochemical analyses and others radioactivity evaluation procedures in different types of samples obtained in the inspection activities, production of radioactivity metrological standards and reference material by National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LMNRI), besides others research activities. In this laboratories can be used sealed or unsealed radioactive sources and radiation-producing devices and are classified with radioactive installations in accordance to national regulations. This way, radioactive liquid effluents can be eventually produced and released into the environment in the course of such activities and an effluent monitoring program to control and reduce the releases to environment is carried out. Additionally, IRD maintains the Radioactive Waste Management Program and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program (ERMP) in accordance to national regulations requirements. The primary focus of ERMP comprises the validation of the dose prognostics for the public members due to effluents discharge and the provision of consistent projections of the radiation levels at the monitoring sites. In this study, a long term ERMP data survey is discussed, spanning the last thirteen years of activities. On the basis of such discussions and prognostics, it could be observed that the radiological environmental radiological impact due to operation of IRD installations is negligible. (author)

  7. 30 CFR 77.506-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 77.506-1 Section 77.506-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. Devices providing either short circuit protection or protection against overload shall conform to the...

  8. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 9, No. 2, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    The Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint Division and the Agrochemicals Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf comprise a subprogramme that provides assistance related to strengthening compliance with food and environmental safety standards through good agricultural and laboratory practices. These activities include cooperation and assistance in the elaboration and application of international standards related to processes, such as the use of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment for food and agricultural commodities, and on guidelines related to contamination, such as guideline levels for radionuclides in foods. Technologies and capacity building in the application of good practices for the management of food and environmental hazards is also an important aspect of our work. Assistance is provided through program activities related to coordination and support in research, providing technical and advisory services, providing laboratory support and training, and collecting, analyzing and disseminating information. The success of these activities is reflected in part by our recently finalized report on the delivery of outputs and outcomes for 2004-2005. The recent updating of our database on approvals of irradiated foods clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is currently used by almost 60 countries worldwide, which reflects a 15% increase over the previous biennium. Recent data also indicates that there has been a considerable rise in the use of irradiation for phytosanitary purposes and over twenty countries have approved the use of this process for pest control and quarantine purposes. The Food and Environmental Protection subprogramme has also initiated a coordinated research project (CRP) on Integrated Analytical Approaches to Assess Indicators of the Effectiveness of Pesticide Management Practices at a Catchment Scale. This CRP integrates risk assessment tools and targeted analytical

  9. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  10. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.

    1982-01-01

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24 Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  11. Bulk Fuel Storage Requirements for Maintenance, Repair, and Environmental Projects at Fort Hood, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carros, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, environmental, and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  12. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mahatab

    that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technology transfer” especially the transfer of environmentally sound technologies has become one of the key topics...

  13. Environmental ethics - connections between the environmental protection movement and the churches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, W.

    1986-01-01

    The crisis of the environment as a part of a much more comprehensive, deeper crisis of man in modern civilization - this, and the question for the causes of the crisis are the subjects of the book. Focal points of environmental ethics which are also points establishing a connection to the churches - brown coal open-pit mining in the Rhine-and-Ruhr district, the nuclear power plant site Pfaffenhofen, and road planning in the Rinnebach valley - continue the introductory part on 'Environment and christianity'. 'Perspectives of environmental ethics' draw up a conceptional framework to consider environmental ethics in the discussion about environmental politics. (HSCH) [de

  14. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  15. Managing water to protect fish: A review of California's environmental water account, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Kimmerer, W.; Brown, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities. The Caise environmental surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, H. de; Voelz, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Computer Aided Surveillance System for the Environment of Nuclear Installations (Caise) has been designed for permanent surveillance of the environment of nuclear installations under normal operating conditions and for unusual events on the basis of radiological and meteorological measured data. In normal operation, the data measured on line are fed to the system by way of a defined interface, while off-line data can be entered manually in the dialog mode. Subsequently, the measured data are stored, filed away, and secured. Short-time dispersion factors can be calculated permanently in the on-line mode, while the off-line mode allows short-term and long-term dispersions to be calculated for randomly selectable periods of time under the General Administrative Rule of Sec. 45 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The corresponding dose distributions in the environment of the plant can be determined next. Under conditions of increased emissions (accidents, failures), Caise assists in quick decision-making by its capacity for real-time dispersion calculations including current on-line and off-line emission sample measurements. In this way, the contributions by various different exposure pathways to the calculated dose can be determined more accurately. (orig.) [de

  17. http://www.revistadestatistica.ro/index.php/effective-management-of-resources-for-environmental-protection-using-taxes-in-the-environmental-policy/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CĂPĂŢÎNĂ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of environmental taxes, called green taxes or eco-taxes, are ways to internalize the environmental costs in the prices of goods or services, causing producers and consumers to use resources more efficiently and sustainably. Green taxes or Pigovian taxes, named after their inventor, Arthur Pigou are known as sin taxes and when are applied to the “sin” of pollution they may be called environmental taxes or eco-taxes. Sustainable development can not be sustained without the existence of adequate measures and effective for protection of the environment. The polluter pays principle is a principle embraced by all countries from the desire do not deplete environmental resources, some of which being non-renewable resources, to be used by future generations. Polluters are both individuals and legal entities who must to respond in one way or another for their irresponsible actions, compensating damages, protecting the environment and paying damages for any casualties. Green taxes can generate a tax reform. Any responsible person will try to manage in another way the resources when has to bear consequences. In this regard, the environment can be protected more effectively and more cost effective for citizens. The effects of irresponsible actions of some of us not only affect the environment but also all animals and vegetable bodies inclusive people.

  18. Ambient Air Issue from New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. The views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinwather, T.

    2000-03-01

    This study deals with the views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations. There are different ways of arguing: In an anthropocentric point of view nature is seen as a resource for man; human life needs protection an cultivation of nature. The non-anthropocentric point of view is more popular. Nature is not only seen as a resource for human needs and interests. It follows its own aims and purposes, seems to be a valuable being and has to be protected for itself. The study presents the two parent organizations 'Umweltdachverband - OeGNU' and 'Oeko-Buero' and their 45 members. The associations mainly argue from an anthropocentric point of view for the protection of nature and environment. Their motives are the care for human health and quality of life, the ensuring of resources, the leisure-time in nature and patriotism. The anthropocentric arguments perfectly fit into the other articles of these organizations: many of them are dealing with economical, scientifical, recreational and pedagogical affairs. And often they represent interests of agriculture, forestry ore trade. Non-anthropocentric statements are of minor importance and seem to be a way to present the seriousness of their demand for protection of nature and environment. (author)

  20. CCS - environmental protection framework for an emerging technology. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Ralf; Boehringer, Alexander; Charisse, Thomas (and others)

    2009-10-15

    With this paper, the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) updates1 its position paper of 20062 on the technical capture and geological storage3 of carbon dioxide (CCS: carbon capture and storage). After a brief description of the development status of the process steps of capture, transport and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Chapter 1, we look into the possible risks for human health and the environment (Chapter 2), which up to now have been little discussed or researched. These risks will largely depend on the integrity of storage sites. On the assumption of functioning capture technology at cost-effective conditions, the capacity of available and secure storage sites will decisively determine the scale of possible greenhouse gas emission reductions through CCS (Chapter 3). In examining storage capacity, it has always to be considered that the geological storage of CO2 can compete with other uses of underground geological formations, such as geothermics or compressed-air and natural-gas storage (Chapter 4). The Federal Environment Agency takes the view that these factors determine the role that CCS can play as an additional climate protection measure (Chapter 5). In Chapter 6 we show how CCS, in its application, should be integrated into emissions trading. CO2 emission reduction should in our view only be acknowledged when it is effectively and demonstrably ensured through permanent storage. Chapter 7 deals with necessary reforms of liability law, which legislators should undertake in order to assign the dangers and risks of CCS to those responsible for them. In Chapter 8, we summarize the fundamental demands on legislators, while Chapter 9 is devoted to issues concerning the source and application of funds for research and development. (orig.)

  1. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 3, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Significant progress on international standard setting has been made in recent months. Firstly, the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods was accepted for amendment at Step 5 by the 33{sup rd} Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC), The Hague, The Netherlands, 12-16 March 2001, by removing the maximum dose limit of 10 kGy. Secondly, the 3{sup rd} Session of the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the standard setting body of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), Rome, Italy, 2-6 April 2001 agreed to develop a new international standard on irradiation as a phytosanitary measure. Finally, the Codex Committees on Pesticide Residues and on Veterinary Drug Residues agreed to accept the Guidelines on Single Laboratory Method Validation for further development as their standards. It is expected that all these developments will lead to international standards in respective fields by 2003. Following a positive development on certification of irradiation as a .sanitary and phytosanitary treatment in Asia and the Pacific through a regional workshop held in Sydney, Australia in December 2000 (see details in this issue), another regional workshop on the same subject will take place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the benefit of Latin American countries. A new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Irradiation to Ensure Hygienic Quality of Fresh, Pre-Cut Fruits and Vegetables and Other Minimally Processed Food of Plant Origin is now being implemented jointly with the Pan American Health Organization. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of this CRP will be held later this year. Progress made through RCMs on Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities, on Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants and on Quality Control of Pesticide Products, held during the past six months, is reported in this issue.

  2. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 3, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Significant progress on international standard setting has been made in recent months. Firstly, the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods was accepted for amendment at Step 5 by the 33 rd Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC), The Hague, The Netherlands, 12-16 March 2001, by removing the maximum dose limit of 10 kGy. Secondly, the 3 rd Session of the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the standard setting body of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), Rome, Italy, 2-6 April 2001 agreed to develop a new international standard on irradiation as a phytosanitary measure. Finally, the Codex Committees on Pesticide Residues and on Veterinary Drug Residues agreed to accept the Guidelines on Single Laboratory Method Validation for further development as their standards. It is expected that all these developments will lead to international standards in respective fields by 2003. Following a positive development on certification of irradiation as a .sanitary and phytosanitary treatment in Asia and the Pacific through a regional workshop held in Sydney, Australia in December 2000 (see details in this issue), another regional workshop on the same subject will take place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the benefit of Latin American countries. A new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Irradiation to Ensure Hygienic Quality of Fresh, Pre-Cut Fruits and Vegetables and Other Minimally Processed Food of Plant Origin is now being implemented jointly with the Pan American Health Organization. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of this CRP will be held later this year. Progress made through RCMs on Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities, on Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants and on Quality Control of Pesticide Products, held during the past six months, is reported in this issue

  3. Jatropha curcas: sources of bioenergy for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengar, R. S.; Chaudhary, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Bio-fuels are renewable sources of energy derived from biological raw material. Two sources of biofuels, ethanol and bio-diesel, are gaining worldwide acceptance as one of the solutions for the problems of environmental degradation, energy security, restricting imports, rural employment, agricultural economy, owing to reduce dependence on oil import; savings in foreign exchange and reduced vehicular pollution. Two major biofuels for the transport sector, bio-ethanol and bio-diesel, are becoming popular in many countries across the world. Jatropha curcas L. commonly known as physic nut, Ratanjot, purgative nut or nut. Jatropha curcas L. has unique pride among the various plants because of its multiple uses like ethnomedical value, nutritional value, ornamental value, carbon sequestration potential, comparatively better fuel properties, etc., are worthy to mention. Jatropha curcas, an oil bearing, drought hardy shrub with ecological advantages has already being successfully grown and harvested as a bio fuel in countries. By the use of tissue culture technique Jatropha can be grow at higher level. By the development of tissue culture, technology for rapid multiplication of disease-free planting material has greatly facilitated mass production of quality seed with high content of bio-diesel in Jatropha. In recent years this plant has received extensive attention of many scientists in view of its great economic importance, medicinal significant and for its seed oil as commercial source of fuel. The superior quality oil can be extracted from the seeds. The oil can be used as a mixed fuel for diesel/gasoline engines. National networks namely 'national network on jatropha and karanja' constituted by involving state agricultural universities and institutions, such as CSIR, ICFRE, ICAR, CFTRI, TERI, and IIT Delhi

  4. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  5. New requirements embodied in expert knowledge regulations for industrial radiation protection officers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    Expert knowledge standards and certification requirements of health physics responsible persons or radiation safety officers in industry or in health care are laid down in Germany in administrative regulations. Now the new Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) contains a specific section exclusively devoted to all aspects of expert knowledge in industrial radiation protection, which inter alia demonstrates the special significance of education and further training of radiation protection specialists. It is expected that the forthcoming new X-ray Ordinance (RoeV) will contain a similar amendment. The article explains the implications of the new Radiation Protection Ordinance for the education and further training of industrial radiation protection officers, but does not address specific aspects of nuclear engineering. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Environmental and Source Monitoring for Purposes of Radiation Protection. Safety Guide (Spanish ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide international guidance, coherent with contemporary radiation protection principles and IAEA safety requirements, on the strategy of monitoring in relation to: (a) control of radionuclide discharges under practice conditions, and (b) intervention, such as in cases of nuclear or radiological emergencies or past contamination of areas with long lived radionuclides. Three categories of monitoring are discussed: monitoring at the source of the discharge (source monitoring), monitoring in the environment (environmental monitoring) and monitoring of individual exposure in emergencies (individual monitoring). The Safety Guide also provides general guidance on assessment of the doses to critical groups of the population due to the presence of radioactive materials or radiation fields in the environment both from routine operation of nuclear and other related facilities (practice) and from nuclear or radiological emergencies and past contamination of areas with long lived radionuclides (intervention). The dose assessments are based on the results of source monitoring, environmental monitoring, individual monitoring or their combinations. This Safety Guide is primarily intended for use by national regulatory bodies and other agencies involved in national systems of radiation monitoring, as well as by operators of nuclear installations and other facilities where natural or human made radionuclides are treated and monitored. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Meeting regulatory requirements for monitoring in practices and interventions; 3. Responsibilities for monitoring; 4. Generic aspects of monitoring programmes; 5. Programmes for monitoring in practices and interventions; 6. Technical conditions for monitoring procedures; 7. Considerations in dose assessment; 8. Interpretation of monitoring results; 9. Quality assurance; 10. Recording of results; 11. Education and training; Glossary.

  7. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  8. Effective environmental protection by the reform of the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1978-01-01

    The 52nd German Lawyers Meeting will be concerned in its legal department with the question of whether, from the points of view of the guaranteeing of the necessary environmental protection, additional regulations in the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights should be recommended. Here one is concerned, above all, with the problem of whether an administrative legal associations sueing or associations participation in administrative legal procedures is desirable in the interests of environmental protection. A negative answer must be given to this question. Discussion should concentrate on the problematical administrative legal interests, on the strengthening of administrative participation of popular opinion or interests in legal processes, on other improvements in administrative processes and on the legal control by Parliament of environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  9. Guidelines for defining and documenting data on costs of possible environmental protection measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, I.; King, K.; Boyd, R.; Bouscaren, R.; Pacyna, J. [AEA Technology Environment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The Guidelines are intended to promote good practice in the documenting and use of data on the costs of possible environmental protection measures in the context of international data comparisons. The minimum information needed to describe the cost of an environmental protection measures is: details of pollution source; details of the environmental protection measure and its performance characteristics; how costs are defined; the year to which data apply; indications of data uncertainty; how pollutants are defined; and reference to data sources. Guidelines are given for these seven items. These are followed by descriptions of various methods of data processing - dealing with information; calculating annual costs; discount/interest rates; and additional issues relating to the implementation of cost data. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 6 apps.

  10. Environmental protection problems from the standpoint of regeneration of fast neutron reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedeonov, L.I.; Lazarev, L.N.; Suprunenko, A.N.

    The discussion of the problem of environmental protection is based on two principles: a strict observance of legislatively established standards for permissible concentrations of radionuclides in objects of the environment and for dose loads for the population; all possible steps to reduce the contamination to a level justified in practice. Environmental protection steps are considered from the points of view of a systematic analysis. A survey of the environmental protection system near sources of radioactive discharges is given. The basic interactions and feedbacks are indicated. Characteristics differentiating the discharges of the fuel cycle of fast neutron breeder reactors from discharges of the slow neutron cycle are discussed. It is shown that it is necessary to study the overall regional and global interactions of discharges of the atomic power industry. The characteristics of situations at nuclear fuel cycle facilities of fast neutron reactors are discussed. The necessity of additional technical steps to prevent accidents and eliminate their effects if they take place is emphasized

  11. Basic Principles for Elaboration of Technical Requirements to Control and Protective TRB Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Panteley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and provides methodology for calculation of maximum over speeding value of a turbine rotor in the case when we face the failure of all its protective systems. It is presented a derivation of main equations required for making the calculation and the paper also cites results of their practical application at an industrial TRB (Turbine of the Republic of Belarus turbine while constructing its protective control systems.

  12. Radiation protection requirements for medical application of ionizing radiation in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestoroska, Svetlana; Angelovski, Goran; Shahin, Nuzi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the regulatory infrastructure in radiation protection in the Republic of Macedonia is presented. The national radiation protection requirements for the medical application of ionizing radiation are reviewed for both occupational exposed persons and patients undergoing a medical treatment with ionizing radiation and their compliance with the international standards is considered. The gaps identified on the national level are presented and steps for overcoming such gaps are analyzed.(Author)

  13. 10 CFR 205.329 - Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits-Alternative 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.329 Environmental... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits... such Presidential Permits: (1) ERA will determine whether an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or an...

  14. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 200 - Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement C Appendix C to Part 200 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 200, App. C Appendix C to Part 200—Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement The following actions are considered to be major Federal...

  15. 43 CFR 46.415 - Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statement content... Impact Statements § 46.415 Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing requirements. The Responsible Official may use any environmental impact statement format and design as long as...

  16. WINRE '94: 5. Workshop on information management in nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitz, H.

    1995-01-01

    Guests from Austria, Belorussia, Britain and Bulgaria, from the Czech Republic, Estonia and Germany, from Hungary, Kazakstan and Latvia, from Poland, Romania and Russia, from the Slovak Republic, the Ukraine and from the United States of America present activities, separated into six conference sessions, dealing with: Hosts/Producers, Product/Services, Quality managament for information services, Information management in the nuclear field, Environmental data bases and related fields and Media information. (orig./HP)

  17. Technical qualification requirements and training programs for radiation protection personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.; Butler, H.M. Jr.; Bogard, J.S.; Fair, M.F.; Haynes, C.E.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    This document deals with the policies and practices of the Environmental and Occupational Safety Division (EOSD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in regard to the selection, training, qualification, and requalification of radiation protection staff assigned to reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities. Included are personnel at facilities that: (1) operate reactors or particle accelerators; (2) produce, process, or store radioactive liquid or solid waste; (3) conduct separations operations; (4) engage in research with radioactive materials and radiation sources; and (5) conduct irradiated materials inspection, fuel fabrication, deconamination, or recovery operations. The EOSD personnel also have environmental surveillance and operational and industrial safety responsibilities related to the total Laboratory

  18. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  19. Nuclear and radiation emergency evaluation and decision-making support system for ministry of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Huiguo; Lin Quanyi; Zhang Jiangang

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the design features and main functions of The Nuclear and Radiation Emergency Evaluation and Decision Support System. The Ministry of Environmental Protection will construct a complete set of evaluation and decision-making system at the Nuclear Safety Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection to cope with the sudden event. The system will provide a comprehensive technical support for the consequence evaluation and decision-making of anti-terrorism event according to the responsibility of MEP in the sudden event, with the data provided by the MEP's anti-terrorism information platform. (authors)

  20. Food and environmental protection newsletter. V. 3, no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    Several significant events on food irradiation took place in the past year. Particularly important was the ICGFI Workshop on Trade Opportunities for Irradiated Foods held in conjunction with the APEC Workshop on Alternative Quarantine Treatments and Post-Harvest Handling Methods, Kona, Hawaii, USA, 22-24 May 2000. At these workshops an action plan was developed to expedite international trade in irradiated food. The reader is invited to read the excerpt of this Workshop, the full report of which is available on request. By coincidence, the representative of the USDA/APHIS announced at this Workshop the publication of its Proposed Rule on Irradiation Phytosanitary Treatment for Imported Fruits and Vegetables to meet quarantine requirements in the USA with regard to 11 species of fruit flies and mango seed weevil. The summary of the Proposed Rule which was published in the Federal Register on 26 May 2000 is included in this issue. The reader will also be interested to read about the rapid commercialisation of food irradiation in the USA in this issue which describes how the USA is moving ahead on commercializing irradiated food in a big way. With regard to the activities of the FAO/IAEA Training and Reference Centre for Food and Pesticide Control (TRC), two training workshops related to QA of pesticide residue and mycotoxin analyses were held this year with plans to convene further training activities next year. In addition, the INFOCRIS which has been on line for some time, is now available both in English and Spanish.