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Sample records for requires runx1 c-terminal-mediated

  1. Analysis list: RUNX1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RUNX1 Blood,Digestive tract,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyush...u-u/hg19/target/RUNX1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/RUNX1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/RUNX1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/...RUNX1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/RUNX1.Digest...ive_tract.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/RUNX1.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  2. Integrative analysis of RUNX1 downstream pathways and target genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Marjorie

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RUNX1 transcription factor gene is frequently mutated in sporadic myeloid and lymphoid leukemia through translocation, point mutation or amplification. It is also responsible for a familial platelet disorder with predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD-AML. The disruption of the largely unknown biological pathways controlled by RUNX1 is likely to be responsible for the development of leukemia. We have used multiple microarray platforms and bioinformatic techniques to help identify these biological pathways to aid in the understanding of why RUNX1 mutations lead to leukemia. Results Here we report genes regulated either directly or indirectly by RUNX1 based on the study of gene expression profiles generated from 3 different human and mouse platforms. The platforms used were global gene expression profiling of: 1 cell lines with RUNX1 mutations from FPD-AML patients, 2 over-expression of RUNX1 and CBFβ, and 3 Runx1 knockout mouse embryos using either cDNA or Affymetrix microarrays. We observe that our datasets (lists of differentially expressed genes significantly correlate with published microarray data from sporadic AML patients with mutations in either RUNX1 or its cofactor, CBFβ. A number of biological processes were identified among the differentially expressed genes and functional assays suggest that heterozygous RUNX1 point mutations in patients with FPD-AML impair cell proliferation, microtubule dynamics and possibly genetic stability. In addition, analysis of the regulatory regions of the differentially expressed genes has for the first time systematically identified numerous potential novel RUNX1 target genes. Conclusion This work is the first large-scale study attempting to identify the genetic networks regulated by RUNX1, a master regulator in the development of the hematopoietic system and leukemia. The biological pathways and target genes controlled by RUNX1 will have considerable importance in disease

  3. Cooperation between RUNX1-ETO9a and novel transcriptional partner KLF6 in upregulation of Alox5 in acute myeloid leukemia.

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    Russell C DeKelver

    Full Text Available Fusion protein RUNX1-ETO (AML1-ETO, RUNX1-RUNX1T1 is expressed as the result of the 8q22;21q22 translocation [t(8;21], which is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities found in acute myeloid leukemia. RUNX1-ETO is thought to promote leukemia development through the aberrant regulation of RUNX1 (AML1 target genes. Repression of these genes occurs via the recruitment of the corepressors N-COR and SMRT due to their interaction with ETO. Mechanisms of RUNX1-ETO target gene upregulation remain less well understood. Here we show that RUNX1-ETO9a, the leukemogenic alternatively spliced transcript expressed from t(8;21, upregulates target gene Alox5, which is a gene critically required for the promotion of chronic myeloid leukemia development by BCR-ABL. Loss of Alox5 expression reduces activity of RUNX1-ETO9a, MLL-AF9 and PML-RARα in vitro. However, Alox5 is not essential for the induction of leukemia by RUNX1-ETO9a in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the upregulation of Alox5 by RUNX1-ETO9a occurs via the C₂H₂ zinc finger transcription factor KLF6, a protein required for early hematopoiesis and yolk sac development. Furthermore, KLF6 is specifically upregulated by RUNX1-ETO in human leukemia cells. This identifies KLF6 as a novel mediator of t(8;21 target gene regulation, providing a new mechanism for RUNX1-ETO transcriptional control.

  4. Perturbation-expression analysis identifies RUNX1 as a regulator of human mammary stem cell differentiation.

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    Ethan S Sokol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for genes that regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation has been hindered by a paucity of markers that uniquely label stem cells and early progenitors. To circumvent this difficulty we have developed a method that identifies cell-state regulators without requiring any markers of differentiation, termed Perturbation-Expression Analysis of Cell States (PEACS. We have applied this marker-free approach to screen for transcription factors that regulate mammary stem cell differentiation in a 3D model of tissue morphogenesis and identified RUNX1 as a stem cell regulator. Inhibition of RUNX1 expanded bipotent stem cells and blocked their differentiation into ductal and lobular tissue rudiments. Reactivation of RUNX1 allowed exit from the bipotent state and subsequent differentiation and mammary morphogenesis. Collectively, our findings show that RUNX1 is required for mammary stem cells to exit a bipotent state, and provide a new method for discovering cell-state regulators when markers are not available.

  5. Clonal origins of ETV6-RUNX1+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpar, D.; Wren, D.; Ermini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Studies on twins with concordant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have revealed that ETV6-RUNX1 gene fusion is a common, prenatal genetic event with other driver aberrations occurring subclonally and probably postnatally. The fetal cell type that is transformed by ETV6-RUNX1 is not identified...... by such studies or by the analysis of early B-cell lineage phenotype of derived progeny. Ongoing, clonal immunoglobulin (IG) and cross-lineage T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements are features of B-cell precursor leukemia and commence at the pro-B-cell stage of normal B-cell lineage development. We reasoned...

  6. Intersection of FOXO- and RUNX1-mediated gene expression programs in single breast epithelial cells during morphogenesis and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Brugge, Joan S; Janes, Kevin A

    2011-10-04

    Gene expression networks are complicated by the assortment of regulatory factors that bind DNA and modulate transcription combinatorially. Single-cell measurements can reveal biological mechanisms hidden by population averages, but their value has not been fully explored in the context of mRNA regulation. Here, we adapted a single-cell expression profiling technique to examine the gene expression program downstream of Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors during 3D breast epithelial acinar morphogenesis. By analyzing patterns of mRNA fluctuations among individual matrix-attached epithelial cells, we found that a subset of FOXO target genes was jointly regulated by the transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Knockdown of RUNX1 causes hyperproliferation and abnormal morphogenesis, both of which require normal FOXO function. Down-regulating RUNX1 and FOXOs simultaneously causes widespread oxidative stress, which arrests proliferation and restores normal acinar morphology. In hormone-negative breast cancers lacking human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification, we find that RUNX1 down-regulation is strongly associated with up-regulation of FOXO1, which may be required to support growth of RUNX1-negative tumors. The coordinate function of these two tumor suppressors may provide a failsafe mechanism that inhibits cancer progression.

  7. Assessing the miRNA sponge potential of RUNX1T1 in t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Alexander; Zandi, Roza; Havgaard, Jakob Hull

    2017-01-01

    t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21 and formation of a distinctive RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion transcript. This translocation places RUNX1T1 under control of the RUNX1 promoter leading to a pronounced upregulation of RUNX1T1 transcripts...

  8. RUNX1 suppression induces megakaryocytic differentiation of UT-7/GM cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Ryohei; Matsuura, Eri; Hoshika, Yusuke; Nakata, Emi; Nagura, Hironori; Watanabe, Ayako; Komatsu, Norio; Okada, Yoshiaki; Doi, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor RUNX1 plays a crucial role in hematopoiesis. RUNX1 regulates both differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. Several reports have shown that RUNX1 participates in megakaryopoiesis, which is a process that leads to formation of platelets. However, to date, the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether siRNA-mediated depletion of RUNX1 affected megakaryopoiesis of UT-7/GM cells. The depletion of RUNX1 in UT-7/GM cells resulted in up-regulation of the expression of megakaryocytic markers and polyploidization, while cell proliferation was down-regulated. Furthermore, the overexpression of RUNX1 decreased the activity of megakaryocytic gene promoters. These results suggest that RUNX1 down-regulates terminal differentiation of megakaryocytes and promotes proliferation of megakaryocytic progenitors

  9. RUNX1: A Regulator of NF-kB Signaling in Pulmonary Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoju; Sun, Ling; Wang, Gang; Chen, Bojiang; Luo, Fengming

    2018-01-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1), a member of the RUNX family, is one of the key regulatory proteins in vertebrates. RUNX1 is involved in embryonic development, hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and immune response. In the past few decades, studies mainly focused on the effect of RUNX1 on acute leukemia and cancer. Only few studies about the function of RUNX1 in the pathological process of pulmonary diseases have been reported. Recent studies have demonstrated that RUNX1 is highly expressed in both mesenchymal and epithelial compartments of the developing and postnatal lung and that it plays a critical role in the lipopolysaccharide induced lung inflammation by regulating the NF-kB pathway. RUNX1 participates in the regulation of the NF-kB signaling pathway through interaction with IkB kinase complex in the cytoplasm or interaction with the NF-kB subunit P50. NF-kB is well-known signaling pathway necessary for inflammatory response in the lung. This review is to highlight the RUNX1 structure, isoforms and to present the mechanism that RUNX1 regulates NF-kB. This will illustrate the great potential role of RUNX1 in the inflammation signaling pathway in pulmonary diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. RUNX1-induced silencing of non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIB contributes to megakaryocyte polyploidization.

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    Lordier, Larissa; Bluteau, Dominique; Jalil, Abdelali; Legrand, Céline; Pan, Jiajia; Rameau, Philippe; Jouni, Dima; Bluteau, Olivier; Mercher, Thomas; Leon, Catherine; Gachet, Christian; Debili, Najet; Vainchenker, William; Raslova, Hana; Chang, Yunhua

    2012-03-06

    Megakaryocytes are unique mammalian cells that undergo polyploidization (endomitosis) during differentiation, leading to an increase in cell size and protein production that precedes platelet production. Recent evidence demonstrates that endomitosis is a consequence of a late failure in cytokinesis associated with a contractile ring defect. Here we show that the non-muscle myosin IIB heavy chain (MYH10) is expressed in immature megakaryocytes and specifically localizes in the contractile ring. MYH10 downmodulation by short hairpin RNA increases polyploidization by inhibiting the return of 4N cells to 2N, but other regulators, such as of the G1/S transition, might regulate further polyploidization of the 4N cells. Conversely, re-expression of MYH10 in the megakaryocytes prevents polyploidization and the transition of 2N to 4N cells. During polyploidization, MYH10 expression is repressed by the major megakaryocyte transcription factor RUNX1. Thus, RUNX1-mediated silencing of MYH10 is required for the switch from mitosis to endomitosis, linking polyploidization with megakaryocyte differentiation.

  11. Autonomous feedback loop of RUNX1-p53-CBFB in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ken; Noura, Mina; Tokushige, Chieko; Maeda, Shintaro; Kiyose, Hiroki; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Taniguchi, Junichi; Bando, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Matsuo, Hidemasa; Ogawa, Seishi; Liu, Pu Paul; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Adachi, Souichi; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko

    2017-11-30

    Although runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) and its associating core binding factor-β (CBFB) play pivotal roles in leukemogenesis, and inhibition of RUNX1 has now been widely recognized as a novel strategy for anti-leukemic therapies, it has been elusive how leukemic cells could acquire the serious resistance against RUNX1-inhibition therapies and also whether CBFB could participate in this process. Here, we show evidence that p53 (TP53) and CBFB are sequentially up-regulated in response to RUNX1 depletion, and their mutual interaction causes the physiological resistance against chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced by RUNX1 gene silencing directly binds to CBFB promoter and stimulates its transcription as well as its translation, which in turn acts as a platform for the stabilization of RUNX1, thereby creating a compensative RUNX1-p53-CBFB feedback loop. Indeed, AML cells derived from relapsed cases exhibited higher CBFB expression levels compared to those from primary AML cells at diagnosis, and these CBFB expressions were positively correlated to those of p53. Our present results underscore the importance of RUNX1-p53-CBFB regulatory loop in the development and/or maintenance of AML cells, which could be targeted at any sides of this triangle in strategizing anti-leukemia therapies.

  12. Diethylstilbestrol induces vaginal adenosis by disrupting SMAD/RUNX1-mediated cell fate decision in the Müllerian duct epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronda, Monica M.; Unno, Kenji; Ishi, Kazutomo; Serna, Vanida A.; Butler, Lindsey M.; Mills, Alea A.; Orvis, Grant D.; Behringer, Richard R.; Deng, Chuxia; Sinha, Satrajit; Kurita, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero frequently develop vaginal adenosis, from which clear cell adenocarcinoma can arise. Despite decades of extensive investigation, the molecular pathogenesis of DES-associated vaginal adenosis remains elusive. Here we report that DES induces vaginal adenosis by inhibiting the BMP4/Activin A-regulated vaginal cell fate decision through a downregulation of RUNX1. BMP4 and Activin A produced by vaginal mesenchyme synergistically activated the expression of ΔNp63, thus deciding vaginal epithelial cell fate in the Müllerian duct epithelial cells (MDECs) via direct binding of SMADs on the highly conserved 5′sequence of ΔNp63. Therefore, mice in which Smad4 was deleted in MDECs failed to express ΔNp63 in vaginal epithelium and developed adenosis. This SMAD-dependent ΔNp63 activation required RUNX1, a binding partner of SMADs. Conditional deletion of Runx1 in the MDECs induced adenosis in the cranial portion of vagina, which mimicked the effect of developmental DES-exposure. Furthermore, neonatal DES exposure downregulated RUNX1 in the fornix of the vagina, where DES-associated adenosis is frequently found. This observation strongly suggests that the downregulation of RUNX1 is the cause of vaginal adenosis. However, once cell fate was determined, the BMP/Activin-SMAD/RUNX1 signaling pathway became dispensable for the maintenance of ΔNp63 expression in vaginal epithelium. Instead, the activity of the ΔNp63 locus in vaginal epithelium was maintained by a ΔNp63-dependent mechanism. This is the first demonstration of a molecular mechanism through which developmental chemical exposure causes precancerous lesions by altering cell fate. PMID:23830984

  13. RUNX1 promotes cell growth in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by transcriptional regulation of key target genes.

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    Jenkins, Catherine E; Gusscott, Samuel; Wong, Rachel J; Shevchuk, Olena O; Rana, Gurneet; Giambra, Vincenzo; Tyshchenko, Kateryna; Islam, Rashedul; Hirst, Martin; Weng, Andrew P

    2018-05-04

    RUNX1 is frequently mutated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The spectrum of RUNX1 mutations has led to the notion that it acts as a tumor suppressor in this context; however, other studies have placed RUNX1 along with transcription factors TAL1 and NOTCH1 as core drivers of an oncogenic transcriptional program. To reconcile these divergent roles, we knocked down RUNX1 in human T-ALL cell lines and deleted Runx1 or Cbfb in primary mouse T-cell leukemias. RUNX1 depletion consistently resulted in reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. RUNX1 upregulated variable sets of target genes in each cell line, but consistently included a core set of oncogenic effectors including IGF1R and NRAS. Our results support the conclusion that RUNX1 has a net positive effect on cell growth in the context of established T-ALL. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. ETV6-RUNX1 Rearrangement in Tunisian Pediatric B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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    Abir Gmidène

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Forty-one out of fifty-seven Tunisian children with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, and without cytogenetically detectable recurrent abnormalities at the time of the diagnosis, were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for the t(12;21. This translocation leads ETV6-RUNX1 (previously TEL-AML1 fusion gene. 16 patients (28% had ETV6-RUNX1 rearrangement. In addition to this rearrangement, two cases showed a loss of the normal ETV6 allele, and three others showed an extra signal of the RUNX1 gene. Seven patients without ETV6-RUNX1 rearrangement showed extra signals of the RUNX1 gene. One out of the 7 patients was also associated with a t(3;12 identified by FISH. This is the first Tunisian study in which we report the incidence of t(12;21 among childhood B-lineage ALL and in which we have found multiple copies of RUNX1. Finally, our findings confirm that additional or secondary genetic changes are commonly encountered in pediatric B-lineage ALL with ETV6-RUNX1 gene fusion which is envisaged to play a pivotal role in disease progression.

  15. Prognostic Value of RUNX1 Mutations in AML: A Meta-Analysis

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    Jalili, Mahdi; Yaghmaie, Marjan; Ahmadvand, Mohammad; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Mousavi, Seyed Asadollah; Vaezi, Mohammad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2018-02-26

    The RUNX1 (AML1) gene is a relatively infrequent mutational target in cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previous work indicated that RUNX1 mutations can have pathological and prognostic implications. To evaluate prognostic value, we conducted a meta-analysis of 4 previous published works with data for survival according to RUNX1 mutation status. Pooled hazard ratios for overall survival and disease-free survival were 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–2.15; p-value = 0.01) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.24–2.52; p-value = 0.002), respectively, for cases positive for RUNX1 mutations. This evidence supports clinical implications of RUNX1 mutations in the development and progression of AML cases and points to the possibility of a distinct category within the newer WHO classification. Though it must be kept in mind that the present work was based on data extracted from observational studies, the findings suggest that the RUNX1 status can contribute to risk-stratification and decision-making in management of AML. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. Epigenetic heterogeneity affects the risk of relapse in children with t(8;21)RUNX1-RUNX1T1-rearranged AML.

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    Zampini, Matteo; Tregnago, Claudia; Bisio, Valeria; Simula, Luca; Borella, Giulia; Manara, Elena; Zanon, Carlo; Zonta, Francesca; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Campello, Silvia; Buldini, Barbara; Pession, Andrea; Locatelli, Franco; Basso, Giuseppe; Pigazzi, Martina

    2018-02-02

    The somatic translocation t(8;21)(q22;q22)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 is one of the most frequent rearrangements found in children with standard-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Despite the favorable prognostic role of this aberration, we recently observed a higher than expected frequency of relapse. Here, we employed an integrated high-throughput approach aimed at identifying new biological features predicting relapse among 34 t(8;21)-rearranged patients. We found that the DNA methylation status of patients who suffered from relapse was peculiarly different from that of children maintaining complete remission. The epigenetic signature, made up of 337 differentially methylated regions, was then integrated with gene and protein expression profiles, leading to a network, where cell-to-cell adhesion and cell-motility pathways were found to be aberrantly activated in relapsed patients. We identified most of these factors as RUNX1-RUNX1T1 targets, with Ras Homolog Family Member (RHOB) overexpression being the core of this network. We documented how RHOB re-organized the actin cytoskeleton through its downstream ROCK-LIMK-COFILIN axis: this increases blast adhesion by stress fiber formation, and reduces mitochondrial apoptotic cell death after chemotherapy treatment. Altogether, our data show an epigenetic heterogeneity within t(8;21)-rearranged AML patients at diagnosis able to influence the program of the chimeric transcript, promoting blast re-emergence and progression to relapse.

  17. Systems Pharmacogenomics Finds RUNX1 Is an Aspirin-Responsive Transcription Factor Linked to Cardiovascular Disease and Colon Cancer

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    Deepak Voora, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin prevents cardiovascular disease and colon cancer; however aspirin's inhibition of platelet COX-1 only partially explains its diverse effects. We previously identified an aspirin response signature (ARS in blood consisting of 62 co-expressed transcripts that correlated with aspirin's effects on platelets and myocardial infarction (MI. Here we report that 60% of ARS transcripts are regulated by RUNX1 – a hematopoietic transcription factor - and 48% of ARS gene promoters contain a RUNX1 binding site. Megakaryocytic cells exposed to aspirin and its metabolite (salicylic acid, a weak COX-1 inhibitor showed up regulation in the RUNX1 P1 isoform and MYL9, which is transcriptionally regulated by RUNX1. In human subjects, RUNX1 P1 expression in blood and RUNX1-regulated platelet proteins, including MYL9, were aspirin-responsive and associated with platelet function. In cardiovascular disease patients RUNX1 P1 expression was associated with death or MI. RUNX1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal malignancies. We show that RUNX1 P1 expression is associated with colon cancer free survival suggesting a role for RUNX1 in aspirin's protective effect in colon cancer. Our studies reveal an effect of aspirin on RUNX1 and gene expression that may additionally explain aspirin's effects in cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  18. A novel inherited mutation of the transcription factor RUNX1 causes thrombocytopenia and may predispose to acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Logan C; Stevens, Jane; Campbell, Hamish; Corbett, Rob; Spearing, Ruth; Heaton, David; Macdonald, Donald H; Morris, Christine M; Ganly, Peter

    2002-06-01

    The RUNX1 (AML1, CBFA2) gene is a member of the runt transcription factor family, responsible for DNA binding and heterodimerization of other non-DNA binding transcription factors. RUNX1 plays an important part in regulating haematopoiesis and it is frequently disrupted by illegitimate somatic recombination in both acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukaemia. Germline mutations of RUNX1 have also recently been described and are dominantly associated with inherited leukaemic conditions. We have identified a unique point mutation of the RUNX1 gene (A107P) in members of a family with autosomal dominant inheritance of thrombocytopenia. One member has developed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).

  19. Frequency and clinical impact of ETV6/RUNX1, AF4‑MLL, and BCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Variations in disease presentation and outcome of leukemia treatment has been associated with the presence of certain mutant genes. Three major translocations (ETV6‑RUNX1, BCR‑ABL, and AF4‑MLL) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have been shown to affect treatment outcome. This study is aimed ...

  20. Frequency and clinical impact of ETV6/RUNX1, AF4‑MLL, and BCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-12

    May 12, 2015 ... features of prognostic importance, which include total white blood cell count (P = 0.416) and FAB subtype (P = 0.576). Conclusion: Presence of fusion ... Frequency and clinical impact of ETV6/RUNX1, AF4‑MLL, and BCR/ABL fusion ... define distinct clinic‑pathological subgroups and have been used in risk ...

  1. ETV6/RUNX1 Induces Reactive Oxygen Species and Drives the Accumulation of DNA Damage in B Cells

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    Hans-Peter Kantner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The t(12;21(p13;q22 chromosomal translocation is the most frequent translocation in childhood B cell precursor-acute lymphoblastic leukemia and results in the expression of an ETV6/RUNX1 fusion protein. The frequency of ETV6/RUNX1 fusions in newborns clearly exceeds the leukemia rate revealing that additional events occur in ETV6/RUNX1-positive cells for leukemic transformation. Hitherto, the mechanisms triggering these second hits remain largely elusive. Thus, we generated a novel ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic mouse model where the expression of the fusion protein is restricted to CD19+ B cells. These animals harbor regular B cell development and lack gross abnormalities. We established stable pro-B cell lines carrying the ETV6/RUNX1 transgene that allowed us to investigate whether ETV6/RUNX1 itself favors the acquisition of second hits. Remarkably, these pro-B cell lines as well as primary bone marrow cells derived from ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic animals display elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS as tested with ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic dihydroethidium staining. In line, intracellular phospho-histone H2AX flow cytometry and comet assay revealed increased DNA damage indicating that ETV6/RUNX1 expression enhances ROS. On the basis of our data, we propose the following model: the expression of ETV6/RUNX1 creates a preleukemic clone and leads to increased ROS levels. These elevated ROS favor the accumulation of secondary hits by increasing genetic instability and doublestrand breaks, thus allowing preleukemic clones to develop into fully transformed leukemic cells.

  2. A Double Negative Loop Comprising ETV6/RUNX1 and MIR181A1 Contributes to Differentiation Block in t(12;21-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

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    Yung-Li Yang

    Full Text Available Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL with t(12;21, which results in expression of the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene, is the most common chromosomal lesion in precursor-B (pre-B ALL. We identified 17 microRNAs that were downregulated in ETV6/RUNX1+ compared with ETV6/RUNX1- clinical samples. Among these microRNAs, miR-181a-1 was the most significantly reduced (by ~75%; P < 0.001. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that ETV6/RUNX1 directly binds the regulatory region of MIR181A1, and knockdown of ETV6/RUNX1 increased miR-181a-1 level. We further showed that miR-181a (functional counterpart of miR-181a-1 could target ETV6/RUNX1 and cause a reduction in the level of the oncoprotein ETV6/RUNX1, cell growth arrest, an increase in apoptosis, and induction of cell differentiation in ETV6/RUNX1+ cell line. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-181a also resulted in decreased CD10 hyperexpression in ETV6/RUNX1+ primary patient samples. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MIR181A1 and ETV6/RUNX1 regulate each other, and we propose that a double negative loop involving MIR181A1 and ETV6/RUNX1 may contribute to ETV6/RUNX1-driven arrest of differentiation in pre-B ALL.

  3. ASXL2 mutations are frequently found in pediatric AML patients with t(8;21)/ RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and associated with a better prognosis.

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    Yamato, Genki; Shiba, Norio; Yoshida, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Hara, Yusuke; Ohki, Kentaro; Okubo, Jun; Okuno, Haruna; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Kinoshita, Akitoshi; Moritake, Hiroshi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Park, Myoung-Ja; Sotomatsu, Manabu; Taga, Takashi; Adachi, Souichi; Tawa, Akio; Horibe, Keizo; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2017-05-01

    ASXL2 is an epigenetic regulator involved in polycomb repressive complex regulation or recruitment. Clinical features of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with ASXL2 mutations remain unclear. Thus, we investigated frequencies of ASXL1 and ASXL2 mutations, clinical features of patients with these mutations, correlations of these mutations with other genetic alterations including BCOR/BCORL1 and cohesin complex component genes, and prognostic impact of these mutations in 369 pediatric patients with de novo AML (0-17 years). We identified 9 (2.4%) ASXL1 and 17 (4.6%) ASXL2 mutations in 25 patients. These mutations were more common in patients with t(8;21)(q22;q22)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (ASXL1, 6/9, 67%, P = 0.02; ASXL2, 10/17, 59%, P = 0.01). Among these 25 patients, 4 (27%) of 15 patients with t(8;21) and 6 (60%) of 10 patients without t(8;21) relapsed. However, most patients with relapse were rescued using stem cell transplantation irrespective of t(8;21). The overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates showed no differences among pediatric AML patients with t(8;21) and ASXL1 or ASXL2 mutations and ASXL wild-type (5-year OS, 75% vs. 100% vs. 91% and 5-year EFS, 67% vs. 80% vs. 67%). In 106 patients with t(8;21) AML, the coexistence of mutations in tyrosine kinase pathways and chromatin modifiers and/or cohesin complex component genes had no effect on prognosis. These results suggest that ASXL1 and ASXL2 mutations play key roles as cooperating mutations that induce leukemogenesis, particularly in pediatric AML patients with t(8;21), and these mutations might be associated with a better prognosis than that reported previously. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Isoform-specific potentiation of stem and progenitor cell engraftment by AML1/RUNX1.

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    Shinobu Tsuzuki

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available AML1/RUNX1 is the most frequently mutated gene in leukaemia and is central to the normal biology of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the role of different AML1 isoforms within these primitive compartments is unclear. Here we investigate whether altering relative expression of AML1 isoforms impacts the balance between cell self-renewal and differentiation in vitro and in vivo.The human AML1a isoform encodes a truncated molecule with DNA-binding but no transactivation capacity. We used a retrovirus-based approach to transduce AML1a into primitive haematopoietic cells isolated from the mouse. We observed that enforced AML1a expression increased the competitive engraftment potential of murine long-term reconstituting stem cells with the proportion of AML1a-expressing cells increasing over time in both primary and secondary recipients. Furthermore, AML1a expression dramatically increased primitive and committed progenitor activity in engrafted animals as assessed by long-term culture, cobblestone formation, and colony assays. In contrast, expression of the full-length isoform AML1b abrogated engraftment potential. In vitro, AML1b promoted differentiation while AML1a promoted proliferation of progenitors capable of short-term lymphomyeloid engraftment. Consistent with these findings, the relative abundance of AML1a was highest in the primitive stem/progenitor compartment of human cord blood, and forced expression of AML1a in these cells enhanced maintenance of primitive potential both in vitro and in vivo.These data demonstrate that the "a" isoform of AML1 has the capacity to potentiate stem and progenitor cell engraftment, both of which are required for successful clinical transplantation. This activity is consistent with its expression pattern in both normal and leukaemic cells. Manipulating the balance of AML1 isoform expression may offer novel therapeutic strategies, exploitable in the contexts of leukaemia and also in cord blood

  5. Molecular Characterization of Down Syndrome Embryonic Stem Cells Reveals a Role for RUNX1 in Neural Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Halevy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is the leading genetic cause of mental retardation and is caused by a third copy of human chromosome 21. The different pathologies of DS involve many tissues with a distinct array of neural phenotypes. Here we characterize embryonic stem cell lines with DS (DS-ESCs, and focus on the neural aspects of the disease. Our results show that neural progenitor cells (NPCs differentiated from five independent DS-ESC lines display increased apoptosis and downregulation of forehead developmental genes. Analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested RUNX1 as a key transcription regulator in DS-NPCs. Using genome editing we were able to disrupt all three copies of RUNX1 in DS-ESCs, leading to downregulation of several RUNX1 target developmental genes accompanied by reduced apoptosis and neuron migration. Our work sheds light on the role of RUNX1 and the importance of dosage balance in the development of neural phenotypes in DS.

  6. Genome‐wide analysis of cytogenetic aberrations in ETV6/RUNX1‐positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Louise; Wesolowska, Agata; Joshi, Tejal

    2012-01-01

    The chromosomal translocation t(12;21) resulting in the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene is the most frequent structural cytogenetic abnormality among patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We investigated 62 ETV6/RUNX1‐positive childhood ALL patients by single nucleotide polymorphism...... childhood ALL, which may be important for understanding poor responses among this otherwise highly curable subset of ALL and lead to novel targeted treatment strategies....

  7. Molecular characterization of the mouse superior lateral parabrachial nucleus through expression of the transcription factor Runx1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrissandra J Zagami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to precisely identify separate neuronal populations is essential to the understanding of the development and function of different brain structures. This necessity is particularly evident in regions such as the brainstem, where the anatomy is quite complex and little is known about the identity, origin, and function of a number of distinct nuclei due to the lack of specific cellular markers. In this regard, the gene encoding the transcription factor Runx1 has emerged as a specific marker of restricted neuronal populations in the murine central and peripheral nervous systems. The aim of this study was to precisely characterize the expression of Runx1 in the developing and postnatal mouse brainstem.Anatomical and immunohistochemical studies were used to characterize mouse Runx1 expression in the brainstem. It is shown here that Runx1 is expressed in a restricted population of neurons located in the dorsolateral rostral hindbrain. These neurons define a structure that is ventromedial to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, dorsocaudal to the medial paralemniscal nucleus and rostral to the cerebellum. Runx1 expression in these cells is first observed at approximately gestational day 12.5, persists into the adult brain, and is lost in knockout mice lacking the transcription factor Atoh1, an important regulator of the development of neuronal lineages of the rhombic lip. Runx1-expressing neurons in the rostral hindbrain produce cholecystokinin and also co-express members of the Groucho/Transducin-like Enhancer of split protein family.Based on the anatomical and molecular characteristics of the Runx1-expressing cells in the rostral hindbrain, we propose that Runx1 expression in this region of the mouse brain defines the superior lateral parabrachial nucleus.

  8. Interference with RUNX1/ETO Leukemogenic Function by Cell-Penetrating Peptides Targeting the NHR2 Oligomerization Domain

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    Yvonne Bartel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The leukemia-associated fusion protein RUNX1/ETO is generated by the chromosomal translocation t(8;21 which appears in about 12% of all de novo acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs. Essential for the oncogenic potential of RUNX1/ETO is the oligomerization of the chimeric fusion protein through the nervy homology region 2 (NHR2 within ETO. In previous studies, we have shown that the intracellular expression of peptides containing the NHR2 domain inhibits RUNX1/ETO oligomerization, thereby preventing cell proliferation and inducing differentiation of RUNX1/ETO transformed cells. Here, we show that introduction of a recombinant TAT-NHR2 fusion polypeptide into the RUNX1/ETO growth-dependent myeloid cell line Kasumi-1 results in decreased cell proliferation and increased numbers of apoptotic cells. This effect was highly specific and mediated by binding the TAT-NHR2 peptide to ETO sequences, as TAT-polypeptides containing the oligomerization domain of BCR did not affect cell proliferation or apoptosis in Kasumi-1 cells. Thus, the selective interference with NHR2-mediated oligomerization by peptides represents a challenging but promising strategy for the inhibition of the leukemogenic potential of RUNX1/ETO in t(8;21-positive leukemia.

  9. RUNX1 regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway: role in chemotherapy sensitivity in acute megakaryocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Holly; Xie, Chengzhi; LaFiura, Katherine M; Dombkowski, Alan A; Buck, Steven A; Boerner, Julie L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Matherly, Larry H; Ge, Yubin

    2009-09-24

    RUNX1 (AML1) encodes the core binding factor alpha subunit of a heterodimeric transcription factor complex which plays critical roles in normal hematopoiesis. Translocations or down-regulation of RUNX1 have been linked to favorable clinical outcomes in acute leukemias, suggesting that RUNX1 may also play critical roles in chemotherapy responses in acute leukemias; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The median level of RUNX1b transcripts in Down syndrome (DS) children with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMkL) were 4.4-fold (P regulation of PIK3CD by RUNX1 was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter gene assays. Further, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, and cytosine arabinoside synergized in antileukemia effects on Meg-01 and primary pediatric AMkL cells. Our results suggest that RUNX1 may play a critical role in chemotherapy response in AMkL by regulating the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Thus, the treatment of AMkL may be improved by integrating PI3-kinase or Akt inhibitors into the chemotherapy of this disease.

  10. Somatic drivers of B-ALL in a model of ETV6-RUNX1; Pax5+/− leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyden, Louise van der; Giotopoulos, George; Wong, Kim; Rust, Alistair G.; Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela; Osaki, Hikari; Huntly, Brian J.; Adams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is amongst the leading causes of childhood cancer-related mortality. Its most common chromosomal aberration is the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene, with ~25 % of ETV6-RUNX1 patients also carrying PAX5 alterations. We have recreated this mutation background by inter-crossing Etv6-RUNX1 (Etv6 RUNX1-SB ) and Pax5 +/− mice and performed an in vivo analysis to find driver genes using Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated mutagenesis and also exome sequencing. Combination of Etv6-RUNX1 and Pax5 +/− alleles generated a transplantable B220 + CD19+ B-ALL with a significant disease incidence. RNA-seq analysis showed a gene expression pattern consistent with arrest at the pre-B stage. Analysis of the transposon common insertion sites identified genes involved in B-cell development (Zfp423) and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway (Jak1, Stat5 and Il2rb), while exome sequencing revealed somatic hotspot mutations in Jak1 and Jak3 at residues analogous to those mutated in human leukemias, and also mutation of Trp53. Powerful synergies exists in our model suggesting STAT pathway activation and mutation of Trp53 are potent drivers of B-ALL in the context of Etv6-RUNX1;Pax5 +/− . The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1586-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  11. A Double Negative Loop Comprising ETV6/RUNX1 and MIR181A1 Contributes to Differentiation Block in t(12;21)-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yung-Li; Yen, Ching-Tzu; Pai, Chen-Hsueh; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Yu, Sung-Liang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Hu, Chung-Yi; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lin, Shu-Rung; Lin, Shu-Wha

    2015-01-01

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with t(12;21), which results in expression of the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene, is the most common chromosomal lesion in precursor-B (pre-B) ALL. We identified 17 microRNAs that were downregulated in ETV6/RUNX1+ compared with ETV6/RUNX1- clinical samples. Among these microRNAs, miR-181a-1 was the most significantly reduced (by ~75%; P regulatory region of MIR181A1, and knockdown of ETV6/RUNX1 increased miR-181a-1 level. We further showed that miR-181a (functional counterpart of miR-181a-1) could target ETV6/RUNX1 and cause a reduction in the level of the oncoprotein ETV6/RUNX1, cell growth arrest, an increase in apoptosis, and induction of cell differentiation in ETV6/RUNX1+ cell line. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-181a also resulted in decreased CD10 hyperexpression in ETV6/RUNX1+ primary patient samples. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MIR181A1 and ETV6/RUNX1 regulate each other, and we propose that a double negative loop involving MIR181A1 and ETV6/RUNX1 may contribute to ETV6/RUNX1-driven arrest of differentiation in pre-B ALL.

  12. Identification of germline susceptibility loci in ETV6-RUNX1-rearranged childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinghaus, E; Stanulla, M; Richter, G; Ellinghaus, D; te Kronnie, G; Cario, G; Cazzaniga, G; Horstmann, M; Panzer Grümayer, R; Cavé, H; Trka, J; Cinek, O; Teigler-Schlegel, A; ElSharawy, A; Häsler, R; Nebel, A; Meissner, B; Bartram, T; Lescai, F; Franceschi, C; Giordan, M; Nürnberg, P; Heinzow, B; Zimmermann, M; Schreiber, S; Schrappe, M; Franke, A

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease of the white blood cells. The etiology of ALL is believed to be multifactorial and likely to involve an interplay of environmental and genetic variables. We performed a genome-wide association study of 355 750 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 474 controls and 419 childhood ALL cases characterized by a t(12;21)(p13;q22) — the most common chromosomal translocation observed in childhood ALL — which leads to an ETV6–RUNX1 gene fusion. The eight most strongly associated SNPs were followed-up in 951 ETV6-RUNX1-positive cases and 3061 controls from Germany/Austria and Italy, respectively. We identified a novel, genome-wide significant risk locus at 3q28 (TP63, rs17505102, PCMH=8.94 × 10−9, OR=0.65). The separate analysis of the combined German/Austrian sample only, revealed additional genome-wide significant associations at 11q11 (OR8U8, rs1945213, P=9.14 × 10−11, OR=0.69) and 8p21.3 (near INTS10, rs920590, P=6.12 × 10−9, OR=1.36). These associations and another association at 11p11.2 (PTPRJ, rs3942852, P=4.95 × 10−7, OR=0.72) remained significant in the German/Austrian replication panel after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that germline genetic variation can specifically contribute to the risk of ETV6–RUNX1-positive childhood ALL. The identification of TP63 and PTPRJ as susceptibility genes emphasize the role of the TP53 gene family and the importance of proteins regulating cellular processes in connection with tumorigenesis. PMID:22076464

  13. IGF1 regulates RUNX1 expression via IRS1/2: Implications for antler chondrocyte differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Duan, Cui-Cui; Geng, Shuang; Wang, Kai; Yu, Hai-Fan; Yue, Zhan-Peng; Guo, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Although IGF1 is important for the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, its underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Here we addressed the physiologic function of IGF1 in antler cartilage and explored the interplay of IGF1, IRS1/2 and RUNX1 in chondrocyte differentiation. The results showed that IGF1 was highly expressed in antler chondrocytes. Exogenous rIGF1 could increase the proliferation of chondrocytes and cell proportion in the S phase, whereas IGF1R inhibitor PQ4...

  14. Deletion of the App-Runx1 region in mice models human partial monosomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Arbogast

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Partial monosomy 21 (PM21 is a rare chromosomal abnormality that is characterized by the loss of a variable segment along human chromosome 21 (Hsa21. The clinical phenotypes of this loss are heterogeneous and range from mild alterations to lethal consequences, depending on the affected region of Hsa21. The most common features include intellectual disabilities, craniofacial dysmorphology, short stature, and muscular and cardiac defects. As a complement to human genetic approaches, our team has developed new monosomic mouse models that carry deletions on Hsa21 syntenic regions in order to identify the dosage-sensitive genes that are responsible for the symptoms. We focus here on the Ms5Yah mouse model, in which a 7.7-Mb region has been deleted from the App to Runx1 genes. Ms5Yah mice display high postnatal lethality, with a few surviving individuals showing growth retardation, motor coordination deficits, and spatial learning and memory impairments. Further studies confirmed a gene dosage effect in the Ms5Yah hippocampus, and pinpointed disruptions of pathways related to cell adhesion (involving App, Cntnap5b, Lgals3bp, Mag, Mcam, Npnt, Pcdhb2, Pcdhb3, Pcdhb4, Pcdhb6, Pcdhb7, Pcdhb8, Pcdhb16 and Vwf. Our PM21 mouse model is the first to display morphological abnormalities and behavioural phenotypes similar to those found in affected humans, and it therefore demonstrates the major contribution that the App-Runx1 region has in the pathophysiology of PM21.

  15. Preleukemic and second-hit mutational events in an acute myeloid leukemia patient with a novel germline RUNX1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Isaac Ks; Lee, Joanne; Ng, Christopher; Kosmo, Bustamin; Chiu, Lily; Seah, Elaine; Mok, Michelle Meng Huang; Tan, Karen; Osato, Motomi; Chng, Wee-Joo; Yan, Benedict; Tan, Lip Kun

    2018-01-01

    Germline mutations in the RUNX1 transcription factor give rise to a rare autosomal dominant genetic condition classified under the entity: Familial Platelet Disorders with predisposition to Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (FPD/AML). While several studies have identified a myriad of germline RUNX1 mutations implicated in this disorder, second-hit mutational events are necessary for patients with hereditary thrombocytopenia to develop full-blown AML. The molecular picture behind this process remains unclear. We describe a patient of Malay descent with an unreported 7-bp germline RUNX1 frameshift deletion, who developed second-hit mutations that could have brought about the leukaemic transformation from a pre-leukaemic state. These mutations were charted through the course of the treatment and stem cell transplant, showing a clear correlation between her clinical presentation and the mutations present. The patient was a 27-year-old Malay woman who presented with AML on the background of hereditary thrombocytopenia affecting her father and 3 brothers. Initial molecular testing revealed the same novel RUNX1 mutation in all 5 individuals. The patient received standard induction, consolidation chemotherapy, and a haploidentical stem cell transplant from her mother with normal RUNX1 profile. Comprehensive genomic analyses were performed at diagnosis, post-chemotherapy and post-transplant. A total of 8 mutations ( RUNX1 , GATA2 , DNMT3A , BCORL1 , BCOR , 2 PHF6 and CDKN2A ) were identified in the pre-induction sample, of which 5 remained ( RUNX1 , DNMT3A , BCORL1 , BCOR and 1 out of 2 PHF6 ) in the post-treatment sample and none were present post-transplant. In brief, the 3 mutations which were lost along with the leukemic cells at complete morphological remission were most likely acquired leukemic driver mutations that were responsible for the AML transformation from a pre-leukemic germline RUNX1 -mutated state. On the contrary, the 5 mutations that persisted post

  16. Assessing the miRNA sponge potential of RUNX1T1 in t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Alexander; Zandi, Roza; Havgaard, Jakob Hull

    2017-01-01

    available t(8;21) AML RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq data available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, we obtained a network consisting of 605 genes that may act as ceRNAs competing for miRNAs with the suggested RUNX1T1 miRNA sponge. Among the 605 ceRNA candidates, 121 have previously been implied...... in cancer development. Players in the integrin, cadherin, and Wnt signaling pathways affected by the RUNX1T1 sponge were overrepresented. Finally, among a set of 21 high interest RUNX1T1 ceRNAs we found multiple genes that have previously been linked to AML formation. In conclusion, our study offers a novel...

  17. The oncogenic fusion protein RUNX1-CBFA2T1 supports proliferation and inhibits senescence in t(8;21)-positive leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Natalia; Heidenreich, Olaf; Drescher, Bettina; Riehle, Heidemarie; Cullmann, Claire; Vornlocher, Hans-Peter; Ganser, Arnold; Heil, Gerhard; Nordheim, Alfred; Krauter, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    The fusion protein RUNX1-CBFA2T1 associated with t(8;21)-positive acute myeloid leukaemia is a potent inhibitor of haematopoetic differentiation. The role of RUNX1-CBFA2T1 in leukaemic cell proliferation is less clear. We examined the consequences of siRNA-mediated RUNX1-CBFA2T1 depletion regarding proliferation and clonogenicity of t(8;21)-positive cell lines. The t(8;21)-positive cell line Kasumi-1 was electroporated with RUNX1-CBFA2T1 or control siRNAs followed by analysis of proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and senescence. Electroporation of Kasumi-1 cells with RUNX1-CBFA2T1 siRNAs, but not with control siRNAs, resulted in RUNX1-CBFA2T1 suppression which lasted for at least 5 days. A single electroporation with RUNX1-CBFA2T1 siRNA severely diminished the clonogenicity of Kasumi-1 cells. Prolonged RUNX1-CBFA2T1 depletion inhibited proliferation in suspension culture and G1-S transition during the cell cycle, diminished the number of apoptotic cells, but induced cellular senescence. The addition of haematopoetic growth factors could not rescue RUNX1-CBFA2T1-depleted cells from senescence, and could only partially restore their clonogenicity. RUNX1-CBFA2T1 supports the proliferation and expansion of t(8;21)-positive leukaemic cells by preventing cellular senescence. These findings suggest a central role of RUNX1-CBFA2T1 in the maintenance of the leukaemia. Therefore, RUNX1-CBFA2T1 is a promising and leukaemia-specific target for molecularly defined therapeutic approaches

  18. Deletion of the App-Runx1 region in mice models human partial monosomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Thomas; Raveau, Matthieu; Chevalier, Claire; Nalesso, Valérie; Dembele, Doulaye; Jacobs, Hugues; Wendling, Olivia; Roux, Michel; Duchon, Arnaud; Herault, Yann

    2015-06-01

    Partial monosomy 21 (PM21) is a rare chromosomal abnormality that is characterized by the loss of a variable segment along human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). The clinical phenotypes of this loss are heterogeneous and range from mild alterations to lethal consequences, depending on the affected region of Hsa21. The most common features include intellectual disabilities, craniofacial dysmorphology, short stature, and muscular and cardiac defects. As a complement to human genetic approaches, our team has developed new monosomic mouse models that carry deletions on Hsa21 syntenic regions in order to identify the dosage-sensitive genes that are responsible for the symptoms. We focus here on the Ms5Yah mouse model, in which a 7.7-Mb region has been deleted from the App to Runx1 genes. Ms5Yah mice display high postnatal lethality, with a few surviving individuals showing growth retardation, motor coordination deficits, and spatial learning and memory impairments. Further studies confirmed a gene dosage effect in the Ms5Yah hippocampus, and pinpointed disruptions of pathways related to cell adhesion (involving App, Cntnap5b, Lgals3bp, Mag, Mcam, Npnt, Pcdhb2, Pcdhb3, Pcdhb4, Pcdhb6, Pcdhb7, Pcdhb8, Pcdhb16 and Vwf). Our PM21 mouse model is the first to display morphological abnormalities and behavioural phenotypes similar to those found in affected humans, and it therefore demonstrates the major contribution that the App-Runx1 region has in the pathophysiology of PM21. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Runx1 and Runx3 are involved in the generation and function of highly suppressive IL-17-producing T regulatory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lequn Li

    Full Text Available CD4(+Foxp3(+ T regulatory cells (Tregs display phenotypic and functional plasticity that is regulated by cytokines and other immune cells. Previously, we determined that during co-culture with CD4(+CD25(- T cells and antigen presenting cells, Tregs produced IL-17. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of IL-17-producing Treg (Tr17 cells and their molecular and functional properties. We determined that during stimulation via TCR/CD3 and CD28, the combination of IL-1β and IL-2 was necessary and sufficient for the generation of Tr17 cells. Tr17 cells expressed Runx1 transcription factor, which was required for sustained expression of Foxp3 and RORγt and for production of IL-17. Surprisingly, Tr17 cells also expressed Runx3, which regulated transcription of perforin and granzyme B thereby mediating cytotoxic activity. Our studies indicate that Tr17 cells concomitantly express Foxp3, RORγt, Runx1 and Runx3 and are capable of producing IL-17 while mediating potent suppressive and cytotoxic function.

  20. RUNX1/AML1 point mutations take part in the pathogenesis of radiation-and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yuka; Kimura, Akiro; Harada, Hironori

    2012-01-01

    High frequency of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has been reported in Hiroshima A-bomb exposed survivors, in resident around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Laboratory and in exposed people by Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Accident. MDS/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is thought to be caused by mutation of runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) gene after a long time post exposure to relatively low dose radiation. In this study, participation of RUNX1/AML1 point mutations was examined in pathogenesis of the title neoplasms experienced in authors' facility. Subjects were 18/417 cases in whom myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) had switched to MDS or AML in the follow-up period of 1-25 years, and 11/124 cases in whom t-MN (therapy-related myeloid neoplasms) had developed during the remission of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in the 1-9.7 years follow up. Point mutations were analyzed by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) followed by base sequencing. In the former cases above, RUNX1 point mutation was found in 5/18 cases and in the latter, 4/11. When patients with persistent decrease of blood cells post therapy of APL were followed up for mutation, their RUNX1 point mutation was detected before they were diagnosed to be morbid of MDS/AML. The point mutation was thus a biomarker of myelo-hematogenic cancer, and was thought useful for early diagnosis of MDS and AML. (T.T.)

  1. Reverse engineering of TLX oncogenic transcriptional networks identifies RUNX1 as tumor suppressor in T-ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gatta, Giusy; Palomero, Teresa; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Bansal, Mukesh; Carpenter, Zachary W; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Sole, Xavier; Xu, Luyao; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Wiernik, Peter H; Rowe, Jacob M; Meijerink, Jules P; Califano, Andrea; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2012-02-26

    The TLX1 and TLX3 transcription factor oncogenes have a key role in the pathogenesis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we used reverse engineering of global transcriptional networks to decipher the oncogenic regulatory circuit controlled by TLX1 and TLX3. This systems biology analysis defined T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (TLX1) and TLX3 as master regulators of an oncogenic transcriptional circuit governing T-ALL. Notably, a network structure analysis of this hierarchical network identified RUNX1 as a key mediator of the T-ALL induced by TLX1 and TLX3 and predicted a tumor-suppressor role for RUNX1 in T cell transformation. Consistent with these results, we identified recurrent somatic loss-of-function mutations in RUNX1 in human T-ALL. Overall, these results place TLX1 and TLX3 at the top of an oncogenic transcriptional network controlling leukemia development, show the power of network analyses to identify key elements in the regulatory circuits governing human cancer and identify RUNX1 as a tumor-suppressor gene in T-ALL.

  2. TGF-β converts Th1 cells into Th17 cells through stimulation of Runx1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hou-Pu; Cao, Anthony T; Feng, Ting; Li, Qingjie; Zhang, Wenbo; Yao, Suxia; Dann, Sara M; Elson, Charles O; Cong, Yingzi

    2015-04-01

    Differentiated CD4(+) T cells preserve plasticity under various conditions. However, the stability of Th1 cells is unclear, as is whether Th1 cells can convert into Th17 cells and thereby contribute to the generation of IFN-γ(+) IL-17(+) CD4(+) T cells, the number of which correlates with severity of colitis. We investigated whether IFN-γ(+) Th1 cells can convert into Th17 cells under intestinal inflammation and the mechanisms involved. IFN-γ(Thy1.1+) Th1 cells were generated by culturing naïve CD4(+) T cells from IFN-γ(Thy1.1) CBir1 TCR-Tg reporter mice, whose TCR is specific for an immunodominant microbiota antigen, CBir1 flagellin, under Th1 polarizing conditions. IFN-γ(Thy1.1+) Th1 cells induced colitis in Rag(-/-) mice after adoptive transfer and converted into IL-17(+) Th17, but not Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the inflamed intestines. TGF-β and IL-6, but not IL-1β and IL-23, regulated Th1 conversion into Th17 cells. TGF-β induction of transcriptional factor Runx1 is crucial for the conversion, since silencing Runx1 by siRNA inhibited Th1 conversion into Th17 cells. Furthermore, TGF-β enhanced histone H3K9 acetylation but inhibited H3K9 trimethylation of Runx1- and ROR-γt-binding sites on il-17 or rorc gene in Th1 cells. We conclude that Th1 cells convert into Th17 cells under inflammatory conditions in intestines, which is possibly mediated by TGF-β induction of Runx1. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Disruption of Runx1 and Runx3 Leads to Bone Marrow Failure and Leukemia Predisposition due to Transcriptional and DNA Repair Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsia Qiuxia Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The RUNX genes encode transcription factors involved in development and human disease. RUNX1 and RUNX3 are frequently associated with leukemias, yet the basis for their involvement in leukemogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that Runx1;Runx3 double-knockout (DKO mice exhibited lethal phenotypes due to bone marrow failure and myeloproliferative disorder. These contradictory clinical manifestations are reminiscent of human inherited bone marrow failure syndromes such as Fanconi anemia (FA, caused by defective DNA repair. Indeed, Runx1;Runx3 DKO cells showed mitomycin C hypersensitivity, due to impairment of monoubiquitinated-FANCD2 recruitment to DNA damage foci, although FANCD2 monoubiquitination in the FA pathway was unaffected. RUNX1 and RUNX3 interact with FANCD2 independently of CBFβ, suggesting a nontranscriptional role for RUNX in DNA repair. These findings suggest that RUNX dysfunction causes DNA repair defect, besides transcriptional misregulation, and promotes the development of leukemias and other cancers.

  4. RUNX1 and RUNX3 protect against YAP-mediated EMT, stem-ness and shorter survival outcomes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Madhura; Tan, Tuan Zea; Syed Sulaiman, Nurfarhanah Bte; Lamar, John M.; Bansal, Prashali; Cui, Jianzhou; Qiao, Yiting; Ito, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    Hippo pathway target, YAP has emerged as an important player in solid tumor progression. Here, we identify RUNX1 and RUNX3 as novel negative regulators of oncogenic function of YAP in the context of breast cancer. RUNX proteins are one of the first transcription factors identified to interact with YAP. RUNX1 or RUNX3 expression abrogates YAP-mediated pro-tumorigenic properties of mammary epithelial cell lines in an interaction dependent manner. RUNX1 and RUNX3 inhibit YAP-mediated migration and stem-ness properties of mammary epithelial cell lines by co-regulating YAP-mediated gene expression. Analysis of whole genome expression profiles of breast cancer samples revealed significant co-relation between YAP–RUNX1/RUNX3 expression levels and survival outcomes of breast cancer patients. High RUNX1/RUNX3 expression proved protective towards YAP-dependent patient survival outcomes. High YAP in breast cancer patients’ expression profiles co-related with EMT and stem-ness gene signature enrichment. High RUNX1/RUNX3 expression along with high YAP reflected lower enrichment of EMT and stem-ness signatures. This antagonistic activity of RUNX1 and RUNX3 towards oncogenic function of YAP identified in mammary epithelial cells as well as in breast cancer expression profiles gives a novel mechanistic insight into oncogene–tumor suppressor interplay in the context of breast cancer progression. The novel interplay between YAP, RUNX1 and RUNX3 and its significance in breast cancer progression can serve as a prognostic tool to predict cancer recurrence. PMID:29581836

  5. Characterization of a t(5;8)(q31;q21) translocation in a patient with mental retardation and congenital heart disease: implications for involvement of RUNX1T1 in human brain and heart development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Litu; Tümer, Zeynep; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    The chromosome break points of the t(8;21)(q21.3;q22.12) translocation associated with acute myeloid leukemia disrupt the RUNX1 gene (also known as AML1) and the RUNX1T1 gene (also known as CBFA2T3, MTG8 and ETO) and generate a RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion protein. Molecular characterization of the trans...... development and support the notion that disruption of the RUNX1T1 gene is associated with the patient's phenotype.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 January 2009; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.269....

  6. The long non-coding RNA H19-derived miR-675 modulates human gastric cancer cell proliferation by targeting tumor suppressor RUNX1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Ming; Gao, Wen; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ping; Shu, Yongqian

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • H19 regulates gastric cancer cell proliferation phenotype via miR-675. • MiR-675 modulates cell proliferation of gastric cancer cells by targeting tumor suppressor RUNX1. • The H19/miR-675/RUNX1 axis plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. - Abstract: The lncRNA H19 has been recently shown to be upregulated and play important roles in gastric cancer tumorigenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism of H19 and its mature product miR-675 in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-675 was positively expressed with H19 and was a pivotal mediator in H19-induced gastric cancer cell growth promotion. Subsequently, the tumor suppressor Runt Domain Transcription Factor1 (RUNX1) was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-675 using a luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting analyses. A series of rescue assays indicated that RUNX1 mediated H19/miR-67-induced gastric cancer cell phenotypic changes. Moreover, the inverse relationship between the expression of RUNX1 and H19/miR-675 was also revealed in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines. Taken together, our study demonstrated that the novel pathway H19/miR-675/RUNX1 regulates gastric cancer development and may serve as a potential target for gastric cancer therapy

  7. RUNX1 positively regulates the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway through modulating SOS1 expression in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuda, Yoshihide; Morita, Ken; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Taniguchi, Junichi; Bando, Toshikazu; Obara, Moeka; Hirata, Masahiro; Kataoka, Tatsuki R; Muto, Manabu; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Liu, Pu Paul; Adachi, Souichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko

    2018-04-23

    The dual function of runt-related transcriptional factor 1 (RUNX1) as an oncogene or oncosuppressor has been extensively studied in various malignancies, yet its role in gastric cancer remains elusive. Up-regulation of the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway is frequently-encountered in gastric cancer and contributes to the maintenance of these cancer cells. This signaling cascade is partly mediated by son of sevenless homolog (SOS) family, which function as adaptor proteins in the RTK cascades. Herein we report that RUNX1 regulates the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells through transactivating SOS1 expression, rendering itself an ideal target in anti-tumor strategy toward this cancer. Mechanistically, RUNX1 interacts with the RUNX1 binding DNA sequence located in SOS1 promoter and positively regulates it. Knockdown of RUNX1 led to the decreased expression of SOS1 as well as dephosphorylation of ErbB2/HER2, subsequently suppressed the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. We also found that our novel RUNX inhibitor (Chb-M') consistently led to the deactivation of the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway and was effective against several gastric cancer cell lines. Taken together, our work identified a novel interaction of RUNX1 and the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway in gastric cancer, which can potentially be exploited in the management of this malignancy.

  8. High Frequency of AML1/RUNX1 Point Mutations in Radiation-Associated Myelodysplastic Syndrome Around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    OpenAIRE

    Dinara, ZHARLYGANOVA; Hironori, HARADA; Yuka, HARADA; Sergey, SHINKAREV; Zhaxybay, ZHUMADILOV; Aigul, ZHUNUSOVA; Naylya J., TCHAIZHUNUSOVA; Kazbek N., APSALIKOV; Vadim, KEMAIKIN; Kassym, ZHUMADILOV; Noriyuki, KAWANO; Akiro, KIMURA; Masaharu, HOSHI; Department of Radiation Biophysics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University; Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University

    2008-01-01

    It is known that bone marrow is a sensitive organ to ionizing radiation, and many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have been diagnosed in radiation-treated cases and atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The AML1/RUNX1 gene has been known to be frequently mutated in MDS/AML patients among atomic bomb survivors and radiation therapy-related MDS/AML patients. In this study, we investigated the AML1 mutations in radiation-exposed patients wi...

  9. The chimeric transcript RUNX1-GLRX5: a biomarker for good postoperative prognosis in Stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Rie; Amano, Yosuke; Kawakami, Masanori; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Kousuke; Kage, Hidenori; Ohishi, Nobuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Nakajima, Jun; Fukayama, Masashi; Nagase, Takahide; Takai, Daiya

    2016-02-01

    Stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer cases have been recognized as having a low risk of relapse; however, occasionally, relapse may occur. To predict clinical outcome in Stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer patients, we searched for chimeric transcripts that can be used as biomarkers and identified a novel chimeric transcript, RUNX1-GLRX5, comprising RUNX1, a transcription factor, and GLRX5. This chimera was detected in approximately half of the investigated Stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer patients (44/104 cases, 42.3%). Although there was no significant difference in the overall survival rate between RUNX1-GLRX5-positive and -negative cases (P = 0.088), a significantly lower relapse rate was observed in the RUNX1-GLRX5-positive cases (P = 0.039), indicating that this chimera can be used as a biomarker for good prognosis in Stage IA patients. Detection of the RUNX1-GLRX5 chimeric transcript may therefore be useful for the determination of a postoperative treatment plan for Stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. NUDT15, FTO, and RUNX1 genetic variants and thiopurine intolerance among Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sato

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Recent genome-wide analyses have provided strong evidence concerning adverse events caused by thiopurine drugs such as azathioprine (AZA and 6-mercaptopurine. The strong associations identified between NUDT15 p.Arg139Cys and thiopurine-induced leukopenia and severe hair loss have been studied and confirmed over the last 2 years. However, other coding variants, including NUDT15 p.Val18_Val19insGlyVal, NUDT15 p.Val18Ile, and FTO p.Ala134Thr, and a noncoding variation in RUNX1 (rs2834826 remain to be examined in detail in this respect. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between these adverse events and the 5 recently identified variants mentioned above among Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD.Methods: One hundred sixty thiopurine-treated patients with IBD were enrolled. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays or Sanger sequencing.Results: None of the 5 variants were associated with gastrointestinal intolerance to AZA. However, NUDT15 p.Arg139Cys was significantly associated with the interval between initiation and discontinuation of AZA among patients with gastrointestinal intolerance. This variant was strongly associated with early (<8 weeks and late (≥8 weeks leukopenia and severe hair loss. Moreover, it correlated with the interval between initiation of thiopurine therapy and leukopenia occurrence, and average thiopurine dose. NUDT15 p.Val18_Val19insGlyVal, NUDT15 p.Val18Ile, FTO p.Ala134Thr, and RUNX1 rs2834826 exhibited no significant relationship with the adverse events examined.Conclusions: Of the 5 variants investigated, NUDT15 p.Arg139Cys had the strongest impact on thiopurine-induced leukopenia and severe hair loss; therefore, its genotyping should be prioritized over that of other variants in efforts to predict these adverse events in Japanese patients with IBD.

  11. In vitro and in vivo effects on neural crest stem cell differentiation by conditional activation of Runx1 short isoform and its effect on neuropathic pain behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanaykina, Nadezda; Abelson, Klas; King, Dale

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Runx1, a Runt domain transcription factor, controls the differentiation of nociceptors that express the neurotrophin receptor Ret, regulates the expression of many ion channels and receptors, and controls the lamina-specific innervation pattern of nociceptive afferents in the spinal...

  12. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko

    2013-07-01

    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5'-NNCCAC-3' and 5'-GCGMGN'N'-3' (M:A or C; N and N' form Watson-Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences.

  13. The leukemia-specific fusion gene ETV6/RUNX1 perturbs distinct key biological functions primarily by gene repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Fuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ETV6/RUNX1 (E/R (also known as TEL/AML1 is the most frequent gene fusion in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and also most likely the crucial factor for disease initiation; its role in leukemia propagation and maintenance, however, remains largely elusive. To address this issue we performed a shRNA-mediated knock-down (KD of the E/R fusion gene and investigated the ensuing consequences on genome-wide gene expression patterns and deducible regulatory functions in two E/R-positive leukemic cell lines. FINDINGS: Microarray analyses identified 777 genes whose expression was substantially altered. Although approximately equal proportions were either up- (KD-UP or down-regulated (KD-DOWN, the effects on biological processes and pathways differed considerably. The E/R KD-UP set was significantly enriched for genes included in the "cell activation", "immune response", "apoptosis", "signal transduction" and "development and differentiation" categories, whereas in the E/R KD-DOWN set only the "PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling" and "hematopoietic stem cells" categories became evident. Comparable expression signatures obtained from primary E/R-positive ALL samples underline the relevance of these pathways and molecular functions. We also validated six differentially expressed genes representing the categories "stem cell properties", "B-cell differentiation", "immune response", "cell adhesion" and "DNA damage" with RT-qPCR. CONCLUSION: Our analyses provide the first preliminary evidence that the continuous expression of the E/R fusion gene interferes with key regulatory functions that shape the biology of this leukemia subtype. E/R may thus indeed constitute the essential driving force for the propagation and maintenance of the leukemic process irrespective of potential consequences of associated secondary changes. Finally, these findings may also provide a valuable source of potentially attractive therapeutic targets.

  14. Thrombopoietin/MPL participates in initiating and maintaining RUNX1-ETO acute myeloid leukemia via PI3K/AKT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulikkan, John Anto; Madera, Dmitri; Xue, Liting; Bradley, Paul; Landrette, Sean Francis; Kuo, Ya-Huei; Abbas, Saman; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Valk, Peter; Castilla, Lucio Hernán

    2012-07-26

    Oncogenic mutations in components of cytokine signaling pathways elicit ligand-independent activation of downstream signaling, enhancing proliferation and survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene, MPL, a homodimeric receptor activated by thrombopoietin (THPO), is mutated in myeloproliferative disorders but rarely in AML. Here we show that wild-type MPL expression is increased in a fraction of human AML samples expressing RUNX1-ETO, a fusion protein created by chromosome translocation t(8;21), and that up-regulation of Mpl expression in mice induces AML when coexpressed with RUNX1-ETO. The leukemic cells are sensitive to THPO, activating survival and proliferative responses. Mpl expression is not regulated by RUNX1-ETO in mouse hematopoietic progenitors or leukemic cells. Moreover, we find that activation of PI3K/AKT but not ERK/MEK pathway is a critical mediator of the MPL-directed antiapoptotic function in leukemic cells. Hence, this study provides evidence that up-regulation of wild-type MPL levels promotes leukemia development and maintenance through activation of the PI3K/AKT axis, and suggests that inhibitors of this axis could be effective for treatment of MPL-positive AML.

  15. Chromosome anomalies in bone marrow as primary cause of aplastic or hypoplastic conditions and peripheral cytopenia: disorders due to secondary impairment of RUNX1 and MPL genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marletta Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome changes in the bone marrow (BM of patients with persistent cytopenia are often considered diagnostic for a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS. Comprehensive cytogenetic evaluations may give evidence of the real pathogenetic role of these changes in cases with cytopenia without morphological signs of MDS. Results Chromosome anomalies were found in the BM of three patients, without any morphological evidence of MDS: 1 an acquired complex rearrangement of chromosome 21 in a boy with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA; the rearrangement caused the loss of exons 2–8 of the RUNX1 gene with subsequent hypoexpression. 2 a constitutional complex rearrangement of chromosome 21 in a girl with congenital thrombocytopenia; the rearrangement led to RUNX1 disruption and hypoexpression. 3 an acquired paracentric inversion of chromosome 1, in which two regions at the breakpoints were shown to be lost, in a boy with aplastic anaemia; the MPL gene, localized in chromosome 1 short arms was not mutated neither disrupted, but its expression was severely reduced: we postulate that the aplastic anaemia was due to position effects acting both in cis and in trans, and causing Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia (CAMT. Conclusions A clonal anomaly in BM does not imply per se a diagnosis of MDS: a subgroup of BM hypoplastic disorders is directly due to chromosome structural anomalies with effects on specific genes, as was the case of RUNX1 and MPL in the patients here reported with diagnosis of SAA, thrombocytopenia, and CAMT. The anomaly may be either acquired or constitutional, and it may act by deletion/disruption of the gene, or by position effects. Full cytogenetic investigations, including a-CGH, should always be part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with BM aplasia/hypoplasia and peripheral cytopenias.

  16. SIGNIFICANCE OF ETV6-RUNX1 FUSION GENE TRANSCRIPT DETECTION IN PEDIATRIC B-CELL PRECURSOR ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA WITH TRANSLOCATION t(12;21(p13;q22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Tsaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Translocation t(12;21(p13;q22 is one of the most common structural genetic abnormalities in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. It cannot be detected by conventional G-banding, so a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR or fluorescent in situ hybridization are used for this purpose.The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of qualitative and quantitative detection of ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene transcript at various time points in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL patients.Materials and methods. ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene transcript was revealed by both reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (RQ-PCR in 34 out of 166 (20.5 % children with BCP-ALL. Qualitative ETV6-RUNX1-positivity at days 36 and 85 led to unfavorable outcome (lower event-free survival –EFS and higher cumulative incidence of relapse – CIR. While ETV6-RUNX1 status at day 15 did not allow to divide patients with different outcomes. By ROC curve analysis we determined threshold levels (TL for ETV6-RUNX1/ABL1 ratio at days 0, 15, 36 and 85. Afterwards we adjusted obtained results to 10-fold scale.Results. So practically applicable TL were as follows 500.0 %, 1 %, 0.1 % и 0.01 % for days 0, 15, 36 and 85, respectively. EFS and CIR were both worse in patients with ETV6-RUNX1/ABL1 ratio equal or above defined TL. Moreover, initial ratio ≥500,0 % corresponded to delayed blast clearance at days 15 and 36. We showed good qualitative (84.8 % and quantitative (R2 = 0.953 concordance between ETV6-RUNX1/ABL1 ratio and MRD data obtained by flow cytometry at days 15, 36, 85. Of note, defined TL for ETV6-RUNX1/ABL1 at days 15, 36, 85 were equal to prognostically important levels for flow cytometry MRD.Conclusion. Thus, qualitative detection and quantitative value of ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene transcript showed prognostic significance in the course of treatment in children with BCP-ALL. Based

  17. CBFB-MYH11/RUNX1 together with a compendium of hematopoietic regulators, chromatin modifiers and basal transcription factors occupies self-renewal genes in inv(16) acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandoli, A; Singh, A A; Jansen, P W T C; Wierenga, A T J; Riahi, H; Franci, G; Prange, K; Saeed, S; Vellenga, E; Vermeulen, M; Stunnenberg, H G; Martens, J H A

    Different mechanisms for CBF beta-MYH11 function in acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16) have been proposed such as tethering of RUNX1 outside the nucleus, interference with transcription factor complex assembly and recruitment of histone deacetylases, all resulting in transcriptional repression of

  18. The App-Runx1 region is critical for birth defects and electrocardiographic dysfunctions observed in a Down syndrome mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Raveau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS leads to complex phenotypes and is the main genetic cause of birth defects and heart diseases. The Ts65Dn DS mouse model is trisomic for the distal part of mouse chromosome 16 and displays similar features with post-natal lethality and cardiovascular defects. In order to better understand these defects, we defined electrocardiogram (ECG with a precordial set-up, and we found conduction defects and modifications in wave shape, amplitudes, and durations in Ts65Dn mice. By using a genetic approach consisting of crossing Ts65Dn mice with Ms5Yah mice monosomic for the App-Runx1 genetic interval, we showed that the Ts65Dn viability and ECG were improved by this reduction of gene copy number. Whole-genome expression studies confirmed gene dosage effect in Ts65Dn, Ms5Yah, and Ts65Dn/Ms5Yah hearts and showed an overall perturbation of pathways connected to post-natal lethality (Coq7, Dyrk1a, F5, Gabpa, Hmgn1, Pde10a, Morc3, Slc5a3, and Vwf and heart function (Tfb1m, Adam19, Slc8a1/Ncx1, and Rcan1. In addition cardiac connexins (Cx40, Cx43 and sodium channel sub-units (Scn5a, Scn1b, Scn10a were found down-regulated in Ts65Dn atria with additional down-regulation of Cx40 in Ts65Dn ventricles and were likely contributing to conduction defects. All these data pinpoint new cardiac phenotypes in the Ts65Dn, mimicking aspects of human DS features and pathways altered in the mouse model. In addition they highlight the role of the App-Runx1 interval, including Sod1 and Tiam1, in the induction of post-natal lethality and of the cardiac conduction defects in Ts65Dn. These results might lead to new therapeutic strategies to improve the care of DS people.

  19. Functionally deregulated AML1/RUNX1 cooperates with BCR-ABL to induce a blastic phase-like phenotype of chronic myelogenous leukemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoko Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Patients in the chronic phase (CP of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML have been treated successfully following the advent of ABL kinase inhibitors, but once they progress to the blast crisis (BC phase the prognosis becomes dismal. Although mechanisms underlying the progression are largely unknown, recent studies revealed the presence of alterations of key molecules for hematopoiesis, such as AML1/RUNX1. Our analysis of 13 BC cases revealed that three cases had AML1 mutations and the transcript levels of wild-type (wt. AML1 were elevated in BC compared with CP. Functional analysis of representative AML1 mutants using mouse hematopoietic cells revealed the possible contribution of some, but not all, mutants for the BC-phenotype. Specifically, K83Q and R139G, but neither R80C nor D171N mutants, conferred upon BCR-ABL-expressing cells a growth advantage over BCR-ABL-alone control cells in cytokine-free culture, and the cells thus grown killed mice upon intravenous transfer. Unexpectedly, wt.AML1 behaved similarly to K83Q and R139G mutants. In a bone marrow transplantation assay, K83Q and wt.AML1s induced the emergence of blast-like cells. The overall findings suggest the roles of altered functions of AML1 imposed by some, but not all, mutants, and the elevated expression of wt.AML1 for the disease progression of CML.

  20. The impact of TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1) expression in precursor B cells and implications for leukaemia using three different genome-wide screening methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linka, Y; Ginzel, S; Krüger, M; Novosel, A; Gombert, M; Kremmer, E; Harbott, J; Thiele, R; Borkhardt, A; Landgraf, P

    2013-01-01

    The reciprocal translocation t(12;21)(p13;q22), the most common structural genomic alteration in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children, results in a chimeric transcription factor TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1). We identified directly and indirectly regulated target genes utilizing an inducible TEL-AML1 system derived from the murine pro B-cell line BA/F3 and a monoclonal antibody directed against TEL-AML1. By integration of promoter binding identified with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip, gene expression and protein output through microarray technology and stable labelling of amino acids in cell culture, we identified 217 directly and 118 indirectly regulated targets of the TEL-AML1 fusion protein. Directly, but not indirectly, regulated promoters were enriched in AML1-binding sites. The majority of promoter regions were specific for the fusion protein and not bound by native AML1 or TEL. Comparison with gene expression profiles from TEL-AML1-positive patients identified 56 concordantly misregulated genes with negative effects on proliferation and cellular transport mechanisms and positive effects on cellular migration, and stress responses including immunological responses. In summary, this work for the first time gives a comprehensive insight into how TEL-AML1 expression may directly and indirectly contribute to alter cells to become prone for leukemic transformation

  1. Regulation of the Na,K-ATPase gamma-subunit FXYD2 by Runx1 and Ret signaling in normal and injured non-peptidergic nociceptive sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Ventéo

    Full Text Available Dorsal root ganglia (DRGs contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons which relay nociceptive, thermoceptive, mechanoceptive and proprioceptive information from peripheral tissues toward the central nervous system. These neurons establish constant communication with their targets which insures correct maturation and functioning of the somato-sensory nervous system. Interfering with this two-way communication leads to cellular, electrophysiological and molecular modifications that can eventually cause neuropathic conditions. In this study we reveal that FXYD2, which encodes the gamma-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase reported so far to be mainly expressed in the kidney, is induced in the mouse DRGs at postnatal stages where it is restricted specifically to the TrkB-expressing mechanoceptive and Ret-positive/IB4-binding non-peptidergic nociceptive neurons. In non-peptidergic nociceptors, we show that the transcription factor Runx1 controls FXYD2 expression during the maturation of the somato-sensory system, partly through regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret. Moreover, Ret signaling maintains FXYD2 expression in adults as demonstrated by the axotomy-induced down-regulation of the gene that can be reverted by in vivo delivery of GDNF family ligands. Altogether, these results establish FXYD2 as a specific marker of defined sensory neuron subtypes and a new target of the Ret signaling pathway during normal maturation of the non-peptidergic nociceptive neurons and after sciatic nerve injury.

  2. Overlapping Requirements for Tet2 and Tet3 in Normal Development and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tet family of methylcytosine dioxygenases (Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. To date, functional overlap among Tet family members has not been examined systematically in the context of embryonic development. To clarify the potential for overlap among Tet enzymes during development, we mutated the zebrafish orthologs of Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 and examined single-, double-, and triple-mutant genotypes. Here, we identify Tet2 and Tet3 as the major 5-methylcytosine dioxygenases in the zebrafish embryo and uncover a combined requirement for Tet2 and Tet3 in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC emergence. We demonstrate that Notch signaling in the hemogenic endothelium is regulated by Tet2/3 prior to HSC emergence and show that restoring expression of the downstream gata2b/scl/runx1 transcriptional network can rescue HSCs in tet2/3 double mutant larvae. Our results reveal essential, overlapping functions for tet genes during embryonic development and uncover a requirement for 5hmC in regulating HSC production.

  3. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  4. MTGR1 Is Required for Tumorigenesis in the Murine AOM/DSS Colitis-Associated Carcinoma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Fingleton, Barbara; Williams, Amanda; Ning, Wei; Fischer, Melissa A.; Washington, Mary K.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid Translocation Gene, Related-1 (MTGR1) CBFA2T2 is a member of the Myeloid Translocation Gene (MTG) family of transcriptional corepressors. The remaining two family members, MTG8 (RUNX1T1) and MTG16 (CBFA2T3) are identified as targets of chromosomal translocations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mtgr1−/− mice have defects in intestinal lineage allocation and wound healing. Moreover, these mice show signs of impaired intestinal stem cell function. Based on these phenotypes, we hypothesized that MTGR1 may influence tumorigenesis arising in an inflammatory background. We report that Mtgr1−/− mice were protected from tumorigenesis when injected with azoxymethane (AOM) and then subjected to repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Tumor cell proliferation was comparable, but Mtgr1−/− tumors had significantly higher apoptosis rates. These phenotypes were dependent on epithelial injury, the resultant inflammation, or a combination of both as there was no difference in aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or tumor burden when animals were treated with AOM as the sole agent. Gene expression analysis indicated that Mtgr1−/− tumors had significant upregulation of inflammatory networks, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for immune cell subsets revealed a marked multilineage increase in infiltrates, consisting predominately of CD3+ and natural killer T (NKT) cells as well as macrophages. Transplantation of wild type (WT) bone marrow into Mtgr1−/− mice, and the reciprocal transplant, did not alter the phenotype, ruling out an MTGR1 hematopoietic cell-autonomous mechanism. Our findings indicate that MTGR1 is required for efficient inflammatory carcinogenesis in this model, and implicate its dysfunction in colitis-associated carcinoma. This represents the first report functionally linking MTGR1 to intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:21303973

  5. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  6. The Hematopoietic Transcription Factors RUNX1 and ERG Prevent AML1-ETO Oncogene Overexpression and Onset of the Apoptosis Program in t(8;21) AMLs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandoli, Amit; Singh, Abhishek A.; Prange, Koen H. M.; Tijchon, Esther; Oerlemans, Marjolein; Dirks, Rene; Ter Huurne, Menno; Wierenga, Albertus T. J.; Janssen-Megens, Eva M.; Berentsen, Kim; Sharifi, Nilofar; Kim, Bowon; Matarese, Filomena; Nguyen, Luan N.; Hubner, Nina C.; Rao, Nagesha A.; van den Akker, Emile; Altucci, Lucia; Vellenga, Edo; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Martens, Joost H. A.

    2016-01-01

    The t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated oncoprotein AML1-ETO disrupts normal hematopoietic differentiation. Here, we have investigated its effects on the transcriptome and epigenome in t(8,21) patient cells. AML1-ETO binding was found at promoter regions of active genes with high levels

  7. Thrombopoietin/MPL participates in initiating and maintaining RUNX1-ETO acute myeloid leukemia via PI3K/AKT signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Pulikkan (John); D. Madera (Dmitri); L. Xue (Liting); P. Bradley (Paul); S.F. Landrette (Sean Francis); Y.-H. Kuo (Ya-Huei); S. Abbas (Saman); L.J. Zhu (Lihua Julie); P.J.M. Valk (Peter); L.H. Castilla (Lucio)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOncogenic mutations in components of cytokine signaling pathways elicit ligand-independent activation of downstream signaling, enhancing proliferation and survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene, MPL, a homodimeric receptor activated by

  8. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  9. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  10. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  11. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  12. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  13. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  14. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  15. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  16. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  17. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  18. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the elicitation process. Cases and user requirement elements discussed in the book include: User requirements elicitation processes for children, construction workers, and farmers User requirements for personalized services of a broadcast company Variations in user involvement Practical elements of user...

  19. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  20. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  1. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  2. Requirements for Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Ion sources produce beams for a large variety of different physical experiments, industrial processes and medical applications. In order to characterize the beam delivered by them, a list of requirements is necessary. In this chapter the list of principal requirements is specified and definitions for them are given. (author)

  3. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  4. Writing testable software requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirk, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  5. Engineering Requirements for crowds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeiro Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the software project the interested parts are highly distributed and form numerous and heterogeneous groups, online or face, constituting what could be called crowds. The development of social applications and cloud computing and mobile has generated a marked increase in environments based requirements in crowds. Technical Requirements Engineering (RE traditional face these scalability issues, and require the co-presence of interested and engineers in joint meetings that can not be made in common physical environments. While different approaches have been introduced to partially automate RE in these contexts, still is required a multi-method approach to semi-automate all activities related to work with crowds. In this paper is propose an approach that integrates existing elicitation techniques and requirements analysis and is complemented by introducing new concepts. The information is collected through direct interaction and social collaboration, and through data mining techniques.

  6. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  7. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...... keystone in this process in order to open up stakeholder's mind to new technologies, which do not yet exist. This paper dis-cusses the application of creativity in the requirements process and illustrate through cases from the MAGNET and MAGNET Beyond projects....

  8. FAA Financial Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-04

    In June 1995, the FAA developed a "total requirements" estimate for the period : FY 97-FY 02 to help explain the difficulty of supporting a dynamic, growing : aviation industry under a federal budget picture which projected flat or reduced : funding ...

  9. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  10. Estimating ISABELLE shielding requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.J.; Thorndike, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates were made of the shielding thicknesses required at various points around the ISABELLE ring. Both hadron and muon requirements are considered. Radiation levels at the outside of the shield and at the BNL site boundary are kept at or below 1000 mrem per year and 5 mrem/year respectively. Muon requirements are based on the Wang formula for pion spectra, and the hadron requirements on the hadron cascade program CYLKAZ of Ranft. A muon shield thickness of 77 meters of sand is indicated outside the ring in one area, and hadron shields equivalent to from 2.7 to 5.6 meters in thickness of sand above the ring. The suggested safety allowance would increase these values to 86 meters and 4.0 to 7.2 meters respectively. There are many uncertainties in such estimates, but these last figures are considered to be rather conservative

  11. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  12. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  13. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  14. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  15. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  16. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  17. Requirements for enrichment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Winkels, R.; Trompper, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a high level overview of requirements for Enrichment tools in the Openlaws.eu project. Openlaws.eu aims to initiate a platform and develop a vision for Big Open Legal Data (BOLD): an open framework for legislation, case law, and legal literature from across Europe.

  18. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  19. Ongoing experiments: diagnostics requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the fuel motion diagnostics needs for ongoing LMFBR safety experiments over approximately the next five years, with the discussion centered on TREAT. Brief comments on the direction in which clad motion diagnostics requirements are expected to develop are also presented

  20. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    52 Stratofortress, C/ KC -135 Stratotanker, E-3 Sentry and contractor logistics support aircraft; as well as a substantial jet engine inventory...www.hqda.army.mil/ teo /Sutability%20Terms%20MOA%20Oct%2005.pdf q. ISO 9241-11, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs

  1. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  2. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  3. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  4. Preanalytical requirements of urinalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris; Speeckaert, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    Urine may be a waste product, but it contains an enormous amount of information. Well-standardized procedures for collection, transport, sample preparation and analysis should become the basis of an effective diagnostic strategy for urinalysis. As reproducibility of urinalysis has been greatly improved due to recent technological progress, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis have gained importance and have become stricter. Since the patients themselves often sample urine specimens, urinalysis is very susceptible to preanalytical issues. Various sampling methods and inappropriate specimen transport can cause important preanalytical errors. The use of preservatives may be helpful for particular analytes. Unfortunately, a universal preservative that allows a complete urinalysis does not (yet) exist. The preanalytical aspects are also of major importance for newer applications (e.g. metabolomics). The present review deals with the current preanalytical problems and requirements for the most common urinary analytes. PMID:24627718

  5. Users' requirements for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, K.; Jitsukawa, S.; Ehrlich, K.; Moeslang, A.

    1998-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a high energy neutron irradiation facility which generates an intense neutron flux with D-Li stripping reactions for fusion materials testing. The role of IFMIF is (1) development of various fusion reactor materials, (2) determination of design-relevant engineering databases for the DEMO fusion reactor, (3) calibration and validation of data generated from fission reactor irradiations and the other simulation experiments, etc. The conceptual design activity (CDA) of IFMIF was initiated in February 1995 as an IEA collaborative activity to complete a reference conceptual design of IFMIF in December 1996. Users' requirements for the conceptual design of IFMIF were developed for materials to be tested, types of experiments, small specimen test technology and irradiation conditions. Furthermore, the neutron irradiation field characteristics (spectrum, flux/volume, etc.) of IFMIF were evaluated for the conceptual design parameters and were shown to meet the essential requirements of the users. (orig.)

  6. LHCb Online Networking Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, B

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the networking requirements of the LHCb online installation. It lists both quantitative aspects such as the number of required switch ports, as well as some qualitative features of the equipment, such as minimum buffer sizes in switches. The document comprises both the data acquisition network and the controls/general-purpose network. While the numbers represent our best current knowledge and are intended to give (in particular) network equipment manufacturers an overview of our needs, this document should not be confused with a market survey questionnaire or a formal tendering document. However the information contained in this document will be the input of any such document. A preliminary schedule for procurement and installation is also given.

  7. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  8. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all SST and DST waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm ESD implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  11. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  12. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  13. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  14. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  15. Section 4: Requirements Intertwining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucopoulos, Pericles

    Business analysts are being asked to develop increasingly complex and varied business systems that need to cater to the changing and dynamic market conditions of the new economy. This is particularly acute in today’s turbulent business environment where powerful forces such as deregulation, globalisation, mergers, advances in information and telecommunications technologies, and increasing education of people provide opportunities for organising work in ways that have never before been possible. Enterprises attempt to create wealth either by getting better at improving their products and services or by harnessing creativity and human-centred management to create innovative solutions. In these business settings, requirements become critical in bridging system solutions to organisational and societal problems. They intertwine organisational, social, cognitive, and implementation considerations and they can provide unique insights to change in systems and their business context. Such design situations often involve multiple stakeholders from different participating organisations, subcontractors, divisions, etc., who may have a diversity of expertise, come from different organisational cultures and often have competing goals. The success or failure of many projects depends, to a large extent, on understanding the contextual setting of requirements and their interaction amongst a diverse population of stakeholders.

  16. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  18. Knowing requires data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-flow models are often calibrated using a limited number of observations relative to the unknown inputs required for the model. This is especially true for models that simulate groundwater surface-water interactions. In this case, subsurface temperature sensors can be an efficient means for collecting long-term data that capture the transient nature of physical processes such as seepage losses. Continuous and spatially dense network of diverse observation data can be used to improve knowledge of important physical drivers, conceptualize and calibrate variably saturated groundwater flow models. An example is presented for which the results of such analysis were used to help guide irrigation districts and water management decisions on costly upgrades to conveyance systems to improve water usage, farm productivity and restoration efforts to improve downstream water quality and ecosystems.

  19. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  20. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  1. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  2. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  3. Functional requirements of road lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The functional, technical and visual requirements for public lighting are discussed. The improvement of the presentation of information to the road user is the main functional requirement. The visual requirements can be deduced from the functional requirement of enabling drivers to follow the

  4. Neutrosophy for software requirement prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Barriga Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software engineers are involved in complex decisions that require multiples viewpoints. A specific case is the requirement prioritization process. This process is used to decide which software requirement to develop in certain release from a group of candidate requirements. Criteria involved in this process can involve indeterminacy. In this paper a software requirement prioritization model is develop based SVN numbers. Finally, an illustrative example is presented in order to show the proposed model.

  5. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  6. Waste management system requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This volume defines the top level requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1 of the WMSR, General System Requirements. It provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MGDS in Volume 1 and elaborates on each requirement by providing associated performance criteria as appropriate. Volumes 1 and 4 of the WMSR provide a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MGDS design. This document sets forth specific requirements that must be fulfilled. It is not the intent or purpose of this top level document to describe how each requirement is to be satisfied in the final MGDS design. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy must provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements is to be implemented in the design. It is expected that each subsequent level of requirements will be significantly more detailed. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional description of the MGDS. Each function is addressed in terms of requirements, and performance criteria. Section 3 provides a list of controlling documents. Each document cited in a requirement of Chapter 2 is included in this list and is incorporated into this document as a requirement on the final system. The WMSR addresses only federal requirements (i.e., laws, regulations and DOE orders). State and local requirements are not addressed. However, it will be specifically noted at the potentially affected WMSR requirements that there could be additional or more stringent regulations imposed by a state or local requirements or administering agency over the cited federal requirements

  7. IRET: requirements for service platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Baresi, Luciano; Ripa, Gianluca; Pasquale, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper describes IRENE (Indenica Requirements ElicitatioN mEthod), a methodology to elicit and model the requirements of service platforms, and IRET (IREne Tool), the Eclipse-based modeling framework we developed for IRENE

  8. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  9. Waste Management System Requirement document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This volume defines the top level technical requirements for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1, General System Requirements. Volume 3 provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MRS facility in Volume 1 and, when appropriate, elaborates on requirements by providing associated performance criteria. Volumes 1 and 3 together convey a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MRS facility design without unduly constraining individual design efforts. The requirements are derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA), the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (40 CFR 191), NRC Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72), and other federal statutory and regulatory requirements, and major program policy decisions. This document sets forth specific requirements that will be fulfilled. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy will be significantly more detailed and provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements will be implemented in the design. Requirements appearing in Volume 3 are traceable into the MRS Design Requirements Document. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional breakdown for the MRS facility. 1 tab

  10. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....

  11. Anticipating requirements changes-using futurology in requirements elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, João Henrique; Santos, Emanuel; Castro, Jaelson; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that requirements changes in a later phase of software developments is a major source of software defects and costs. Thus, the need of techniques to control or reduce the amount of changes during software development projects. The authors advocate the use of foresight methods as a valuable input to requirements elicitation, with the potential to decrease the number of changes that would be required after deployment, by anticipating them. In this paper, the authors define a pr...

  12. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  13. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline

  14. UTM TCL2 Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Irene S.; Rios, Joseph L.; McGuirk, Patrick O.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 software implements the UTM TCL 2 software requirements described herein. These software requirements are linked to the higher level UTM TCL 2 System Requirements. Each successive TCL implements additional UTM functionality, enabling additional use cases. TCL 2 demonstrated how to enable expanded multiple operations by implementing automation for beyond visual line-of-sight, tracking operations, and operations flying over sparsely populated areas.

  15. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  16. Information requirements for enterprise systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Lock, Russell; Storer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an approach to system requirements engineering, which is based on using models of the responsibilities assigned to agents in a multi-agency system of systems. The responsibility models serve as a basis for identifying the stakeholders that should be considered in establishing the requirements and provide a basis for a structured approach, described here, for information requirements elicitation. We illustrate this approach using a case study drawn from civil emergenc...

  17. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  18. Addressing the Resource Requirements Mismatch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, William

    2003-01-01

    ... on the other, appear to be developing a requirements-resource mismatch. The goals and objectives of the transformation rhetoric intuitively resonate with the military's increasingly technologic culture...

  19. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  20. Nuclear energy and investment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeltzel, D.

    1978-01-01

    The author assesses the investment requirements of the French nuclear programme within the framework of the national economy. He then evokes the means of financing these requirements as well as drawing attention to certain constraints which must be taken into account [fr

  1. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man month study was undertaken to identify utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980s. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items that must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  2. Requirements Engineering for Pervasive Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolos, L.; Poulisse, Gert-Jan; van Eck, Pascal; Videira lopes, C.; Schaefer, S.; Clarke, S.; Elrad, T.; Jahnke, J.

    2005-01-01

    Developing pervasive mobile services for a mass market of end customers entails large up-front investments and therefore a good understanding of customer requirements is of paramount importance. This paper presents an approach for developing requirements engineering method that takes distinguishing

  3. Consensus standard requirements and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning

  4. Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment

  5. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  6. Security and trust requirements engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgini, P.; Massacci, F.; Zannone, N.; Aldini, A.; Gorrieri, R.; Martinelli, F.

    2005-01-01

    Integrating security concerns throughout the whole software development process is one of today’s challenges in software and requirements engineering research. A challenge that so far has proved difficult to meet. The major difficulty is that providing security does not only require to solve

  7. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text

  8. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaee, Hamid

    2002-08-20

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support. This paper introduces the methodology, which is fully described in [1].

  9. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  10. Development of transportation operations requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, S.T.; Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L.; Peterson, R.W.; Pope, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Transport conditions at various utility sties vary dramatically in terms of characteristics at and near the site, requirements, administrative procedures, and other factors. Continuation of design efforts for the OCRWM transportation operations system requires that the operating requirements for the transportation system -- quantity of fuel per unit time per site -- be identified so that the effect the variations have on the system can be accommodated. The approach outlined in this paper provides for an identification of specific sites, evaluation of shipment capabilities at each site, and integration of the sites into multi-site shipping campaigns to scope the logistics management problem for the transportation operations system. 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Signage Required Term and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recipient is required to place a sign at construction sites supported under this award displaying the EPA logo in a manner that informs the public that the project is funded in part or wholly by the EPA.

  12. LH2 airport requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the facilities and equipment which will be required at a representative airport is provided so liquid hydrogen LH2 can be used as fuel in long range transport aircraft in 1995-2000. A complete facility was conceptually designed, sized to meet the projected air traffic requirement. The facility includes the liquefaction plant, LH2, storage capability, and LH2 fuel handling system. The requirements for ground support and maintenance for the LH2 fueled aircraft were analyzed. An estimate was made of capital and operating costs which might be expected for the facility. Recommendations were made for design modifications to the reference aircraft, reflecting results of the analysis of airport fuel handling requirements, and for a program of additional technology development for air terminal related items.

  13. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  14. Guest Comment: Universal Language Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne

    1979-01-01

    Explains that reading English among Scientists is almost universal, however, there are enormous problems with spoken English. Advocates the use of Esperanto as a viable alternative, and as a language requirement for graduate work. (GA)

  15. Fusion technology status and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined

  16. Grant Closeout Requirements and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requirements and reports to comply with grant closeout, including Final Federal Financial Report (FFR, SF425); Final Research Performance Progress Report (FRPPR); Interim Research Performance Progress Report (IRPPR); Final Invention Statement (FIS, HHS

  17. Electrocardiogram Scanner-System Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been conducted to establish the feasibility for scanning and digitizing electrocardiogram records. The technical requirements and relative costs for two systems are discussed herein. One is designed to automat...

  18. PFP requirements development planning guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The PFP Requirements Development Planning Guide presents the strategy and process used for the identification, allocation, and maintenance of requirements within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) integrated project baseline. Future revisions to this document will be included as attachments (e.g., results of the PFP Requirements Analysis attributable to this approach). This document is intended be a Project-owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. Future updates may be made to this document by PFP management and final approval of the content will be accomplished in a Baseline Change Request as it impacts the Multi-Year Work Plan, or baseline information managed in the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Baseline

  19. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  20. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  1. Puberty menorrhagia Requiring Inpatient Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Khosla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Puberty menorrhagia is a significant health problem in adolescent age group and severe cases may require admission and blood transfusion. Aim of this study was to evaluate the causes, associated complications and management of puberty menorrhagia. METHODS: Hospital records of all patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring admission were analyzed for etiology, duration since menarche, duration of bleeding, investigation profile and management. RESULTS: There were 18 patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring hospital admission. Etiology was anovulatory bleeding in 11 patients, bleeding disorders in five which included idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura in three and one each with Von-Willebrand disease and leukemia. Two patients had hypothyroidism as the cause. Fourteen patients presented with severe anaemia and required blood transfusion. All except one responded to oral hormonal therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Puberty menorrhagia can be associated with severe complications and requiring blood transfusion. Although most common cause is anovulation but bleeding disorder, other medical condition and other organic causes must be ruled out in any patient of Puberty menorrhagia. KEYWORDS: anovulation, bleeding disorder, puberty, menorrhagia, anaemia.

  2. The JPL functional requirements tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Geoff; Skinner, Judith; Stoller, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are complex vehicles which are built according to many thousands of requirements. Problems encountered in documenting and maintaining these requirements led to the current attempt to reduce or eliminate these problems by a computer automated data base Functional Requirements Tool. The tool developed at JPL and in use on several JPL Projects is described. The organization and functionality of the Tool, together with an explanation of the data base inputs, their relationships, and use are presented. Methods of interfacing with external documents, representation of tables and figures, and methods of approval and change processing are discussed. The options available for disseminating information from the Tool are identified. The implementation of the Requirements Tool is outlined, and the operation is summarized. The conclusions drawn from this work is that the Requirements Tool represents a useful addition to the System Engineer's Tool kit, it is not currently available elsewhere, and a clear development path exists to expand the capabilities of the Tool to serve larger and more complex projects.

  3. Quality Assurance Requirements and Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram Murthy

    2002-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) is the principal Quality Assurance (QA) document for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (Program). It establishes the minimum requirements for the QA program [INTRODUCTION :1p2s (NOT A REQUIREMENT)]. The QARD contains regulatory requirements and program commitments necessary for the development of an effective QA program [INTRODUCTION :1p3s (NOT A REQUIREMENT)]. Implementing documents must be based on, and be consistent with the QARD. The QARD applies to the following: (1) Acceptance of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. (2) Transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. (3) Storage of spent nuclear fuel through receipt of storage cask certification or a facility operating license. (4) Monitored Geologic Repository, including the site characterization activities [Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and surface based testing], through receipt of an operating license. (5) High-level waste form development through qualification, production, and acceptance. (6) Characterization of DOE spent nuclear fuel, and conditioning through acceptance of DOE spent nuclear fuel. Section 2.0, Quality Assurance Program, defines in greater detail criteria for determining work subject to the QARD

  4. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  5. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  6. Non-functional Avionics Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitsch, Michael; Ruess, Harald; Sorea, Maria

    Embedded systems in aerospace become more and more integrated in order to reduce weight, volume/size, and power of hardware for more fuel-effi ciency. Such integration tendencies change architectural approaches of system ar chi tec tures, which subsequently change non-functional requirements for plat forms. This paper provides some insight into state-of-the-practice of non-func tional requirements for developing ultra-critical embedded systems in the aero space industry, including recent changes and trends. In particular, formal requi re ment capture and formal analysis of non-functional requirements of avionic systems - including hard-real time, fault-tolerance, reliability, and per for mance - are exemplified by means of recent developments in SAL and HiLiTE.

  7. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  8. Overview of SSC accelerator requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper will present a general overview of the requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) accelerators. Each accelerator in the injector chain will be discussed separately, followed by a discussion of the collider itself. In conclusion, the top level requirements of the overall accelerator system will be presented. For each accelerator, the primary operating parameters will be presented in tabular form. A brief narrative discussion of the principal technical features of each machine will be given. Finally, the principal technical design challenges for the machine will be noted, together with the currently planned solution to these challenges

  9. Containment leakage rate testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the status of several documents under revision or development that provide requirements and guidance for testing nuclear power plant containment systems for leakage rates. These documents include the general revision to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J; the regulatory guide affiliated with the revision to Appendix J; the national standard that the regulatory guide endorses, ANSI/ANS-56.8, 'Containment System Leakage Rate Testing Requirements'; and the draft industry Licensing Topical Report, 'Standardized Program for Primary Containment Integrity Testing'. The actual or potential relationships between these documents are also explored

  10. Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

    Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

  11. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deland, Sharon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  12. Requirements Engineering: Solutions and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, C.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C.

    2005-01-01

    This last chapter of the book describes solutions and trends in the discipline of RE. Starting from a wrap-up of what was presented throughout this book, it suggests a framework of requirements engineering and indicates what current solutions are available in this framework. Beyond providing a short

  13. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  14. An Introduction to Requirements Traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    This report surveys the requirements traceability literature and gives some recommendations for further research and for an approach to consultancy concerning traceability in the 2RARE project. The problem of maintaining traceability in a development project is viewed as the problem of maintaining

  15. 76 FR 39259 - Manual Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... established new requirements for the certification, operation, and maintenance of light-sport aircraft under...-6474; e-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA published a final rule entitled ``Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft,'' in the Federal...

  16. Requirements in Functional IT Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, F.A.; Blaauboer, F.A.

    Requirements engineering and functional IT management have never been researched as to containing similar activities. This paper describes and compares both disciplines, where the BiSL-framework is used for functional IT management. The similarities and differences between the two disciplines are

  17. Requirements management: A CSR's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joanie

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: customer service overview of network service request processing; Customer Service Representative (CSR) responsibility matrix; extract from a sample Memorandum of Understanding; Network Service Request Form and its instructions sample notification of receipt; and requirements management in the NASA Science Internet.

  18. Requirements for flexible learner monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Requirements for flexible learner monitoring. In T. Navarette, J. Blat & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop 'Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures' (pp. 89-96). June,

  19. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document

  20. Coke quality requirements in POSCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Yi, J.; Wang, H. [POSCO (Republic of Korea). Cokemaking Dept.

    2001-07-01

    The 26 overheads describes coke quality requirements in POSCO, Republic of Korea. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop new coal and to prompt technical development in order to produce high quality coke. To improve coke quality. Posco had applied DMAIC (define, measurement, analysis, improvement, control) technique which is part of Six-Sigma activity.

  1. Conversion of dependability deterministic requirements into probabilistic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgade, E.; Le, P.

    1993-02-01

    This report concerns the on-going survey conducted jointly by the DAM/CCE and NRE/SR branches on the inclusion of dependability requirements in control and instrumentation projects. Its purpose is to enable a customer (the prime contractor) to convert into probabilistic terms dependability deterministic requirements expressed in the form ''a maximum permissible number of failures, of maximum duration d in a period t''. The customer shall select a confidence level for each previously defined undesirable event, by assigning a maximum probability of occurrence. Using the formulae we propose for two repair policies - constant rate or constant time - these probabilized requirements can then be transformed into equivalent failure rates. It is shown that the same formula can be used for both policies, providing certain realistic assumptions are confirmed, and that for a constant time repair policy, the correct result can always be obtained. The equivalent failure rates thus determined can be included in the specifications supplied to the contractors, who will then be able to proceed to their previsional justification. (author), 8 refs., 3 annexes

  2. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female) in a compl...... to yacht types, and reviews the existing knowledge on physical requirements in modern Olympic sailing. Finally, recommendations for future research in sailing are given.......Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female......) in a complete national Olympic delegation. The yachts have different requirements with respect to handling, and moreover, each sailor plays a specific role when sailing. Therefore physical demands remain heterogeneous for Olympic sailors. Previous studies have mainly examined sailors where 'hiking' (the task...

  3. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have...... the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers...... and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression...

  4. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  5. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  7. Regulatory requirements for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.A.; Cunningham, R.E.; Hard, J.E.; Mattson, R.J.; Smith, R.D.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for radiation protection have evolved and matured over several decades. Due to the wide adoption of recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), there exists international agreement on the principles to be followed for radiation protection. This foundation will be increasingly important due to the growing need for international agreements and standards for radiation protection and radioactive materials management. During the infancy of the commercial nuclear industry, primary reliance was placed on the protection of the individual, both in the work force and as a member of the public. With the growth of nuclear power in the 1960's and 1970's, environmental impact assessments and expert reviews of bio-effects data have focused attention on statistical risks to large population groups and the use of the collective dose commitment concept to estimate potential effects. The potential release of long-lived radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle requires further consideration of radionuclide accumulation in the biosphere and calls for controls conceived and implemented at the international level. The initial development efforts for addressing these concerns already have been instituted by the ICRP and the IAEA. However, formal international agreements and a unified set of international standards may be required to implement the recommendations of these groups. Further international efforts in the field of radiation protection are also called for in developing waste management practices and radioactive effluent control technology, in site selection for fuel reprocessing plants and waste dispersal facilities, and for ensuring safe transport of high-level wastes in various forms. Since the regulation of very low dose rates and doses will be involved, it will be useful to reexamine dose-effect relationships and societal goals for health protection. Improved criteria and methodologies for ''as low as readily

  8. Water requirements of selected industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Mussey, Orville D.; Conklin, Howard L.; Durfor, Charles N.; Otts, Louis Ethelbert; Walling, Faulkner B.

    1955-01-01

    The early industries in America generally were established when and where demands for the products of industry arose. Most of the early industries were so located that their increasing requirements for transportation, raw materials, market, labor, and water supply could be satisfied economically. Many of these original plant locations have continued as modern industrial centers and their output has increased manyfold in meeting the demands of our growing Nation. The recent and current industrial expansion and the trend toward the growth of chemical industries, many Of which are heavy users of water, has resulted in a tremendous increase in the total withdrawal of water for industrial use as well as a large increase in the per capita use of water. This increase in industrial water requirement has strained the capacity of the developed water supplies in many areas, and in some instances the adequacy of the potential water supplies is questionable. The Geological Survey is engaged in preparing and publishing a series of reports describing the developed and undeveloped water resources of many important industrial areas. This work was started initially at the request of the National Securities Resources Board as a means to insure that water supplies are adequate for our rapidly expanding industrial development. Although many factors contribute to establishing the feasibility or even the limits of future industrial development, the one relating to available water supply is extremely important. A knowledge of the water requirements of various industries is valuable therefore in planning the logical development in any area where water supply is a critical factor. Thus far very little suitable information on the water requirements of our major industries is available for general planning. An inventory of unit water-use values in industry therefore would be generally helpful and also might tend to stimulate water-conservation methods. To obtain such information

  9. Accelerator requirments for strategic defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullickson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss how directed energy applications require accelerators with high brightness and large gradients to minimize size and weight for space systems. Several major directed energy applications are based upon accelerator technology. The radio-frequency linear accelerator is the basis for both space-based neutral particle beam (NPB) and free electron laser (FEL) devices. The high peak current of the induction linac has made it a leading candidate for ground based free electron laser applications

  10. Physical system requirements - Accept waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced new initiatives for the conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the OCRWM Director subsequently issued the Management Systems improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. The functional analysis approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. This approach recognizes that just as the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being. Thus, a comprehensive functional analysis effort has been undertaken which is intended to: Identify the functions that must be performed to fulfill the waste disposal mission; Identify the corresponding requirements imposed on each of the functions; and Identify the conceptual architecture that will be used to satisfy the requirements. The principal purpose of this requirements document is to present the results that were obtained from the conduct of a functional analysis effort for the Accept Waste mission

  11. Requirements for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, F.

    2009-01-01

    The EUR (European Utilities Requirements) is an organization founded in 1991 whose aim was to write down the European specifications and requirements for the future reactors of third generation. EUR gathers most of the nuclear power producers of Europe. The EUR document has been built on the large and varied experience of EUR members and can be used to elaborate invitations to tender for nuclear projects. 4000 requirements only for the nuclear part of the plant are listed, among which we have: -) the probability of core meltdown for a reactor must be less than 10 -6 per year, -) the service life of every component that is not replaceable must be 60 years, -) the capacity of the spent fuel pool must be sufficient to store 10-15 years of production without clearing out. The EUR document is both open and complete: every topic has been considered, it does not favor any type of reactor but can ban any technology that is too risky or has an unfavourable feedback experience. The assessment of the conformity with the EUR document of 7 reactor projects (BWR 90/, EPR, EP1000, SWR1000, ABWR, AP1000 and VVER-AES-92) has already be made. (A.C.)

  12. 2008 wind farm submission requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-01

    Wind turbines used to generate electricity can have important visual, environmental and amenity impacts depending on their location. Planning can contribute to the provision of renewable energy by enabling wind energy development in appropriate locations in a manner that appropriately balances their environmental, social and economic benefits with any demonstrated visual, environmental and amenity impacts. The County of Bruce, Ontario and member municipalities are attempting to balance these matters in favour of an overall net community benefit. Planning applications need to include sufficient information and explanation to allow the approval authorities to come to a sound and timely decision, in order to facilitate a viable wind energy industry. This document outlined the County of Bruce application requirements in order to assist in the design and siting of proposed wind energy facilities and in preparing planning applications. The County of Bruce official plan and policies for large wind energy conversion systems (LWECS) were presented. Submissions requirements include an environmental screening report; a federal environmental assessment clearance; a prime agricultural land justification report; a general project description; turbine specifications; noise evaluation; shadow flicker calculations; visual effect modelling; NAV Canada/Transport Canada clearance; grid connections and routing; project staging; overshadowing study; electromagnetic interference study; turbine foundation drawings; and an environmental management plan. Other requirements include lot level maps; project area maps; sensitive receptor table; shadow flicker; stage 2 archaeological study; type certification; statement of planning policy conformity; and a submission checklist. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 appendices.

  13. Misplaced Cervical Screws Requiring Reoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeremy C; Arnold, Paul M; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Fehlings, Michael G; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Nassr, Ahmad; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Mroz, Thomas E; Currier, Bradford L; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Fogelson, Jeremy L; Jobse, Bruce C; Massicotte, Eric M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter, retrospective case series. In the past several years, screw fixation of the cervical spine has become commonplace. For the most part, this is a safe, low-risk procedure. While rare, screw backout or misplaced screws can lead to morbidity and increased costs. We report our experiences with this uncommon complication. A multicenter, retrospective case series was undertaken at 23 institutions in the United States. Patients were included who underwent cervical spine surgery from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011, and had misplacement of screws requiring reoperation. Institutional review board approval was obtained at all participating institutions, and detailed records were sent to a central data center. A total of 12 903 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 11 instances of screw backout requiring reoperation, for an incidence of 0.085%. There were 7 posterior procedures. Importantly, there were no changes in the health-related quality-of-life metrics due to this complication. There were no new neurologic deficits; a patient most often presented with pain, and misplacement was diagnosed on plain X-ray or computed tomography scan. The most common location for screw backout was C6 (36%). This study represents the largest series to tabulate the incidence of misplacement of screws following cervical spine surgery, which led to revision procedures. The data suggest this is a rare event, despite the widespread use of cervical fixation. Patients suffering this complication can require revision, but do not usually suffer neurologic sequelae. These patients have increased cost of care. Meticulous technique and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are the best means of preventing this complication.

  14. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  15. Testing requirements for SCWR radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzonas, D.; Stuart, C.; Jay-Gerin, J.-P.; Meesungnoen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generation IV supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) designs under consideration would operate at ∼430-625 o C and 25 MPa, i.e., well beyond the thermodynamic critical point of water. Supercritical (light/heavy) water (SCW)-cooled reactors would enable thermodynamic cycle efficiencies as high as ∼44% (versus ∼33% for existing water reactors), thus generating lower-cost electricity. The purpose of this report is to survey the literature on SCW radiolysis, describe the recent modeling performed at the Universite de Sherbrooke, and to broadly outline the testing required to develop a benchmarked SCW radiolysis model. (author)

  16. The development of safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorel, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the safety approach followed in France for the design of nuclear reactors. This safety approach is based on safety principles from which stem safety requirements that set limiting values for specific parameters. The improvements in computerized simulation, the use of more adequate new materials, a better knowledge of the concerned physical processes, the changes in the reactor operations (higher discharge burnups for instance) have to be taken into account for the definition of safety criteria and the setting of limiting values. The developments of the safety criteria linked to the risks of cladding failure and loss of primary coolant are presented. (A.C.)

  17. Energy requirements of tire pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per M; Mamen, Asgeir

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the effect using walking poles and pulling tires at 4 and 6 km·h-1 (1.11 and 1.67 m·s-1) speeds on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and heart rate. Eleven subjects, 6 males, with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.9) years participated in field tests involving walking without poles, walking with poles and tire pulling with poles. Increasing the load caused the largest increases in energy demand, more than 4 MET. Speed increase also caused substantial energy increase, approximately 4 MET. Increasing the inclination only modestly increased the oxygen uptake, approximately 2 MET. In both level walking and uphill walking, using poles marginally increased oxygen uptake compared to working without poles. Pulling one tire (12.5 kg) required an oxygen uptake of 27 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1 at 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination. Adding one more tire (6 kg) drove the oxygen uptake further up to 39 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1. This is close to the requirement of level running at 10.5 km·h-1. Pulling both tires at 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination required a V̇O2 of 54 (6) mL·kg-1·min-1, equal to running uphill at 5% inclination and 12.5 km·h-1 speed. Heart rate rose comparably with oxygen uptake. At 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination the increase was 29 bpm, from 134 (21) to 163 (22) bpm when going from pulling one tire to two tires. In the hardest exercise, 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination, heart rate reached 174 (14) bpm. The study showed that tire pulling even at slow speeds has an energy requirement that is so large that the activity may be feasible as endurance training.

  18. Technology Requirements for Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Sara; Knoblock, Craig A.; Lannom, Larry

    2002-01-01

    This report provides the results of a panel study conducted into the technology requirements for information management in support of application domains of particular government interest, including digital libraries, mission operations, and scientific research. The panel concluded that it was desirable to have a coordinated program of R&D that pursues a science of information management focused on an environment typified by applications of government interest - highly distributed with very large amounts of data and a high degree of heterogeneity of sources, data, and users.

  19. Quality requirements for EHR archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Dipak; Tapuria, Archana; Austin, Tony; De Moor, Georges

    2012-01-01

    The realisation of semantic interoperability, in which any EHR data may be communicated between heterogeneous systems and fully understood by computers as well as people on receipt, is a challenging goal. Despite the use of standardised generic models for the EHR and standard terminology systems, too much optionality and variability exists in how particular clinical entries may be represented. Clinical archetypes provide a means of defining how generic models should be shaped and bound to terminology for specific kinds of clinical data. However, these will only contribute to semantic interoperability if libraries of archetypes can be built up consistently. This requires the establishment of design principles, editorial and governance policies, and further research to develop ways for archetype authors to structure clinical data and to use terminology consistently. Drawing on several years of work within communities of practice developing archetypes and implementing systems from them, this paper presents quality requirements for the development of archetypes. Clinical engagement on a wide scale is also needed to help grow libraries of good quality archetypes that can be certified. Vendor and eHealth programme engagement is needed to validate such archetypes and achieve safe, meaningful exchange of EHR data between systems.

  20. Tokamak and RFP ignition requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    A plasma model is applied to calculate numerically transport- confinement (nτ E ) requirements and steady-state operation tokamak. The CIT tokamak and RFP ignition conditions are examined. Physics differences between RFP and tokamaks, and their consequences for a DT ignition machine, are discussed. The ignition RFP, compared to a tokamak, has many physics advantages, including ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, low ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits), and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f RAD ∼ 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic fields, larger aspect ratios, and smaller plasma cross sections translate into significant cost reductions for both ignition and power reactor. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present confinement scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. The 4-MA ZTH was expected to extend the nτ E transport scaling data three order of magnitude above ZT-40M results, and if the present scaling held, to achieve a DT-equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q=1. A basecase RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Cyclin D-Cdk4 is regulated by GATA-1 and required for megakaryocyte growth and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Andrew G; Pang, Liyan; Poncz, Mortimer; Dowdy, Steven F; Blobel, Gerd A; Crispino, John D

    2007-06-15

    Endomitosis is a unique form of cell cycle used by megakaryocytes, in which the latter stages of mitosis are bypassed so that the cell can increase its DNA content and size. Although several transcription factors, including GATA-1 and RUNX-1, have been implicated in this process, the link between transcription factors and polyploidization remains undefined. Here we show that GATA-1-deficient megakaryocytes, which display reduced size and polyploidization, express nearly 10-fold less cyclin D1 and 10-fold increased levels of p16 compared with their wild-type counterparts. We further demonstrate that cyclin D1 is a direct GATA-1 target in megakaryocytes, but not erythroid cells. Restoration of cyclin D1 expression, when accompanied by ectopic overexpression of its partner Cdk4, resulted in a dramatic increase in megakaryocyte size and DNA content. However, terminal differentiation was not rescued. Of note, polyploidization was only modestly reduced in cyclin D1-deficient mice, likely due to compensation by elevated cyclin D3 expression. Finally, consistent with an additional defect conferred by increased levels of p16, inhibition of cyclin D-Cdk4 complexes with a TAT-p16 fusion peptide significantly blocked polyploidization of wild-type megakaryocytes. Together, these data show that GATA-1 controls growth and polyploidization by regulating cyclin D-Cdk4 kinase activity.

  2. Cyclin D–Cdk4 is regulated by GATA-1 and required for megakaryocyte growth and polyploidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Andrew G.; Pang, Liyan; Poncz, Mortimer; Dowdy, Steven F.; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2007-01-01

    Endomitosis is a unique form of cell cycle used by megakaryocytes, in which the latter stages of mitosis are bypassed so that the cell can increase its DNA content and size. Although several transcription factors, including GATA-1 and RUNX-1, have been implicated in this process, the link between transcription factors and polyploidization remains undefined. Here we show that GATA-1–deficient megakaryocytes, which display reduced size and polyploidization, express nearly 10-fold less cyclin D1 and 10-fold increased levels of p16 compared with their wild-type counterparts. We further demonstrate that cyclin D1 is a direct GATA-1 target in megakaryocytes, but not erythroid cells. Restoration of cyclin D1 expression, when accompanied by ectopic overexpression of its partner Cdk4, resulted in a dramatic increase in megakaryocyte size and DNA content. However, terminal differentiation was not rescued. Of note, polyploidization was only modestly reduced in cyclin D1–deficient mice, likely due to compensation by elevated cyclin D3 expression. Finally, consistent with an additional defect conferred by increased levels of p16, inhibition of cyclin D-Cdk4 complexes with a TAT-p16 fusion peptide significantly blocked polyploidization of wild-type megakaryocytes. Together, these data show that GATA-1 controls growth and polyploidization by regulating cyclin D-Cdk4 kinase activity. PMID:17317855

  3. Transcription factors: normal and malignant development of blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravid, Katya; Licht, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    ... and the Development of the Erythroid Lineage James J. Bieker 71 II TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND THE MYELOID LINEAGE 85 6 RUNX1(AML1) and CBFB: Genes Required for the Development of All Definitive Hematopoietic Lineages 87 Nancy A. Speck and Elaine Dzierzak 7 PU.1 and the Development of the Myeloid Lineage Daniel G. Tenen 103 vvi CONTENTS 8 CCAAT/Enhancer-...

  4. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  5. Requirements and Markets for Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    The semiconductor market grew 2010 by 70Bio. against 2009, more than in the previous 9 years taken together, and the semiconductor industry launched the biggest investment program in its history with 100Bio. over a 2-year period. This was the overture to a decade with great potential and great challenges. We look at the market segments and the required electronic functions, and we highlight four product and service areas: Approaching 6 Billion mobile-phone subscribers Access to education for any child One Carebot (personal robot) per family Efficient and safe personal mobility. At the level of over four billion active mobile phones 2010, it is clear that mobile electronic companions have become the drivers of nanoelectronic innovations with growth only limited by the creation and support of new, attractive features and services. Energy, bandwidth, size and weight requirements of these consumer products provide the largest pressure for System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. Other exemplary new products are selected for their significance, some for their lengthy path into the market. Health care is such an example: The non-invasive glucose sensor and the portable ECG recorder" with automatic, neuroprocessor-driven event detection in the size of a quarter would serve hundreds of millions of people. Nanoelectronics for self-guided health is an area of public policy in view of the cost of "a posteriori" medical care. Access to information and education for any child/student will be provided by 1 tablets where service contracts and the spin-offs from surfing and cloud-computing will generate the revenue. Personal robots, coined by the ageing Japanese nation as the key product after the PC and ridiculed by others, will arrive as carebots for education, entertainment, rehabilitation, and home-service, accepted as a large-scale need by 2020 in most developed countries including China. Accident prevention systems on rail and road already would make millions of units per year

  6. Requirements engineering for digital health

    CERN Document Server

    Thümmler, Christoph; Gavras, Anastasius

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare and well-being have captured the attention of established software companies, start-ups, and investors. Software is starting to play a central role for addressing the problems of the aging society and the escalating cost of healthcare services. Enablers of such digital health are a growing number of sensors for sensing the human body and communication infrastructure for remote meetings, data sharing, and messaging. The challenge that lies in front of us is how to effectively make use of these capabilities, for example to empower patients and to free the scarce resources of medical personnel. Requirements engineering is the process by which the capabilities of a software product are aligned with stakeholder needs and a shared understanding between the stakeholders and development team established. This book provides guide for what to look for and do when inquiring and specifying software that targets healthcare and well-being, helping readers avoid the pitfalls of the highly regulated and sensible h...

  7. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  8. Aligning seminars with Bologna requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep...... learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT); as a conceptual framework the authors suggest the SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) taxonomy and constructive alignment as suggested by Biggs and Tang. Our study presents results from the introduction of RPT in a large...... and students, suggest that RPT fosters deeper learning than does teacher-led instruction. Based on these findings, the authors also offer guidelines regarding how to implement RPT and how to overcome barriers....

  9. Reversed field pinch ignition requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma models are described and used to calculated numerically the transport confinement (nτ E ) requirements and steady state operation points for both the reversed field pinch (RFP) and the tokamak. The models are used to examine the CIT tokamak ignition conditions and the RFP experimental and ignition conditions. Physics differences between RFPs and tokamaks and their consequences for a D-T ignition machine are discussed. Compared with a tokamak, the ignition RFP has many physics advantages, including Ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, lower ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits) and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f RAD ∼ 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic field, larger aspect ratios and smaller plasma cross-sections, translate to significant cost reductions for both ignition and reactor applications. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. Devices that are under construction should go a long way toward resolving this scaling uncertainty. The 4 MA ZTH is expected to extend the nτ E transport scaling data by three orders of magnitude above the results of ZT-40M, and, if the present scaling holds, ZTH is expected to achieve a D-T equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q = 1. A base case RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Requirements for an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conant, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central issue facing the US today lies in the rise of oil imports. No supergiant (5 billion barrels) oil discoveries have been made in the US. Production from existing fields is declining. The 1985-86 oil price collapse from $26 to less than $15 per barrel had a disastrous effect on the budgets of smaller oil companies which do most of the exploring, and on the service industry. Budgets for overseas exploration has been generally sustained. Oil prices are not expected to sustain domestic exploration. Gulf oil sources will, in the next five years, supply some 75 percent of all oil in international trade. Without an energy policy, involvement in Middle East oil will grow exponentially, as will the needs of others for Gulf oil. The natural gas situation is different, with a spare producing capacity of one trillion cubic feet this year, which could double next year. Natural gas deregulation has created an unbelievable mess in the requirements of producers/suppliers and purchasers to have dependable business arrangements. Coal is plentiful and will be until the end of time. Public opposition to emission problems and the greenhouse effect are an obstacle to greater use of coal. The nuclear option may be dead, with no new orders since 1978. Statistics are provided on proven world reserves of conventional crude oil, recoverable heavy oils, tar sands, and shale oil; which indicates for the long term an ability to transform the Geopolitics of oil away from the middle east. Energy options require energy R ampersand D, use of Alaskan gas, conservation and efficiency in energy use, strategic reserves, close energy relations with allies, and a government-industry link which insures meeting the US oil needs from the Western Hemisphere

  11. Physical System Requirements: Transport Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for the conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Director subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. The functional analysis approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. This approach recognizes that just as the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being. The objective of this document is to establish the essential functions, requirements, interfaces, and system architecture for the Transport Waste mission. Based upon the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the mission of the Waste Transportation System is to transport SNF and/or HLW from the purchaser's/producer's facilities to, and between, NWMS facilities in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment makes effective use of financial and other resources, and to the fullest extent possible uses the private sector

  12. 7 CFR 4284.18 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grant Programs § 4284.18 Audit requirements. Grantees must comply with the audit requirements of 7 CFR part 3052. The audit requirements apply to the years in which grant funds are received and years in...

  13. Design requirement on HYPER blanket fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B. O.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Park, W. S.

    2000-07-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket assembly of the HYPER as design guidance. The blanket assembly of the HYPER consists of blanket fuel rods, mounting rail, spacer, upper nozzle with handling socket, bottom nozzle with mounting rail and skeleton structure. The blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with key way, blanket fuel slug, and cladding. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements for the blanket fuel assembly of the HYPER

  14. Rapid quality assurance with requirements smells

    OpenAIRE

    Femmer, Henning; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Eder, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Context: Bad requirements quality can cause expensive consequences during the software development lifecycle, especially if iterations are long and feedback comes late. Objectives: We aim at a light-weight static requirements analysis approach that allows for rapid checks immediately when requirements are written down. Method: We transfer the concept of code smells to Requirements Engineering as Requirements Smells. To evaluate the benefits and limitations, we define Requirements Smells, real...

  15. Specifying Functional Requirements Dependency in the REWiki

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Most of the individual requirements cannot be treated in isolation. Requirements may affect each other in various ways. The dependency between requirements impacts a number of software development aspects and activities. How to classify and specify requirements dependency remains a classic research topic. This research aims at providing an approach of specifying functional requirements dependency. In this thesis we generalize a classification of functional requirements dependency. We also pro...

  16. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  17. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  18. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training.

  19. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  20. Physical system requirements: Overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Direct subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. This approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. The functional analysis approach recognizes that just the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being

  1. Ageing management requirements in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, K.

    2007-01-01

    Since the adoption of the 1997 act of parliament concerning the abolishment of nuclear power in Sweden plant lives are no longer limited until 2010 as they were following the referendum in 1980. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has therefore in its most recent general regulations from 2004 introduced requirements for plants to develop ageing management programmes which should have been in place by the end of 2005. An ageing management programme for a nuclear power plant can be viewed as a high level coordinated programme consisting of several other programmes including maintenance and inspection programmes, and as such it should be an integrated part of the quality assurance system of the plant. The goals of the programme are to ensure that there is long term management of ageing and avoidance of the unexpected. For the Swedish regulator the safety aspects and not the economic aspects of ageing management are of primary importance. But there are clear advantages to utilities if large surprises which result in unplanned outages can be avoided. (author)

  2. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, D.R. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing and duration. These properties of light affect photosynthesis by providing the energy that drives carbon assimilation as well as by exerting control over physiology, structure and morphology of plants. Irradiance, expressed as energy flux, W m{sup -2}, or photon irradiance, {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, determines the rate at which energy is being delivered to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Spectral quality, the wavelength composition of light, is important because photons differ in their probability of being absorbed by the light harvesting complex and hence their ability to drive carbon assimilation. Also the various light receptors for light-mediated regulation of plant form and physiology have characteristic absorption spectra and hence photons differ in their effectiveness for eliciting responses. Duration is important because both carbon assimilation and regulation are affected by the total energy or integrated irradiance delivered during a given period. Many processes associated with photosynthesis are time-dependent, increasing or decreasing with duration. Timing is important because the effectiveness of light in the regulation of plant processes varies with the phase of the diumal cycle as determined by the plant`s time-measuring mechanisms.

  3. The penalty: function and requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Meini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legitimacy of criminal sanction is originated on its own purposes pursued in a state governed by the Rule of Law. That legitimacy should include the penalty as well as security measures, bearing in mind that both are imposed to someone breaking a rule of conduct, and therefore, someone capable to do it. Reviewing penal capacity or criminal liability concepts is required because if penal capacity means the capacity to understand the reality and adjust the behavior to it, and if every legitimate criminal sanction have to be imposed to someone who have the capacity of break it, then security measures also have to be imposed only to people responsible, capable to understand rules and act in accordance. With regard to people not subject to criminal liability they are standing outside Criminal Law and punish them would be illegitimate. In this line, criminal liability should be seen not only as a crime assumption but also as a basic statement for any dialogue the state shall have with the citizens: at the level of crime itself, proceedings and sentence execution .

  4. Space station propulsion requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  5. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  6. ILK statement about ATWS requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    A controversial debate is going on in Germany about the management of operating transients in case of the failure, additionally assumed, of the scram system (ATWS=Anticipated Transients without Scram). It was triggered by a recommendation by the German Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) in a statement of May 3, 2001 according to which the demonstration that ATWS events were under control was to deviate from requirements in the RSK Guidelines for pressurized water reactors of 1981 (last amended in 1996) and not to take credit of the effects of one-off measures initiated actively, especially shutdown of the main coolant pumps. ILK therefore expresses its opinion in this Statement about the criteria to be met in demonstrations that ATWS is under control in pressurized water reactors. Also in boiling water reactors, studies of ATWS transients are part of the licensing procedure. However, the assumptions to be made there in demonstrating effective pressure limitation have been unchanged and uncontested long since. ILK included in its considerations especially also practices in the United States, France and Finland. In doing so, the Committee found the basic approach in dealing with ATWS to be the same in Germany, the United States and in France, namely to show that the consequences remain tolerable without the application of aggravating postulates. ILK feels that the approach so far employed in demonstrating safety in ATWS events results in balanced risk mitigation. The initiating event already has a very low probability of occurrence. Reliable measures are in place to manage it. (orig.)

  7. 40 CFR 141.70 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.70 General requirements. (a... regulations establish criteria under which filtration is required as a treatment technique for public water... filtration requirements in § 141.73 and the disinfection requirements in § 141.72(b). (c) Each public water...

  8. 46 CFR 11.707 - Examination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination requirements. 11.707 Section 11.707 Shipping... OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Pilots § 11.707 Examination requirements. (a) An... required to pass the examination described in subpart I of this part. (b) An applicant for an extension of...

  9. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the inventory of the registered location to which they are subject to control or to which the person... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11... REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each inventory...

  10. Meeting Quay 2k30's requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnants, G.H.; Toorn, A. van der; Schuylenburg, M.; Heijnen, H.P.J.; Gijt, J.G. de; Molenaar, W.F.; Ligteringen, H.; Krom, A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The requirements that a quay design should meet in order to yield a viable port infrastructure, vary widely from flexibility due to future customers requirements to durability due to owners requirements. In a Port of Rotterdam backed project, current and future requirements have been aggregated by

  11. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151 must...

  12. Specifying semantic information on functional requirements

    OpenAIRE

    YAO, WUPING

    2012-01-01

    Requirements engineering is a challenging process in software development projects. Requirements, in general, are documented in natural language. They often have issues related to ambiguity, completeness and consistency. How to improve the quality of requirements documentation remains a classic research topic. This research aims at improving the way of editing and documenting functional requirements. We propose a meta-model to specify the semantic information of functional requirements, and d...

  13. 24 CFR 266.105 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.105 Application requirements. (a) Applications for approval as a HUD...

  14. 24 CFR 266.110 - Reserve requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.110 Reserve requirements. (a) HFAs with top-tier designation or overall...

  15. Ecological flow requirements for South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This document contains the proceedings of a workshop which was convened to debate the ecological flow requirements of South African rivers. Topics which are discussed include the influence of weirs and impoundments, the quantity requirements...

  16. 38 CFR 39.10 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-10) Grant Requirements and Procedures § 39.10 Application requirements. (a) For a project to be..., etc., (10) Economic activities, (11) Cultural resources, (12) Aesthetics, (13) Residential population...

  17. I-15 integrated corridor management : system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This document is intended as a listing and discussion of the Requirements for the I-15 Integrated Corridor Management System : (ICMS) Demonstration Project in San Diego. This document describes what the system is to do (the functional requirements), ...

  18. Requirements Elicitation Problems: A Literature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Davey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Requirements elicitation is the process through which analysts determine the software requirements of stakeholders. Requirements elicitation is seldom well done, and an inaccurate or incomplete understanding of user requirements has led to the downfall of many software projects. This paper proposes a classification of problem types that occur in requirements elicitation. The classification has been derived from a literature analysis. Papers reporting on techniques for improving requirements elicitation practice were examined for the problem the technique was designed to address. In each classification the most recent or prominent techniques for ameliorating the problems are presented. The classification allows the requirements engineer to be sensitive to problems as they arise and the educator to structure delivery of requirements elicitation training.

  19. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Nicoline; Ringholm, Lene; Stage, Edna

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy.......To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy....

  20. Requirements Engineering for Software Integrity and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Requirements flaws are the most common cause of errors and software-related accidents in operational software. Most aerospace firms list requirements as one of their most important outstanding software development problems and all of the recent, NASA spacecraft losses related to software (including the highly publicized Mars Program failures) can be traced to requirements flaws. In light of these facts, it is surprising that relatively little research is devoted to requirements in contrast with other software engineering topics. The research proposed built on our previous work. including both criteria for determining whether a requirements specification is acceptably complete and a new approach to structuring system specifications called Intent Specifications. This grant was to fund basic research on how these ideas could be extended to leverage innovative approaches to the problems of (1) reducing the impact of changing requirements, (2) finding requirements specification flaws early through formal and informal analysis, and (3) avoiding common flaws entirely through appropriate requirements specification language design.

  1. 8 CFR 1216.2 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... second time of the requirement that the alien and the petitioning spouse or alien entrepreneur must file... does not relieve the alien and the petitioning spouse, or alien entrepreneur of the requirement to file...

  2. Conversion of adult endothelium to immunocompetent haematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Raphael; Karrasch, Charles C; Poulos, Michael G; Kunar, Balvir; Redmond, David; Duran, Jose G Barcia; Badwe, Chaitanya R; Schachterle, William; Ginsberg, Michael; Xiang, Jenny; Tabrizi, Arash Rafii; Shido, Koji; Rosenwaks, Zev; Elemento, Olivier; Speck, Nancy A; Butler, Jason M; Scandura, Joseph M; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-05-25

    Developmental pathways that orchestrate the fleeting transition of endothelial cells into haematopoietic stem cells remain undefined. Here we demonstrate a tractable approach for fully reprogramming adult mouse endothelial cells to haematopoietic stem cells (rEC-HSCs) through transient expression of the transcription-factor-encoding genes Fosb, Gfi1, Runx1, and Spi1 (collectively denoted hereafter as FGRS) and vascular-niche-derived angiocrine factors. The induction phase (days 0-8) of conversion is initiated by expression of FGRS in mature endothelial cells, which results in endogenous Runx1 expression. During the specification phase (days 8-20), RUNX1 + FGRS-transduced endothelial cells commit to a haematopoietic fate, yielding rEC-HSCs that no longer require FGRS expression. The vascular niche drives a robust self-renewal and expansion phase of rEC-HSCs (days 20-28). rEC-HSCs have a transcriptome and long-term self-renewal capacity similar to those of adult haematopoietic stem cells, and can be used for clonal engraftment and serial primary and secondary multi-lineage reconstitution, including antigen-dependent adaptive immune function. Inhibition of TGFβ and CXCR7 or activation of BMP and CXCR4 signalling enhanced generation of rEC-HSCs. Pluripotency-independent conversion of endothelial cells into autologous authentic engraftable haematopoietic stem cells could aid treatment of haematological disorders.

  3. Rapid quality assurance with Requirements Smells

    OpenAIRE

    Femmer, H.; Fernández, D. Méndez; Wagner, S.; Eder, S.

    2016-01-01

    Bad requirements quality can cause expensive consequences during the software development lifecycle, especially if iterations are long and feedback comes late. %-- the faster a problem is found, the cheaper it is to fix. This makes explicit the need of a lightweight detection mechanism of requirements quality violations. We aim at a light-weight static requirements analysis approach that allows for rapid checks immediately when requirements are written down. We transfer the concept of code sm...

  4. Airspace Operations Demo Functional Requirements Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Flight IPT assessed the reasonableness of demonstrating each of the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements. The functional requirements listed in this matrix are from the September 2005 release of the Access 5 Functional Requirements Document. The demonstration mission considered was a notional Western US mission (WUS). The conclusion of the assessment is that 90% of the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be demonstrated using the notional Western US mission.

  5. A Design Theory for Requirements Mining Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meth, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Software requirements are often communicated in unstructured text documents, which need to be analyzed in order to identify and classify individual needs. This process is referred to as requirements mining in the context of this thesis. It is known to be time-consuming and error-prone when performed manually by a requirements engineer. Thus, there is a demand to support requirements mining through information technology. However, little research has been conducted to conceptualize theoretical...

  6. Dosimeter characteristics and service performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Bartlett, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    The requirements for personal dosimeters and dosimetry services given by ICRP 26, ICRP 35, ICRP 60 and ICRP 75 are summarised and compared with the requirements given in relevant international standards. Most standards could be made more relevant to actual workplace conditions. In some standards, the required tests of energy and angular dependence of the response are not sufficient, or requirements on overall uncertainty are lacking. (author)

  7. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  8. 28 CFR 80.12 - Accounting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting requirements. 80.12 Section 80... PROCEDURE § 80.12 Accounting requirements. Neither the submission of a request for an FCPA Opinion, its... comply with the accounting requirements of 15 U.S.C. 78m(b)(2) and (3). ...

  9. Capturing security requirements for software systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadary, Hassan; El-Kassas, Sherif

    2014-07-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way.

  10. 27 CFR 7.28 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statements of alcoholic content, all mandatory information required on labels by this part shall be in script.... Except for statements of alcoholic content, all mandatory information required on labels by this part... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Labeling Requirements for Malt...

  11. 29 CFR 96.12 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) The audit requirements contained in 29 CFR part 99 shall be followed for audits of all fiscal... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audit requirements. 96.12 Section 96.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audits of States, Local...

  12. 7 CFR 1948.96 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program § 1948.96 Audit requirements. (a) Audit requirements for Site Development and Acquisition Grants will be made in accordance with FmHA Instruction 1942-G. (b) Audits for planning grants made in... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Audit requirements. 1948.96 Section 1948.96...

  13. Organizing Performance Requirements For Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow, Harvey L.; Croopnick, Steven R.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes methodology for establishing performance requirements for complicated dynamical systems. Uses top-down approach. In series of steps, makes connections between high-level mission requirements and lower-level functional performance requirements. Provides systematic delineation of elements accommodating design compromises.

  14. Capturing security requirements for software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Hadary

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way.

  15. 49 CFR 7.4 - Publication required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication required. 7.4 Section 7.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Information Required To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.4 Publication required. (a) General. The material described in § 7.3...

  16. 20 CFR 302.6 - Publication requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication requirements. 302.6 Section 302.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED EMPLOYEE § 302.6 Publication requirements. (a) Publication of base year compensation requirement...

  17. 29 CFR 1620.32 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.32 Recordkeeping requirements. (a) Employers having employees subject to the Act are required to keep records in... subject to the equal pay provisions of the Act shall maintain and preserve all records required by the...

  18. Gamified Requirements Engineering: Model and Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombriser, Philipp; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Lucassen, Garm; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    2016-01-01

    [Context & Motivation] Engaging stakeholders in requirements engineering (RE) influences the quality of the requirements and ultimately of the system to-be. Unfortunately, stakeholder engagement is often insufficient, leading to too few, low-quality requirements. [Question/problem] We aim to

  19. Understand the Design Requirement in Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    requirements can lead to inappropriate products (Hall, et al., 2002). Understanding the nature of design requirements and the sources, from where they can or should be generated, is critical to before developing methods and processes to support this process. Requirement Engineering research, originated from...

  20. A Metamodeling Approach for Reasoning about Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göknil, Arda; Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas; Schieferdecker, I.; Hartman, A.

    In requirements engineering, there are several approaches for requirements modeling such as goal-oriented, aspect-driven, and system requirements modeling. In practice, companies often customize a given approach to their specific needs. Thus, we seek a solution that allows customization in a

  1. 48 CFR 1430.202 - Disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure requirements. 1430.202 Section 1430.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 1430.202 Disclosure...

  2. 48 CFR 430.202 - Disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure requirements. 430.202 Section 430.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 430.202 Disclosure...

  3. 48 CFR 30.202 - Disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure requirements. 30.202 Section 30.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.202 Disclosure...

  4. 48 CFR 9903.202 - Disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.202 Disclosure requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure requirements. 9903.202 Section 9903.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...

  5. 48 CFR 1330.202 - Disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure requirements. 1330.202 Section 1330.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 1330.202 Disclosure...

  6. 40 CFR 141.80 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... service line replacement, and public education. These requirements are triggered, in some cases, by lead... requirements. (1) All water systems shall install and operate optimal corrosion control treatment as defined in... specified by the State under § 141.83. (f) Lead service line replacement requirements. Any system exceeding...

  7. 7 CFR 718.9 - Signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Signature requirements. 718.9 Section 718.9... MULTIPLE PROGRAMS General Provisions § 718.9 Signature requirements. (a) When a program authorized by this chapter or Chapter XIV of this title requires the signature of a producer; landowner; landlord; or tenant...

  8. 42 CFR 424.36 - Signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signature requirements. 424.36 Section 424.36... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT Claims for Payment § 424.36 Signature requirements. (a) General rule. The beneficiary's own signature is required on the claim unless the beneficiary...

  9. 40 CFR 63.347 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Chromium Emissions From Hard and Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks... required each time that an affected source becomes subject to the requirements of this subpart. (2) If the... time a notification of compliance status is required under this part, the owner or operator of an...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1081 Functional requirements. Ships, while at sea, must be capable: (a) Except...

  11. 22 CFR 126.13 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required information. 126.13 Section 126.13... PROVISIONS § 126.13 Required information. (a) All applications for licenses (DSP-5, DSP-61, DSP-73, and DSP... are multiple consignors, consignees or freight forwarders, and all the required information cannot be...

  12. 76 FR 50881 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... required scale tests. Those documents defined ``limited seasonal basis'' incorrectly. This document... 20, 2011 (76 FR 3485) and on April 4, 2011 (76 FR 18348), concerning required scale tests. Those...

  13. School Library Media Certification Requirements: 1990 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perritt, Patsy H.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a compilation of school library media certification requirements taken from responses to a national survey. For each state, existing certificates or endorsements are listed, along with credit hours and/or experience required, whether it is an accredited or approved program, and required subject areas or competencies. A directory of…

  14. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  15. 42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of the...

  16. 7 CFR 1942.117 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1942.117 General requirements. (a) Reserve requirements. Loans under this subpart are subject to the... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true General requirements. 1942.117 Section 1942.117 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...

  17. Capturing security requirements for software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadary, Hassan; El-Kassas, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way. PMID:25685514

  18. 49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... importance of proper visual search, and proper visual search methods. (6) Communication. The principles and procedures for proper communications and the hazards of failure to signal properly. (7) Speed management. The... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge. All...

  19. From document to database: modernizing requirements management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giajnorio, J.; Hamilton, S.

    2007-01-01

    The creation, communication, and management of design requirements are central to the successful completion of any large engineering project, both technically and commercially. Design requirements in the Canadian nuclear industry are typically numbered lists in multiple documents created using word processing software. As an alternative, GE Nuclear Products implemented a central requirements management database for a major project at Bruce Power. The database configured the off-the-shelf software product, Telelogic Doors, to GE's requirements structure. This paper describes the advantages realized by this scheme. Examples include traceability from customer requirements through to test procedures, concurrent engineering, and automated change history. (author)

  20. Fiscal year 1999 waste information requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Information Requirements Document (WIRD) has the following purposes: To describe the overall drivers that require characterization information and to document their source; To define how characterization is going to satisfy the drivers, close issues, and measure and report progress; and To describe deliverables and acceptance criteria for characterization. Characterization information is required to maintain regulatory compliance, perform operations and maintenance, resolve safety issues, and prepare for disposal of waste. Commitments addressing these requirements are derived from the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement; the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996a) to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB); and other requirement sources listed in Section 2.0. The Waste Information Requirements Document replaces the tank waste analysis plans and the tank characterization plan previously required by the Tri-Party Agreement, Milestone M-44-01 and M-44-02 series

  1. Requirements management at Westinghouse Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Field studies and surveys made in various industry branches support the Westinghouse opinion that qualitative systems engineering and requirements management have a high value in the development of complex systems and products. Two key issues causing overspending and schedule delays in projects are underestimation of complexity and misunderstandings between the different sub-project teams. These issues often arise when a project jumps too early into detail design. Good requirements management practice before detail design helps the project teams avoid such issues. Westinghouse therefore puts great effort into requirements management. The requirements management methodology at Westinghouse rests primarily on four key cornerstones: 1 - Iterative team work when developing requirements specifications, 2 - Id number tags on requirements, 3 - Robust change routine, and 4 - Requirements Traceability Matrix. (authors)

  2. TRACER - TRACING AND CONTROL OF ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is a database/word processing system created to document and maintain the order of both requirements and descriptive material associated with an engineering project. A set of hierarchical documents are normally generated for a project whereby the requirements of the higher level documents levy requirements on the same level or lower level documents. Traditionally, the requirements are handled almost entirely by manual paper methods. The problem with a typical paper system, however, is that requirements written and changed continuously in different areas lead to misunderstandings and noncompliance. The purpose of TRACER is to automate the capture, tracing, reviewing, and managing of requirements for an engineering project. The engineering project still requires communications, negotiations, interactions, and iterations among people and organizations, but TRACER promotes succinct and precise identification and treatment of real requirements separate from the descriptive prose in a document. TRACER permits the documentation of an engineering project's requirements and progress in a logical, controllable, traceable manner. TRACER's attributes include the presentation of current requirements and status from any linked computer terminal and the ability to differentiate headers and descriptive material from the requirements. Related requirements can be linked and traced. The program also enables portions of documents to be printed, individual approval and release of requirements, and the tracing of requirements down into the equipment specification. Requirement "links" can be made "pending" and invisible to others until the pending link is made "binding". Individuals affected by linked requirements can be notified of significant changes with acknowledgement of the changes required. An unlimited number of documents can be created for a project and an ASCII import feature permits existing documents to be incorporated

  3. EPR compared to international requirements (Mainly EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, B.

    1996-01-01

    A number of European Utilities have entered an agreement to write common requirements dedicated to future light water nuclear power plants to be built in Europe. The activities are known under the sign EUR (European Utilities Requirements). EPR, the future European Pressurized water Reactor, is the first installation of this type which will be operational from the year 2000 onwards, must fulfill the European requirements. EPR will serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic and well balanced. At the basic design stage of EPR, this paper concentrates on four main topics: the requirements which are new compared with existing reactors and which put a major challenge to the designer; the requirements today still open and the way they can be met by the EPR or not; the points for which already today the EPR special requirements exceed the EUR; the examples where the design of the EPR has given feedback which has led to a change of the EUR. EPR and EUR are different approaches to the reactor of the future. EUR is a set of requirements which leaves a flexibility to the designer while EPR is a real project which defines the technical solutions. EPR will fulfill the EUR and will at the same time serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic. EPR will also fulfill international requirements with minor changes. (J.S.). 7 figs

  4. 77 FR 6704 - Exemptions From Entry Requirements and Report of Arrival Requirements for Certain Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... requirements and thus also subject to advanced electronic presentation of cargo information requirements. Under..., Aircraft, Airports, Alcohol and alcoholic beverages, Cigars and cigarettes, Cuba, Customs duties and...

  5. Management system requirements for small reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.A., E-mail: kenneth.jones@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This abstract identifies the management system requirements for the life cycle of small reactors from initial conception through completion of decommissioning. For small reactors, the requirements for management systems remain the same as those for 'large' reactors regardless of the licensee' business model and objectives. The CSA N-Series of standards provides an interlinked set of requirements for the management of nuclear facilities. CSA N286 provides overall direction to management to develop and implement sound management practices and controls, while other CSA nuclear standards provide technical requirements and guidance that support the management system. CSA N286 is based on a set of principles. The principles are then supported by generic requirements that are applicable to the life cycle of nuclear facilities. CNSC regulatory documents provide further technical requirements and guidance. (author)

  6. Requirements Analysis in the Value Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, Alison Marie

    2001-05-01

    The Value Methodology (VM) study brings together a multidisciplinary team of people who own the problem and have the expertise to identify and solve it. With the varied backgrounds and experiences the team brings to the study, come different perspectives on the problem and the requirements of the project. A requirements analysis step can be added to the Information and Function Analysis Phases of a VM study to validate whether the functions being performed are required, either regulatory or customer prescribed. This paper will provide insight to the level of rigor applied to a requirements analysis step and give some examples of tools and techniques utilized to ease the management of the requirements and functions those requirements support for highly complex problems.

  7. Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to all types of radioactive waste disposal facility. It is linked to the fundamental safety principles for each disposal option and establishes a set of strategic requirements that must be in place before facilities are developed. Consideration is also given to the safety of existing facilities developed prior to the establishment of present day standards. The requirements will be complemented by Safety Guides that will provide guidance on good practice for meeting the requirements for different types of waste disposal facility. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Safety requirements for planning for the disposal of radioactive waste; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of a disposal facility; 5. Assurance of safety; 6. Existing disposal facilities; Appendices.

  8. Waste Acceptance System Requirements document (WASRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Waste Acceptance System Requirements document (WA-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and the technical requirements for a Waste Acceptance System for accepting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This revision of the WA-SRD addresses the requirements for the acceptance of HLW. This revision has been developed as a top priority document to permit DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to commence waste qualification runs at the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in a timely manner. Additionally, this revision of the WA-SRD includes the requirements from the Physical System Requirements -- Accept Waste document for the acceptance of SNF. A subsequent revision will fully address requirements relative to the acceptance of SNF

  9. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The development and control of the MGDS-RD is quality-affecting work and is subject to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Quality Assurance Requirements Document (QARD). As part of the technical requirements baseline, it is also subject to Baseline Management Plan controls. The MGDS-RD and the other program-level requirements documents have been prepared and managed in accordance with the Technical Document Preparation Plan (TDPP) for the Preparation of System Requirements Documents

  10. Legal requirements governing proxy voting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The requirements in Danish company law concerning proxy voting in companies whose shares have been accepted for listing on a regulated market have been successively tightened in recent years, and corporate governance principles have also led to the introduction of several requirements concerning...... proxy holders. A thorough knowledge of these requirements is important not only for the listed companies but also for their advisers and investors in Denmark and abroad. This article considers these requirements as well as the additional requirements which will derive from Directive 2007....../36 on the exercise of shareholders' rights in listed companies, which must be implemented by 3 August 2009. It is pointed out that companies may provide with advantage in their articles of association for both the existing and the forthcoming requirements at this early stage....

  11. A Requirement Specification Language for AADL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    models. The objective of ReqSpec is to support the elicitation , definition, and modeling of requirements for real-time embedded systems in an iterative...A Requirement Specification Language for AADL Peter H. Feiler Julien Delange Lutz Wrage June 2016 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2016-TR-008...is required for any other external and/or commercial use. Requests for permission should be directed to the Software En- gineering Institute at

  12. Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This document specifies the top-level requirements for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The document is referred to herein as the CRD, for CRWMS Requirements document. The OCRWM System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) establishes the technical document hierarchy (hierarchy of technical requirements and configuration baseline documents) for the CRWMS program. The CRD is the top-level document in this hierarchy. The immediate subordinate documents are the System Requirements Documents (SRDS) for the four elements of the CRWMS and the Interface Specification (IFS). The four elements of the CRWMS are the Waste Acceptance System, the Transportation System, the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) System and the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). The Interface Specification describes the six inter-element interfaces between the four elements. This hierarchy establishes the requirements to be addressed by the design of the system elements. Many of the technical requirements for the CRWMS are documented in a variety of Federal regulations, DOE directives and other Government documentation. It is the purpose of the CRD to establish the technical requirements for the entire program. In doing so, the CRD summarizes source documentation for requirements that must be addressed by the program, specifies particular requirements, and documents derived requirements that are not covered in regulatory and other Government documentation, but are necessary to accomplish the mission of the CRWMS. The CRD defines the CRWMS by identifying the top-level functions the elements must perform (These top-level functions were derived using functional analysis initially documented in the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents). The CRD also defines the top-level physical architecture of the system and allocates the functions and requirements to the architectural elements of the system

  13. Training Requirements and Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cillan, T.F.; Hodgson, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    This is the software user's guide for the Training Requirements and Information Management System. This guide defines and describes the software operating procedures as they apply to the end user of the software program. This guide is intended as a reference tool for the user who already has an indepth knowledge of the Training Requirements and Information Management System functions and data reporting requirement.

  14. Required reserves as a credit policy tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mimir, Yasin; Sunel, Enes; Taskin, Temel

    2012-01-01

    This paper conducts a quantitative investigation of the role of reserve requirements as a macroprudential policy tool. We build a monetary DSGE model with a banking sector in which (i) an agency problem between households and banks leads to endogenous capital constraints for banks in obtaining funds from households, (ii) banks are subject to time-varying reserve requirements that countercyclically respond to expected credit growth, (iii) households face cash-in-advance constraints, requiring ...

  15. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This Standard identifies safety requirements for magnetic fusion facilities. Safety functions are used to define outcomes that must be achieved to ensure that exposures to radiation, hazardous materials, or other hazards are maintained within acceptable limits. Requirements applicable to magnetic fusion facilities have been derived from Federal law, policy, and other documents. In addition to specific safety requirements, broad direction is given in the form of safety principles that are to be implemented and within which safety can be achieved

  16. Energy requirements for racing endurance sled dogs*

    OpenAIRE

    Loftus, John P.; Yazwinski, Molly; Milizio, Justin G.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sled dogs have unique dietary energy requirements. At present, there is disparity in the literature regarding energy expenditure and thus energy requirements of these dogs. We sought to further elucidate energy requirements for endurance sled dogs under field conditions. Three sled dog teams completing the 2011 Yukon Quest volunteered to provide diet history. Nutritional content was evaluated and a mock meal was analysed for each team. Race data were obtained from www.yukonquest.com...

  17. Identify and Manage the Software Requirements Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Khloud Abd Elwahab; Mahmoud Abd EL Latif; Sherif Kholeif

    2016-01-01

    Management of software requirements volatility through development of life cycle is a very important stage. It helps the team to control significant impact all over the project (cost, time and effort), and also it keeps the project on track, to finally satisfy the user which is the main success criteria for the software project. In this research paper, we have analysed the root causes of requirements volatility through a proposed framework presenting the requirements volatility causes and how...

  18. Design requirements for the new reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, S.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation deals with the safety related design requirements specified for the new nuclear power plant to be built in Finland (FINS). The legislation, codes and standards, on which the design requirements are based, can be arranged into a hierarchical pyramid as follows: The safety related design criteria are based on the three uppermost hierarchical levels: Finnish legislation (e.g. decisions of the State Council) Basic Regulations (75-INSAG-3, USNRC General Design Criteria) Process oriented nuclear documents (YVL- guides or corresponding US/German rules). The European Utility Requirements (EUR) document was used as the starting point for the writing of the design requirements document. The structure and headlines of EUR could be kept, but in many cases the contents had to be deleted and rewritten to correspond to the requirement level of the above codes and standards. This was the case, for example, with the requirements concerning safety classification or application of failure criteria. In the presentation, the most important safety related design criteria are reviewed, with an emphasis on those requirements which exceed the requirement level applied on the existing plant units. Some hints are also given on the main differences between Finnish and international safety requirements. (orig.)

  19. Responsibilities in the Usability Requirements Elicitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianella Aveledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any other software system quality attribute, usability places requirements on software components. In particular, it has been demonstrated that certain usability features have a direct impact throughout the software process. This paper details an approach that looks at how to deal with certain usability features in the early software development stages. In particular, we consider usability features as functional usability requirements using patterns that have been termed usability patterns to elicit requirements. Additionally, we clearly establish the responsibilities of all the players at the usability requirements elicitation stage.

  20. Daily Water Requirements when Wearing Body Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, Scott

    2000-01-01

    .... This report presents the results of model simulations predicting the individual daily water requirements under a broad range of energy expenditures and weather conditions when wearing battle dress...

  1. Safety of Research Reactors. Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to provide a basis for safety and a basis for safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Another objective is to establish requirements on aspects relating to regulatory control, the management of safety, site evaluation, design, operation and decommissioning. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives. This Safety Requirements publication is intended for use by organizations engaged in the site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, operation and decommissioning of research reactors as well as by regulatory bodies

  2. A Requirements Analysis Model Based on QFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi-wei; Nelson K.H.Tang

    2004-01-01

    The enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has emerged to offer an integrated IT solution and more and more enterprises are increasing by adopting this system and regarding it as an important innovation. However, there is already evidence of high failure risks in ERP project implementation, one major reason is poor analysis of the requirements for system implementation. In this paper, the importance of requirements analysis for ERP project implementation is highlighted, and a requirements analysis model by applying quality function deployment (QFD) is presented, which will support to conduct requirements analysis for ERP project.

  3. Hydrogen tomorrow: Demands and technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    National needs for hydrogen are projected and the technologies of production, handling, and utilization are evaluated. Research and technology activities required to meet the projected needs are determined.

  4. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 564.3 Section 564.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...

  5. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., Standards and Requirements Identification Document (SRID) Requirements Management System and Requirements Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The current Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP), River Protection Project (RPP), CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), will use a computer based requirements management system. The system will serve as a tool to assist in identifying, capturing, and maintaining the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) requirements and links to implementing procedures and other documents. By managing requirements as one integrated set, CHG will be able to carry out its mission more efficiently and effectively. CHG has chosen the Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS(trademark)) as the preferred computer based requirements management system. Accordingly, the S/RID program will use DOORS(trademark). DOORS(trademark) will replace the Environmental Requirements Management Interface (ERMI) system as the tool for S/RID data management. The DOORS(trademark) S/RID test project currently resides on the DOORSTM test server. The S/RID project will be migrated to the DOORS(trademark) production server. After the migration the S/RID project will be considered a production project and will no longer reside on the test server

  6. 40 CFR 61.186 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.186 Reporting requirements... at least 30 days prior notice of each reference opacity level determination required in § 61.183(a...

  7. 7 CFR 926.17 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal cranberry marketing order (7 CFR Part 926) shall be required to submit four times annually, for... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.17...

  8. 13 CFR 120.860 - Required objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required objectives. 120.860 Section 120.860 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.860 Required objectives. A Project...

  9. 49 CFR 229.206 - Design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-climber, emergency egress, emergency interior lighting, and interior configuration design requirements set... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design requirements. 229.206 Section 229.206..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design...

  10. 32 CFR 298.5 - Information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements. 298.5 Section 298.5... OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE INVESTIGATIVE SERVICE (DIS) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 298.5 Information requirements. The DIS Office of Information and Public Affairs is responsible for...

  11. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  12. 27 CFR 4.38 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mandatory information required on labels by this part, except the alcoholic content statement, shall be in... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.38... descriptive or explanatory information, the script, type, or printing of the mandatory information shall be of...

  13. 8 CFR 312.1 - Literacy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Literacy requirements. 312.1 Section 312.1... FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.1 Literacy requirements. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in... determining English proficiency, as outlined in paragraph(c) of this section. (c) Literacy examination—(1...

  14. 7 CFR 1770.13 - Accounting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accrual basis of accounting. All transactions shall be recorded in the period in which they occur and... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting requirements. 1770.13 Section 1770.13... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of...

  15. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine

  16. 40 CFR 63.707 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed limit; and (iv) A statement signed by a responsible official of the company that the control... monitoring system performance report and summary reports shall be submitted as required by § 63.10(e). (1... the performance test required by § 63.7: (i) The performance test or CEM data collected to establish...

  17. Grid Code Requirements for Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    This chapter reviews the grid code requirements for integration of wind power plants (WPPs). The grid codes reviewed are from the UK, Ireland, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Sweden, the USA, and Canada. Transmission system operators (TSOs) around the world have specified requirements for WPPs under...

  18. 17 CFR 41.2 - Required records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required records. 41.2 Section 41.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SECURITY FUTURES PRODUCTS General Provisions § 41.2 Required records. A designated contract market or registered derivatives...

  19. 16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required warnings. 307.2 Section 307.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS REGULATIONS UNDER... Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 is the law that requires the enactment of these...

  20. 15 CFR 970.517 - Diligence requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diligence requirements. 970.517 Section 970.517 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued..., Conditions and Restrictions Terms, Conditions, and Restrictions § 970.517 Diligence requirements. The terms...

  1. 15 CFR 971.418 - Diligence requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diligence requirements. 971.418 Section 971.418 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued...: Terms, Conditions and Restrictions Terms, Conditions and Restrictions § 971.418 Diligence requirements...

  2. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert L. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130) contains all technical, safety, and crew health medical requirements that are mandatory for achieving a Crew Transportation System Certification that will allow for International Space Station delivery and return of NASA crew and limited cargo. Previously approved on TN23183.

  3. 30 CFR 250.1000 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 250.1000 Section 250.1000... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1000 General....1001, must meet the requirements in §§ 250.1000 through 250.1008. (2) A pipeline right-of-way grant...

  4. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  5. An Online Graduate Requirements Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicay-Ergin, N.; Laplante, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Requirements engineering is one of the fundamental knowledge areas in software and systems engineering graduate curricula. Recent changes in educational delivery and student demographics have created new challenges for requirements engineering education. In particular, there is an increasing demand for online education for working professionals.…

  6. 9 CFR 93.106 - Quarantine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 93.106 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... other than ratites and hatching eggs of ratites. Each lot of pet birds, except as provided for in § 93.... (2) Physical plant requirements. The facility shall comply with the following requirements: (i...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1018 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1018 Reporting requirements. (a... § 63.1007(e)(2) and those pumps complying with the closed vent system provisions of § 63.1007(e)(3). (iv) Number of compressors subject to the requirements of § 63.1012, excluding those compressors...

  8. 12 CFR 563g.9 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 563g.9 Section 563g.9 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.9 Escrow requirement. (a) Any funds received in an offering which is offered and sold on a best efforts all...

  9. Critical Review of NOAA's Observation Requirements Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, M.; Yapur, M.; Vo, T.; Templeton, A.; Bludis, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Observing Systems Council (NOSC) maintains a comprehensive database of user observation requirements. The requirements collection process engages NOAA subject matter experts to document and effectively communicate the specific environmental observation measurements (parameters and attributes) needed to produce operational products and pursue research objectives. User observation requirements documented using a structured and standardized manner and framework enables NOAA to assess its needs across organizational lines in an impartial, objective, and transparent manner. This structure provides the foundation for: selecting, designing, developing, acquiring observing technologies, systems and architectures; budget and contract formulation and decision-making; and assessing in a repeatable fashion the productivity, efficiency and optimization of NOAA's observing system enterprise. User observation requirements are captured independently from observing technologies. Therefore, they can be addressed by a variety of current or expected observing capabilities and allow flexibility to be remapped to new and evolving technologies. NOAA's current inventory of user observation requirements were collected over a ten-year period, and there have been many changes in policies, mission priorities, and funding levels during this time. In light of these changes, the NOSC initiated a critical, in-depth review to examine all aspects of user observation requirements and associated processes during 2017. This presentation provides background on the NOAA requirements process, major milestones and outcomes of the critical review, and plans for evolving and connecting observing requirements processes in the next year.

  10. Requirements elicitation for geo-information solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbi Sluter, Claudia; van Elzakker, Corné P.J.M.; Ivanova, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Geo-information solutions can achieve a higher level of quality if they are developed in accordance with a user-centred design that requires definition of the user requirements in the first step of solution construction. We treat a geo-information solution as a system designed to support human-based

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - General Agent's requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... chest items required for the intended voyage. Purchase for the account of the NSA, from recognized bona... respective domestic ports, only such items and quantities reflecting past experience of actual requirements. (b) Arrange for delivery on board to the custody of the Master all slop chest items purchased...

  12. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required counseling. 21.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or her...

  13. 15 CFR 911.8 - Technical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.8 Technical requirements. (a) All platform operators of the NOAA DCS must use a data collection platform radio set whose technical... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical requirements. 911.8 Section...

  14. Analyzing and Specifying Reusable Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    avionics applications and ecommerce applications need to specify levels of identification, authentication, authorization, integrity, privacy , etc. At...sections specifying functional requirements. Thus, the functional requirements for an embedded avionics application and an ecommerce website may have... Privacy (a.k.a., confidentiality), which is the degree to which sensitive data and communications are kept private from unauthorized individuals and

  15. 1 CFR 10.10 - Publication required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication required. 10.10 Section 10.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.10 Publication required. The Director of the Federal...

  16. 1 CFR 9.1 - Publication required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication required. 9.1 Section 9.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.1 Publication required. The Director of the Federal Register shall...

  17. 14 CFR 121.433 - Training required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in a certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program when... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training required. 121.433 Section 121.433..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Crewmember Qualifications § 121.433 Training required. (a) Initial...

  18. Meeting Ecologists Requirements with Adaptive Data Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Marcus; Bonnet, Philippe

    their potential if they meet the scientists requirements. In an ideal world, an ecologist expresses requirements in terms of a target dataset, which the sensor network then actually collects and stores. In fact, failures occur and interesting events happen making uniform, systematic ecosys- tem sampling neither...

  19. 40 CFR 141.90 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities and organizations to which the system delivered public education materials during the period in....82(a). (3) For systems required to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control treatments under... activities have taken place. (f) Public education program reporting requirements. (1) Any water system that...

  20. 44 CFR 19.115 - Assurance required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.115 Assurance required. (a) General. Either at the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurance required. 19.115 Section 19.115 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 14 CFR 99.9 - Radio requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radio requirements. 99.9 Section 99.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.9 Radio requirements. (a) A...

  2. Training Requirements in OSHA Standards. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains excerpts of the training-related requirements of the standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). It is designed as an aid for employers, safety and health professionals, and others who need to know training requirements. (References to training may be difficult to locate in the long and…

  3. 30 CFR 57.6132 - Magazine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magazine requirements. 57.6132 Section 57.6132...-Surface Only § 57.6132 Magazine requirements. (a) Magazines shall be— (1) Structurally sound; (2... magazine; (6) Posted with the appropriate United States Department of Transportation placards or other...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6132 - Magazine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magazine requirements. 56.6132 Section 56.6132....6132 Magazine requirements. (a) Magazines shall be— (1) Structurally sound; (2) Noncombustible or the... the inside; (5) Ventilated to control dampness and excessive heating within the magazine; (6) Posted...

  5. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements. The net electric energy generated and sold (kilowatt-hours) by the owner or operator of a qualified...

  6. 42 CFR 3.106 - Security requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT PSO Requirements and Agency Procedures § 3.106 Security requirements. (a) Application. A PSO must secure patient safety work product in conformance with the security... the confidentiality and security of patient safety work product. (2) Distinguishing patient safety...

  7. 40 CFR 191.13 - Containment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. (a) Disposal systems for spent nuclear fuel or high-level or transuranic radioactive wastes shall... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containment requirements. 191.13 Section 191.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION...

  8. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  9. 42 CFR 433.74 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Financial Participation § 433.74 Reporting requirements. (a) Beginning with the first quarter of Federal fiscal year 1993, each State must submit to CMS quarterly summary information on the source and use of... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting requirements. 433.74 Section 433.74...

  10. 29 CFR 4010.3 - Filing requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.3 Filing requirement. (a) General....10, all information specified in § 4010.6(a) with respect to all members of a controlled group and...

  11. 40 CFR 59.105 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 59.105 Section... Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.105 Reporting requirements. (a) Each regulated entity must submit an initial report no later than January 11, 1999 or within...

  12. Internet technologies and requirements for telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaster, H.; Meylor, J.; Meylor, F.

    1997-01-01

    Internet technologies are briefly introduced and those applicable for telemedicine are reviewed. Multicast internet technologies are described. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 'Telemedicine Space-bridge to Russia' project is described and used to derive requirements for internet telemedicine. Telemedicine privacy and Quality of Service (QoS) requirements are described.

  13. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

  14. Quality assurance management policies and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to: set forth overall, integrated quality assurance management policies and requirements for the entire Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program; define management responsibilities for assuring quality; and provide a general framework for the development of more detailed quality assurance management policies and requirements by program, project, and contractor organizations

  15. The Validity of Two Education Requirement Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the validity of two education requirement measures. This is important because a key part of the ongoing discussion concerning overeducation is about measurement. Thanks to the Dutch Institute for Labour Studies, we have been given a unique opportunity to compare two education requirement measures: first, Huijgen's…

  16. 37 CFR 2.51 - Drawing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the mark...

  17. 1 CFR 10.1 - Publication required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication required. 10.1 Section 10.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.1 Publication required. The Director publishes a special edition...

  18. 49 CFR 1503.101 - TSA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TSA requirements. 1503.101 Section 1503.101... Scope of Investigative and Enforcement Procedures § 1503.101 TSA requirements. (a) The investigative and enforcement procedures in this part apply to TSA's investigation and enforcement of violations of TSA...

  19. 40 CFR 264.1065 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1065 Reporting requirements. (a) A semiannual report...). (iii) The equipment identification number of each compressor for which a leak was not repaired as... monitoring required by § 264.1060 and was not corrected within 24 hours, the duration and cause of each...

  20. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  1. Requirements engineering: foundation for software quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Pastor, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the proceedings of the 22nd edition of REFSQ: the International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering – Foundation for Software Quality! Requirements engineering (RE) has been recognized as a critical factor that impacts the quality of software, systems, and services. Since the

  2. Functional Requirements and the Theory of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, R. Jean

    1982-01-01

    Responding to Willower's earlier questioning of the concept of systems' functional requirements, the author outlines the Parsonian theory of action, discussing action systems' components (values, norms, organizations, and facilities) and their functional imperatives or requirements (pattern maintenance, integration, goal attainment, and…

  3. Security Requirements – Analysis of the Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Vincent

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Needs about security are matters little taken into account when managing requirements engineering , and when considered in the life cycle of the system , they tend to become a general list of functions, as password of protection , firewalls , virus detection tools , and other similar. But in fact, they cannot be considered as requirements of security, because they are implementation mechanisms to try to meet unspecified requirements, as an authenticated access. As a result, the security requirements for the system are ignored, which are required to protect essential services and assets, besides, when are specified, is not considered the prospect of future attacks. This paper describes the need for a systematic approach to managing security requirements engineering, in order to help avoid the problem of generic lists and take into account the future perspective. Several related approaches are described and also are provided references additional material that can help requirements engineers to ensure that their products be taken into account, effectively , the security requirements.

  4. Modeling uncertainty in requirements engineering decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Maynard-Zhang, Pedrito; Kiper, James D.

    2005-01-01

    One inherent characteristic of requrements engineering is a lack of certainty during this early phase of a project. Nevertheless, decisions about requirements must be made in spite of this uncertainty. Here we describe the context in which we are exploring this, and some initial work to support elicitation of uncertain requirements, and to deal with the combination of such information from multiple stakeholders.

  5. 5 CFR 330.208 - Qualification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... perform the duties and responsibilities of the position. (c) The sex of an individual may not be... qualified for a position if he or she: (1) Meets OPM-established or approved qualification standards and requirements for the position, including any minimum educational requirements, and any selection placement...

  6. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen requirements. 97.8 Section 97.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... required by the examiner to furnish representative specimens of the variety, or its flower, fruit, or seeds...

  7. 40 CFR 68.12 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS General § 68.12 General requirements. (a) General requirements. The... the five-year accident history for the process as provided in § 68.42 of this part and submit it in... §§ 68.150 to 68.185. The RMP shall include a registration that reflects all covered processes. (b...

  8. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  9. 12 CFR 370.9 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 370.9 Section 370.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.9 Recordkeeping requirements. The FDIC will establish procedures...

  10. 13 CFR 307.5 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements. 307.5 Section 307.5 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... EDA) a CEDS, except that a CEDS is not required when applying for a Strategy Grant; and (2) Explain...

  11. Integrating semi-formal and formal requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Olivé, Antoni; Dubois, Eric; Pastor, Joan Antoni; Huyts, Sander

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the integration of informal, semiformal and formal requirements specification techniques. We present a framework for requirements specification called TRADE, within which several well-known semiformal specification techniques are placed. TRADE is based on an analysis of

  12. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Technical Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRAHN, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this section is to explain the meaning of logical connectors with specific examples. Logical connectors are used in Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) to discriminate between, and yet connect, discrete Conditions, Required Actions, Completion Times, Surveillances, and Frequencies. The only logical connectors that appear in TSRs are AND and OR. The physical arrangement of these connectors constitutes logical conventions with specific meanings

  13. 46 CFR 108.213 - Heating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating requirements. 108.213 Section 108.213 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.213 Heating requirements. (a) Each accommodation space must be heated by a heating system that can maintain at least 20°C. (68°F.). (b) Radiators...

  14. 49 CFR 601.45 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required information. 601.45 Section 601.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Emergency Procedures for Public Transportation Systems § 601.45 Required...

  15. 78 FR 12623 - Insurer Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... NHTSA's regulation requiring motor vehicle insurers to submit information on the number of thefts and recoveries of insured vehicles and actions taken by the insurer to deter or reduce motor vehicle theft. NHTSA..., which requires insurers to submit information about the make, model, and year of all vehicle thefts, the...

  16. 12 CFR 404.4 - Request requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Request requirements. 404.4 Section 404.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act. § 404.4 Request requirements. (a) Form. Requests...

  17. 49 CFR 451.25 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required information. 451.25 Section 451.25....25 Required information. (a) The safety approval number appearing on line 1 of the safety approval... safety approval plate on the freight container provided that all the information contained on the...

  18. 24 CFR 511.11 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... low income occupancy or rent projections, or restrictions on return on investment or other similar policies that prevent an owner, whether for-profit or non-profit, from maximizing return or setting rent... requirements and with the affirmative marketing requirements and procedures adopted under § 511.13, for the...

  19. 20 CFR 655.17 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.17 Section 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.17 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the... employment which are not less favorable than those to be offered to the H-2B workers. All advertising must...

  20. 21 CFR 610.40 - Test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate: Donor Testing Status Label Tests negative Label as required under § 606.121 Tested negative... “DONOR UNTESTED” Tests negative Label as required under § 606.121 Reactive on current collection/reactive....121 of this chapter and with a label entitled “INTENDED RECIPIENT INFORMATION LABEL” containing the...

  1. 10 CFR 600.331 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., State or local authority as may have proper jurisdiction. Reports and Records ... Requirements. The following requirements pertain to recipients' procurements funded in whole or in part with Federal funds or with recipients' cost-share or match: (a) Reasonable cost. Recipients' procurement...

  2. Top-tier requirements for KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung-Jae, Ch.; Kwangho, L.; Dong Wook, J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) has launched the next generation reactor project to develop the standard design of an advanced pressurized water reactor by 2000. This advanced reactor aims to have the sufficient capability to be a safe, environmentally sound and economical energy source for 2000's in Korea. In conjunction with the project development, the program phase I is studied and it is in the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) first phase project that the requirements of this specification called ''Top-tier'' have been established. These functional requirements are of the first importance for the design, construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. These requirements are divided into safety requirements, serious accidents control, design base requirements, definition of the system characteristics, performance, construction feasibility, economical objectives, site parameters and design processes. The ''Top-tier'' requirements are concentrated on the improvement of the safety and reliability. Safety is one of the first priorities. In particular, the requirements for the design of the next reactors generation must include the capacity to control serious accidents because when an accident occurs, the protection degree is crucial. The KNGR requirements include the existing nuclear power plants competitiveness as well as those of the coal thermal plants. Moreover, when safety is reinforced, the economic competitiveness can be assured. At the present time, a subsequent specification for the KNGR considering the bases of the domestic technology and experimenting the running. (O.M.)

  3. 76 FR 3485 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION... their scales tested at least twice each calendar year at intervals of approximately 6 months. This final rule requires that regulated entities complete the first of the two scale tests between January 1 and...

  4. 76 FR 18348 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... published a document in the Federal Register on January 20, 2011 (76 FR 3485), defining required scale tests... the last sentence of paragraph (a) to read as follows: Sec. 201.72 Scales; testing of. (a...

  5. 40 CFR 51.165 - Permit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; and (2) Shall include emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions; and, for an... data acquisition and availability requirements of this section, to sample, condition (if applicable... the equipment necessary to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this section, to...

  6. 32 CFR 636.9 - Registration requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Registration requirement. 636.9 Section 636.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.9 Registration requirement. In...

  7. Oxygen requirement of separated hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses require hatchery water with over 7.8 ppm dissolved oxygen at 80° F (95% air saturation) to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatching. This concentration is called the critical oxygen requirement by scientists but for the purpose of this article we will call...

  8. 21 CFR 211.180 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports § 211.180 General requirements. (a) Any production, control, or distribution record that is required to be... good manufacturing practices brought by the Food and Drug Administration. [43 FR 45077, Sept. 29, 1978...

  9. 49 CFR 27.9 - Assurance required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.9 Assurance required. (a) General... requirements of this part for so long as the property is used for the purpose for which the Federal financial assistance was provided or for a similar purpose. (2) When Federal financial assistance is used by a...

  10. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the... PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.147 Liability requirements. (a) Coverage for sudden accidental... facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties...

  11. 40 CFR 205.55 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.55 Section 205.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55 Requirements. ...

  12. 15 CFR 806.4 - Response required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.4 Response required. Reports, as... certifying in writing to the fact that the person has no direct investments within the purview of the Act or... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Response required. 806.4 Section 806.4...

  13. 15 CFR 806.3 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be required from among others, U.S. persons which have direct investment abroad, U.S. persons in which foreign persons have direct investment, U.S. intermediaries, and U.S. persons which assist or... OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.3 Reporting requirements...

  14. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name and...

  15. 46 CFR 118.400 - Where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where required. 118.400 Section 118.400 Shipping COAST... Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.400 Where required. (a) The following spaces must be equipped with a... unoccupied space with a gross volume of not more than 170 cubic meters (6,000 cubic feet); (2) A pre...

  16. 46 CFR 181.400 - Where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where required. 181.400 Section 181.400 Shipping COAST... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 181.400 Where required. (a) The... cubic meters (6,000 cubic feet); (2) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be in...

  17. Regulatory capital requirements and bail in mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, B.P.M.; Haentjens, M.; Wessels, B.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) in the European Union, the qualitative requirements for bank regulatory capital have changed. These changes aim at implementing in Europe the Basel III principles for better bank capital that is able to absorb losses of banks,

  18. Possible neutral beam requirements for TFTR upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, B.A. Jr.; Little, R.; Post, D.E.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is provided of possible neutral beam requirements and constraints for a TFTR upgrade. The time scale is the early 80s and beams of 250 keV D 0 , probably using 65 ampere negative ion sources, existing power supplies and vacuum enclosures would be required

  19. 48 CFR 8.1102 - Presolicitation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 8.1102 Presolicitation requirements. (a) Except as specified in 8.1102(b), before preparing solicitations for leasing of... automobiles (sedans and station wagons) larger than Type IA, IB, or II (small, subcompact, or compact) are...

  20. Cloud computing security requirements: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iankoulova, Iliana; Daneva, Maia; Rolland, C; Castro, J.; Pastor, O

    Many publications have dealt with various types of security requirements in cloud computing but not all types have been explored in sufficient depth. It is also hard to understand which types of requirements have been under-researched and which are most investigated. This paper's goal is to provide

  1. 18 CFR 284.126 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting requirements. 284.126 Section 284.126 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.126 Reporting requirements. (a) Notice of...

  2. 40 CFR 233.31 - Coordination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination requirements. 233.31 Section 233.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS Program Operation § 233.31 Coordination requirements. (a) If a proposed...

  3. 36 CFR 801.7 - Information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements. 801.7 Section 801.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.7 Information...

  4. 27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.211 Section 24.211 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... which it is to be made, except that no formula is required for distilling material or vinegar stock. The...

  5. 7 CFR 3550.57 - Dwelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling requirements. 3550.57 Section 3550.57... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.57 Dwelling requirements. (a) Modest dwelling. The property must be one that is considered modest for the area, must not be...

  6. 7 CFR 3550.106 - Dwelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling requirements. 3550.106 Section 3550.106... Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.106 Dwelling requirements. (a) Modest dwelling. The property must be one... § 3550.63. (b) Post-repair condition. Dwellings repaired with section 504 funds need not be brought to...

  7. 48 CFR 509.306 - Solicitation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation requirements... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 509.306... contracting officer must address the requirements in FAR 9.306(d) and (f) through (j) in the solicitation's...

  8. 12 CFR 614.4935 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., insurance premiums, fees, or any other charges for a loan secured by residential improved real estate or a... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 614.4930... insurance that premiums are due, the institution, or a servicer acting on behalf of the institution, shall...

  9. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements. 5.33 Section 5.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  10. 40 CFR 35.532 - Requirements summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements summary. 35.532 Section 35.532 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE....532 Requirements summary. (a) Applicants and recipients of Performance Partnership Grants must meet...

  11. 40 CFR 35.132 - Requirements summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements summary. 35.132 Section 35.132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Requirements summary. Applicants and recipients of Performance Partnership Grants must meet: (a) The...

  12. Tracing And Control Of Engineering Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip R.; Stoller, Richard L.; Neville, Ted; Boyle, Karen A.

    1991-01-01

    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is data-base/word-processing software system created to document and maintain order of both requirements and descriptions associated with engineering project. Implemented on IBM PC under PC-DOS. Written with CLIPPER.

  13. ATLAS Future Framework Requirements Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Future Frameworks Requirements Group was constituted in Summer 2013 to consider and summarise the framework requirements from trigger and offline for configuring, scheduling and monitoring the data processing software needed by the ATLAS experiment. The principal motivation for such a re-examination arises from the current and anticipated evolution of CPUs, where multiple cores, hyper-threading and wide vector registers require a shift to a concurrent programming model. Such a model requires extensive changes in the current Gaudi/Athena frameworks and offers the opportunity to consider how HLT and offline processing can be better accommodated within the ATLAS framework. This note contains the report of the Future Frameworks Requirements Group.

  14. Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, J.; Brechtel, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery

  15. Safety requirements for the Pu carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, H.

    1993-01-01

    Ministry of Transport of Japan has now set about studying requirements for Pu carriers to ensure safety. It was first studied what the basic concept of safe carriage of Pu should be, and the basic ideas have been worked out. Next the requirements for the Pu carriers were studied based on the above. There are at present no international requirements of construction and equipment for the nuclear-material carriers, but MOT of Japan has so far required special construction and equipment for the nuclear-material carriers which carry a large amount of radioactive material, such as spent fuel or low level radioactive waste, corresponding to the level of the respective potential hazard. The requirements of construction and equipment of the Pu carriers have been established considering the difference in heat generation between Pu and spent fuel, physical protection, and so forth, in addition to the above basic concept. (J.P.N.)

  16. Nonfunctional requirements in systems analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Kevin MacG

    2015-01-01

    This book will help readers gain a solid understanding of non-functional requirements inherent in systems design endeavors. It contains essential information for those who design, use, and maintain complex engineered systems, including experienced designers, teachers of design, system stakeholders, and practicing engineers. Coverage approaches non-functional requirements in a novel way by presenting a framework of four systems concerns into which the 27 major non-functional requirements fall: sustainment, design, adaptation, and viability. Within this model, the text proceeds to define each non-functional requirement, to specify how each is treated as an element of the system design process, and to develop an associated metric for their evaluation. Systems are designed to meet specific functional needs. Because non-functional requirements are not directly related to tasks that satisfy these proposed needs, designers and stakeholders often fail to recognize the importance of such attributes as availability, su...

  17. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  18. A fuzzy model for exploiting customer requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Javadirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Quality function deployment (QFD is one of the total quality management tools, where customers’ views and requirements are perceived and using various techniques improves the production requirements and operations. The QFD department, after identification and analysis of the competitors, takes customers’ feedbacks to meet the customers’ demands for the products compared with the competitors. In this study, a comprehensive model for assessing the importance of the customer requirements in the products or services for an organization is proposed. The proposed study uses linguistic variables, as a more comprehensive approach, to increase the precision of the expression evaluations. The importance of these requirements specifies the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the requirements relative to competitors. The results of these experiments show that the proposed method performs better than the other methods.

  19. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  20. Utility requirements for advanced LWR passive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidia, J.M.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    LWR Passive Plants are becoming an increasingly attractive and prominent option for future electric generating capacity for U.S. utilities. Conceptual designs for ALWR Passive Plants are currently being developed by U.S. suppliers. EPRI-sponsored work beginning in 1985 developed preliminary conceptual designs for a passive BWR and PWR. DOE-sponsored work from 1986 to the present in conjunction with further EPRI-sponsored studies has continued this development to the point of mature conceptual designs. The success to date in developing the ALWR Passive Plant concepts has substantially increased utility interest. The EPRI ALWR Program has responded by augmenting its initial scope to develop a Utility Requirements Document for ALWR Passive Plants. These requirements will be largely based on the ALWR Utility Requirements Document for Evolutionary Plants, but with significant changes in areas related to the passive safety functions and system configurations. This work was begun in late 1988, and the thirteen-chapter Passive Plant Utility Requirements Document will be completed in 1990. This paper discusses the progress to date in developing the Passive Plant requirements, reviews the top-level requirements, and discusses key issues related to adaptation of the utility requirements to passive safety functions and system configurations. (orig.)

  1. The nutritional requirements of exercising dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R C

    1998-12-01

    The nutrient requirements of canine athletes are unique. Dogs have a greater capacity for fat oxidation than humans both at rest and during exercise. In dogs undertaking endurance exercise, such as sled dogs, high fat (>50% of energy) diets increase stamina and maximize energy production, and high protein (>30% of energy) diets prevent training-induced anemia. Nutrient requirements differ, however, for sprint racing dogs, such as greyhounds. Greyhounds run faster when fed moderately increased dietary fat but run more slowly when dietary protein is increased. Sled dogs have similar energy requirements to other breeds at rest in a thermoneutral environment ( approximately 550W0.75 kJ/d where W is body weight in kg) but may require as much as 4200W0.75 kJ/d during a race. The energy requirement of greyhounds in training, however, is only approximately 600W0.75 kJ/d. There is little information, however, concerning the vitamin, mineral or other nutrient requirements of athletic dogs; most sled dogs and greyhounds are fed "homemade" recipes. These recipes usually include raw meat and represent a health risk. More studies are required to improve the health and performance of working and racing dogs.

  2. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS

  3. Are functional foods redefining nutritional requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J; Varady, Krista A

    2008-02-01

    Functional foods are increasing in popularity owing to their ability to confer health and physiological benefits. Nevertheless, the notion that functional foods improve health when providing nutrients at levels above and beyond existing recommended intakes is inconsistent with the definition of requirement. This disparity highlights the need for an alternative definition of nutrient requirement. The present objective is to examine distinctions between optimization of health, as defined by what we currently deem as required intakes, versus adding physiological benefit using bioactive agents found in functional foods. Presently, requirement is defined as the lowest amount of intake of a nutrient that will maintain a defined level of nourishment for a specific indicator of adequacy. In contrast, functional foods are described as ingredients that are not necessary for body function, yet provide added physiological benefit that confer better overall health. Plant sterols are one example of such an ingredient. Plant sterols lower plasma cholesterol concentrations, and may thus be considered essential nutrients in physiological situations where circulating cholesterol concentrations are high. Similarly, intakes of omega-3 fats beyond existing requirement may confer additional health benefits such as hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic effects. These examples underscore the inconsistencies between what is defined as a nutrient requirement versus what is identified as a health benefit of a functional food. Such discrepancies emphasize the need for a more all-encompassing definition of a nutrient requirement; that is, one that moves beyond the prevention of overt deficiency to encompass improved health and disease risk reduction.

  4. Managing Requirements-Documents to Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Kevin; Hudson, Abe

    2017-01-01

    Managing Requirements on long term projects like International Space Station (ISS) can go thru many phases, from initial product development to almost over 20 years of operations and sustainment. Over that time many authorized changes have been made to the requirement set, that apply to any new systems that would visit the ISS today, like commercial cargo/crew vehicles or payloads. Explore the benefits of managing requirements in a database while satisfying traditional documents needs for contracts and stakeholder/user consumption that are not tied into the database.

  5. TWRS configuration management requirement source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Configuration Management (CM) Requirement Source document prescribes CM as a basic product life-cycle function by which work and activities are conducted or accomplished. This document serves as the requirements basis for the TWRS CM program. The objective of the TWRS CM program is to establish consistency among requirements, physical/functional configuration, information, and documentation for TWRS and TWRS products, and to maintain this consistency throughout the life-cycle of TWRS and the product, particularly as changes are being made

  6. Quality Assurance Source Requirements Traceability Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MURTHY, R.; NAYDENOVA, A.; DEKLEVER, R.; BOONE, A.

    2006-01-01

    At the Yucca Mountain Project the Project Requirements Processing System assists in the management of relationships between regulatory and national/industry standards source criteria, and Quality Assurance Requirements and Description document (DOE/R W-0333P) requirements to create compliance matrices representing respective relationships. The matrices are submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assist in the commission's review, interpretation, and concurrence with the Yucca Mountain Project QA program document. The tool is highly customized to meet the needs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Office of Quality Assurance

  7. HTGR Industrial Application Functional and Operational Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demick, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    This document specifies the functional and performance requirements to be used in the development of the conceptual design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) based plant supplying energy to a typical industrial facility. These requirements were developed from collaboration with industry and HTGR suppliers over the preceding three years to identify the energy needs of industrial processes for which the HTGR technology is technically and economically viable. The functional and performance requirements specified herein are an effective representation of the industrial sector energy needs and an effective basis for developing a conceptual design of the plant that will serve the broadest range of industrial applications.

  8. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  9. Test design requirements: Thermal conductivity probe testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for development of a thermal conductivity probe test. The thermal conductivity probe determines in situ thermal conductivity using a line source transient heat conduction analysis. This document presents the rationale for thermal conductivity measurement using a thermal conductivity probe. A general test description is included. Support requirements along with design constraints are detailed to allow simple design of the thermal conductivity probe and test. The schedule and delivery requirements of the responsible test designer are also included. 7 refs., 1 fig

  10. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear data requirements for experimental, demonstration and commercial fusion reactors are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the shield as well as major reactor components of concern to the nuclear performance. The nuclear data requirements are defined as a result of analyzing four key areas. These are the most likely candidate materials, energy range, types of needed nuclear data, and the required accuracy in the data. Deducing the latter from the target goals for the accuracy in prediction is also discussed. A specific proposal of measurements is recommended. Priorities for acquisition of data are also assigned. (author)

  11. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind

  12. 7 CFR 764.302 - Eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Youth Loan Program § 764.302 Eligibility requirements. The... the loan is closed; (d) Must reside in a rural area, city or town with a population of 50,000 or fewer...

  13. When Might Sunburn Require Medical Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need medical attention? When might sunburn require medical attention? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Consult ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  14. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.3 Classification requirements. United States citizens must...; (5) Scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to the national security; (6) United...

  15. 24 CFR 266.507 - Maintenance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Project Management and Servicing § 266.507 Maintenance requirements. The mortgagor must maintain the project in...

  16. Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menk, Peter

    2001-01-01

    ... nations and the United Nations. The purpose of the Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop was to examine the United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations...

  17. 9 CFR 93.411 - Quarantine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS... for cattle from Central America and the West Indies, and except for ruminants from Canada and Mexico...

  18. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  19. 10 CFR 904.5 - Revenue requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.5 Revenue requirements. (a) Western shall collect all electric service... September 30, 1987. (g) If integrated operation of the Boulder Canyon Project with other Boulder City Area...

  20. A methodology to describe process control requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ganni, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to describe process control requirements for helium refrigeration plants. The SSC requires a greater level of automation for its refrigeration plants than is common in the cryogenics industry, and traditional methods (e.g., written descriptions) used to describe process control requirements are not sufficient. The methodology presented in this paper employs tabular and graphic representations in addition to written descriptions. The resulting document constitutes a tool for efficient communication among the different people involved in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of the control system. The methodology is not limited to helium refrigeration plants, and can be applied to any process with similar requirements. The paper includes examples

  1. 40 CFR 302.6 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., phosphate, tin, zircon, hafnium, vanadium, monazite, and rare earth mines. Land disturbance incidental to..., chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, or zinc is not required if the mean diameter of...

  2. 32 CFR 989.35 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measures will be tracked at bases and MAJCOMs through an appropriate environmental management system. (b... documents electronically. Public review comments should be required in writing, rather than by electronic...

  3. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  4. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  5. 33 CFR 214.9 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the evaluation. (a) Whether the criteria required by the law and outlined in § 214.6 have been... other than negligence attributable to the United States or its contractor. (3) To maintain and operate...

  6. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

  7. 46 CFR 295.23 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Maritime Security Program Operating Agreements § 295.23 Reporting... (such as facsimile and Internet) for transmission of required information to MARAD, if practicable.]: (a...

  8. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  9. 7 CFR 1468.21 - Contract requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... net environmental and societal benefits; (ii) Refund with interest any program payments received and... under the CFO contract; (v) Supply information as required by CCC to determine compliance with the...

  10. AFSC Laboratory Management Information Requirements Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This document was developed under the auspices of the Laboratory IRM (LIRM) Management Working Group in response to AFSC Program Directive 0008-81-1, Management Information Requirement Project (23 February 1981...

  11. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  12. Seaway Information System Management and Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    This report examines in detail the control and information system requirements of the St. Lawrence Seaway development program in terms of the needs of the vessel traffic controllers and the management users. Structural control models of Seaway operat...

  13. Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Experts State Information Tdap booster requirements for secondary schools State Td or Tdap Mandate for Sec School ... Checklists Standing Orders Storage & Handling Talking with Parents Temperature Logs Top Handouts Translations Vaccine Index >> view all ...

  14. Photometric requirements for portable changeable message signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This project reviewed the performance of pchangeable message signs (PCMSs) and developed photometric standards to establish performance requirements. In addition, researchers developed photometric test methods and recommended them for use in evaluati...

  15. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  16. 50 CFR 660.15 - Equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... software requirements. (i) A personal computer with Pentium 75-MHz or higher. Random Access Memory (RAM... Graphics Adapter (VGA) or higher resolution monitor (super VGA is recommended). (ii) Microsoft Windows 2000...

  17. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahimana, Didace; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  18. 48 CFR 750.7108 - Contractual requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7108 Contractual requirements. Every contract amended or... policy interests of the United States. ...

  19. 40 CFR 80.75 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced submit to the Administrator, with the fourth quarterly report, a report that contains the identity... corporate officer of the refiner or importer. (o) Additional reporting requirements for refiners that blend...

  20. Requirements Engineering and Design Technology Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganska, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the STSC's recommendations for the selection and usage of software engineering products aimed at the requirements analysis and high-level design portions of the software lifecycle...

  1. Pellet injection requirements for TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferranderie, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main parameters of TORE SUPRA are outlined and pellet injection requirements to meet plasma density goals are discussed. Topics considered include plasma buildup, plasma refueling and penetration depth

  2. 12 CFR 725.19 - Collateral requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.19 Collateral requirements. (a) Each... applicable Facility advance or Agent loan, or by guarantee of the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund...

  3. Alternative vehicles and infrastructure requirements conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "A conference entitled Alternative Fuel / Advanced Vehicles Technologies & Infrastructure Requirements: Bringing Innovation to Our Streets was held in New York, NY at New York University on June 14, 2011. The conference addressed several of the...

  4. 7 CFR 1290.10 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit requirements. 1290.10 Section 1290.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... audit, a copy of the audit results. ...

  5. 7 CFR 46.3 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER... considered to result in separate firms and, therefore, do not require separate licenses. ...

  6. 14 CFR 171.159 - Installation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Installation requirements. (a) The facility must be installed according to accepted good engineering practices... must have a reliable source of suitable primary power, either from a power distribution system or...

  7. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  8. 48 CFR 203.1003 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1003 Requirements. (b) Notification of possible contractor violation. Upon...

  9. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  10. Interpreting the SARA and RCRA training requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreland, W.M.; Wells, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) promulgated by the EPA (RCRA) and the OSHA (SARA) require hazardous materials training for all individuals working with hazardous materials. Facilities that are involved in the generation, storage, treatment, transportation, or disposal/removal of hazardous materials/waste must comply with all relevant training regulations. Using the guidelines contained in the RCRA and SARA regulations, decisions must be made to determine: the type of regulatory requirement based on facility function (i.e., whether the facility is a RCRA or CERCLA facility). The type of training required for specific categories of workers (e.g. managers, supervisors, or general site workers). The level of training needed for each category of worker. This presentation outlines how the Environmental Compliance and Health Protection Technical Resources and Training Group, working with waste operations personnel, establishes specific training requirements

  11. 9 CFR 2.35 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.35 Recordkeeping requirements. (a) The research... include: (i) The species and breed or type of animal; (ii) The sex; (iii) The date of birth or approximate...

  12. 40 CFR 141.500 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... before or at the first customer for filtered systems, or Cryptosporidium control under the watershed control plan for unfiltered systems; and (b) Compliance with the profiling and benchmark requirements in...

  13. 40 CFR 141.170 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recontamination by surface water runoff and a point downstream before or at the first customer for filtered...) Compliance with the profiling and benchmark requirements under the provisions of § 141.172. (b) A public...

  14. 7 CFR 1806.3 - Coverage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... value) all essential buildings. Essential buildings include the dwelling and any other buildings that... requirements is not available in a hurricane area, the County Supervisor may accept from the borrower or...

  15. 14 CFR 1214.504 - Screening requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program § 1214.504 Screening requirements. (a) Only those... using evaluation guidance and criteria contained in Federal Personnel Manual (FPM) chapter 731 and...

  16. Goals, requirements and prerequisites for teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, M.; Wein, B.; Lehmann, K.J.; Bolte, R.; Kilbinger, M.; Loose, R.; Guenther, R.W.; Georgi, M.

    1997-01-01

    Specific radiological requirements have to be considered for the realization of telemedicine. In this article the goals and requirements for an extensive introduction of teleradiology will be defined from the radiological user's point of view. Necessary medical, legal and professional prerequisites for teleradiology are presented. Essential requirements, such as data security maintenance of personal rights and standardization, must be realized. Application-specific requirements, e.g. quality and extent of teleradiological functions, as well as technological alternatives, are discussed. Each project must be carefully planned in relation to one's own needs, extent of functions and system selection. Topics, such as acknowledgement of electronic documentation, reimbursement of teleradiology and liability, must be clarified. Legal advice and the observance of quality guidelines are recommended. (orig.) [de

  17. Generation of the Data Required by AGNPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于苏俊

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques and geographic information systems offer a good means of collecting and manipulating the data required to assess conservation practices. A method for automatic generation of most of the data required by the agricultural non-point source (AGNPS) erosion model is put forward from three sources: (1) files with contour lines from topographic maps, (2) soil mapping units from soil surveys, and (3) land cover from land-sat TM image classifications.

  18. Physics Requirements for the ALICE DAQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Vande Vyvre, P

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Abstract The goal of this note is to review the requirements for the DAQ system originated from the various physics topics that will be studied by the ALICE experiment. It summarises all the current requirements both for Pb-Pb and p-p interactions. The consequences in terms of throughput at different stages of the DAQ system are presented for different running scenarios.

  19. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with the section 26 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) the safety requirements to be taken into account in planning laboratories and other premises, which affect safety in the use of radioactive materials, are confirmed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The guide specifies the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive materials are used or stored as unsealed sources. There are also some general instructions concerning work procedures in a radionuclide laboratory

  20. International nuclear planning and manpower requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries one of the most pressing needs is the manpower requirements for the planning, construction, and operation of the nuclear power systems. The indigenous human resources of the respective countries must be educated and trained to a level commensurate with the demands of such an advanced and challenging technology. The issues to be addressed when discussing international nuclear planning and manpower requirements are summarized

  1. Forecasting Medical Materiel Requirements for Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-09

    Antituberculosis Agents 6505008122579 51479004701 ETHAMBUTOL 400MG TABLET 100S BT Antituberculosis Agents 6505001326904 17236018201 ISONIAZID 300MG TABLET ...the Marine Corps’ BAS AMAL required to treat notional patient stream Figure 6. RSVP output for acetaminophen tablets for a fictitious scenario with...patient requirements. This can be seen in Figure 6 below. Here, RSVP projected in this example, the quantity of acetaminophen tablets needed over six

  2. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.L.

    1997-04-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details.

  3. QA manpower requirement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.

    1980-01-01

    To ensure the quality of the plant, QA activities are to be performed by the owner, the main contractor, the subcontractors and the Licensing Authority. The responsibilities of the QA-personnel of these organizations comprise as a minimum the control of the quality assurance systems and the proof of the quality requirements. Numbers of the required QA-personnel, designated for different tasks and recommended educational levels and professional qualifications will be given. (orig./RW)

  4. Grand Gulf-prioritization of regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As cost pressures mount, Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) is relying increasingly on various prioritization approaches to implement, modify, eliminate, or defer regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements can be prioritized through the use of three measures: (1) safety (or risk) significance; (2) cost; and (3) public policy (or political) significance. This paper summarizes GGNS' efforts to implement solutions to regulatory issues using these three prioritization schemes to preserve a balance between cost and safety benefit

  5. Job search requirements for older unemployed workers

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Many OECD countries have, or have had, a policy that exempts older unemployed people from the requirement to search for a job. An aging population and low participation by older workers in the labor market increasingly place public finances under strain, and spur calls for policy measures that activate labor force participation by older workers. Introducing job search requirements for the older unemployed aims to increase their re-employment rates. Abolishing the exemption from job search req...

  6. Grid code requirements for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djagarov, N.; Filchev, S.; Grozdev, Z.; Bonev, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper production data of wind power in Europe and Bulgaria and plans for their development within 2030 are reviewed. The main characteristics of wind generators used in Bulgaria are listed. A review of the grid code in different European countries, which regulate the requirements for renewable sources, is made. European recommendations for requirements harmonization are analyzed. Suggestions for the Bulgarian gird code are made

  7. Power requirements for commercial communications spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billerbeck, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Historical data on commercial spacecraft power systems are presented and their power requirements to the growth of satellite communications channel usage are related. Some approaches for estimating future power requirements of this class of spacecraft through the year 2000 are proposed. The key technology drivers in satellite power systems are addressed. Several technological trends in such systems are described, focusing on the most useful areas for research and development of major subsystems, including solar arrays, energy storage, and power electronics equipment.

  8. Data requirements for integrated near field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilems, R.E.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Faust, C.R.; Brecher, A.

    1981-01-01

    The coupled nature of the various processes in the near field require that integrated models be employed to assess long term performance of the waste package and repository. The nature of the integrated near field models being compiled under the SCEPTER program are discussed. The interfaces between these near field models and far field models are described. Finally, near field data requirements are outlined in sufficient detail to indicate overall programmatic guidance for data gathering activities

  9. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanson, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details

  10. Security measures required for HIPAA privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatayakul, M

    2000-01-01

    HIPAA security requirements include administrative, physical, and technical services and mechanisms to safeguard confidentiality, availability, and integrity of health information. Security measures, however, must be implemented in the context of an organization's privacy policies. Because HIPAA's proposed privacy rules are flexible and scalable to account for the nature of each organization's business, size, and resources, each organization will be determining its own privacy policies within the context of the HIPAA requirements and its security capabilities. Security measures cannot be implemented in a vacuum.

  11. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected

  12. Front Loaded Accurate Requirements Engineering (FLARE): A Requirements Analysis Concept for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonard, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    This thesis focuses on ways to apply requirements engineering techniques and methods during the development and evolution of DoD software systems in an effort to reduce changes to system requirements...

  13. Requirements model generation to support requirements elicitation: The Secure Tropos experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiyavitskaya, N.; Zannone, N.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several efforts have been devoted by researchers in the Requirements Engineering community to the development of methodologies for supporting designers during requirements elicitation, modeling, and analysis. However, these methodologies often lack tool support to facilitate their

  14. A vulnerability-centric requirements engineering framework : Analyzing security attacks, countermeasures, and requirements based on vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elahi, G.; Yu, E.; Zannone, N.

    2010-01-01

    Many security breaches occur because of exploitation of vulnerabilities within the system. Vulnerabilities are weaknesses in the requirements, design, and implementation, which attackers exploit to compromise the system. This paper proposes a methodological framework for security requirements

  15. Nondestructive examination requirements for PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanner, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements for the nondestructive examination of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel internals in accordance with the requirements of the EPRI Material Reliability Program (MRP) inspection standard for PWR internals (MRP-228) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section XI In-service Inspection. The MRP vessel internals examinations have been performed at nuclear plants in the USA since 2009. The objective of the inspection standard is to provide the requirements for the nondestructive examination (NDE) methods implemented to support the inspection and evaluation of the internals. The inspection standard contains requirements specific to the inspection methodologies involved as well as requirements for qualification of the NDE procedures, equipment and personnel used to perform the vessel internals inspections. The qualification requirements for the NDE systems will be summarized. Six PWR plants in the USA have completed inspections of their internals using the Inspection and Evaluation Guideline (MRP-227) and the Inspection Standard (MRP-228). Examination results show few instances of service-induced degradation flaws, as expected. The few instances of degradation have mostly occurred in bolting

  16. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by providing a reliable estimate of future system states. This estimate is a key for planning and decision making in an operational setting. While technology solutions have made considerable advances, the tie-in into the systems engineering process is lagging behind, which delays fielding of PHM-enabled systems. The derivation of specifications from high level requirements for algorithm performance to ensure quality predictions is not well developed. From an engineering perspective some key parameters driving the requirements for prognostics performance include: (1) maximum allowable Probability of Failure (PoF) of the prognostic system to bound the risk of losing an asset, (2) tolerable limits on proactive maintenance to minimize missed opportunity of asset usage, (3) lead time to specify the amount of advanced warning needed for actionable decisions, and (4) required confidence to specify when prognosis is sufficiently good to be used. This paper takes a systems engineering view towards the requirements specification process and presents a method for the flowdown process. A case study based on an electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (e-UAV) scenario demonstrates how top level requirements for performance, cost, and safety flow down to the health management level and specify quantitative requirements for prognostic algorithm performance.

  17. WFIRST: Update on the Coronagraph Science Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Cahoy, Kerri; Carlton, Ashley; Macintosh, Bruce; Turnbull, Margaret; Kasdin, Jeremy; WFIRST Coronagraph Science Investigation Teams

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST Coronagraph instrument (CGI) will enable direct imaging and low resolution spectroscopy of exoplanets in reflected light and imaging polarimetry of circumstellar disks. The CGI science investigation teams were tasked with developing a set of science requirements which advance our knowledge of exoplanet occurrence and atmospheric composition, as well as the composition and morphology of exozodiacal debris disks, cold Kuiper Belt analogs, and protoplanetary systems. We present the initial content, rationales, validation, and verification plans for the WFIRST CGI, informed by detailed and still-evolving instrument and observatory performance models. We also discuss our approach to the requirements development and management process, including the collection and organization of science inputs, open source approach to managing the requirements database, and the range of models used for requirements validation. These tools can be applied to requirements development processes for other astrophysical space missions, and may ease their management and maintenance. These WFIRST CGI science requirements allow the community to learn about and provide insights and feedback on the expected instrument performance and science return.

  18. 40 CFR 63.2343 - What are my requirements for emission sources not requiring control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are my requirements for emission sources not requiring control? 63.2343 Section 63.2343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... (Non-Gasoline) What This Subpart Covers § 63.2343 What are my requirements for emission sources not...

  19. From requirements to Java in a snap model-driven requirements engineering in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Smialek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a coherent methodology for Model-Driven Requirements Engineering which stresses the systematic treatment of requirements within the realm of modelling and model transformations. The underlying basic assumption is that detailed requirements models are used as first-class artefacts playing a direct role in constructing software. To this end, the book presents the Requirements Specification Language (RSL) that allows precision and formality, which eventually permits automation of the process of turning requirements into a working system by applying model transformations and co

  20. Site evaluation for nuclear installations. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-S (Rev. 1). It takes account of developments relating to site evaluations for nuclear installations since the Code on Siting was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication on The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for site evaluation are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear installations. It is recognized that there are steady advances in technology and scientific knowledge, in nuclear safety and in what is considered adequate protection. Safety requirements change with these advances and this publication reflects the present consensus among States. This Safety Requirements publication was prepared under the IAEA programme on safety standards for nuclear installations. It establishes requirements and provides criteria for ensuring safety in site evaluation for nuclear installations. The Safety Guides on site evaluation listed in the references provide recommendations on how to meet the requirements established in this Safety Requirements publication. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements for the elements of a site evaluation for a nuclear installation so as to characterize fully the site specific conditions pertinent to the safety of a nuclear installation. The purpose is to establish requirements for criteria, to be applied as appropriate to site and site-installation interaction in operational states and accident conditions, including those that could lead to emergency measures for: (a) Defining the extent of information on a proposed site to be presented by the applicant; (b) Evaluating a proposed site to ensure that the site