WorldWideScience

Sample records for requirements specification verifiable

  1. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...... subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking...

  2. Specifying and verifying requirements of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Rischel, Hans; Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    1993-01-01

    , a real-time interval logic, where predicates define durations of states. Requirements define safety and functionality constraints on the system or a component. A top-level design is given by a control law: a predicate that defines an automation controlling the transition between phases of operation. Each......An approach to specification of requirements and verification of design for real-time systems is presented. A system is defined by a conventional mathematical model for a dynamic system where application specific states denote functions of real time. Specifications are formulas in duration calculus...... phase maintains certain relations among the system states; this is analogous to the control functions known from conventional control theory. The top-level design is decomposed into an architecture for a distributed system with specifications for sensor, actuator, and program components. Programs...

  3. Verifying cell loss requirements in high-speed communication networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry W. Fendick

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-speed communication networks it is common to have requirements of very small cell loss probabilities due to buffer overflow. Losses are measured to verify that the cell loss requirements are being met, but it is not clear how to interpret such measurements. We propose methods for determining whether or not cell loss requirements are being met. A key idea is to look at the stream of losses as successive clusters of losses. Often clusters of losses, rather than individual losses, should be regarded as the important “loss events”. Thus we propose modeling the cell loss process by a batch Poisson stochastic process. Successive clusters of losses are assumed to arrive according to a Poisson process. Within each cluster, cell losses do not occur at a single time, but the distance between losses within a cluster should be negligible compared to the distance between clusters. Thus, for the purpose of estimating the cell loss probability, we ignore the spaces between successive cell losses in a cluster of losses. Asymptotic theory suggests that the counting process of losses initiating clusters often should be approximately a Poisson process even though the cell arrival process is not nearly Poisson. The batch Poisson model is relatively easy to test statistically and fit; e.g., the batch-size distribution and the batch arrival rate can readily be estimated from cell loss data. Since batch (cluster sizes may be highly variable, it may be useful to focus on the number of batches instead of the number of cells in a measurement interval. We also propose a method for approximately determining the parameters of a special batch Poisson cell loss with geometric batch-size distribution from a queueing model of the buffer content. For this step, we use a reflected Brownian motion (RBM approximation of a G/D/1/C queueing model. We also use the RBM model to estimate the input burstiness given the cell loss rate. In addition, we use the RBM model to

  4. Verifying large SDL-specifications using model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidorova, N.; Steffen, M.; Reed, R.; Reed, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we propose a methodology for model-checking based verification of large SDL specifications. The methodology is illustrated by a case study of an industrial medium-access protocol for wireless ATM. To cope with the state space explosion, the verification exploits the layered and modular

  5. Verifying OCL specifications of UML models : tool support and compositionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyas, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Modelling Language (UML) and the Object Constraint Language (OCL) serve as specification languages for embedded and real-time systems used in a safety-critical environment. In this dissertation class diagrams, object diagrams, and OCL constraints are formalised. The formalisation

  6. Verifying generator waste certification: NTS waste characterization QA requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Brich, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) include the disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) and mixed waste (MW), waste which is both radioactive and hazardous. A majority of the packaged LLW is received from offsite DOE generators. Interim status for receipt of MW at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) was received from the state of Nevada in 1987. The RWMS Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is expected to be operational in 1988 for approved DOE MW generators. The Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification Requirements (NVO-185, Revision 5) delineates waste acceptance criteria for waste disposal at the NTS. Regulation of the hazardous component of mixed waste requires the implementation of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Waste generators must implement a waste certification program to provide assurance that the disposal site waste acceptance criteria are met. The DOE/Nevada Operations Office (NV) developed guidance for generator waste certification program plans. Periodic technical audits are conducted by DOE/NV to assess performance of the waste certification programs. The audit scope is patterned from the waste certification program plan guidance as it integrates and provides a common format for the applicable criteria. The criteria focus on items and activities critical to processing, characterizing, packaging, certifying, and shipping waste

  7. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all SST and DST waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm ESD implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  10. RETRANS - A tool to verify the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the competent technical standards (e.g. IEC 880) it is necessary to verify each step in the development process of safety critical software. This holds also for the verification of automatically generated source code. To avoid human errors during this verification step and to limit the cost effort a tool should be used which is developed independently from the development of the code generator. For this purpose ISTec has developed the tool RETRANS which demonstrates the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its underlying specification. (author)

  11. Improvements to Technical Specifications surveillance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobel, R.; Tjader, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    In August 1983 an NRC task group was formed to investigate problems with surveillance testing required by Technical Specifications, and to recommend approaches to effect improvements. NUREG-1024 (''Technical Specifications-Enhancing Safety Impact'') resulted, and it contained recommendations to review the basis for test frequencies; to ensure that the tests promote safety and do not degrade equipment; and to review surveillance tests so that they do not unnecessarily burden personnel. The Technical Specifications Improvement Program (TSIP) was established in December 1984 to provide the framework for rewriting and improving the Technical Specifications. As an element of the TSIP, all Technical Specifications surveillance requirements were comprehensively examined as recommended in NUREG-1024. The results of that effort are presented in this report. The study found that while some testing at power is essential to verify equipment and system operability, safety can be improved, equipment degradation decreased, and unnecessary personnel burden relaxed by reducing the amount of testing at power

  12. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have...... the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers...... and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression...

  13. FEMO, A FLOW AND ENRICHMENT MONITOR FOR VERIFYING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS REQUIREMENTS AT A GAS CENTRIFUGE ENRICHMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, John E.; Laughter, Mark D.; March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have received construction licenses or are contemplating the construction of large-capacity gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The capability to independently verify nuclear material flows is a key component of international safeguards approaches, and the IAEA does not currently have an approved method to continuously monitor the mass flow of 235U in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas streams. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating the development of a flow and enrichment monitor, or FEMO, based on an existing blend-down monitoring system (BDMS). The BDMS was designed to continuously monitor both 235U mass flow and enrichment of UF6 streams at the low pressures similar to those which exists at GCEPs. BDMSs have been installed at three sites-the first unit has operated successfully in an unattended environment for approximately 10 years. To be acceptable to GCEP operators, it is essential that the instrument be installed and maintained without interrupting operations. A means to continuously verify flow as is proposed by FEMO will likely be needed to monitor safeguards at large-capacity plants. This will enable the safeguards effectiveness that currently exists at smaller plants to be maintained at the larger facilities and also has the potential to reduce labor costs associated with inspections at current and future plants. This paper describes the FEMO design requirements, operating capabilities, and development work required before field demonstration.

  14. A Strategy for Efficiently Verifying Requirements Specifications Using Composition and Invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-05

    Colle - sur - Loup , France, Oct. 1984. Springer-Verlag. [34] J. Ramish. Empirical studies of compositional abstraction. Technical report, Naval Research...global to modular temporal rea- soning about programs. In K. R. Apt, editor, Proc. NATO Adv. Study Inst. on Logics and Models of Concurrent Systems, La

  15. A Requirement Specification Language for AADL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    models. The objective of ReqSpec is to support the elicitation , definition, and modeling of requirements for real-time embedded systems in an iterative...A Requirement Specification Language for AADL Peter H. Feiler Julien Delange Lutz Wrage June 2016 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2016-TR-008...is required for any other external and/or commercial use. Requests for permission should be directed to the Software En- gineering Institute at

  16. Transforming Multidisciplinary Customer Requirements to Product Design Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jie; Ding, Guo-Fu; Qin, Sheng-Feng; Li, Rong; Yan, Kai-Yin; Xiao, Shou-Ne; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing of complexity of complex mechatronic products, it is necessary to involve multidisciplinary design teams, thus, the traditional customer requirements modeling for a single discipline team becomes difficult to be applied in a multidisciplinary team and project since team members with various disciplinary backgrounds may have different interpretations of the customers' requirements. A new synthesized multidisciplinary customer requirements modeling method is provided for obtaining and describing the common understanding of customer requirements (CRs) and more importantly transferring them into a detailed and accurate product design specifications (PDS) to interact with different team members effectively. A case study of designing a high speed train verifies the rationality and feasibility of the proposed multidisciplinary requirement modeling method for complex mechatronic product development. This proposed research offersthe instruction to realize the customer-driven personalized customization of complex mechatronic product.

  17. ROS signalling – Specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2011-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 may induce a general stress response, but it does...... messengers and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. (This is a new project funded by FNU) References: Møller, I.M. & Sweetlove, L.J. 2010. ROS signalling – Specificity is required. Trends Plant Sci. 15: 370-374...... not have the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g., in chloroplasts or mitochondria. We here argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS...

  18. Disturbed holistic processing in autism spectrum disorders verified by two cognitive tasks requiring perception of complex visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahachi, Takayuki; Yamashita, Ko; Iwase, Masao; Ishigami, Wataru; Tanaka, Chitaru; Toyonaga, Koji; Maeda, Shizuyo; Hirotsune, Hideto; Tei, Yosyo; Yokoi, Koichi; Okajima, Shoji; Shimizu, Akira; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2008-06-30

    Central coherence is a key concept in research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It refers to the process in which diverse information is integrated and higher meaning is constructed in context. A malfunction in this process could result in abnormal attention to partial information in preference to the whole. To verify this hypothesis, we studied the performance of two visual tasks by 10 patients with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and by 26 (experiment 1) or 25 (experiment 2) normal subjects. In experiment 1, the subjects memorized pictures, some pictures with a change related to the main theme (D1) and others with a change not related to the main theme (D2); then the same pictures were randomly presented to the subjects who were asked to find the change. In experiment 2, the subjects were presented pictures of a normal (N) or a Thatcherized (T) face arranged side by side inversely (I) or uprightly (U) and to judge them as the same or different. In experiment 1, ASD subjects exhibited significantly lower rates of correct responses in D1 but not in D2. In experiment 2, ASD subjects exhibited significantly longer response times in NT-U but not in TN-I. These results showed a deficit in holistic processing, which is consistent with weak central coherence in ASD.

  19. Technical specifications requirements: Automated reasoning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidsky, L.M.; Dobrzeniecki, A.B.

    1990-03-01

    Several software systems were developed and tested to determine what advantages could be gained from explicitly translating complicated regulatory requirements into computerized relationships. The Technical Specifications for US nuclear power plants were chosen as the test-bed application domain, and two analysis systems were developed to monitor plant compliance with operational limits, and track and schedule equipment test and maintenance activities mandated by Technical Specifications. Choosing PROLOG as the computer language to represent these regulatory requirements resulted in a natural match between the semantic structure of the written specifications and the corollary coded rules. Additional research results affirmed the utility of declarative programming styles, explicit management of problem complexity, and attention to the robustness and flexibility of the overall software systems. 5 refs., 2 figs

  20. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  1. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements

  2. A discussion of higher order software concepts as they apply to functional requirements and specifications. [space shuttles and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M.

    1973-01-01

    The entry guidance software functional requirements (requirements design phase), its architectural requirements (specifications design phase), and the entry guidance software verified code are discussed. It was found that the proper integration of designs at both the requirements and specifications levels are of high priority consideration.

  3. Requirements and specifications for a particle database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    simple as possible, the database will include unique names (or 'id's) for every particle that it stores. Reaction databases can then refer to a specific particle either by id. Where possible, particle ids should be made descriptive to assist human readers in understanding the contents of reaction and particle databases. The particle database is being primarily developed to store nuclei and nuclear states, but it must also be capable of storing some atomic and molecular properties. In particular the database must support atomic electron configurations since they can play an important role in nuclear reactions and decays. Excited nuclear states sometimes decay via internal conversion, 'kicking out' an electron from an inner shell and leaving the remaining electrons to de-excite (emitting x-rays) to fill the new vacancy. Excited atomic states can also be populated through photo-atomic reactions Adding electronic configurations to the database has the potential to drastically increase its size: if unique ids must be given not only to each nucleus and excited nuclear level but also to every possible electron configuration for each nucleus and level, the database will quickly grow to an unmaintainable size. In order to get around this problem and support atomic and molecular properties without drastically increasing the number of particles, the database will allow the use of 'qualifiers' that can be added to a particle to modify its properties. This document describes the requirements and specifications for a particle data hierarchy, including documentation, bibliography information, particle qualifiers as well as particle families and particle groups. This document uses the XML meta-language to illustrate examples of how particle data will be stored. However, like other tasks under SG38, it should be possible to store the particle database in other meta-languages (that is, languages that define a general syntax that can be used to define more specific languages) that support

  4. Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to all types of radioactive waste disposal facility. It is linked to the fundamental safety principles for each disposal option and establishes a set of strategic requirements that must be in place before facilities are developed. Consideration is also given to the safety of existing facilities developed prior to the establishment of present day standards. The requirements will be complemented by Safety Guides that will provide guidance on good practice for meeting the requirements for different types of waste disposal facility. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Safety requirements for planning for the disposal of radioactive waste; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of a disposal facility; 5. Assurance of safety; 6. Existing disposal facilities; Appendices.

  5. Synergy of Technical Specification, functional specifications and scenarios in requirements specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, J.; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Lutters, Diederick; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Krause, Frank-Lothar

    2007-01-01

    In the (mechanical) design process, the requirements specification is a formal registration of the conditions that are imposed on a new or altered product design, both preceding as well as during the corresponding product development cycle. For a long time, the use of technical specifications has

  6. Development Modules for Specification of Requirements for a System of Verification of Parallel Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Yu. Meltsov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the development of one of the modules of the system verification of parallel algorithms that are used to verify the inference engine. This module is designed to build the specification requirements, the feasibility of which on the algorithm is necessary to prove (test.

  7. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  8. PDSS/IMC requirements and functional specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The system (software and hardware) requirements for the Payload Development Support System (PDSS)/Image Motion Compensator (IMC) are provided. The PDSS/IMC system provides the capability for performing Image Motion Compensator Electronics (IMCE) flight software test, checkout, and verification and provides the capability for monitoring the IMC flight computer system during qualification testing for fault detection and fault isolation.

  9. Simulation Data Management - Requirements and Design Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Friedman-Hill, Ernest J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Marcus J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Edward L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olson, Kevin H. [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Reston, VA (United States); Laney, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Simulation Data Management (SDM), the ability to securely organize, archive, and share analysis models and the artifacts used to create them, is a fundamental requirement for modern engineering analysis based on computational simulation. We have worked separately to provide secure, network SDM services to engineers and scientists at our respective laboratories for over a decade. We propose to leverage our experience and lessons learned to help develop and deploy a next-generation SDM service as part of a multi-laboratory team. This service will be portable across multiple sites and platforms, and will be accessible via a range of command-line tools and well-documented APIs. In this document, we’ll review our high-level and low-level requirements for such a system, review one existing system, and briefly discuss our proposed implementation.

  10. LHCb electronics - requirements, specifications and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Bibby, J

    2001-01-01

    This document is intended to serve as a requirements document, a design manual and an implementation reference for the RICH electronics systems. At the current time, the electronics design is under active consideration and this is reflected in this document which represents a working proposal as regards both the functional model and physical implementation. Comments on installation, commissioning, and maintenance are included. For convenience a description of the proposed RICH data formats is appended.

  11. Smart grid standards specifications, requirements, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takuro; Duan, Bin; Macuha, Martin; Zhou, Zhenyu; Wu, Jun; Tariq, Muhammad; Asfaw, Solomon A

    2015-01-01

    With numerous existing Smart Grid standards, it is clear that governments and industrial organizations world-wide have understood and acknowledged the critical role they play. This timely book is a useful guide for Smart Grid professionals in easily classifying fundamental Smart Grid standards, and to quickly find the building blocks they need to analyse and implement a Smart Grid system. The standards are organized in a systematic manner that aids identification, according to grid requirements. It also covers broader Smart Grid areas including, but not limited to, the following: A fully c

  12. FLECH PowerMax Service Requirement Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    It is expected that in the future, ancillary services will be required at distribution level. This work describes how one of these ancillary services, the PowerMax service, must be spec ified within a market framework. The basis of this work is the Flexibility Clearing House (FLE CH) platform...... and the Distribution System Operator (DSO) services defined in [1]. The PowerMax service has been further discussed in [2], and this technical report seeks to clarify the implementation details first discussed in that paper. The aim of the PowerMax service it to relieve congestion issue s in the distribution system...... by establishing a maximum power that a cluster of consumer devices may draw from the syste m. The consumers will receive a payment for providing this service, and the DSO will be able to postpone grid reinfo rcement...

  13. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  14. Status of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Identity verification devices based on the interrogation of six different human biometric features or actions now exist and in general have been in development for about ten years. The capability of these devices to meet the cost and operational requirements of speed, accuracy, ease of use and reliability has generally increased although the verifier industry is still immature. Sandia Laboratories makes a continuing effort to stay abreast of identity verifier developments and to assess the capabilities and improvements of each device. Operating environment and procedures more typical of field use can often reveal performance results substantially different from laboratory tests. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is herein reported

  15. Introducing a game approach towards IS requirements specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Kadoya, Kyoichi; Niwa, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Devising a system requirements specification is a challenging task. Even after several decades of system development research, specifications for large-scale, widely-used systems remain difficult. In this paper, we suggest a first step toward a requirements specification through a stakeholder inv...

  16. Verifier Theory and Unverifiability

    OpenAIRE

    Yampolskiy, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant developments in Proof Theory, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the concept of proof verifier. In particular, the mathematical community may be interested in studying different types of proof verifiers (people, programs, oracles, communities, superintelligences) as mathematical objects. Such an effort could reveal their properties, their powers and limitations (particularly in human mathematicians), minimum and maximum complexity, as well as self-verificati...

  17. Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Nielsen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    . An extensive state of the art is included to introduce the presented methods related to each adjustability dimensions. The options for implementing each adjustability dimensions in a requirement reuse approach are illustrated along with a discussion regarding the benefits and issues resulting from each option....... This discussion should help practitioners to better understand the possible methods that can be implemented and to design a user friendly and sustainable approach. A case study, describing how the dimensions are incorporated in two requirements reuse approaches, for Danfoss Solar Inverters (SI) and Danfoss...

  18. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced

  19. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  20. Verifiably Truthful Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Procaccia, Ariel D.

    2015-01-01

    the computational sense). Our approach involves three steps: (i) specifying the structure of mechanisms, (ii) constructing a verification algorithm, and (iii) measuring the quality of verifiably truthful mechanisms. We demonstrate this approach using a case study: approximate mechanism design without money...

  1. Planning is not sufficient - Reliable computers need good requirements specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matras, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer system reliability is the assurance that a computer system will perform its functions when required to do so. To ensure such reliability, it is important to plan the activities needed for computer system development. These development activities, in turn, require a Computer Quality Assurance Plan (CQAP) that provides the following: a Configuration Management Plan, a Verification and Validation (V and V) Plan, documentation requirements, a defined life cycle, review requirements, and organizational responsibilities. These items are necessary for system reliability; ultimately, however, they are not enough. Development of a reliable system is dependent on the requirements specification. This paper discusses how to use existing industry standards to develop a CQAP. In particular, the paper emphasizes the importance of the requirements specification and of methods for establishing reliability goals. The paper also describes how the revision of ANSI/IEE-ANS-7-4.3.2, Application Criteria for Digital Computer Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stations, has addressed these issues

  2. 47 CFR 76.75 - Specific EEO program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Equal Employment Opportunity Requirements § 76.75 Specific EEO... or sex is prohibited and that they may notify the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the... necessary. Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to require a multichannel video programming...

  3. A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yanjun; Pimple, Malvika; Lande, Suhas

    Many industries are becoming dependent on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for inventory management and asset tracking. The data collected about tagged objects though RFID is used in various high level business operations. The RFID system should hence be highly available, reliable, and dependable and secure. In addition, this system should be able to resist attacks and perform recovery in case of security incidents. Together these requirements give rise to the notion of a survivable RFID system. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and specify the requirements for an RFID system to become survivable. These requirements, if utilized, can assist the system in resisting against devastating attacks and recovering quickly from damages. This paper proposes the techniques and approaches for RFID survivability requirements analysis and specification. From the perspective of system acquisition and engineering, survivability requirement is the important first step in survivability specification, compliance formulation, and proof verification.

  4. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M; González, I; Pavón, M A; Pegels, N; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2010-05-01

    A PCR assay was developed for the identification of meats and commercial meat products from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), partridge (Alectoris spp.), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), pigeon (Columba spp.), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos) based on oligonucleotide primers targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 96, 100, 104, 106, 147, 127, and 154 bp in length for quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock, and song thrush tissues, respectively. The specificity of each primer pair was tested against DNA from various game and domestic species. In this work, satisfactory amplification was accomplished in the analysis of experimentally pasteurized (72 degrees C for 30 min) and sterilized (121 degrees C for 20 min) meats, as well as in commercial meat products from the target species. The technique was also applied to raw and sterilized muscular binary mixtures, with a detection limit of 0.1% (wt/wt) for each of the targeted species. The proposed PCR assay represents a rapid and straightforward method for the detection of possible mislabeling in game bird meat products.

  6. Verifying versus falsifying banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Renesse, Rudolf L.

    1998-04-01

    A series of counterfeit Dutch, German, English, and U.S. banknotes was examined with respect to the various modi operandi to imitate paper based, printed and post-printed security features. These features provide positive evidence (verifiability) as well as negative evidence (falsifiability). It appears that the positive evidence provided in most cases is insufficiently convincing: banknote inspection mainly rests on negative evidence. The act of falsifying (to prove to be false), however, is an inefficacious procedure. Ergonomic verificatory security features are demanded. This demand is increasingly met by security features based on nano- technology. The potential of nano-security has a twofold base: (1) the unique optical effects displayed allow simple, fast and unambiguous inspection, and (2) the nano-technology they are based on, makes successful counterfeit or simulation extremely improbable.

  7. Functional requirement specification in the packaging development chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, Diederick; ten Klooster, Roland

    2008-01-01

    As it is clear that the full packaging life cycle – at least partially – coincides with the product life cycle, both cycles are interwoven. Each has a network of functional requirements, with specific hierarchic propensities. These networks overlap, with prevailing hierarchies playing important

  8. Information Requirements Specification II: Brainstorming Collective Decision-Making Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Moshe

    1988-01-01

    Information requirements specification (IRS) constitutes an Achilles heel in the system life cycle of management information systems. This article establishes a systematic overall IRS technique applicable to organizations of all types and sizes. The technique's integration of brainstorming and theory Z principles creates an effective, stimulating,…

  9. 49 CFR 179.401-1 - Individual specification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) § 179.400-5(d). Standard heat transfer rate. (Btu per day per lb. of water capacity, max.) (see § 179... FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT... restrictions § 179.400-20 179.400-20. Transfer line insulation § 179.400-17 Not required. [Amdt. 179-32, 48 FR...

  10. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, Anastasia G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  11. Verified scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinger, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this essay, the author attempts to enlighten the reader as to the meaning of the term ''verified scientific findings'' in section 13, sub-section 1, sentence 2 of the new Chemicals Control Law. The examples given here are the generally accepted regulations in regards to technology (that is sections 7a and 18b of the WHG (law on water economy), section 3, sub-section 1 of the machine- and engine protection laws) and to the status of technology (section 3, sub-section 6 of the BImSchG (Fed. law on prevention of air-borne pollution)), and to the status of science (section 5, sub-section 2 of the AMG (drug legislation). The ''status of science and technology'' as defined in sections 4 ff of the Atomic Energy Law (AtomG) and in sections 3, 4, 12, 2) of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance (1.StrlSch. VO), is also being discussed. The author defines the in his opinion ''dynamic term'' as the generally recognized result of scientific research, and the respective possibilities of practical utilization of technology. (orig.) [de

  12. Romanian regulatory requirements on nuclear field specific education needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.; Velicu, O.

    2004-01-01

    This work is intended as a general presentation of the educational system and research field, with reference to nuclear sciences, and the legal system, with reference to requirements established by the regulatory body for the professional qualification and periodic training of personnel involved in different activities in the nuclear field. Thus, part 2 and 3 of the work present only public information regarding the education in nuclear sciences and nuclear research in Romania; in part 4 the CNCAN requirements for the personnel training, specific to nuclear activities are slightly detailed; part 5 consists of few words about the public information activities in Romania; and part 6 tries to draw a conclusion. (authors)

  13. Risk impact of BWR technical specifications requirements during shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staple, B.D.; Kirk, H.K.; Yakle, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents an application of probabilistic models and risk based criteria for determining the risk impact of the Limiting Conditions of Operations (LCOs) in the Technical Specifications (TSs) of a boiling water reactor during shutdown. This analysis studied the risk impact of the current requirements of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STIs) in eight Plant Operational States (POSs) which encompass power operations, shutdown, and refueling. This report also discusses insights concerning TS action statements

  14. Testing Library Specifications by Verifying Conformance Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel; Hyland, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    of client programs. Specication and verification researchers regularly face the question of whether the library specications we use are correct and useful, and we have collectively provided no good answers. Over the past few years we have created and refined a software engineering process, which we call...

  15. Modeling of requirement specification for safety critical real time computer system using formal mathematical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Bindu; Sasidhar Rao, B.; Ilango Sambasivam, S.; Swaminathan, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Real time computer systems are increasingly used for safety critical supervision and control of nuclear reactors. Typical application areas are supervision of reactor core against coolant flow blockage, supervision of clad hot spot, supervision of undesirable power excursion, power control and control logic for fuel handling systems. The most frequent cause of fault in safety critical real time computer system is traced to fuzziness in requirement specification. To ensure the specified safety, it is necessary to model the requirement specification of safety critical real time computer systems using formal mathematical methods. Modeling eliminates the fuzziness in the requirement specification and also helps to prepare the verification and validation schemes. Test data can be easily designed from the model of the requirement specification. Z and B are the popular languages used for modeling the requirement specification. A typical safety critical real time computer system for supervising the reactor core of prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) against flow blockage is taken as case study. Modeling techniques and the actual model are explained in detail. The advantages of modeling for ensuring the safety are summarized

  16. Unconditionally verifiable blind quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Blind quantum computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output, and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. We previously proposed [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Atlanta, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, 2009), p. 517] a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with additional functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct another verifiable BQC protocol based on a different class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. This resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest-neighbor form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.

  17. Towards verified systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, J

    2013-01-01

    As the complexity of embedded computer-controlled systems increases, the present industrial practice for their development gives cause for concern, especially for safety-critical applications where human lives are at stake. The use of software in such systems has increased enormously in the last decade. Formal methods, based on firm mathematical foundations, provide one means to help with reducing the risk of introducing errors during specification and development. There is currently much interest in both academic and industrial circles concerning the issues involved, but the techniques still

  18. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  19. Appraising the value of independent EIA follow-up verifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessels, Jan-Albert, E-mail: janalbert.wessels@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Environmental Assessment, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Australia. (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Independent Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) follow-up verifiers such as monitoring agencies, checkers, supervisors and control officers are active on various construction sites across the world. There are, however, differing views on the value that these verifiers add and very limited learning in EIA has been drawn from independent verifiers. This paper aims to appraise how and to what extent independent EIA follow-up verifiers add value in major construction projects in the developing country context of South Africa. A framework for appraising the role of independent verifiers was established and four South African case studies were examined through a mixture of site visits, project document analysis, and interviews. Appraisal results were documented in the performance areas of: planning, doing, checking, acting, public participating and integration with other programs. The results indicate that independent verifiers add most value to major construction projects when involved with screening EIA requirements of new projects, allocation of financial and human resources, checking legal compliance, influencing implementation, reporting conformance results, community and stakeholder engagement, integration with self-responsibility programs such as environmental management systems (EMS), and controlling records. It was apparent that verifiers could be more creatively utilized in pre-construction preparation, providing feedback of knowledge into assessment of new projects, giving input to the planning and design phase of projects, and performance evaluation. The study confirms the benefits of proponent and regulator follow-up, specifically in having independent verifiers that disclose information, facilitate discussion among stakeholders, are adaptable and proactive, aid in the integration of EIA with other programs, and instill trust in EIA enforcement by conformance evaluation. Overall, the study provides insight on how to harness the learning opportunities

  20. Appraising the value of independent EIA follow-up verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, Jan-Albert; Retief, Francois; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Independent Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) follow-up verifiers such as monitoring agencies, checkers, supervisors and control officers are active on various construction sites across the world. There are, however, differing views on the value that these verifiers add and very limited learning in EIA has been drawn from independent verifiers. This paper aims to appraise how and to what extent independent EIA follow-up verifiers add value in major construction projects in the developing country context of South Africa. A framework for appraising the role of independent verifiers was established and four South African case studies were examined through a mixture of site visits, project document analysis, and interviews. Appraisal results were documented in the performance areas of: planning, doing, checking, acting, public participating and integration with other programs. The results indicate that independent verifiers add most value to major construction projects when involved with screening EIA requirements of new projects, allocation of financial and human resources, checking legal compliance, influencing implementation, reporting conformance results, community and stakeholder engagement, integration with self-responsibility programs such as environmental management systems (EMS), and controlling records. It was apparent that verifiers could be more creatively utilized in pre-construction preparation, providing feedback of knowledge into assessment of new projects, giving input to the planning and design phase of projects, and performance evaluation. The study confirms the benefits of proponent and regulator follow-up, specifically in having independent verifiers that disclose information, facilitate discussion among stakeholders, are adaptable and proactive, aid in the integration of EIA with other programs, and instill trust in EIA enforcement by conformance evaluation. Overall, the study provides insight on how to harness the learning opportunities

  1. Alloy 800 specifications in compliance with component requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, H.; Bodmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    In view of the importance of the material Alloy 800 in high-temperature reactor plants (HTR), a material data bank was established which is used for statistical evaluation of mechanical and physical material behaviour. Based on investigations on the interconnection between the mechanical properties at high temperatures and the metallurgical parameters, different types of Alloy 800 were specified in compliance with the component requirements. In addition, aspects of corrosion and toughness behaviour were taken into consideration. The specifications and strength characteristics for the different variants of Alloy 800 were incorporated into draft DIN standards after discussion and approval in expert committees. Further important characteristics of the mechanical and physical material behaviour were summarized in HTR material data sheets so as to furnish an improved basis for the design and stress analyses of Alloy 800 components. (orig.)

  2. [Technological innovations in radiation oncology require specific quality controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, E; Mathot, M

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, the field of radiotherapy has benefited from major technological innovations and continuously improving treatment efficacy, comfort and safety of patients. This mainly concerns the imaging techniques that allow 4D CT scan recording the respiratory phases, on-board imaging on linear accelerators that ensure perfect positioning of the patient for treatment and irradiation techniques that reduce very significantly the duration of treatment sessions without compromising quality of the treatment plan, including IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy) and VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc therapy). In this context of rapid technological change, it is the responsibility of medical physicists to regularly and precisely monitor the perfect functioning of new techniques to ensure patient safety. This requires the use of specific quality control equipment best suited to these new techniques. We will briefly describe the measurement system Delta4 used to control individualized treatment plan for each patient treated with VMAT technology.

  3. The status of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Identity verification devices based on the interrogation of six different human biometric features or actions now exist and in general have been in development for about ten years. The capability of these devices to meet the cost and operational requirements of speed, accuracy, ease of use and reliability has generally increased although the verifier industry is still immature. Sandia Laboratories makes a continuing effort to stay abreast of identity verifier developments and to assess the capabilities and improvements of each device. Operating environment and procedures more typical of field use can often reveal performance results substantially different from laboratory tests. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is herein reported

  4. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project

  5. Understanding the technical content of requirements in specification document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    development process, is essential to be devised in advance. To achieve this aim, understanding how to formulate a good requirement is necessary and it is only possible if design engineers understand the technical content of a requirement. In aiming to understand the technical content of a requirement...

  6. Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    results into the larger proof framework of the seL4 microkernel to be directly usable in practice. Beyond the stated project goals, the solution...CakeML, can now also be used in the Isabelle/HOL system that was used for the verified seL4 microkernel. This combination increases proof productivity...were used for the verified ML compiler CakeML, can now also be used in the Isabelle/HOL system that was used for the verified seL4 microkernel. This

  7. 49 CFR 178.35 - General requirements for specification cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of part 107 of this chapter; or (2) For DOT Specifications 3B, 3BN, 3E, 4B, 4BA, 4D (water capacity...) The word “spun” or “plug” must be placed near the DOT specification marking when an end closure in the... certifies that the processes of manufacture and heat treatment of cylinders were observed and found...

  8. Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Specific Safety Requirements (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  9. Safety of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements for all main areas of safety for research reactors, with particular emphasis on requirements for design and operation. It explains the safety objectives and concepts that form the basis for safety and safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of new research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives and concepts, and they are to be applied to the extent practicable for existing research reactors. The safety requirements established in this publication for the management of safety and regulatory supervision apply to site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation (including utilization and modification), and planning for decommissioning of research reactors (including critical assemblies and subcritical assemblies). The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies and other organizations with responsibilities in these areas and in safety analysis, verification and review, and the provision of technical support.

  10. Input data required for specific performance assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Starmer, R.J.; Dicke, C.A.; Leonard, P.R.; Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated this report on input data requirements for computer codes to assist States and compacts in their performance assessments. This report gives generators, developers, operators, and users some guidelines on what input data is required to satisfy 22 common performance assessment codes. Each of the codes is summarized and a matrix table is provided to allow comparison of the various input required by the codes. This report does not determine or recommend which codes are preferable

  11. Quantifying Functional Reuse from Object Oriented Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Condori-Fernández, N.; Pastor, O; Daneva, Maia; Abran, A.; Castro, J.; Quer, C.; Carvallo, J. B.; Fernandes da Silva, L.

    2008-01-01

    Software reuse is essential in improving efficiency and productivity in the software development process. This paper analyses reuse within requirements engineering phase by taking and adapting a standard functional size measurement method, COSMIC FFP. Our proposal attempts to quantify reusability

  12. Specification for Visual Requirements of Work-Centered Software Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapp, James R; Chung, Soon M; Schmidt, Vincent A

    2006-01-01

    .... In order to ensure the coherent development and delivery of work-centered software products, WCSS visual requirements must be specified to capture the cognitive aspects of the user interface design...

  13. Strengthening requirement specification in sustainable procurement - an investigation of challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    To reap the benefits of sustainability in the construction sector, it is crucial that the stakeholders involved can implement it in practice. Investigations have shown that choices made in the early phases of the building process are of very great importance for the outcome and the initiatives...... and decisions taken by the building owner are crucial.This paper presents research on Danish building practitioners' ability to make requirements for sustainability in procurement. On the basis of an action research strategy, we asked practitioners to help identify the challenges involved in requiring...

  14. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a ''living document'' that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work

  15. 30 CFR 23.7 - Specific requirements for approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate instructions for the installation and connection of telephones and signal devices in order that the safety of these devices and other circuits shall not be diminished by improper installation. MSHA reserves the right to require the attachment of wiring diagrams to the cases of telephones and signal...

  16. Risk-Based Confidentiality Requirements Specification for Outsourced IT Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    Today, companies are required to be in control of their IT assets, and to provide proof of this in the form of independent IT audit reports. However, many companies have outsourced various parts of their IT systems to other companies, which potentially threatens the control they have of their IT

  17. Practical Relevance of Experiments in Comprehensibility of Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Herrmann, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Requirements Engineering (RE) community has become increasingly aware of the importance of carrying out industry-relevant research. Researchers and practitioners should be able to evaluate the relevance of their empirical research to increase the likely adoption of RE methods in

  18. System requirements specification for waste information and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the requirements for the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). The document defines the functions, constraints, and objectives that pertain to WICS. This shall serve as the baseline document to ensure the needs of the Hazardous Material Control group (HMC) at 222-S Laboratory are met with regard to assurance of accuracy and quality of data taken with WICS

  19. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... received a capitalization grant and, if the deposit was expended, it was expended in accordance with title... after it receives the payment, the RA may withhold future quarterly grant payments, and require... procedures regarding the commitment or expenditure of revenues. (h) State accounting and auditing procedures...

  20. An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

  1. Software Requirement Specifications For ASocial Media Threat Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    media means a much higher volume of threats than before, which taxes law enforcement’s ability to investigate each one. Complicating the investigation...Obtaining the identity of a Twitter account holder requires court paperwork based on probable cause or exigent circumstances. Second, social media...instant connectivity of social media means a much higher number of threats than before, which taxes law enforcement’s ability to investigate each one

  2. 20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verifying your identity. 401.45 Section 401... INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 401.45 Verifying your identity. (a) When required. Unless you are making a... representative, you must verify your identity in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section if: (1) You make a...

  3. Software requirements specification document for the AREST code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.; Whitney, P.D.; Gray, W.J.; Williford, R.E.; White, M.D.; Eslinger, P.W.; Altenhofen, M.K.

    1993-11-01

    The Analysis of the Repository Source Term (AREST) computer code was selected in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The AREST code will be used to analyze the performance of an underground high level nuclear waste repository. The AREST code is being modified by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in order to evaluate the engineered barrier and waste package designs, model regulatory compliance, analyze sensitivities, and support total systems performance assessment modeling. The current version of the AREST code was developed to be a very useful tool for analyzing model uncertainties and sensitivities to input parameters. The code has also been used successfully in supplying source-terms that were used in a total systems performance assessment. The current version, however, has been found to be inadequate for the comparison and selection of a design for the waste package. This is due to the assumptions and simplifications made in the selection of the process and system models. Thus, the new version of the AREST code will be designed to focus on the details of the individual processes and implementation of more realistic models. This document describes the requirements of the new models that will be implemented. Included in this document is a section describing the near-field environmental conditions for this waste package modeling, description of the new process models that will be implemented, and a description of the computer requirements for the new version of the AREST code

  4. Are patient specific meshes required for EIT head imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Markus; Aristovich, Kirill; Faulkner, Mayo; Holder, David

    2016-06-01

    Head imaging with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is usually done with time-differential measurements, to reduce time-invariant modelling errors. Previous research suggested that more accurate head models improved image quality, but no thorough analysis has been done on the required accuracy. We propose a novel pipeline for creation of precise head meshes from magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans, which was applied to four different heads. Voltages were simulated on all four heads for perturbations of different magnitude, haemorrhage and ischaemia, in five different positions and for three levels of instrumentation noise. Statistical analysis showed that reconstructions on the correct mesh were on average 25% better than on the other meshes. However, the stroke detection rates were not improved. We conclude that a generic head mesh is sufficient for monitoring patients for secondary strokes following head trauma.

  5. Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, T. H.; Tautges, T. J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a crucial role by providing confidence that component and system designs will satisfy established design limits and safety margins under a wide variety of operational, design basis, and beyond design basis transient conditions. Current modeling capabilities for fast reactor safety analyses have resulted from several hundred person-years of code development effort supported by experimental validation. The broad spectrum of mechanistic and phenomenological models that have been developed represent an enormous amount of institutional knowledge that needs to be maintained. Complicating this, the existing code architectures for safety modeling evolved from programming practices of the 1970s. This has lead to monolithic applications with interdependent data models which require significant knowledge of the complexities of the entire code in order for each component to be maintained. In order to develop an advanced fast reactor safety modeling capability, the limitations of the existing code architecture must be overcome while preserving the capabilities that already exist. To accomplish this, a set of advanced safety modeling requirements is defined, based on modern programming practices, that focuses on modular development within a flexible coupling framework. An approach for integrating the existing capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 fast reactor safety analysis code into the SHARP framework is provided in order to preserve existing capabilities while providing a smooth transition to advanced modeling capabilities. In doing this, the advanced fast reactor safety models will

  6. Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H.; Tautges, T. J.

    2008-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a crucial role by providing confidence that component and system designs will satisfy established design limits and safety margins under a wide variety of operational, design basis, and beyond design basis transient conditions. Current modeling capabilities for fast reactor safety analyses have resulted from several hundred person-years of code development effort supported by experimental validation. The broad spectrum of mechanistic and phenomenological models that have been developed represent an enormous amount of institutional knowledge that needs to be maintained. Complicating this, the existing code architectures for safety modeling evolved from programming practices of the 1970s. This has lead to monolithic applications with interdependent data models which require significant knowledge of the complexities of the entire code in order for each component to be maintained. In order to develop an advanced fast reactor safety modeling capability, the limitations of the existing code architecture must be overcome while preserving the capabilities that already exist. To accomplish this, a set of advanced safety modeling requirements is defined, based on modern programming practices, that focuses on modular development within a flexible coupling framework. An approach for integrating the existing capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 fast reactor safety analysis code into the SHARP framework is provided in order to preserve existing capabilities while providing a smooth transition to advanced modeling capabilities. In doing this, the advanced fast reactor safety models

  7. Asymmetric cell division requires specific mechanisms for adjusting global transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Adriana; Medina, Daniel A; García-Martínez, José; Begley, Victoria; Singh, Abhyudai; Chávez, Sebastián; Muñoz-Centeno, Mari C; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2017-12-01

    Most cells divide symmetrically into two approximately identical cells. There are many examples, however, of asymmetric cell division that can generate sibling cell size differences. Whereas physical asymmetric division mechanisms and cell fate consequences have been investigated, the specific problem caused by asymmetric division at the transcription level has not yet been addressed. In symmetrically dividing cells the nascent transcription rate increases in parallel to cell volume to compensate it by keeping the actual mRNA synthesis rate constant. This cannot apply to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where this mechanism would provoke a never-ending increasing mRNA synthesis rate in smaller daughter cells. We show here that, contrarily to other eukaryotes with symmetric division, budding yeast keeps the nascent transcription rates of its RNA polymerases constant and increases mRNA stability. This control on RNA pol II-dependent transcription rate is obtained by controlling the cellular concentration of this enzyme. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Robust design requirements specification: a quantitative method for requirements development using quality loss functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Nygaard; Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Product requirements serve many purposes in the product development process. Most importantly, they are meant to capture and facilitate product goals and acceptance criteria, as defined by stakeholders. Accurately communicating stakeholder goals and acceptance criteria can be challenging and more...

  9. 40 CFR 166.32 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions. 166.32 Section 166.32 Protection of... AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.32 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health...

  10. Computer-Aided Discovery of Formal Specification Behavioral Requirements and Requirement to Implementation Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the executable SRM is developed according to the specification and marketing documents. Hence, for example, the Vehicles, Car, and Truck classes in...transitions ternary relation: transitions ⊆ states x transitionIDs x states, such as <"Init", "Tr1", " stP "> • A conditions unary relation bound to

  11. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., Standards and Requirements Identification Document (SRID) Requirements Management System and Requirements Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The current Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP), River Protection Project (RPP), CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), will use a computer based requirements management system. The system will serve as a tool to assist in identifying, capturing, and maintaining the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) requirements and links to implementing procedures and other documents. By managing requirements as one integrated set, CHG will be able to carry out its mission more efficiently and effectively. CHG has chosen the Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS(trademark)) as the preferred computer based requirements management system. Accordingly, the S/RID program will use DOORS(trademark). DOORS(trademark) will replace the Environmental Requirements Management Interface (ERMI) system as the tool for S/RID data management. The DOORS(trademark) S/RID test project currently resides on the DOORSTM test server. The S/RID project will be migrated to the DOORS(trademark) production server. After the migration the S/RID project will be considered a production project and will no longer reside on the test server

  12. [Definition and specification requirements for PAC-systems (picture archiving and communication system). A performance index with reference to the standard "IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirement Specifications"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, H; Klose, K J

    1999-04-01

    The formulation of requirements is necessary to control the goals of a PACS project. Furthermore, in this way, the scope of functionality necessary to support radiological working processes becomes clear. Definitions of requirements and specification are formulated independently of systems according to the IEEE standard "Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications". Definitions are given in the Request for Information, specifications in the Request for Proposal. Functional and non-functional requirements are distinguished. The solutions are rated with respect to scope, appropriateness and quality of implementation. A PACS checklist was created according to the methods described above. It is published on the homepage of the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Informationstechnologie" (AGIT) within the "Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft" (DRG) (http://www.uni-marburg.de/mzr/agit). The checklist provides a discussion forum which should contribute to an agreement on accepted basic PACS functionalities.

  13. Definition and specification for PACS. A checklist based on the standard ''IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.; Klose, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Problem: The formulation of requirements is necessary to control the goals of a PACS project. Furthermore, in this way, the scope of functionality necessary to support radiological working processes becomes clear. Method: Definitions of requirements and specification are formulated independently of systems according to the IEEE standard 'Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications'. Definitions are given in the Request for Information, specifications in the Request for Proposal. Functional and non-functional requirements are distinguished. The solutions are rated with respect to scope, appropriateness and quality of implementation. Results: A PACS checklist was created according to the methods described above. It is published on the homepage of the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Informationstechnologie' (AGIT) within the 'Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft' (DRG) (http://www.uni-marburg.de/mzr.agit). Conclusion: The checklist provides a discussion forum which should contribute to an agreement on accepted basic PACS functionalities. (orig.) [de

  14. A performance evaluation of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.; Wright, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Personnel identity verification devices, which are based on the examination and assessment of a body feature or a unique repeatable personal action, are steadily improving. These biometric devices are becoming more practical with respect to accuracy, speed, user compatibility, reliability and cost, but more development is necessary to satisfy the varied and sometimes ill-defined future requirements of the security industry. In an attempt to maintain an awareness of the availability and the capabilities of identity verifiers for the DOE security community, Sandia Laboratories continues to comparatively evaluate the capabilities and improvements of developing devices. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is discussed in this paper. Operating environments and procedures more typical of physical access control use can reveal performance substantially different from the basic laboratory tests

  15. Optimised resource construction for verifiable quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashefi, Elham; Wallden, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments have brought the possibility of achieving scalable quantum networks and quantum devices closer. From the computational point of view these emerging technologies become relevant when they are no longer classically simulatable. Hence a pressing challenge is the construction of practical methods to verify the correctness of the outcome produced by universal or non-universal quantum devices. A promising approach that has been extensively explored is the scheme of verification via encryption through blind quantum computation. We present here a new construction that simplifies the required resources for any such verifiable protocol. We obtain an overhead that is linear in the size of the input (computation), while the security parameter remains independent of the size of the computation and can be made exponentially small (with a small extra cost). Furthermore our construction is generic and could be applied to any universal or non-universal scheme with a given underlying graph. (paper)

  16. Functions and Requirements and Specifications for Replacement of the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This functions, requirements and specifications document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of the system to replace the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS) alarm monitoring

  17. Leveraging Parallel Data Processing Frameworks with Verified Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaz Bin Safeer Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many parallel data frameworks have been proposed in recent years that let sequential programs access parallel processing. To capitalize on the benefits of such frameworks, existing code must often be rewritten to the domain-specific languages that each framework supports. This rewriting–tedious and error-prone–also requires developers to choose the framework that best optimizes performance given a specific workload. This paper describes Casper, a novel compiler that automatically retargets sequential Java code for execution on Hadoop, a parallel data processing framework that implements the MapReduce paradigm. Given a sequential code fragment, Casper uses verified lifting to infer a high-level summary expressed in our program specification language that is then compiled for execution on Hadoop. We demonstrate that Casper automatically translates Java benchmarks into Hadoop. The translated results execute on average 3.3x faster than the sequential implementations and scale better, as well, to larger datasets.

  18. Verified Subtyping with Traits and Mixins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asankhaya Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mixins used in the Scala standard library do indeed conform to subtyping between the traits that are used to build them.

  19. 78 FR 47015 - Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0195] Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... issuing a revised regulatory guide (RG), revision 1 of RG 1.172, ``Software Requirement Specifications for...

  20. Electronic Health Record in Occupational Medicine: Specific Aspects and Requirements of Data Structuring and Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin TRIFF

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The service of occupational medicine of a specific economic agent, as integrated part of the System of Labor Health and Safety, requires efficient, well-organized information management through standardized and computerized data processing and exploitation. Legal requirements and practical aspects of information management in occupational medicine trigger necessary operational modifications in the Electronic Health File. The goal of the paper is to present basic requirements of structuring the electronic health file and the necessary standards in recording specific data.

  1. A Hybrid Parallel Execution Model for Logic Based Requirement Specifications (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. P. Tsai

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that undiscovered errors in a requirements specification is extremely expensive to be fixed when discovered in the software maintenance phase. Errors in the requirement phase can be reduced through the validation and verification of the requirements specification. Many logic-based requirements specification languages have been developed to achieve these goals. However, the execution and reasoning of a logic-based requirements specification can be very slow. An effective way to improve their performance is to execute and reason the logic-based requirements specification in parallel. In this paper, we present a hybrid model to facilitate the parallel execution of a logic-based requirements specification language. A logic-based specification is first applied by a data dependency analysis technique which can find all the mode combinations that exist within a specification clause. This mode information is used to support a novel hybrid parallel execution model, which combines both top-down and bottom-up evaluation strategies. This new execution model can find the failure in the deepest node of the search tree at the early stage of the evaluation, thus this new execution model can reduce the total number of nodes searched in the tree, the total processes needed to be generated, and the total communication channels needed in the search process. A simulator has been implemented to analyze the execution behavior of the new model. Experiments show significant improvement based on several criteria.

  2. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  3. Effects of Using Requirements Catalogs on Effectiveness and Productivity of Requirements Specification in a Software Project Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Meca, Joaquín Vidal; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two educational experiments carried out to determine whether the process of specifying requirements (catalog-based reuse as opposed to conventional specification) has an impact on effectiveness and productivity in co-located and distributed software development environments. The participants in the experiments…

  4. Specifying and Verifying Concurrent Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    for Verification and Specification of Concurrent Systems, held in La - Colle - Sur - Loup , France in October, 1984. Work Supported in part by the National...Proc. ACM Symposium on Princi- 0 ples of Programming Languages, Las Vegas, (January 1980), 251-261. [7] J. V. Guttag and J. J. Horning. An Introduction...names in ’V(S). However, the two formulas behave differently under a renaming mapping p. In particu- lar. p(Vv :A( LA )) equals Vv :p(A(v)), so the

  5. Certification of packagings: compliance with DOT specification 7A packaging requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine which of the packagings currently listed in CFR 49 Section 173.395 a.1-5, meet the Specification 7A requirements (CFR 49 Section 173.350). According to DOT HM-111 the present listing of various authorized DOT specifications in Section 173.394 and Section 173.395 (Type A containers) of ICC Tariff No. 27 would be deleted with complete reliance being placed on the use of DOT 7A, Type A general packaging specification. Each user of a Specification 7A package would be required to document and maintain on file for one year a written record of his determination of compliance with the DOT Specification 7A performance requirements. All the specification packagings listed in CFR 49 Section 173.395a.1-5 were tested and shown to meet the Specification 7A criteria; however, in many cases qualifications were placed on their use. Forty-nine specification packagings were tested and shown to meet the DOT Specification 7A performance requirements and since there were several styles of some specific packagings, this amounts to greater than 80 packagings. The extensive testing generally indicated a high degree of containment integrity in the packagings tested and the documentation discussed is a valuable tool for shippers of Type A quantities of radioactive materials

  6. The Mitochondrial Lon Protease Is Required for Age-Specific and Sex-Specific Adaptation to Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Laura C D; Carney, Caroline; Shen, Brenda; Wong, Sarah; Halaszynski, Kelly; Salomon, Matthew P; Davies, Kelvin J A; Tower, John

    2017-01-09

    Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity. Adaptation to oxidative stress is lost with age in both sexes. Transgenic expression of transformer gene during development transforms chromosomal males into pseudo-females and confers the female-specific pattern of Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H 2 O 2 stress adaptation; these effects were also observed using adult-specific transformation. Conversely, knockdown of transformer in chromosomal females eliminates the female-specific Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H 2 O 2 stress adaptation and produces the male-specific paraquat (superoxide) stress adaptation. Sex-specific expression of alternative Lon isoforms was also observed in mouse tissues. The results develop Drosophila melanogaster as a model for sex-specific stress adaptation regulated by the Lon protease, with potential implications for understanding sexual dimorphism in human disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific requirements of GS-R3 related to process implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, N.

    2009-01-01

    The PowerPoint presentation gives: an overview of IAEA management system requirements or topics; - the requirements specific to processes and process implementation; - the key practical challenge of using the process approach specified in IAEA SG GS-G3.1 and GS-G3.5. The following items are thoroughly discussed: - Requirements related to specific process implementation and developing processes; - Process management; Generic management; - System processes: - Control of documents; Control of products; Control of records; - Purchasing; - Communication; - Managing organizational change; - Other requirements concerning the process management system; - General management system; - Grading; - Documentation; - Fulfilling the requirements of interested parties; - Management responsibility; - Planning responsibility and authority for the management system monitoring and measurement; - Independent assessment; - Management system review; - Non-conformances, corrective and preventive actions; - Improvement key practical challenge of using the process approach specified in IAEA SG GS-G3.1 and GS-G3.5; - Key challenge: - Process common to all stages; - Phases of process development proposed by IAEA. The following conclusions complete the presentation: GS-R-3 sets basic requirements for process-based integrated management system; - Some key generic processes required, no specific process model favoured namely, no reference to management, core and support processes; - Up to organization to determine appropriate process model; - Easily applicable to a wide range of facilities and activities, including those of a regulatory body; - Specific requirements are found in specific Safety Guide. (author)

  8. Software requirements specification for the program analysis and control system risk management module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAEFER, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    TWR Program Analysis and Control System Risk Module is used to facilitate specific data processes surrounding the Risk Management program of the Tank Waste Retrieval environment. This document contains the Risk Management system requirements of the database system

  9. Specification of Behavioural Requirements within Compositional Multi-Agent System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herlea, D.E.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how informal and formal specification of behavioural requirements and scenarios for agents and multi-agent systems can be integrated within multi-agent system design. In particular, it is addressed how a compositional

  10. System requirement specifications for the Z-plant materials information tracking system (ZMITS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NEGIN, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    This is a system requirement specification for a database which will be developed to track classified information related to nuclear materials stored at PFP. The system will supplement existing databases to support both processing and disposition information needs

  11. Appraisal of work ability in relation to job-specific health requirements in ambulance workers

    OpenAIRE

    van Schaaijk, A.; Boschman, J. S.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Method Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance worker...

  12. Verifying design patterns in Hoare Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Buisse, Alexandre; Birkedal, Lars

    In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory.......In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory....

  13. USCIS E-Verify Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The report builds on the last comprehensive evaluation of the E-Verify Program and demonstrates that E-Verify produces accurate results and that accuracy rates have...

  14. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel... fireplace stoves certified under the HUD Building Products Certification Program shall be designed...

  15. 77 FR 50726 - Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software and Complex Electronics Used in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Computer Software and Complex Electronics Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-1209, ``Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software and Complex Electronics used... Electronics Engineers (ANSI/IEEE) Standard 830-1998, ``IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements...

  16. Treated effluent disposal system process control computer software requirements and specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The software requirements for the monitor and control system that will be associated with the effluent collection pipeline system known as the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal System is covered. The control logic for the two pump stations and specific requirements for the graphic displays are detailed

  17. 24 CFR 200.940 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for sealed insulating glass units... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for... specific building product certification program. In the case of sealed insulating glass units, testing and...

  18. 24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for fenestration products (windows and... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification program for... testing for a product shall be described in the specific building product certification program. In the...

  19. 40 CFR 53.51 - Demonstration of compliance with design specifications and manufacturing and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 § 53.51 Demonstration of... standard specification 8625F, Type II, Class I (reference 4 in appendix A of this subpart) in the same way... specifications and manufacturing and test requirements. 53.51 Section 53.51 Protection of Environment...

  20. Getting the balance right between functional and non-functional requirements: the case of requirement specification in IT procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Johansson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IT procurement represents a business process of high importance, including the ability to articulate requirements that the procurement deals with. Furthermore, specifying requirements is of importance for both procurer and potential supplier, as it functions as central contractual element between the two. The purpose of this article is two-fold: (i to show how established terminology for requirement specification is represented in current call for bids for the procurement of IT; and (ii to introduce an organizing framework that may assist procurers in actively addressing functional requirements and business requirements. Ten “call for bids” were examined from a Swedish national procurement database. From the analysis of the bids, it can be concluded that: (i the call for bids displays a high degree of precision regarding hardware aspects, but less precision regarding software; (ii supplier experience and competence is stressed, but rarely elaborated on in detail; and (iii call for bids vagueness may be used as a lock-in opportunity for suppliers. From the discussion on this, a tentative procurement framework is suggested, aiming on increasing the logical transparency for the procurement of IT.

  1. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  2. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (French Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  3. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  4. Certification of ERDA contractors' packaging with respect to compliance with DOT specification 7A performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.; Griffin, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to have one ERDA contractor: (1) compile a list of specification packagings, proposed by ERDA contractors, for shipping Type A quantities of radioactive material, and (2) analyze these packages for conformance to Specification 7A requirements. This study was divided into two phases. Phase I provides a report on those packages which could be shown, based on existing test data and engineering analyses, to conform to DOT Specification 7A packaging requirements. The results of Phase I are discussed in detail in the publication, ''Certification of AEC Contractor's Packagings With Respect to Compliance with DOT Specification 7A Performance Requirements -- Phase I Summary Report,'' D. A. Edling, H. E. Meyer and G. L. Phillabaum (Schedule 189C, May 26, 1974). The objectives of Phase II were: (1) identification of packages from Phase I for which available information was not adequate for certification. (Those specification containers used by ERDA contractors and those containers for which adequate information was available for certification are listed in the Phase I summary report.); (2) identification of specific test/engineering analysis data required; (3) generation/procurement of these data; and (4) documentation of study results for use by all ERDA contractors and private industry. The results of Phase II of the study are presented. (U.S.)

  5. Handbook of methods for risk-based analysis of technical specification requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements were based on deterministic analysis and engineering judgments. Experiences with plant operation indicate that some elements of the requirements are unnecessarily restrictive, while others may not be conducive to safety. Improvements in these requirements are facilitated by the availability of plant specific Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The use of risk and reliability-based methods to improve TS requirements has gained wide interest because these methods can: Quantitatively evaluate the risk and justify changes based on objective risk arguments; Provide a defensible basis for these requirements for regulatory applications. The US NRC Office of Research is sponsoring research to develop systematic risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. The handbook of methods, which is being prepared, summarizes such risk-based methods. The scope of the handbook includes reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), defenses against common-cause failures, managing plant configurations, and scheduling maintenances. For each topic, the handbook summarizes methods of analysis and data needs, outlines the insights to be gained, lists additional references, and presents examples of evaluations

  6. Handbook of methods for risk-based analysis of Technical Specification requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements were based on deterministic analysis and engineering judgments. Experiences with plant operation indicate that some elements of the requirements are unnecessarily restrictive, while others may not be conducive to safety. Improvements in these requirements are facilitated by the availability of plant specific Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The use of risk and reliability-based methods to improve TS requirements has gained wide interest because these methods can: quantitatively evaluate the risk impact and justify changes based on objective risk arguments. Provide a defensible basis for these requirements for regulatory applications. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Office of Research is sponsoring research to develop systematic risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. The handbook of methods, which is being prepared, summarizes such risk-based methods. The scope of the handbook includes reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), defenses against common-cause failures, managing plant configurations, and scheduling maintenances. For each topic, the handbook summarizes methods of analysis and data needs, outlines the insights to be gained, lists additional references, and presents examples of evaluations

  7. Verifiable process monitoring through enhanced data authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Joao G.M.; Schwalbach, Peter; Schoeneman, Barry Dale; Ross, Troy D.; Baldwin, George Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the peaceful intent for production and processing of nuclear fuel, verifiable process monitoring of the fuel production cycle is required. As part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-EURATOM collaboration in the field of international nuclear safeguards, the DOE Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and Directorate General-Energy (DG-ENER) developed and demonstrated a new concept in process monitoring, enabling the use of operator process information by branching a second, authenticated data stream to the Safeguards inspectorate. This information would be complementary to independent safeguards data, improving the understanding of the plant's operation. The concept is called the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS). EDAS transparently captures, authenticates, and encrypts communication data that is transmitted between operator control computers and connected analytical equipment utilized in nuclear processes controls. The intent is to capture information as close to the sensor point as possible to assure the highest possible confidence in the branched data. Data must be collected transparently by the EDAS: Operator processes should not be altered or disrupted by the insertion of the EDAS as a monitoring system for safeguards. EDAS employs public key authentication providing 'jointly verifiable' data and private key encryption for confidentiality. Timestamps and data source are also added to the collected data for analysis. The core of the system hardware is in a security enclosure with both active and passive tamper indication. Further, the system has the ability to monitor seals or other security devices in close proximity. This paper will discuss the EDAS concept, recent technical developments, intended application philosophy and the planned future progression of this system.

  8. The impact of technical specification surveillance requirements and allowable outage times on plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.A.; Finnicum, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Surveillances required to be conducted by a plant's Technical Specifications have resulted in plant shutdowns and lost availability. This paper looks at shutdowns which have occurred due to required surveillance testing and insufficient repair time allowed by Technical Specifications. A loss of plant availability of almost 3% per plant year was found for U.S. pressurized water reactors during the five year period, 1979 to 1984. This figure excludes major problems which required plant shutdown whether or not mandated by the Technical Specifications. In addition to their affect on availability, such shutdowns can add to the challenges to plant safety systems and can affect plant aging by increasing the thermal cycles on plant components

  9. Evaluation procedure of software requirements specification for digital I and C of KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Park, Jong Kyun; Lee, Ki Young; Kim, Jang Yeol; Cheon, Se Woo

    2001-06-01

    The accuracy of the specification of requirements of a digital system is of prime importance to the acceptance and success of the system. The development, use, and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) Software Safety Verification and Validation (SSVV) Task, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, which investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor I and C systems, and describes the engineering procedures for developing such a software. The purpose of this guideline is to give the software safety evaluator the trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer for the software important to safety in nuclear power plants. Recently, the requirements specification of safety-critical software systems and safety analysis of them are being recognized as one of the important issues in the software life cycle, and being developed new regulatory positions and standards by the regulatory and the standardization organizations such as IAEA, IEC, and IEEE. We presented the procedure for evaluating the software requirements specifications of the KNGR protection systems. We believe it can be useful for both licenser and licensee to conduct an evaluation of the safety in the requirements phase of developing the software. The guideline consists of the requirements engineering for software of KNGR protection systems in chapter 1, the evaluation checklist of software requirements specification in chapter2.3, and the safety evaluation procedure of KNGR software requirements specification in chapter 2.4

  10. Specification of safety requirements for waste packages with respect to practicable quality control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruendler, D.; Wurtinger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Waste packages for disposal in a repository in the Federal Republic of Germany have to meet safety requirements derived from site specific safety analyses. The examination of the waste packages with regard to compliance with these requirements is the main objective of quality control measures. With respect to quality control the requirements have to be specified in a way that practicable control measures can be applied. This is dealt with for the quality control of the activity inventory and the quality control of the waste form. The paper discusses the determination of the activity of hard-to-measure radionuclides and the specification of safety related requirements for the waste form and the packaging using typical examples

  11. Guidance and methods for satisfying low specific activity material and surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Easton, E.P.; Coodk, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for shippers and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). These requirements represent significant departures in some areas from the manner in which these materials and objects were regulated by the earlier versions of the regulations. The proper interpretation and application of the regulatory criteria can require a fairly complex set of decisions be made. To assist those trying these regulatory requirements, a detailed set of logic-flow diagrams representing decisions related to multiple factors were prepared and included in the draft report for comment on Categorizing and Transporting Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects, (DOT/NRC, 1997). These logic-flow diagrams, as developed, are specific to the U.S. regulations, but were readily adaptable to the IAEA regulations. The diagrams have been modified accordingly and tied directly to specific paragraphs in IAEA Safety Series No. 6. This paper provides the logic-flow diagrams adapted in the IAEA regulations, and demonstrated how these diagrams can be used to assist consignors and inspectors in assessing compliance of shipments with the LSA material and SCO regulatory requirements. (authors)

  12. Satellite-enabled educational services specification and requirements analysis based on user feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Tsekeridou, Sofia; Tiropanis, Thanassis; Rorris, Dimitris; Constantinos, Makropoulos; Serif, Tacha; Stergioulas, Lampros

    2008-01-01

    Advanced tele-education services provision in remote geographically dispersed user communities (such as agriculture and maritime), based on the specific needs and requirements of such communities, implies significant infrastructural and broadband connectivity requirements for rich media, timely and quality-assured content delivery and interactivity. The solution to broadband access anywhere is provided by satellite-enabled communication infrastructures. This paper aims to present such satelli...

  13. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies

  14. The applies specific technical requirements to the services of radiological protection according to the 17025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero Garcia, M.; Fernandez Gomez, I. M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Molina Perez, D.

    2004-07-01

    The employment in the Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CRPH) of Cuba, of the standard 17025 for the administration of the quality of the calibration laboratories and test that offer services of radiological protection requires of a technical complement to really determine the technical competence. In the standard 17025, the specific requirements, are mentioned in the annex B (with informative character), where it points out that: {sup T}he requirements specified in the standard 17025 are established in general terms and, although they can be applied to all the test laboratories and applications, they could be necessary applications{sup .} In the CRPH these applications are translated in indispensable technical requirements to evaluate the performance of the services of radiological protection that offers, specifically those of personal monitoring, the calibration of instruments and the metrology of radionuclides. Although the standard 17025 is quite rigorous in the evaluation of technical requirements, to have specific materials not serves alone of tool to the laboratories, but also for the body of accreditation . In the CRPH the permanent employment of this tool has not constituted a practice, but had been good before our clients certain nonconformities to evaluate the performance of the laboratory and to achieve the recovery of the trust in its results. With this work we seek to expose some of these experiences. The experiences of the application of some of the technical requirements, in our case, they have been applied to the service of personal monitoring that offers the Laboratory of Personal Dosimetry. This laboratory is accredited by the National Accreditation Board of the Republic of Cuba (NABC) and besides fulfilling that settled down in 17025, the Approaches of Accreditation for test laboratories and calibration and it should also implant that settled down as specific technical requirements for the recognition of technical competence. (Author

  15. Challenges in balancing the amount of solution information in requirement specifications for embedded products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha; Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mannion, Mike

    2013-01-01

    customers have such intimate knowledge of their products that their requirements tend to be very specific, and if the customer knows the exact solution needed that naturally will reduce the cost of the requirements elicitation as well as design activities. Practitioners are challenged to understand when......Requirements are traditionally viewed as being free of the details of an envisioned solution and specified using purely problem domain entities. Preventing premature design in the requirements permits the available design space not to be restricted too early which might inhibit innovative designs....... In practice, on many industrial projects, separating the problem and solution domain entities can be difficult, and arguably there are benefits for not doing so. Many customers feel more confident describing their requirements, often as the difference between the existing products and their needs, some...

  16. A Trustworthy Internet Auction Model with Verifiable Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gen-Yih; Hwang, Jing-Jang

    2001-01-01

    Describes an Internet auction model achieving verifiable fairness, a requirement aimed at enhancing the trust of bidders in auctioneers. Analysis results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies various requirements regarding fairness and privacy. Moreover, in the proposed model, the losing bids remain sealed. (Author/AEF)

  17. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... compliance with the U.S. Department of Commerce Voluntary Product Standard PS 20-94 American Softwood Lumber...

  18. 24 CFR 200.952 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for particleboard interior stair... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for... forth in § 200.935(d)(6) concerning labeling of a product, the administrator's validation mark and the...

  19. 24 CFR 200.954 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for construction adhesives for wood... § 200.954 Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...) concerning labeling of a product, the administrator's validation mark and the manufacturer's certification of...

  20. The impact of customer-specific requirements on supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert I.P. Conceivious

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of being a supplier to motorcar manufacturers, also known as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, provide an array of challenges to component manufacturers. Customer-specific requirements (CSRs add to the convolutions of a supplier’s quality management systems when producing components for the various motor manufacturers. The catalytic converter industry (CCI forms part of the component supply chain in the motor industry. The CCI consists of a plethora of suppliers to produce the catalytic converter. This paper focuses on three of the five main suppliers, namely the ‘monolith substrate manufacturers’, the ‘coaters’, and the ‘canners’. Most OEMs required that critical and strategic suppliers should be ISO/TS 16949:2009 certified. ISO/TS 16949:2009 refers to an internationally recognised specification, specifically adapted for the motor industry. The specification indicates the minimum requirements and also makes provision for additional requirements known as CSRs that can be specified by the OEM.

  1. 40 CFR 270.24 - Specific part B information requirements for process vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator, flare, boiler, process heater, condenser, or carbon adsorption system to comply with the... each compliance test required by § 264.1033(k). (3) A design analysis, specifications, drawings... texts acceptable to the Regional Administrator that present basic control device information. The design...

  2. Verifying FreeRTOS; a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study on modeling and verifying the kernel of Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS). The study will show advances in formally verifying such an RTOS both by refinement and by model checking approaches. This work fits in the context of Hoare’s verification challenge. Several

  3. Sharing data between mobile devices, connected vehicles, and infrastructure task 3: system requirements specifications (SyRS) final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    This report describes the system requirements specifications (SyRS) for the use of mobile devices in a connected vehicle environment. Specifically, it defines the different types of requirements (functional, interface, performance, security, data, an...

  4. Analyser Framework to Verify Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is important for software companies to build software systems in a short time-interval, to reduce costs and to have a good market position. Therefore well organized and systematic development approaches are required. Reusing software components, which are well tested, can be a good solution to develop software applications in effective manner. The reuse of software components is less expensive and less time consuming than a development from scratch. But it is dangerous to think that software components can be match together without any problems. Software components itself are well tested, of course, but even if they composed together problems occur. Most problems are based on interaction respectively communication. Avoiding such errors a framework has to be developed for analysing software components. That framework determines the compatibility of corresponding software components. The promising approach discussed here, presents a novel technique for analysing software components by applying an Abstract Syntax Language Tree (ASLT. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components. This article is concerned to the question how can be coupled software components verified by using an analyzer framework and determines the usage of the ASLT. Black-box Software Components and Abstract Syntax Language Tree are the basis for developing the proposed framework and are discussed here to provide the background knowledge. The practical implementation of this framework is discussed and shows the result by using a test environment.

  5. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  6. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  7. A PLC generic requirements and specification for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jea Bok; Lee, C. K.; Lee, D. Y.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents the requirements and specification to be applied to the generic qualification of programmable Logic Controller(PLC), which is being developed as part of the KNICS project, 'Development of the Digital Reactor Safety Systems' of which purpose is the application to safety-related instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. This report defines the essential and critical characteristics that shall be included as part of a PLC design for safety-related application. The characteristics include performance, reliability, accuracy, the overall response time from an input to the PLC exceeding it trip condition to the resulting outputs, and the specification of processors and memories in digital controller. It also specifies the quality assurance process for software development, dealing with executive software, firmware, application software tools for developing the application software, and human machine interface(HMI). In addition, this report reviews the published standards and guidelines that are required for the PLC development and the quality assurance processes such as environment requirements, seismic withstand requirements, EMI/RFI withstand requirements, and isolation test

  8. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Testing Requirements to Manage Data Exchange Specifications in Enterprise Integration - A Schema Design Quality Focus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Ivezic, Nenad [ORNL; Buhwan, Jeong [POSTECH University, South Korea

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the requirements to test W3C XML Schema usage when defining message schemas for data exchange in any large and evolving enterprise integration project. We then decompose the XML Schema testing into four (4) aspects including the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification grammar, the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification semantics, the message schema conformance to design quality testing, and canonical semantics testing of the message schema. We describe these four testing aspects in some detail and point to other related efforts. We further focus to provide some technical details for the message schema design quality testing. As a future work, we describe the requirements for canonical semantics testing and potential solution approaches. Finally, we describe an implementation architecture for the message schema design quality testing.

  10. Statistical Study to Check the Conformity of Aggregate in Kirkuk City to Requirement of Iraqi Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Saleem Khazaal; Nizar N Ismeel; Abdel fattah K. Hussein

    2018-01-01

    This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine) was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples) of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm,...

  11. USCIS E-Verify Self-Check

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — E-Verify is an internet based system that contains datasets to compare information from an employee's Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification, to data from the...

  12. Appraisal of work ability in relation to job-specific health requirements in ambulance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaaijk, A; Boschman, J S; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-01-01

    To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance workers (236 drivers and 270 paramedics) were used. The tests for specific job requirements were divided into six categories. Work ability was appraised as overall, physical and mental/emotional. Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were used to model the associations. Outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' (R 2  = 0.09), 'job-specific physical abilities' (R 2  = 0.10) and 'emotional peak load' (R 2  = 0.07) significantly explained appraised overall, physical and mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability together explained 48.3% of the variance of overall work ability. The explained variance by physical and mental/emotional work ability was almost 4% higher in drivers than in paramedics. Overall work ability was significantly explained by outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' and 'emotional peak load.' Physical work ability was significantly explained by 'job-specific physical abilities' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes, while 'emotional peak load' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes significantly explained mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability explains the same proportion of variance in overall work ability.

  13. Auto-identification fiberoptical seal verifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Mukaiyama, Takehiro

    1998-08-01

    An auto COBRA seal verifier was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to provide more efficient and simpler inspection measures for IAEA safeguards. The verifier is designed to provide means of a simple, quantitative and objective judgment on in-situ verification for the COBRA seal. The equipment is a portable unit with hand-held weight and size. It can be operated by battery or AC power. The verifier reads a COBRA seal signature by using a built-in CCD camera and carries out the signature comparison procedure automatically on digital basis. The result of signature comparison is given as a YES/NO answer. The production model of the verifier was completed in July 1996. The development was carried out in collaboration with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. This report describes the design and functions of the COBRA seal verifier and the results of environmental and functional tests. The development of the COBRA seal verifier was carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JD-4 since 1981. (author)

  14. AMTD: update of engineering specifications derived from science requirements for future UVOIR space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Mosier, Gary; Smith, W. Scott; Blaurock, Carl; Ha, Kong; Stark, Christopher C.

    2014-08-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND provide a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To give the science community options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. A key task is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints. A key finding of this effort is that the science requires an 8 meter or larger aperture telescope.

  15. Identifying context-specific competencies required by community Australian Football sports trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Finch, Caroline F

    2012-08-01

    First-aid is a recommended injury prevention and risk management strategy in community sport; however, little is known about the sport-specific competencies required by first-aid providers. To achieve expert consensus on the competencies required by community Australian Football (community-AF) sports trainers. A three-round online Delphi process. Community-AF. 16 Australian sports first-aid and community-AF experts. Rating of competencies as either 'essential', 'expected', 'ideal' or 'not required'. Results After Round 3, 47 of the 77 (61%) competencies were endorsed as 'essential' or 'expected' for a sports trainer to effectively perform the activities required to the standards expected at a community-AF club by ≥75% of experts. These competencies covered: the role of the sports trainer; the responsibilities of the sports trainer; emergency management; injury and illness assessment and immediate management; taping; and injury prevention and risk management. Four competencies (5%) were endorsed as 'ideal' or 'not required' by ≥85% of experts and were excluded from further consideration. The 26 competencies where consensus was not reached were retained as second-tier, optional competencies. Sports trainers are important members of on-field first-aid teams, providing support to both injured players and other sports medicine professionals. The competencies identified in this study provide the basis of a proposed two-tiered community-AF-specific sports trainer education structure that can be implemented by the peak sports body. This includes six mandatory modules, relating to the 'required' competencies, and a further six optional modules covering competencies on which consensus was not reached.

  16. Reasoning about knowledge: Children's evaluations of generality and verifiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa A; Cole, Caitlin A; Meyer, Meredith; Ridge, Katherine E; Kushnir, Tamar; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-12-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined 3- to 8-year-old children's (N=223) and adults' (N=32) use of two properties of testimony to estimate a speaker's knowledge: generality and verifiability. Participants were presented with a "Generic speaker" who made a series of 4 general claims about "pangolins" (a novel animal kind), and a "Specific speaker" who made a series of 4 specific claims about "this pangolin" as an individual. To investigate the role of verifiability, we systematically varied whether the claim referred to a perceptually-obvious feature visible in a picture (e.g., "has a pointy nose") or a non-evident feature that was not visible (e.g., "sleeps in a hollow tree"). Three main findings emerged: (1) young children showed a pronounced reliance on verifiability that decreased with age. Three-year-old children were especially prone to credit knowledge to speakers who made verifiable claims, whereas 7- to 8-year-olds and adults credited knowledge to generic speakers regardless of whether the claims were verifiable; (2) children's attributions of knowledge to generic speakers was not detectable until age 5, and only when those claims were also verifiable; (3) children often generalized speakers' knowledge outside of the pangolin domain, indicating a belief that a person's knowledge about pangolins likely extends to new facts. Findings indicate that young children may be inclined to doubt speakers who make claims they cannot verify themselves, as well as a developmentally increasing appreciation for speakers who make general claims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An effective technique for the software requirements analysis of NPP safety-critical systems, based on software inspection, requirements traceability, and formal specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Seong, Poong Hyun; Yoo, Junbeom; Cha, Sung Deok; Yoo, Yeong Jae

    2005-01-01

    A thorough requirements analysis is indispensable for developing and implementing safety-critical software systems such as nuclear power plant (NPP) software systems because a single error in the requirements can generate serious software faults. However, it is very difficult to completely analyze system requirements. In this paper, an effective technique for the software requirements analysis is suggested. For requirements verification and validation (V and V) tasks, our technique uses software inspection, requirement traceability, and formal specification with structural decomposition. Software inspection and requirements traceability analysis are widely considered the most effective software V and V methods. Although formal methods are also considered an effective V and V activity, they are difficult to use properly in the nuclear fields as well as in other fields because of their mathematical nature. In this work, we propose an integrated environment (IE) approach for requirements, which is an integrated approach that enables easy inspection by combining requirement traceability and effective use of a formal method. The paper also introduces computer-aided tools for supporting IE approach for requirements. Called the nuclear software inspection support and requirements traceability (NuSISRT), the tool incorporates software inspection, requirement traceability, and formal specification capabilities. We designed the NuSISRT to partially automate software inspection and analysis of requirement traceability. In addition, for the formal specification and analysis, we used the formal requirements specification and analysis tool for nuclear engineering (NuSRS)

  18. The NIMA Kinase Is Required To Execute Stage-Specific Mitotic Functions after Initiation of Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraghavan, Meera; Lad, Alisha A.

    2014-01-01

    The G2-M transition in Aspergillus nidulans requires the NIMA kinase, the founding member of the Nek kinase family. Inactivation of NIMA results in a late G2 arrest, while overexpression of NIMA is sufficient to promote mitotic events independently of cell cycle phase. Endogenously tagged NIMA-GFP has dynamic mitotic localizations appearing first at the spindle pole body and then at nuclear pore complexes before transitioning to within nuclei and the mitotic spindle and back at the spindle pole bodies at mitotic exit, suggesting that it functions sequentially at these locations. Since NIMA is indispensable for mitotic entry, it has been difficult to determine the requirement of NIMA for subaspects of mitosis. We show here that when NIMA is partially inactivated, although mitosis can be initiated, a proportion of cells fail to successfully generate two daughter nuclei. We further define the mitotic defects to show that normal NIMA function is required for the formation of a bipolar spindle, nuclear pore complex disassembly, completion of chromatin segregation, and the normal structural rearrangements of the nuclear envelope required to generate two nuclei from one. In the remaining population of cells that enter mitosis with inadequate NIMA, two daughter nuclei are generated in a manner dependent on the spindle assembly checkpoint, indicating highly penetrant defects in mitotic progression without sufficient NIMA activity. This study shows that NIMA is required not only for mitotic entry but also sequentially for successful completion of stage-specific mitotic events. PMID:24186954

  19. Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events

  20. Disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy. Effect on psychosocial support requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehlen, S.; Hollenhorst, H.; Schymura, B.; Firsching, M.; Duehmke, E.; Herschbach, P.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy brings a tumor patient into a special life situation in which different variables play a role of often unknown importance. The goal of this study was to investigate disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy with established psychodiagnostic questionnaires and to evaluate the effect on psychosocial support requirement in order to reduce stress and to improve quality of life and compliance during radiotherapeutical treatment. Patients and Methods: 732 patients were screened, of whom 446 (60.9%) fulfilled the criteria for inclusion (refusals 21.0%, low Karnofsky performance status 6.6%, management problems 3.4%, language barriers 3.0%, cognitive restrictions 2.6%, death 2.5%). Disease specific aspects of stress in the questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Belastung von Krebspatienten, FBK), life situation (LS) and self-defined care requirements (BB) were self-rated by patients with different tumor types before radiotherapy. Medical and sociodemographic data were also documented. We investigated 446 patients (262 male, 184 female; median age 60.0 years) with different diagnoses. Results: Stress was observed mainly due to reduction of efficiency, anxiety and pain on the subscales. Women had a significant higher stress on subscales of pain (p=0.016) and anxiety (p=0.009), patients younger than 45 years in the subscale information (p=0.002) and patients older than 45 and younger than 60 years in the subscale anxiety (p=0.002) and the total score (p=0.003). Patients with mamma carcinoma had the highest stress. The maximum percentages of patients under high stress were found for the subscales of efficiency (43%) and anxiety (40%). The support requirement was characterized by the need of more medical information and dialogue with the doctor. We saw a significant correlation of high stress and high care requirement. Conclusions: Psychosocial support should be founded on psychosocial stress diagnostic and self-defined care

  1. The Guided System Development Framework: Modeling and Verifying Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    the verified specification. The refinement process carries thus security properties from the model to the implementation. Our approach also supports verification of systems previously developed and deployed. Internally, the reasoning in our framework is based on the Beliefs and Knowledge tool, a verification...... tool based on belief logics and explicit attacker knowledge....

  2. HPV specific testing: a requirement for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Max; Schache, Andrew; Sloan, Philip; Thavaraj, Selvam

    2012-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is now recommended as part of the work up for patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and those patients with cervical lymph node metastasis of unknown origin. The laboratory testing strategy should accurately assess the presence or absence of oncogenic HPV infection in routinely collected tumour samples that are subject to standard fixation protocols, alcohol-fixed cytological preparations and formalin-fixed tissue samples. The HPV status should correlate with biologically relevant outcome measures such as overall, disease-specific and disease-free survival. Whilst increased expression of p16 by immunohistochemistry is considered to be a surrogate marker of oncogenic HPV infection and is a validated independent prognostic biomarker, only HPV specific tests provide definitive evidence of the aetiological agent. We provide an overview of HPV testing in OPSCC, justifying the use of HPV specific tests. We examine the analytical accuracy of HPV specific tests against the 'reference' test--high risk HPV mRNA in fresh tissue--and contrast this with the performance of p16 immunohistochemistry as a stand alone test. We highlight the added value of HPV specific tests in prognostication, clinical trial design, and population-based disease surveillance. We consider that HPV specific testing is the starting point for developing increasingly informative biomarker panels in the context of 'stratified medicine'. We briefly frame test information in the context of disclosure of HPV status to patients. We conclude that only a testing strategy that includes HPV specific tests can deliver more effective care for patients with OPSCC. The international head and neck oncology community should work together to clearly define the minimum requirements for assigning a diagnosis of HPV-related OPSCC in order to ensure consistent reporting of this emerging and increasingly prevalent disease.

  3. Poliovirus intrahost evolution is required to overcome tissue-specific innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghong; Dolan, Patrick Timothy; Goldstein, Elizabeth Faul; Li, Min; Farkov, Mikhail; Brodsky, Leonid; Andino, Raul

    2017-08-29

    RNA viruses, such as poliovirus, have a great evolutionary capacity, allowing them to quickly adapt and overcome challenges encountered during infection. Here we show that poliovirus infection in immune-competent mice requires adaptation to tissue-specific innate immune microenvironments. The ability of the virus to establish robust infection and virulence correlates with its evolutionary capacity. We further identify a region in the multi-functional poliovirus protein 2B as a hotspot for the accumulation of minor alleles that facilitate a more effective suppression of the interferon response. We propose that population genetic dynamics enables poliovirus spread between tissues through optimization of the genetic composition of low frequency variants, which together cooperate to circumvent tissue-specific challenges. Thus, intrahost virus evolution determines pathogenesis, allowing a dynamic regulation of viral functions required to overcome barriers to infection.RNA viruses, such as polioviruses, have a great evolutionary capacity and can adapt quickly during infection. Here, the authors show that poliovirus infection in mice requires adaptation to innate immune microenvironments encountered in different tissues.

  4. Hazard Analysis of Software Requirements Specification for Process Module of FPGA-based Controllers in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung; Sejin; Kim, Eui-Sub; Yoo, Junbeom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Jong Yong; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Software in PLC, FPGA which are used to develop I and C system also should be analyzed to hazards and risks before used. NUREG/CR-6430 proposes the method for performing software hazard analysis. It suggests analysis technique for software affected hazards and it reveals that software hazard analysis should be performed with the aspects of software life cycle such as requirements analysis, design, detailed design, implements. It also provides the guide phrases for applying software hazard analysis. HAZOP (Hazard and operability analysis) is one of the analysis technique which is introduced in NUREG/CR-6430 and it is useful technique to use guide phrases. HAZOP is sometimes used to analyze the safety of software. Analysis method of NUREG/CR-6430 had been used in Korea nuclear power plant software for PLC development. Appropriate guide phrases and analysis process are selected to apply efficiently and NUREG/CR-6430 provides applicable methods for software hazard analysis is identified in these researches. We perform software hazard analysis of FPGA software requirements specification with two approaches which are NUREG/CR-6430 and HAZOP with using general GW. We also perform the comparative analysis with them. NUREG/CR-6430 approach has several pros and cons comparing with the HAZOP with general guide words and approach. It is enough applicable to analyze the software requirements specification of FPGA.

  5. RET Functions as a Dual-Specificity Kinase that Requires Allosteric Inputs from Juxtamembrane Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Plaza-Menacho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinases exhibit a variety of activation mechanisms despite highly homologous catalytic domains. Such diversity arises through coupling of extracellular ligand-binding portions with highly variable intracellular sequences flanking the tyrosine kinase domain and specific patterns of autophosphorylation sites. Here, we show that the juxtamembrane (JM segment enhances RET catalytic domain activity through Y687. This phospho-site is also required by the JM region to rescue an otherwise catalytically deficient RET activation-loop mutant lacking tyrosines. Structure-function analyses identified interactions between the JM hinge, αC helix, and an unconventional activation-loop serine phosphorylation site that engages the HRD motif and promotes phospho-tyrosine conformational accessibility and regulatory spine assembly. We demonstrate that this phospho-S909 arises from an intrinsic RET dual-specificity kinase activity and show that an equivalent serine is required for RET signaling in Drosophila. Our findings reveal dual-specificity and allosteric components for the mechanism of RET activation and signaling with direct implications for drug discovery.

  6. High-Level software requirements specification for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is an as-built document that presents the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Controlled Baseline Database (TCBD) in its current state. It was originally known as the Performance Measurement Control System (PMCS). Conversion to the new system name has not occurred within the current production system. Therefore, for simplicity, all references to TCBD are equivalent to PMCS references. This SRS will reference the PMCS designator from this point forward to capture the as-built SRS. This SRS is written at a high-level and is intended to provide the design basis for the PMCS. The PMCS was first released as the electronic data repository for cost, schedule, and technical administrative baseline information for the TAAS Program. During its initial development, the PMCS was accepted by the customer, TARS Business Management, with no formal documentation to capture the initial requirements

  7. Economics of the specification 6M safety re-evaluation and regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the potential economic impact of the DOT Specification 6M criticality safety re-evaluation and regulatory requirements. The examination was based upon comparative analyses of current authorized fissile material load limits for the 6M, current Federal regulations (and interpretations) limiting the contents of Type B fissile material packages, limiting aggregates of fissile material packages, and recent proposed fissile material mass limits derived from specialized criticality safety analyses of the 6M package. The work examines influences on cost in transportation, handling, and storage of fissile materials. Depending upon facility throughput requirements (and assumed incremental costs of fissile material packaging, storage, and transport), operating, facility storage capacity, and transportation costs can be reduced significantly. As an example of the pricing algorithm application based upon reasonable cost influences, the magnitude of the first year cost reductions could extend beyond four times the cost of the packaging nuclear criticality safety re-evaluation. 1 tab

  8. A study to develop the domestic functional requirements of the specific safety systems of CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Park, Kun Chul [Handong Global Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    The present research has been made to develop and review critically the functional requirements of the specific safety systems of CANDU such as SDS-1, SDS2, ECCS, and containment. Based on R documents for this, a systematic study was made to develop the domestic regulation statements. Also, the conventional laws are carefully reviewed to see the compatibility to CANDU. Also, the safety assessment method for CANDU was studied by reviewing C documents and recommendation of IAEA. Through the present works, the vague policy in the CANDU safety regulation is cleaning up in a systematic form and a new frame to measure the objective risk of nuclear power plants was developed.

  9. Requirements, design and specifications of a multipurpose 7 Tesla NMR-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlkopf, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements as well as the design and the specifications of a multi-purpose high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with superconducting magnet are described. The spectrometer operates at a magnetic fluxdensity of 7 Tesla and has 5 transmitter channels with 4 different frequencies, which can have values between 20 and 300 MHz. With this spectrometer almost all the current high resolution magnetic resonance techniques can be performed under computer control. It can also operate in the non-computer controlled slow passage mode. (Auth.)

  10. A study to develop the domestic functional requirements of the specific safety systems of CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Woong; Lee, Jae Young; Bang, Kwang Hyun [Handong Global Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-03-15

    The present research has been made to develop and review critically the functional requirements of the specific safety systems of CANDU such as SOS-1, SOS-2, ECCS and containment. Based on R documents for this, a systematic study was made to develop the domestic regulation statements. Also, the conventional laws are carefully reviewed to see the compatibility to CANDU. Also, the safety assessment method for CANDU was studied by reviewing C documents and recommendation of IAEA. Through the present works, the vague policy in the CANDU safety regulation is cleaning up in a systematic form and a new frame to measure the objective risk of nuclear power plants was developed.

  11. Statistical Study to Check the Conformity of Aggregate in Kirkuk City to Requirement of Iraqi Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Saleem Khazaal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 4.75 mm, and 2.36 mm, respectively, which were less than the minimum limit allowed by the Iraqi specifications for each sieve. The percentages passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, 600micrometers, and 300micrometers were more than the upper limit of specification by 5%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The samples were passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, and 600micrometers less than the minimum limit of specification by 17%, and 4%, respectively. The results showed that the deviation in a sieve size of 150 micrometers for the upper limit of the specification performs 2% of the total number of samples. For Coarse aggregate, the samples passing sieves size 37.5mm and 20mm were comforting the Iraqi specifications by 100% and 83% respectively, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm was 5% was more than the higher limit of Iraqi specifications, and 27% of these samples were less than the minimum limit, whereas sample passing sieve size 5mm was 1% which is more than the upper limit of the Iraqi specification. As a result of statistical analysis of data for fine aggregate, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm and 150micrometers conforming from statistical point of view the Iraqi specifications, whereas the samples were passing sieve sizes 4.75 mm, 600micrometers and 300 micrometers didn’t conform. Statistical analysis of the results of the coarse aggregates also showed that conforming to sieve sizes of 37.5 mm and 20 mm and

  12. Scenarios for exercising technical approaches to verified nuclear reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, James

    2010-01-01

    Presidents Obama and Medvedev in April 2009 committed to a continuing process of step-by-step nuclear arms reductions beyond the new START treaty that was signed April 8, 2010 and to the eventual goal of a world free of nuclear weapons. In addition, the US Nuclear Posture review released April 6, 2010 commits the US to initiate a comprehensive national research and development program to support continued progress toward a world free of nuclear weapons, including expanded work on verification technologies and the development of transparency measures. It is impossible to predict the specific directions that US-RU nuclear arms reductions will take over the 5-10 years. Additional bilateral treaties could be reached requiring effective verification as indicated by statements made by the Obama administration. There could also be transparency agreements or other initiatives (unilateral, bilateral or multilateral) that require monitoring with a standard of verification lower than formal arms control, but still needing to establish confidence to domestic, bilateral and multilateral audiences that declared actions are implemented. The US Nuclear Posture Review and other statements give some indication of the kinds of actions and declarations that may need to be confirmed in a bilateral or multilateral setting. Several new elements of the nuclear arsenals could be directly limited. For example, it is likely that both strategic and nonstrategic nuclear warheads (deployed and in storage), warhead components, and aggregate stocks of such items could be accountable under a future treaty or transparency agreement. In addition, new initiatives or agreements may require the verified dismantlement of a certain number of nuclear warheads over a specified time period. Eventually procedures for confirming the elimination of nuclear warheads, components and fissile materials from military stocks will need to be established. This paper is intended to provide useful background information

  13. Neurotransmitter Transporter-Like: a male germline-specific SLC6 transporter required for Drosophila spermiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The SLC6 class of membrane transporters, known primarily as neurotransmitter transporters, is increasingly appreciated for its roles in nutritional uptake of amino acids and other developmentally specific functions. A Drosophila SLC6 gene, Neurotransmitter transporter-like (Ntl, is expressed only in the male germline. Mobilization of a transposon inserted near the 3' end of the Ntl coding region yields male-sterile mutants defining a single complementation group. Germline transformation with Ntl cDNAs under control of male germline-specific control elements restores Ntl/Ntl homozygotes to normal fertility, indicating that Ntl is required only in the germ cells. In mutant males, sperm morphogenesis appears normal, with elongated, individualized and coiled spermiogenic cysts accumulating at the base of the testes. However, no sperm are transferred to the seminal vesicle. The level of polyglycylation of Ntl mutant sperm tubulin appears to be significantly lower than that of wild type controls. Glycine transporters are the most closely related SLC6 transporters to Ntl, suggesting that Ntl functions as a glycine transporter in developing sperm, where augmentation of the cytosolic pool of glycine may be required for the polyglycylation of the massive amounts of tubulin in the fly's giant sperm. The male-sterile phenotype of Ntl mutants may provide a powerful genetic system for studying the function of an SLC6 transporter family in a model organism.

  14. Differential requirements for Gli2 and Gli3 in the regional specification of the mouse hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eHaddad-Tóvolli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh ventralizes the neural tube by modulating the crucial balance between activating and repressing functions (GliA, GliR of transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3. This balance—the Shh-Gli code—is species- and context-dependent and has been elucidated for the mouse spinal cord. The hypothalamus, a forebrain region regulating vital functions like homeostasis and hormone secretion, shows dynamic and intricate Shh expression as well as complex regional differentiation. Here we asked if particular combinations of Gli2 and Gli3 and of GliA and GliR functions contribute to the variety of hypothalamic regions, i.e. we wanted to clarify the hypothalamic version of the Shh-Gli code. Based on mouse mutant analysis, we show that: 1 hypothalamic regional heterogeneity is based in part on differentially stringent requirements for Gli2 or Gli3; 2 another source of diversity are differential requirements for Shh of neural vs non-neural origin; 3 Gli2 is indispensable for the specification of a medial progenitor domain generating several essential hypothalamic nuclei plus the pituitary and median eminence; 4 the suppression of Gli3R by neural and non-neural Shh is essential for hypothalamic specification. Finally, we have mapped our results on a recent model which considers the hypothalamus as a transverse region with alar and basal portions. Our data confirm the model and are explained by it.

  15. Nodal-dependent mesendoderm specification requires the combinatorial activities of FoxH1 and Eomesodermin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Slagle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mesendoderm specification requires the Nodal signaling pathway and its transcriptional effector FoxH1. However, loss of FoxH1 in several species does not reliably cause the full range of loss-of-Nodal phenotypes, indicating that Nodal signals through additional transcription factors during early development. We investigated the FoxH1-dependent and -independent roles of Nodal signaling during mesendoderm patterning using a novel recessive zebrafish FoxH1 mutation called midway, which produces a C-terminally truncated FoxH1 protein lacking the Smad-interaction domain but retaining DNA-binding capability. Using a combination of gel shift assays, Nodal overexpression experiments, and genetic epistasis analyses, we demonstrate that midway more accurately represents a complete loss of FoxH1-dependent Nodal signaling than the existing zebrafish FoxH1 mutant schmalspur. Maternal-zygotic midway mutants lack notochords, in agreement with FoxH1 loss in other organisms, but retain near wild-type expression of markers of endoderm and various nonaxial mesoderm fates, including paraxial and intermediate mesoderm and blood precursors. We found that the activity of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin accounts for specification of these tissues in midway embryos. Inhibition of Eomesodermin in midway mutants severely reduces the specification of these tissues and effectively phenocopies the defects seen upon complete loss of Nodal signaling. Our results indicate that the specific combinations of transcription factors available for signal transduction play critical and separable roles in determining Nodal pathway output during mesendoderm patterning. Our findings also offer novel insights into the co-evolution of the Nodal signaling pathway, the notochord specification program, and the chordate branch of the deuterostome family of animals.

  16. A small asparagine-rich protein required for S-allele-specific pollen rejection in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, B; Mou, B; Canevascini, S; Bernatzky, R

    1999-11-09

    Although S-locus RNases (S-RNases) determine the specificity of pollen rejection in self-incompatible (SI) solanaceous plants, they alone are not sufficient to cause S-allele-specific pollen rejection. To identify non-S-RNase sequences that are required for pollen rejection, a Nicotiana alata cDNA library was screened by differential hybridization. One clone, designated HT, hybridized strongly to RNA from N. alata styles but not to RNA from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a species known to lack one or more factors necessary for S-allele-specific pollen rejection. Sequence analysis revealed a 101-residue ORF including a putative secretion signal and an asparagine-rich domain near the C terminus. RNA blot analysis showed that the HT-transcript accumulates in the stigma and style before anthesis. The timing of HT-expression lags slightly behind S(C10)-RNase in SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10) and is well correlated with the onset of S-allele-specific pollen rejection in the style. An antisense-HT construct was prepared to test for a role in pollen rejection. Transformed (N. plumbaginifolia x SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10)) hybrids with reduced levels of HT-protein continued to express S(C10)-RNase but failed to reject S(C10)-pollen. Control hybrids expressing both S(C10)-RNase and HT-protein showed a normal S-allele-specific pollen rejection response. We conclude that HT-protein is directly implicated in pollen rejection.

  17. Classroom Experiment to Verify the Lorentz Force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. Classroom Experiment to Verify the Lorentz Force. Somnath Basu Anindita Bose Sumit Kumar Sinha Pankaj Vishe S Chatterjee. Classroom Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 81-86 ...

  18. On alternative approach for verifiable secret sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Kamil; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Pieprzyk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Secret sharing allows split/distributed control over the secret (e.g. master key). Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is the secret sharing extended by verification capacity. Usually verification comes at the price. We propose "free lunch", the approach that allows to overcome this inconvenience.

  19. Verified compilation of Concurrent Managed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Communications Division Information Directorate This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange, and its...271, 2007. [85] Viktor Vafeiadis. Modular fine-grained concurrency verification. Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR- 726, University of Cambridge, Computer...VERIFIED COMPILATION OF CONCURRENT MANAGED LANGUAGES PURDUE UNIVERSITY NOVEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

  20. A Verifiable Secret Shuffle of Homomorphic Encryptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Jens

    2003-01-01

    We show how to prove in honest verifier zero-knowledge the correctness of a shuffle of homomorphic encryptions (or homomorphic commitments.) A shuffle consists in a rearrangement of the input ciphertexts and a reencryption of them so that the permutation is not revealed....

  1. Context-specific requirements of functional domains of the Spectraplakin Short stop in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenberg, Wolfgang; Sanchez-Soriano, Natalia; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Hahn, Ines; Mende, Michael; Prokop, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    Spectraplakins are large multifunctional cytoskeletal interacting molecules implicated in various processes, including gastrulation, wound healing, skin blistering and neuronal degeneration. It has been speculated that the various functional domains and regions found in Spectraplakins are used in context-specific manners, a model which would provide a crucial explanation for the multifunctional nature of Spectraplakins. Here we tested this possibility by studying domain requirements of the Drosophila Spectraplakin Short stop (Shot) in three different cellular contexts in vivo: (1) neuronal growth, which requires dynamic actin-microtubule interaction; (2) formation and maintenance of tendon cells, which depends on highly stabilised arrays of actin filaments and microtubules, and (3) compartmentalisation in neurons, which is likely to involve cortical F-actin networks. Using these cellular contexts for rescue experiments with Shot deletion constructs in shot mutant background, a number of differential domain requirements were uncovered. First, binding of Shot to F-actin through the first Calponin domain is essential in neuronal contexts but dispensable in tendon cells. This finding is supported by our analyses of shot(kakP2) mutant embryos, which produce only endogenous isoforms lacking the first Calponin domain. Thus, our data demonstrate a functional relevance for these isoforms in vivo. Second, we provide the first functional role for the Plakin domain of Shot, which has a strong requirement for compartmentalisation in neurons and axonal growth, demonstrating that Plakin domains of long Spectraplakin isoforms are of functional relevance. Like the Calponin domain, also the Plakin domain is dispensable in tendon cells, and the currently assumed role of Shot as a linker of microtubules to the tendon cell surface may have to be reconsidered. Third, we demonstrate a function of Shot as an actin-microtubule linker in dendritic growth, thus shedding new light into

  2. Evolution of New cis-Regulatory Motifs Required for Cell-Specific Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Barkoulas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Patterning of C. elegans vulval cell fates relies on inductive signaling. In this induction event, a single cell, the gonadal anchor cell, secretes LIN-3/EGF and induces three out of six competent precursor cells to acquire a vulval fate. We previously showed that this developmental system is robust to a four-fold variation in lin-3/EGF genetic dose. Here using single-molecule FISH, we find that the mean level of expression of lin-3 in the anchor cell is remarkably conserved. No change in lin-3 expression level could be detected among C. elegans wild isolates and only a low level of change-less than 30%-in the Caenorhabditis genus and in Oscheius tipulae. In C. elegans, lin-3 expression in the anchor cell is known to require three transcription factor binding sites, specifically two E-boxes and a nuclear-hormone-receptor (NHR binding site. Mutation of any of these three elements in C. elegans results in a dramatic decrease in lin-3 expression. Yet only a single E-box is found in the Drosophilae supergroup of Caenorhabditis species, including C. angaria, while the NHR-binding site likely only evolved at the base of the Elegans group. We find that a transgene from C. angaria bearing a single E-box is sufficient for normal expression in C. elegans. Even a short 58 bp cis-regulatory fragment from C. angaria with this single E-box is able to replace the three transcription factor binding sites at the endogenous C. elegans lin-3 locus, resulting in the wild-type expression level. Thus, regulatory evolution occurring in cis within a 58 bp lin-3 fragment, results in a strict requirement for the NHR binding site and a second E-box in C. elegans. This single-cell, single-molecule, quantitative and functional evo-devo study demonstrates that conserved expression levels can hide extensive change in cis-regulatory site requirements and highlights the evolution of new cis-regulatory elements required for cell-specific gene expression.

  3. A Practical Voter-Verifiable Election Scheme.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaum, D; Ryan, PYA; Schneider, SA

    2005-01-01

    We present an election scheme designed to allow voters to verify that their vote is accurately included in the count. The scheme provides a high degree of transparency whilst ensuring the secrecy of votes. Assurance is derived from close auditing of all the steps of the vote recording and counting process with minimal dependence on the system components. Thus, assurance arises from verification of the election rather than having to place trust in the correct behaviour of components of the vot...

  4. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Operations System: Version 4.0 - system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashporenko, D.

    1996-07-01

    This document is intended to provide an operations standard for the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory OPerations System (EMSL OPS). It is directed toward three primary audiences: (1) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) facility and operations personnel; (2) laboratory line managers and staff; and (3) researchers, equipment operators, and laboratory users. It is also a statement of system requirements for software developers of EMSL OPS. The need for a finely tuned, superior research environment as provided by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory has never been greater. The abrupt end of the Cold War and the realignment of national priorities caused major US and competing overseas laboratories to reposition themselves in a highly competitive research marketplace. For a new laboratory such as the EMSL, this means coming into existence in a rapidly changing external environment. For any major laboratory, these changes create funding uncertainties and increasing global competition along with concomitant demands for higher standards of research product quality and innovation. While more laboratories are chasing fewer funding dollars, research ideas and proposals, especially for molecular-level research in the materials and biological sciences, are burgeoning. In such an economically constrained atmosphere, reduced costs, improved productivity, and strategic research project portfolio building become essential to establish and maintain any distinct competitive advantage. For EMSL, this environment and these demands require clear operational objectives, specific goals, and a well-crafted strategy. Specific goals will evolve and change with the evolution of the nature and definition of DOE`s environmental research needs. Hence, EMSL OPS is designed to facilitate migration of these changes with ease into every pertinent job function, creating a facile {open_quotes}learning organization.{close_quotes}

  5. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport requirements for low specific activity... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low specific... must be transported in accordance with the following conditions: (1) The external dose rate may not...

  6. Direct effects of ionizing radiation on integral membrane proteins. Noncovalent energy transfer requires specific interpeptide interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhun, E.; Jhun, B.H.; Jones, L.R.; Jung, C.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The 12 transmembrane alpha helices (TMHs) of human erythrocyte glucose transporter were individually cut by pepsin digestion as membrane-bound 2.5-3.5-kDa peptide fragments. Radiation-induced chemical degradation of these fragments showed an average target size of 34 kDa. This is 10-12 x larger than the average size of an individual TMH, demonstrating that a significant energy transfer occurs among these TMHs in the absence of covalent linkage. Heating this TMH preparation at 100 degree C for 15 min reduced the target size to 5 kDa or less, suggesting that the noncovalent energy transfer requires specific helix-helix interactions. Purified phospholamban, a small (6-kDa) integral membrane protein containing a single TMH, formed a pentameric assembly in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The chemical degradation target size of this phospholamban pentamer was 5-6 kDa, illustrating that not all integral membrane protein assemblies permit intersubunit energy transfer. These findings together with other published observations suggest strongly that significant noncovalent energy transfer can occur within the tertiary and quaternary structure of membrane proteins and that as yet undefined proper molecular interactions are required for such covalent energy transfer. Our results with pepsin-digested glucose transporter also illustrate the importance of the interhelical interaction as a predominating force in maintaining the tertiary structure of a transmembrane protein

  7. Recommendations for equipment requirements and specifications for digital and interventional radiology: Dosimetric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Zoetelief, J.

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of radiation induced injuries from fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures has resulted in the current demand for development of recommendations and standards to limit dose to both patients and staff. This paper outlines the recommendations drafted within the framework of European Project DIMOND III. The actual work involves survey and review of national and international documents as well as scientific publications in areas relevant to the digital and/or interventional radiology with an aim of developing recommendations for equipment requirements and specifications for digital and interventional radiology. A pilot study of experimental investigations in at least three hospitals will be conducted to test the requirements and the specifications, the result of which will be presented. The recommendations are expected to provide an effective means of dose reduction to both patients and staff while maintaining image quality adequate for the specific diagnosis or interventional procedure. Different components of x-ray systems that have direct impact on patient and staff doses have been considered. Where necessary a compromise between patient dose and image quality has been made. The dosimetric aspects of the recommendations propose detailed descriptions and limits to dosimetric information relevant to patient and staff doses. International recommendations on maximum patient entrance surface dose rate vary in the range from 25 to 65 mGy.min -1 for normal mode fluoroscopy. Maximum image intensifier or image receptor input dose rate around 0.1 Gy min -1 at a distance 30 cm from the image intensifier input surface has been generally recommended. Maximum fluoroscopic dose rate in air must not exceed 50 mGy.min -1 at a location depending on the configuration e.g. for undertable x-ray tube at 10 mm from the patient support on the patient side of the support. The use of pulsed fluoroscopy or low dose fluoroscopy is proposed as good options to minimize

  8. Privacy-Preserving Verifiability: A Case for an Electronic Exam Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giustolisi, Rosario; Iovino, Vincenzo; Lenzini, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the notion of privacy-preserving verifiability for security protocols. It holds when a protocol admits a verifiability test that does not reveal, to the verifier that runs it, more pieces of information about the protocol’s execution than those required to run the test. Our definition...... of privacy-preserving verifiability is general and applies to cryptographic protocols as well as to human security protocols. In this paper we exemplify it in the domain of e-exams. We prove that the notion is meaningful by studying an existing exam protocol that is verifiable but whose verifiability tests...... are not privacy-preserving. We prove that the notion is applicable: we review the protocol using functional encryption so that it admits a verifiability test that preserves privacy according to our definition. We analyse, in ProVerif, that the verifiability holds despite malicious parties and that the new...

  9. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the... requirement. The applicant who selects this cite-all option must submit to the Agency: (a) A general offer to... may be limited to apply only to data pertinent to the specific data requirement(s) for which the cite...

  10. Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Laurette

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 796 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 18th... International Workshop on Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems, 5 - 8 July 2016, Bucharest, Romania Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata Laurette Marais1,2 and Lynette van Zijl1(B) 1 Department of Computer Science, Stellenbosch...

  11. Niche-Specific Requirement for Hyphal Wall protein 1 in Virulence of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Janet F.; Datta, Kausik; Rhee, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Specialized Candida albicans cell surface proteins called adhesins mediate binding of the fungus to host cells. The mammalian transglutaminase (TG) substrate and adhesin, Hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1), is expressed on the hyphal form of C. albicans where it mediates fungal adhesion to epithelial cells. Hwp1 is also required for biofilm formation and mating thus the protein functions in both fungal-host and self-interactions. Hwp1 is required for full virulence of C. albicans in murine models of disseminated candidiasis and of esophageal candidiasis. Previous studies correlated TG activity on the surface of oral epithelial cells, produced by epithelial TG (TG1), with tight binding of C. albicans via Hwp1 to the host cell surfaces. However, the contribution of other Tgs, specifically tissue TG (TG2), to disseminated candidiasis mediated by Hwp1 was not known. A newly created hwp1 null strain in the wild type SC5314 background was as virulent as the parental strain in C57BL/6 mice, and virulence was retained in C57BL/6 mice deleted for Tgm2 (TG2). Further, the hwp1 null strains displayed modestly reduced virulence in BALB/c mice as did strain DD27-U1, an independently created hwp1Δ/Δ in CAI4 corrected for its ura3Δ defect at the URA3 locus. Hwp1 was still needed to produce wild type biofilms, and persist on murine tongues in an oral model of oropharyngeal candidiasis consistent with previous studies by us and others. Finally, lack of Hwp1 affected the translocation of C. albicans from the mouse intestine into the bloodstream of mice. Together, Hwp1 appears to have a minor role in disseminated candidiasis, independent of tissue TG, but a key function in host- and self-association to the surface of oral mucosa. PMID:24260489

  12. The rapidly evolving centromere-specific histone has stringent functional requirements in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Kwong, Pak N; Menorca, Ron M G; Valencia, Joel T; Ramahi, Joseph S; Stewart, Jodi L; Tran, Robert K; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca; Chan, Simon W-L

    2010-10-01

    Centromeres control chromosome inheritance in eukaryotes, yet their DNA structure and primary sequence are hypervariable. Most animals and plants have megabases of tandem repeats at their centromeres, unlike yeast with unique centromere sequences. Centromere function requires the centromere-specific histone CENH3 (CENP-A in human), which replaces histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes. CENH3 evolves rapidly, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. A portion of the CENH3 histone-fold domain, the CENP-A targeting domain (CATD), has been previously shown to confer kinetochore localization and centromere function when swapped into human H3. Furthermore, CENP-A in human cells can be functionally replaced by CENH3 from distantly related organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used cenh3-1 (a null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana) to replace endogenous CENH3 with GFP-tagged variants. A H3.3 tail domain-CENH3 histone-fold domain chimera rescued viability of cenh3-1, but CENH3's lacking a tail domain were nonfunctional. In contrast to human results, H3 containing the A. thaliana CATD cannot complement cenh3-1. GFP-CENH3 from the sister species A. arenosa functionally replaces A. thaliana CENH3. GFP-CENH3 from the close relative Brassica rapa was targeted to centromeres, but did not complement cenh3-1, indicating that kinetochore localization and centromere function can be uncoupled. We conclude that CENH3 function in A. thaliana, an organism with large tandem repeat centromeres, has stringent requirements for functional complementation in mitosis.

  13. 78 FR 30245 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Specific Requirements of the Disturbance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... contingency reserve policy; and (3) refers to the ERO rather than the NERC Operating Committee in Requirements... the proposed interpretation, Requirements R3 and R4 provide: R3. Each Balancing Authority or Reserve... Requirement R4 requires that: ``[A] Balancing Authority or Reserve Sharing Group shall meet the Disturbance...

  14. Solid Waste Information Tracking System (SWITS), Backlog Waste Modifications, Software Requirements Specification (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose of this document is to define the system requirements necessary to improve computer support for the WHC backlog waste business process through enhancements to the backlog waste function of the SWITS system. This SRS document covers enhancements to the SWITS system to support changes to the existing Backlog Waste screens including new data elements, label changes, and new pop-up screens. The pop-ups will allow the user to flag the processes that a waste container must have performed on it, and will provide history tracking of changes to data. A new screen will also be provided allowing Acceptable Services to perform mass updates to specific data in Backlog Waste table. The SWITS Backlog Waste enhancements in this document will support the project goals in WHC-SD-WM-003 and its Revision 1 (Radioactive Solid Waste Tracking System Conceptual Definition) for the control, tracing, and inventory management of waste as the packages are generated and moved through final disposal (cradle-to-grave)

  15. Diverse Requirements for Microglial Survival, Specification, and Function Revealed by Defined-Medium Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Christopher J; Bennett, F Chris; Tucker, Andrew F; Collins, Hannah Y; Mulinyawe, Sara B; Barres, Ben A

    2017-05-17

    Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, engage in various CNS-specific functions that are critical for development and health. To better study microglia and the properties that distinguish them from other tissue macrophage populations, we have optimized serum-free culture conditions to permit robust survival of highly ramified adult microglia under defined-medium conditions. We find that astrocyte-derived factors prevent microglial death ex vivo and that this activity results from three primary components, CSF-1/IL-34, TGF-β2, and cholesterol. Using microglial cultures that have never been exposed to serum, we demonstrate a dramatic and lasting change in phagocytic capacity after serum exposure. Finally, we find that mature microglia rapidly lose signature gene expression after isolation, and that this loss can be reversed by engrafting cells back into an intact CNS environment. These data indicate that the specialized gene expression profile of mature microglia requires continuous instructive signaling from the intact CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Requirement for Pdx1 in specification of latent endocrine progenitors in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellertsdottir Elin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-producing beta cells emerge during pancreas development in two sequential waves. Recently described later-forming beta cells in zebrafish show high similarity to second wave mammalian beta cells in developmental capacity. Loss-of-function studies in mouse and zebrafish demonstrated that the homeobox transcription factors Pdx1 and Hb9 are both critical for pancreas and beta cell development and discrete stage-specific requirements for these genes have been uncovered. Previously, exocrine and endocrine cell recovery was shown to follow loss of pdx1 in zebrafish, but the progenitor cells and molecular mechanisms responsible have not been clearly defined. In addition, interactions of pdx1 and hb9 in beta cell formation have not been addressed. Results To learn more about endocrine progenitor specification, we examined beta cell formation following morpholino-mediated depletion of pdx1 and hb9. We find that after early beta cell reduction, recovery occurs following loss of either pdx1 or hb9 function. Unexpectedly, simultaneous knockdown of both hb9 and pdx1 leads to virtually complete and persistent beta cell deficiency. We used a NeuroD:EGFP transgenic line to examine endocrine cell behavior in vivo and developed a novel live-imaging technique to document emergence and migration of late-forming endocrine precursors in real time. Our data show that Notch-responsive progenitors for late-arising endocrine cells are predominantly post mitotic and depend on pdx1. By contrast, early-arising endocrine cells are specified and differentiate independent of pdx1. Conclusions The nearly complete beta cell deficiency after combined loss of hb9 and pdx1 suggests functional cooperation, which we clarify as distinct roles in early and late endocrine cell formation. A novel imaging approach permitted visualization of the emergence of late endocrine cells within developing embryos for the first time. We demonstrate a pdx1-dependent

  17. SB certification handout material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels for mixture-based specification for flexible base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    A handout with tables representing the material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels mixture-based specification for flexible base and details on aggregate and test methods employed, along with agency and co...

  18. Transcription factor Tbx3 is required for the specification of the atrioventricular conduction system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martijn L.; Boukens, Bastiaan J.; Mommersteeg, Mathilda T. M.; Brons, Janynke F.; Wakker, Vincent; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.

    2008-01-01

    The cardiac conduction system consists of distinctive heart muscle cells that initiate and propagate the electric impulse required for coordinated contraction. The conduction system expresses the transcriptional repressor Tbx3, which is required for vertebrate development and controls the formation

  19. Development of requirements and functional specifications for crash event data recorders : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. DOT has conducted research on the requirements for a Crash Event Data Recorder to facilitate the reconstruction of commercial motor vehicle crashes. This report documents the work performed on the Development of Requirements and Functiona...

  20. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  1. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment

  2. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope

  3. Towards Verifying National CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, I. Y.; Wuerth, S. M.; Anderson, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    With the Paris Agreement, nations around the world have pledged their voluntary reductions in future CO2 emissions. Satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 have the potential to verify self-reported emission statistics around the globe. We present a carbon-weather data assimilation system, wherein raw weather observations together with satellite observations of the mixing ratio of column CO2 from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 are assimilated every 6 hours into the NCAR carbon-climate model CAM5 coupled to the Ensemble Kalman Filter of DART. In an OSSE, we reduced the fossil fuel emissions from a country, and estimated the emissions innovations demanded by the atmospheric CO2 observations. The uncertainties in the innovation are analyzed with respect to the uncertainties in the meteorology to determine the significance of the result. The work follows from "On the use of incomplete historical data to infer the present state of the atmosphere" (Charney et al. 1969), which maps the path for continuous data assimilation for weather forecasting and the five decades of progress since.

  4. Circuit architecture derivation starting from a formal requirements specification considering a DDS as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, H.; Richter, R.; Jentschel, H.-J.

    2004-05-01

    Based on a formal specification of a direct digital synthesis (DDS) and assuming the availability of a set of possible circuit architectures we derive a customised system configuration. e calculate the design parameters that can be used for the specification to synthesise the circuit components. We show how the derived parameters and the selected IC technology influence the complexity of the circuit implementation.

  5. 46 CFR 164.009-3 - Noncombustible materials not requiring specific approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for... noncombustible materials may be used in merchant vessel construction though not specifically approved under this subpart: (a) Sheet glass, block glass, clay, ceramics, and uncoated fibers. (b) All metals, except...

  6. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  7. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements

  8. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  9. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  10. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It takes into account developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  11. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It takes into account developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication

  12. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  13. The Specific Direction Requirement for Aiding and Abetting: A Call for Revisiting Comparative Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    . After this judgment, the prosecution filed a motion to reconsider the acquittal in Perišić, which the Appeals Chamber denied. In sum, these developments diluted and mischaracterized the standard of aiding and abetting. Accordingly, this article has two purposes. First, it demonstrates......The ‘specific direction’ saga has been dominating the jurisprudence of the ICTY for nearly two years, and the end is yet to be seen. The story centers on the correct interpretation of liability for aiding and abetting, while, at the same time, exposing broader concerns of international criminal law....... The saga started with unexpected acquittals of Perišić, Stanišić, and Simatović due to a lack of specific direction in their aid and assistance towards specific offences. More specifically, the tribunal found that the traditional test - the provision of aid with the awareness that it would have...

  14. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... removed from the motor vehicle; and (3) Is not fabricated under a specification for cylinders... determine leak tightness of the cargo tank when testing with pneumatic pressure. Internal self-closing stop...

  15. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnick, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal

  16. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brann, E.C. II.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal

  17. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brann, E.C. II

    1994-09-09

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  18. Verifying duration properties of timed transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.; Li, Xiaoshan

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for formal real-time systems development:Requirements and high level design decisions are time interval properties and are therefore specified in the Duration Calculus (DC), while implementations are described bytimed transition systems (TTS). A link from implementati...

  19. Verifying Process Algebra Proofs in Type Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellink, M.P.A.

    In this paper we study automatic verification of proofs in process algebra. Formulas of process algebra are represented by types in typed λ-calculus. Inhabitants (terms) of these types represent proofs. The specific typed λ-calculus we use is the Calculus of Inductive Constructions as implemented

  20. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA’s Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.

  1. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA’s Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.

  2. Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

  3. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS IN TANK FARMS OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS DOCUMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGLIN, E J

    2003-06-23

    This report provides the technical basis for high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) for Hanford tank farm ventilation systems (sometimes known as heating, ventilation and air conditioning [HVAC]) to support limits defined in Process Engineering Operating Specification Documents (OSDs). This technical basis included a review of older technical basis and provides clarifications, as necessary, to technical basis limit revisions or justification. This document provides an updated technical basis for tank farm ventilation systems related to Operation Specification Documents (OSDs) for double-shell tanks (DSTs), single-shell tanks (SSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, and various other miscellaneous facilities.

  4. Tethys: The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System -- Requirements Specification -- Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R. Scott; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ellis, Peter C.

    2010-11-09

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental impacts knowledge management system (KMS), dubbed Tethys after the mythical Greek goddess of the seas, is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This requirements specification establishes the essential capabilities required of Tethys and clarifies for WHTP and the Tethys development team the results that must be achieved by the system.

  5. 24 CFR 200.945 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for carpet. 200.945 Section 200.945... requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for carpet. (a) Applicable.... (b) Labeling. Under the procedures set forth in § 200.935(d)(6) concerning labeling of a product, the...

  6. Risk-Based Confidentiality Requirements Specification for Outsourced IT Systems (Extended Version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Today, companies are required to be in control of their IT assets, and to provide proof of this in the form of independent IT audit reports. However, many companies have outsourced various parts of their IT systems to other companies, which potentially threatens the control they have of their IT

  7. 40 CFR 270.17 - Specific part B information requirements for surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... migration of any hazardous constituents into the ground water or surface water at any future time; (2) The....19 of this chapter; (5) Proposed action leakage rate, with rationale, if required under § 264.222 of..., including the double liner system, leak detection system, cover system, and appurtenances for control of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2095 - What site-specific documentation is required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (5) Procedures for operating the incinerator and associated air pollution control systems within the... incinerator operating limits. (7) Reporting and recordkeeping procedures. (8) The waste management plan... required? 60.2095 Section 60.2095 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  9. Formal Functional Test Designs: Bridging the Gap Between Test Requirements and Test Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the testing life cycle, the purpose of the test design phase, and test design methods and gives an example application. Also included is a description of Test Representation Language (TRL), a summary of the language, and an example of an application of TRL. A sample test requirement and sample test design are included.

  10. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may not prevent detection of leaks or damage the venting devices and must be removed immediately after... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... percent of the required set pressure, and must reseat to a leak-tight condition at no less than 90 percent...

  11. The requirements and specific features related to power supply in telecommunications of Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubashenko, T. [Inst. Giprosvijaz, Kiev (Ukraine); Gordon, A. [ProElectro Ltd., Kiev (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    The article deals with the description of trends of power supplies in the telecommunication sector. The basic normative documents regarding the design of the power supplies are pointed out. The requirements concerning the design of the power supplies are outlined. The peculiarities of the power supplies in Ukrainian telecommunications are given. (orig.)

  12. NKT sublineage specification and survival requires the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme TNF AIP3/A20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drennan, M.B. (Michael B.); Govindarajan, S. (Srinath); Verheugen, E. (Eveline); Coquet, J.M. (Jonathan M.); Staal, J. (Jens); McGuire, C. (Conor); T. Taghon (Tom); G. Leclercq (Georges); R. Beyaert (Rudi); G. van Loo (Geert); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); Elewaut, D. (Dirk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNatural killer T (NKT) cells are innate lymphocytes that differentiate into NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17 sublineages during development. However, the signaling events that control NKT sublineage specification and differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the

  13. 40 CFR 270.25 - Specific part B information requirements for equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., boiler, process heater, condenser, or carbon adsorption system and chooses to use test data to determine....1033(j). (3) A design analysis, specifications, drawings, schematics, and piping and instrumentation... Administrator that present basic control device information. The design analysis shall address the vent stream...

  14. Proliferation requirements of cytomegalovirus-specific, effector-type human CD8+ T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Ester M.; Gamadia, Laila E.; Baars, Paul A.; Remmerswaal, Ester B.; ten Berge, Ineke J.; van Lier, René A.

    2002-01-01

    Two prototypic types of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells can be found in latently infected individuals: CD45R0(+)CD27(+)CCR7(-) effector-memory, and CD45RA(+)CD27(-)CCR7(-) effector-type cells. It has recently been implied that CD45RA(+)CD27(-)CCR7(-) T cells are terminally differentiated effector

  15. Specification of requirements for the virtual environment for reactor applications simulation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, S. M.; Pytel, M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the United States Dept. of Energy initiated a research and development effort to develop modern modeling and simulation methods that could utilize high performance computing capabilities to address issues important to nuclear power plant operation, safety and sustainability. To respond to this need, a consortium of national laboratories, academic institutions and industry partners (the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors - CASL) was formed to develop an integrated Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) modeling and simulation capability. A critical element for the success of the CASL research and development effort was the development of an integrated set of overarching requirements that provides guidance in the planning, development, and management of the VERA modeling and simulation software. These requirements also provide a mechanism from which the needs of a broad array of external CASL stakeholders (e.g. reactor / fuel vendors, plant owner / operators, regulatory personnel, etc.) can be identified and integrated into the VERA development plans. This paper presents an overview of the initial set of requirements contained within the VERA Requirements Document (VRD) that currently is being used to govern development of the VERA software within the CASL program. The complex interdisciplinary nature of these requirements together with a multi-physics coupling approach to realize a core simulator capability pose a challenge to how the VRD should be derived and subsequently revised to accommodate the needs of different stakeholders. Thus, the VRD is viewed as an evolving document that will be updated periodically to reflect the changing needs of identified CASL stakeholders and lessons learned during the progress of the CASL modeling and simulation program. (authors)

  16. Interleukin-1 is required for cancer eradication mediated by tumor-specific Th1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haabeth, Ole Audun Werner; Lorvik, Kristina Berg; Yagita, Hideo; Bogen, Bjarne; Corthay, Alexandre

    The role of inflammation in cancer is controversial as both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive aspects of inflammation have been reported. In particular, it has been shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), may either promote or suppress cancer. However, the cellular and molecular basis underlying these opposing outcomes remains enigmatic. Using mouse models for myeloma and lymphoma, we have recently reported that inflammation driven by tumor-specific T helper 1 (Th1) cells conferred protection against B-cell cancer and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was essential for this process. Here, we have investigated the contribution of several inflammatory mediators. Myeloma eradication by Th1 cells was not affected by inhibition of TNF-α, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In contrast, cancer elimination by tumor-specific Th1 cells was severely impaired by the in vivo neutralization of both IL-1α and IL-1β (collectively named IL-1) with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). The antitumor functions of tumor-specific Th1 cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages were both affected by IL-1 neutralization. Secretion of the Th1-derived cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ at the incipient tumor site was severely reduced by IL-1 blockade. Moreover, IL-1 was shown to synergize with IFN-γ for induction of tumoricidal activity in tumor-infiltrating macrophages. This synergy between IL-1 and IFN-γ may explain how inflammation, when driven by tumor-specific Th1 cells, represses rather than promotes cancer. Collectively, the data reveal a central role of inflammation, and more specifically of the canonical pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, in enhancing Th1-mediated immunity against cancer.

  17. Verifying reciprocal relations for experimental diffusion coefficients in multicomponent mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to verify the agreement of the available data on diffusion in ternary mixtures with the theoretical requirement of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics consisting in symmetry of the matrix of the phenomenological coefficients. A common set of measured diffusion...... coefficients for a three-component mixture consists of four Fickian diffusion coefficients, each being reported separately. However, the Onsager theory predicts the existence of only three independent coefficients, as one of them disappears due to the symmetry requirement. Re-calculation of the Fickian...... extended sets of experimental data and reliable thermodynamic models were available. The sensitivity of the symmetry property to different thermodynamic parameters of the models was also checked. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. The stylar 120 kDa glycoprotein is required for S-specific pollen rejection in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, C Nathan; Kent, Lia; McClure, Bruce A

    2005-09-01

    S-RNase participates in at least three mechanisms of pollen rejection. It functions in S-specific pollen rejection (self-incompatibility) and in at least two distinct interspecific mechanisms of pollen rejection in Nicotiana. S-specific pollen rejection and rejection of pollen from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia also require additional stylar proteins. Transmitting-tract-specific (TTS) protein, 120 kDa glycoprotein (120K) and pistil extensin-like protein III (PELP III) are stylar glycoproteins that bind S-RNase in vitro and are also known to interact with pollen. Here we tested whether these glycoproteins have a direct role in pollen rejection. 120K shows the most polymorphism in size between Nicotiana species. Larger 120K-like proteins are often correlated with S-specific pollen rejection. Sequencing results suggest that the polymorphism primarily reflects differences in glycosylation, although indels also occur in the predicted polypeptides. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we suppressed expression of 120K to determine if it is required for S-specific pollen rejection. Transgenic SC N. plumbaginifolia x SI Nicotiana alata (S105S105 or SC10SC10) hybrids with no detectable 120K were unable to perform S-specific pollen rejection. Thus, 120K has a direct role in S-specific pollen rejection. However, suppression of 120K had no effect on rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen. In contrast, suppression of HT-B, a factor previously implicated in S-specific pollen rejection, disrupts rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen. Thus, S-specific pollen rejection and rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen are mechanistically distinct, because they require different non-S-RNase factors.

  19. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenggang; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-12-01

    Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s). In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC), a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs), spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  20. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s. In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC, a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs, spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  1. CRISP. Requirements Specifications of Intelligent ICT Simulation Tools for Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kester, J.C.P.; Kamphuis, I.G. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands); Carlsson, P [EnerSearch, Malmoe (Sweden); Fontela, M. [Laboratory of Electrical Engineering LEG, Grenoble (France); Gustavsson, R. [Blekinge Institute of Technology BTH, Karlskrona (Sweden)

    2003-10-15

    This report, deliverable D2.1 in the CRISP project, serves as a preparation report for the development of simulation tools and prototype software which will be developed in forthcoming stages of the CRISP project. Application areas for these simulations are: fault detection and diagnosis, supply and demand matching and intelligent load shedding. The context in which these applications function is the power network with a high degree of distributed generation, including renewables. In order to control a so called distributed grid we can benefit from a high level of distributed control and intelligence. This requires, on top of the power system network, an information and communication network.. We argue that such a network should be seen as an enabler of distributed control and intelligence. The applications, through which control and intelligence is implemented, then form a third network layer, the service oriented network. Building upon this three-layered network model we derive in this report the requirements for a simulation tool and experiments which study new techniques for fault detection and diagnostics and for simulation tools and experiments implementing intelligent load shedding and supply and demand matching scenarios. We also look at future implementation of these services within the three-layered network model and the requirements that follow for the core information and communication network and for the service oriented network. These requirements, supported by the studies performed in the CRISP Workpackage 1, serve as a basis for development of the simulation tools in the tasks 2.2 to 2.4.

  2. CRISP. Requirements Specifications of Intelligent ICT Simulation Tools for Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kester, J.C.P.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Carlsson, P; Fontela, M.; Gustavsson, R.

    2003-10-01

    This report, deliverable D2.1 in the CRISP project, serves as a preparation report for the development of simulation tools and prototype software which will be developed in forthcoming stages of the CRISP project. Application areas for these simulations are: fault detection and diagnosis, supply and demand matching and intelligent load shedding. The context in which these applications function is the power network with a high degree of distributed generation, including renewables. In order to control a so called distributed grid we can benefit from a high level of distributed control and intelligence. This requires, on top of the power system network, an information and communication network.. We argue that such a network should be seen as an enabler of distributed control and intelligence. The applications, through which control and intelligence is implemented, then form a third network layer, the service oriented network. Building upon this three-layered network model we derive in this report the requirements for a simulation tool and experiments which study new techniques for fault detection and diagnostics and for simulation tools and experiments implementing intelligent load shedding and supply and demand matching scenarios. We also look at future implementation of these services within the three-layered network model and the requirements that follow for the core information and communication network and for the service oriented network. These requirements, supported by the studies performed in the CRISP Workpackage 1, serve as a basis for development of the simulation tools in the tasks 2.2 to 2.4

  3. Cell-specific differences in the requirements for translation quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, Noah M; Ling, Jiqiang; Roy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Protein synthesis has an overall error rate of approximately 10(-4) for each mRNA codon translated. The fidelity of translation is mainly determined by two events: synthesis of cognate amino acid:tRNA pairs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and accurate selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs)...... divergent requirements for quality control in different cell compartments and suggest that the limits of translational accuracy may be largely determined by cellular physiology....

  4. Specification and time required for the application of a lime-based render inside historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Peixoto de Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervention in ancient buildings with historical and architectural value requires traditional techniques, such as the use of lime mortars for internal and external wall renderings. In order to ensure the desired performance, these rendering mortars must be rigorously specified and quality controls have to be performed during application. The choice of mortar composition should take account of factors such as compatibility with the substrate, mechanical requirements and water behaviour. The construction schedule, which used to be considered a second order variable, nowadays plays a decisive role in the selection of the rendering technique, given its effects upon costs. How should lime-based mortars be specified? How much time is required for the application and curing of a lime-based render? This paper reflects upon the feasibility of using traditional lime mortars in three-layer renders inside churches and monasteries under adverse hygrothermal conditions and when time is critical. A case study is presented in which internal lime mortar renderings were applied in a church in Northern Portugal, where the very high relative humidity meant that several months were necessary before the drying process was complete.

  5. Activation of germline-specific genes is required for limb regeneration in the Mexican axolotl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Pao, Gerald M; Satoh, Akira; Cummings, Gillian; Monaghan, James R; Harkins, Timothy T; Bryant, Susan V; Voss, S Randal; Gardiner, David M; Hunter, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The capacity for tissue and organ regeneration in humans is dwarfed by comparison to that of salamanders. Emerging evidence suggests that mechanisms learned from the early phase of salamander limb regeneration – wound healing, cellular dedifferentiation and blastemal formation – will reveal therapeutic approaches for tissue regeneration in humans. Here we describe a unique transcriptional fingerprint of regenerating limb tissue in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that is indicative of cellular reprogramming of differentiated cells to a germline-like state. Two genes that are required for self-renewal of germ cells in mice and flies, Piwi-like 1 (PL1) and Piwi-like 2 (PL2), are expressed in limb blastemal cells, the basal layer keratinocytes and the thickened apical epithelial cap in the wound epidermis in the regenerating limb. Depletion of PL1 and PL2 by morpholino oligonucleotides decreased cell proliferation and increased cell death in the blastema leading to a significant retardation of regeneration. Examination of key molecules that are known to be required for limb development or regeneration further revealed that FGF8 is transcriptionally downregulated in the presence of the morpholino oligos, indicating PL1 and PL2 might participate in FGF signaling during limb regeneration. Given the requirement for FGF signaling in limb development and regeneration, the results suggest that PL1 and PL2 function to establish a unique germline-like state that is associated with successful regeneration. PMID:22841627

  6. Structure-guided mutational analysis reveals the functional requirements for product specificity of DOT1 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Gülcin; Anger, Andreas M; Mehlhorn, Christine; Hake, Sandra B; Janzen, Christian J

    2014-11-12

    DOT1 enzymes are conserved methyltransferases that catalyse the methylation of lysine 79 on histone H3 (H3K79). Most eukaryotes contain one DOT1 enzyme, whereas African trypanosomes have two homologues, DOT1A and DOT1B, with different enzymatic activities. DOT1A mediates mono- and dimethylation of H3K76, the homologue of H3K79 in other organisms, whereas DOT1B additionally catalyses H3K76 trimethylation. However, it is unclear how these different enzymatic activities are achieved. Here we employ a trypanosomal nucleosome reconstitution system and structure-guided homology modelling to identify critical residues within and outside the catalytic centre that modulate product specificity. Exchange of these residues transfers the product specificity from one enzyme to the other, and reveals the existence of distinct regulatory domains adjacent to the catalytic centre. Our study provides the first evidence that a few crucial residues in DOT1 enzymes are sufficient to catalyse methyl-state-specific reactions. These results might also have far-reaching consequences for the functional understanding of homologous enzymes in higher eukaryotes.

  7. Note on specifying and verifying concurrent processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holenderski, L.

    1984-02-28

    To represent sequential processes, sets of finite sequences of symbols from a finite alphabet are used in this approach, alphabet symbols denote events occurring when a process is being executed, a sequence of symbols is a record of one execution of the process, and a set of such sequences represents the process itself by combining all its possible executions together. Although this model turned out adequate for specifying concurrent processes and allows proving their properties, there are two reasons, at least, why this note takes the same subject up again. First, by analogy to shuffle and its closure, which express parallel combination and parallel iteration of non-interacting processes, there is a need for a similar operation describing the behaviour of interaction processes. A new extension of shuffle is proposed as a generalization. The closure of this operation provides a tool for specification of parallelly iterated processes. Moreover, the closure makes mutually recursive specification unnecessary. Second, when this model was used to prove properties of concurrent computations, only flow-of-control schemes were considered (thus, only some general properties were proved). When applied to concrete programs using variables that have values, such schemes had to be interpreted. In contrast to such a schematic approach, the usefulness of the same method for concrete programs is argued. This is shown using an example of a correctness proof of an implementation of unbounded semaphore by binary semaphores. 8 references.

  8. Sex-specific signaling in the blood-brain barrier is required for male courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Hoxha

    Full Text Available Soluble circulating proteins play an important role in the regulation of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. However, how these factors signal through the blood-brain barrier (bbb to interact with the sex-specific brain circuits that control courtship is unknown. Here we show that male identity of the blood-brain barrier is necessary and that male-specific factors in the bbb are physiologically required for normal male courtship behavior. Feminization of the bbb of adult males significantly reduces male courtship. We show that the bbb-specific G-protein coupled receptor moody and bbb-specific Go signaling in adult males are necessary for normal courtship. These data identify sex-specific factors and signaling processes in the bbb as important regulators of male mating behavior.

  9. 47 CFR 95.1119 - Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 608-614 MHz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices operating in the 608-614 MHz band. For a wireless medical telemetry device operating within the... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 608-614 MHz band. 95.1119 Section 95.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  10. 47 CFR 95.1121 - Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 1395-1400 and 1427...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 1395-1400 and 1427-1432 MHz bands. Due to the critical... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 1395-1400 and 1427-1432 MHz bands. 95.1121 Section 95.1121...

  11. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges..., June 22, 2010, table C-1 to subpart C was revised, effective Aug. 23, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  12. A control system verifier using automated reasoning software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-08-01

    An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logical axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions of the combined system

  13. PINK1 is required for timely cell-type specific mitochondrial clearance during Drosophila midgut metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Minjie; Chen, Kai; Yang, Shengxi; Wang, Qun; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Zhou, Yongjian; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Fei; Yang, Yufeng

    2016-11-15

    Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy, which is an important mitochondrial quality and quantity control process. During Drosophila metamorphosis, the degradation of midgut involves a large change in length and organization, which is mediated by autophagy. Here we noticed a cell-type specific mitochondrial clearance process that occurs in enterocytes (ECs), while most mitochondria remain in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) during metamorphosis. Although PINK1/PARKIN represent the canonical pathway for the elimination of impaired mitochondria in varied pathological conditions, their roles in developmental processes or normal physiological conditions have been less studied. To examine the potential contribution of PINK1 in developmental processes, we monitored the dynamic expression pattern of PINK1 in the midgut development by taking advantage of a newly CRISPR/Cas9 generated knock-in fly strain expressing PINK1-mCherry fusion protein that presumably recapitulates the endogenous expression pattern of PINK1. We disclosed a spatiotemporal correlation between the expression pattern of PINK1 and the mitochondrial clearance or persistence in ECs or ISCs respectively. By mosaic genetic analysis, we then demonstrated that PINK1 and PARKIN function epistatically to mediate the specific timely removal of mitochondria, and are involved in global autophagy in ECs during Drosophila midgut metamorphosis, with kinase-dead PINK1 exerting dominant negative effects. Taken together, our studies concluded that the PINK1/PARKIN is crucial for timely cell-type specific mitophagy under physiological conditions and demonstrated again that Drosophila midgut metamorphosis might serve as an elegant in vivo model to study autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Image Quality Translator – A Way to Support Specification of Imaging Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Bech, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Archives, libraries, and museums run numerous imaging projects to digitize physical works and collections of cultural heritage. This study presents a tool called the 'Image Quality Translator' that is being designed at the Royal Library to support the planning of digitization projects and to make...... the process of specifying and controlling imaging requirements more efficient. The tool seeks to translate between the language used by collection managers and curators to express needs for image quality, and the more technical terms and metrics used by imaging experts and photographers to express...

  15. Requirements and prototype for supporting the planning of patient specific thermal ablation interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal ablation is the process of destroying pathological tissue by either high temperatures of approximately 105 o C as achieved in radiofrequency ablation or low temperatures of approximately - 40 o C as used in cryotherapy. Ablations are widely used in clinical practice and provide a safe and generally well tolerated minimal invasive treatment if surgery is not an option. Thermal ablations are usually performed under image guidance, either by ultrasound, CT or MR. Even though ablations are widely used, very little textbook knowledge is available. Because of the treatment complexity there is a need for a well defined process which can be followed by an experienced radiologist as well as an inexperienced one. There is also a need for a planning platform which is capable of supporting the physician in planning the intervention on the basis of the patient's anatomy. For additional benefit this platform should also provide the means for estimating the final coagulation zone by simulations based on the patient's anatomy. The most widely used method to simulate the extend of a coagulation zone is by the usage of finite element analysis (FEA). FEA uses a defined geometry with the physical properties of the tissue and the ablation modality to create a model which can then be solved to make estimations about the extend of the final coagulation zone. Method and Results To deal with the problem of ablation knowledge being only available in distributed form, a workflow was abstracted and translated into diagrams. These workflow diagrams visualize the required steps and decisions when performing thermal ablations. The workflow is split into a planning, applicator placement, ablation and result evaluation phase. The information gained from this knowledge is then used to define the requirements for a platform which is capable of helping the physician when performing the ablation. In the next step I examined the possibility to increase an ablation's coagulation zone

  16. Surgical PACS for the digital operating room. Systems engineering and specification of user requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Werner; Bohn, Stefan; Burgert, Oliver; Dietz, Andreas; Jacobs, Stephan; Falk, Volkmar; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Strauss, Gero; Trantakis, Christos; Lemke, Heinz U

    2006-01-01

    For better integration of surgical assist systems into the operating room, a common communication and processing plattform that is based on the users needs is needed. The development of such a system, a Surgical Picture Aquisition and Communication System (S-PACS), according the systems engineering cycle is oulined in this paper. The first two steps (concept and specification) for the engineering of the S-PACS are discussed.A method for the systematic integration of the users needs', the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), is presented. The properties of QFD for the underlying problem and first results are discussed. Finally, this leads to a first definition of an S-PACS system.

  17. Layer specific and general requirements for ERK/MAPK signaling in the developing neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Larsen, Rylan S; Bjorklund, George Reed; Li, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yaohong; Philpot, Benjamin D; Snider, William D; Newbern, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant signaling through the Raf/MEK/ERK (ERK/MAPK) pathway causes pathology in a family of neurodevelopmental disorders known as 'RASopathies' and is implicated in autism pathogenesis. Here, we have determined the functions of ERK/MAPK signaling in developing neocortical excitatory neurons. Our data reveal a critical requirement for ERK/MAPK signaling in the morphological development and survival of large Ctip2+ neurons in layer 5. Loss of Map2k1/2 (Mek1/2) led to deficits in corticospinal tract formation and subsequent corticospinal neuron apoptosis. ERK/MAPK hyperactivation also led to reduced corticospinal axon elongation, but was associated with enhanced arborization. ERK/MAPK signaling was dispensable for axonal outgrowth of layer 2/3 callosal neurons. However, Map2k1/2 deletion led to reduced expression of Arc and enhanced intrinsic excitability in both layers 2/3 and 5, in addition to imbalanced synaptic excitation and inhibition. These data demonstrate selective requirements for ERK/MAPK signaling in layer 5 circuit development and general effects on cortical pyramidal neuron excitability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11123.001 PMID:26848828

  18. NKT sublineage specification and survival requires the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme TNFAIP3/A20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Michael B; Govindarajan, Srinath; Verheugen, Eveline; Coquet, Jonathan M; Staal, Jens; McGuire, Conor; Taghon, Tom; Leclercq, Georges; Beyaert, Rudi; van Loo, Geert; Lambrecht, Bart N; Elewaut, Dirk

    2016-09-19

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate lymphocytes that differentiate into NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17 sublineages during development. However, the signaling events that control NKT sublineage specification and differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme TNFAIP3/A20, an upstream regulator of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling in T cells, is an essential cell-intrinsic regulator of NKT differentiation. A20 is differentially expressed during NKT cell development, regulates NKT cell maturation, and specifically controls the differentiation and survival of NKT1 and NKT2, but not NKT17, sublineages. Remaining A20-deficient NKT1 and NKT2 thymocytes are hyperactivated in vivo and secrete elevated levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines after TCR ligation in vitro. Defective NKT development was restored by compound deficiency of MALT1, a key downstream component of TCR signaling in T cells. These findings therefore show that negative regulation of TCR signaling during NKT development controls the differentiation and survival of NKT1 and NKT2 cells. © 2016 Drennan et al.

  19. The importance of verifiable fire protection design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medonos, Sava [Petrellus Ltd. (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: smm@petrellus.co.uk; Geddes, Paul [Global Solutions UK Ltd. (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: paul@globalsolutionsuk.com

    2004-07-01

    Simplistic methods based on the Hp/A ratio between the heated surface area and volume or a 2-dimensional analysis may be sufficient for the determination of fire protection coatings for simple components. For the optimization of fire protection of pressure systems and load bearing structures, however, they have proved to be inadequate, as they do not represent the response taking place. This often leads to over-protection or inadequate fire resistance. In the past 10 years there have been claims in petrochemical industry of 'methods' for fire protection 'optimization' based on a walk-down through a topside or plant, or a heat-up calculation of a few cross sections with no regard to stress. These methods are wrong. In the best case these 'methods of optimization' lead to high unnecessary costs and in the worst case in an explosion of a vessel, structural collapse, domino effects and cataclysmic fire throughout the plant. The operator or design contractor should always require a Method Statement including a proof of verification to obtain the adequate quality of fire protection. (author)

  20. Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Raymond, P.; Gautier, G-M.; Pignatel, J-F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

  1. SELECTED REQUIREMENTS OF INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS BASED ON PAS 99 SPECIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Nowicki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim this research was to analyze the ways of integration of management systems in food sector. The study involved the documentation, audits, corrective and preventive actions and management's review phases described in the specification PAS 99, which is one of common elements of integrated management systems. Four organizations were selected for the study. The organizations had introduced and certified at least two standardized management systems. It was assumed that the investigated organizations should have implemented the HACCP system. Studies were conducted as a case study. The employees responsible for the functioning of management systems were interviewed in all four organizations. The study was conducted in the form of in-depth interviews based on pre-prepared script. The scenario was developed based on the PAS 99 guideline. The process of integration of management systems implemented in the studied companies reveals the full compliance of an integrated management system with PASS 99 in the policy area.

  2. Hox genes require homothorax and extradenticle for body wall identity specification but not for appendage identity specification during metamorphosis of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Jockusch, Elizabeth L

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of segment identity is a key developmental process that allows for divergence along the anteroposterior body axis in arthropods. In Drosophila, the identity of a segment is determined by the complement of Hox genes it expresses. In many contexts, Hox transcription factors require the protein products of extradenticle (exd) and homothorax (hth) as cofactors to perform their identity specification functions. In holometabolous insects, segment identity may be specified twice, during embryogenesis and metamorphosis. To glean insight into the relationship between embryonic and metamorphic segmental identity specification, we have compared these processes in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, which develops ventral appendages during embryogenesis that later metamorphose into adult appendages with distinct morphologies. At metamorphosis, comparisons of RNAi phenotypes indicate that Hox genes function jointly with Tc-hth and Tc-exd to specify several region-specific aspects of the adult body wall. On the other hand, Hox genes specify appendage identities along the anteroposterior axis independently of Tc-hth/Tc-exd and Tc-hth/Tc-exd specify proximal vs. distal identity within appendages independently of Hox genes during this stage. During embryogenesis, Tc-hth and Tc-exd play a broad role in the segmentation process and are required for specification of body wall identities in the thorax; however, contrasting with results from other species, we did not obtain homeotic transformations of embryonic appendages in response to Tc-hth or Tc-exd RNAi. In general, the homeotic effects of interference with the function of Hox genes and Tc-hth/Tc-exd during metamorphosis did not match predictions based on embryonic roles of these genes. Comparing metamorphic patterning in T. castaneum to embryonic and post-embryonic development in hemimetabolous insects suggests that holometabolous metamorphosis combines patterning processes of both late embryogenesis and

  3. USCIS E-Verify Customer Satisfaction Survey, January 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report focuses on the customer satisfaction of companies currently enrolled in the E-Verify program. Satisfaction with E-Verify remains high and follows up a...

  4. New concepts in nuclear arms control: verified cutoff and verified disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Limiting the numbers of nuclear warheads by reducing military production and stockpiles of fissionable materials has been a constant item on the nuclear arms control agenda for the last 45 years. It has become more salient recently, however, because of two events: the enforced closure for safety reasons of the current United States military plutonium production facilities; and the possibility that the US and USSR may soon conclude an agreement providing for the verified destruction of significant numbers of nuclear warheads and the recovery of the fissionable material they contain with the option of transferring these materials to peaceful uses. A study has been made of the practical problems of verifying the cut off of fissionable material production for military purposes in the nuclear weapon states, as well as providing assurance that material recovered from warheads is not re-used for proscribed military purposes and facilitating its transfer to civil uses. Implementation of such measures would have important implications for non-proliferation. The resultant paper was presented to a meeting of the PPNN Core Group held in Baden, close to Vienna, over the weekend of 18/19th November 1989 and is reprinted in this booklet. (author)

  5. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition); Bezopasnost' atomnykh ehlektrostantsij: proektirovanie. Konkretnye trebovaniya bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  6. Verifying black hole orbits with gravitational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drasco, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational waves from test masses bound to geodesic orbits of rotating black holes are simulated, using Teukolsky's black hole perturbation formalism, for about ten thousand generic orbital configurations. Each binary radiates power exclusively in modes with frequencies that are integer-linear combinations of the orbit's three fundamental frequencies. General spectral properties are found with a survey of orbits about a black hole taken to be rotating at 80% of the maximal spin. The orbital eccentricity is varied from 0.1 to 0.9. Inclination ranges from 20 deg. to 160 deg. and comes to within 20 deg. of polar. Semilatus rectum is varied from 1.2 to 3 times the value at the innermost stable circular orbits. The following general spectral properties are found: (i) 99% of the radiated power is typically carried by a few hundred modes, and at most by about a thousand modes, (ii) the dominant frequencies can be grouped into a small number of families defined by fixing two of the three integer frequency multipliers, and (iii) the specifics of these trends can be qualitatively inferred from the geometry of the orbit under consideration. Detections using triperiodic analytic templates modeled on these general properties would constitute a verification of radiation from an adiabatic sequence of black hole orbits and would recover the evolution of the fundamental orbital frequencies. In an analogy with ordinary spectroscopy, this would compare to observing the Bohr model's atomic hydrogen spectrum without being able to rule out alternative atomic theories or nuclei. The suitability of such a detection technique is demonstrated using snapshots computed at 12-hour intervals throughout the last three years before merger of a kludged inspiral. The system chosen is typical of those thought to occur in galactic nuclei and to be observable with space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA. Because of circularization, the number of excited modes decreases as the binary

  7. Quantifying sex, race, and age specific differences in bone microstructure requires measurement of anatomically equivalent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Burghardt, Andrew; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Iuliano, Sandra; Bonaretti, Serena; Bui, Minh; Zebaze, Roger; Seeman, Ego

    2017-08-01

    Individuals differ in forearm length. As microstructure differs along the radius, we hypothesized that errors may occur when sexual and racial dimorphisms are quantified at a fixed distance from the radio-carpal joint. Microstructure was quantified ex vivo in 18 cadaveric radii using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and in vivo in 158 Asian and Caucasian women and men at a fixed region of interest (ROI), a corrected ROI positioned at 4.5-6% of forearm length and using the fixed ROI adjusted for cross sectional area (CSA), forearm length or height. Secular effects of age were assessed by comparing 38 younger and 33 older women. Ex vivo, similar amounts of bone mass fashioned adjacent cross sections. Larger distal cross sections had thinner porous cortices of lower matrix mineral density (MMD), a larger medullary CSA and higher trabecular density. Smaller proximal cross-sections had thicker less porous cortices of higher MMD, a small medullary canal with little trabecular bone. Taller persons had more distally positioned fixed ROIs which moved proximally when corrected. Shorter persons had more proximally positioned fixed ROIs which moved distally when corrected, so dimorphisms lessened. In the corrected ROIs, in Caucasians, women had 0.6 SD higher porosity and 0.6 SD lower trabecular density than men (pmicrostructure requires measurement of anatomically equivalent regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum-free media formulations are cell line-specific and require optimization for microcarrier culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kah Yong; Teo, Kim Leng; Lim, Jessica F Y; Chen, Allen K L; Choolani, Mahesh; Reuveny, Shaul; Chan, Jerry; Oh, Steve Kw

    2015-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being investigated as potential cell therapies for many different indications. Current methods of production rely on traditional monolayer culture on tissue-culture plastic, usually with the use of serum-supplemented growth media. However, the monolayer culturing system has scale-up limitations and may not meet the projected hundreds of billions to trillions batches of cells needed for therapy. Furthermore, serum-free medium offers several advantages over serum-supplemented medium, which may have supply and contaminant issues, leading to many serum-free medium formulations being developed. We cultured seven MSC lines in six different serum-free media and compared their growth between monolayer and microcarrier culture. We show that (i) expansion levels of MSCs in serum-free monolayer cultures may not correlate with expansion in serum-containing media; (ii) optimal culture conditions (serum-free media for monolayer or microcarrier culture) differ for each cell line; (iii) growth in static microcarrier culture does not correlate with growth in stirred spinner culture; (iv) and that early cell attachment and spreading onto microcarriers does not necessarily predict efficiency of cell expansion in agitated microcarrier culture. Current serum-free media developed for monolayer cultures of MSCs may not support MSC proliferation in microcarrier cultures. Further optimization in medium composition will be required for microcarrier suspension culture for each cell line. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Donor-specific antibodies require preactivated immune system to harm renal transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süsal, Caner; Döhler, Bernd; Ruhenstroth, Andrea; Morath, Christian; Slavcev, Antonij; Fehr, Thomas; Wagner, Eric; Krüger, Bernd; Rees, Margaret; Balen, Sanja; Živčić-Ćosić, Stela; Norman, Douglas J; Kuypers, Dirk; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Pisarski, Przemyslaw; Bösmüller, Claudia; Weimer, Rolf; Mytilineos, Joannis; Scherer, Sabine; Tran, Thuong H; Gombos, Petra; Schemmer, Peter; Zeier, Martin; Opelz, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    It is an unresolved issue why some kidney transplant recipients with pretransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) show a high transplant failure rate, whereas in other patients DSA do not harm the graft. We investigated whether help from preactivated T-cells might be necessary for DSA to exert a deleterious effect. The impact of pretransplant DSA and immune activation marker soluble CD30 (sCD30) on 3-year graft survival was analyzed in 385 presensitized kidney transplant recipients. A deleterious influence of pretransplant DSA on graft survival was evident only in patients who were positive for the immune activation marker sCD30. In the absence of sCD30 positivity, 3-year graft survival was virtually identical in patients with or without DSA (83.1±3.9% and 84.3±2.8%, P=0.81). A strikingly lower 3-year graft survival rate of 62.1±6.4% was observed in patients who were both sCD30 and DSA positive (HR 2.92, PsCD30 negative. Pretransplant DSA have a significantly deleterious impact on graft survival only in the presence of high pretransplant levels of the activation marker sCD30. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Verified Interval Orbit Propagation in Satellite Collision Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römgens, B.A.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verified interval integration methods enclose a solution set corresponding to interval initial values and parameters, and bound integration and rounding errors. Verified methods suffer from overestimation of the solution, i.e., non-solutions are also included in the solution enclosure. Two verified

  11. 28 CFR 802.13 - Verifying your identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Verifying your identity. 802.13 Section... COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.13 Verifying your identity. (a) Requests for your own records. When you make a request for access to records about yourself, you must verify your identity. You...

  12. Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

  13. Stage specific requirement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α in embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qian

    Full Text Available Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα is a cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinase for platelet-derived growth factors. Correct timing and level of Pdgfra expression is crucial for embryo development, and deletion of Pdgfra caused developmental defects of multiple endoderm and mesoderm derived structures, resulting in a complex phenotypes including orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib deformities, and omphalocele in mice. However, it is not clear if deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic stages differentially affects these structures.To address the temporal requirement of Pdgfra in embryonic development.We have deleted the Pdgfra in Pdgfra-expressing tissues at different embryonic stages in mice, examined and quantified the developmental anomalies.Current study showed that (i conditional deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic days (between E7.5 and E10.5 resulted in orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib cage deformities, and omphalocele, and (ii the day of Pdgfra deletion influenced the combinations, incidence and severities of these anomalies. Deletion of Pdgfra caused apoptosis of Pdgfra-expressing tissues, and developmental defects of their derivatives.Orofacial cleft, spina bifida and omphalocele are among the commonest skeletal and abdominal wall defects of newborns, but their genetic etiologies are largely unknown. The remarkable resemblance of our conditional Pdgfra knockout embryos to theses human congenital anomalies, suggesting that dysregulated PDGFRA expression could cause these anomalies in human. Future work should aim at defining (a the regulatory elements for the expression of the human PDGFRA during embryonic development, and (b if mutations / sequence variations of these regulatory elements cause these anomalies.

  14. A Clostridium difficile-Specific, Gel-Forming Protein Required for Optimal Spore Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lauren Donnelly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC. Activated SleC degrades the protective spore cortex layer, a step that is essential for germination to proceed. Since CspC incorporation into spores also depends on CspA, a related pseudoprotease domain, Csp family proteins play a critical role in germination. However, how Csps are incorporated into spores remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that incorporation of the CspC, CspB, and CspA germination regulators into spores depends on CD0311 (renamed GerG, a previously uncharacterized hypothetical protein. The reduced levels of Csps in gerG spores correlate with reduced responsiveness to bile salt germinants and increased germination heterogeneity in single-spore germination assays. Interestingly, asparagine-rich repeat sequences in GerG’s central region facilitate spontaneous gel formation in vitro even though they are dispensable for GerG-mediated control of germination. Since GerG is found exclusively in C. difficile, our results suggest that exploiting GerG function could represent a promising avenue for developing C. difficile-specific anti-infective therapies.

  15. [The development and evaluation of software to verify diagnostic accuracy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rodrigo; de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena; Silveira, Paulo Sérgio Panse; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of software that verifies the accuracy of diagnoses made by nursing students. The software was based on a model that uses fuzzy logic concepts, including PERL, the MySQL database for Internet accessibility, and the NANDA-I 2007-2008 classification system. The software was evaluated in terms of its technical quality and usability through specific instruments. The activity proposed in the software involves four stages in which students establish the relationship values between nursing diagnoses, defining characteristics/risk factors and clinical cases. The relationship values determined by students are compared to those of specialists, generating performance scores for the students. In the evaluation, the software demonstrated satisfactory outcomes regarding the technical quality and, according to the students, helped in their learning and may become an educational tool to teach the process of nursing diagnosis.

  16. Improving software requirements specification for safety-related systems using the fault tree developed by an object-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1998-01-01

    A modification of the fault tree analysis is presented. The new fault tree integrates structural and behavioral models of a system. Information on the system structure is captured in the name of each gate and basic event of the fault tree. Information on the system behavior is captured in their description. Behavior is expressed using the axiomatic notation based on first order predicate logic. The new fault tree is a useful model for analysis and improvement of software requirements specification. The benefit of such improvements is reduced probability of failures in specification, which in turn results in increased reliability of the software.(author)

  17. Verifying Safety Messages Using Relative-Time and Zone Priority in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Sam; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Kittipiyakul, Somsak

    2018-01-01

    In high-density road networks, with each vehicle broadcasting multiple messages per second, the arrival rate of safety messages can easily exceed the rate at which digital signatures can be verified. Since not all messages can be verified, algorithms for selecting which messages to verify are required to ensure that each vehicle receives appropriate awareness about neighbouring vehicles. This paper presents a novel scheme to select important safety messages for verification in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). The proposed scheme uses location and direction of the sender, as well as proximity and relative-time between vehicles, to reduce the number of irrelevant messages verified (i.e., messages from vehicles that are unlikely to cause an accident). Compared with other existing schemes, the analysis results show that the proposed scheme can verify messages from nearby vehicles with lower inter-message delay and reduced packet loss and thus provides high level of awareness of the nearby vehicles. PMID:29652840

  18. Definition of Specific Functions and Procedural Skills Required by Cuban Specialists in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véliz, Pedro L; Berra, Esperanza M; Jorna, Ana R

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Medical specialties' core curricula should take into account functions to be carried out, positions to be filled and populations to be served. The functions in the professional profile for specialty training of Cuban intensive care and emergency medicine specialists do not include all the activities that they actually perform in professional practice. OBJECTIVE Define the specific functions and procedural skills required of Cuban specialists in intensive care and emergency medicine. METHODS The study was conducted from April 2011 to September 2013. A three-stage methodological strategy was designed using qualitative techniques. By purposive maximum variation sampling, 82 professionals were selected. Documentary analysis and key informant criteria were used in the first stage. Two expert groups were formed in the second stage: one used various group techniques (focus group, oral and written brainstorming) and the second used a three-round Delphi method. In the final stage, a third group of experts was questioned in semistructured in-depth interviews, and a two-round Delphi method was employed to assess priorities. RESULTS Ultimately, 78 specific functions were defined: 47 (60.3%) patient care, 16 (20.5%) managerial, 6 (7.7%) teaching, and 9 (11.5%) research. Thirty-one procedural skills were identified. The specific functions and procedural skills defined relate to the profession's requirements in clinical care of the critically ill, management of patient services, teaching and research at the specialist's different occupational levels. CONCLUSIONS The specific functions and procedural skills required of intensive care and emergency medicine specialists were precisely identified by a scientific method. This product is key to improving the quality of teaching, research, administration and patient care in this specialty in Cuba. The specific functions and procedural skills identified are theoretical, practical, methodological and social contributions to

  19. Verifying large modular systems using iterative abstraction refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, Jussi; Kuismin, Tuomas; Heljanko, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are increasingly used in the nuclear engineering domain. The exhaustive verification of these systems is challenging, and the usual verification methods such as testing and simulation are typically insufficient. Model checking is a formal method that is able to exhaustively analyse the behaviour of a model against a formally written specification. If the model checking tool detects a violation of the specification, it will give out a counter-example that demonstrates how the specification is violated in the system. Unfortunately, sometimes real life system designs are too big to be directly analysed by traditional model checking techniques. We have developed an iterative technique for model checking large modular systems. The technique uses abstraction based over-approximations of the model behaviour, combined with iterative refinement. The main contribution of the work is the concrete abstraction refinement technique based on the modular structure of the model, the dependency graph of the model, and a refinement sampling heuristic similar to delta debugging. The technique is geared towards proving properties, and outperforms BDD-based model checking, the k-induction technique, and the property directed reachability algorithm (PDR) in our experiments. - Highlights: • We have developed an iterative technique for model checking large modular systems. • The technique uses BDD-based model checking, k-induction, and PDR in parallel. • We have tested our algorithm by verifying two models with it. • The technique outperforms classical model checking methods in our experiments

  20. Pilot study to verify the calibration of electrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.; Meghzifene, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The main detector used for standardization of the quantities used in measurements of ionizing radiation is the ionization chamber. The interaction of the radiation with this detector produces electrical charge, usually, in the range of pC to nC. The instrument used to measure such small charges (or currents) is the electrometer. As part of a good practice, the measured charge (current) must be traceable to a primary or secondary standard. Some calibration laboratories can only provide a system calibration coefficient, i.e. a calibration coefficient for the combination of electrometer plus ionization chamber (Gy/scale division). This practice is acceptable, but it can impose a limitation to the automation of their calibration procedures (using computerized application for the acquisition of current/charge). Not all models have the possibility of a connection to a computer and in the case of those that don't have this capability, automation is not possible without the development of a specific interface. In addition, end-users receive a calibration coefficient, which is only valid for the set ion chamber and electrometer. In case of a broken chamber, the end-user cannot connect another chamber to their electrometer without knowing its calibration coefficient. If the calibration laboratories had the capability of calibrating the chamber separately from the electrometer, for example, using an electrometer calibrated in terms of charge, all the chambers could be calibrated using this electrometer. The laboratory can also benefit from the automation of the measurements. This requires that the laboratory must be able to cross-calibrate the electrometers (associated to the chambers) also in terms of charge (Coulombs). Electrical charge is standardized by the use of a standard air capacitor and a standard voltage source (Q=CV) and the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (IRD) in Brazil has also adopted this procedure. Since the Brazilian

  1. Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowan; Singh, Anu; Smolka, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    We use the UPPAAL model checker for Timed Automata to verify the Timing-Sync time-synchronization protocol for sensor networks (TPSN). The TPSN protocol seeks to provide network-wide synchronization of the distributed clocks in a sensor network. Clock-synchronization algorithms for sensor networks such as TPSN must be able to perform arithmetic on clock values to calculate clock drift and network propagation delays. They must be able to read the value of a local clock and assign it to another local clock. Such operations are not directly supported by the theory of Timed Automata. To overcome this formal-modeling obstacle, we augment the UPPAAL specification language with the integer clock derived type. Integer clocks, which are essentially integer variables that are periodically incremented by a global pulse generator, greatly facilitate the encoding of the operations required to synchronize clocks as in the TPSN protocol. With this integer-clock-based model of TPSN in hand, we use UPPAAL to verify that the protocol achieves network-wide time synchronization and is devoid of deadlock. We also use the UPPAAL Tracer tool to illustrate how integer clocks can be used to capture clock drift and resynchronization during protocol execution

  2. Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P.; Shankman, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant among the changes were major revisions to requirements for Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCOs). In preparation for the adoption of these requirements into regulations in the United States, it became apparent that guidance on how to apply these requirements, clarifying technical uncertainties and ensuring proper implementation, would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance for LSA material and SCO transport. The guidance will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules. Ideas being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment prior to final issuance of the guidance in 1997

  3. Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P.; Shankman, S.F.; Boyle, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant among the changes were major revisions to requirements for Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCOs). In preparation for the adoption of these requirements into regulations in the United States, it became apparent that guidance on how to apply these requirements, clarifying technical uncertainties and ensuring proper implementation, would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance for LSA material and SCO transport. The guidance will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules. Ideas being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment prior to final issue of the guidance in 1997. (Author)

  4. Application of automated reasoning software: procedure generation system verifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

    1984-09-01

    An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logic axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions gathered by the combined system

  5. Computer system requirements specification for 101-SY hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeece, S.G.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The system requirements specification for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project (HMTP) data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) documents the system requirements for the DACS-1 project. The purpose of the DACS is to provide data acquisition and control capabilities for the hydrogen mitigation testing of Tank SY-101. Mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste, directed at varying angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. Tank and supporting instrumentation is brought into the DACS to monitor the status of the tank and to provide information on the effectiveness of the mitigation test. Instrumentation is also provided for closed loop control of the pump operation. DACS is also capable for being expanded to control and monitor other mitigation testing. The intended audience for the computer system requirements specification includes the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test data acquisition and control system designers: analysts, programmers, instrument engineers, operators, maintainers. It is intended for the data users: tank farm operations, mitigation test engineers, the Test Review Group (TRG), data management support staff, data analysis, Hanford data stewards, and external reviewers

  6. A Finite Equivalence of Verifiable Multi-secret Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give an abstraction of verifiable multi-secret sharing schemes that is accessible to a fully mechanized analysis. This abstraction is formalized within the applied pi-calculus by using an equational theory which characterizes the cryptographic semantics of secret share. We also present an encoding from the equational theory into a convergent rewriting system, which is suitable for the automated protocol verifier ProVerif. Based on that, we verify the threshold certificate protocol in ProVerif.

  7. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  8. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require ''immediate'' shutdown of the plant. In this paper, the authors present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion

  9. An MHC-restricted antibody-based chimeric antigen receptor requires TCR-like affinity to maintain antigen specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela V Maus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are synthetic receptors that usually redirect T cells to surface antigens independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA. Here, we investigated a T cell receptor-like CAR based on an antibody that recognizes HLA-A*0201 presenting a peptide epitope derived from the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1. We hypothesized that this CAR would efficiently redirect transduced T cells in an HLA-restricted, antigen-specific manner. However, we found that despite the specificity of the soluble Fab, the same antibody in the form of a CAR caused moderate lysis of HLA-A2 expressing targets independent of antigen owing to T cell avidity. We hypothesized that lowering the affinity of the CAR for HLA-A2 would improve its specificity. We undertook a rational approach of mutating residues that, in the crystal structure, were predicted to stabilize binding to HLA-A2. We found that one mutation (DN lowered the affinity of the Fab to T cell receptor-range and restored the epitope specificity of the CAR. DN CAR T cells lysed native tumor targets in vitro, and, in a xenogeneic mouse model implanted with two human melanoma lines (A2+/NYESO+ and A2+/NYESO−, DN CAR T cells specifically migrated to, and delayed progression of, only the HLA-A2+/NY-ESO-1+ melanoma. Thus, although maintaining MHC-restricted antigen specificity required T cell receptor-like affinity that decreased potency, there is exciting potential for CARs to expand their repertoire to include a broad range of intracellular antigens.

  10. The specific radioimmunoassay in pharmacokinetics: potency, requirements and development for routine use as illustrated with an assay for Pirenzepin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozler, G.

    1977-01-01

    Requirements for using RIA in pharmacokinetics are specified. An assay system developed for Pirenzepin was used as example to illustrate the general strategy striving mainly for specificity, sensitivity and reliability. The type of error in the final data is considered. It is a widespread assumption that weak crossreactions with metabolites result in a 'relative' error and, therefore, don't have relevance for the determination of the parent drug. In contrast, it was shown for biological samples that such weak crossreactivity gives rise to a concentration independent (absolute) error, which is analogous to that caused by a 'blank value' in chemical analysis. (orig.) [de

  11. Automata learning algorithms and processes for providing more complete systems requirements specification by scenario generation, CSP-based syntax-oriented model construction, and R2D2C system requirements transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Margaria, Tiziana (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor); Steffen, Bernard (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, automata learning algorithms and techniques are implemented to generate a more complete set of scenarios for requirements based programming. More specifically, a CSP-based, syntax-oriented model construction, which requires the support of a theorem prover, is complemented by model extrapolation, via automata learning. This may support the systematic completion of the requirements, the nature of the requirement being partial, which provides focus on the most prominent scenarios. This may generalize requirement skeletons by extrapolation and may indicate by way of automatically generated traces where the requirement specification is too loose and additional information is required.

  12. Combinatorial Modulation of Signaling Pathways Reveals Cell-Type-Specific Requirements for Highly Efficient and Synchronous iPSC Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon E. Vidal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated state of somatic cells provides barriers for the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. To address why some cell types reprogram more readily than others, we studied the effect of combined modulation of cellular signaling pathways. Surprisingly, inhibition of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β together with activation of Wnt signaling in the presence of ascorbic acid allows >80% of murine fibroblasts to acquire pluripotency after 1 week of reprogramming factor expression. In contrast, hepatic and blood progenitors predominantly required only TGF-β inhibition or canonical Wnt activation, respectively, to reprogram at efficiencies approaching 100%. Strikingly, blood progenitors reactivated endogenous pluripotency loci in a highly synchronous manner, and we demonstrate that expression of specific chromatin-modifying enzymes and reduced TGF-β/mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase activity are intrinsic properties associated with the unique reprogramming response of these cells. Our observations define cell-type-specific requirements for the rapid and synchronous reprogramming of somatic cells.

  13. Nod2 is required for antigen-specific humoral responses against antigens orally delivered using a recombinant Lactobacillus vaccine platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Bumgardner

    Full Text Available Safe and efficacious orally-delivered mucosal vaccine platforms are desperately needed to combat the plethora of mucosally transmitted pathogens. Lactobacillus spp. have emerged as attractive candidates to meet this need and are known to activate the host innate immune response in a species- and strain-specific manner. For selected bacterial isolates and mutants, we investigated the role of key innate immune pathways required for induction of innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses. Co-culture of murine macrophages with L. gasseri (strain NCK1785, L. acidophilus (strain NCFM, or NCFM-derived mutants-NCK2025 and NCK2031-elicited an M2b-like phenotype associated with TH2 skewing and immune regulatory function. For NCFM, this M2b phenotype was dependent on expression of lipoteichoic acid and S layer proteins. Through the use of macrophage genetic knockouts, we identified Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, the cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2 receptor, and the inflammasome-associated caspase-1 as contributors to macrophage activation, with NOD2 cooperating with caspase-1 to induce inflammasome derived interleukin (IL-1β in a pyroptosis-independent fashion. Finally, utilizing an NCFM-based mucosal vaccine platform with surface expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Gag or membrane proximal external region (MPER, we demonstrated that NOD2 signaling is required for antigen-specific mucosal and systemic humoral responses. We show that lactobacilli differentially utilize innate immune pathways and highlight NOD2 as a key mediator of macrophage function and antigen-specific humoral responses to a Lactobacillus acidophilus mucosal vaccine platform.

  14. AUTOMATIC ESTIMATION OF SIZE PARAMETERS USING VERIFIED COMPUTERIZED STEREOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Mouton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art computerized stereology systems combine high-resolution video microscopy and hardwaresoftware integration with stereological methods to assist users in quantifying multidimensional parameters of importance to biomedical research, including volume, surface area, length, number, their variation and spatial distribution. The requirement for constant interactions between a trained, non-expert user and the targeted features of interest currently limits the throughput efficiency of these systems. To address this issue we developed a novel approach for automatic stereological analysis of 2-D images, Verified Computerized Stereoanalysis (VCS. The VCS approach minimizes the need for user interactions with high contrast [high signal-to-noise ratio (S:N] biological objects of interest. Performance testing of the VCS approach confirmed dramatic increases in the efficiency of total object volume (size estimation, without a loss of accuracy or precision compared to conventional computerized stereology. The broad application of high efficiency VCS to high-contrast biological objects on tissue sections could reduce labor costs, enhance hypothesis testing, and accelerate the progress of biomedical research focused on improvements in health and the management of disease.

  15. Parameterization of disorder predictors for large-scale applications requiring high specificity by using an extended benchmark dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenhaber Frank

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algorithms designed to predict protein disorder play an important role in structural and functional genomics, as disordered regions have been reported to participate in important cellular processes. Consequently, several methods with different underlying principles for disorder prediction have been independently developed by various groups. For assessing their usability in automated workflows, we are interested in identifying parameter settings and threshold selections, under which the performance of these predictors becomes directly comparable. Results First, we derived a new benchmark set that accounts for different flavours of disorder complemented with a similar amount of order annotation derived for the same protein set. We show that, using the recommended default parameters, the programs tested are producing a wide range of predictions at different levels of specificity and sensitivity. We identify settings, in which the different predictors have the same false positive rate. We assess conditions when sets of predictors can be run together to derive consensus or complementary predictions. This is useful in the framework of proteome-wide applications where high specificity is required such as in our in-house sequence analysis pipeline and the ANNIE webserver. Conclusions This work identifies parameter settings and thresholds for a selection of disorder predictors to produce comparable results at a desired level of specificity over a newly derived benchmark dataset that accounts equally for ordered and disordered regions of different lengths.

  16. A physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein is required for genome-packaging specificity in an RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Rao, A L N

    2012-06-01

    Genome packaging is functionally coupled to replication in RNA viruses pathogenic to humans (Poliovirus), insects (Flock house virus [FHV]), and plants (Brome mosaic virus [BMV]). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have observed previously that in FHV and BMV, unlike ectopically expressed capsid protein (CP), packaging specificity results from RNA encapsidation by CP that has been translated from mRNA produced from replicating genomic RNA. Consequently, we hypothesize that a physical interaction with replicase increases the CP specificity for packaging viral RNAs. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the molecular interaction between replicase protein and CP using a FHV-Nicotiana benthamiana system. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation in conjunction with fluorescent cellular protein markers and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that FHV replicase (protein A) and CP physically interact at the mitochondrial site of replication and that this interaction requires the N-proximal region from either amino acids 1 to 31 or amino acids 32 to 50 of the CP. In contrast to the mitochondrial localization of CP derived from FHV replication, ectopic expression displayed a characteristic punctate pattern on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This pattern was altered to relocalize the CP throughout the cytoplasm when the C-proximal hydrophobic domain was deleted. Analysis of the packaging phenotypes of the CP mutants defective either in protein A-CP interactions or ER localization suggested that synchronization between protein A-CP interaction and its subcellular localization is imperative to confer packaging specificity.

  17. Verifying the Simulation Hypothesis via Infinite Nested Universe Simulacrum Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikrant

    2017-01-01

    The simulation hypothesis proposes that local reality exists as a simulacrum within a hypothetical computer's dimension. More specifically, Bostrom's trilemma proposes that the number of simulations an advanced 'posthuman' civilization could produce makes the proposition very likely. In this paper a hypothetical method to verify the simulation hypothesis is discussed using infinite regression applied to a new type of infinite loop. Assign dimension n to any computer in our present reality, where dimension signifies the hierarchical level in nested simulations our reality exists in. A computer simulating known reality would be dimension (n-1), and likewise a computer simulating an artificial reality, such as a video game, would be dimension (n +1). In this method, among others, four key assumptions are made about the nature of the original computer dimension n. Summations show that regressing such a reality infinitely will create convergence, implying that the verification of whether local reality is a grand simulation is feasible to detect with adequate compute capability. The action of reaching said convergence point halts the simulation of local reality. Sensitivities to the four assumptions and implications are discussed.

  18. Verifying operator fitness - an imperative not an option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.B. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the early morning hours of April 26, 1986, whatever credence those who operate nuclear power plants around the world could then muster, suffered a jarring reversal. Through an incredible series of personal errors, the operators at what was later to be termed one of the best operated plants in the USSR systematically stripped away the physical and procedural safeguards inherent to their installation and precipitated the worst reactor accident the world has yet seen. This challenge to the adequacy of nuclear operators comes at a time when many companies throughout the world - not only those that involve nuclear power - are grappling with the problem of how to assure the fitness for duty of those in their employ, specifically those users of substances that have an impact on the ability to function safely and productively in the workplace. In actuality, operator fitness for duty is far more than the lack of impairment from substance abuse, which many today consider it. Full fitness for duty implies mental and moral fitness, as well, and physical fitness in a more general sense. If we are to earn the confidence of the public, credible ways to verify total fitness on an operator-by-operator basis must be considered

  19. Alloantigen-specific suppressor T cells are not inhibited by cyclosporin A, but do require IL 2 for activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucy, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Alloantigen-specific suppressor T cells are activated from normal murine spleen cells in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR). These T cells are radioresistant and suppress the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in second primary MLR cultures. This report demonstrates that cyclosporin A (CsA) blocks the activation of these suppressor cells at a dose of 1 microgram/ml. However, reconstitution of CsA blocked cultures with IL 2 restores the activation of the suppressor T cells, but fails to significantly restore the activation of CTL in these same cultures. This differential activation requirement was used to establish T cell lines that demonstrate enriched suppressor cell activity but depletion of CTL activity. These findings are discussed in terms of the mechanism of action of CsA in these distinct T cell subsets and the relevance to models of allograft unresponsiveness

  20. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown. A risk perspective with application to the RHR/SSW systems of a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements.

  1. Specific primary sequence requirements for Aurora B kinase-mediated phosphorylation and subcellular localization of TMAP during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kwon, Hye-Rim; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae; Hong, Kyung U

    2010-05-15

    During mitosis, regulation of protein structures and functions by phosphorylation plays critical roles in orchestrating a series of complex events essential for the cell division process. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a novel player in spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. We have previously reported that TMAP is phosphorylated at multiple residues specifically during mitosis. However, the mechanisms and functional importance of phosphorylation at most of the sites identified are currently unknown. Here, we report that TMAP is a novel substrate of the Aurora B kinase. Ser627 of TMAP was specifically phosphorylated by Aurora B both in vitro and in vivo. Ser627 and neighboring conserved residues were strictly required for efficient phosphorylation of TMAP by Aurora B, as even minor amino acid substitutions of the phosphorylation motif significantly diminished the efficiency of the substrate phosphorylation. Nearly all mutations at the phosphorylation motif had dramatic effects on the subcellular localization of TMAP. Instead of being localized to the chromosome region during late mitosis, the mutants remained associated with microtubules and centrosomes throughout mitosis. However, the changes in the subcellular localization of these mutants could not be completely explained by the phosphorylation status on Ser627. Our findings suggest that the motif surrounding Ser627 ((625) RRSRRL (630)) is a critical part of a functionally important sequence motif which not only governs the kinase-substrate recognition, but also regulates the subcellular localization of TMAP during mitosis.

  2. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  3. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  4. Verifying Correct Usage of Atomic Blocks and Typestate: Technical Companion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckman, Nels E; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    In this technical report, we present a static and dynamic semantics as well as a proof of soundness for a programming language presented in the paper entitled, 'Verifying Correct Usage of Atomic Blocks and Typestate...

  5. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  6. Reasoning about knowledge: Children’s evaluations of generality and verifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa A.; Cole, Caitlin A.; Meyer, Meredith; Ridge, Katherine E.; Kushnir, Tamar; Gelman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined 3- to 8-year-old children’s (N = 223) and adults’ (N = 32) use of two properties of testimony to estimate a speaker’s knowledge: generality and verifiability. Participants were presented with a “Generic speaker” who made a series of 4 general claims about “pangolins” (a novel animal kind), and a “Specific speaker” who made a series of 4 specific claims about “this pangolin” as an individual. To investigate the role of verifiability, we systematically varied whether the claim referred to a perceptually-obvious feature visible in a picture (e.g., “has a pointy nose”) or a non-evident feature that was not visible (e.g., “sleeps in a hollow tree”). Three main findings emerged: (1) Young children showed a pronounced reliance on verifiability that decreased with age. Three-year-old children were especially prone to credit knowledge to speakers who made verifiable claims, whereas 7- to 8-year-olds and adults credited knowledge to generic speakers regardless of whether the claims were verifiable; (2) Children’s attributions of knowledge to generic speakers was not detectable until age 5, and only when those claims were also verifiable; (3) Children often generalized speakers’ knowledge outside of the pangolin domain, indicating a belief that a person’s knowledge about pangolins likely extends to new facts. Findings indicate that young children may be inclined to doubt speakers who make claims they cannot verify themselves, as well as a developmentally increasing appreciation for speakers who make general claims. PMID:26451884

  7. Profilin is required for viral morphogenesis, syncytium formation, and cell-specific stress fiber induction by respiratory syncytial virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is required for the gene expression and morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, a clinically important Pneumovirus of the Paramyxoviridae family. In HEp-2 cells, RSV infection also induces actin stress fibers, which may be important in the immunopathology of the RSV disease. Profilin, a major regulator of actin polymerization, stimulates viral transcription in vitro. Thus, we tested the role of profilin in RSV growth and RSV-actin interactions in cultured cells (ex vivo. Results We tested three cell lines: HEp-2 (human, A549 (human, and L2 (rat. In all three, RSV grew well and produced fused cells (syncytium, and two RSV proteins, namely, the phosphoprotein P and the nucleocapsid protein N, associated with profilin. In contrast, induction of actin stress fibers by RSV occurred in HEp-2 and L2 cells, but not in A549. Knockdown of profilin by RNA interference had a small effect on viral macromolecule synthesis but strongly inhibited maturation of progeny virions, cell fusion, and induction of stress fibers. Conclusions Profilin plays a cardinal role in RSV-mediated cell fusion and viral maturation. In contrast, interaction of profilin with the viral transcriptional proteins P and N may only nominally activate viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Stress fiber formation is a cell-specific response to infection, requiring profilin and perhaps other signaling molecules that are absent in certain cell lines. Stress fibers per se play no role in RSV replication in cell culture. Clearly, the cellular architecture controls multiple steps of host-RSV interaction, some of which are regulated by profilin.

  8. Incentivizing Verifiable Privacy-Protection Mechanisms for Offline Crowdsensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiajun; Liu, Ningzhong

    2017-09-04

    Incentive mechanisms of crowdsensing have recently been intensively explored. Most of these mechanisms mainly focus on the standard economical goals like truthfulness and utility maximization. However, enormous privacy and security challenges need to be faced directly in real-life environments, such as cost privacies. In this paper, we investigate offline verifiable privacy-protection crowdsensing issues. We firstly present a general verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline homogeneous and heterogeneous sensing job model. In addition, we also propose a more complex verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline submodular sensing job model. The two mechanisms not only explore the private protection issues of users and platform, but also ensure the verifiable correctness of payments between platform and users. Finally, we demonstrate that the two mechanisms satisfy privacy-protection, verifiable correctness of payments and the same revenue as the generic one without privacy protection. Our experiments also validate that the two mechanisms are both scalable and efficient, and applicable for mobile devices in crowdsensing applications based on auctions, where the main incentive for the user is the remuneration.

  9. Specific Sirt1 Activator-mediated Improvement in Glucose Homeostasis Requires Sirt1-Independent Activation of AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The specific Sirt1 activator SRT1720 increases mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, presumably by activating Sirt1. However, Sirt1 gain of function does not increase mitochondrial function, which raises a question about the central role of Sirt1 in SRT1720 action. Moreover, it is believed that the metabolic effects of SRT1720 occur independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, an important metabolic regulator that increases mitochondrial function. Here, we show that SRT1720 activates AMPK in a Sirt1-independent manner and SRT1720 activates AMPK by inhibiting a cAMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE in a competitive manner. Inhibiting the cAMP effector protein Epac prevents SRT1720 from activating AMPK or Sirt1 in myotubes. Moreover, SRT1720 does not increase mitochondrial function or improve glucose tolerance in AMPKα2 knockout mice. Interestingly, weight loss induced by SRT1720 is not sufficient to improve glucose tolerance. Therefore, contrary to current belief, the metabolic effects produced by SRT1720 require AMPK, which can be activated independently of Sirt1.

  10. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder require specific support from healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ida; Engström, Ann-Charlotte; Nylander, Charlotte; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    Managing type 1 diabetes mellitus requires efficient cognitive and executive skills, and adolescents who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may face specific challenges. This study explored young people's experiences of diabetes treatment and care. In a population-based study, comprising 175 patients aged 5-16 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus in two Swedish counties, we found that eight also met criteria for ADHD. Six of these, aged 14.5-16 years, participated 2013-2014 in interviews that targeted aspects of their diabetes treatment. Conducted by two psychologists, these used the inductive qualitative, semi-structured interview format. The two boys and four girls all reported difficulties in creating routines for their diabetes treatment and that problems were aggravated during stress. They had been criticised by their parents and the diabetes team when their blood levels indicated inadequate diabetes control. They requested ongoing information, involvement of their friends, group meetings and easy access to the healthcare system during difficult times. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and concomitant ADHD faced problems with their diabetes management, especially during stressful situations. Diabetes care provision should pay particular attention to patients with co-existing neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ubiquitin-specific protease 5 is required for the efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakajima

    Full Text Available During the DNA damage response (DDR, ubiquitination plays an important role in the recruitment and regulation of repair proteins. However, little is known about elimination of the ubiquitination signal after repair is completed. Here we show that the ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5, a deubiquitinating enzyme, is involved in the elimination of the ubiquitin signal from damaged sites and is required for efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB repair. Depletion of USP5 sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents, produces DSBs, causes delayed disappearance of γH2AX foci after Bleocin treatment, and influences DSB repair efficiency in the homologous recombination pathway but not in the non-homologous end joining pathway. USP5 co-localizes to DSBs induced by laser micro-irradiation in a RAD18-dependent manner. Importantly, polyubiquitin chains at sites of DNA damage remained for longer periods in USP5-depleted cells. Our results show that disassembly of polyubiquitin chains by USP5 at sites of damage is important for efficient DSB repair.

  12. The Nanos3-3'UTR is required for germ cell specific NANOS3 expression in mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The regulation of gene expression via a 3' untranslated region (UTR plays essential roles in the discrimination of the germ cell lineage from somatic cells during embryogenesis. This is fundamental to the continuation of a species. Mouse NANOS3 is an essential protein required for the germ cell maintenance and is specifically expressed in these cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms that restrict the expression of this gene in the germ cells is largely unknown at present. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our current study, we show that differences in the stability of Nanos3 mRNA between germ cells and somatic cells is brought about in a 3'UTR-dependent manner in mouse embryos. Although Nanos3 is transcribed in both cell lineages, it is efficiently translated only in the germ lineage. We also find that the translational suppression of NANOS3 in somatic cells is caused by a 3'UTR-mediated mRNA destabilizing mechanism. Surprisingly, even when under the control of the CAG promoter which induces strong ubiquitous transcription in both germ cells and somatic cells, the addition of the Nanos3-3'UTR sequence to the coding region of exogenous gene was effective in restricting protein expression in germ cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our current study thus suggests that Nanos3-3'UTR has an essential role in translational control in the mouse embryo.

  13. METHOD FOR SECURITY SPECIFICATION SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS AS A MEANS FOR IMPLEMENTING A SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS SECURE - MERSEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Mecías, L.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Often security incidents that have the object or use the software as a means of causing serious damage and legal, economic consequences, etc. Results of a survey by Kaspersky Lab reflectvulnerabilities in software are the main cause of security incidents in enterprises, the report shows that 85% of them have reported security incidents and vulnerabilities in software are the main reason is further estimated that incidents can cause significant losses estimated from 50,000 to $ 649.000. (1 In this regard academic and industry research focuses on proposals based on reducing vulnerabilities and failures of technology, with a positive influence on how the software is developed. A development process for improved safety practices and should include activities from the initial phases of the software; so that security needs are identified, manage risk and appropriate measures are implemented. This article discusses a method of analysis, acquisition and requirements specification of the software safety analysis on the basis of various proposals and deficiencies identified from participant observation in software development teams. Experiments performed using the proposed yields positive results regarding the reduction of security vulnerabilities and compliance with the safety objectives of the software.

  14. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  15. Verifiable Distribution of Material Goods Based on Cryptology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomír Palovský

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeiting of material goods is a general problem. In this paper an architecture for verifiable distribution of material goods is presented. This distribution is based on printing such a QR code on goods, which would contain digitally signed serial number of the product, and validity of this digital signature could be verifiable by a customer. Extension consisting of adding digital signatures to revenue stamps used for state-controlled goods is also presented. Discussion on possibilities in making copies leads to conclusion that cryptographic security needs to be completed by technical difficulties of copying.

  16. A Novel Method to Verify Multilevel Computational Models of Biological Systems Using Multiscale Spatio-Temporal Meta Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvu, Ovidiu; Gilbert, David

    2016-01-01

    Insights gained from multilevel computational models of biological systems can be translated into real-life applications only if the model correctness has been verified first. One of the most frequently employed in silico techniques for computational model verification is model checking. Traditional model checking approaches only consider the evolution of numeric values, such as concentrations, over time and are appropriate for computational models of small scale systems (e.g. intracellular networks). However for gaining a systems level understanding of how biological organisms function it is essential to consider more complex large scale biological systems (e.g. organs). Verifying computational models of such systems requires capturing both how numeric values and properties of (emergent) spatial structures (e.g. area of multicellular population) change over time and across multiple levels of organization, which are not considered by existing model checking approaches. To address this limitation we have developed a novel approximate probabilistic multiscale spatio-temporal meta model checking methodology for verifying multilevel computational models relative to specifications describing the desired/expected system behaviour. The methodology is generic and supports computational models encoded using various high-level modelling formalisms because it is defined relative to time series data and not the models used to generate it. In addition, the methodology can be automatically adapted to case study specific types of spatial structures and properties using the spatio-temporal meta model checking concept. To automate the computational model verification process we have implemented the model checking approach in the software tool Mule (http://mule.modelchecking.org). Its applicability is illustrated against four systems biology computational models previously published in the literature encoding the rat cardiovascular system dynamics, the uterine contractions of labour

  17. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Piet, Steven J.; Baker, Benjamin A.; Grimm, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R and D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft

  18. The conjugation-specific Die5 protein is required for development of the somatic nucleus in both Paramecium and Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Shieh, Annie Wan-Yi; Chalker, Douglas L; Forney, James D

    2010-07-01

    Development in ciliated protozoa involves extensive genome reorganization within differentiating macronuclei, which shapes the somatic genome of the next vegetative generation. Major events of macronuclear differentiation include excision of internal eliminated sequences (IESs), chromosome fragmentation, and genome amplification. Proteins required for these events include those with homology throughout eukaryotes as well as proteins apparently unique to ciliates. In this study, we identified the ciliate-specific Defective in IES Excision 5 (DIE5) genes of Paramecium tetraurelia (PtDIE5) and Tetrahymena thermophila (TtDIE5) as orthologs that encode nuclear proteins expressed exclusively during development. Abrogation of PtDie5 protein (PtDie5p) function by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing or TtDie5p by gene disruption resulted in the failure of developing macronuclei to differentiate into new somatic nuclei. Tetrahymena DeltaDIE5 cells arrested late in development and failed to complete genome amplification, whereas RNAi-treated Paramecium cells highly amplified new macronuclear DNA before the failure in differentiation, findings that highlight clear differences in the biology of these distantly related species. Nevertheless, IES excision and chromosome fragmentation failed to occur in either ciliate, which strongly supports that Die5p is a critical player in these processes. In Tetrahymena, loss of zygotic expression during development was sufficient to block nuclear differentiation. This observation, together with the finding that knockdown of Die5p in Paramecium still allows genome amplification, indicates that this protein acts late in macronuclear development. Even though DNA rearrangements in these two ciliates look to be quite distinct, analysis of DIE5 establishes the action of a conserved mechanism within the genome reorganization pathway.

  19. The Conjugation-Specific Die5 Protein Is Required for Development of the Somatic Nucleus in both Paramecium and Tetrahymena▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Shieh, Annie Wan-Yi; Chalker, Douglas L.; Forney, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Development in ciliated protozoa involves extensive genome reorganization within differentiating macronuclei, which shapes the somatic genome of the next vegetative generation. Major events of macronuclear differentiation include excision of internal eliminated sequences (IESs), chromosome fragmentation, and genome amplification. Proteins required for these events include those with homology throughout eukaryotes as well as proteins apparently unique to ciliates. In this study, we identified the ciliate-specific Defective in IES Excision 5 (DIE5) genes of Paramecium tetraurelia (PtDIE5) and Tetrahymena thermophila (TtDIE5) as orthologs that encode nuclear proteins expressed exclusively during development. Abrogation of PtDie5 protein (PtDie5p) function by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing or TtDie5p by gene disruption resulted in the failure of developing macronuclei to differentiate into new somatic nuclei. Tetrahymena ΔDIE5 cells arrested late in development and failed to complete genome amplification, whereas RNAi-treated Paramecium cells highly amplified new macronuclear DNA before the failure in differentiation, findings that highlight clear differences in the biology of these distantly related species. Nevertheless, IES excision and chromosome fragmentation failed to occur in either ciliate, which strongly supports that Die5p is a critical player in these processes. In Tetrahymena, loss of zygotic expression during development was sufficient to block nuclear differentiation. This observation, together with the finding that knockdown of Die5p in Paramecium still allows genome amplification, indicates that this protein acts late in macronuclear development. Even though DNA rearrangements in these two ciliates look to be quite distinct, analysis of DIE5 establishes the action of a conserved mechanism within the genome reorganization pathway. PMID:20495055

  20. Verifying different-modality properties for concepts produces switching costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-03-01

    According to perceptual symbol systems, sensorimotor simulations underlie the representation of concepts. It follows that sensorimotor phenomena should arise in conceptual processing. Previous studies have shown that switching from one modality to another during perceptual processing incurs a processing cost. If perceptual simulation underlies conceptual processing, then verifying the properties of concepts should exhibit a switching cost as well. For example, verifying a property in the auditory modality (e.g., BLENDER-loud) should be slower after verifying a property in a different modality (e.g., CRANBERRIES-tart) than after verifying a property in the same modality (e.g., LEAVES-rustling). Only words were presented to subjects, and there were no instructions to use imagery. Nevertheless, switching modalities incurred a cost, analogous to the cost of switching modalities in perception. A second experiment showed that this effect was not due to associative priming between properties in the same modality. These results support the hypothesis that perceptual simulation underlies conceptual processing.

  1. An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, Maurice

    1960-01-01

    The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [fr

  2. Building Program Verifiers from Compilers and Theorem Provers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Checking with SMT UFO • LLVM-based front-end (partially reused in SeaHorn) • Combines Abstract Interpretation with Interpolation-Based Model Checking • (no...assertions Counter-examples are long Hard to determine (from main) what is relevant Assertion Main 35 Building Verifiers from Comp and SMT Gurfinkel, 2015

  3. Verifying a smart design of TCAP : a synergetic experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Arts; I.A. van Langevelde

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAn optimisation of the SS No. 7 Transport Capabilities Procedures is verified by specifying both the original and the optimised {scriptsize sf TCAP in {scriptsize sf $mu$CRL, generating transition systems for both using the {scriptsize sf $mu$CRL tool set, and checking weak bisimulation

  4. Making Digital Artifacts on the Web Verifiable and Reliable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, T.; Dumontier, M.

    2015-01-01

    The current Web has no general mechanisms to make digital artifacts - such as datasets, code, texts, and images - verifiable and permanent. For digital artifacts that are supposed to be immutable, there is moreover no commonly accepted method to enforce this immutability. These shortcomings have a

  5. Analyzing Interaction Patterns to Verify a Simulation/Game Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rodney Dean

    2012-01-01

    In order for simulations and games to be effective for learning, instructional designers must verify that the underlying computational models being used have an appropriate degree of fidelity to the conceptual models of their real-world counterparts. A simulation/game that provides incorrect feedback is likely to promote misunderstanding and…

  6. Defining and Verifying Research Grade Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, C. C.

    2004-12-01

    The first and primary goal of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), operated jointly by the University of Florida and the University of California, Berkeley, is to make "research grade" ALSM data widely available at affordable cost to the national scientific community. Cost aside, researchers need to know what NCALM considers research grade data and how the quality of the data is verified, to be able to determine the likelihood that the data they receive will meet their project specific requirements. Given the current state of the technology it is reasonable to expect a well planned and executed survey to produce surface elevations with uncertainties less than 10 centimeters and horizontal uncertainties of a few decimeters. Various components of the total error are generally associated with the aircraft trajectory, aircraft orientation, or laser vectors. Aircraft trajectory error is dependent largely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, aircraft orientation on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) observations, and laser vectors on the scanning and ranging instrumentation. In addition to the issue of the precision or accuracy of the coordinates of the surface points, consideration must also be given to the point-to-point spacing and voids in the coverage. The major sources of error produce distinct artifacts in the data set. For example, aircraft trajectory errors tend to change slowly as the satellite constellation geometry varies, producing slopes within swaths and offsets between swaths. Roll, pitch and yaw biases in the IMU observations tend to persist through whole flights, and created distinctive artifacts in the swath overlap areas. Errors in the zero-point and scale of the laser scanner cause the edges of swaths to turn up or down. Range walk errors cause offsets between bright and dark surfaces, causing paint stripes to float above the dark surfaces of roads. The three keys to producing

  7. Plasma membrane associated, virus-specific polypeptides required for the formation of target antigen complexes recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domber, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to define some of the poxvirus-specific target antigens which are synthesized in infected cells and recognized by vaccinia virus-specific CTLs (VV-CTLs). Since vaccinia virus infected, unmanipulated target cells express numerous virus-specific antigens on the plasma membrane, attempts were made to manipulate expression of the poxvirus genome after infection so that one or a few defined virus-specified antigens were expressed on the surface of infected cells. In vitro [ 51 Cr]-release assays determined that viral DNA synthesis and expression of late viral proteins were not necessary to form a target cell which was fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Under the conditions employed in these experiments, 90-120 minutes of viral protein synthesis were necessary to produce a competent cell for lysis by VV-CTLs. In order to further inhibit the expression of early viral proteins in infected cells, partially UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was employed to infect target cells. It was determined that L-cells infected with virus preparations which had been UV-irradiated for 90 seconds were fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Cells infected with 90 second UV-irr virus expressed 3 predominant, plasma membrane associated antigens of 36-37K, 27-28K, and 19-17K. These 3 viral antigens represent the predominant membrane-associated viral antigens available for interaction with class I, major histocompatibility antigens and hence are potential target antigens for VV-CTLs

  8. Requirements of Employers for Young Specialists and Issues of Their Training at the Educational Institutions: Regional Specificity of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the article is the study of the peculiarities of the youth labour market in such a specific region of Russia as the city of Moscow. The topic of the work is connected to the adaptation of young specialists training system to the regional requirements of the employers of Moscow. The main hypothesis of the research assumes that Moscow is the atypical region of Russia and it is inexpedient to apply criteria and methodological approaches, which are standard for our country, to its labour market. As a method of the research, a selective survey of key employers of Moscow and respondents aged from 14 till 30 years has been used. The data of the sociological survey conducted by the authors have allowed to establish the following features of the researched region: a respectively low level of youth unemployment compared with the whole Russia; focusing of employers on such features of personnel as a good communicative skills learning ability, professional knowledge and competences. Moscow employers don’t pay significant attention to such characteristics of young specialists as language and computer skills, computer knowledge and the diploma of a prestigious educational institution. The main difficulties in finding employment for young specialists in the city of Moscow are: overestimated salary expectations; the weak professional training level and unwillingness, in fact, to work. As a result of the survey, the practical offers have been formulated. There are two directions of their application: the offers focused on the behaviour of the youth at a stage of their training and those offers focused on the increase of a practical component of the activity of professional educational institutions. The authors came to conclusions about the need of a deep orientation of educational institutions to the applied training for specialists, of practical workers for teaching special disciplines, the development by future specialists their

  9. Specification of requirements for upgrades using digital instrument and control systems. Report prepared within the framework of the international working group on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The need to develop good specifications of requirements for instrument and control (I and C) systems applies throughout the world and is becoming more and more important as more upgrades are planned. Better guidance on how to develop good requirements specifications would support safer, more effective and more economical refits and upgrades. The need for this was pointed out by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). This report is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held by the IAEA in 1997 and 1998 in Vienna. The scope of the activities described covers a methodology for the determination of requirements and the development of the necessary specifications and plans needed through the life-cycle of digital instrumentation and control systems. It is restricted to technical aspects and indicates subjects which should be included in specifications and plans at different phases

  10. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid...

  11. Verifiable Measurement-Only Blind Quantum Computing with Stabilizer Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2015-11-27

    We introduce a simple protocol for verifiable measurement-only blind quantum computing. Alice, a client, can perform only single-qubit measurements, whereas Bob, a server, can generate and store entangled many-qubit states. Bob generates copies of a graph state, which is a universal resource state for measurement-based quantum computing, and sends Alice each qubit of them one by one. Alice adaptively measures each qubit according to her program. If Bob is honest, he generates the correct graph state, and, therefore, Alice can obtain the correct computation result. Regarding the security, whatever Bob does, Bob cannot get any information about Alice's computation because of the no-signaling principle. Furthermore, malicious Bob does not necessarily send the copies of the correct graph state, but Alice can check the correctness of Bob's state by directly verifying the stabilizers of some copies.

  12. Verifying the gravitational shift due to the earth's rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briatore, L.; Leschiutta, S.

    1976-01-01

    Data on various independent time scales kept in different laboratories are elaborated in order to verify the gravitational shift due to the earth's rotation. It is shown that the state of the art in the measurement of time is just now resulting in the possibility to make measurement of Δ t/t approximately 10 -13 . Moreover it is shown an experimental evidence of the earth's rotation relativistic effects

  13. Building and Verifying a Predictive Model of Interruption Resumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the gardener to remember those plants (and whether they need to be removed), and so will not commit resources to remember that information . The overall...camera), the storyteller needed help much less often. This result suggests that when there is no one to help them remember the last thing they said...INV ITED P A P E R Building and Verifying a Predictive Model of Interruption Resumption Help from a robot, to allow a human storyteller to continue

  14. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  15. TrustGuard: A Containment Architecture with Verified Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    that the TrustGuard system has minimal performance decline, despite restrictions such as high communication latency and limited available bandwidth...design are the availability of high bandwidth and low delays between the host and the monitoring chip. 3-D integration provides an alternate way of...TRUSTGUARD: A CONTAINMENT ARCHITECTURE WITH VERIFIED OUTPUT SOUMYADEEP GHOSH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY IN

  16. Large test rigs verify Clinch River control rod reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.D.; Smith, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the Clinch River control test programme was to use multiple full-scale prototypic control rod systems for verifying the system's ability to perform reliably during simulated reactor power control and emergency shutdown operations. Two major facilities, the Shutdown Control Rod and Maintenance (Scram) facility and the Dynamic and Seismic Test (Dast) facility, were constructed. The test programme of each facility is described. (UK)

  17. Verifying Temporal Properties of Reactive Systems by Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    We show how program transformation techniques can be used for the verification of both safety and liveness properties of reactive systems. In particular, we show how the program transformation technique distillation can be used to transform reactive systems specified in a functional language into a simplified form that can subsequently be analysed to verify temporal properties of the systems. Example systems which are intended to model mutual exclusion are analysed using these techniques with...

  18. Robustness and device independence of verifiable blind quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Alexandru; Kashefi, Elham; Wallden, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in theoretical and experimental quantum computing bring us closer to scalable quantum computing devices. This makes the need for protocols that verify the correct functionality of quantum operations timely and has led to the field of quantum verification. In this paper we address key challenges to make quantum verification protocols applicable to experimental implementations. We prove the robustness of the single server verifiable universal blind quantum computing protocol of Fitzsimons and Kashefi (2012 arXiv:1203.5217) in the most general scenario. This includes the case where the purification of the deviated input state is in the hands of an adversarial server. The proved robustness property allows the composition of this protocol with a device-independent state tomography protocol that we give, which is based on the rigidity of CHSH games as proposed by Reichardt et al (2013 Nature 496 456–60). The resulting composite protocol has lower round complexity for the verification of entangled quantum servers with a classical verifier and, as we show, can be made fault tolerant. (paper)

  19. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  20. Differential protection by wildtype vs. organelle-specific Bcl-2 suggests a combined requirement of both the ER and mitochondria in ceramide-mediated caspase-independent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belka Claus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death (PCD is essential for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and can occur by caspase-dependent apoptosis or alternatively, by caspase-independent PCD (ciPCD. Bcl-2, a central regulator of apoptosis, localizes to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Whereas a function of mitochondrial and ER-specific Bcl-2 in apoptosis has been established in multiple studies, corresponding data for ciPCD do not exist. Methods We utilized Bcl-2 constructs specifically localizing to mitochondria (Bcl-2 ActA, the ER (Bcl-2 cb5, both (Bcl-2 WT or the cytosol/nucleus (Bcl-2 ΔTM and determined their protective effect on ceramide-mediated ciPCD in transiently and stably transfected Jurkat cells. Expression of the constructs was verified by immunoblots. Ceramide-mediated ciPCD was induced by treatment with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor and determined by flow cytometric measurement of propidium iodide uptake as well as by optical analysis of cell morphology. Results Only wildtype Bcl-2 had the ability to efficiently protect from ceramide-mediated ciPCD, whereas expression of Bcl-2 solely at mitochondria, the ER, or the cytosol/nucleus did not prevent ceramide-mediated ciPCD. Conclusion Our data suggest a combined requirement for both mitochondria and the ER in the induction and the signaling pathways of ciPCD mediated by ceramide.

  1. Differential protection by wildtype vs. organelle-specific Bcl-2 suggests a combined requirement of both the ER and mitochondria in ceramide-mediated caspase-independent programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deerberg, Andrea; Sosna, Justyna; Thon, Lutz; Belka, Claus; Adam, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and can occur by caspase-dependent apoptosis or alternatively, by caspase-independent PCD (ciPCD). Bcl-2, a central regulator of apoptosis, localizes to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Whereas a function of mitochondrial and ER-specific Bcl-2 in apoptosis has been established in multiple studies, corresponding data for ciPCD do not exist. We utilized Bcl-2 constructs specifically localizing to mitochondria (Bcl-2 ActA), the ER (Bcl-2 cb5), both (Bcl-2 WT) or the cytosol/nucleus (Bcl-2 ΔTM) and determined their protective effect on ceramide-mediated ciPCD in transiently and stably transfected Jurkat cells. Expression of the constructs was verified by immunoblots. Ceramide-mediated ciPCD was induced by treatment with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor and determined by flow cytometric measurement of propidium iodide uptake as well as by optical analysis of cell morphology. Only wildtype Bcl-2 had the ability to efficiently protect from ceramide-mediated ciPCD, whereas expression of Bcl-2 solely at mitochondria, the ER, or the cytosol/nucleus did not prevent ceramide-mediated ciPCD. Our data suggest a combined requirement for both mitochondria and the ER in the induction and the signaling pathways of ciPCD mediated by ceramide

  2. The Johnson Space Center Management Information Systems (JSCMIS). 1: Requirements Definition and Design Specifications for Versions 2.1 and 2.1.1. 2: Documented Test Scenario Environments. 3: Security Design and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Management Information System (JSCMIS) is an interface to computer data bases at NASA Johnson which allows an authorized user to browse and retrieve information from a variety of sources with minimum effort. This issue gives requirements definition and design specifications for versions 2.1 and 2.1.1, along with documented test scenario environments, and security object design and specifications.

  3. Distinct Metabolic Requirements of Exhausted and Functional Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells in the Same Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurich, Anna; Pallett, Laura J; Jajbhay, Danyal; Wijngaarden, Jessica; Otano, Itziar; Gill, Upkar S; Hansi, Navjyot; Kennedy, Patrick T; Nastouli, Eleni; Gilson, Richard; Frezza, Christian; Henson, Sian M; Maini, Mala K

    2016-08-02

    T cells undergo profound metabolic changes to meet the increased energy demands of maintaining an antiviral response. We postulated that differences in metabolic reprogramming would shape the efficacy of CD8 T cells mounted against persistent viral infections. We found that the poorly functional PD-1(hi) T cell response against hepatitis B virus (HBV) had upregulated the glucose transporter, Glut1, an effect recapitulated by oxygen deprivation to mimic the intrahepatic environment. Glut1(hi) HBV-specific T cells were dependent on glucose supplies, unlike the more functional cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells that could utilize oxidative phosphorylation in the absence of glucose. The inability of HBV-specific T cells to switch to oxidative phosphorylation was accompanied by increased mitochondrial size and lower mitochondrial potential, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. Interleukin (IL)-12, which recovers HBV-specific T cell effector function, increased their mitochondrial potential and reduced their dependence on glycolysis. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial defects limit the metabolic plasticity of exhausted HBV-specific T cells. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinct Metabolic Requirements of Exhausted and Functional Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells in the Same Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Schurich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available T cells undergo profound metabolic changes to meet the increased energy demands of maintaining an antiviral response. We postulated that differences in metabolic reprogramming would shape the efficacy of CD8 T cells mounted against persistent viral infections. We found that the poorly functional PD-1hi T cell response against hepatitis B virus (HBV had upregulated the glucose transporter, Glut1, an effect recapitulated by oxygen deprivation to mimic the intrahepatic environment. Glut1hi HBV-specific T cells were dependent on glucose supplies, unlike the more functional cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific T cells that could utilize oxidative phosphorylation in the absence of glucose. The inability of HBV-specific T cells to switch to oxidative phosphorylation was accompanied by increased mitochondrial size and lower mitochondrial potential, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. Interleukin (IL-12, which recovers HBV-specific T cell effector function, increased their mitochondrial potential and reduced their dependence on glycolysis. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial defects limit the metabolic plasticity of exhausted HBV-specific T cells.

  5. Verifiable Outsourced Decryption of Attribute-Based Encryption with Constant Ciphertext Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourced decryption ABE system largely reduces the computation cost for users who intend to access the encrypted files stored in cloud. However, the correctness of the transformation ciphertext cannot be guaranteed because the user does not have the original ciphertext. Lai et al. provided an ABE scheme with verifiable outsourced decryption which helps the user to check whether the transformation done by the cloud is correct. In order to improve the computation performance and reduce communication overhead, we propose a new verifiable outsourcing scheme with constant ciphertext length. To be specific, our scheme achieves the following goals. (1 Our scheme is verifiable which ensures that the user efficiently checks whether the transformation is done correctly by the CSP. (2 The size of ciphertext and the number of expensive pairing operations are constant, which do not grow with the complexity of the access structure. (3 The access structure in our scheme is AND gates on multivalued attributes and we prove our scheme is verifiable and it is secure against selectively chosen-plaintext attack in the standard model. (4 We give some performance analysis which indicates that our scheme is adaptable for various limited bandwidth and computation-constrained devices, such as mobile phone.

  6. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  7. Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

    1999-01-01

    An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements

  8. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility's WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator's waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits

  9. An alternative test for verifying electronic balance linearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.R.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative method for verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy. This method is being developed for safeguards weighings (weighings for the control and accountability of nuclear material) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). With regard to balance linearity and accuracy, DOE Order 5633.3B, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials, Paragraph 2, 4, e, (1), (a) Scales and Balances Program, states: ''All scales and balances used for accountability purposes shall be maintained in good working condition, recalibrated according to an established schedule, and checked for accuracy and linearity on each day that the scale or balance is used for accountability purposes.'' Various tests have been proposed for testing accuracy and linearity. In the 1991 Measurement Science Conference, Dr. Walter E. Kupper presented a paper entitled: ''Validation of High Accuracy Weighing Equipment.'' Dr. Kupper emphasized that tolerance checks for calibrated, state-of-the-art electronic equipment need not be complicated, and he presented four easy steps for verifying that a calibrated balance is operating correctly. These tests evaluate the standard deviation of successive weighings (of the same load), the off-center error, the calibration error, and the error due to nonlinearity. This method of balance validation is undoubtedly an authoritative means of ensuring balance operability, yet it could have two drawbacks: one, the test for linearity is not intuitively obvious, especially from a statistical viewpoint; and two, there is an absence of definitively defined testing limits. Hence, this paper describes an alternative means of verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy that is being developed for safeguards measurements at the INEEL

  10. Verifying the integrity of hardcopy document using OCR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthethwa, Sthembile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mthethwa_20042_2018.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7349 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mthethwa_20042_2018.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Verifying the Integrity...) of the document to be defined. Each text in the meta-template is labelled with a unique identifier, which makes it easier for the process of validation. The meta-template consist of two types of text; normal text and validation text (important text that must...

  11. Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

  12. From Operating-System Correctness to Pervasively Verified Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Matthias; Schirmer, Norbert W.; Schmidt, Mareike

    Though program verification is known and has been used for decades, the verification of a complete computer system still remains a grand challenge. Part of this challenge is the interaction of application programs with the operating system, which is usually entrusted with retrieving input data from and transferring output data to peripheral devices. In this scenario, the correct operation of the applications inherently relies on operating-system correctness. Based on the formal correctness of our real-time operating system Olos, this paper describes an approach to pervasively verify applications running on top of the operating system.

  13. Psychological and social aspects verified after the Goiania's radioactive accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Suzana

    1995-01-01

    Psychological and social aspects verified after the radioactive accident occurred in 1987 in Goiania - brazilian city - are discussed. With this goal was going presented a public opinion research in order to retract the Goiania's radioactive accident residual psychological effects. They were going consolidated data obtained in 1.126 interviews. Four involvement different levels groups with the accident are compared with regard to the event. The research allowed to conclude that the accident affected psychologically somehow all Goiania's population. Besides, the research allowed to analyze the professionals performance quality standard in terms of the accident

  14. Flux wire measurements in Cavalier for verifying computer code applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, M.; Stubbs, J.; Hosticka, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Cavalier and UVAR research reactors are to be converted from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. As a first step, an extensive set of gold wire activation measurements has been taken on the Cavalier reactor. Axial traverses show internal consistency to the order of ±5%, while horizontal traverses show somewhat larger deviations. The activation measurements will be converted to flux measurements via the Thermos code and will then be used to verify the Leopard-2DB codes. The codes will ultimately be used to design an upgraded LEU core for the UVAR

  15. Verifying Galileo's discoveries: telescope-making at the Collegio Romano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Eileen; van Helden, Albert

    The Jesuits of the Collegio Romano in Rome, especially the mathematicians Clavius and Grienberger, were very interested in Galilei's discoveries. After they had failed to recognize with telescopes of own construction the celestial phenomena, they expressed serious doubts. But from November 1610 onward, after they had built a better telescope and had obtained from Venice another one in addition, and could verify Galilei's observations, they completely accepted them. Clavius, who stuck to the Ptolemaic system till his death in 1612, even pointed out these facts in his last edition of Sacrobosco's Sphaera. He as well as his conpatres, however, avoided any conclusions with respect to the planetary system.

  16. ASTUS system for verifying the transport seal TITUS 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillaux; Monteil, D.; Destain, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    ASTUS, a system for acquisition and processing ultrasonic signatures of TITUS 1 seals has been developed. TITUS seals are used to verify the integrity of the fissile material's container sealing after transport. An autonomous portable reading case permit to take seals signatures at the starting point and to transmit these reference signatures to a central safeguards computer by phonic modem. Then, at the terminal point with a similar reading case, an authority takes again the signature of seals and immediately transmit these signatures to the central safeguards computer. The central computer processes the data in real time by autocorrelation and return its verdict to the terminal point

  17. Spin temperature concept verified by optical magnetometry of nuclear spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, M.; Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Zapasskii, V. S.; Kozlov, G. G.; Lemaître, A.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a method of nonperturbative optical control over adiabatic remagnetization of the nuclear spin system and apply it to verify the spin temperature concept in GaAs microcavities. The nuclear spin system is shown to exactly follow the predictions of the spin temperature theory, despite the quadrupole interaction that was earlier reported to disrupt nuclear spin thermalization. These findings open a way for the deep cooling of nuclear spins in semiconductor structures, with the prospect of realizing nuclear spin-ordered states for high-fidelity spin-photon interfaces.

  18. The structure-specific endonuclease Ercc1-Xpf is required for targeted gene replacement in embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Niedernhofer (Laura); J. Essers (Jeroen); G. Weeda (Geert); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); J. de Wit (Jan); M. Muijtjens (Manja); H. Odijk (Hanny); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe Ercc1-Xpf heterodimer, a highly conserved structure-specific endonuclease, functions in multiple DNA repair pathways that are pivotal for maintaining genome stability, including nucleotide excision repair, interstrand crosslink repair and homologous recombination. Erccl-Xpf incises

  19. Neuron-specific feeding RNAi in C. elegans and its use in a screen for essential genes required for GABA neuron function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnhaber, Christopher; Hammarlund, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Forward genetic screens are important tools for exploring the genetic requirements for neuronal function. However, conventional forward screens often have difficulty identifying genes whose relevant functions are masked by pleiotropy. In particular, if loss of gene function results in sterility, lethality, or other severe pleiotropy, neuronal-specific functions cannot be readily analyzed. Here we describe a method in C. elegans for generating cell-specific knockdown in neurons using feeding RNAi and its application in a screen for the role of essential genes in GABAergic neurons. We combine manipulations that increase the sensitivity of select neurons to RNAi with manipulations that block RNAi in other cells. We produce animal strains in which feeding RNAi results in restricted gene knockdown in either GABA-, acetylcholine-, dopamine-, or glutamate-releasing neurons. In these strains, we observe neuron cell-type specific behavioral changes when we knock down genes required for these neurons to function, including genes encoding the basal neurotransmission machinery. These reagents enable high-throughput, cell-specific knockdown in the nervous system, facilitating rapid dissection of the site of gene action and screening for neuronal functions of essential genes. Using the GABA-specific RNAi strain, we screened 1,320 RNAi clones targeting essential genes on chromosomes I, II, and III for their effect on GABA neuron function. We identified 48 genes whose GABA cell-specific knockdown resulted in reduced GABA motor output. This screen extends our understanding of the genetic requirements for continued neuronal function in a mature organism.

  20. Verifying competence of operations personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    To ensure that only competent people are authorized to fill positions in a nuclear power plant, both the initial competence of personnel and the continuous maintenance of competence have to be verified. Two main methods are normally used for verifying competence, namely evaluation of a person's performance over a period of time, and evaluation of his knowledge and skills at a particular time by means of an examination. Both methods have limitations, and in practice they are often used together to give different and to some extent complementary evaluations of a person's competence. Verification of competence itself is a problem area, because objective judging of human competence is extremely difficult. Formal verification methods, such as tests and examinations, are particularly or exclusively applied for the direct operating personnel in the control room (very rarely for management personnel). Out of the many elements contributing to a person's competence, the knowledge which is needed and the intellectual skills are the main subjects of the formal verification methods. Therefore the presentation will concentrate on the proof of the technical qualification of operators by means of examinations. The examination process in the Federal Republic of Germany for the proof of knowledge and skills will serve as an example to describe and analyze the important aspects. From that recommendations are derived regarding standardization of the procedure as well as validation. (orig./GL)

  1. People consider reliability and cost when verifying their autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kimberley A; Nash, Robert A; Garry, Maryanne

    2014-02-01

    Because memories are not always accurate, people rely on a variety of strategies to verify whether the events that they remember really did occur. Several studies have examined which strategies people tend to use, but none to date has asked why people opt for certain strategies over others. Here we examined the extent to which people's beliefs about the reliability and the cost of different strategies would determine their strategy selection. Subjects described a childhood memory and then suggested strategies they might use to verify the accuracy of that memory. Next, they rated the reliability and cost of each strategy, and the likelihood that they might use it. Reliability and cost each predicted strategy selection, but a combination of the two ratings provided even greater predictive value. Cost was significantly more influential than reliability, which suggests that a tendency to seek and to value "cheap" information more than reliable information could underlie many real-world memory errors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A record and verify system for radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koens, M.L.; Vroome, H. de

    1984-01-01

    The Record and Verify system developed for the radiotherapy department of the Leiden University Hospital is described. The system has been in use since 1980 and will now be installed in at least four of the Dutch University Hospitals. The system provides the radiographer with a powerful tool for checking the set-up of the linear accelerator preceeding the irradiation of a field. After the irradiation of a field the machine settings are registered in the computer system together with the newly calculated cumulative dose. These registrations are used by the system to produce a daily report which provides the management of the department with insight into the established differences between treatment and treatment planning. Buying a record and verify system from the manufacturer of the linear accelerator is not an optimal solution especially for a department with more than one accelerator from different manufacturers. Integration in a Hospital Information System (HIS) has important advantages over the development of a dedicated departmental system. (author)

  3. Characterizing Verified Head Impacts in High School Girls' Lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V; Lincoln, Andrew E; Stone, Hannah; Kelshaw, Patricia; Putukian, Margot; Hepburn, Lisa; Higgins, Michael; Cortes, Nelson

    2017-12-01

    Girls' high school lacrosse players have higher rates of head and facial injuries than boys. Research indicates that these injuries are caused by stick, player, and ball contacts. Yet, no studies have characterized head impacts in girls' high school lacrosse. To characterize girls' high school lacrosse game-related impacts by frequency, magnitude, mechanism, player position, and game situation. Descriptive epidemiology study. Thirty-five female participants (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 1.66 ± 0.05 m; mean weight, 61.2 ± 6.4 kg) volunteered during 28 games in the 2014 and 2015 lacrosse seasons. Participants wore impact sensors affixed to the right mastoid process before each game. All game-related impacts recorded by the sensors were verified using game video. Data were summarized for all verified impacts in terms of frequency, peak linear acceleration (PLA), and peak rotational acceleration (PRA). Descriptive statistics and impact rates were calculated. Fifty-eight verified game-related impacts ≥20 g were recorded (median PLA, 33.8 g; median PRA, 6151.1 rad/s 2 ) during 467 player-games. The impact rate for all game-related verified impacts was 0.12 per athlete-exposure (AE) (95% CI, 0.09-0.16), equivalent to 2.1 impacts per team game, indicating that each athlete suffered fewer than 2 head impacts per season ≥20 g. Of these impacts, 28 (48.3%) were confirmed to directly strike the head, corresponding with an impact rate of 0.05 per AE (95% CI, 0.00-0.10). Overall, midfielders (n = 28, 48.3%) sustained the most impacts, followed by defenders (n = 12, 20.7%), attackers (n = 11, 19.0%), and goalies (n = 7, 12.1%). Goalies demonstrated the highest median PLA and PRA (38.8 g and 8535.0 rad/s 2 , respectively). The most common impact mechanisms were contact with a stick (n = 25, 43.1%) and a player (n = 17, 29.3%), followed by the ball (n = 7, 12.1%) and the ground (n = 7, 12.1%). One hundred percent of ball impacts occurred to goalies. Most impacts

  4. Requirement of the Epithelium-specific Ets Transcription Factor Spdef for Mucous Gland Cell Function in the Gastric Antrum*

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, David; Gu, Xuesong; Bhasin, Manoj; Yang, Quanli; Verzi, Michael; Lin, Dongxu; Joseph, Marie; Zhang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Libermann, Towia A.

    2010-01-01

    Mucus-secreting cells of the stomach epithelium provide a protective barrier against damage that might result from bacterial colonization or other stimuli. Impaired barrier function contributes to chronic inflammation and cancer. Knock-out mice for the epithelium-specific transcription factor Spdef (also called Pdef) have defects in terminal differentiation of intestinal and bronchial secretory cells. We sought to determine the physiologic function of Spdef in the stomach, another site of sig...

  5. X-linked H3K27me3 demethylase Utx is required for embryonic development in a sex-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welstead, G.G.; Creyghton, M.P.; Bilodeau, S.; Cheng, A.W.; Markoulaki, S.; Young, R.A.; Jaenisch, R.

    2012-01-01

    Embryogenesis requires the timely and coordinated activation of developmental regulators. It has been suggested that the recently discovered class of histone demethylases (UTX and JMJD3) that specifically target the repressive H3K27me3 modification play an important role in the activation of

  6. Calling Out Cheaters : Covert Security with Public VerifiabilitySecurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asharov, Gilad; Orlandi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of covert security with public verifiability, building on the covert security model introduced by Aumann and Lindell (TCC 2007). Protocols that satisfy covert security guarantee that the honest parties involved in the protocol will notice any cheating attempt with some...... constant probability ε. The idea behind the model is that the fear of being caught cheating will be enough of a deterrent to prevent any cheating attempt. However, in the basic covert security model, the honest parties are not able to persuade any third party (say, a judge) that a cheating occurred. We...... propose (and formally define) an extension of the model where, when an honest party detects cheating, it also receives a certificate that can be published and used to persuade other parties, without revealing any information about the honest party’s input. In addition, malicious parties cannot create fake...

  7. Developing a flexible and verifiable integrated dose assessment capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Rhea, T.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Bogard, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A flexible yet verifiable system of computing and recording personnel doses is needed. Recent directions in statutes establish the trend of combining internal and external doses. We are developing a Health Physics Information Management System (HPIMS) that will centralize dosimetry calculations and data storage; integrate health physics records with other health-related disciplines, such as industrial hygiene, medicine, and safety; provide a more auditable system with published algorithms and clearly defined flowcharts of system operation; readily facilitate future changes dictated by new regulations, new dosimetric models, and new systems of units; and address ad-hoc inquiries regarding worker/workplace interactions, including potential synergisms with non-radiation exposures. The system is modular and provides a high degree of isolation from low-level detail, allowing flexibility for changes without adversely affecting other parts of the system. 10 refs., 3 figs

  8. Design of a verifiable subset for HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J. C.; Good, D. I.; Tripathi, A. R.; Young, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt to evaluate the applicability of program verification techniques to the existing programming language, HAL/S is discussed. HAL/S is a general purpose high level language designed to accommodate the software needs of the NASA Space Shuttle project. A diversity of features for scientific computing, concurrent and real-time programming, and error handling are discussed. The criteria by which features were evaluated for inclusion into the verifiable subset are described. Individual features of HAL/S with respect to these criteria are examined and justification for the omission of various features from the subset is provided. Conclusions drawn from the research are presented along with recommendations made for the use of HAL/S with respect to the area of program verification.

  9. A Formally Verified Conflict Detection Algorithm for Polynomial Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony; Munoz, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    In air traffic management, conflict detection algorithms are used to determine whether or not aircraft are predicted to lose horizontal and vertical separation minima within a time interval assuming a trajectory model. In the case of linear trajectories, conflict detection algorithms have been proposed that are both sound, i.e., they detect all conflicts, and complete, i.e., they do not present false alarms. In general, for arbitrary nonlinear trajectory models, it is possible to define detection algorithms that are either sound or complete, but not both. This paper considers the case of nonlinear aircraft trajectory models based on polynomial functions. In particular, it proposes a conflict detection algorithm that precisely determines whether, given a lookahead time, two aircraft flying polynomial trajectories are in conflict. That is, it has been formally verified that, assuming that the aircraft trajectories are modeled as polynomial functions, the proposed algorithm is both sound and complete.

  10. Verifying atom entanglement schemes by testing Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelakis, D.G.; Knight, P.L.; Tregenna, B.; Munro, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent experiments to test Bell's inequality using entangled photons and ions aimed at tests of basic quantum mechanical principles. Interesting results have been obtained and many loopholes could be closed. In this paper we want to point out that tests of Bell's inequality also play an important role in verifying atom entanglement schemes. We describe as an example a scheme to prepare arbitrary entangled states of N two-level atoms using a leaky optical cavity and a scheme to entangle atoms inside a photonic crystal. During the state preparation no photons are emitted, and observing a violation of Bell's inequality is the only way to test whether a scheme works with a high precision or not. (orig.)

  11. Noninteractive Verifiable Outsourcing Algorithm for Bilinear Pairing with Improved Checkability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the computation of bilinear pairing is the most expensive operation in pairing-based cryptography. In this paper, we propose a noninteractive verifiable outsourcing algorithm of bilinear pairing based on two servers in the one-malicious model. The outsourcer need not execute any expensive operation, such as scalar multiplication and modular exponentiation. Moreover, the outsourcer could detect any failure with a probability close to 1 if one of the servers misbehaves. Therefore, the proposed algorithm improves checkability and decreases communication cost compared with the previous ones. Finally, we utilize the proposed algorithm as a subroutine to achieve an anonymous identity-based encryption (AIBE scheme with outsourced decryption and an identity-based signature (IBS scheme with outsourced verification.

  12. Modelling and Verifying Communication Failure of Hybrid Systems in HCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuling; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid systems are dynamic systems with interacting discrete computation and continuous physical processes. They have become ubiquitous in our daily life, e.g. automotive, aerospace and medical systems, and in particular, many of them are safety-critical. For a safety-critical hybrid system......, in the presence of communication failure, the expected control from the controller will get lost and as a consequence the physical process cannot behave as expected. In this paper, we mainly consider the communication failure caused by the non-engagement of one party in communication action, i.......e. the communication itself fails to occur. To address this issue, this paper proposes a formal framework by extending HCSP, a formal modeling language for hybrid systems, for modeling and verifying hybrid systems in the absence of receiving messages due to communication failure. We present two inference systems...

  13. A detailed and verified wind resource atlas for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, N G; Landberg, L; Rathmann, O; Nielsen, M N [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Nielsen, P [Energy and Environmental Data, Aalberg (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    A detailed and reliable wind resource atlas covering the entire land area of Denmark has been established. Key words of the methodology are wind atlas analysis, interpolation of wind atlas data sets, automated generation of digital terrain descriptions and modelling of local wind climates. The atlas contains wind speed and direction distributions, as well as mean energy densities of the wind, for 12 sectors and four heights above ground level: 25, 45, 70 and 100 m. The spatial resolution is 200 meters in the horizontal. The atlas has been verified by comparison with actual wind turbine power productions from over 1200 turbines. More than 80% of these turbines were predicted to within 10%. The atlas will become available on CD-ROM and on the Internet. (au)

  14. How to Verify and Manage the Translational Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    The use of Google translator as a tool for determining translational plagiarism is a big challenge. As noted, plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated into other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Attempts to screen the translational plagiarism should be supported. The use of Google Translate tool might be helpful. Special focus should be on any non-English reference that might be the source of plagiarised material and non-English article that might translate from an original English article, which cannot be detected by simple plagiarism screening tool. It is a hard job for any journal to detect the complex translational plagiarism but the harder job might be how to effectively manage the case. PMID:27703588

  15. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of glass commercial high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable to the reference glass composition described in PNL-3838 and carbon steel canister described in ONWI-438. They provide preliminary numerical values for the commercial high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses and regulatory requirements become available. 13 references, 1 figure

  16. Mind bomb-1 in dendritic cells is specifically required for Notch-mediated T helper type 2 differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Jeong

    Full Text Available In dendritic cell (DC-CD4(+ T cell interaction, Notch signaling has been implicated in the CD4(+ T cell activation, proliferation, and subset differentiation. However, there has been a lot of debate on the exact role of Notch signaling. Here, we observed that expression of Mind bomb-1 (Mib1, a critical regulator of Notch ligands for the activation of Notch signaling, increases gradually as precursor cells differentiate into DCs in mice. To clarify the role of Mib1 in DC-CD4(+ T cell interactions, we generated Mib1-null bone marrow-derived DCs. These cells readily expressed Notch ligands but failed to initiate Notch activation in the adjacent cells. Nevertheless, Mib1-null DCs were able to prime the activation and proliferation of CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that Notch activation in CD4(+ T cells is not required for these processes. Intriguingly, stimulation of CD4(+ T cells with Mib1-null DCs resulted in dramatically diminished Th2 cell populations, while preserving Th1 cell populations, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that Mib1 in DCs is critical for the activation of Notch signaling in CD4(+ T cells, and Notch signaling reinforces Th2 differentiation, but is not required for the activation or proliferation of the CD4(+ T cells.

  17. A Specific ChREBP and PPARα Cross-Talk Is Required for the Glucose-Mediated FGF21 Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Iroz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the physiological benefits of the fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 hepatokine are documented in response to fasting, little information is available on Fgf21 regulation in a glucose-overload context. We report that peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, a nuclear receptor of the fasting response, is required with the carbohydrate-sensitive transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP to balance FGF21 glucose response. Microarray analysis indicated that only a few hepatic genes respond to fasting and glucose similarly to Fgf21. Glucose-challenged Chrebp−/− mice exhibit a marked reduction in FGF21 production, a decrease that was rescued by re-expression of an active ChREBP isoform in the liver of Chrebp−/− mice. Unexpectedly, carbohydrate challenge of hepatic Pparα knockout mice also demonstrated a PPARα-dependent glucose response for Fgf21 that was associated with an increased sucrose preference. This blunted response was due to decreased Fgf21 promoter accessibility and diminished ChREBP binding onto Fgf21 carbohydrate-responsive element (ChoRE in hepatocytes lacking PPARα. Our study reports that PPARα is required for the ChREBP-induced glucose response of FGF21.

  18. Enzymatic Activity of Free-Prostate-Specific Antigen (f-PSA) Is Not Required for Some of its Physiological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Chakravarthi, Srikant; Zhou, Rita; Godoy, Alejandro; Mohler, James L.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Smith, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a well known biomarker for early diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Furthermore, PSA has been documented to have anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) involved in regulation of these processes, in particular the role of the serine-protease enzymatic activity of PSA. METHODS Enzymatic activity of PSA isolated directly from seminal plasma was inhibited specifically (>95%) by incubation with zinc2+. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were utilized to compare/contrast the physiological effects of enzymatically active versus inactive PSA. RESULTS Equimolar concentrations of enzymatically active PSA and PSA enzymatically inactivated by incubation with Zn2+ had similar physiological effects on HUVEC, including inhibiting the gene expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, like VEGF and bFGF, and up-regulation of expression of the anti-angiogenic growth factor IFN-γ; suppression of mRNA expression for markers of blood vessel development, like FAK, FLT, KDR, TWIST-1; P-38; inhibition of endothelial tube formation in the in vitro Matrigel Tube Formation Assay; and inhibition of endothelial cell invasion and migration properties. DISCUSSION Our data provides compelling evidence that the transcriptional regulatory and the anti-angiogenic activities of human PSA are independent of the innate enzymatic activity PMID:21446007

  19. Final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. Scope and requirements for site-specific safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The report is a summary of the research conducted in the period 1993 to 1996 into safety of spent fuel final disposal. The principal goal of the research in this period, as set in 1993, was to develop a strategy for site-specific safety analysis. At the same time efforts were to be continued to gather data and validate the technical approach for the analysis. The work aimed at having the data needed for the analysis available at the end of year 1998. A safety assessment update, TILA-96, prepared by VTT Energy, is published as a separate report. The assessment is based on the TVO-92 safety analysis, but takes into account the knowledge acquired after 1992 on safety aspects of the disposal system and the data gathered from the site investigations made by TVO and from the beginning of 1996, by Posiva. Since the site investigations are still ongoing and much of the data gathered still pending interpretation, only limited amount of new site-specific information has been available for the present assessment. (172 refs.)

  20. Functional dissection of a napin gene promoter: identification of promoter elements required for embryo and endosperm-specific transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerström, M; Stålberg, K; Ezcurra, I; Rask, L

    1996-12-01

    The promoter region (-309 to +44) of the Brassica napus storage protein gene napA was studied in transgenic tobacco by successive 5' as well as internal deletions fused to the reporter gene GUS (beta-glucuronidase). The expression in the two main tissues of the seed, the endosperm and the embryo, was shown to be differentially regulated. This tissue-specific regulation within the seed was found to affect the developmental expression during seed development. The region between -309 to -152, which has a large effect on quantitative expression, was shown to harbour four elements regulating embryo and one regulating endosperm expression. This region also displayed enhancer activity. Deletion of eight bp from position -152 to position -144 totally abolished the activity of the napA promoter. This deletion disrupted a cis element with similarity to an ABA-responsive element (ABRE) overlapping with an E-box, demonstrating its crucial importance for quantitative expression. An internal deletion of the region -133 to -120, resulted in increased activity in both leaves and endosperm and a decreased activity in the embryo. Within this region, a cis element similar to the (CA)n element, found in other storage protein promoters, was identified. This suggest that the (CA)n element is important for conferring seed specificity by serving both as an activator and a repressor element.

  1. Penetration Peg Formation and Invasive Hyphae Development Require Stage-Specific Activation of MoGTI1 in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Guanghui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Jiang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The hemibiotrophic pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae causes one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated rice. Complex infection-related morphogenesis and production of various effectors are known to be important for successful colonization and disease development. In this study, we characterized the activation of the MoGTI1 transcription factor and its role in infection-related morphogenesis and effector gene expression. The Mogti1 mutant was nonpathogenic, although it was normal in appressorium formation and turgor generation. Close examination showed that Mogti1 was defective in penetration and growth of normal invasive hyphae. Deletion of MoGTI1 affected the expression of the majority of effector genes. The expression of MoGti1 appeared to be controlled by the Mps1 but not Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the mps1 and Mogti1 mutants had similar phenotypes in plant infection and cell wall integrity defects. However, lack of MAPK phosphorylation sites and dispensability of the putative MAPK docking site suggested that MoGti1 is not a direct target of Mps1. Site-specific mutagenesis analyses showed that the putative protein kinase A phosphorylation site was not essential for localization of MoGti1 to the nucleus but important for its normal function. Although the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation site of MoGti1 is dispensable during vegetative growth and appressorium formation, the S77A mutation affected penetration and invasive growth. Localization of MoGti1(S77A)-green fluorescent protein to the nucleus in late stages of appressorium formation and during invasive growth was not observed, suggesting a stage-specific CDK phosphorylation of MoGti1. Overall, our data indicate that Mps1 may indirectly regulate the expression of MoGti1 in maintaining cell wall integrity, conidiation, and plant infection. MoGti1 is likely a stage-specific target of CDK and plays a crucial role in effector gene expression and morphogenesis related to the

  2. Radiological source tracking in oil/gas, medical and other industries: requirements and specifications for passive RFID technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, Farid U. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface sensors that employ radioisotopes, such 241Am-Be and 137Cs, for reservoir characterization must be tracked for safety and security reasons. Other radiological sources are also widely used in medicine. The radiological source containers, in both applications, are small, mobile and used widely worldwide. The nuclear sources pose radiological dispersal device (RDD) security risks. Security concerns with the industrial use of radionuclide sources is in fact quite high as it is estimated that each year hundreds of sealed sources go missing, either lost or stolen. Risk mitigation efforts include enhanced regulations, source-use guidelines, research and development on electronic tracking of sources. This report summarizes the major elements of the requirements and operational concepts of nuclear sources with the goal of developing automated electronic tagging and locating systems.

  3. Automated measurement and control of concrete properties in a ready mix truck with VERIFI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this research, twenty batches of concrete with six different mixture proportions were tested with VERIFI to evaluate 1) accuracy : and repeatability of VERIFI measurements, 2) ability of VERIFI to adjust slump automatically with water and admixtur...

  4. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Spanish Edition); Seguridad de las centrales nucleares: Diseno. Requisitos de seguridad especificos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  5. Hypothalamic sonic hedgehog is required for cell specification and proliferation of LHX3/LHX4 pituitary embryonic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Gabriela; Apps, John R; Lodge, Emily J; Panousopoulos, Leonidas; Haston, Scott; Gonzalez-Meljem, Jose Mario; Hahn, Heidi; Andoniadou, Cynthia L; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2017-09-15

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is an essential morphogenetic signal that dictates cell fate decisions in several developing organs in mammals. In vitro data suggest that SHH is required to specify LHX3 + /LHX4 + Rathke's pouch (RP) progenitor identity. However, in vivo studies have failed to reveal such a function, supporting instead a crucial role for SHH in promoting proliferation of these RP progenitors and for differentiation of pituitary cell types. Here, we have used a genetic approach to demonstrate that activation of the SHH pathway is necessary to induce LHX3 + /LHX4 + RP identity in mouse embryos. First, we show that conditional deletion of Shh in the anterior hypothalamus results in a fully penetrant phenotype characterised by a complete arrest of RP development, with lack of Lhx3/Lhx4 expression in RP epithelium at 9.0 days post coitum (dpc) and total loss of pituitary tissue by 12.5 dpc. Conversely, overactivation of the SHH pathway by conditional deletion of Ptch1 in RP progenitors leads to severe hyperplasia and enlargement of the Sox2 + stem cell compartment by the end of gestation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Hypothalamic sonic hedgehog is required for cell specification and proliferation of LHX3/LHX4 pituitary embryonic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Emily J.; Panousopoulos, Leonidas; Haston, Scott; Gonzalez-Meljem, Jose Mario; Hahn, Heidi; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is an essential morphogenetic signal that dictates cell fate decisions in several developing organs in mammals. In vitro data suggest that SHH is required to specify LHX3+/LHX4+ Rathke's pouch (RP) progenitor identity. However, in vivo studies have failed to reveal such a function, supporting instead a crucial role for SHH in promoting proliferation of these RP progenitors and for differentiation of pituitary cell types. Here, we have used a genetic approach to demonstrate that activation of the SHH pathway is necessary to induce LHX3+/LHX4+ RP identity in mouse embryos. First, we show that conditional deletion of Shh in the anterior hypothalamus results in a fully penetrant phenotype characterised by a complete arrest of RP development, with lack of Lhx3/Lhx4 expression in RP epithelium at 9.0 days post coitum (dpc) and total loss of pituitary tissue by 12.5 dpc. Conversely, overactivation of the SHH pathway by conditional deletion of Ptch1 in RP progenitors leads to severe hyperplasia and enlargement of the Sox2+ stem cell compartment by the end of gestation. PMID:28807898

  7. Distributing and storing required data efficiently by means of specifically tailored data formats in the ATLAS collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Koeneke, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    With the start of the LHC physics program, the ATLAS experiment started to record vast amounts of data. This data has to be distributed and stored on the world-wide computing grid in a smart way in order to enable an effective and efficient analysis by physicists. There are in principle two classes of analysis that are required. In the commissioning phase of the ATLAS experiment, low-level Event Summary Data (ESD), the result of the event reconstruction, has to be analyzed to evaluate the performance of the individual subdetectors, the performance of the reconstruction and particle identification algorithms, and to obtain calibration coefficients. For later physics analysis, it is usually sufficient to use the less detailed Analysis Object Data (AOD), which is a less-detailed version of the ESD. In the grid model of distributed analysis, these data must be transferred to Tier-2 sites before they can be analyzed. However, the large size of ESD (~1 MByte/event) constrains the amount of detailed data that can be...

  8. Stage-Specific Changes in Plasmodium Metabolism Required for Differentiation and Adaptation to Different Host and Vector Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubhav; Philip, Nisha; Hughes, Katie R; Georgiou, Konstantina; MacRae, James I; Barrett, Michael P; Creek, Darren J; McConville, Malcolm J; Waters, Andrew P

    2016-12-01

    Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) encounter markedly different (nutritional) environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design.

  9. The meiosis-specific nuclear passenger protein is required for proper assembly of forespore membrane in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaine, Masak; Imada, Kazuki; Numata, Osamu; Nakamura, Taro; Nakano, Kentaro

    2014-10-15

    Sporulation, gametogenesis in yeast, consists of meiotic nuclear division and spore morphogenesis. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the four haploid nuclei produced after meiosis II are encapsulated by the forespore membrane (FSM), which is newly synthesized from spindle pole bodies (SPBs) in the cytoplasm of the mother cell as spore precursors. Although the coordination between meiosis and FSM assembly is vital for proper sporulation, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified a new meiosis-specific protein Npg1, and found that it was involved in the efficient formation of spores and spore viability. The accumulation and organization of the FSM was compromised in npg1-null cells, leading to the error-prone envelopment of nuclei. Npg1 was first seen as internuclear dots and translocated to the SPBs before the FSM assembled. Genetic analysis revealed that Npg1 worked in conjunction with the FSM proteins Spo3 and Meu14. These results suggest a possible signaling link from the nucleus to the meiotic SPBs in order to associate the onset of FSM assembly with meiosis II, which ensures the successful partitioning of gametic nuclei. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Stage-Specific Changes in Plasmodium Metabolism Required for Differentiation and Adaptation to Different Host and Vector Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Srivastava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp. encounter markedly different (nutritional environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design.

  11. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  13. A Hybrid Verifiable and Delegated Cryptographic Model in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Ibrahim Naser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Access control is very important in cloud data sharing. Especially in the domains like healthcare, it is essential to have access control mechanisms in place for confidentiality and secure data access. Attribute based encryption has been around for many years to secure data and provide controlled access. In this paper, we proposed a framework that supports circuit and attributes based encryption mechanism that involves multiple parties. They are data owner, data user, cloud server and attribute authority. An important feature of the proposed system is the verifiable delegation of the decryption process to cloud server. Data owner encrypts data and delegates decryption process to cloud. Cloud server performs partial decryption and then the final decrypted data are shared for users as per the privileges. Data owner  thus reduces computational complexity by delegating decryption process cloud server. We built a prototype application using the Microsoft.NET platform for proof of the concept. The empirical results revealed that there is controlled access with multiple user roles and access control rights for secure and confidential data access in cloud computing.

  14. A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2008-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an angle-multiplexing based optical structure for verifying a credit card. Our key idea comes from the fact that the fine detail of the embossed hologram stamped on the credit card is hard to duplicate and therefore its key color features can be used for distinguishing between the real and counterfeit ones. As the embossed hologram is a diffractive optical element, we choose to shine one at a time a number of broadband lightsources, each at different incident angle, on the embossed hologram of the credit card in such a way that different color spectra per incident angle beam is diffracted and separated in space. In this way, the number of pixels of each color plane is investigated. Then we apply a feed forward back propagation neural network configuration to separate the counterfeit credit card from the real one. Our experimental demonstration using two off-the-shelf broadband white light emitting diodes, one digital camera, a 3-layer neural network, and a notebook computer can identify all 69 counterfeit credit cards from eight real credit cards.

  15. Verifying Quality of Service of ARCnet Based ATOMOS Communication System for Integrated Ship Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    point) layer. An important characteristic of the communication system is that the functionality and timing must be verifiable in order to satisfy requirements from classification companies like Lloyds and Norsk Veritas. By including Service Categories, Traffic Descriptors and Quality of Service concepts......As part of the ATOMOS project (Funded by EU, DG VII) a reliable communication system with predictable behaviour has been designed. The selected solution is a network based on redundant ARCnet segments extended with an EN50170 compliant fieldbus based layer on top of an ARCnet SAP (service access...

  16. Verifying Quality of Service of ARCnet Based ATOMOS Communication System for Integrated Ship Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    point) layer. An important characteristic of the communication system is that the functionality and timing must be verifiable in order to satisfy requirements from classification companies like Lloyds and Norsk Veritas. By including Service Categories, Traffic Descriptors and Quality of Service concepts......As part of the ATOMOS project (Funded by EU, DG VII) a reliable communication system with predictable behaviour has been designed. The selected solution is a network based on redundant ARCnet segments extended with an EN50170 compliant fieldbus based layer on top of an ARCnet SAP (service access...

  17. On the safe use of verify-and-record systems in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelantag, W.W.; Davis, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Verify-and-record (V and R) systems are being used increasingly, not only for verification, but also for computer aided setup and chart printing. The close intercorrelation between V and R system and treatment routine requires new ideas for quality assurance (QA): pure ''machine checking'' as with treatment units is not sufficient anymore. The level of QA obviously depends on the tasks of the V and R system: the most advanced case of the system being used for computer aided setup and for chart printing is discussed -both are indispensable for an efficient use of V and R systems. Seven propositions are defined to make this not only efficient but safe. (author)

  18. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement.

  19. Some Proxy Signature and Designated verifier Signature Schemes over Braid Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Sunder; Verma, Vandani

    2009-01-01

    Braids groups provide an alternative to number theoretic public cryptography and can be implemented quite efficiently. The paper proposes five signature schemes: Proxy Signature, Designated Verifier, Bi-Designated Verifier, Designated Verifier Proxy Signature And Bi-Designated Verifier Proxy Signature scheme based on braid groups. We also discuss the security aspects of each of the proposed schemes.

  20. Universally verifiable outsourcing and application to linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogh, de S.J.A.; Schoenmakers, B.; Veeningen, M.G.; Laud, P.; Kamm, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we show how to guarantee correctness when applying multiparty computation in outsourcing scenarios. Specifically, we consider how to guarantee the correctness of the result when neither the parties supplying the input nor the parties performing the computation can be trusted.

  1. Multilingual Validation of the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfo, Fred; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Akinyemi, Rufus; Owolabi, Lukman; Obiako, Reginald; Akpa, Onoja; Armstrong, Kevin; Akpalu, Albert; Adamu, Sheila; Obese, Vida; Boa-Antwi, Nana; Appiah, Lambert; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Mensah, Yaw; Adeoye, Abiodun; Tosin, Aridegbe; Adeleye, Osimhiarherhuo; Tabi-Ajayi, Eric; Phillip, Ibinaiye; Sani, Abubakar; Isah, Suleiman; Tabari, Nasir; Mande, Aliyu; Agunloye, Atinuke; Ogbole, Godwin; Akinyemi, Joshua; Laryea, Ruth; Melikam, Sylvia; Uvere, Ezinne; Adekunle, Gregory; Kehinde, Salaam; Azuh, Paschal; Dambatta, Abdul; Ishaq, Naser; Saulson, Raelle; Arnett, Donna; Tiwari, Hemnant; Jenkins, Carolyn; Lackland, Dan; Owolabi, Mayowa

    2016-01-01

    The Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS), a method for verifying stroke-free status in participants of clinical, epidemiological, and genetic studies, has not been validated in low-income settings where populations have limited knowledge of stroke symptoms. We aimed to validate QVSFS in 3 languages, Yoruba, Hausa and Akan, for ascertainment of stroke-free status of control subjects enrolled in an on-going stroke epidemiological study in West Africa. Data were collected using a cross-sectional study design where 384 participants were consecutively recruited from neurology and general medicine clinics of 5 tertiary referral hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana. Ascertainment of stroke status was by neurologists using structured neurological examination, review of case records, and neuroimaging (gold standard). Relative performance of QVSFS without and with pictures of stroke symptoms (pictograms) was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The overall median age of the study participants was 54 years and 48.4% were males. Of 165 stroke cases identified by gold standard, 98% were determined to have had stroke, whereas of 219 without stroke 87% were determined to be stroke-free by QVSFS. Negative predictive value of the QVSFS across the 3 languages was 0.97 (range, 0.93-1.00), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 0.98, 0.82, and 0.80, respectively. Agreement between the questionnaire with and without the pictogram was excellent/strong with Cohen k=0.92. QVSFS is a valid tool for verifying stroke-free status across culturally diverse populations in West Africa. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Specification of requirements to get a license for an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the site of the NPP-LV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano R, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    This article describes some of the work done in the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) to define specifically the requirements that the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) shall meet to submit for consideration of CNSNS an operation request of an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI). The project of a facility of this type arose from the need to provide storage capacity for spent nuclear fuel in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) and to continue the operation at the same facility in a safe manner. The licensing of these facilities in the United States of America has two modes: specific license or general license. The characteristics of these licenses are described in this article. However, in Mexico the existing national legislation is not designed for such license types, in fact there is a lack of standards or regulations in this regard. The regulatory law of Article 27 of the Constitution in the nuclear matter, only generally establishes that this type of facility requires an authorization from the Ministry of Energy. For this reason and because there is not a national legislation, was necessary to use the legislation that provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of USA, the US NRC. However, it cannot be applied as is established, so was necessary that the CNSNS analyze one by one the requirements of both types of license and determine what would be required to NPP-LV to submit its operating license of ISFSI. The American regulatory applicable to an ISFSI, the 10-Cfr-72 of the US NRC, establishes the requirements for both types of licenses. Chapter 10-Cfr was analyzed in all its clauses and coupled to the laws, regulations and standards as well as to the requirements established by CNSNS, all associated with a store spent fuel on site; the respective certification of containers for spent fuel dry storage was not included in this article, even though the CNSNS also performed that activity under the

  3. 24 CFR 5.218 - Penalties for failing to disclose and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.218 Section 5.218 Housing and Urban... REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining Income Information Disclosure and Verification of Social Security...

  4. Initiation of Swarming Motility by Proteus mirabilis Occurs in Response to Specific Cues Present in Urine and Requires Excess l-Glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Hodges, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. l-Arginine, l-glutamine, dl-histidine, malate, and dl-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming. PMID:23316040

  5. Meiosis-specific cohesin component, Stag3 is essential for maintaining centromere chromatid cohesion, and required for DNA repair and synapsis between homologous chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jessica; Hwang, Grace; Jacob, Justin; Sapp, Nicklas; Bedigian, Rick; Oka, Kazuhiro; Overbeek, Paul; Murray, Steve; Jordan, Philip W

    2014-07-01

    Cohesins are important for chromosome structure and chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Cohesins are composed of two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC1-SMC3) proteins that form a V-shaped heterodimer structure, which is bridged by a α-kleisin protein and a stromal antigen (STAG) protein. Previous studies in mouse have shown that there is one SMC1 protein (SMC1β), two α-kleisins (RAD21L and REC8) and one STAG protein (STAG3) that are meiosis-specific. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes must recombine with one another in the context of a tripartite structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC). From interaction studies, it has been shown that there are at least four meiosis-specific forms of cohesin, which together with the mitotic cohesin complex, are lateral components of the SC. STAG3 is the only meiosis-specific subunit that is represented within all four meiosis-specific cohesin complexes. In Stag3 mutant germ cells, the protein level of other meiosis-specific cohesin subunits (SMC1β, RAD21L and REC8) is reduced, and their localization to chromosome axes is disrupted. In contrast, the mitotic cohesin complex remains intact and localizes robustly to the meiotic chromosome axes. The instability of meiosis-specific cohesins observed in Stag3 mutants results in aberrant DNA repair processes, and disruption of synapsis between homologous chromosomes. Furthermore, mutation of Stag3 results in perturbation of pericentromeric heterochromatin clustering, and disruption of centromere cohesion between sister chromatids during meiotic prophase. These defects result in early prophase I arrest and apoptosis in both male and female germ cells. The meiotic defects observed in Stag3 mutants are more severe when compared to single mutants for Smc1β, Rec8 and Rad21l, however they are not as severe as the Rec8, Rad21l double mutants. Taken together, our study demonstrates that STAG3 is required for the stability of all meiosis-specific cohesin

  6. Meiosis-specific cohesin component, Stag3 is essential for maintaining centromere chromatid cohesion, and required for DNA repair and synapsis between homologous chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hopkins

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cohesins are important for chromosome structure and chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Cohesins are composed of two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC1-SMC3 proteins that form a V-shaped heterodimer structure, which is bridged by a α-kleisin protein and a stromal antigen (STAG protein. Previous studies in mouse have shown that there is one SMC1 protein (SMC1β, two α-kleisins (RAD21L and REC8 and one STAG protein (STAG3 that are meiosis-specific. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes must recombine with one another in the context of a tripartite structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC. From interaction studies, it has been shown that there are at least four meiosis-specific forms of cohesin, which together with the mitotic cohesin complex, are lateral components of the SC. STAG3 is the only meiosis-specific subunit that is represented within all four meiosis-specific cohesin complexes. In Stag3 mutant germ cells, the protein level of other meiosis-specific cohesin subunits (SMC1β, RAD21L and REC8 is reduced, and their localization to chromosome axes is disrupted. In contrast, the mitotic cohesin complex remains intact and localizes robustly to the meiotic chromosome axes. The instability of meiosis-specific cohesins observed in Stag3 mutants results in aberrant DNA repair processes, and disruption of synapsis between homologous chromosomes. Furthermore, mutation of Stag3 results in perturbation of pericentromeric heterochromatin clustering, and disruption of centromere cohesion between sister chromatids during meiotic prophase. These defects result in early prophase I arrest and apoptosis in both male and female germ cells. The meiotic defects observed in Stag3 mutants are more severe when compared to single mutants for Smc1β, Rec8 and Rad21l, however they are not as severe as the Rec8, Rad21l double mutants. Taken together, our study demonstrates that STAG3 is required for the stability of all meiosis-specific

  7. Neuron class-specific requirements for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in critical period development of calcium signaling in learning and memory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Caleb A; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-05-01

    Neural circuit optimization occurs through sensory activity-dependent mechanisms that refine synaptic connectivity and information processing during early-use developmental critical periods. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), the gene product lost in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), acts as an activity sensor during critical period development, both as an RNA-binding translation regulator and channel-binding excitability regulator. Here, we employ a Drosophila FXS disease model to assay calcium signaling dynamics with a targeted transgenic GCaMP reporter during critical period development of the mushroom body (MB) learning/memory circuit. We find FMRP regulates depolarization-induced calcium signaling in a neuron-specific manner within this circuit, suppressing activity-dependent calcium transients in excitatory cholinergic MB input projection neurons and enhancing calcium signals in inhibitory GABAergic MB output neurons. Both changes are restricted to the developmental critical period and rectified at maturity. Importantly, conditional genetic (dfmr1) rescue of null mutants during the critical period corrects calcium signaling defects in both neuron classes, indicating a temporally restricted FMRP requirement. Likewise, conditional dfmr1 knockdown (RNAi) during the critical period replicates constitutive null mutant defects in both neuron classes, confirming cell-autonomous requirements for FMRP in developmental regulation of calcium signaling dynamics. Optogenetic stimulation during the critical period enhances depolarization-induced calcium signaling in both neuron classes, but this developmental change is eliminated in dfmr1 null mutants, indicating the activity-dependent regulation requires FMRP. These results show FMRP shapes neuron class-specific calcium signaling in excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in developing learning/memory circuitry, and that FMRP mediates activity-dependent regulation of calcium signaling specifically during the early

  8. Development of various NDA approach for verifying the hold inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Shinichi; Yamada, Shigeki; Takahashi, Syunya

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the phase 1 activity to investigate the various nondestructive assay methods which proved to be useful to evaluate the amount of uranium holdup inventory. The study has been carried out in the Ningyo-Toge Demonstration uranium enrichment facility. This feasibility study is the part of JNC/DOE cooperative safeguards agreement. We expect that a combination of neutron counting and gamma-ray measurement method is required to obtain a quantitative measure of process holdup. As the results of the investigation, the basic measurement approaches were discussed and the applicable potential to gaseous centrifuges cascades were evaluated. (author)

  9. Verifying asteroseismically determined parameters of Kepler stars using Hipparcos parallaxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Victor Silva; Chaplin, W.J.; Bedding, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification of the results is mandatory. With this purpose, we present a new technique to obtain stellar properties by coupling asteroseismic analysis with the InfraRed Flux Method. By using two global seismic...... observables and multi-band photometry, the technique allows us to obtain masses, radii, effective temperatures, bolometric fluxes, and hence distances for field stars in a self-consistent manner. We apply our method to 22 solar-like oscillators in the Kepler short-cadence sample, that have accurate Hipparcos...

  10. Verifying visual properties in sentence verification facilitates picture recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; Zanolie, Kiki; Zeelenberg, René

    2007-01-01

    According to the perceptual symbols theory (Barsalou, 1999), sensorimotor simulations underlie the representation of concepts. We investigated whether recognition memory for pictures of concepts was facilitated by earlier representation of visual properties of those concepts. During study, concept names (e.g., apple) were presented in a property verification task with a visual property (e.g., shiny) or with a nonvisual property (e.g., tart). Delayed picture recognition memory was better if the concept name had been presented with a visual property than if it had been presented with a nonvisual property. These results indicate that modality-specific simulations are used for concept representation.

  11. Several requirements made on the quality of nuclide-specific gamma radiation measuring rigs with germanium detectors for nuclear power plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    The measuring set-ups are used for nuclide-specific analysis of all samples from nuclear power plants, i.e. solid, liquid, or gaseous. Depending on the nature of the sample, various requirements made by ordinances and guidelines discussed in detail must be met, relating to emission monitoring, environmental monitoring, system monitoring, room air monitoring, and contamination monitoring. The state-of-the-art is shown emphasizing the resolution and the evaluation scheme. Experience gained in the control of such systems is reported on in brief. The quality of in-service inspections is discussed. (orig./PW) [de

  12. Verifying a computational method for predicting extreme ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.A.; Barall, M.; Andrews, D.J.; Duan, B.; Ma, S.; Dunham, E.M.; Gabriel, A.-A.; Kaneko, Y.; Kase, Y.; Aagaard, Brad T.; Oglesby, D.D.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Hanks, T.C.; Abrahamson, N.

    2011-01-01

    In situations where seismological data is rare or nonexistent, computer simulations may be used to predict ground motions caused by future earthquakes. This is particularly practical in the case of extreme ground motions, where engineers of special buildings may need to design for an event that has not been historically observed but which may occur in the far-distant future. Once the simulations have been performed, however, they still need to be tested. The SCEC-USGS dynamic rupture code verification exercise provides a testing mechanism for simulations that involve spontaneous earthquake rupture. We have performed this examination for the specific computer code that was used to predict maximum possible ground motion near Yucca Mountain. Our SCEC-USGS group exercises have demonstrated that the specific computer code that was used for the Yucca Mountain simulations produces similar results to those produced by other computer codes when tackling the same science problem. We also found that the 3D ground motion simulations produced smaller ground motions than the 2D simulations.

  13. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  14. Delivering value for money - trust and verify? - 59253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimates for national Environmental Management remediation work programs are an essential ingredient of ensuring that plans can be adequately funded. They also form the basis of value measurement as the work is executed on an annual or program basis. However, the inherent uncertainties of many of the Environmental Management (EM) and decommissioning tasks, both in terms of the technical challenges faced, options available, end states to be achieved; and the general risks and uncertainties associated with the hazard and its characterisation means that many estimates were always going to have very high levels of uncertainty. In 2002 the United Kingdom Nuclear Liabilities Estimate was quoted as Pound 48 Bn when the government restructured the UK civil nuclear industry and set out the basis for forming what was to become the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). By 2005 the NDA had assessed the costs as Pound 56 Bn but by 2008 the costs had significantly increased to Pound 73 Bn and continue to rise. How does this relate to the more immediate challenges of 'working off' the plan and demonstrating Value for Money can be achieved in the near term? In parallel the US Department of Energy Environmental Management Office introduced its 'Best in Class' initiative in 2007 - the intention being to tackle under-performance and drive improvements in the baselines and the contractor delivery programs. This paper compares and contrasts UK and US EM program performance issues and covers several interdependent topic areas including; a) Government funding impacts, b) Contractor program estimates, c) Program Controls requirements, and d) Independent assurance requirements. This paper attempts to answer the question 'how can governments demonstrate Value for Money in EM'. (authors)

  15. Evaluating MC and A effectiveness to verify the presence of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, P.G.; Morzinski, J.A.; Ostenak, Carl A.; Longmire, V.L.; Jewell, D.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Traditional materials accounting is focused exclusively on the material balance area (MBA), and involves periodically closing a material balance based on accountability measurements conducted during a physical inventory. In contrast, the physical inventory for Los Alamos National Laboratory's near-real-time accounting system is established around processes and looks more like an item inventory. That is, the intent is not to measure material for accounting purposes, since materials have already been measured in the normal course of daily operations. A given unit process operates many times over the course of a material balance period. The product of a given unit process may move for processing within another unit process in the same MBA or may be transferred out of the MBA. Since few materials are unmeasured the physical inventory for a near-real-time process area looks more like an item inventory. Thus, the intent of the physical inventory is to locate the materials on the books and verify information about the materials contained in the books. Closing a materials balance for such an area is a matter of summing all the individual mass balances for the batches processed by all unit processes in the MBA. Additionally, performance parameters are established to measure the program's effectiveness. Program effectiveness for verifying the presence of nuclear material is required to be equal to or greater than a prescribed performance level, process measurements must be within established precision and accuracy values, physical inventory results meet or exceed performance requirements, and inventory differences are less than a target/goal quantity. This approach exceeds DOE established accounting and physical inventory program requirements. Hence, LANL is committed to this approach and to seeking opportunities for further improvement through integrated technologies. This paper will provide a detailed description of this evaluation process.

  16. An Efficient Method for Verifying Gyrokinetic Microstability Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravenec, R.; Candy, J.; Dorland, W.; Holland, C.

    2009-11-01

    Benchmarks for gyrokinetic microstability codes can be developed through successful ``apples-to-apples'' comparisons among them. Unlike previous efforts, we perform the comparisons for actual discharges, rendering the verification efforts relevant to existing experiments and future devices (ITER). The process requires i) assembling the experimental analyses at multiple times, radii, discharges, and devices, ii) creating the input files ensuring that the input parameters are faithfully translated code-to-code, iii) running the codes, and iv) comparing the results, all in an organized fashion. The purpose of this work is to automate this process as much as possible: At present, a python routine is used to generate and organize GYRO input files from TRANSP or ONETWO analyses. Another routine translates the GYRO input files into GS2 input files. (Translation software for other codes has not yet been written.) Other python codes submit the multiple GYRO and GS2 jobs, organize the results, and collect them into a table suitable for plotting. (These separate python routines could easily be consolidated.) An example of the process -- a linear comparison between GYRO and GS2 for a DIII-D discharge at multiple radii -- will be presented.

  17. Reproducible and Verifiable Equations of State Using Microfabricated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. F.; Pigott, J. S.; Panero, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate interpretation of observable geophysical data, relevant to the structure, composition, and evolution of planetary interiors, requires precise determination of appropriate equations of state. We present the synthesis of controlled-geometry nanofabricated samples and insulation layers for the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We present electron-gun evaporation, sputter deposition, and photolithography methods to mass-produce Pt/SiO2/Fe/SiO2 stacks and MgO insulating disks to be used in LHDAC experiments to reduce uncertainties in equation of state measurements due to large temperature gradients. We present a reanalysis of published iron PVT data to establish a statistically-valid extrapolation of the equation of state to inner core conditions with quantified uncertainties, addressing the complication of covariance in equation of state parameters. We use this reanalysis, together with the synthesized samples, to propose a scheme for measurement and validation of high-precision equations of state relevant to the Earth and super-Earth exoplanets.

  18. Monitoring, reporting and verifying emissions in the climate economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Stephan, Nicolas; Afriat, Marion; Alberola, Emilie; Barker, Alexandra; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Chiquet, Caspar; Cochran, Ian; Deheza, Mariana; Dimopoulos, Christopher; Foucherot, Claudine; Jacquier, Guillaume; Morel, Romain; Robinson, Roderick; Shishlov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse-gas emissions is the cornerstone of carbon pricing and management mechanisms. Here we consider peer-reviewed articles and 'grey literature' related to existing MRV requirements and their costs. A substantial part of the literature is the regulatory texts of the 15 most important carbon pricing and management mechanisms currently implemented. Based on a comparison of key criteria such as the scope, cost, uncertainty and flexibility of procedures, we conclude that conventional wisdom on MRV is not often promoted in existing carbon pricing mechanisms. Quantification of emissions uncertainty and incentives to reduce this uncertainty are usually only partially applied, if at all. Further, the time and resources spent on small sources of emissions would be expected to be limited. Although provisions aiming at an effort proportionate to the amount of emissions at stake -- 'materiality' -- are widespread, they are largely outweighed by economies of scale: in all schemes, MRV costs per tonne are primarily driven by the size of the source.

  19. A Study on Dismantling and Verifying North Korea's Nuclear Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jae; Cheon, Seong Whun

    2007-10-01

    North Korea's nuclear weapon development is a serious threat to South Korea's national security and can become a trigger to change the status quo in the Korean peninsula. Having prevailed security dynamics in Northeast Asia last 20 years, the North Korea's nuclear problem faced a key turning point when Pyongyang tested its first nuclear weapon on October 9, 2006. Despite this test, however, diplomatic efforts to resolve the nuclear issue were never given up, resulting in a so-called, initial agreement signed at the Six-Party Talks in February 2007. With the Six-Party Talks being held more than four years, the six countries have had sufficient time to discuss principal and political matters regarding the dismantlement of North Korea's nuclear weapons. Under the circumstances, this report is going to study practical and detail issues related with dismantling the North's nuclear weapons. Specifically, in light of historical experiences, the report will investigate possible problems to be faced in the course of dismantlement and propose policy measures to overcome these problems

  20. Validating and Verifying Biomathematical Models of Human Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Siera Brooke; Quintero, Luis Ortiz; Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Airline pilots experience acute and chronic sleep deprivation, sleep inertia, and circadian desynchrony due to the need to schedule flight operations around the clock. This sleep loss and circadian desynchrony gives rise to cognitive impairments, reduced vigilance and inconsistent performance. Several biomathematical models, based principally on patterns observed in circadian rhythms and homeostatic drive, have been developed to predict a pilots levels of fatigue or alertness. These models allow for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and commercial airlines to make decisions about pilot capabilities and flight schedules. Although these models have been validated in a laboratory setting, they have not been thoroughly tested in operational environments where uncontrolled factors, such as environmental sleep disrupters, caffeine use and napping, may impact actual pilot alertness and performance. We will compare the predictions of three prominent biomathematical fatigue models (McCauley Model, Harvard Model, and the privately-sold SAFTE-FAST Model) to actual measures of alertness and performance. We collected sleep logs, movement and light recordings, psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and urinary melatonin (a marker of circadian phase) from 44 pilots in a short-haul commercial airline over one month. We will statistically compare with the model predictions to lapses on the PVT and circadian phase. We will calculate the sensitivity and specificity of each model prediction under different scheduling conditions. Our findings will aid operational decision-makers in determining the reliability of each model under real-world scheduling situations.

  1. An experimental method to verify soil conservation by check dams on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Z; Zhang, H W; Wang, G Q; Chen, S C; Dang, W Q

    2009-12-01

    A successful experiment with a physical model requires necessary conditions of similarity. This study presents an experimental method with a semi-scale physical model. The model is used to monitor and verify soil conservation by check dams in a small watershed on the Loess Plateau of China. During experiments, the model-prototype ratio of geomorphic variables was kept constant under each rainfall event. Consequently, experimental data are available for verification of soil erosion processes in the field and for predicting soil loss in a model watershed with check dams. Thus, it can predict the amount of soil loss in a catchment. This study also mentions four criteria: similarities of watershed geometry, grain size and bare land, Froude number (Fr) for rainfall event, and soil erosion in downscaled models. The efficacy of the proposed method was confirmed using these criteria in two different downscaled model experiments. The B-Model, a large scale model, simulates watershed prototype. The two small scale models, D(a) and D(b), have different erosion rates, but are the same size. These two models simulate hydraulic processes in the B-Model. Experiment results show that while soil loss in the small scale models was converted by multiplying the soil loss scale number, it was very close to that of the B-Model. Obviously, with a semi-scale physical model, experiments are available to verify and predict soil loss in a small watershed area with check dam system on the Loess Plateau, China.

  2. echinus, required for interommatidial cell sorting and cell death in the Drosophila pupal retina, encodes a protein with homology to ubiquitin-specific proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski Sharon M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death is used to remove excess cells between ommatidia in the Drosophila pupal retina. This death is required to establish the crystalline, hexagonal packing of ommatidia that characterizes the adult fly eye. In previously described echinus mutants, interommatidial cell sorting, which precedes cell death, occurred relatively normally. Interommatidial cell death was partially suppressed, resulting in adult eyes that contained excess pigment cells, and in which ommatidia were mildly disordered. These results have suggested that echinus functions in the pupal retina primarily to promote interommatidial cell death. Results We generated a number of new echinus alleles, some likely null mutants. Analysis of these alleles provides evidence that echinus has roles in cell sorting as well as cell death. echinus encodes a protein with homology to ubiquitin-specific proteases. These proteins cleave ubiquitin-conjugated proteins at the ubiquitin C-terminus. The echinus locus encodes multiple splice forms, including two proteins that lack residues thought to be critical for deubiquitination activity. Surprisingly, ubiquitous expression in the eye of versions of Echinus that lack residues critical for ubiquitin specific protease activity, as well as a version predicted to be functional, rescue the echinus loss-of-function phenotype. Finally, genetic interactions were not detected between echinus loss and gain-of-function and a number of known apoptotic regulators. These include Notch, EGFR, the caspases Dronc, Drice, Dcp-1, Dream, the caspase activators, Rpr, Hid, and Grim, the caspase inhibitor DIAP1, and Lozenge or Klumpfuss. Conclusion The echinus locus encodes multiple splice forms of a protein with homology to ubiquitin-specific proteases, but protease activity is unlikely to be required for echinus function, at least when echinus is overexpressed. Characterization of likely echinus null alleles and genetic interactions

  3. Time-of-flight data acquisition unit (DAU) for neutron scattering experiments. Specification of the requirements and design concept. Version 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdam, G.; Klessmann, H.; Wawer, W.; Adebayo, J.; David, G.; Szatmari, F.

    1989-12-01

    This specification describes the requirements for the Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) and defines the design concept for the functional units involved. The Data Acquisition Unit will be used in the following neutron scattering experiments: Time-of-Flight Spectrometer NEAT, Time-of-Flight Spectrometer SPAN. In addition, the data of the SPAN spectrometer in Spin Echo experiments will be accumulated. The Data Acquisition Unit can be characterised by the following requirements: Time-of-flight measurement with high time resolution (125 ns), sorting the time-of-flight in up to 4096 time channels (channel width ≥ 1 μs), selection of different time channel widths for peak and background, on-line time-of-flight correction for neutron flight paths of different lengths, sorting the detector position information in up to 4096 position channels, accumulation of two-dimensional spectra in a 32 Mbyte RAM memory (4 K time channels*4 K position channels*16 bits). Because of the stringent timing requirements the functional units of the DAU are hardware controlled via tables. The DAU is part of a process control system which has access to the functional units via the VMEbus in order to initialise, to load tables and control information, and to read status information and spectra. (orig.) With 18 figs

  4. Piv site-specific invertase requires a DEDD motif analogous to the catalytic center of the RuvC Holliday junction resolvases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, John M; Robertson, Anne E; Poynter, David J; Denniston, Shelby S; Karls, Anna C

    2005-05-01

    Piv, a unique prokaryotic site-specific DNA invertase, is related to transposases of the insertion elements from the IS110/IS492 family and shows no similarity to the site-specific recombinases of the tyrosine- or serine-recombinase families. Piv tertiary structure is predicted to include the RNase H-like fold that typically encompasses the catalytic site of the recombinases or nucleases of the retroviral integrase superfamily, including transposases and RuvC-like Holliday junction resolvases. Analogous to the DDE and DEDD catalytic motifs of transposases and RuvC, respectively, four Piv acidic residues D9, E59, D101, and D104 appear to be positioned appropriately within the RNase H fold to coordinate two divalent metal cations. This suggests mechanistic similarity between site-specific inversion mediated by Piv and transposition or endonucleolytic reactions catalyzed by enzymes of the retroviral integrase superfamily. The role of the DEDD motif in Piv catalytic activity was addressed using Piv variants that are substituted individually or multiply at these acidic residues and assaying for in vivo inversion, intermolecular recombination, and DNA binding activities. The results indicate that all four residues of the DEDD motif are required for Piv catalytic activity. The DEDD residues are not essential for inv recombination site recognition and binding, but this acidic tetrad does appear to contribute to the stability of Piv-inv interactions. On the basis of these results, a working model for Piv-mediated inversion that includes resolution of a Holliday junction is presented.

  5. Transcriptional control of the tissue-specific, developmentally regulated osteocalcin gene requires a binding motif for the Msx family of homeodomain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H M; Catron, K M; van Wijnen, A J; McCabe, L R; Lian, J B; Stein, G S; Stein, J L

    1994-12-20

    The OC box of the rat osteocalcin promoter (nt -99 to -76) is the principal proximal regulatory element contributing to both tissue-specific and developmental control of osteocalcin gene expression. The central motif of the OC box includes a perfect consensus DNA binding site for certain homeodomain proteins. Homeodomain proteins are transcription factors that direct proper development by regulating specific temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression. We therefore addressed the role of the homeodomain binding motif in the activity of the OC promoter. In this study, by the combined application of mutagenesis and site-specific protein recognition analysis, we examined interactions of ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cell nuclear proteins and purified Msx-1 homeodomain protein with the OC box. We detected a series of related specific protein-DNA interactions, a subset of which were inhibited by antibodies directed against the Msx-1 homeodomain but which also recognize the Msx-2 homeodomain. Our results show that the sequence requirements for binding the Msx-1 or Msx-2 homeodomain closely parallel those necessary for osteocalcin gene promoter activity in vivo. This functional relationship was demonstrated by transient expression in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells of a series of osteocalcin promoter (nt -1097 to +24)-reporter gene constructs containing mutations within and flanking the homeodomain binding site of the OC box. Northern blot analysis of several bone-related cell types showed that all of the cells expressed msx-1, whereas msx-2 expression was restricted to cells transcribing osteocalcin. Taken together, our results suggest a role for Msx-1 and -2 or related homeodomain proteins in transcription of the osteocalcin gene.

  6. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-1294, ``Preoperational Testing of On-Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... entitled ``Preoperational Testing of On- Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy...

  7. 31 CFR 363.14 - How will you verify my identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will you verify my identity? 363... you verify my identity? (a) Individual. When you establish an account, we may use a verification service to verify your identity using information you provide about yourself on the online application. At...

  8. Reference Material Properties and Standard Problems to Verify the Fuel Performance Models Ver 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Jae Yong; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2010-12-01

    All fuel performance models must be validated by in-pile and out-pile tests. However, the model validation requires much efforts and times to confirm its exactness. In many fields, new performance models and codes are confirmed by code-to-code benchmarking process under simplified standard problem analysis. At present, the DUOS, which is the steady state fuel performance analysis code for dual cooled annular fuel, development project is progressing and new FEM module is developed to analyze the fuel performance during transient period. In addition, the verification process is planning to examine the new models and module's rightness by comparing with commercial finite element analysis such as a ADINA, ABAQUS and ANSYS. This reports contains the result of unification of material properties and establishment of standard problem to verify the newly developed models with commercial FEM code

  9. Assessing the impact of extreme air temperature on fruit trees by modeling weather dependent phenology with variety-specific thermal requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Silvia Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Missere, Daniele; Buscaroli, Claudio; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Extremely high and extremely low temperature may have a terminal impact on the productivity of fruit tree if occurring at critical phases of development. Notorious examples are frost during flowering or extremely high temperature during fruit setting. The dates of occurrence of such critical phenological stages depend on the weather history from the start of the yearly development cycle in late autumn, thus the impact of climate extremes can only be evaluated correctly if the phenological development is modeled taking into account the weather history of the specific year being evaluated. Climate change impact may lead to a shift in timing of phenological stages and change in the duration of vegetative and reproductive phases. A changing climate can also exhibit a greater climatic variability producing quite large changes in the frequency of extreme climatic events. We propose a two-stage approach to evaluate the impact of predicted future climate on the productivity of fruit trees. The phenological development is modeled using phase - specific thermal times and variety specific thermal requirements for several cultivars of pear, apricot and peach. These requirements were estimated using phenological observations over several years in Emilia Romagna region and scientific literature. We calculated the dates of start and end of rest completion, bud swell, flowering, fruit setting and ripening stages , from late autumn through late summer. Then phase-specific minimum and maximum cardinal temperature were evaluated for present and future climate to estimate how frequently they occur during any critically sensitive phenological phase. This analysis has been done for past climate (1961 - 1990) and fifty realizations of a year representative of future climate (2021 - 2050). A delay in rest completion of about 10-20 days has been predicted for future climate for most of the cultivars. On the other hand the predicted rise in air temperature causes an earlier development of

  10. Measuring reporting verifying. A primer on MRV for nationally appropriate mitigation actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, M. (ed.); Luetken, S.; Holm Olsen, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aalders, E.; Pretlove, B.; Peters, N. (Det Norske Veritas, Hellerup (Denmark))

    2012-03-15

    The requirements for measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are one of the crucial topics on the agenda of international negotiations to address climate change mitigation. According to agreements so far, the general guidelines for domestic MRV are to be developed by Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)1. Further, the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) will be conducting international consultations and analysis (ICA) of biennial update reports (BUR) to improve transparency of mitigation actions, which should be measured, reported and verified. 2. What is clear from undergoing discussions both at SBSTA and at SBI is that MRV for NAMAs should not be a burden for controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions connected to economic activities. Instead, the MRV process should facilitate mitigation actions; encourage the redirection of investments and address concerns regarding carbon content of emission intensive operations of private and public companies and enterprises worldwide. While MRV requirements are being shaped within the Convention, there are a number of initiatives supporting developing countries moving forward with NAMA development and demonstration activities. How these actions shall be measured, reported and verified, however, remain unanswered. MRV is not new. It is present in most existing policies and frameworks related to climate change mitigation. With an aim to contribute to international debate and capacity building on this crucial issue, the UNEP Risoe Centre in cooperation with UNDP, are pleased to present this publication that through the direct collaboration with Det Norske Veritas (DNV) builds on existing MRV practices in current carbon markets; provides insights on how MRV for NAMAs can be performed and identifies elements and drivers to be considered when designing adequate MRV systems for NAMAs in developing countries. This primer is the second

  11. Specification of requirements for the implementation of ASICs and FPGA in instrumentation and control systems important to safety in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview concerning the design as well as the verification and validation of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) in German NPPs which are applied to carry out I and C functions. The qualification procedures dealt with restricted on ASICs without any microcontroller core. Dependent on the different safety categories, recommendations concerning the qualification level and procedures are elaborated which have to be achieved for ASICs and FPGA. Important aspects within the framework of the expert judgement for upgrading of safety relevant I and C by ASICs and FPGA are dealt with. These aspects are of general character and are mainly focused on suitability test procedures and robustness requirements of ASICs and FPGA

  12. Spatiotemporally regulated proteolysis to dissect the role of vegetative proteins during Bacillus subtilis sporulation: cell-specific requirement of σH and σA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Eammon P; Trinquier, Aude; Reilly, Madeline L; Durchon, Marine; Perera, Varahenage R; Pogliano, Kit; Lopez-Garrido, Javier

    2018-04-01

    Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is a paradigm of bacterial development, which involves the interaction between a larger mother cell and a smaller forespore. The mother cell and the forespore activate different genetic programs, leading to the production of sporulation-specific proteins. A critical gap in our understanding of sporulation is how vegetative proteins, made before sporulation initiation, contribute to spore formation. Here we present a system, spatiotemporally regulated proteolysis (STRP), which enables the rapid, developmentally regulated degradation of target proteins, thereby providing a suitable method to dissect the cell- and developmental stage-specific role of vegetative proteins. STRP has been used to dissect the role of two major vegetative sigma factors, σ H and σ A , during sporulation. The results suggest that σ H is only required in predivisional cells, where it is essential for sporulation initiation, but that it is dispensable during subsequent steps of spore formation. However, evidence has been provided that σ A plays different roles in the mother cell, where it replenishes housekeeping functions, and in the forespore, where it plays an unexpected role in promoting spore germination and outgrowth. Altogether, the results demonstrate that STRP has the potential to provide a comprehensive molecular dissection of every stage of sporulation, germination and outgrowth. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Measurement of functional capacity requirements to aid in development of an occupation-specific rehabilitation training program to help firefighters with cardiac disease safely return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jenny; Roberts, Joanne; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Bartlett, Charles

    2009-03-15

    We designed a study to measure the functional capacity requirements of firefighters to aid in the development of an occupation-specific training program in cardiac rehabilitation; 23 healthy male firefighters with no history of heart disease completed a fire and rescue obstacle course that simulated 7 common firefighting tasks. They wore complete personal protective equipment and portable metabolic instruments that included a data collection mask. We monitored each subject's oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and working heart rate, then calculated age-predicted maximum heart rates (220 - age) and training target heart rates (85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). During performance of the obstacle course, the subjects' mean working heart rates and peak heart rates were higher than the calculated training target heart rates (t(22) = 5.69 [working vs target, p functional capacity greatly exceeded that typically attained by patients in traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs (5 to 8 METs). In conclusion, our results indicate the need for intense, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training that will help firefighters safely return to work after a cardiac event.

  14. Ethnic variability in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years: is ethnic-specific calibration of bioelectrical impedance required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lee

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration.In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698. Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution.In children < 11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance+0.18*weight.Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required.

  15. Structure and anticoagulant activity of a sulfated galactan from the red alga, Gelidium crinale. Is there a specific structural requirement for the anticoagulant action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria G; Benevides, Norma M B; Melo, Marcia R S; Valente, Ana Paula; Melo, Fábio R; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2005-09-05

    Marine red algae are an abundant source of sulfated galactans with potent anticoagulant activity. However, the specific structural motifs that confer biological activity remain to be elucidated. We have now isolated and purified a sulfated galactan from the marine red alga, Gellidium crinale. The structure of this polysaccharide was determined using NMR spectroscopy. It is composed of the repeating structure -4-alpha-Galp-(1-->3)-beta-Galp1--> but with a variable sulfation pattern. Clearly 15% of the total alpha-units are 2,3-di-sulfated and another 55% are 2-sulfated. No evidence for the occurrence of 3,6-anhydro alpha-galactose units was observed in the NMR spectra. We also compared the anticoagulant activity of this sulfated galactan with a polysaccharide from the species, Botryocladia occidentalis, with a similar saccharide chain but with higher amounts of 2,3-di-sulfated alpha-units. The sulfated galactan from G. crinale has a lower anticoagulant activity on a clotting assay when compared with the polysaccharide from B. occidentalis. When tested in assays using specific proteases and coagulation inhibitors, these two galactans showed significant differences in their activity. They do not differ in thrombin inhibition mediated by antithrombin, but in assays where heparin cofactor II replaces antithrombin, the sulfated galactan from G. crinale requires a significantly higher concentration to achieve the same inhibitory effect as the polysaccharide from B. occidentalis. In contrast, when factor Xa instead of thrombin is used as the target protease, the sulfated galactan from G. crinale is a more potent anticoagulant. These observations suggest that the proportion and/or the distribution of 2,3-di-sulfated alpha-units along the galactan chain may be a critical structural motif to promote the interaction of the protease with specific protease and coagulation inhibitors.

  16. Inhibition of muscle-specific gene expression by Id3: requirement of the C-terminal region of the protein for stable expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Han, B H; Sun, X H; Lim, R W

    1997-01-15

    We have examined the role of an Id-like protein, Id3 (also known as HLH462), in the regulation of muscle-specific gene expression. Id proteins are believed to block expression of muscle-specific genes by preventing the dimerization between ubiquitous bHLH proteins (E proteins) and myogenic bHLH proteins such as MyoD. Consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of differentiation, Id3 mRNA was detected in proliferating skeletal muscle cells, was further induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and was down-regulated in differentiated muscle cultures. Overexpression of Id3 efficiently inhibited the MyoD-mediated activation of the muscle-specific creatine kinase (MCK) reporter gene. Deletion analysis indicated that the C-terminal 15 amino acids of Id3 are critical for the full inhibitory activity while deleting up to 42 residues from the C-terminus of the related protein, Id2, did not affect its ability to inhibit the MCK reporter gene. Chimeric protein containing the N-terminal region of Id3 and the C-terminus of Id2 was also non-functional in transfected cells. In contrast, wild-type Id3, the C-terminal mutants, and the Id3/Id2 chimera could all interact with the E-protein E47in vitro. Additional studies indicated that truncation of the Id3 C-terminus might have adversely affected the expression level of the mutant proteins but the Id3/Id2 chimera was stably expressed. Taken together, our results revealed a more complex requirement for the expression and proper function of the Id family proteins than was hitherto expected.

  17. Verified Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    ---falls every year and any mention of mathematics in the classroom seems to frighten students away. So the question is: How do we attract new students in computing to the area of dependable software systems? Over the past several years at three universities we have experimented with the use of computer games......In recent years, several Grand Challenges (GCs) of computing have been identified and expounded upon by various professional organizations in the U.S. and England. These GCs are typically very difficult problems that will take many hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of man-years to solve. Researchers...

  18. An extensive allelic series of Drosophila kae1 mutants reveals diverse and tissue-specific requirements for t6A biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Jung; Smibert, Peter; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Hu, Jennifer F.; Ramroop, Johnny; Kellner, Stefanie M.; Benton, Matthew A.; Govind, Shubha; Dedon, Peter C.; Sternglanz, Rolf; Lai, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    N6-threonylcarbamoyl-adenosine (t6A) is one of the few RNA modifications that is universally present in life. This modification occurs at high frequency at position 37 of most tRNAs that decode ANN codons, and stabilizes cognate anticodon–codon interactions. Nearly all genetic studies of the t6A pathway have focused on single-celled organisms. In this study, we report the isolation of an extensive allelic series in the Drosophila ortholog of the core t6A biosynthesis factor Kae1. kae1 hemizygous larvae exhibit decreases in t6A that correlate with allele strength; however, we still detect substantial t6A-modified tRNAs even during the extended larval phase of null alleles. Nevertheless, complementation of Drosophila Kae1 and other t6A factors in corresponding yeast null mutants demonstrates that these metazoan genes execute t6A synthesis. Turning to the biological consequences of t6A loss, we characterize prominent kae1 melanotic masses and show that they are associated with lymph gland overgrowth and ectopic generation of lamellocytes. On the other hand, kae1 mutants exhibit other phenotypes that reflect insufficient tissue growth. Interestingly, whole-tissue and clonal analyses show that strongly mitotic tissues such as imaginal discs are exquisitely sensitive to loss of kae1, whereas nonproliferating tissues are less affected. Indeed, despite overt requirements of t6A for growth of many tissues, certain strong kae1 alleles achieve and sustain enlarged body size during their extended larval phase. Our studies highlight tissue-specific requirements of the t6A pathway in a metazoan context and provide insights into the diverse biological roles of this fundamental RNA modification during animal development and disease. PMID:26516084

  19. Requirement of Gamma-Carboxyglutamic Acid Modification and Phosphatidylserine Binding for the Activation of Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk Receptors by Growth Arrest-Specific 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Geng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk (TAM receptors are homologous type I receptor tyrosine kinases that have critical functions in the clearance of apoptotic cells in multicellular organisms. TAMs are activated by their endogenous ligands, growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6, and protein S (Pros1, that function as bridging molecules between externalized phosphatidylserine (PS on apoptotic cells and the TAM ectodomains. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Gas6/Pros1 promote TAM activation remains elusive. Using TAM/IFNγR1 reporter cell lines to monitor functional TAM activity, we found that Gas6 activity was exquisitely dependent on vitamin K-mediated γ-carboxylation, whereby replacing vitamin K with anticoagulant warfarin, or by substituting glutamic acid residues involved in PS binding, completely abrogated Gas6 activity as a TAM ligand. Furthermore, using domain and point mutagenesis, Gas6 activity also required both an intact Gla domain and intact EGF-like domains, suggesting these domains function cooperatively in order to achieve TAM activation. Despite the requirement of γ-carboxylation and the functional Gla domain, non-γ-carboxylated Gas6 and Gla deletion/EGF-like domain deletion mutants still retained their ability to bind TAMs and acted as blocking decoy ligands. Finally, we found that distinct sources of PS-positive cells/vesicles (including apoptotic cells, calcium-induced stressed cells, and exosomes bound Gas6 and acted as cell-derived or exosome-derived ligands to activate TAMs. Taken together, our findings indicate that PS is indispensable for TAM activation by Gas6, and by inference, provides new perspectives on how PS, regulates TAM receptors and efferocytosis.

  20. Incidence of traumatic long-bone fractures requiring in-hospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis of 4890 fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meling, Terje; Harboe, Knut; Søreide, Kjetil

    2009-11-01

    Musculoskeletal trauma represents a considerable global health burden; however, reliable population-based incidence data are lacking. Thus, we prospectively investigated the age- and sex-specific incidence patterns of long-bone fractures in a defined population. A 4-year prospective study of all long-bone fractures in a defined Norwegian population was carried out. The demographic data, as well as data on fracture type and location and mode of treatment were collected using recognised classification (e.g., AO/OTA - Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association; Gustilo-Anderson (GA) for open fractures). Age- and sex-adjusted incidences were calculated using population statistics. During the study period, 4890 long-bone fractures were recorded. The overall incidence per 100,000 per year was 406 with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 395-417. The age-adjusted incidence for those lower than that for those >or=16 years (427; 95%CI: 414-440). The overall male incidence (337; 95%CI: 322-355) was lower than the female (476; 95%CI: 459-493), but the male:female ratio was 2:1 among those or=50 years. The upper limb fractures had an overall incidence of 159 (95%CI: 152-166), whereas the lower limb fracture incidence was 247 (95%CI: 238-256). Open fractures occurred in 3%, with an incidence of 13 (95%CI: 11-15). Paediatric fractures were more likely to be treated conservatively with only 8% requiring internal fixation, compared to 56% internal fixation in those >or=16 years of age. An increase in the use of angular stable plates occurred during the study period. This prospectively collected study of long-bone fractures in a defined population recognises age- and gender-specific fracture patterns. Boys predominate in the younger age group for which treatment is basically conservative. In the senior population, women and operative treatment predominate.

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans histone deacetylase hda-1 is required for morphogenesis of the vulva and LIN-12/Notch-mediated specification of uterine cell fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawade, Ayush Vasant; Cumbo, Philip; Gupta, Bhagwati P

    2013-08-07

    Chromatin modification genes play crucial roles in development and disease. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the class I histone deacetylase family member hda-1, a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation complex, has been shown to control cell proliferation. We recovered hda-1 in an RNA interference screen for genes involved in the morphogenesis of the egg-laying system. We found that hda-1 mutants have abnormal vulva morphology and vulval-uterine connections (i.e., no uterine-seam cell). We characterized the vulval defects by using cell fate-specific markers and found that hda-1 is necessary for the specification of all seven vulval cell types. The analysis of the vulval-uterine connection defect revealed that hda-1 is required for the differentiation of the gonadal anchor cell (AC), which in turn induces ventral uterine granddaughters to adopt π fates, leading to the formation of the uterine-seam cell. Consistent with these results, hda-1 is expressed in the vulva and AC. A search for hda-1 target genes revealed that fos-1 (fos proto-oncogene family) acts downstream of hda-1 in vulval cells, whereas egl-43 (evi1 proto-oncogene family) and nhr-67 (tailless homolog, NHR family) mediate hda-1 function in the AC. Furthermore, we showed that AC expression of hda-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of the lin-12/Notch ligand lag-2 to specify π cell fates. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of hda-1 in the formation of the vulva and the vulval-uterine connection. Given that hda-1 homologs are conserved across the phyla, our findings are likely to provide a better understanding of HDAC1 function in development and disease.

  2. Report by the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on behalf of the Board of Governors to all members of the Agency on the Non-Compliance of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea with the agreement between the IAEA and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (INFCIRC/403) and on the Agency's inability to verify the non-diversion of material required to be safeguarded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document contains the following items: Report by the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on behalf of the Board of Governors to all members of the Agency on the non-compliance of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea with the agreement between the IAEA and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for the application of Safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and on the Agency's inability to verify the non-diversion of material required to be safeguarded; resolution adopted by the Board on 1 April 1993 (Annex 1); Agreement of 30 January 1992 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (Annex 2); resolution adopted by the Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 (Annex 3); Communications from the Director General of the IAEA to the Minister for Atomic Energy of DPRK or from the Minister for Atomic Energy of the DPRK of the Director General of the IAEA (Annexes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12); statement of the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Pyongyang, 12 March 1993 (Annex 7); resolution adopted by the Board on 18 March 1993 (Annex 10)

  3. Side chain requirements for affinity and specificity in D5, an HIV-1 antibody derived from the VH1-69 germline segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alex; Harrison, Joseph S; Regula, Lauren K; Lai, Jonathan R

    2013-04-08

    Analysis of factors contributing to high affinity antibody-protein interactions provides insight into natural antibody evolution, and guides the design of antibodies with new or enhanced function. We previously studied the interaction between antibody D5 and its target, a designed protein based on HIV-1 gp41 known as 5-Helix, as a model system [Da Silva, G. F.; Harrison, J. S.; Lai, J. R., Biochemistry, 2010, 49, 5464-5472]. Antibody D5 represents an interesting case study because it is derived from the VH1-69 germline segment; this germline segment is characterized by a hydrophobic second heavy chain complementarity determining region (HCDR2) that constitutes the major functional paratope in D5 and several antibodies derived from the same progenitor. Here we explore side chain requirements for affinity and specificity in D5 using phage display. Two D5-based libraries were prepared that contained diversity in all three light chain complementarity determining regions (LCDRs 1-3), and in the third HCDR (HCDR3). The first library allowed residues to vary among a restricted set of six amino acids (Tyr/Ala/Asp/Ser/His/Pro; D5-Lib-I). The second library was designed based on a survey of existing VH1-69 antibody structures (D5-Lib-II). Both libraries were subjected to multiple rounds of selection against 5-Helix, and individual clones characterized. We found that selectants from D5-Lib-I generally had moderate affinity and specificity, while many clones from D5-Lib-II exhibited D5-like properties. Additional analysis of the D5-Lib-II functional population revealed position-specific biases for particular amino acids, many that differed from the identity of those side chains in D5. Together these results suggest that there is some permissiveness for alternative side chains in the LCDRs and HCDR3 of D5, but that replacement with a minimal set of residues is not tolerated in this scaffold for 5-Helix recognition. This work provides novel information about this high

  4. Measurement of functional capacity requirements of police officers to aid in development of an occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jenny; Schneider, Jonna; Hubbard, Matthew; McCullough-Shock, Tiffany; Cheng, Dunlei; Simms, Kay; Hartman, Julie; Hinton, Paul; Strauss, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the functional capacity of healthy subjects during strenuous simulated police tasks, with the goal of developing occupation-specific training for cardiac rehabilitation of police officers. A calibrated metabolic instrument and an oxygen consumption data collection mask were used to measure the oxygen consumption and heart rates of 30 Dallas Police Academy officers and cadets as they completed an 8-event obstacle course that simulated chasing, subduing, and handcuffing a suspect. Standard target heart rates (85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate, or 0.85 x [220 - age]) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were calculated; a matched-sample t test based on differences between target and achieved heart rate and MET level was used for statistical analysis. Peak heart rates during the obstacle course simulation were significantly higher than the standard target heart rates (those at which treadmill stress tests in physicians' offices are typically stopped) (t(29) = 12.81, P requires a functional capacity greater than that typically attained in traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs. Rehabilitation professionals should consider performing maximal stress tests and increasing the intensity of cardiac rehabilitation workouts to effectively train police officers who have had a cardiac event.

  5. A five-amino-acid motif in the undefined region of the TLR8 ectodomain is required for species-specific ligand recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Xu, Congfeng; Hsu, Li-Chung; Luo, Yunping; Xiang, Rong; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien

    2010-02-01

    Toll-like receptors play important roles in regulating immunity against microbial infections. Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) belongs to a subfamily comprising TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9. Human TLR8 mediates anti-viral immunity by recognizing ssRNA viruses, and triggers potent anti-viral and antitumor immune responses upon ligation by synthetic small molecular weight ligands. Interestingly, distinct from human TLR8, mouse TLR8 was not responsive to ligand stimulation in the absence of polyT-oligodeoxynucleotides (polyT-ODN). The molecular basis for this distinct ligand recognition is still unclear. In the present study, we compared the activation of TLR8 from different species including mouse, rat, human, bovine, porcine, horse, sheep, and cat by ligand ligations. Only the TLR8s from the rodent species (i.e., mouse and rat TLR8s) failed to respond to ligand stimulation in the absence of polyT-ODN. Multiple sequence alignment analysis suggested that these two rodent TLR8s lack a five-amino-acid motif that is conserved in the non-rodent species with varied sequence. This small motif is located in an undefined region of the hTLR8 ectodomain, immediately following LRR-14. Deletion mutation analysis suggested that this motif is essential for the species-specific ligand recognition of hTLR8, whereas it is not required for self-dimerization and intracellular localization of this receptor. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HU participates in expression of a specific set of genes required for growth and survival at acidic pH in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Sun, Lianle; Fukamachi, Toshihiko; Saito, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    The major histone-like Escherichia coli protein, HU, is composed of alpha and beta subunits respectively encoded by hupA and hupB in Escherichia coli. A mutant deficient in both hupA and hupB grew at a slightly slower rate than the wild type at pH 7.5. Growth of the mutant diminished with a decrease in pH, and no growth was observed at pH 4.6. Mutants of either hupA or hupB grew at all pH levels tested. The arginine-dependent survival at pH 2.5 was diminished approximately 60-fold by the deletion of both hupA and hupB, whereas the survival was slightly affected by the deletion of either hupA or hupB. The mRNA levels of adiA and adiC, which respectively encode arginine decarboxylase and arginine/agmatine antiporter, were low in the mutant deficient in both hupA and hupB. The deletion of both hupA and hupB had little effect on survival at pH 2.5 in the presence of glutamate or lysine, and expression of the genes for glutamate and lysine decarboxylases was not impaired by the deletion of the HU genes. These results suggest that HU regulates expression of the specific set of genes required for growth and survival in acidic environments.

  7. Value management : functional expression of the need and functional performance specification : requirements for expressing and validating the need to be satisfied within the process of purchasing or obtaining a product

    CERN Document Server

    Association Française de Normalisation. Paris

    2013-01-01

    Value management : functional expression of the need and functional performance specification : requirements for expressing and validating the need to be satisfied within the process of purchasing or obtaining a product

  8. Distinct accessory cell requirements define two types of rat T cell hybridomas specific for unique determinants in the encephalitogenic 68-86 region of myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannie, M.D.; Paterson, P.Y.; Thomas, D.W.; Nairn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Six clonotypically unique T cell hybridomas from Lewis rats were used to study accessory cell activities required for class II MHC restricted T cell responses to the 68-86 encephalitogenic sequence of myelin basic protein (MBP). T cell hybrids which were cultured with GP68-86 68-86 sequence of guinea pig MBP (GPMBP) and naive splenocytes (SPL) were induced to produce IL-2 as measured by the CTLL indicator cell line. The hybrids were categorized into two subsets (designated THYB-1 and THYB-2), because two distinct subset-specific pathways of communication between accessory cells and T cells were involved in GPMBP-induced IL-2 production. These pathways were distinguished by the following six observations. First, when the duration of a pulse of SPL with GPMBP was lengthened from 1 to 4 h, these SPL lost their ability to induce IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet nevertheless retained full stimulatory activity for THYB-1 hybrids. Second, paraformaldehyde fixation of GPMBP-pulsed SPL abrogated an activity necessary for Ag-induced IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids. These fixed SPL were nevertheless able to stimulate THYB-1 hybrids, albeit to a lesser extent than viable unfixed SPL. Third, the addition of either cycloheximide, cytochalasin B, or 2-deoxyglucose to an Ag pulse of SPL with GPMBP dramatically inhibited the subsequent responses of THYB-2 hybrids yet had little or no effect upon the reactivity of THYB-1 hybrids. Fourth, thymocytes lacked necessary activities for GPMBP evoked IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet strongly promoted THYB-1 hybrid responses. Fifth, exposure of SPL to as little as 500 rad of gamma-irradiation markedly attenuated THYB-2 hybrid response to GPMBP but did not affect THYB-1 responses. Sixth, anti-GPMBP responses by THYB-2 hybrids were observed only in the presence of both radioresistant adherent SPL and a distinct population of radiosensitive nonadherent SPL

  9. The extracytoplasmic domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinase PknB binds specific muropeptides and is required for PknB localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mushtaq; Asong, Jinkeng; Li, Xiuru; Cardot, Jessica; Boons, Geert-Jan; Husson, Robert N

    2011-07-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinase PknB has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and morphology in this organism. The extracytoplasmic domain of this membrane protein comprises four penicillin binding protein and Ser/Thr kinase associated (PASTA) domains, which are predicted to bind stem peptides of peptidoglycan. Using a comprehensive library of synthetic muropeptides, we demonstrate that the extracytoplasmic domain of PknB binds muropeptides in a manner dependent on the presence of specific amino acids at the second and third positions of the stem peptide, and on the presence of the sugar moiety N-acetylmuramic acid linked to the peptide. We further show that PknB localizes strongly to the mid-cell and also to the cell poles, and that the extracytoplasmic domain is required for PknB localization. In contrast to strong growth stimulation by conditioned medium, we observe no growth stimulation of M. tuberculosis by a synthetic muropeptide with high affinity for the PknB PASTAs. We do find a moderate effect of a high affinity peptide on resuscitation of dormant cells. While the PASTA domains of PknB may play a role in stimulating growth by binding exogenous peptidoglycan fragments, our data indicate that a major function of these domains is for proper PknB localization, likely through binding of peptidoglycan fragments produced locally at the mid-cell and the cell poles. These data suggest a model in which PknB is targeted to the sites of peptidoglycan turnover to regulate cell growth and cell division.

  10. The extracytoplasmic domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinase PknB binds specific muropeptides and is required for PknB localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Mir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinase PknB has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and morphology in this organism. The extracytoplasmic domain of this membrane protein comprises four penicillin binding protein and Ser/Thr kinase associated (PASTA domains, which are predicted to bind stem peptides of peptidoglycan. Using a comprehensive library of synthetic muropeptides, we demonstrate that the extracytoplasmic domain of PknB binds muropeptides in a manner dependent on the presence of specific amino acids at the second and third positions of the stem peptide, and on the presence of the sugar moiety N-acetylmuramic acid linked to the peptide. We further show that PknB localizes strongly to the mid-cell and also to the cell poles, and that the extracytoplasmic domain is required for PknB localization. In contrast to strong growth stimulation by conditioned medium, we observe no growth stimulation of M. tuberculosis by a synthetic muropeptide with high affinity for the PknB PASTAs. We do find a moderate effect of a high affinity peptide on resuscitation of dormant cells. While the PASTA domains of PknB may play a role in stimulating growth by binding exogenous peptidoglycan fragments, our data indicate that a major function of these domains is for proper PknB localization, likely through binding of peptidoglycan fragments produced locally at the mid-cell and the cell poles. These data suggest a model in which PknB is targeted to the sites of peptidoglycan turnover to regulate cell growth and cell division.

  11. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Kenneth Davis; Thomas Lauvaux; Andrew Schuh; Dan Cooley; Tristram O West; Linda S Heath; Natasha L Miles; Scott Richardson; F Jay Breidt; James E Smith; Jessica L McCarty; Kevin R Gurney; Pieter Tans; A Scott. Denning

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country's contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated...

  12. Experimental evaluation of the exposure level onboard Czech Airlines aircraft - measurements verified the routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Kovar, I.

    2008-01-01

    Air-crew members are exposed to ionizing radiation due to their work on board of air-crafts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1990 recommends that exposure to cosmic radiation in the operation of jet aircraft should be recognised as occupational exposure. Czech air transport operators are therefore obliged to ensure: - Air-crew members to be well informed about the exposure level and health risks; - An analysis of complete exposure level of aircraft crew and its continuing monitoring in cases of exceeding the informative value 1 mSv; - A compliance of limit 1 mSv during pregnancy Since 1998, after receiving a proper accreditation, the Department of Radiation Dosimetry of Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Academy of Sciences (DRD) is the competent dosimetric service realized requirements of Notice No.307 of the State Office for Nuclear Safety concerning air-crew exposure (paragraphs 87-90). The DRD has developed routine method of personal dosimetry of aircraft crew in 1998 which has been applied after receiving a proper accreditation in the same year. DRD therefore helps Czech airlines a.s. (CSA) with their legislative obligations mentioned above, and in return, once per four years, in terms of business contract, CSA allows scientific measurements performed by DRD onboard its air-crafts with the aim to verify the method of routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure. (authors)

  13. Experimentally verified inductance extraction and parameter study for superconductive integrated circuit wires crossing ground plane holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, Coenrad J; Wetzstein, Olaf; Kunert, Juergen; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Toepfer, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    As the complexity of rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuits increases, both current and power consumption of the circuits become important design criteria. Various new concepts such as inductive biasing for energy efficient RSFQ circuits and inductively coupled RSFQ cells for current recycling have been proposed to overcome increasingly severe design problems. Both of these techniques use ground plane holes to increase the inductance or coupling factor of superconducting integrated circuit wires. New design tools are consequently required to handle the new topographies. One important issue in such circuit design is the accurate calculation of networks of inductances even in the presence of finite holes in the ground plane. We show how a fast network extraction method using InductEx, which is a pre- and post-processor for the magnetoquasistatic field solver FastHenry, is used to calculate the inductances of a set of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) with ground plane holes of different sizes. The results are compared to measurements of physical structures fabricated with the IPHT Jena 1 kA cm −2 RSFQ niobium process to verify accuracy. We then do a parameter study and derive empirical equations for fast and useful estimation of the inductance of wires surrounded by ground plane holes. We also investigate practical circuits and show excellent accuracy. (paper)

  14. Dynamic simulation platform to verify the performance of the reactor regulating system for a research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    Digital instrumentation and controls system technique is being introduced in new constructed research reactor or life extension of older research reactor. Digital systems are easy to change and optimize but the validated process for them is required. Also, to reduce project risk or cost, we have to make it sure that configuration and control functions is right before the commissioning phase on research reactor. For this purpose, simulators have been widely used in developing control systems in automotive and aerospace industries. In these literatures, however, very few of these can be found regarding test on the control system of research reactor with simulator. Therefore, this paper proposes a simulation platform to verify the performance of RRS (Reactor Regulating System) for research reactor. This simulation platform consists of the reactor simulation model and the interface module. This simulation platform is applied to I and C upgrade project of TRIGA reactor, and many problems of RRS configuration were found and solved. And it proved that the dynamic performance testing based on simulator enables significant time saving and improves economics and quality for RRS in the system test phase. (authors)

  15. Verifying Real-Time Systems using Explicit-time Description Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Timed model checking has been extensively researched in recent years. Many new formalisms with time extensions and tools based on them have been presented. On the other hand, Explicit-Time Description Methods aim to verify real-time systems with general untimed model checkers. Lamport presented an explicit-time description method using a clock-ticking process (Tick to simulate the passage of time together with a group of global variables for time requirements. This paper proposes a new explicit-time description method with no reliance on global variables. Instead, it uses rendezvous synchronization steps between the Tick process and each system process to simulate time. This new method achieves better modularity and facilitates usage of more complex timing constraints. The two explicit-time description methods are implemented in DIVINE, a well-known distributed-memory model checker. Preliminary experiment results show that our new method, with better modularity, is comparable to Lamport's method with respect to time and memory efficiency.

  16. On verifying magnetic dipole moment of a magnetic torquer by experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyyakanont, Aekjira; Kuntanapreeda, Suwat; Fuengwarodsakul, Nisai H.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic torquers are used for the attitude control of small satellites, such as CubeSats with Low Earth Orbit (LEO). During the design of magnetic torquers, it is necessary to confirm if its magnetic dipole moment is enough to control the satellite attitude. The magnetic dipole moment can affect the detumbling time and the satellite rotation time. In addition, it is also necessary to understand how to design the magnetic torquer for operation in a CubeSat under the space environment at LEO. This paper reports an investigation of the magnetic dipole moment and the magnetic field generated by a circular air-coil magnetic torquer using experimental measurements. The experiment testbed was built on an air-bearing under a magnetic field generated by a Helmholtz coil. This paper also describes the procedure to determine and verify the magnetic dipole moment value of the designed circular air-core magnetic torquer. The experimental results are compared with the design calculations. According to the comparison results, the designed magnetic torquer reaches the required magnetic dipole moment. This designed magnetic torquer will be applied to the attitude control systems of a 1U CubeSat satellite in the project “KNACKSAT.”

  17. Verifying Identities of Plant-Based Multivitamins Using Phytochemical Fingerprinting in Combination with Multiple Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeni; Ahn, Yoon Hee; Yoo, Jae Keun; Park, Kyoung Sik; Kwon, Oran

    2017-09-01

    Sales of multivitamins have been growing rapidly and the concept of natural multivitamin, plant-based multivitamin, or both has been introduced in the market, leading consumers to anticipate additional health benefits from phytochemicals that accompany the vitamins. However, the lack of labeling requirements might lead to fraudulent claims. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a strategy to verify identity of plant-based multivitamins. Phytochemical fingerprinting was used to discriminate identities. In addition, multiple bioassays were performed to determine total antioxidant capacity. A statistical computation model was then used to measure contributions of phytochemicals and vitamins to antioxidant activities. Fifteen multivitamins were purchased from the local markets in Seoul, Korea and classified into three groups according to the number of plant ingredients. Pearson correlation analysis among antioxidant capacities, amount phenols, and number of plant ingredients revealed that ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay results had the highest correlation with total phenol content. This suggests that FRAP and DPPH assays are useful for characterizing plant-derived multivitamins. Furthermore, net effect linear regression analysis confirmed that the contribution of phytochemicals to total antioxidant capacities was always relatively higher than that of vitamins. Taken together, the results suggest that phytochemical fingerprinting in combination with multiple bioassays could be used as a strategy to determine whether plant-derived multivitamins could provide additional health benefits beyond their nutritional value.

  18. Could hypomanic traits explain selective migration? Verifying the hypothesis by the surveys on sardinian migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni, Carta Mauro; Francesca, Moro Maria; Viviane, Kovess; Brasesco, Maria Veronica; Bhat, Krishna M; Matthias, Angermeyer C; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2012-01-01

    A recent survey put forward the hypothesis that the emigration that occurred from Sardinia from the 1960's to the 1980's, selected people with a hypomanic temperament. The paper aims to verify if the people who migrated from Sardinia in that period have shown a high risk of mood disorders in the surveys carried out in their host countries, and if the results are consistent with this hypothesis. This is systematic review. In the 1970's when examining the attitudes towards migration in Sardinian couples waiting to emigrate, Rudas found that the decision to emigrate was principally taken by males. Female showed lower self-esteem than male emigrants. A study on Sardinian immigrants in Argentina carried out in 2001-02, at the peak of the economic crisis, found a high risk of depressive disorders in women only. These results were opposite to the findings recorded ten years earlier in a survey on Sardinian immigrants in Paris, where the risk of Depressive Episode was higher in young men only. Data point to a bipolar disorder risk for young (probably hypomanic) male migrants in competitive, challenging conditions; and a different kind of depressive episodes for women in trying economic conditions. The results of the survey on Sardinian migrants are partially in agreement with the hypothesis of a selective migration of people with a hypomanic temperament. Early motivations and self-esteem seem related to the ways mood disorders are expressed, and to the vulnerability to specific triggering situations in the host country.

  19. Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Ni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric (NG tubes are commonly used for enteral feeding. Complications of feeding tube misplacement include malnutrition, pulmonary aspiration, and even death. We built a Bayesian network (BN to analyse the risks associated with available bedside tests to verify tube position. Evidence on test validity (sensitivity and specificity was retrieved from a systematic review. Likelihood ratios were used to select the best tests for detecting tubes misplaced in the lung or oesophagus. Five bedside tests were analysed including magnetic guidance, aspirate pH, auscultation, aspirate appearance, and capnography/colourimetry. Among these, auscultation and appearance are non-diagnostic towards lung or oesophagus placements. Capnography/ colourimetry can confirm but cannot rule out lung placement. Magnetic guidance can rule out both lung and oesophageal placement. However, as a relatively new technology, further validation studies are needed. The pH test with a cut-off at 5.5 or lower can rule out lung intubation. Lowering the cut-off to 4 not only minimises oesophageal intubation but also provides extra safety as the sensitivity of pH measurement is reduced by feeding, antacid medication, or the use of less accurate pH paper. BN is an effective tool for representing and analysing multi-layered uncertainties in test validity and reliability for the verification of NG tube position. Aspirate pH with a cut-off of 4 is the safest bedside method to minimise lung and oesophageal misplacement.

  20. Verifying the functional ability of microstructured surfaces by model-based testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Wito; Weckenmann, Albert

    2014-09-01

    Micro- and nanotechnology enables the use of new product features such as improved light absorption, self-cleaning or protection, which are based, on the one hand, on the size of functional nanostructures and the other hand, on material-specific properties. With the need to reliably measure progressively smaller geometric features, coordinate and surface-measuring instruments have been refined and now allow high-resolution topography and structure measurements down to the sub-nanometre range. Nevertheless, in many cases it is not possible to make a clear statement about the functional ability of the workpiece or its topography because conventional concepts of dimensioning and tolerancing are solely geometry oriented and standardized surface parameters are not sufficient to consider interaction with non-geometric parameters, which are dominant for functions such as sliding, wetting, sealing and optical reflection. To verify the functional ability of microstructured surfaces, a method was developed based on a parameterized mathematical-physical model of the function. From this model, function-related properties can be identified and geometric parameters can be derived, which may be different for the manufacturing and verification processes. With this method it is possible to optimize the definition of the shape of the workpiece regarding the intended function by applying theoretical and experimental knowledge, as well as modelling and simulation. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by the example of a microstructured inking roll.

  1. Unmaking the bomb: Verifying limits on the stockpiles of nuclear weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Verifying limits on the stockpiles of nuclear weapons may require the ability for international in-spectors to account for individual warheads, even when non-deployed, and to confirm the authenticity of nuclear warheads prior to dismantlement. These are fundamentally new challenges for nuclear verification, and they have been known for some time; unfortunately, due to a lack of sense of urgency, research in this area has not made substantial progress over the past 20 years. This chapter explores the central outstanding issues and offers a number of possible paths forward. In the case of confirming numerical limits, these in-clude innovative tagging techniques and approaches solely based on declarations using modern crypto-graphic escrow schemes; with regard to warhead confirmation, there has recently been increasing interest in developing fundamentally new measurement approaches where, in one form or another, sensitive infor-mation is not acquired in the first place. Overall, new international R&D efforts could more usefully focus on non-intrusive technologies and approaches, which may show more promise for early demonstration and adoption. In the meantime, while warhead dismantlements remain unverified, nuclear weapon states ought to begin to document warhead assembly, refurbishment, and dismantlement activities and movements of warheads and warhead components through the weapons complex in ways that international inspectors will find credible at a later time. Again, such a process could be enabled by modern cryptographic techniques such as blockchaining. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, it is important to recognize that the main reason for the complexity of technologies and approaches needed for nuclear disarmament verification is the requirement to protect information that nuclear weapon states consider sensitive. Ultimately, if information security concerns cannot be resolved to the satisfaction of all stakeholders, an alternative would be to "reveal the

  2. An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity; Une experience destinee a verifier la theorie de la relativite generalisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdin, Maurice [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France)

    1960-07-01

    The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [French] Projet d'une experience, utilisant l'effet de gravitation sur des horloges du type Maser placees sur la terre a deux altitudes differentes, et destinee a verifier la theorie de la relativite generalisee. Reproduction d'un article publie dans les Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, seance du 11 janvier 1960.

  3. Experience with in vivo diode dosimetry for verifying radiotherapy dose delivery: Practical implementation of cost-effective approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Blyth, C.; Carruthers, L.; Elliott, P.A.; Kidane, G.; Millwater, C.J.; MacLeod, A.S.; Paolucci, M.; Stacey, C.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic programme of in vivo dosimetry using diodes to verify radiotherapy delivered doses began in Edinburgh in 1992. The aims were to investigate the feasibility of routine systematic use of diodes as part of a comprehensive QA programme, to carry out clinical pilot studies to assess the accuracy of dose delivery on each machine and for each site and technique, to identify and rectify systematic deviations, to assess departmental dosimetric precision and to compare to clinical requirements. A further aim was to carry out a cost-benefit evaluation based on the results from the pilot studies to consider how best to use diodes routinely

  4. The Drosophila Translational Control Element (TCE) is required for high-level transcription of many genes that are specifically expressed in testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J; Rach, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Ashley K; Ohler, Uwe; Wassarman, David A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the importance of core promoter elements for tissue-specific transcription of RNA polymerase II genes, we examined testis-specific transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioinformatic analyses of core promoter sequences from 190 genes that are specifically expressed in testes identified a 10 bp A/T-rich motif that is identical to the translational control element (TCE). The TCE functions in the 5' untranslated region of Mst(3)CGP mRNAs to repress translation, and it also functions in a heterologous gene to regulate transcription. We found that among genes with focused initiation patterns, the TCE is significantly enriched in core promoters of genes that are specifically expressed in testes but not in core promoters of genes that are specifically expressed in other tissues. The TCE is variably located in core promoters and is conserved in melanogaster subgroup species, but conservation dramatically drops in more distant species. In transgenic flies, short (300-400 bp) genomic regions containing a TCE directed testis-specific transcription of a reporter gene. Mutation of the TCE significantly reduced but did not abolish reporter gene transcription indicating that the TCE is important but not essential for transcription activation. Finally, mutation of testis-specific TFIID (tTFIID) subunits significantly reduced the transcription of a subset of endogenous TCE-containing but not TCE-lacking genes, suggesting that tTFIID activity is limited to TCE-containing genes but that tTFIID is not an obligatory regulator of TCE-containing genes. Thus, the TCE is a core promoter element in a subset of genes that are specifically expressed in testes. Furthermore, the TCE regulates transcription in the context of short genomic regions, from variable locations in the core promoter, and both dependently and independently of tTFIID. These findings set the stage for determining the mechanism by which the TCE regulates testis-specific transcription and understanding the

  5. Procedural Issues regarding the Audit of the Management and Control of EU Funds, in Terms of Specific Key Requirements of the New Funding Period 2014 - 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Selișteanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In practice, planning the audit of management and control for each operational program and for the whole programming period, will perform during substantiation audit strategy, based on analysis and risk assessment, made at the entities involved in implementing the operational program. In what follows, we propose an assessment guidelines for the 2014- 2020 programming period, especially in terms of explanation addressed key requirements that must be used, explaining the evaluation criteria for each key requirement, providing guidance for drawing conclusions for each key requirement by each authority and finally making recommendations for establishing general conclusions regarding the management and control.

  6. Site specific statutory compliance planning for the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Requirements, strategy, and status: Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This document and the requirements and actions it presents are addressed to the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas. The proposed actions upon which the plan is based are those described in Chapters 4 and 5 of the final EA for the site. Similarly, the environmental and health and safety requirements covered in the plan are those identified in the EA as being potentially applicable to the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith site. 12 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Rigidity of quantum steering and one-sided device-independent verifiable quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Alexandru; Wallden, Petros; Kashefi, Elham

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between correlations and entanglement has played a major role in understanding quantum theory since the work of Einstein et al (1935 Phys. Rev. 47 777–80). Tsirelson proved that Bell states, shared among two parties, when measured suitably, achieve the maximum non-local correlations allowed by quantum mechanics (Cirel’son 1980 Lett. Math. Phys. 4 93–100). Conversely, Reichardt et al showed that observing the maximal correlation value over a sequence of repeated measurements, implies that the underlying quantum state is close to a tensor product of maximally entangled states and, moreover, that it is measured according to an ideal strategy (Reichardt et al 2013 Nature 496 456–60). However, this strong rigidity result comes at a high price, requiring a large number of entangled pairs to be tested. In this paper, we present a significant improvement in terms of the overhead by instead considering quantum steering where the device of the one side is trusted. We first demonstrate a robust one-sided device-independent version of self-testing, which characterises the shared state and measurement operators of two parties up to a certain bound. We show that this bound is optimal up to constant factors and we generalise the results for the most general attacks. This leads us to a rigidity theorem for maximal steering correlations. As a key application we give a one-sided device-independent protocol for verifiable delegated quantum computation, and compare it to other existing protocols, to highlight the cost of trust assumptions. Finally, we show that under reasonable assumptions, the states shared in order to run a certain type of verification protocol must be unitarily equivalent to perfect Bell states. (paper)

  8. System for verifiable CT radiation dose optimization based on image quality. part II. process control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Malarik, Remo J; Hall, Seth M; Podberesky, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of an automated computed tomography (CT) radiation dose optimization and process control system on the consistency of estimated image noise and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) of radiation in CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. This quality improvement project was determined not to constitute human subject research. An automated system was developed to analyze each examination immediately after completion, and to report individual axial-image-level and study-level summary data for patient size, image noise, and SSDE. The system acquired data for 4 months beginning October 1, 2011. Protocol changes were made by using parameters recommended by the prediction application, and 3 months of additional data were acquired. Preimplementation and postimplementation mean image noise and SSDE were compared by using unpaired t tests and F tests. Common-cause variation was differentiated from special-cause variation by using a statistical process control individual chart. A total of 817 CT examinations, 490 acquired before and 327 acquired after the initial protocol changes, were included in the study. Mean patient age and water-equivalent diameter were 12.0 years and 23.0 cm, respectively. The difference between actual and target noise increased from -1.4 to 0.3 HU (P process control chart identified several special causes of variation. Implementation of an automated CT radiation dose optimization system led to verifiable simultaneous decrease in image noise variation and SSDE. The automated nature of the system provides the opportunity for consistent CT radiation dose optimization on a broad scale. © RSNA, 2013.

  9. The Drosophila Translational Control Element (TCE is required for high-level transcription of many genes that are specifically expressed in testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeccah J Katzenberger

    Full Text Available To investigate the importance of core promoter elements for tissue-specific transcription of RNA polymerase II genes, we examined testis-specific transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioinformatic analyses of core promoter sequences from 190 genes that are specifically expressed in testes identified a 10 bp A/T-rich motif that is identical to the translational control element (TCE. The TCE functions in the 5' untranslated region of Mst(3CGP mRNAs to repress translation, and it also functions in a heterologous gene to regulate transcription. We found that among genes with focused initiation patterns, the TCE is significantly enriched in core promoters of genes that are specifically expressed in testes but not in core promoters of genes that are specifically expressed in other tissues. The TCE is variably located in core promoters and is conserved in melanogaster subgroup species, but conservation dramatically drops in more distant species. In transgenic flies, short (300-400 bp genomic regions containing a TCE directed testis-specific transcription of a reporter gene. Mutation of the TCE significantly reduced but did not abolish reporter gene transcription indicating that the TCE is important but not essential for transcription activation. Finally, mutation of testis-specific TFIID (tTFIID subunits significantly reduced the transcription of a subset of endogenous TCE-containing but not TCE-lacking genes, suggesting that tTFIID activity is limited to TCE-containing genes but that tTFIID is not an obligatory regulator of TCE-containing genes. Thus, the TCE is a core promoter element in a subset of genes that are specifically expressed in testes. Furthermore, the TCE regulates transcription in the context of short genomic regions, from variable locations in the core promoter, and both dependently and independently of tTFIID. These findings set the stage for determining the mechanism by which the TCE regulates testis-specific transcription and

  10. Canada - Atomic Energy Control Board, Canada. Summary of a common cause failure event which occurred in a Canadian utility. 'Failure to Verify Poison Isotopic'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Operating Policies and Principles (OP and Ps) are referenced in the reactor operating license. They contain not only general safety principles, but also define safety parameters and their numerical values for the operation of the nuclear power plant. The event described highlights the difficulties to implement the OP and Ps into detailed purchase orders. In Candu reactors gadolinium nitrate and boric oxide are used as neutron absorbers in the moderator. The concentration of neutron absorbers in the moderator is safety significant because a small change in concentration in coincidence with other failures (e.g. LOCA) can result in a sudden increase of power. To ensure that new shipments of gadolinium nitrate or boric acid meet the required specifications, these must undergo quarantine so that samples could be taken and forwarded for analysis. The chemistry unit of the NPP issued this requirements in a 'note to file'. In the event, two separated purchase orders, one for gadolinium nitrate and one for boric oxide, were placed. The purchase orders did not stipulate the requirements to quarantine, inform the chemistry unit or to analyse samples. They only stated that correct isotopic and chemical purity were required. The gadolinium nitrate as well as the boron oxide were both not quarantined and even the purity was not verified. The chemistry unit felt that a 'note to file' memo was sufficient to ensure that the OP and Ps are met taking into account the low shipment rate and sufficient experiences before. The analysis of the event revealed several causal factors. Four main factors were pointed out: - Work practices, - Resource Management, - Written communication, - Managerial methods. The actions taken after the event focused on the identified deficiencies

  11. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P Douillard

    Full Text Available Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped and heterologous (coccoid-shaped expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species.

  12. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  13. Documentation and verification required for type A packaging use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, J.H.

    1997-07-30

    This document furnishes knowledge and methods for verifying compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging requirements for shipping Type A quantities of radioactive material. The primary emphasis is on the requirements identified in 49 CFR 173.415(a), which states, ``Each offeror of a Specification 7A package must maintain on file for at least one year after the shipment, and shall provide to DOT on request, complete documentation of tests and an engineering evaluation of comparative data showing that the construction methods, packaging design, and materials of construction comply with that specification.`` This guidance document uses a checklist to show compliance.

  14. Documentation and verification required for type A packaging use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This document furnishes knowledge and methods for verifying compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging requirements for shipping Type A quantities of radioactive material. The primary emphasis is on the requirements identified in 49 CFR 173.415(a), which states, ''Each offeror of a Specification 7A package must maintain on file for at least one year after the shipment, and shall provide to DOT on request, complete documentation of tests and an engineering evaluation of comparative data showing that the construction methods, packaging design, and materials of construction comply with that specification.'' This guidance document uses a checklist to show compliance

  15. HupW Protease Specifically Required for Processing of the Catalytic Subunit of the Uptake Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Pia; Devine, Ellenor; Stensjö, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The maturation process of [NiFe] hydrogenases includes a proteolytic cleavage of the large subunit. We constructed a mutant of Nostoc strain PCC 7120 in which hupW, encoding a putative hydrogenase-specific protease, is inactivated. Our results indicate that the protein product of hupW selectively cleaves the uptake hydrogenase in this cyanobacterium. PMID:22020512

  16. Specific requirements to a gamma camera system for studies on a standing horse; Besondere Anforderungen an ein Gammakamerasystem bei Untersuchungen am stehenden Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Thomas [MiE Medical Imaging Electronics GmbH, Seth (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    An ingenious combination of mechanics, electronics and software makes the scintigraphy on a standing horse possible. It turns out that experiences from the human medicine, such as detector specifications, measurement methods and processes, as well as many customer ideas, wishes and improvements are necessary to achieve the aim of easy, fast and robust diagnostics. (orig.)

  17. The Method of a Standalone Functional Verifying Operability of Sonar Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method of standalone verifying sonar control system, which is based on functional checking of control system operability.The main features of realized method are a development of the valid mathematic model for simulation of sonar signals at the point of hydroacoustic antenna, a valid representation of the sonar control system modes as a discrete Markov model, providing functional object verification in real time mode.Some ways are proposed to control computational complexity in case of insufficient computing resources of the simulation equipment, namely the way of model functionality reduction and the way of adequacy reduction.Experiments were made using testing equipment, which was developed by department of Research Institute of Information Control System at Bauman Moscow State Technical University to verify technical validity of industrial sonar complexes.On-board software was artificially changed to create malfunctions in functionality of sonar control systems during the verifying process in order to estimate verifying system performances.The method efficiency was proved by the theory and experiment results in comparison with the basic methodology of verifying technical systems.This method could be also used in debugging of on-board software of sonar complexes and in development of new promising algorithms of sonar signal processing.

  18. A Family of Zinc Finger Proteins Is Required forChromosome-specific Pairing and Synapsis during Meiosis in C.elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Carolyn M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2006-06-07

    Homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis are prerequisitefor accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. Here, we show that afamily of four related C2H2 zinc-finger proteins plays a central role inthese events in C. elegans. These proteins are encoded within a tandemgene cluster. In addition to the X-specific HIM-8 protein, threeadditional paralogs collectively mediate the behavior of the fiveautosomes. Each chromosome relies on a specific member of the family topair and synapse with its homolog. These "ZIM" proteins concentrate atspecial regions called meiotic pairing centers on the correspondingchromosomes. These sites are dispersed along the nuclear envelope duringearly meiotic prophase, suggesting a role analogous to thetelomere-mediated meiotic bouquet in other organisms. To gain insightinto the evolution of these components, wecharacterized homologs in C.briggsae and C. remanei, which revealed changes in copy number of thisgene family within the nematode lineage.

  19. Binding of ADAM12, a marker of skeletal muscle regeneration, to the muscle-specific actin-binding protein, alpha -actinin-2, is required for myoblast fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galliano, M F; Huet, C; Frygelius, J

    2000-01-01

    ADAM12 belongs to the transmembrane metalloprotease ADAM ("a disintegrin and metalloprotease") family. ADAM12 has been implicated in muscle cell differentiation and fusion, but its precise function remains unknown. Here, we show that ADAM12 is dramatically up-regulated in regenerated, newly formed...... of differentiation. Using the yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that the muscle-specific alpha-actinin-2 strongly binds to the cytoplasmic tail of ADAM12. In vitro binding assays with GST fusion proteins confirmed the specific interaction. The major binding site for alpha-actinin-2 was mapped to a short sequence...... in a dominant negative fashion by inhibiting fusion of C2C12 cells, whereas expression of a cytosolic ADAM12 lacking the major alpha-actinin-2 binding site had no effect on cell fusion. Our results suggest that interaction of ADAM12 with alpha-actinin-2 is important for ADAM12 function....

  20. The exosome component Rrp6 is required for RNA polymerase II termination at specific targets of the Nrd1-Nab3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Melanie J; Gao, Hongyu; Smith-Kinnaman, Whitney R; Liu, Yunlong; Mosley, Amber L

    2015-01-01

    The exosome and its nuclear specific subunit Rrp6 form a 3'-5' exonuclease complex that regulates diverse aspects of RNA biology including 3' end processing and degradation of a variety of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and unstable transcripts. Known targets of the nuclear exosome include short (Polymerase II (RNAPII) localization. Deletion of RRP6 promotes hyper-elongation of multiple NNS-dependent transcripts resulting from both improperly processed 3' RNA ends and faulty transcript termination at specific target genes. The defects in RNAPII termination cause transcriptome-wide changes in mRNA expression through transcription interference and/or antisense repression, similar to previously reported effects of depleting Nrd1 from the nucleus. Elongated transcripts were identified within all classes of known NNS targets with the largest changes in transcription termination occurring at CUTs. Interestingly, the extended transcripts that we have detected in our studies show remarkable similarity to Nrd1-unterminated transcripts at many locations, suggesting that Rrp6 acts with the NNS complex globally to promote transcription termination in addition to 3' end RNA processing and/or degradation at specific targets.

  1. Dynamic Symmetric Key Mobile Commerce Scheme Based on Self-Verified Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the security and efficiency of mobile e-commerce, the authors summarized the advantages and disadvantages of several related schemes, especially the self-verified mobile payment scheme based on the elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC and then proposed a new type of dynamic symmetric key mobile commerce scheme based on self-verified mechanism. The authors analyzed the basic algorithm based on self-verified mechanisms and detailed the complete transaction process of the proposed scheme. The authors analyzed the payment scheme based on the security and high efficiency index. The analysis shows that the proposed scheme not only meets the high efficiency of mobile electronic payment premise, but also takes the security into account. The user confirmation mechanism at the end of the proposed scheme further strengthens the security of the proposed scheme. In brief, the proposed scheme is more efficient and practical than most of the existing schemes.

  2. Evolution of optically nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2010-04-01

    Since the deployment of the credit card, the number of credit card fraud cases has grown rapidly with a huge amount of loss in millions of US dollars. Instead of asking more information from the credit card's holder or taking risk through payment approval, a nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifier is highly desirable before transaction begins. In this paper, we review optical techniques that have been proposed and invented in order to make the genuine credit card more distinguishable than the counterfeit credit card. Several optical approaches for the implementation of credit card verifiers are also included. In particular, we highlight our invention on a hyperspectral-imaging based portable credit card verifier structure that offers a very low false error rate of 0.79%. Other key features include low cost, simplicity in design and implementation, no moving part, no need of an additional decoding key, and adaptive learning.

  3. What are the ultimate limits to computational techniques: verifier theory and unverifiability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolskiy, Roman V

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant developments in proof theory, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the concept of proof verifiers. In particular, the mathematical community may be interested in studying different types of proof verifiers (people, programs, oracles, communities, superintelligences) as mathematical objects. Such an effort could reveal their properties, their powers and limitations (particularly in human mathematicians), minimum and maximum complexity, as well as self-verification and self-reference issues. We propose an initial classification system for verifiers and provide some rudimentary analysis of solved and open problems in this important domain. Our main contribution is a formal introduction of the notion of unverifiability, for which the paper could serve as a general citation in domains of theorem proving, as well as software and AI verification. (invited comment)

  4. What are the ultimate limits to computational techniques: verifier theory and unverifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolskiy, Roman V.

    2017-09-01

    Despite significant developments in proof theory, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the concept of proof verifiers. In particular, the mathematical community may be interested in studying different types of proof verifiers (people, programs, oracles, communities, superintelligences) as mathematical objects. Such an effort could reveal their properties, their powers and limitations (particularly in human mathematicians), minimum and maximum complexity, as well as self-verification and self-reference issues. We propose an initial classification system for verifiers and provide some rudimentary analysis of solved and open problems in this important domain. Our main contribution is a formal introduction of the notion of unverifiability, for which the paper could serve as a general citation in domains of theorem proving, as well as software and AI verification.

  5. Novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Pegels, Nicolette; Lago, Adriana; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds, including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons meat products from the target species demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection of the target DNAs.

  6. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  7. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  8. An automated, self-verifying system for monitoring uranium in effluent streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, R.J.; Pickett, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In nuclear facilities such as nuclear fuel fabrication plants, a constant vigil is required to ensure that the concentrations of uranium in process or waste streams do not exceed required specifications. The specifications may be dictated by the process owner, a regulatory agency such as the US Nuclear Regulatory Agency or Environmental Protection Agency, or by criticality safety engineering criteria. Traditionally, uranium monitoring in effluent streams has been accomplished by taking periodic samples of the liquid stream and determining the concentration by chemical analysis. Despite its accuracy, chemical sampling is not timely enough for practical use in continuously flowing systems because of the possibility that a significant quantity of uranium may be discharged between sampling intervals. To completely satisfy regulatory standards, the liquid waste stream must be monitored for uranium on a 100% basis. To this end, an automated, radioisotopic liquid-waste monitoring system was developed by GE Nuclear Energy as an integral part of the uranium conversion and waste recovery operations. The system utilizes passive gamma-ray spectroscopy and is thus a robust, on-line, and nondestructive assay for uranium. The system provides uranium concentration data for process monitoring and assures regulatory compliance for criticality safety. A summary of the principles of system operation, calibration, and verification is presented in this paper

  9. Analysis of existing data and specification of an experiment to determine the 252Cf half-life to the required degree of accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.; Kharitonov, I.A.

    1994-02-01

    The methods used and the results obtained in measurements of the 252 Cf half-life are analyzed. In calculating the weighted mean value, additional error components as well as those given by the authors are taken into account. In order to reduce the error in the weighted mean value to less than 0.1%, the need and the requirements for an exact measurement are specified. A half-life of 2.6473±0.0028 years is recommended. (author). 16 refs, 3 tabs

  10. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe map1 gene encodes an SRF/MCM1-related protein required for P-cell specific gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Friis, T; Kjaerulff, S

    1996-01-01

    Cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergo mating and meiosis when starved for a nitrogen source. In this process a P and and M cell first mate to generate a diploid zygote, which subsequently enters meiosis and sporulates. The P mating type is controlled by the mat1-Pc gene at the mating type lo...... cerevisiae MCM1. The Mat1-Pc protein contains a motif characteristic for proteins that interact with MADS-box factors, suggesting that Mat-Pc and Map1 may form a heterodimer that activates the P-specific map3 gene....

  11. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    commonly used, for instance, in shielding on radioactive sources used in hospitals. Other radioactive material, such as most radioactive sources and isotopes used in medicine, industry, agriculture, and water resource management, are not the subject of safeguards and need not be reported to the IAEA under safeguards agreements. Reporting depends on the level of nuclear activity in the country. Declarations pursuant to safeguards agreements and additional protocols for States that do not have nuclear facilities are expected to be short and simple. The IAEA has prepared a document, available upon request, which provides guidance on the reporting requirements for such States. More elaborate guidelines have been prepared for States that do have nuclear facilities subject to routine safeguards inspections. Through its activities in the field, the IAEA seeks to verify the correctness and completeness of States' reports and declarations regarding nuclear material. Each State with a comprehensive safeguards agreement is required to establish and maintain a State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC), which is the national authority formally designated to keep track of nuclear material and activities in the country. For all States with safeguards agreements in force, the IAEA draws an annual conclusion on the non-diversion of nuclear material and other items placed under safeguard. The IAEA's focal point for the negotiation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and the amendment of SQPs, is the Office of External Relations and Policy Coordination. Once a State has decided to conclude such an agreement and/or protocol, or amend its SQP, the IAEA can help the country with the implementation of related legal and technical requirements. The appendix of this publication informs how to conclude a comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and/or an Additional Protocol and provides 3 model notification letters for (a) conclusion of a safeguards agreement, a

  12. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    commonly used, for instance, in shielding on radioactive sources used in hospitals. Other radioactive material, such as most radioactive sources and isotopes used in medicine, industry, agriculture, and water resource management, are not the subject of safeguards and need not be reported to the IAEA under safeguards agreements. Reporting depends on the level of nuclear activity in the country. Declarations pursuant to safeguards agreements and additional protocols for States that do not have nuclear facilities are expected to be short and simple. The IAEA has prepared a document, available upon request, which provides guidance on the reporting requirements for such States. More elaborate guidelines have been prepared for States that do have nuclear facilities subject to routine safeguards inspections. Through its activities in the field, the IAEA seeks to verify the correctness and completeness of States' reports and declarations regarding nuclear material. Each State with a comprehensive safeguards agreement is required to establish and maintain a State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC), which is the national authority formally designated to keep track of nuclear material and activities in the country. For all States with safeguards agreements in force, the IAEA draws an annual conclusion on the non-diversion of nuclear material and other items placed under safeguard. The IAEA's focal point for the negotiation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and the amendment of SQPs, is the Office of External Relations and Policy Coordination. Once a State has decided to conclude such an agreement and/or protocol, or amend its SQP, the IAEA can help the country with the implementation of related legal and technical requirements. The appendix of this publication informs how to conclude a comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and/or an Additional Protocol and provides 3 model notification letters for (a) conclusion of a safeguards agreement, a

  13. Final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. Scope and requirements for site-specific safety analysis; Kaeytetyn polttoaineen loppusijoitus Suomen kallioperaeaen. Paikkakohtaisen turvallisuusanalyysin edellytykset ja mahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The report is a summary of the research conducted in the period 1993 to 1996 into safety of spent fuel final disposal. The principal goal of the research in this period, as set in 1993, was to develop a strategy for site-specific safety analysis. At the same time efforts were to be continued to gather data and validate the technical approach for the analysis. The work aimed at having the data needed for the analysis available at the end of year 1998. A safety assessment update, TILA-96, prepared by VTT Energy, is published as a separate report. The assessment is based on the TVO-92 safety analysis, but takes into account the knowledge acquired after 1992 on safety aspects of the disposal system and the data gathered from the site investigations made by TVO and from the beginning of 1996, by Posiva. Since the site investigations are still ongoing and much of the data gathered still pending interpretation, only limited amount of new site-specific information has been available for the present assessment. (172 refs.).

  14. Conserved amino acid motifs from the novel Piv/MooV family of transposases and site-specific recombinases are required for catalysis of DNA inversion by Piv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiason, D M; Buchner, J M; Thiel, W H; Gernert, K M; Karls, A C

    2001-02-01

    Piv, a site-specific invertase from Moraxella lacunata, exhibits amino acid homology with the transposases of the IS110/IS492 family of insertion elements. The functions of conserved amino acid motifs that define this novel family of both transposases and site-specific recombinases (Piv/MooV family) were examined by mutagenesis of fully conserved amino acids within each motif in Piv. All Piv mutants altered in conserved residues were defective for in vivo inversion of the M. lacunata invertible DNA segment, but competent for in vivo binding to Piv DNA recognition sequences. Although the primary amino acid sequences of the Piv/MooV recombinases do not contain a conserved DDE motif, which defines the retroviral integrase/transposase (IN/Tnps) family, the predicted secondary structural elements of Piv align well with those of the IN/Tnps for which crystal structures have been determined. Molecular modelling of Piv based on these alignments predicts that E59, conserved as either E or D in the Piv/MooV family, forms a catalytic pocket with the conserved D9 and D101 residues. Analysis of Piv E59G confirms a role for E59 in catalysis of inversion. These results suggest that Piv and the related IS110/IS492 transposases mediate DNA recombination by a common mechanism involving a catalytic DED or DDD motif.

  15. The exosome component Rrp6 is required for RNA polymerase II termination at specific targets of the Nrd1-Nab3 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Fox

    Full Text Available The exosome and its nuclear specific subunit Rrp6 form a 3'-5' exonuclease complex that regulates diverse aspects of RNA biology including 3' end processing and degradation of a variety of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs and unstable transcripts. Known targets of the nuclear exosome include short (<1000 bp RNAPII transcripts such as small noncoding RNAs (snRNAs, cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs, and some stable unannotated transcripts (SUTs that are terminated by an Nrd1, Nab3, and Sen1 (NNS dependent mechanism. NNS-dependent termination is coupled to RNA 3' end processing and/or degradation by the Rrp6/exosome in yeast. Recent work suggests Nrd1 is necessary for transcriptome surveillance, regulating promoter directionality and suppressing antisense transcription independently of, or prior to, Rrp6 activity. It remains unclear whether Rrp6 is directly involved in termination; however, Rrp6 has been implicated in the 3' end processing and degradation of ncRNA transcripts including CUTs. To determine the role of Rrp6 in NNS termination globally, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq on total RNA and perform ChIP-exo analysis of RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII localization. Deletion of RRP6 promotes hyper-elongation of multiple NNS-dependent transcripts resulting from both improperly processed 3' RNA ends and faulty transcript termination at specific target genes. The defects in RNAPII termination cause transcriptome-wide changes in mRNA expression through transcription interference and/or antisense repression, similar to previously reported effects of depleting Nrd1 from the nucleus. Elongated transcripts were identified within all classes of known NNS targets with the largest changes in transcription termination occurring at CUTs. Interestingly, the extended transcripts that we have detected in our studies show remarkable similarity to Nrd1-unterminated transcripts at many locations, suggesting that Rrp6 acts with the NNS complex globally to promote

  16. Regressive transgressive cycle of Devonian sea in Uruguay verified by Palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the results and conclusions of the populations palinomorphs study, carried out in Devonian formations in the center of Uruguay. The existence of a regressive transgressive cycle is verified by analyzing the vertical distribution of palinomorphs as well as is mentioned the presence of chintziest for the section studied - hoesphaeridium Cyathochitina kinds

  17. Die verifiëring, verfyning en toepassing van leksikografiese liniale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leksikografiese liniale vir Afrikaans en die Afrikatale is 'n dekade oud en word algemeen gebruik in die samestelling van woordeboeke. Die samestellers het dit tot dusver nie nodig geag om hierdie liniale te verifieer of te verfyn nie. Kritiek is egter uitgespreek op die samestelling van die Afrikaanse Liniaal en dit word in ...

  18. Descriptional complexity of non-unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Laurette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, self-verifying symmetric difference automata were defined and a tight bound of 2^n-1-1 was shown for state complexity in the unary case. We now consider the non-unary case and show that, for every n at least 2, there is a regular...

  19. 13 CFR 127.403 - What happens if SBA verifies the concern's eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if SBA verifies the concern's eligibility? 127.403 Section 127.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Eligibility Examinations § 127...

  20. 13 CFR 127.404 - What happens if SBA is unable to verify a concern's eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if SBA is unable to verify a concern's eligibility? 127.404 Section 127.404 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Eligibility Examinations § 127...