WorldWideScience

Sample records for require urgent attention

  1. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, large number of unplanned pregnancies, poor coverage of antenatal care, poor maternal nutritional status, high consanguineous marriages rate, and high carrier rate for hemoglobinopathies. India being the second most populous country with a large number infant born annually with birth defects should focus its attention on strategies for control of birth defects. Many population based strategies such as iodization, double fortification of salt, flour fortification with multivitamins, folic acid supplementation, periconceptional care, carrier screening and prenatal screening are some of proven strategies for control of birth defects. Strategies such as iodization of salt in spite of being initiated for a long time in the past do have a very little impact on its consumption (only 50% were using iodized salt. Community genetic services for control of birth defects can be easily flourished and integrated with primary health care in India because of its well established infrastructure and personnel in the field of maternal and child health care. As there is wide variation for infant mortality rate (IMR in different states in India, so there is a need of deferential approach to implement community genetic services in states those had already achieved national goal of IMR. On the other hand, states those have not achieved the national goal on IMR priority should be given to management of other causes of infant mortality.

  2. Duty of care or a matter of conduct -- can a doctor refuse a person in need of urgent medical attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jessica; Mahar, Patrick; Loh, Erwin; Ludlow, Karinne

    2013-10-01

    Medical practitioners may have their particular skills called upon outside a direct professional context. The responsibilities of medical practitioners outside their defined scope of clinical practice may not be clear to all clinicians. To consider the possible legal consequences of a doctor refusing to assist a person in need of urgent medical attention both in terms of medical negligence and professional misconduct. Where an established clinical relationship does not exist, and a doctor does not wish to render aid, three particular scenarios may arise. A doctor may actively deny being a doctor, passively avoid identifying themselves as a doctor or acknowledge being a doctor, but refuse to render assistance. Aside from any ethical issues, how a doctor chooses to act and represent themselves may lead to different legal ramifications. There exists significant variation in state provisions relating to legal obligations to render aid, which may benefit from review and revision at a national level.

  3. Perception of ensemble statistics requires attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Nielsen, Molly; Cohen, Michael A; Pitts, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    To overcome inherent limitations in perceptual bandwidth, many aspects of the visual world are represented as summary statistics (e.g., average size, orientation, or density of objects). Here, we investigated the relationship between summary (ensemble) statistics and visual attention. Recently, it was claimed that one ensemble statistic in particular, color diversity, can be perceived without focal attention. However, a broader debate exists over the attentional requirements of conscious perception, and it is possible that some form of attention is necessary for ensemble perception. To test this idea, we employed a modified inattentional blindness paradigm and found that multiple types of summary statistics (color and size) often go unnoticed without attention. In addition, we found attentional costs in dual-task situations, further implicating a role for attention in statistical perception. Overall, we conclude that while visual ensembles may be processed efficiently, some amount of attention is necessary for conscious perception of ensemble statistics.

  4. Adaptive behavior, functional outcomes, and quality of life outcomes of children requiring urgent ICU admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Shanil; Singh, Simran; Hutchison, Jamie S; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Sananes, Renee; Bowman, Kerry W; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2013-01-01

    To describe the adaptive behavior and functional outcomes, and health-related quality of life of children who were urgently admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational study. Critical Care Medicine program at a University-affiliated pediatric institution. Urgently admitted patients, aged 1 month to 18 yrs. None. We evaluated children's adaptive behavior functioning with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2, functional outcomes with the pediatric cerebral performance category and pediatric overall performance category, and health-related quality of life with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4 and Visual Analogue Scale. We enrolled 91 children and 65 (71%) completed the 1-month assessment. Patients had a mean (SD) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2 rating of 83.2 (± 24.8), considered to be moderate-low adaptive behavior functioning. From baseline to 1 month, pediatric cerebral performance category ratings did not significantly change (p = 0.59) and pediatric overall performance category ratings significantly improved (p = 0.03). Visual Analogue Scale ratings significantly worsened from baseline to 1 wk (p adaptive behavior functioning. Neurological admissions, worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, longer ICU stay, and longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with worse functional outcome. Worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, longer ICU stay, and longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with worse health-related quality of life. Children surviving PICU have significant adaptive behavior functioning and functional morbidity and reduced health-related quality of life. Although neurologic morbidity following ICU was associated with baseline state, we found that resuscitation intensity and illness severity factors were independently associated with the development of acquired brain injury and reduced quality of life.

  5. Perioperative management of a patient with recently placed drug-eluting stents requiring urgent spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eira; Purnell, Chad; Shabalov, Olga; Moguillansky, Diego; Hernandez, Caridad A; Elnicki, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Patients receiving drug-eluting coronary stents (DES) require antiplatelet therapy for at least 12 months to prevent stent thrombosis (ST), a potentially calamitous event. Since interruption of antiplatelet therapy is the greatest risk factor for ST, it is imperative that the decision to discontinue these agents be based on an accurate assessment of the patient's risk for bleeding complications. Individuals who are regarded as being at a high risk are those undergoing intracranial, spinal or intraocular surgeries. These patients require alternative agents during the perioperative period to minimize both their risk of perioperative thrombosis and intraoperative hemorrhage. We report the case of a woman who required spinal surgery 3 months after she underwent placement of two drug-eluting stents. The patient's clopidogrel was stopped 5 days prior to surgery and an infusion of eptifibatide was used to "bridge" antiplatelet therapy during the perioperative period. Postoperatively, anticoagulation therapy was reinstituted using aspirin with clopidogrel. This case serves as a successful example of bridging therapy using a short acting and gycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor as a means of maintaining antiplatelet therapy during the perioperative period to minimize the risk of stent thrombosis and the risk of intraoperative bleeding.

  6. Early cessation of breastfeeding amongst women in South Africa: an area needing urgent attention to improve child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty Tanya

    2012-07-01

    .8. Conclusion Early cessation of breastfeeding is common amongst both HIV-negative and positive women in South Africa. There is an urgent need to improve antenatal breastfeeding counselling taking into account the challenges faced by working women as well as early postnatal lactation support to prevent breast health problems.

  7. Visual attention is required for multiple object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annie; Hoffman, James E

    2016-12-01

    In the multiple object tracking task, participants attempt to keep track of a moving set of target objects embedded in an identical set of moving distractors. Depending on several display parameters, observers are usually only able to accurately track 3 to 4 objects. Various proposals attribute this limit to a fixed number of discrete indexes (Pylyshyn, 1989), limits in visual attention (Cavanagh & Alvarez, 2005), or "architectural limits" in visual cortical areas (Franconeri, 2013). The present set of experiments examined the specific role of visual attention in tracking using a dual-task methodology in which participants tracked objects while identifying letter probes appearing on the tracked objects and distractors. As predicted by the visual attention model, probe identification was faster and/or more accurate when probes appeared on tracked objects. This was the case even when probes were more than twice as likely to appear on distractors suggesting that some minimum amount of attention is required to maintain accurate tracking performance. When the need to protect tracking accuracy was relaxed, participants were able to allocate more attention to distractors when probes were likely to appear there but only at the expense of large reductions in tracking accuracy. A final experiment showed that people attend to tracked objects even when letters appearing on them are task-irrelevant, suggesting that allocation of attention to tracked objects is an obligatory process. These results support the claim that visual attention is required for tracking objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Chinese translation of strengths and difficulties questionnaire requires urgent review before field trials for validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewell Jill

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ is a brief behavioural screening questionnaire for children and teenagers aged 3 to 16 years. It is available in 66 languages, and gaining more popularity world wide. Chinese translation of SDQ is available and has been used in clinical practice and research. We undertook the exercise to back-translate the current Chinese translation and it showed a number of differences compared to the original English SDQ. The differences and concerns include: (1 the flow and grammar of Chinese translation as well as wrongly written Chinese characters; (2 translated words that have deviated from the original meaning; (3 significant numbers of wording that are somewhat different from the original English version; (4 addition of auxiliary verbs that do not exist in original English version; and (5 the current Chinese SDQ is a general questionnaire for all age groups that does not observe the differences of wording that exist in the English versions. Conclusion An accurate translated Chinese version is important for researchers, clinicians and educators who work in the Chinese communities. There is an urgent need to review the translation of the Chinese SDQ version before more studies use it in the field.

  9. Chinese translation of strengths and difficulties questionnaire requires urgent review before field trials for validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Teck-Hock; Chow, Sing-Jill; Ting, Tzer-Hwu; Sewell, Jill

    2008-08-15

    Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief behavioural screening questionnaire for children and teenagers aged 3 to 16 years. It is available in 66 languages, and gaining more popularity world wide. Chinese translation of SDQ is available and has been used in clinical practice and research. We undertook the exercise to back-translate the current Chinese translation and it showed a number of differences compared to the original English SDQ. The differences and concerns include: (1) the flow and grammar of Chinese translation as well as wrongly written Chinese characters; (2) translated words that have deviated from the original meaning; (3) significant numbers of wording that are somewhat different from the original English version; (4) addition of auxiliary verbs that do not exist in original English version; and (5) the current Chinese SDQ is a general questionnaire for all age groups that does not observe the differences of wording that exist in the English versions. An accurate translated Chinese version is important for researchers, clinicians and educators who work in the Chinese communities. There is an urgent need to review the translation of the Chinese SDQ version before more studies use it in the field.

  10. Augmented metacognition addressing dynamic allocation of tasks requiring visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Doesburg, W. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of cognitive models as augmented metacognition on task allocation for tasks requiring visual attention. In the domain of naval warfare, the complex and dynamic nature of the environment makes that one has to deal with a large number of tasks in parallel. Therefore, human

  11. Economic evaluation of urgent-start peritoneal dialysis versus urgent-start hemodialysis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Ghaffari, Arshia; Dhatt, Harman; Kumar, Vijay; Balsera, Cristina; Wallace, Eric; Khairullah, Quresh; Lesher, Beth; Gao, Xin; Henderson, Heather; LaFleur, Paula; Delgado, Edna M; Alvarez, Melissa M; Hartley, Janett; McClernon, Marilyn; Walton, Surrey; Guest, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Patients presenting late in the course of kidney disease who require urgent initiation of dialysis have traditionally received temporary vascular catheters followed by hemodialysis. Recent changes in Medicare payment policy for dialysis in the USA incentivized the use of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Consequently, the use of more expeditious PD for late-presenting patients (urgent-start PD) has received new attention. Urgent-start PD has been shown to be safe and effective, and offers a mechanism for increasing PD utilization. However, there has been no assessment of the dialysis-related costs over the first 90 days of care. The objective of this study was to characterize the costs associated with urgent-start PD, urgent-start hemodialysis (HD), or a dual approach (urgent-start HD followed by urgent-start PD) over the first 90 days of treatment from a provider perspective. A survey of practitioners from 5 clinics known to use urgent-start PD was conducted to provide inputs for a cost model representing typical patients. Model inputs were obtained from the survey, literature review, and available cost data. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. The estimated per patient cost over the first 90 days for urgent-start PD was $16,398. Dialysis access represented 15% of total costs, dialysis services 48%, and initial hospitalization 37%. For urgent-start HD, total per patient costs were $19,352, and dialysis access accounted for 27%, dialysis services 42%, and initial hospitalization 31%. The estimated cost for dual patients was $19,400. Urgent-start PD may offer a cost saving approach for the initiation of dialysis in eligible patients requiring an urgent-start to dialysis.

  12. An outbreak of cardiovascular syndromes requiring urgent medical treatment and its association with environmental factors: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willmore Alan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2005, syndromic surveillance based on statistical control chart methods in Sydney, Australia, signalled increasing incidence of urgent emergency department visits for cardiovascular and chest pain syndromes compared to the preceding twelve months. This paper aimed to determine whether environmental factors could have been responsible for this 'outbreak'. Methods The outcome studied was daily counts of emergency department visits for cardiovascular or chest pain syndromes that were considered immediately or imminently life threatening on arrival at hospital. The outbreak had a mean daily count of 5.7 visits sustained for eight weeks, compared with 4.0 in the same months in previous years. Poisson regression was used to systematically assess the emergency department visits in relation to available daily weather and pollution variables by first finding the best model that explained short-term variation in the outcome over the period 25 January 2002 to 31 May 2005, and then assessing interactions of all available variables with the 'outbreak' period, April-May 2005. Rate ratios were estimated for an interquartile increase in each variable meaning that the ratio measures the relative increase (or decrease in the emergency department visits for an interquartile increase in the weather or pollution variable. The rate ratios for the outbreak period measure the relative increase (or decrease in the emergency department visits for an interquartile increase in the weather or pollution variable during the outbreak period only. Results The best fitting model over the whole study period included minimum temperature with a rate ratio (RR of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.77–0.96, maximum relative humidity of 1.09 (95% CI 1.05–1.14 and minimum daily particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10 of 1.05 (95% CI, 1.01–1.09. During the outbreak period, maximum temperature (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03–1.57, solar radiation (RR 1

  13. Saccade Preparation Is Required for Exogenous Attention but Not Endogenous Attention or IOR

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    Smith, Daniel T.; Schenk, Thomas; Rorden, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Covert attention is tightly coupled with the control of eye movements, but there is controversy about how tight this coupling is. The premotor theory of attention proposes that activation of the eye movement system is necessary to produce shifts of attention. In this study, we experimentally prevented healthy participants from planning or…

  14. Saccade Preparation Is Required for Exogenous Attention but Not Endogenous Attention or IOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel T.; Schenk, Thomas; Rorden, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Covert attention is tightly coupled with the control of eye movements, but there is controversy about how tight this coupling is. The premotor theory of attention proposes that activation of the eye movement system is necessary to produce shifts of attention. In this study, we experimentally prevented healthy participants from planning or…

  15. Visual short-term memory always requires general attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Bieler, Malte

    2013-01-01

    The role of attention in visual memory remains controversial; while some evidence has suggested that memory for binding between features demands no more attention than does memory for the same features, other evidence has indicated cognitive costs or mnemonic benefits for explicitly attending to bin

  16. Visual short-term memory always requires general attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Bieler, Malte

    The role of attention in visual memory remains controversial; while some evidence has suggested that memory for binding between features demands no more attention than does memory for the same features, other evidence has indicated cognitive costs or mnemonic benefits for explicitly attending to

  17. Visual short-term memory always requires general attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Bieler, Malte

    2013-01-01

    The role of attention in visual memory remains controversial; while some evidence has suggested that memory for binding between features demands no more attention than does memory for the same features, other evidence has indicated cognitive costs or mnemonic benefits for explicitly attending to bin

  18. 47 CFR 11.52 - EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring... SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.52 EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring requirements. (a) EAS Participants must be capable of receiving the Attention Signal required by § 11.32(a)(9) and emergency...

  19. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission... SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.51 EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements. (a... messages and required tests by sending the EAS header codes, Attention Signal, emergency message and End...

  20. Resolving Semantic Interference during Word Production Requires Central Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The semantic picture-word interference task has been used to diagnose how speakers resolve competition while selecting words for production. The attentional demands of this resolution process were assessed in 2 dual-task experiments (tone classification followed by picture naming). In Experiment 1, when pictures and distractor words were presented…

  1. Sustainable Land Use Requires Attention to Ecological Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, W.L.; Castellanos, A.E.; Murrieta-Saldivar, J.

    2003-01-01

    This case study details the difficulties of landscape management, highlighting the challenges inherent in managing natural resources when multiple agencies are involved, when the land users have no incentive for conservation, and when government agencies have too few resources for effective management. Pumping of groundwater from the aquifer of La Costa de Hermosillo in the state of Sonora, Mexico, began in 1945 and developed so quickly that by the late 1950s salinity intrusion from the Gulf of California was occurring in the wells. In the 1970s, the irrigatable land in La Costa peaked at 132,516 ha and the extracted volume of water from the aquifer peaked at around 1.14 billion cubic meters annually. By the 1980s, 105 wells of the total of 498 were contaminated with seawater and, therefore, identified for closure. At present La Costa de Hermosillo still represents 15% of the total harvested land, 16% of the total annual production, and 23% of the gross agricultural production of the state of Sonora. However, there are approximately 80,000 ha of abandoned fields due to salt water intension, lack of water and/or lack of credit available to individual farmers. This unstable situation resulted from the interplay of water management policies and practices, and farm-land policies and practices. While government agencies have been able to enforce better water use for agricultural production, there remains a significant area that requires restoration from its degraded state. For this piece of the ecosystem management puzzle, government agencies have thus far been unable to affect a solution.

  2. MEDICAL SERVICE - URGENT CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Médical

    2000-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA: EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME: Open 24h/24h 748-49-50 AMG- Association Of Geneva Doctors: Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin 719-61-11 EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 CHILDREN'S EMERGENCIES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112   FRANCE: EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ...

  3. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety

  4. [The electromagnetic fields of cellular phones and the health of children and of teenagers (the situation requiring to take an urgent measure)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the influence of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of cellular phones (CP) on the health of children and teenagers is considered in this article. The results of the researchs indicate the increased sensitivity of the children and of the teenagers to this kind of radiation. Direct indicators of electromagnetic influence can be infringement of sleep, decrease of the memory, fatigue, breach of a blood-brain barrier permeability, changes in nervous cells of a brain. As the remote consequences the development of tumors of a brain and acoustic nerve are predicted. However all these results require the realization of independent repeated researches. WHO (World Health Organization) recommends to use "Precautionary principle" with the purposes of decreasing of the risk. Russian National Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection recommended to limit the use of CP by children and teenagers under 16 years old (2002, February 2004). The corresponding recommendations were included into SunPin H2.1.8/2.2.4.1190-03/(2003).

  5. Urgent Abdominal Re-Explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peskersoy Mustafa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of a number of complications that occur after abdominal surgeries may require that Urgent Abdominal Re-explorations (UARs, the life-saving and obligatory operations, are performed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reasons for performing UARs, outcomes of relaparotomies (RLs and factors that affect mortality. Methods Demographic characteristics; initial diagnoses; information from and complications of the first surgery received; durations and outcomes of UAR(s performed in patients who received early RLs because of complicated abdominal surgeries in our clinic between 01.01.2000 and 31.12.2004 were investigated retrospectively. Statistical analyses were done using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results Early UAR was performed in 81 out of 4410 cases (1.8%. Average patient age was 50.46 (13–81 years with a male-to-female ratio of 60/21. Fifty one (62.96% patients had infection, 41 (50.61% of them had an accompanying serious disease, 24 (29.62% of them had various tumors and 57 (70.37% patients were operated under emergency conditions during first operation. Causes of urgent abdominal re-explorations were as follows: leakage from intestinal repair site or from anostomosis (n:34; 41.97%; hemorrhage (n:15; 18.51%; intestinal perforation (n:8; 9.87%; intraabdominal infection or abscess (n:8; 9.87%; progressive intestinal necrosis (n:7; 8.64%; stomal complications (n:5; 6.17%; and postoperative ileus (n:4; 4.93%. Two or more UARs were performed in 18 (22.22% cases, and overall mortality was 34.97% (n:30. Interval between the first laparotomy and UAR averaged as 6.95 (1–20 days, and average hospitalization period was 27.1 (3–78 days. Mortality rate was found to be higher among the patients who received multiple UARs. The most common (55.5% cause of mortality was sepsis/multiple organ failure (MOF. The rates for common mortality and sepsis/MOF-dependent mortality that occured following UAR were

  6. Attention is required for maintenance of feature binding in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokaei, Nahid; Heider, Maike; Husain, Masud

    2014-01-01

    Working memory and attention are intimately connected. However, understanding the relationship between the two is challenging. Currently, there is an important controversy about whether objects in working memory are maintained automatically or require resources that are also deployed for visual or auditory attention. Here we investigated the effects of loading attention resources on precision of visual working memory, specifically on correct maintenance of feature-bound objects, using a dual-task paradigm. Participants were presented with a memory array and were asked to remember either direction of motion of random dot kinematograms of different colour, or orientation of coloured bars. During the maintenance period, they performed a secondary visual or auditory task, with varying levels of load. Following a retention period, they adjusted a coloured probe to match either the motion direction or orientation of stimuli with the same colour in the memory array. This allowed us to examine the effects of an attention-demanding task performed during maintenance on precision of recall on the concurrent working memory task. Systematic increase in attention load during maintenance resulted in a significant decrease in overall working memory performance. Changes in overall performance were specifically accompanied by an increase in feature misbinding errors: erroneous reporting of nontarget motion or orientation. Thus in trials where attention resources were taxed, participants were more likely to respond with nontarget values rather than simply making random responses. Our findings suggest that resources used during attention-demanding visual or auditory tasks also contribute to maintaining feature-bound representations in visual working memory-but not necessarily other aspects of working memory.

  7. Urgent peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis catheter dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Charmaine E

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, there is a steady incident rate of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who require renal replacement therapy. Of these patients, approximately one-third have an "unplanned" or "urgent" start to dialysis. This can be a very challenging situation where patients have either not had adequate time for education and decision making regarding dialysis modality and appropriate dialysis access, or a decision was made and plans were altered due to unforeseen circumstances. Despite such unplanned starts, clinicians must still consider the patient's ESKD "life-plan", which includes the best initial dialysis modality and access to suit the patient's individual goals and their medical, social, logistic, and facility circumstances. This paper will discuss the considerations of peritoneal dialysis and a peritoneal dialysis catheter access and hemodialysis and central venous catheter access in patients who require an urgent start to dialysis.

  8. A Focus Urgent Attention Is Needed: Ideal and Belief Expression of Party Members and Cadres%一个亟需关注的研究重点:党员干部理想信念表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延超

    2012-01-01

    坚定党员干部的理想信念,需要高度关注其对"共产主义理想和中国特色社会主义信念"的语言和行为表达。开展党员干部理想信念表达研究,引导党员干部切实有效地用科学合理的语言和真实行为表达理想信念,不仅是党员干部适应形势发展切实履行岗位职责和确保健康成长的内在需求,而且也顺应了时代要求和公众期待,对于增强党的执政能力,提高党的建设科学化水平,推进党的意识形态建设和社会主义精神文明建设,具有重要意义。%Firm ideals and beliefs of party members and cadres need to be highly concerned about language and behavioral expression of the communist ideals and beliefs of socialism with Chinese characteristics. To carry out the ideal and belief expression studies, guide the party members and cadres use scientific language and behavior to express ideal and belief, is not only adapt to the development of the situation effectively, but also conforms to the requirements of the times and the public expect. It has great significance for increasing the party's ability to improve the scientific level of party building, and promote the party's ideology construction and socialist spiritual civilization.

  9. Virtual environment to quantify the influence of colour stimuli on the performance of tasks requiring attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frère Annie F

    2011-08-01

    where tasks, that require attention, were most affected. Conclusions The game proved to be a user-friendly tool capable to detect and quantify the influence of color on the performance of people executing tasks that require attention and showed to be attractive for people with ADHD.

  10. Enhancing perceptual and attentional skills requires common demands between the action video games and transfer tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that shows action video game play improves perceptual and cognitive skills, the mechanisms of transfer are not well-understood. In line with previous work, we suggest that transfer is dependent upon common demands between the game and transfer task. In the current study, participants played one of four action games with varying speed, visual, and attentional demands for 20 h. We examined whether training enhanced performance for attentional blink, selective attention, attending to multiple items, visual search and auditory detection. Non-gamers who played the game (Modern Combat) with the highest demands showed transfer to tasks of attentional blink and attending to multiple items. The game (MGS Touch) with fewer attentional demands also decreased attentional blink, but to a lesser degree. Other games failed to show transfer, despite having many action game characteristics but at a reduced intensity. The results support the common demands hypothesis.

  11. Heart failure in the elderly- some aspects in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy that require special attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernst R. Schwarz

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of all heart failure patients in the US are above 75 years of age, which is almost similar to most European countries and the Middle and the Far East. Even though aging is an independent molecular process with a multitude of genetic predetermination and biochemical mediations, aging itself does not automatically result in cardiac insufficiency. On the other hand, with increasing age, cardioprotective mechanisms in response to stress are lost, and progressive cardiomyocyte degeneration with replacement fibrosis is often seen in older hearts, even though the exact triggers are not completely understood. Older patients with heart failure have distinct features that require special attention in diagnosis as well as therapy. The elderly more frequently suffer from multiple co-morbidities and might have atypical clinical presentations. Several precautions are essential in the treatment of heart failure in the elderly due to co-existing morbidities and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes related to increased age. Also, treatment expectations, compliance, mental status and cognitive function might play a major role regarding optimized treatment and monitoring options in the elderly suffering from heart failure. This review summarizes current issues of heart failure management in the elderly.

  12. URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGAD 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European EmergencyCall 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors will...

  13. Object integration requires attention: Visual search for Kanizsa figures in parietal extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögler, Nadine; Finke, Kathrin; Keller, Ingo; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of selective attention to object integration is a topic of debate: integration of parts into coherent wholes, such as in Kanizsa figures, is thought to arise either from pre-attentive, automatic coding processes or from higher-order processes involving selective attention. Previous studies have attempted to examine the role of selective attention in object integration either by employing visual search paradigms or by studying patients with unilateral deficits in selective attention. Here, we combined these two approaches to investigate object integration in visual search in a group of five patients with left-sided parietal extinction. Our search paradigm was designed to assess the effect of left- and right-grouped nontargets on detecting a Kanizsa target square. The results revealed comparable reaction time (RT) performance in patients and controls when they were presented with displays consisting of a single to-be-grouped item that had to be classified as target vs. nontarget. However, when display size increased to two items, patients showed an extinction-specific pattern of enhanced RT costs for nontargets that induced a partial shape grouping on the right, i.e., in the attended hemifield (relative to the ungrouped baseline). Together, these findings demonstrate a competitive advantage for right-grouped objects, which in turn indicates that in parietal extinction, attentional competition between objects particularly limits integration processes in the contralesional, i.e., left hemifield. These findings imply a crucial contribution of selective attentional resources to visual object integration.

  14. Magnesium deficiency in plants: An urgent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although magnesium (Mg is one of the most important nutrients, involved in many enzyme activities and the structural stabilization of tissues, its importance as a macronutrient ion has been overlooked in recent decades by botanists and agriculturists, who did not regard Mg deficiency (MGD in plants as a severe health problem. However, recent studies have shown, surprisingly, that Mg contents in historical cereal seeds have markedly declined over time, and two thirds of people surveyed in developed countries received less than their minimum daily Mg requirement. Thus, the mechanisms of response to MGD and ways to increase Mg contents in plants are two urgent practical problems. In this review, we discuss several aspects of MGD in plants, including phenotypic and physiological changes, cell Mg2 + homeostasis control by Mg2 + transporters, MGD signaling, interactions between Mg2 + and other ions, and roles of Mg2 + in plant secondary metabolism. Our aim is to improve understanding of the influence of MGD on plant growth and development and to advance crop breeding for Mg enrichment.

  15. Urgent Care: the evolution of a revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Lee A

    2013-10-23

    The rapid and global growth of urgent care centers has had a revolutionary, though poorly understood, impact on the health care delivery system. The consumer-driven care model inherent in urgent care and other so-called convenience care models is permeating into more conventional health care models. In addition, physician and hospital payment models are evolving, especially in the United States and are creating new market forces that will impact the organization and importance of integrated health care networks in the future. Together, these transformative changes are creating evolutionary pressures on traditional urgent care. Lessons learned from both the Israeli and American experience can be especially helpful for drafting a successful urgent care model for the future. This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/2/1/38/.

  16. Contractor Support on the Battlefield -- Increased Reliance Requires Commander’s Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-16

    252.222-7002 requires contractors to comply with local labor laws and regulations on issues such as working hours, collective bargaining agreements...Enforces Labor Law in Iraq”, Los Angeles Times, 26 April 2006, <http://ebird.afis/mil/ebfiles/e20060426431301.html>, [27 April 2006]. 31 McCullough

  17. Risk factors for hypotension in urgently intubated burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Christopher J; Chung, Kevin K; Holland, Seth R; Yoon, Brian S; Milligan, Daun J; Nitzschke, Stephanie L; Maani, Christopher V; Hansen, Jacob J; Aden, James K; Renz, Evan M

    2012-12-01

    When urgently intubating patient in the burn intensive care unit (BICU), various induction agents, including propofol, are utilized that may induce hemodynamic instability. A retrospective review was performed of consecutive critically ill burn patients who underwent urgent endotracheal intubation in BICU. Basic burn-related demographic data, indication for intubation, and induction agents utilized were recorded. The primary outcomes of interest were clinically significant hypotension requiring immediate fluid resuscitation, initiation or escalation of vasopressors immediately after intubation. Secondary outcomes included ventilator days, stay length, and in-hospital mortality. Between January 2003 and August 2010, we identified 279 urgent intubations in 204 patients. Of these, the criteria for presumed sepsis were met in 60% (n=168) of the intubations. After intubation, 117 patients (42%) experienced clinically significant hypotension. Propofol (51%) was the most commonly utilized induction agent followed by etomidate (23%), ketamine (15%), and midazolam (11%). On multiple logistic regression, %TBSA (OR 1.016, 95% CI 1.004-1.027, ppredictors of hypotension. None of the induction agents, including propofol, were significantly associated with hypotension in patients with or without presumed sepsis. In critically ill burn patients undergoing urgent endotracheal intubation, specific induction agents, including propofol, were not associated with clinically significant hypotension. Presumed sepsis and %TBSA were the most important risk factors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Transient ischemic attacks - Definition, risk prediction and urgent management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylaja P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the risk of stroke in first few months after transient ischemic attack is higher than that was previously realized. There are clinical and imaging predictors which help in risk stratifying the patients to identify the high risk group who need immediate hospitalization and urgent evaluation. Recent advances in neuroimaging have revolutionized the evaluation of these patients. Further research is required in the deciding on the optimal treatment of these patients in the acute phase.

  19. Urgent discectomy: Clinical features and neurological outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Albert

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Motor deficits, sensory deficits, and cauda equina dysfunction were significantly improved immediately after urgent surgery. After 6 weeks, motor and sensory deficits were also significantly improved compared to the neurological status at discharge. Thus, we advocate immediate surgery of disc herniation in patients with acute onset of motor deficits, perineal numbness, or bladder or bowel dysfunction indicative of cauda equina syndrome.

  20. Emotional Intelligence: Requiring Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tudor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the need for emotional intelligence. Two methods of measurementare presented in this research, in order to better understand the necessity of a correct result. Theresults of research can lead to recommendations for improving levels of emotional intelligence andare useful for obtaining data to better compare past and present result. The papers presented inthis research are significant for future study of this subject. The first paper presents the evolutionof emotional intelligence in the past two years, more specifically its decrease concerning certaincharacteristics. The second one presents a research on the differences between generations. Thethird one shows a difference in emotional intelligence levels of children from rural versus urbanenvironments and the obstacles that they encounter in their own development.

  1. IG Statement: Arthur A. Elkins, Jr., on OIG report Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in Landover, Maryland, Requires Immediate EPA Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statement of Inspector General Arthur A. Elkins, Jr., on the Office of Inspector General (OIG) report Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in Landover, Maryland, Requires Immediate EPA Attention.

  2. Severe hypercortisolism : A medical emergency requiring urgent intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgers, Helen L.; Vergragt, Joris; Dong, Phi-Vu; de Vries, Jakob; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Ligtenberg, Jack J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To illustrate the importance of recognizing symptoms of severe hypercortisolism in the intensive care unit and key emergency measures to reduce this extreme hypercortisolism. Design: Case report. Setting: Intensive care unit in a university hospital. Patient: A 55-yr-old woman was admitt

  3. Perceived quality in urgent transport sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE ANTONIO MARTÍNEZ GARCÍA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This research has focused on the customer evaluation of perceived quality in the urgent transport service in Spain. Using different statistical procedures, such as ordinal regression, between-groups comparison or multilevel modeling, this study shows how the perceived service quality of the public company «Correos» is lower than several of the main competitors: Seur, MRW and Nacex. Despite the investment achieved by this public institution in order to improve service quality, these efforts have not been reflected in the customer evaluation, at least to the same extent as competitors. Several recommendations for further research are discussed in the final part of the study.

  4. Path from Urgent Operational Need to Program of Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Manage the realm of “what’s possible?”Manage the realm of “what’s available?” Raw prototypes Expeditionary Labs Products Mature Prototypes The Rapid...RDECOM • COCOM(s) • Operational Army • Gap analysis • MACOM(s) • TRADOC In use in a theater Operationally Mature Screen Candidate List Categorize and...required in accor- dance with 10 United States Code § 2366a and § 2366b. Affordability assessments are usually not applicable to urgent need solutions

  5. Quantitative comparisons of urgent care service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong; Prybutok, Gayle L; Prybutok, Victor R; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop, validate, and use a survey instrument to measure and compare the perceived quality of three types of US urgent care (UC) service providers: hospital emergency rooms, urgent care centres (UCC), and primary care physician offices. This study develops, validates, and uses a survey instrument to measure/compare differences in perceived service quality among three types of UC service providers. Six dimensions measured the components of service quality: tangibles, professionalism, interaction, accessibility, efficiency, and technical quality. Primary care physicians' offices scored higher for service quality and perceived value, followed by UCC. Hospital emergency rooms scored lower in both quality and perceived value. No significant difference was identified between UCC and primary care physicians across all the perspectives, except for interactions. The homogenous nature of the sample population (college students), and the fact that the respondents were recruited from a single university limits the generalizability of the findings. The patient's choice of a health care provider influences not only the continuity of the care that he or she receives, but compliance with a medical regime, and the evolution of the health care landscape. This work contributes to the understanding of how to provide cost effective and efficient UC services. This study developed and validated a survey instrument to measure/compare six dimensions of service quality for three types of UC service providers. The authors provide valuable data for UC service providers seeking to improve patient perceptions of service quality.

  6. [Vestibular neuronitis in a teenager with sickle cell disease. Treatment is urgent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runel-Belliard, C; Lesprit, E; Quinet, B; Wiener-Vacher, S; Saizou, C; Grimprel, E

    2008-09-01

    Vestibular syndrome is not frequently described in patients with sickle cell disease. We report the case of a teenager with sickle cell disease who had a vestibular syndrome with vertigo that successfully responded to exchange transfusion. We discuss guidelines and review the literature in view of this case report. Sensorineural disorders should be considered as stroke syndromes. They require urgent treatment consisting of exchange transfusion or maintaining optimal hydration associated with blood withdrawal. Treatment of vestibular syndrome in sickle cell disease is urgent.

  7. 42 CFR 405.440 - Emergency and urgent care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency and urgent care services. 405.440 Section... Emergency and urgent care services. (a) A physician or practitioner who has opted-out of Medicare under this subpart need not enter into a private contract to furnish emergency care services or urgent care...

  8. IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  9. Self-rated social skills predict visual perception: impairments in object discrimination requiring transient attention associated with high autistic tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Robin; Cross, Alana Jade; Dalle Nogare, Felicity; Crewther, Sheila Gillard

    2014-02-01

    Autism is usually defined by impairments in the social domain but has also been linked to deficient dorsal visual stream processing. However, inconsistent findings make the nature of this relationship unclear and thus, we examined the role of stimulus-driven transient attention, presumably activated by the dorsal stream in autistic tendency. Contrast thresholds for object discrimination were compared between groups with high and low self-rated autistic tendency utilizing the socially based Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Visual stimuli were presented with either abrupt or with ramped contrast onsets/offsets in order to manipulate the demands of transient attention. Larger impairments in performance of abrupt compared with ramped object presentation were established in the high AQ group. Furthermore, self-reported social skills predicted abrupt task performance, suggesting an important visual perception deficiency in autism-related traits. Autism spectrum disorder may be associated with reduced utilization of the dorsal stream to rapidly activate attention prior to ventral stream processing when stimuli are transient. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    In these years digital media and wireless networks are introduced in upper secondary schools in Denmark. This implies new “attentional objects” like updates on Facebook or tweets on Twitter within instant reach of the pupils and teachers. Also it implies new kinds of attention (awareness) like when...... pupils try to listen to the teacher and simultaneously participate in online games. To this new social setting the teachers has reacted with either prohibition or unconcern. What has not been realised is that the introduction of new media profoundly challenges the way attention hitherto has functioned...... as a psychic prerequisite for the social interaction between pupils and teachers. New kinds of “split attention” arise and new kinds of social mediation (regulation and “use”) of psychic attention become necessary if teaching in the new digital medium milieu shall be beneficial. In this paper we qualify...

  11. Novel nasogastric tube-related criteria for urgent endoscopy in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Shimura, Takaya; Yamada, Tomonori; Aoki, Miho; Nomura, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Atsunori; Kanie, Hiroshi; Ban, Tesshin; Hayashi, Katsumi; Joh, Takashi; Orito, Etsuro

    2013-09-01

    Patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require urgent endoscopy, but appropriate criteria for urgent endoscopy in these patients have not yet been established. The goal of this study is to establish a simple system for the selection of UGIB patients who may benefit from urgent endoscopy. Of the 335 patients who required emergency hospitalization for UGIB from May 2010 to March 2012 at Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, 166 patients who underwent placement of a nasogastric tube (NGT) were retrospectively identified. Active bleeding on the endoscopic image was used as an endpoint that reflected the need for urgent endoscopy. The ratio of the heart rate to the systolic blood pressure (HR/SBP ratio) and aspiration of fresh or dark red fluid from the NGT [NGT(+)] were significant predictors of active bleeding in the univariate analysis [HR/SBP ratio, P=0.016; NGT(+), Pbleeding in the multivariate analysis. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a setting with HR/SBP ratio>1.4 or NGT(+) to be optimal criteria to predict active bleeding. These criteria were associated with a sensitivity of 64.9% (24/37) and a specificity of 76.7% (99/129) for the prediction of active bleeding; consequently, they are superior to the sensitivity and specificity of previously proposed criteria. A novel and simple criteria system using NGT(+) and HR/SBP is a good predictor of the need for urgent endoscopy in patients with nonvariceal UGIB.

  12. Workforce planning for urgent care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, Janet

    2015-07-01

    Due to major changes in how emergency care is delivered across different communities, one emergency department is no longer like another. Some have separate minor injury provision, some are general departments that cater for all types of patient, while others are designated major trauma centres. These differences in patient profile affect the required numbers and skill mix of nursing establishments so that the nursing workforce in each cannot be predicated on patient numbers alone. This article describes the development by the RCN Emergency Care Association of an evidence-based staffing tool and how it can be used in practice.

  13. [Venous thromboembolism: an urgent call for action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo, José A; Lecumberri, Ramón

    2009-10-17

    Thousands of individuals suffer from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) all over the world, and many will die from its main complication, pulmonary embolism (PE). An important problem is that the diagnose is easy to overlook because the signs and symptoms are often difficult to recognize. Why do DVT and PE remain such a serious problem, particularly given the availability of effective strategies for preventing and treating them? The answer lays primarily in the failure to consistently use evidence-based interventions in high-risk individuals and in the lack of adherence to the different prophylactic interventions. In order to impact the incidence and burden of DVT/PE and increase public awareness, implementation of electronic alerts and evidence-based approaches, and scientific translational research are required. The commitment of all levels of governments as well as public and private institutions will be crucial to reduce the incidence of DVT, a leading cause of death.

  14. Urgent resection of bleeding congenital mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieda, Jan-Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case with prenatally diagnosed large cystic-solid mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma. An attempt of conservative management was made however repeated intralesional hemorrhage led to enlargement and severe anemia which required urgent resection at the age of 8 weeks. The infant had an unimpaired development over a follow-up of 4 years.

  15. Urgent resection of bleeding congenital mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Jan-Christoph; Tröbs, Ralf-Bodo; Roll, Claudia; Wunsch, Rainer; Neid, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We report a case with prenatally diagnosed large cystic-solid mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma. An attempt of conservative management was made however repeated intralesional hemorrhage led to enlargement and severe anemia which required urgent resection at the age of 8 weeks. The infant had an unimpaired development over a follow-up of 4 years.

  16. Planning and scheduling of semi-urgent surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderland, Maartje E; Boucherie, Richard J; Litvak, Nelly; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M

    2010-09-01

    This paper investigates the trade-off between cancellations of elective surgeries due to semi-urgent surgeries, and unused operating room (OR) time due to excessive reservation of OR time for semi-urgent surgeries. Semi-urgent surgeries, to be performed soon but not necessarily today, pose an uncertain demand on available hospital resources, and interfere with the planning of elective patients. For a highly utilized OR, reservation of OR time for semi-urgent surgeries avoids excessive cancellations of elective surgeries, but may also result in unused OR time, since arrivals of semi-urgent patients are unpredictable. First, using a queuing theory framework, we evaluate the OR capacity needed to accommodate every incoming semi-urgent surgery. Second, we introduce another queuing model that enables a trade-off between the cancelation rate of elective surgeries and unused OR time. Third, based on Markov decision theory, we develop a decision support tool that assists the scheduling process of elective and semi-urgent surgeries. We demonstrate our results with actual data obtained from a department of neurosurgery.

  17. A Multimeasurand ISO GUM Supplement is Urgent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Ezhela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical overview of the current doubtful practice on presentation of correlated data in the physics literature and in the scientific and technological databases is presented. The simple rules to calculate the rounding thresholds to preserve the positive definiteness of the covariance and correlation matrices as well as the rounding thresholds for the components of the mean vector to keep them inside the "non-rounded" scatter region are formulated. Evidence that in the multivariate case there are severe limitations on the applicability of the linear differential law of uncertainty propagation is presented. The explicit relation of the number of input random variables I, the number of output variables D, and the order T of Taylor polynomials sufficient to preserve the self-consistent numerical presentation of the mean value of the vector function and its covariance matrix under nonlinear differential propagation procedure is obtained. It is stressed that the rounding thresholds for the safe rounding of correlated data impose the severe requirements on the storage and exchange formats of the correlated data that could not be met in the traditional publications on the paper but could be realized in the electronic media.

  18. Quantitative comparison of measurements of urgent care service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong; Prybutok, Victor; Prybutok, Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Service quality and patient satisfaction are essential to health care organization success. Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry introduced SERVQUAL, a prominent service quality measure not yet applied to urgent care. We develop an instrument to measure perceived service quality and identify the determinants of patient satisfaction/ behavioral intentions. We examine the relationships among perceived service quality, patient satisfaction and behavioral intentions, and demonstrate that urgent care service quality is not equivalent using measures of perceptions only, differences of expectations minus perceptions, ratio of perceptions to expectations, and the log of the ratio. Perceptions provide the best measure of urgent care service quality.

  19. Magnesium deficiency in plants:An urgent problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanli Guo; Hussain Nazim; Zongsuo Liang; Dongfeng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Although magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important nutrients, involved in many enzyme activities and the structural stabilization of tissues, its importance as a macronutrient ion has been overlooked in recent decades by botanists and agriculturists, who did not regard Mg deficiency (MGD) in plants as a severe health problem. However, recent studies have shown, surprisingly, that Mg contents in historical cereal seeds have markedly declined over time, and two thirds of people surveyed in developed countries received less than their minimum daily Mg requirement. Thus, the mechanisms of response to MGD and ways to increase Mg contents in plants are two urgent practical problems. In this review, we discuss several aspects of MGD in plants, including phenotypic and physiological changes, cell Mg2+homeostasis control by Mg2+transporters, MGD signaling, interactions between Mg2+and other ions, and roles of Mg2+in plant secondary metabolism. Our aim is to improve understanding of the influence of MGD on plant growth and development and to advance crop breeding for Mg enrichment.

  20. Magnesium deficiency in plants:An urgent problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanli Guo; Hussain Nazim; Zongsuo Liang; Dongfeng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Although magnesium(Mg) is one of the most important nutrients, involved in many enzyme activities and the structural stabilization of tissues, its importance as a macronutrient ion has been overlooked in recent decades by botanists and agriculturists, who did not regard Mg deficiency(MGD) in plants as a severe health problem. However, recent studies have shown,surprisingly, that Mg contents in historical cereal seeds have markedly declined over time, and two thirds of people surveyed in developed countries received less than their minimum daily Mg requirement. Thus, the mechanisms of response to MGD and ways to increase Mg contents in plants are two urgent practical problems. In this review, we discuss several aspects of MGD in plants, including phenotypic and physiological changes, cell Mg2+homeostasis control by Mg2+transporters, MGD signaling, interactions between Mg2+and other ions, and roles of Mg2+in plant secondary metabolism. Our aim is to improve understanding of the influence of MGD on plant growth and development and to advance crop breeding for Mg enrichment.

  1. Urgent Care Transfers to an Academic Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jennifer L; Clingenpeel, Joel M; Perkins, Amy M; Eason, Margaret K

    2017-10-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that a significant percentage of urgent care center to pediatric ED transfers can be discharged home without emergency department (ED) resource utilization. A retrospective chart review was completed for a 6-month period on all patients transferred from urgent care centers. A data collection tool focusing on demographics, diagnoses, reason for transfer, ED resource utilization, ED disposition, and 72-hour ED return was used. Each encounter was classified as "urgent" or "nonurgent" based on resource utilization criteria. Descriptive statistics were reported for demographics, encounter data, and 72-hour ED return stratified by nonurgent versus urgent classification. Two-sample t, χ, and Fisher exact tests were used to assess differences in characteristics between the nonurgent and urgent groups. One hundred nine patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 93 (85%) were discharged from the ED. Twenty nine (27%) of the transferred patients were discharged without ED resource utilization. Seventy-two-hour return was noted for only 1 patient who was again discharged at the subsequent encounter. A large proportion of patients transferred from urgent care centers were directly discharged from the ED without any ED resource utilization. Eliminating or reducing such transfers has the potential to limit the amount of nonurgent ED visits, thus producing cost savings and better patient care.

  2. Identifying the computational requirements of an integrated top-down-bottom-up model for overt visual attention within an active vision system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian McBride

    Full Text Available Computational visual attention systems have been constructed in order for robots and other devices to detect and locate regions of interest in their visual world. Such systems often attempt to take account of what is known of the human visual system and employ concepts, such as 'active vision', to gain various perceived advantages. However, despite the potential for gaining insights from such experiments, the computational requirements for visual attention processing are often not clearly presented from a biological perspective. This was the primary objective of this study, attained through two specific phases of investigation: 1 conceptual modeling of a top-down-bottom-up framework through critical analysis of the psychophysical and neurophysiological literature, 2 implementation and validation of the model into robotic hardware (as a representative of an active vision system. Seven computational requirements were identified: 1 transformation of retinotopic to egocentric mappings, 2 spatial memory for the purposes of medium-term inhibition of return, 3 synchronization of 'where' and 'what' information from the two visual streams, 4 convergence of top-down and bottom-up information to a centralized point of information processing, 5 a threshold function to elicit saccade action, 6 a function to represent task relevance as a ratio of excitation and inhibition, and 7 derivation of excitation and inhibition values from object-associated feature classes. The model provides further insight into the nature of data representation and transfer between brain regions associated with the vertebrate 'active' visual attention system. In particular, the model lends strong support to the functional role of the lateral intraparietal region of the brain as a primary area of information consolidation that directs putative action through the use of a 'priority map'.

  3. Identifying the computational requirements of an integrated top-down-bottom-up model for overt visual attention within an active vision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sebastian; Huelse, Martin; Lee, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Computational visual attention systems have been constructed in order for robots and other devices to detect and locate regions of interest in their visual world. Such systems often attempt to take account of what is known of the human visual system and employ concepts, such as 'active vision', to gain various perceived advantages. However, despite the potential for gaining insights from such experiments, the computational requirements for visual attention processing are often not clearly presented from a biological perspective. This was the primary objective of this study, attained through two specific phases of investigation: 1) conceptual modeling of a top-down-bottom-up framework through critical analysis of the psychophysical and neurophysiological literature, 2) implementation and validation of the model into robotic hardware (as a representative of an active vision system). Seven computational requirements were identified: 1) transformation of retinotopic to egocentric mappings, 2) spatial memory for the purposes of medium-term inhibition of return, 3) synchronization of 'where' and 'what' information from the two visual streams, 4) convergence of top-down and bottom-up information to a centralized point of information processing, 5) a threshold function to elicit saccade action, 6) a function to represent task relevance as a ratio of excitation and inhibition, and 7) derivation of excitation and inhibition values from object-associated feature classes. The model provides further insight into the nature of data representation and transfer between brain regions associated with the vertebrate 'active' visual attention system. In particular, the model lends strong support to the functional role of the lateral intraparietal region of the brain as a primary area of information consolidation that directs putative action through the use of a 'priority map'.

  4. Success of Urgent-Start Peritoneal Dialysis in a Large Canadian Renal Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkatheeri, Ali M A; Blake, Peter G; Gray, Daryl; Jain, Arsh K

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Many patients start renal replacement therapy urgently on in-center hemodialysis via a central venous catheter, which is considered suboptimal. An alternative approach to manage these patients is to start them on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this report, we describe the first reported Canadian experience with an urgent-start PD program. Additionally we reviewed the literature in this area. ♦ In this prospective observational study, we report on our experience in a single academic center. This program started in July 2010. We included patients who initiated PD urgently, that is within 2 weeks of catheter insertion. We followed all incident PD patients until October 2013 for mechanical and infectious complications. Peritoneal dialysis catheters were inserted either percutaneously or laparoscopically and dialysis was initiated in either an inpatient or outpatient setting. ♦ Thirty patients were started on urgent PD during our study period. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 1,050 days. Twenty insertions (66.7%) were done percutaneously and 10 (33.3%) were laparoscopic. Dialysis was initiated within 2 weeks (range: 0-13 days, median = 6 days). Twenty-four patients (80%) started PD in an outpatient setting and 6 patients (20%) required immediate inpatient PD start. Three patients (10%) developed a minor peri-catheter leak during the first week of training that was managed conservatively. There were no episodes of peritonitis or exit-site/tunnel infection during the first 4 weeks post-insertion. Four patients (13.3%) from the percutaneous insertion group and 2 patients (6.7%) from laparoscopic insertions developed catheter dysfunction due to migration, which was managed by repositioning, without need for catheter replacement or modality switch. ♦ Our results are consistent with other studies in this area and demonstrate that urgent-start PD is an acceptable and safe alternative to hemodialysis in patients who need to start dialysis urgently without established

  5. Being a non-urgent patient in an emergency care unit--a strive to maintain personal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Maria; Nydén, Kristoffer; Petersson, Martin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and describe experiences of being a non-urgent patient in an ECU (emergency care unit). Eleven non-urgent patients were interviewed. The research approach was inductive and interpretative. Seven tentative interpretations and an interpreted whole, i.e., an existential interpretation, revealed that the informants tried to be 'good' patients by not demanding much attention from nursing personnel, in an attempt to maintain good relations with the nurses in order to be assured of a positive reception. As health related problems jeopardize personal integrity, patients cannot afford the risk of being looked upon as inappropriate clients in the ECU.

  6. Access and care issues in urban urgent care clinic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Jill C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although primary care should be the cornerstone of medical practice, inappropriate use of urgent care for non-urgent patients is a growing problem that has significant economic and healthcare consequences. The characteristics of patients who choose the urgent care setting, as well as the reasoning behind their decisions, is not well established. The purpose of this study was to determine the motivation behind, and characteristics of, adult patients who choose to access health care in our urgent care clinic. The relevance of understanding the motivation driving this patient population is especially pertinent given recent trends towards universal healthcare and the unclear impact it may have on the demands of urgent care. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of patients seeking care at an urgent care clinic (UCC within a large acute care safety-net urban hospital over a six-week period. Survey data included demographics, social and economic information, reasons that patients chose a UCC, previous primary care exposure, reasons for delaying care, and preventive care needs. Results A total of 1, 006 patients were randomly surveyed. Twenty-five percent of patients identified Spanish as their preferred language. Fifty-four percent of patients reported choosing the UCC due to not having to make an appointment, 51.2% because it was convenient, 43.9% because of same day test results, 42.7% because of ability to get same-day medications and 15.1% because co-payment was not mandatory. Lack of a regular physician was reported by 67.9% of patients and 57.2% lacked a regular source of care. Patients reported delaying access to care for a variety of reasons. Conclusion Despite a common belief that patients seek care in the urgent care setting primarily for economic reasons, this study suggests that patients choose the urgent care setting based largely on convenience and more timely care. This information is especially applicable to

  7. HESS Opinions "Urgent water challenges are not sufficiently researched"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Darvis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this opinion paper we submit that water experts conduct comparatively little research on the more urgent challenges facing the global community. Five specific biases are identified. First, research in the field of water and sanitation is heavily biased against sanitation. Second, research on food security is biased in favour of conventional irrigation and fails to address the problems and opportunities of rainfed agriculture. Third, insufficient water research is dedicated to developmental compared to environmental issues. Fourth, too little research is conducted on adaptation to climate change by developing countries. And finally, research on water governance has a fascination for conflict but too little eye for cooperation and meeting basic needs. This paper illustrates these biases with bibliometric indicators extracted from the ISI Web of Science. There is a stark mismatch between the global demand for knowledge and the supply of it. This mismatch is identified here as a problem that we water scientists must confront and resolve. We still lack a full understanding why this divergence between demand and supply occurs and persists; an understanding that is required to guide us towards aligning our research priorities to societal demands. The paper, however, makes some inferences. On the one hand, we should promote the global South to create its own research biases and allow it to develop alternative solutions. Simultaneously we would benefit from critical examination of our own research practice. Although this paper addresses a critical challenge it does not aim to be exhaustive or definitive. We merely identify the persistence of intransigent water problems as a valid research object in itself.

  8. HESS Opinions "Urgent water challenges are not sufficiently researched"

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag, P.; Gupta, J.; Darvis, L. P.

    2009-06-01

    In this opinion paper we submit that water experts conduct comparatively little research on the more urgent challenges facing the global community. Five specific biases are identified. First, research in the field of water and sanitation is heavily biased against sanitation. Second, research on food security is biased in favour of conventional irrigation and fails to address the problems and opportunities of rainfed agriculture. Third, insufficient water research is dedicated to developmental compared to environmental issues. Fourth, too little research is conducted on adaptation to climate change by developing countries. And finally, research on water governance has a fascination for conflict but too little eye for cooperation and meeting basic needs. This paper illustrates these biases with bibliometric indicators extracted from the ISI Web of Science. There is a stark mismatch between the global demand for knowledge and the supply of it. This mismatch is identified here as a problem that we water scientists must confront and resolve. We still lack a full understanding why this divergence between demand and supply occurs and persists; an understanding that is required to guide us towards aligning our research priorities to societal demands. The paper, however, makes some inferences. On the one hand, we should promote the global South to create its own research biases and allow it to develop alternative solutions. Simultaneously we would benefit from critical examination of our own research practice. Although this paper addresses a critical challenge it does not aim to be exhaustive or definitive. We merely identify the persistence of intransigent water problems as a valid research object in itself.

  9. Failure of college students to complete an online alcohol education course as a predictor of high-risk drinking that requires medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Gina Baral; Kolligian, John; Mills, Douglas Lane; DeJong, William

    2011-11-01

    AlcoholEdu® for College and other computer-based education programs have been developed to reduce alcohol use and related problems among students. This study investigated whether the failure of incoming first-year students to complete AlcoholEdu predicts future high-risk drinking that requires medical attention. A review of clinical records kept by a single university's health service identified 684 undergraduates (classes of 2007-2011) who had presented for an alcohol event (September 2003 through June 2008). We used survival analysis to determine whether students who partially completed the course or failed to take it were disproportionately represented among student patients who presented with elevated blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Students who failed to take the online course were 4.64 times more likely than those who completed it to experience an alcohol event (p students who had partially completed the course were 1.52 times more likely (p alcohol education and gender were not significantly related to students' measured BAC level. Students who had completed AlcoholEdu were less likely to present for an alcohol event than were students who partially completed or failed to take the course. Campus administrators should consider whether students who fail to complete an online alcohol course should be flagged for more focused interventions (e.g., brief motivational interview, mandatory education classes). This is the first study to show a relationship between first-year college students' non-completion of an online alcohol course and subsequent high-risk drinking that requires medical attention.

  10. Urgent resection of bleeding congenital mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma in an infant

    OpenAIRE

    Bieda, Jan-Christoph; Tröbs, Ralf-Bodo; Roll, Claudia; Wunsch, Rainer; Neid, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We report a case with prenatally diagnosed large cystic-solid mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma. An attempt of conservative management was made however repeated intralesional hemorrhage led to enlargement and severe anemia which required urgent resection at the age of 8 weeks. The infant had an unimpaired development over a follow-up of 4 years. Wir berichten über ein Neugeborenes mit einem bereits pränatal diagnostizierten, ausgedehnten Thoraxwand-Hamartom von zystisch-solider Beschaffen...

  11. Attention Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinger, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Attracting attention is a basic feature of economic life but no standard economic problem. A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes equilibria. The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the potential set of competing companies (senders) with their radiation technologies. The endogenous variables explained by the theory are equilibrium...

  12. Urgent water challenges are not sufficiently researched”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zaag, P.; Gupta, J.; Darvis, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this opinion paper we submit that water experts conduct comparatively little research on the more urgent challenges facing the global community. Five specific biases are identified. First, research in the field of water and sanitation is heavily biased against sanitation. Second, research on food

  13. Do Urgent Caesarean Sections Have a Circadian Rhythm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğru, Serkan; Doğru, Hatice Yılmaz; Karaman, Tuğba; Şahin, Aynur; Tapar, Hakan; Karaman, Serkan; Arıcı, Semih; Özsoy, Asker Zeki; Çakmak, Bülent; İşgüder, Çiğdem Kunt; Delibaş, İlhan Bahri; Karakış, Alkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of the present study was to demonstrate the existence of a possible circadian variation in urgent operative deliveries. Methods All urgent caesarean sections between 1 January 2014 and 1 January 2015 with known exact onset times of operation were included in this retrospective study. Cases that were previously scheduled for elective caesarean section were excluded. Information regarding age, delivery date, onset time of operation and type of anaesthesia was collected from the database. Analyses were completed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 20.0 software. The statistical significance for all analyses was set at p<0.05. Results A total of 285 urgent caesarean section deliveries were included in the study. There were 126 (44.2%) deliveries during the day shift and 159 (55.8%) during the night shift. 80 patients (28.1%) received general anaesthesia and 65 (22.8%) received spinal anaesthesia in the morning shift, whereas 54 patients (18.9%) received general anaesthesia and 86 (30.2%) received spinal anaesthesia during the night shift. Conclusion The present study suggested that urgent caesarean sections revealed a circadian rhythm during the day. PMID:27366574

  14. Cerebral oxygenation monitoring in patients with bilateral carotid stenosis undergoing urgent cardiac surgery: Observational case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincer Aktuerk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with significant bilateral carotid artery stenosis requiring urgent cardiac surgery have an increased risk of stroke and death. The optimal management strategy remains inconclusive, and the available evidence does not support the superiority of one strategy over another. Materials and Methods: A number of noninvasive strategies have been developed for minimizing perioperative stroke including continuous real-time monitoring of cerebral oxygenation with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The number of patients presenting with this combination (bilateral significant carotid stenosis requiring urgent cardiac surgery in any single institution will be small and hence there is a lack of large randomized studies. Results: This case series describes our early experience with NIRS in a select group of patients with significant bilateral carotid stenosis undergoing urgent cardiac surgery (n = 8. In contrast to other studies, this series is a single surgeon, single center study, where the entire surgery (both distal ends and proximal ends was performed during single aortic clamp technique, which effectively removes several confounding variables. NIRS monitoring led to the early recognition of decreased cerebral oxygenation, and corrective steps (increased cardiopulmonary bypass flow, increased pCO 2 , etc., were taken. Conclusion: The study shows good clinical outcome with the use of NIRS. This is our "work in progress," and we aim to conduct a larger study.

  15. Use of Abdominopelvic Computed Tomography in Emergency Departments and Rates of Urgent Diagnoses in Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Caroline; Carey, Kathleen; Mills, Angela M.; Yang, Wei; Synnestvedt, Marie B.; Hilton, Susan; Weiner, Mark G.; Lewis, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims In the United States, the use of abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) by emergency departments for patients with abdominal pain has increased, despite stable admission rates and diagnosis requiring urgent intervention. We proposed that trends would be similar for patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of data from 648 adults with CD who presented at 2 emergency departments (2001–2009; 1572 visits). Trends in APCT use were assessed with Spearman's correlation coefficient. We compared patient characteristics and APCT findings during 2001–2003 and 2007–2009. Results APCT use increased from 2001 (used for 47% of encounters) to 2009 (used for 78% of encounters; P=.005), whereas admission rates were relatively stable, at 68% in 2001 and 71% in 2009 (P=.06). The overall proportion of APCTs with findings of intestinal perforation, obstruction, or abscess was 29.0%; 34.9% of APCTs were associated with urgent diagnoses, including those unrelated to CD. Between 2001–2003 and 2007–2009, the proportions of APCTs that detected intestinal perforation, obstruction, or abscess were similar (30% vs 29%, P=.92), as were the proportions used detecting any diagnosis requiring urgent intervention, including those unrelated to CD (36% vs 34%, P=.91). Conclusions Despite the increased use of APCT by emergency departments for patients with CD, there were no significant change in admission rates between the periods of 2001–2003 and 2007–2009. The proportion of APCTs that detected intestinal perforation, obstruction, abscess, or other urgent conditions not related to CD remained high. PMID:23552763

  16. Cities and Climate Change : Responding to an Urgent Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Hoornweg, Daniel; Freire, Mila; Marcus J. Lee; Bhada-Tata, Perinaz; Yuen, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The 5th urban research symposium on cities and climate change responding to an urgent agenda, held in Marseille in June 2009, sought to highlight how climate change and urbanization are converging to create one of the greatest challenges of our time. Cities consume much of the world's energy, and thus produce much of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. Yet cities, to varying extents, are...

  17. Malnutrition in older adults - urgent need for action: a plea for improving the nutritional situation of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades, malnutrition has attracted increasing scientific attention and is by now regarded as a true geriatric syndrome characterized by multifactorial causality, identified by symptoms and accompanied by frailty, disability and poor outcome. This viewpoint summarizes our present knowledge and the usual current handling of malnutrition in older people and highlights the urgent need for action in this field. Age-related changes in the complex system of appetite regulation, resulting in the so-called anorexia of aging, predispose older adults to a decrease in food intake which may lead to malnutrition, if additional risk factors like health or social problems occur. Consequently, malnutrition is widespread in the older population, notably in those who are institutionalized. Despite the fact that effective interventions are available, prevention and treatment of malnutrition do not currently receive appropriate attention. As an important first step towards better awareness, screening for malnutrition should become a mandatory integral part of the comprehensive geriatric assessment. Furthermore, practical local guidelines should be implemented in all geriatric hospital wards and nursing homes in order to improve nutritional care in the daily routine. Important to note is that reasonable nutritional management is not possible without qualified staff in adequate numbers allowing appropriate individual nutritional care. Regarding future research, studies at the cellular, metabolic and clinical levels and the linking of information from different research approaches are required to better understand the transition from good nutritional health and independence of old people to malnutrition, functional impairment and poor health. In parallel to well-designed observational and intervention studies, standardized documentation of nutritional information in daily routine would enable the uniform collection of data for research as well as for political decisions

  18. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  19. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  20. Staff perceptions on patient motives for attending GP-led urgent care centres in London: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Geva; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Gnani, Shamini; Bucktowonsing, Medhavi; Ladbrooke, Tim; Millington, Hugh; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem

    2016-01-14

    General practitioner (GP)-led urgent care centres were established to meet the growing demand for urgent care. Staff members working in such centres are central in influencing patients' choices about which services they use, but little is known about staff perceptions of patients' motives for attending urgent care. We hence aimed to explore their perceptions of patients' motives for attending such centres. A phenomenological, qualitative study, including semistructured interviews. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. 2 GP-led urgent care centres in 2 academic hospitals in London. 15 staff members working at the centres including 8 GPs, 5 emergency nurse practitioners and 2 receptionists. We identified 4 main themes: 'Confusion about choices', 'As if increase of appetite had grown; By what it fed on', 'Overt reasons, covert motives' and 'A question of legitimacy'. The participants thought that the centres introduce convenient and fast access for patients. So convenient, that an increasing number of patients use them as a regular alternative to their community GP. The participants perceived that patients attend the centres because they are anxious about their symptoms and view them as serious, cannot get an appointment with their GP quickly and conveniently, are dissatisfied with the GP, or lack self-care skills. Staff members perceived some motives as legitimate (an acute health need and difficulties in getting an appointment), and others as less legitimate (convenience, minor illness, and seeking quicker access to hospital facilities). The participants perceived that patients attend urgent care centres because of the convenience of access relative to primary care, as well as sense of acuity and anxiety, lack self-care skills and other reasons. They perceived some motives as more legitimate than others. Attention to unmet needs in primary care can help in promoting balanced access to urgent care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  1. Predictive monitoring for respiratory decompensation leading to urgent unplanned intubation in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew T; Vergales, Brooke D; Paget-Brown, Alix O; Smoot, Terri J; Lake, Douglas E; Hudson, John L; Delos, John B; Kattwinkel, John; Moorman, J Randall

    2013-01-01

    Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and especially those born with very low birth weight (VLBW; endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are associated with increased morbidity, particularly in urgent unplanned cases. We tested the hypothesis that the systemic response associated with respiratory decompensation can be detected from physiological monitoring and that statistical models of bedside monitoring data can identify infants at increased risk of urgent unplanned intubation. We studied 287 VLBW infants consecutively admitted to our NICU and found 96 events in 51 patients, excluding intubations occurring within 12 h of a previous extubation. In order of importance in a multivariable statistical model, we found that the characteristics of reduced O(2) saturation, especially as heart rate was falling; increased heart rate correlation with respiratory rate; and the amount of apnea were all significant independent predictors. The predictive model, validated internally by bootstrap, had a receiver-operating characteristic area of 0.84 ± 0.04. We propose that predictive monitoring in the NICU for urgent unplanned intubation may improve outcomes by allowing clinicians to intervene noninvasively before intubation is required.

  2. Urgent Protection versus Chronic Need: Clarifying the Dual Mandate of Child Welfare Services across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Trocmé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of reported child abuse and neglect (CIS and compared the profile of children who were reported for an urgent protection investigation versus any other investigation or assessment. As a proportion of all investigations, urgent protection cases have dropped from 28% of all investigations in 1998, to 19% in 2003, to 15% in 2008. Results from the CIS-2008 analysis revealed that 7% of cases involved neglect of a child under four, 4% of cases involved sexual abuse, 2% of cases involved physical abuse of a child under four and 1% of cases involved children who had sustained severe enough physical harm that medical treatment was required. The other 85% of cases of investigated maltreatment involved situations where concerns appear to focus less on immediate safety and more on the long-term effects of a range of family related problems. These findings underscore the importance of considering the dual mandate of child welfare mandates across Canada: intervening to assure the urgent protection and safety of the child versus intervening to promote the development and well-being of the child.

  3. Logistics and outcome in urgent and emergency colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elshove-Bolk, J.; Ellensen, V. S.; Baatrup, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Infrastructure-related factors are seldom described in detail in studies on outcome after surgical procedures. We studied patient, procedure, physician and infrastructure characteristics and their effect on outcome at a Norwegian University hospital. Method: All patients admitted between 1st...... January 2002 and 30th June 2003 who underwent urgent or emergency colorectal surgery were extracted from the hospital databases and retrospectively analysed. Results: There were 196 patients. The overall complication rate was 39%. Forty-six (24%) patients died during admission after surgery. Those who...

  4. [Budget impact analysis of idarucizumab for the management of patients treated with dabigatran in emergency / urgent situations in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Belisari

    2016-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Idarucizumab for the management of patients treated with dabigatran in emergency / urgent situations has the potential for substantial savings, compared to treatments currently available. This preliminary assessment will require further confirmatory evidence when the product will become available in Italian healthcare setting. [Article in Italian

  5. Shared Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.

  6. [Urgent laparoscopic adrenalectomy in acute crisis caused by pheochromocytoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczky, Bíborka; Madách, Krisztina; Gál, János; István, Gábor; Sugár, István; Ondrejka, Pál; Vörös, Attila

    2014-06-01

    Authors present the case of a 30-year-old female patient, who was admitted to the ICU because of hypertensive crisis accompanied by chest complains, cardiac decompensation, progrediating short of breath and unconsciousness. Despite the quick examinations and the prompt treatment multi-organ failure developed 3 days after admission. Investigations revealed the underlying cause, which was a left-sided suprarenal neoplasm. Hence, multidisciplinary decision was made to carry out a laparoscopic adrenalectomy urgently. The histology examination of the removed neoplasm was pheochromocytoma. In the postoperative period the condition of the patient gradually improved, her symptoms and complains settled, and finally she was discharged in a healthy condition. The diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma is a difficult task, the symptoms and complains caused by it can simulate many other illnesses. The acute crisis caused by pheochromocytoma usually can be treated conservatively, but in more severe cases with impending multi-organ failure an urgent operative treatment can be unavoidable. Though the operative risk is relatively high, the correct intra- and postoperative treatment with a quick laparoscopic procedure can be effective.

  7. Using tunneled femoral vein catheters for "urgent start" dialysis patients: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingwala, Jay; Bhola, Cynthia; Lok, Charmaine E

    2014-01-01

    Multiple benefits of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) and arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) exist over catheters. As part of a strategy to preserve thoracic venous sites and reduce internal jugular (IJ) vein catheter use, we inserted tunneled femoral vein catheters in incident "urgent start" dialysis patients while facilitating a more appropriate definitive dialysis access. "Urgent start" dialysis patients between January 15, 2013 and January 15, 2014 who required chronic dialysis, and did not have prior modality and vascular access plans, had tunneled femoral vein catheters inserted. We determined the femoral vein catheter associated infections rates, thrombosis, and subsequent dialysis access. Eligible patients were surveyed on their femoral vein catheter experience. Twenty-two femoral vein catheters were inserted without complications. Subsequently, one catheter required intraluminal thrombolytic locking, while all other catheters maintained blood flow greater than 300 ml/min. There were no catheter-related infections (exit site infection or bacteremia). Six patients continued to use their tunneled catheter at report end, one transitioned to peritoneal dialysis, thirteen to an arteriovenous graft, and two to a fistula. One patient received a tunneled IJ vein catheter. Of the patients who completed the vascular access survey, all indicated satisfaction with their access and that they had minimal complaints of bruising, bleeding, or swelling at their access sites. Pain/discomfort at the exit site was the primary complaint, but they did not find it interfered with activities of daily living. Femoral vein tunneled catheters appear to be a safe, well tolerated, and effective temporary access in urgent start dialysis patients while they await more appropriate long-term access.

  8. HESS Opinions "Urgent water challenges are not sufficiently researched"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Darvis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this opinion paper we submit that water experts conduct comparatively little research on the more urgent challenges facing the global community. Apparently there is a mismatch between the global demand for knowledge and the finance for and supply of knowledge. This mismatch is identified here as a problem that we water scientists must try to confront and resolve. We need to understand why this mismatch occurs and persists, in order to find ways to break out of the impasse. Although this paper addresses a critical challenge it does not aim to be exhaustive or definitive. We merely identify the persistence of intransigent water problems as a research object in itself.

  9. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  10. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  11. Mobile pediatric neurosurgery: rapid response neurosurgery for remote or urgent pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owler, Brian K; Carmo, Kathryn A Browning; Bladwell, Wendy; Fa'asalele, T Arieta; Roxburgh, Jane; Kendrick, Tina; Berry, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Time-critical neurosurgical conditions require urgent operative treatment to prevent death or neurological deficits. In New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory patients' distance from neurosurgical care is often great, presenting a challenge in achieving timely care for patients with acute neurosurgical conditions. A protocol was developed to facilitate consultant neurosurgery locally. Children with acute, time-critical neurosurgical emergencies underwent operations in hospitals that do not normally offer neurosurgery. The authors describe the developed protocol, the outcome of its use, and the lessons learned in the 9 initial cases where the protocol has been used. Three cases are discussed in detail. Nine children were treated by a neurosurgeon at 5 rural hospitals, and 2 children were treated at a smaller metropolitan hospital. Road ambulance, fixed wing aircraft, and medical helicopters were used to transport the Newborn and Paediatric Emergency Transport Service (NETS) team, neurosurgeon, and patients. In each case, the time to definitive neurosurgical intervention was significantly reduced. The median interval from triage at the initial hospital to surgical start time was 3:55 hours, (interquartile range [IQR] 03:29-05:20 hours). The median distance traveled to reach a patient was 232 km (range 23-637 km). The median interval from the initial NETS call requesting patient retrieval to surgical start time was 3:15 hours (IQR 00:47-03:37 hours). The estimated median "time saved" was approximately 3:00 hours (IQR 1:44-3:15 hours) compared with the travel time to retrieve the child to the tertiary center: 8:31 hours (IQR 6:56-10:08 hours). Remote urgent neurosurgical interventions can be performed safely and effectively. This practice is relevant to countries where distance limits urgent access for patients to tertiary pediatric care. This practice is lifesaving for some children with head injuries and other acute neurosurgical conditions.

  12. Why Do People Choose Emergency and Urgent Care Services? A Rapid Review Utilizing a Systematic Literature Search and Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Joanne E; Turner, Janette K; Bradbury, Daniel; Cantrell, Anna

    2017-09-01

    ); individual patient factors (e.g., cost); and perceived need for emergency medical services or hospital care, treatment, or investigations. We identified six distinct reasons explaining why patients choose to access emergency and urgent care services: limited access to or confidence in primary care; patient perceived urgency; convenience; views of family, friends, or other health professionals; and a belief that their condition required the resources and facilities offered by a particular healthcare provider. There is a need to examine demand from a whole system perspective to gain better understanding of demand for different parts of the emergency and urgent care system and the characteristics of patients within each sector. © 2017 The Authors. Academic Emergency Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM).

  13. Biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy: Optimizationof endoscopic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the results of endoscopic treatmentof postoperative biliary leakage occurring after urgentcholecystectomy with a long-term follow-up.METHODS: This is an observational database studyconducted in a tertiary care center. All consecutivepatientswho underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiography(ERC) for presumed postoperative biliaryleakage after urgent cholecystectomy in the periodbetween April 2008 and April 2013 were consideredfor this study. Patients with bile duct transection andbiliary strictures were excluded. Biliary leakage wassuspected in the case of bile appearance from eitherpercutaneous drainage of abdominal collection orabdominal drain placed at the time of cholecystectomy.Procedural and main clinical characteristics of allconsecutive patients with postoperative biliary leakageafter urgent cholecystectomy, such as indication forcholecystectomy, etiology and type of leakage, ERCfindings and post-ERC complications, were collectedfrom our electronic database. All patients in whomthe leakage was successfully treated endoscopicallywere followed-up after they were discharged from thehospital and the main clinical characteristics, laboratorydata and common bile duct diameter were electronicallyrecorded.RESULTS: During a five-year period, biliary leakagewas recognized in 2.2% of patients who underwenturgent cholecystectomy. The median time fromcholecystectomy to ERC was 6 d (interquartile range,4-11 d). Endoscopic interventions to manage biliaryleakage included biliary stent insertion with or withoutbiliary sphincterotomy. In 23 (77%) patients after firstendoscopic treatment bile flow through existing surgicaldrain ceased within 11 d following biliary therapeuticendoscopy (median, 4 d; interquartile range, 2-8 d).In those patients repeat ERC was not performed and the biliary stent was removed on gastroscopy. In seven(23%) patients repeat ERC was done within one tofourth week after their first ERC, depending on theextent

  14. Long-term memory-based control of attention in multi-step tasks requires working memory: evidence from domain-specific interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Carbone, Elena; Schneider, Werner X

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for long-term memory (LTM)-based control of attention has been found during the execution of highly practiced multi-step tasks. However, does LTM directly control for attention or are working memory (WM) processes involved? In the present study, this question was investigated with a dual-task paradigm. Participants executed either a highly practiced visuospatial sensorimotor task (speed stacking) or a verbal task (high-speed poem reciting), while maintaining visuospatial or verbal information in WM. Results revealed unidirectional and domain-specific interference. Neither speed stacking nor high-speed poem reciting was influenced by WM retention. Stacking disrupted the retention of visuospatial locations, but did not modify memory performance of verbal material (letters). Reciting reduced the retention of verbal material substantially whereas it affected the memory performance of visuospatial locations to a smaller degree. We suggest that the selection of task-relevant information from LTM for the execution of overlearned multi-step tasks recruits domain-specific WM.

  15. Long-term memory-based control of attention in multi-step tasks requires working memory: Evidence from domain-specific interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Martina Foerster

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for long-term memory (LTM-based control of attention has been found during the execution of highly practiced multi-step tasks. However, does LTM directly control for attention or are working memory (WM processes involved? In the present study, this question was investigated with a dual-task paradigm. Participants executed either a highly practiced visuospatial sensorimotor task (speed stacking or a verbal task (high-speed poem reciting, while maintaining visuospatial or verbal information in WM. Results revealed unidirectional and domain-specific interference. Neither speed stacking nor high-speed poem reciting was influenced by WM retention. Stacking disrupted the retention of visuospatial locations, but did not modify memory performance of verbal material (letters. Reciting reduced the retention of verbal material substantially whereas it affected the memory performance of visuospatial locations to a smaller degree. We suggest that the selection of task-relevant information from LTM for the execution of overlearned multi-step tasks recruits domain-specific WM.

  16. Urgent need for warming experiments in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaveri, Molly A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Smith, W. Kolby; Wood, Tana E.

    2015-01-01

    powerful and urgent way forward in order to improve our understanding of tropical forest responses to climate change.

  17. Logistics and outcome in urgent and emergency colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshove-Bolk, J; Ellensen, V S; Baatrup, G

    2010-10-01

    Infrastructure-related factors are seldom described in detail in studies on outcome after surgical procedures. We studied patient, procedure, physician and infrastructure characteristics and their effect on outcome at a Norwegian University hospital. All patients admitted between 1st January 2002 and 30th June 2003 who underwent urgent or emergency colorectal surgery were extracted from the hospital databases and retrospectively analysed. There were 196 patients. The overall complication rate was 39%. Forty-six (24%) patients died during admission after surgery. Those who died were less likely to be operated by a subspecialized colorectal surgeon (17%vs 30%, P = 0.001). The anaesthesiologist was a resident in most of the cases (> 75%) for both those who survived and those who died. Surgery performed out-of-office hours was common in both groups, although the patients who died were more likely to be operated upon at night (28%vs 18%, P = 0.001). The time interval standard from admission to surgery was met in only 84 (43%) patients. Forty-nine (49/196, 25%) procedures were delayed beyond the time requested by the surgeon by more than 120 min (mean 363 min). The outcome after emergency colorectal surgery was consistent with the literature but the infrastructure was not optimal. Improvements may be achieved by a focus on decreasing waiting times, abandoning of out-of-office emergency surgery and increasing the involvement of senior staff. © 2010 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2010 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Urgent Care Facilities, Urgent Care Facilities in Iredell County, NC, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Urgent Care Facilities dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  20. Sustained attention, attentional selectivity, and attentional capacity across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvinue, Laura P; Habekost, Thomas; Johnson, Katherine A; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus; Robertson, Ian H

    2012-11-01

    Changes in sustained attention, attentional selectivity, and attentional capacity were examined in a sample of 113 participants between the ages of 12 and 75. To measure sustained attention, we employed the sustained-attention-to-response task (Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley, & Yiend, Neuropsychologia 35:747-58, 1997), a short continuous-performance test designed to capture fluctuations in sustained attention. To measure attentional selectivity and capacity, we employed a paradigm based on the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, Psychological Review 97:523-547, 1990), which enabled the estimation of parameters related to attentional selection, perceptual threshold, visual short-term memory capacity, and processing capacity. We found evidence of age-related decline in each of the measured variables, but the declines varied markedly in terms of magnitude and lifespan trajectory. Variables relating to attentional capacity showed declines of very large effect sizes, while variables relating to attentional selectivity and sustained attention showed declines of medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that attentional control is relatively preserved in older adults. The variables relating to sustained attention followed a U-shaped, curvilinear trend, and the variables relating to attentional selectivity and capacity showed linear decline from early adulthood, providing further support for the differentiation of attentional functions.

  1. Special needs require special attention: a pilot project implementing the paediatric pain profile for children with profound neurological impairment in an in-patient setting following surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Katie A; Franck, Linda S

    2011-09-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the implementation of pain assessment tools for children with profound neurological impairment (PNI) in in-patient settings. This article describes a pilot project to evaluate the Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) for children with PNI undergoing surgery. Five families of children 5 to 16 years of age with a primary diagnosis of cerebral palsy and admitted for surgical procedures were interviewed. Nineteen nurses completed questionnaires and children's pain management documentation was audited. The project identified issues in three areas of pain management: implementation process, individualised pain management and partnership. The PPP required pre-admission assessment and parental involvement, and was considered time-consuming by nurses. Individualised pain assessment and intervention was difficult to achieve, as was shared assessment and documentation among parents and nurses. Despite initial resistance to change, with greater use there was growing appreciation of the value of components of the PPP. Further exploration of the PPP tool in practice is required before its use can be widely recommended for children with PNI in in-patient settings. Future studies are required to determine which of the available pain assessment tools has the greatest accuracy and utility for assessment of post-operative pain in children with PNI.

  2. Use of Abdominopelvic Computed Tomography in Emergency Departments and Rates of Urgent Diagnoses in Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Caroline; Carey, Kathleen; Mills, Angela M.; Yang, Wei; Synnestvedt, Marie B.; Hilton, Susan; Weiner, Mark G.; Lewis, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims In the United States, the use of abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) by emergency departments for patients with abdominal pain has increased, despite stable admission rates and diagnosis requiring urgent intervention. We proposed that trends would be similar for patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of data from 648 adults with CD who presented at 2 emergency departments (2001–2009; 1572 visits). Trends in APCT use were assessed with Spearman’s correlation coefficient. We compared patient characteristics and APCT findings during 2001–2003 and 2007–2009. Results APCT use increased from 2001 (used for 47% of encounters) to 2009 (used for 78% of encounters; P=.005), whereas admission rates were relatively stable, at 68% in 2001 and 71% in 2009 (P=.06). The overall proportion of APCTs with findings of intestinal perforation, obstruction, or abscess was 29.0%; 34.9% of APCTs were associated with urgent diagnoses, including those unrelated to CD. Between 2001–2003 and 2007–2009, the proportions of APCTs that detected intestinal perforation, obstruction, or abscess were similar (30% vs 29%, P=.92), as were the proportions used detecting any diagnosis requiring urgent intervention, including those unrelated to CD (36% vs 34%, P=.91). Conclusions Despite the increased use of APCT by emergency departments for patients with CD, there were no significant change in admission rates between the periods of 2001–2003 and 2007–2009. The proportion of APCTs that detected intestinal perforation, obstruction, abscess, or other urgent conditions not related to CD remained high. PMID:21946122

  3. Total hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures as an urgent procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoičić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Total hip arthroplasty (THA is one of the most widely accepted operative methods for femoral neck fracture (FNF in elderly. However, the data on the early THA for FNF are very limited. The aim of this study to determine if there were differences in postoperative complications and functional outcomes between an urgent and delayed THA following FNF. Methods. This prospective study included a total of 244 patients who had THA following FNF from January 2010 to January 2013. In the first group 41 FNF patients were treated with THA within less than 12 hours of admission. A total of 203 FNF patients were operated in delayed settings, of whom 162 required prolonged preoperative processing and comorbidities correction. The group II consisted of 41 FNF patients who were fit for the early surgery at admission, but the operation was delayed due to institution related reasons. Main outcome measurements included mortality, functional outcome assessement, cardiological and pulmonary complications, pressure ulcers, dislocations, infections, length of hospitalization and revisions. Results. There were no differences in terms of age, gender, type of implants, neither in mortality, nor complications. There were differences in hospital length of stay [t (51.72 = -10.25, p < 0.001]. The patients operated within less than 12 hours of admission, had significantly better scores at all three time points of functional outcome assessment: at discharge t (80 = 2.556, p < 0.012; one month t (80 = 4.731, p < 0.001; three months t (80 = 5.908, p < 0.001. Conclusion. THA for FNF as an urgent procedure is not a widely accepted concept. Our findings indicate that the early operative treatment, does not worsen clinical outcomes, and our results give an advantage to the policy of the early THA for FNF.

  4. [Reduction and control of school bullying is urgently needed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y J; Wang, S Y

    2017-03-10

    School bullying and campus violence is a widespread social problem in the world. School bullying is characterized by its repeatability and suddenness, which could make the victims suffering from both psychological and health damage, and even affect their personality growth. Government should pay close attention to the reduction and control of school bullying and campus violence by establishing school bullying emergency response system and preparedness plan. The school and teacher's role and legal responsibility in the service and management in schools should be cleared and defined. It is necessary to help teachers conduct early detection and intervention for school bullying, conduct morality, mental health and legal educations in students to teach them to act according to the law and protect themselves according to the law and help them identify and avoid risks, encourage the establishment of rescue facility and web of anti-school bullying by non-government organizations, and set hotline for school bullying incident to reduce the incidence of school bullying.

  5. Inbox Messaging: an effective tool for minimizing non-urgent paging related interruptions in hospital medicine provider workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alice; Aaronson, Barry; Anuradhika, Anuradhika

    2016-01-01

    Communication is one of the foundations on which safe, high quality care is built.1, 3, 6, 17, 20 The nature of hospital medicine requires that nurses and providers be efficient and effective in communicating with multiple disciplines.17 This need for timely communication must continually be balanced with the need to minimize interruptions in workflow.1,2 3,4,6,7,9,13,15,17,18 Interruptions not only lead to distraction, they also add inefficiency to the care process and have been shown to contribute to an increased risk of medical error.2,3,4,7,17,18 A major source of interruptions are pagers that emit an audible tone with each message received.3,9,10,17,18 This interruptive nature makes pagers a less-than-ideal tool for communicating non-urgent (address within one hour) messages received.3,9,10,17,18 In addition to increasing interruptions, pagers do not facilitate closed loop communication, another feature that has been shown to improve safety.14,17,25 Inbox Messaging is intended to provide a less disruptive closed-loop method of communication for non-urgent messages. Inbox Messaging is an interface within the electronic health record (EHR) that functions similarly to e-mail. A multi-disciplinary communication workgroup identified this interface as having potential to not only decrease interruptions, but to also facilitate closed-loop communication. Inbox is currently utilized between the hours of 0700 and 1800 for non-urgent nurse-provider communication about patients on the hospital medicine service. The number of RN non-urgent pages per day was 103 (SD=19, n=97) prior to the Inbox intervention, with a significant decrease (p<.001) during follow-up to 38 (SD=14, n=354) pages per day. At the same time, the number of messages per day increased from 0 to 80 (SD=20, n=354) messages during follow-up. As desired, the mean number of RN urgent pages was unchanged from 13 per day to 13 per day (p=.52). Cerner Inbox Messaging decreases the frequency of non-urgent pager

  6. 78 FR 9569 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Relating to Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Relating to Syria Memorandum of January 31, 2013--Delegation of... Determination No. 2013-04 of January 29, 2013 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Relating to Syria... the crisis in Syria. You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the...

  7. A strategic-interaction analysis of an urgent appeal system and its outcomes for garment workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hond, F; Stolwijk, S.; Merk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Within the global garment industry the term "urgent appeal" is used to describe a request for action to Western activist groups for support in a specific case of labor rights violations. The urgent appeal system has become an important strategy for the transnational antisweatshop movement. It is dis

  8. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Presidential Determination No. 2009-16 of March 11, 2009 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related... Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601), I hereby...

  9. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... of January 27, 2009 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Gaza Memorandum for the..., including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22...

  10. A strategic-interaction analysis of an urgent appeal system and its outcomes for garment workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hond, F; Stolwijk, S.; Merk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Within the global garment industry the term "urgent appeal" is used to describe a request for action to Western activist groups for support in a specific case of labor rights violations. The urgent appeal system has become an important strategy for the transnational antisweatshop movement. It is

  11. Analysis of Rapid Acquisition Processes to Fulfill Future Urgent Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    minimally expanded the language regarding rapid acquisition process to include “Evolutionary acquisition is the preferred DOD strategy for rapid...requirements for rapid acquisition of ACAT I & IA programs. Second, identify how DOD will fund rapid acquisition programs. Third , identify who in DOD will...directives is challenging but necessary. 40 Third , organizational structure must remain in place to support the rapid acquisition process, we must

  12. Urgent Development on Contemporary Medical Fiqh in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary scientific and technology development give impacts on the development of Islamic law. The dynamic of fiqh in handling issues especially on medicine become a momentum of the synergy of the two diciplines, science and the Islamic jurisprudence of medicine. Many medical issuess are yet to require legal completions that are contemporary ijtihad based on perubatan discipline. On the other hand, ijtihad not only as exclusively unilateral, moreover inclusive multilateral approach (ijtihad jama’i is needed on handling fiqh issues. It is because expert opinions also important in describing about those issuess. Without those opinions, Islamic law scholar could not give appropriate legal decision. However, this study will explore about the importance of development of Fiqh of Medicine based on contemporary ijtihad. These studies will explain some contemporary Medicine issuees, which is proof the requirement of contemporary ijtihad. For example on the issues of reproduktif organ donation. Some ijtihad instruments which are compatible will be aplicated based on the issuess. Research findings about perubatan issuess gave fact that there were not exact explanations on al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah also did not directly examined on fiqh book in the past. This condition cause contemporary ijtihad on those studies as an important study to give law answer about perubatan issues appear. Generally speaking, the current studies require the sinergized between the dynamic of Islamic law and the advance of science and technology.

  13. Improving the transport of urgent specimens to an off-site laboratory using a novel sticker-tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahzad, Afsoon; Ejiofor, Florence; Giles, Susan; Klaber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining results for urgent microbiology specimens in an efficient manner is imperative to ensure that patients receive appropriate antibiotic therapy. A previous audit carried out in the Paediatric department of a central teaching hospital and a number of clinical incidents, highlighted a delay in transport of specimens (exceeding eight hours) and 'missing' specimens. This results in empirical antibiotic treatment of infection, with delay in confirming microbiology result and unnecessary, distressing repeat investigation. As an initial step we sought staff opinion to further explore the problem. A sticker was designed for the microbiology specimen bag to assign accountability, track each step in the transport process and to raise awareness of the problem. The sticker required the member of staff responsible at each stage of the process to time, date and sign it, to allow tracking of potential delays. The new sticker tracking system was promoted and launched in the Paediatric department. Initial challenges included lack of awareness of the protocol and lack of pods for sending urgent specimens. The team met regularly and completed stickers were analysed weekly to identify on-going issues and to devise solutions. Consequently total transport time was reduced to an average of 69 minutes by September (within four hr target). Our intervention improved the efficiency and reliability of urgent specimen transport. This is likely to result in safer antibiotic use and avoid the need for repeat investigation. The system is now also used in the Neonatal department and has lead to the development of a new 'Central Specimens Reception'.

  14. Importance of good teamwork in urgent care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Curtis

    2014-11-01

    High quality, safe care for patients depends on effective teamwork, and where multi-professional teams work together there is higher patient satisfaction, increased staff innovation, less stress and more communication ( West 2013 ). Conversely, lapses in teamwork and poor communication can result in adverse events ranging from retained foreign objects to perinatal events and medication errors ( Peter and Pronovost 2013 ), and even the death of patients ( Resuscitation Council UK 2011 ). Teamwork requires a set of skills and behaviours that, once learned by clinicians, can save lives ( Peter and Pronovost 2013 ). This article refers to a case study to explore the topic of teamwork in a tertiary care emergency setting.

  15. Review of Urgent Reversal Therapies for Oral Anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Mondin II

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulation has proven to be one of the most essential breakthroughs in cardiology in the last 100 years. The first major oral anticoagulant, warfarin, is a 4-hydroxycourmarin first synthesized in the 1940s for use as a rodenticide. It was not until 1954 that warfarin was finally approved by the FDA for use in patients requiring systemic anticoagulation. For over 55 years, warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant available in the United States until the approval of dabigatran in 2010, ushering in the era of the direct oral anticoagulants. This article will review modalities of anticoagulation reversal including activated charcoal, hemodialysis, blood-derived products, and medications currently available as well as in development.

  16. Rural Ambulatory Access for Semi-Urgent Care and the Relationship of Distance to an Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Ashley; Hoegh, Andy; Kuehl, Damon

    2015-07-01

    Availability of timely access to ambulatory care for semi-urgent medical concerns in rural and suburban locales is unknown. Further distance to an emergency department (ED) may require rural clinics to serve as surrogate EDs in their region, and make it more likely for these clinics to offer timely appointments. We determined the availability of urgent (within 48 hours) access to ambulatory care for non-established visiting patients, and assessed the effect of insurance and ability to pay cash on a patient's success in scheduling an appointment in rural and suburban Eastern United States. We also assessed how proximity to EDs and urgent care (UC) facilities influenced access to semi-urgent ambulatory appointments at primary care facilities. The Appalachian Trail, which runs from Georgia to Maine, was used as a transect to select 190 rural and suburban primary care clinics located along its entire length. We calculated their location and distance to the nearest hospital-based ED or UC via Google Earth. A sham patient representing a non-established visiting patient called each clinic over a four-month period (2013), requesting an appointment in the next 48 hours for one of three scripted clinical vignettes representing common semi-urgent ambulatory concerns. We randomized the scenarios and insurance statuses (insured vs. uninsured). Each clinic was contacted twice, once with the caller representing an insured patient, once with the caller representing an uninsured patient. When the caller was representing an uninsured patient, any required upfront payment was requested from each clinic. One hundred dollars was used as a cutoff between the uninsured as a distinction between those able to afford substantial upfront sums and those who could not. To determine if proximity to other sources of care impacted a clinic's ability to grant an appointment, distance to the nearest ED or UC was modeled as a dichotomous variable using 30 miles as the divider. Of 380 requests, 96

  17. Clinical outcome of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding after hours: the role of urgent endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dong-Won; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Hyub; Shin, Cheol Min; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical role of urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) performed by experienced endoscopists after hours. A retrospective analysis was performed for consecutively collected data of patients with ANVUGIB between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 158 patients visited the emergency unit for ANVUGIB after hours. Among them, 60 underwent urgent EGD (within 8 hours) and 98 underwent early EGD (8 to 24 hours) by experienced endoscopists. The frequencies of hemodynamic instability, fresh blood aspirate on the nasogastric tube, and high-risk endoscopic findings were significantly higher in the urgent EGD group. Primary hemostasis was achieved in all except two patients. There were nine cases of recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality occurred in three patients. There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary hemostasis, recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality. In a multiple linear regression analysis, urgent EGD significantly reduced the hospital stay compared with early EGD. In patients with a high clinical Rockall score (more than 3), urgent EGD tended to decrease the hospital stay, although this was not statistically significant (7.7 days vs. 12.0 days, p > 0.05). Urgent EGD after hours by experienced endoscopists had an excellent endoscopic success rate. However, clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the urgent and early EGD groups.

  18. [Biology and ethics of bioethics: an urgent need of realism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Tenets and recommendations of bioethics should be based on a profound knowledge of biological processes and at the same time deeply integrated with their human significance. Integration has been usually distorted by those implied in disciplines involved with human nature. Biology of fertilization and embryo development have been often fodder of science fiction, when considering that techniques can achieve any aim without acknowledging natural limits, and often handling data, and accepting without any critical attitude pseudoscientific dogma. In the middle of that pseudo-biology bioethics has suffered the onslaught of the ideology of man believing himself autonomous and claiming he is the only one who dictates the rules of reality of world and man, and leading development and progress with this technological power in his hands. The profoundly different response to this deep question of whether what is properly human and essential to each man emerges as a consequence of his own construction and development or, on the contrary, is inherent to the constitution of each man, has caused the splitting of bioethics into two really irreconcilable bioethics. And that because of their different reasoning and criteria. The Ethics of Bioethics requires a new thinking on this crucial point allowing it to grow as an unprejudiced Science. Serious consequences derive from taking one perspective or another. Adopting one or another perspective confront us with a serious problem. Is human life disposable? Or should it be elegantly preserved?

  19. Imaging strategies for detection of urgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain: diagnostic accuracy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laméris, Wytze; van Randen, Adrienne; van Es, H Wouter; van Heesewijk, Johannes P M; van Ramshorst, Bert; Bouma, Wim H; ten Hove, Wim; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; van Keulen, Esteban M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Boermeester, Marja A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify an optimal imaging strategy for the accurate detection of urgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain. Design Fully paired multicentre diagnostic accuracy study with prospective data collection. Setting Emergency departments of two university hospitals and four large teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 1021 patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain of >2 hours’ and <5 days’ duration. Exclusion criteria were discharge from the emergency department with no imaging considered warranted by the treating physician, pregnancy, and haemorrhagic shock. Intervention All patients had plain radiographs (upright chest and supine abdominal), ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) after clinical and laboratory examination. A panel of experienced physicians assigned a final diagnosis after six months and classified the condition as urgent or non-urgent. Main outcome measures Sensitivity and specificity for urgent conditions, percentage of missed cases and false positives, and exposure to radiation for single imaging strategies, conditional imaging strategies (CT after initial ultrasonography), and strategies driven by body mass index and age or by location of pain. Results 661 (65%) patients had a final diagnosis classified as urgent. The initial clinical diagnosis resulted in many false positive urgent diagnoses, which were significantly reduced after ultrasonography or CT. CT detected more urgent diagnoses than did ultrasonography: sensitivity was 89% (95% confidence interval 87% to 92%) for CT and 70% (67% to 74%) for ultrasonography (P<0.001). A conditional strategy with CT only after negative or inconclusive ultrasonography yielded the highest sensitivity, missing only 6% of urgent cases. With this strategy, only 49% (46% to 52%) of patients would have CT. Alternative strategies guided by body mass index, age, or location of the pain would all result in a loss of sensitivity. Conclusion Although CT is the most

  20. 212. Incidencia de complicaciones graves en trasplantes cardíacos urgentes y no urgentes. 10 años de experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Donate Bertolín

    2010-01-01

    Conclusiones: En nuestra serie, el trasplante urgente no presentó una mayor mortalidad perioperatoria. Sin embargo, observamos mayor número de complicaciones graves, asociadas a mortalidad a más largo plazo, como FAI, infección bacteriana y ventilación mecánica prolongada.

  1. Integrating community children's nursing in urgent and emergency care: a qualitative comparison of two teams in North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Richard G; Banks, Michele; Kirk, Susan; Powell, Peter; Callery, Peter

    2012-07-16

    Despite the policy principle that "children are best cared for at home whenever possible" children continue to have high rates of emergency department (ED) attendance and emergency hospital admission. Community Children's Nursing Teams (CCNTs) can care for acutely ill children at home but their potential to provide an alternative to ED attendance and hospitalisation depends on effective integration with other services in the urgent care system, such as EDs and Observation and Assessment Units (OAUs). Although challenges of integrating CCNTs have been identified, there has been no comparative assessment of the factors that facilitate or hinder integration of care of acutely ill children by CCNTs with the urgent care system. The aim of this study was to identify enablers and barriers to integration of CCNTs with urgent and emergency care. Comparative case studies were conducted of two CCNTs serving Primary Care Trusts in North West England. Twenty-two health professionals including CCNT managers and staff; paediatricians; nurses; children's ward, ED and OAU staff; commissioners of children's services; GPs and primary care staff were interviewed between June 2009 and February 2010. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using the Framework approach. Barriers to integration included paediatricians' perceived lack of ownership of the CCNT, poor communication between consultants and community children's nurses (CCNs), and weak personal relationships. This prevented early referral to the CCNT as an alternative to hospital care. Enablers of integration included co-location and rotation of CCNs through urgent care settings including OAUs and EDs. This enabled nurses to develop skills, make decisions about referral to home care and gain the confidence of referring clinicians. Integration of CCNTs at multiple points in the urgent care system is required in order to provide an alternative to inappropriate ED attendances and emergency admission. The principal enablers and

  2. Governing Critical ICT: Elements that Require Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    With respect to critical information and communication technologies (ICT), nations most often declare their national critical infrastructure to include telecommunication services and in some cases critical services offered by key Internet Service Providers (ISP). This paper debates whether nations,

  3. Pregnancy following bariatric requires special attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Andersen, Lise Lotte Fischer; Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup

    2012-01-01

    In the latest years the number of pregnant women having undergone bariatric surgery before pregnancy has increased rapidly. In pregnancy, they seem to have a reduced risk of obesity-related complications but an increased risk of mechanical complications causing small bowel obstruction...... and complications due to malabsorption. This article reviews the effect of bariatric surgery before pregnancy on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides, based on the limited available evidence, recommendations for the management of pregnancy in these women....

  4. Pregnancy following bariatric requires special attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Andersen, Lise Lotte Fischer; Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup

    2012-01-01

    In the latest years the number of pregnant women having undergone bariatric surgery before pregnancy has increased rapidly. In pregnancy, they seem to have a reduced risk of obesity-related complications but an increased risk of mechanical complications causing small bowel obstruction and complic...

  5. Cation Exchange Capacity of Biochar: An urgent method modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munera, Jose; Martinsen, Vegard; Mulder, Jan; Tau Strand, Line; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    subsequently with K+. The biochar to NH4OAc solution ratio did not affect the measured CEC. Three washings with at least 15 ml alcohol are required to remove excess NH4-OAc. We found the CEC of biochar with the displacement method from pigeon pea, corncob, rice husk and cacao shell to be 26.4(±0.3), 19.2(±0.5), 20.5(±0.4), 46.5±(0.2) cmol+/Kg, respectively. The selected batch experiment allows a large sample throughput, less laboratory equipment is needed and shaking ensures better contact between the extracting solution and the exchange sites.

  6. The effect of health and dental insurance on US children's dental care utilization for urgent and non-urgent dental problems - 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naavaal, Shillpa; Barker, Laurie K; Griffin, Susan O

    2017-12-01

    We examined the association between utilization of care for a dental problem (utilization-DP) and parent-reported dental problem (DP) urgency among children with DP by type of health care insurance coverage. We used weighted 2008 National Health Interview Survey data from 2,834 children, aged 2-17 years with at least one DP within the 6 months preceding survey. Explanatory variables were selected based on Andersen's model of healthcare utilization. Need was considered urgent if DP included toothache, bleeding gums, broken or missing teeth, broken or missing filling, or decayed teeth and otherwise as non-urgent. The primary enabling variable, insurance, had four categories: none, private health no dental coverage (PHND), private health and dental (PHD), or Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Predisposing variables included sociodemographic characteristics. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to identify explanatory variables' association with utilization-DP. Using logistic regression, we obtained adjusted estimates of utilization-DP by urgency for each insurance category. In bivariate analyses, utilization-DP was associated with both insurance and urgency. In multivariate analyses, the difference in percent utilizing care for an urgent versus non-urgent DP among children covered by Medicaid/SCHIP was 32 percentage points; PHD, 25 percentage points; PHND, 12 percentage points; and no insurance, 14 percentage points. The difference in utilization by DP urgency was higher for children with Medicaid/SCHIP compared with either PHND or uninsured children. Expansion of Medicaid/SCHIP may permit children to receive care for urgent DPs who otherwise may not, due to lack of dental insurance. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Funding for tuberculosis research-an urgent crisis of political will, human rights, and global solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) killed more people in 2015 than any other single infectious agent, but funding for research to develop better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods for TB declined to its lowest level in 7 years. TB research and development (R&D) is woefully underfunded, a situation best viewed as a crisis of political will and a failure on the part of governments to see unmet innovation needs in the TB response as a human rights issue requiring immediate action. Over 60% of available money for TB R&D comes from public sources, and 67% of public money comes from a single country: the USA. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency in November 2016 has introduced great uncertainty into the support that science generally, and TB research in particular, will receive in the coming years. Advocacy on the part of all actors-from civil society to TB-affected communities to scientists themselves-is urgently needed to increase US government support for TB research moving forward. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Funding for tuberculosis research—an urgent crisis of political will, human rights, and global solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Frick

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB killed more people in 2015 than any other single infectious agent, but funding for research to develop better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods for TB declined to its lowest level in 7 years. TB research and development (R&D is woefully underfunded, a situation best viewed as a crisis of political will and a failure on the part of governments to see unmet innovation needs in the TB response as a human rights issue requiring immediate action. Over 60% of available money for TB R&D comes from public sources, and 67% of public money comes from a single country: the USA. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency in November 2016 has introduced great uncertainty into the support that science generally, and TB research in particular, will receive in the coming years. Advocacy on the part of all actors—from civil society to TB-affected communities to scientists themselves—is urgently needed to increase US government support for TB research moving forward.

  9. Routine pre-operative focused ultrasonography by anesthesiologists in patients undergoing urgent surgical procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtker, M T; Vang, M L; Grøfte, T;

    2014-01-01

    with focused ultrasonography in patients undergoing urgent surgical procedures. Methods We performed pre-operative focused cardiopulmonary ultrasonography in patients aged 18 years or above undergoing urgent surgical procedures at pre-defined study days. Known and unexpected cardiopulmonary pathology...... was recorded, and subsequent changes in the anesthesia technique or supportive actions were registered. Results A total of 112 patients scheduled for urgent surgical procedures were included. Their mean age (standard deviation) was 62 (21) years. Of these patients, 24% were American Society....... Unexpected pathology leading to changes in anesthesia technique or supportive actions was only disclosed in a group of patients above the age of 60 years and/or in ASA class ≥ 3. Conclusion Focused cardiopulmonary ultrasonography disclosed unexpected pathology in patients undergoing urgent surgical...

  10. Urgent Care Facilities, care facilities attribute, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Urgent Care Facilities dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'care facilities attribute'....

  11. An urgent need to restrict access to pesticides based on human lethality.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Miller; Kavi Bhalla

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Miller and Kavi Bhalla discuss new research findings from Andrew Dawson and colleagues on the human toxicity of pesticides in Sri Lanka, and call for urgent reclassification of agricultural pesticides to help reduce suicides by poisonings.

  12. Outcomes and Role of Urgent Endoscopy in High-Risk Patients With Acute Nonvariceal Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Han; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Kim, Youn-Jung; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Ahn, Shin; Seo, Dong-Woo; Kim, Won Young; Lee, Jae Ho; Lim, Kyoung Soo

    2017-06-19

    We investigated clinical outcomes in high-risk patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), and determined if urgent endoscopy is effective. Consecutive patients with a Glasgow-Blatchford score greater than 7 who underwent endoscopy for acute nonvariceal UGIB at the emergency department from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2014, were included. Urgent (nonvariceal UGIB. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  14. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness.

  15. Decoupling speed and accuracy in an urgent decision-making task reveals multiple contributions to their trade-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eSalinas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A key goal in the study of decision making is determining how neural networks involved in perception and motor planning interact to generate a given choice, but this is complicated due to the internal trade-off between speed and accuracy, which confounds their individual contributions. Urgent decisions, however, are special: they may range between random and fully informed, depending on the amount of processing time (or stimulus viewing time available in each trial, but regardless, movement preparation always starts early on. As a consequence, under time pressure it is possible to produce a psychophysical curve that characterizes perceptual performance independently of reaction time, and this, in turn, makes it possible to pinpoint how perceptual information (which requires sensory input modulates motor planning (which does not to guide a choice. Here we review experiments in which, on the basis of this approach, the origin of the speed-accuracy trade-off becomes particularly transparent. Psychophysical, neurophysiological, and modeling results in the `compelled-saccade' task indicate that, during urgent decision making, perceptual information - if and whenever it becomes available - accelerates or decelerates competing motor plans that are already ongoing. This interaction affects both the reaction time and the probability of success in any given trial. In two experiments with reward asymmetries, we find that speed and accuracy can be traded in different amounts and for different reasons, depending on how the particular task contingencies affect specific neural mechanisms related to perception and motor planning. Therefore, from the vantage point of urgent decisions, the speed-accuracy trade-off is not a unique phenomenon tied to a single underlying mechanism, but rather a typical outcome of many possible combinations of internal adjustments within sensory-motor neural circuits.

  16. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  17. Urgent care medicine and the role of the APP within this specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmel, Jessica; Spalsbury, Marcy

    2017-05-01

    The field of urgent care medicine offers an additional medical pathway for patients who have immediate, but non-life-threatening, medical concerns. Urgent care medicine offers a more varied set of resources and services than a physician office setting, with more flexible hours. This gives patients an opportunity to not have to go to the emergency department for non-emergent care. As a newer specialty within the medical field, certain roles of healthcare providers other than physicians are becoming established, including the advanced practice provider (APP). An APP is a nurse practitioner or a physician assistant, who is licensed to treat under the supervision of a physician. Nurse practitioners' (NP) and physician assistants' (PA) role in urgent care is often seen as an effective, lower cost option to manage common acute minor illnesses seen in the community. Benefits to utilizing APPs in urgent care include decreasing costs to both the patient and health system, enhancing the physician's ability to see more patients, and decreasing wait times, all while continuing to maintain high standards of care. The goal of the authors within this publication is to discuss urgent care as a specialty and further explore the role of advanced practice providers within this setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Rewards teach visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelazzi, Leonardo; Perlato, Andrea; Santandrea, Elisa; Della Libera, Chiara

    2013-06-07

    Visual selective attention is the brain function that modulates ongoing processing of retinal input in order for selected representations to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness and guide behavior. Enhanced analysis of currently relevant or otherwise salient information is often accompanied by suppressed processing of the less relevant or salient input. Recent findings indicate that rewards exert a powerful influence on the deployment of visual selective attention. Such influence takes different forms depending on the specific protocol adopted in the given study. In some cases, the prospect of earning a larger reward in relation to a specific stimulus or location biases attention accordingly in order to maximize overall gain. This is mediated by an effect of reward acting as a type of incentive motivation for the strategic control of attention. In contrast, reward delivery can directly alter the processing of specific stimuli by increasing their attentional priority, and this can be measured even when rewards are no longer involved, reflecting a form of reward-mediated attentional learning. As a further development, recent work demonstrates that rewards can affect attentional learning in dissociable ways depending on whether rewards are perceived as feedback on performance or instead are registered as random-like events occurring during task performance. Specifically, it appears that visual selective attention is shaped by two distinct reward-related learning mechanisms: one requiring active monitoring of performance and outcome, and a second one detecting the sheer association between objects in the environment (whether attended or ignored) and the more-or-less rewarding events that accompany them. Overall this emerging literature demonstrates unequivocally that rewards "teach" visual selective attention so that processing resources will be allocated to objects, features and locations which are likely to optimize the organism's interaction with the

  19. Telejornalismo dramático e a vida cotidiana: estudo de caos do programa Brasil Urgente

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Campos de Cerqueira Lana

    2007-01-01

    O propósito desta pesquisa é apreender as relações entre a televisão e a vida cotidiana por meio de um estudo de caso do programa Brasil Urgente. Os sentidos sobre o dia-a-dia sãoconstruídos e transformados pelo telejornalismo dramático. Ao resgatar práticas compartilhadas da sociedade, Brasil Urgente dialoga com a cultura criando e recriando o cotidiano das cidades, associado à violência e também a contextos mais amplos. O trabalho apresenta o panorama histórico do surgimento dos telejornais...

  20. Effect of Mouth Cancer Awareness Week on urgent suspected head and neck cancer referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Raheela; Brocklehurst, Paul; Rogers, Simon N

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether Mouth Cancer Awareness Week and associated activities made any difference to the number of urgent or two-week urgent referrals to the oral and maxillofacial department at University Hospital, Aintree, whether they were appropriate, and the number of patients who were found to have cancer. A prospective audit over six months before, during, and after the awareness week showed a rise in the number of referrals over time, with the highest number in February. Of the 120 patients evaluated, cancer was confirmed in 13 (11%).

  1. The urgent need for universities to comprehensively address global climate change across disciplines and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, John

    2011-09-01

    I review the status of scientific, political, and moral problems of global climate change (GCC) and, based on lessons from environmental and sustainability programs in universities, demonstrate that universities have had a lethargic response to urgent needs to mitigate the problems. I explore reasons for the response, and conclude that there is an urgent need for comprehensive and wide-ranging change in universities to help mitigate GCC. My discussion is focused on those within universities as well as those in environmental professions regardless of their areas of specialization.

  2. Attention to the Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.

    2007-01-01

    Attention to a task, and the language it requires to be performed, can be described in relation to two theoretical models which have prompted research into the effects of task demands on learning and performance outside the field of second language acquisition (SLA). These are the SEEV (selection, effort, expectancy and value) model of selective…

  3. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the limited cognitions of individuals and by the limited capability of organizations to distribute, coordinate and integrate those cognitions. The cross-level nature of organizational attention, its dua...

  4. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  5. Attention Breaks in Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.; Percival, F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes research into student attention patterns during lectures that suggests that student attention declines steadily during a lecture, and that the rate of decrease is dependent upon several variables including subject difficulty. (MLH)

  6. 75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... HOUSE, WASHINGTON, August 26, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27672 Filed 10-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-12 of August 26, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  7. 75 FR 67015 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, September 3, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27673 Filed 10-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-14 of September 3, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee And...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  8. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa Presidential Determination No. 2011-13... Africa Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the... humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa. You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in...

  9. The intracerebral haemorrhage associated to oral anticoagulant therapy: the practical management of urgent reversal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH represents the most feared complication of therapy with vitamin K antagonists (VKA, so-called oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT. This is a real emergency in clinical practice, being burdened by high mortality, morbidity and residual functional disability. In recent years, there have been widespread indications for the correct management of VKA associated ICH. The urgent OAT reversal represents the cornerstone of VKA associated ICH therapy. The knowledge of these guidelines is of fundamental importance in clinical practice. The urgent OAT reversal could stop the hematoma enlargement which is considered one of the main risk factor of poor outcome in this clinical setting. The aim of urgent OAT reversal is bringing the INR (International Normalized Ratio to values ≤ 1.4. It is possible by using prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC, fresh frozen plasma (FFP, recombinant activated factor VII (raFVII together with vitamin K1 intravenous infusion. In this article the Authors review the practical management of urgent OAT reversal in patients suffering for VKA related ICH.

  10. Urgent carotid endarterectomy in patients with acute neurological ischemic events within six hours after symptoms onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajin, P; Radak, Dj; Tanaskovic, S; Babic, S; Nenezic, D

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the outcome of urgent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) performed within less than six hours in patients with crescendo transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke in progression. From January 1998 to December 2008, 58 urgent CEAs were done for acute neurological ischemic events--46 patients with crescendo TIA and 12 patients with stroke in progression. Brain computed tomography (CT) was done prior and after the surgery. Disability level was assessed prior to and after urgent CEA using modified Rankin scale. Median follow-up was 42.1 ± 16.6 months. In the early postoperative period stroke rate was 0% for the patients in crescendo TIA group while in patients with stroke in progression group 3 patients (25%) had positive postoperative brain CT, yet neurological status significantly improved. Mid-term stroke rate was 2.2% in crescendo TIA group and 8.3% in stroke in progression group. In the early postoperative period there were no lethal outcomes, mid-term mortality was 8.3% in stroke in progression while in crescendo TIA group lethal outcomes were not observed. In conclusion, based on our results urgent CEA is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with crescendo TIA and stroke in progression with acceptable rate of postoperative complications.

  11. If climate action becomes urgent: The importance of response times for various climate strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, D.P.; Stehfest, E.

    2013-01-01

    Most deliberations on climate policy are based on a mitigation response that assumes a gradually increasing reduction over time. However, situations may occur where a more urgent response is needed. A key question for climate policy in general, but even more in the case a rapid response is needed, i

  12. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  13. Attentional Processes in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gerald; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Attention processes in 103 children and adults with high functioning autism were compared with a matched control group using a battery of attention measures. Differences were found only on tasks which placed demands on cognitive flexibility or psychomotor speed, suggesting that purported attention deficits in autism may actually be primary…

  14. Urgent-Start Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis in ESRD Patients: Complications and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haijiao; Fang, Wei; Zhu, Mingli; Yu, Zanzhe; Fang, Yan; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minfang; Wang, Qin; Che, Xiajing; Xie, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiaying; Hu, Chunhua; Zhang, Haifen; Mou, Shan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a feasible alternative to hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but the impact of the dialysis modality on outcome, especially on short-term complications, in urgent-start dialysis has not been directly evaluated. The aim of the current study was to compare the complications and outcomes of PD and HD in urgent-start dialysis ESRD patients. In this retrospective study, ESRD patients who initiated dialysis urgently without a pre-established functional vascular access or PD catheter at a single center from January 2013 to December 2014 were included. Patients were grouped according to their dialysis modality (PD and HD). Each patient was followed for at least 30 days after catheter insertion (until January 2016). Dialysis-related complications and patient survival were compared between the two groups. Our study enrolled 178 patients (56.2% male), of whom 96 and 82 patients were in the PD and HD groups, respectively. Compared with HD patients, PD patients had more cardiovascular disease, less heart failure, higher levels of serum potassium, hemoglobin, serum albumin, serum pre-albumin, and lower levels of brain natriuretic peptide. There were no significant differences in gender, age, use of steroids, early referral to a nephrologist, prevalence of primary renal diseases, prevalence of co-morbidities, and other laboratory characteristics between the groups. The incidence of dialysis-related complications during the first 30 days was significantly higher in HD than PD patients. HD patients had a significantly higher probability of bacteremia compared to PD patients. HD was an independent predictor of short-term (30-day) dialysis-related complications. There was no significant difference between PD and HD patients with respect to patient survival rate. In an experienced center, PD is a safe and feasible dialysis alternative to HD for ESRD patients with an urgent need

  15. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  16. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  17. Attention competition with advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  18. Plant intelligence and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies.

  19. Feto-maternal outcomes of urgent open-heart surgery during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Saeid; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Samiei, Niloufar; Khamoushi, Amirjamshid; Ghavidel, Alireza Alizadeh; Yazdanian, Forouzan; Mirmesdagh, Yalda; Mestres, Carlos A

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac surgery during pregnancy is rarely required and potentially increases feto-maternal mortality. The study aim was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in females who underwent open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during pregnancy. Between 1999 and 2014, a total of 16 pregnant women (mean age 27 ± 7 years; mean gestational age 13 ± 7.7 weeks) underwent urgent cardiac surgery using CPB. The preoperative diagnosis included prosthetic valve dysfunction in 12 women (five aortic, seven mitral), native valve endocarditis and critical aortic stenosis each in one woman, and intracardiac masses in two women. Eleven patients were in the first trimester, three in the second trimester, and two in the third trimester. A retrospective analysis was conducted that included maternal variables of age, gestational age, cardiac diagnosis, prior operations, surgical details, maternal morbidity and mortality and type of delivery, while fetal variables included incidence of low birth weight, prematurity, and fetal malformation. Patients were allocated to two groups: Group A (n = 9) included pregnant women with living neonates, while group B (n = 7) included pregnant women with an aborted fetus or dead neonate. All data were compared between the groups. There was no in-hospital maternal mortality. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age, gestational age, previous cardiac operation, type of surgery, duration of operation, perfusion pressure and core temperature during CPB. The CPB time was longer in group B (110.3 ± 57.1 min) than in group A (62 ± 15.7 min) (p = 0.028), as was the aortic cross-clamp time (54.3 ± 27.2 min and 38.7 ± 9.3 min in groups A and B, respectively) (p = 0.014). Group B patients received higher doses of inotropes perioperatively. No congenital abnormalities were identified in any of the living neonates. The durations of CPB and aortic cross-clamping may not affect maternal outcome, but shorter CPB and aortic

  20. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  1. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  2. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the l

  3. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the

  4. ALLOCATION OF MINI UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES FOR URGENT INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE AND RECONNAISSANCE REQUEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk KURBAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urgent intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance request has the priority for all security forces while intervening in the events. The objective of this project is to locate grand control location of Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle units which has different coverage capabilities, responsible for obtaining urgent intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance the problem of finding the optimum locations of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle units is modeled firstly under no effect of changing weather and environmental circumstances as a Maximal Co- vering Location Problem and secondly by putting into the effect of changing weather and environmental circumstances as a Maximum Expected Covering Location problem. Totally seventeen different scenarios are developed for both model, five for Maximal Covering Lo- cation problem and twelve for Maximum Expected Covering Location problem. Optimal solutions were found by using GAMS. Finally, the changes in the optimal solutions are analyzed by altering the problem parameters.

  5. The therapeutic itinerary in urgent/emergency pediatric situations in a Maroon community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Samylla Maira Costa; Jesus, Viviane Silva de; Camargo, Climene Laura de

    2016-01-01

    The goal was to understand the therapeutic itinerary of Maroon children in urgent/emergency situation. Is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach that uses the Health Care System model of Arthur Kleinman as its theoretical support. Participants included 12 mothers of children who had experienced any urgent or emergency medical situation. Data collection took place from December 2013 to June 2014 through semi-structured interviews with a thematic analysis of the data. The care of the child started in the "informal" subsystem, and access to a "formal" subsystem was characterized as a pilgrimage for health services. A development of specific strategies is needed to ensure and facilitate full access to the services of the professional subsystem for Maroon communities.

  6. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    In public announcement logic it is assumed that all agents pay attention to the announcement. Weaker observational conditions can be modelled in action model logic. In this work, we propose a version of public announcement logic wherein it is encoded in the states of the epistemic model which...... agents pay attention to the announcement. This logic is called attention-based announcement logic. We give an axiomatization of the logic and prove that complexity of satisfiability is the same as that of public announcement logic, and therefore lower than that of action model logic. An attention......-based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...

  7. Urgent awake thoracoscopic treatment of retained haemothorax associated with respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pompeo, Eugenio; Cristino, Benedetto; Rogliani, Paola; Dauri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A number of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) procedures are being increasingly performed by awake anesthesia in an attempt of minimizing the surgical- and anesthesia-related traumas. However, so far the usefulness of awake VATS for urgent management of retained haemothorax has been scarcely investigated. Herein we present two patients with retained haemothorax following previous thoracentesis and blunt chest trauma, respectively, who developed acute respiratory failure and underwen...

  8. Adverse drug reactions leading to urgent hospital admission in an elderly population: prevalence and main features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós, Consuelo; Formiga, Francesc; Corbella, Xavier; Arnau, Josep Maria

    2016-02-01

    To assess the prevalence of urgent hospitalization due to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients aged ≥ 65 years, to compare the in-hospital mortality rates between patients admitted for ADRs and those admitted for other causes, and to describe the ADRs, the used and suspected drugs, and the drug-reaction associations. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using the institutional database of the Pharmacovigilance Programme of Bellvitge University Hospital, a 750-bed tertiary care hospital, with information corresponding to a 7-year period. ADR-related admissions of patients aged ≥ 65 years prospectively identified through a systematic daily review of all admission diagnosis were reviewed. ADRs were suspected to be the main reason for urgent admission in 1976 out of 60,263 patients aged ≥ 65 years (prevalence of ADR-related hospitalization 3.3 % [95 % CI 3.1-3.4 %]). The crude in-hospital mortality rate was 10.2 % in patients with ADR-related admission and 9 % in patients admitted for other causes (p = 0.077). Most patients (86 %) were exposed to polypharmacy, and a drug-drug interaction was suspected in 49 % of cases. The most frequent drug-reaction associations were acute renal failure related to renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, gastrointestinal bleeding caused by antithrombotics and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, and intracranial bleeding induced by vitamin K antagonists. One out of every 30 urgent admissions of patients aged ≥ 65 years is ADR-related. These ADRs can be as serious and life-threatening as any other acute pathology that merits urgent hospital admission. Most cases involve patients exposed to polypharmacy and result from well-known reactions of a few commonly used drugs.

  9. Pain and attention

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, J.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sense pain may be considered as a prerequisite for human survival. The experience of pain helps humans to avoid the execution of actions that can seriously endanger their lives; pain is therefore evolutionarily predisposed to interrupt and capture attention. However, this supposed interconnectedness between pain and attention is still sparsely examined. The aim of this dissertation was to gain further insight in this relation between pain and attention, and more specifically th...

  10. A nurse practitioner-led urgent care center: meeting the needs of the patient with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, Tracy A

    2013-08-01

    Providing comprehensive care for patients with cancer is complex with regard to severe treatment-related side effects. Hundreds of thousands of patients with cancer visit the emergency department (ED) each year, and more than half report multiple visits. In the United States, few of the National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers have an ED specifically for patients with cancer. EDs often are an overcrowded and expensive way in which to care for the urgent needs of patients with cancer. In addition, a looming shortage exists for both primary care providers and oncologists who can address symptom issues. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented, more patients will enter the healthcare system, placing a demand on providers that the current supply cannot meet. A report from the Institute of Medicine advocates that nurse practitioners (NPs) are more than competent to provide for the unique urgent care needs of patients with cancer. The aim of this article is to describe an NP-led urgent care center for patients with cancer and how that care center provides access to vital, expeditious, and cost-effective care.

  11. Urgent hybrid approach in treatment of the acute myocardial infarction complicated by the ventricular septal rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević-Radovanović Mina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ventricular septal rupture (VSR in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI is a rare but very serious complication, still associated with high mortality, despite significant improvements in pharmacological and surgical treatment. Therefore, hybrid approaches are introduced as new therapeutical options. Case Outline. We present an urgent hybrid approach, consisting of the initial percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI of the infarct-related artery, followed by immediate surgical closure of the ventricular septal rupture, for treatment of high risk, hemodynamically unstable female patient with AMI caused by one-vessel disease and complicated by VSR and cardiogenic shock. Since the operative risk was also very high (EUROSCORE II 37%, this therapeutic decision was based on the assumption that preoperative PCI could promptly establish blood flow and thereby lessen the risks, duration and complexity of urgent cardiosurgical intervention, performed on the same day. This approach proved to be successful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the fifteenth postoperative day in stable condition. Conclusion. In selected cases, with high operative risk and unstable hemodynamic state due to AMI complicated by VSR, urgent hybrid approach consisting of the initial PCI followed by surgical closure of VSR may represent an acceptable treatment option and contribute to the treatment of this complex group of patients.

  12. Syncope: Assessment of risk and an approach to evaluation in the emergency department and urgent care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Akdemir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is among the most frequent forms of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC, and is characterized by a relatively brief and self-limited loss of consciousness that by definition is triggered by transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Most often, syncope is caused by a temporary drop of systemic arterial pressure below that required to maintain cerebral function, but brief enough not to cause permanent structural brain injury. Currently, approximately one-third of syncope/collapse patients seen in the emergency department (ED or urgent care clinic are admitted to hospital for evaluation. The primary objective of developing syncope/TLOC risk stratification schemes is to provide guidance regarding the immediate prognostic risk of syncope patients presenting to the ED or clinic; thereafter, based on that risk assessment physicians may be better equipped to determine which patients can be safely evaluated as outpatients, and which require hospital care. In general, the need for hospitalization is determined by several key issues: i the patient's immediate (usually considered 1 week to 1 month mortality risk and risk for physical injury (e.g., falls risk, ii the patient's ability to care for him/herself, and iii whether certain treatments inherently require in-hospital initiation (e.g., pacemaker implantation. However, at present no single risk assessment protocol appears to be satisfactory for universal application, and development of a consensus recommendation is an essential next step.

  13. Embodied Infant Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steven S.; Johnson, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in…

  14. Attention and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    The authors discuss methodological and theoretical issues in psychological investigations of infant attention, fixation times, habituation, and intelligence. A consensus on how to measure individual differences in habituation has not been reached. The relation between IQ and attention is discussed. (RD)

  15. Modality-specificity of selective attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jamieson Stewart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT, the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA, and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL. These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. Results: The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled ‘general attention’. The third component was labeled ‘auditory attention’, as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as ‘spatial orienting’ and ‘spatial conflict’, respectively – they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT and TAiL attend-location task – all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location. Conclusions: These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  16. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  17. Dynamics of Media Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Hicks, J; van Klinken, G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different time scales. At short time scales we see evidence of bursty dynamics and fast decaying edge lifetimes and attention. This behaviour disappears for longer time scales, and in that regime we find Poissonian dynamics and slower decaying lifetimes. We propose that a cascading Poisson process may take place, with issues arising at a constant rate over a long time scale, and faster dynamics at a shorter time scale.

  18. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-07

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  19. A New U.S. Water Policy: Long Overdue and Urgently Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P.

    2008-12-01

    The United States has no consistent, integrated national or international water policy in place, and has not conducted a review of its water institutions or priorities since 1970. This talk will summarize the state of US water policy and make recommendations for the new administration. As we enter the 21st century, pressures on United States and international water resources are growing and conflicts among water users are worsening. International attention to these problems is increasing and the US - intentionally or not - plays a vital and irreplaceable role. Even in the US, where basic human needs for water are largely (though not completely) satisfied, controversy continues over the proper role of expensive dams, failure to adequately fund infrastructure maintenance and expansion, the different roles of public and private corporations, and local communities in managing water. And new challenges are arising, as climate change and extreme events seem to worsen, new water quality threats materialize, and financial constraints grow. Arguments among western states over allocations of shared rivers are rising, as are tensions between cities and farmers over water rights. The US and Mexico have unresolved disagreements over the Colorado and Rio Grande/Rio Bravo rivers, and our Canadian neighbors are concerned about proposals to divert Great Lakes or Canadian water. Bottled water is raising new issues about equity, cost, environmental impacts, and the role of the private sector. Some of the new ideas, new policies, and new efforts that will be required to address these issues in the coming decade will be presented here.

  20. Sustained attention in language production: An individual differences investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Meyer, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it has long been assumed that most linguistic processes underlying language production happen automatically, accumulating evidence suggests that these processes do require some form of attention. Here we investigated the contribution of sustained attention: the ability to maintain alertness

  1. Sustained attention in language production: An individual differences investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Meyer, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it has long been assumed that most linguistic processes underlying language production happen automatically, accumulating evidence suggests that these processes do require some form of attention. Here we investigated the contribution of sustained attention: the ability to maintain alertness

  2. Attention Sensitive Web Browsing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With a number of cheap commercial dry EEG kits available today, it is possible to look at user attention driven scenarios for interaction with the web browser. Using EEG to determine the user's attention level is preferable to using methods such as gaze tracking or time spent on the webpage. In this paper we use the attention level in three different ways. First, as a control mechanism, to control user interface elements such as menus or buttons. Second, to make the web browser responsive to ...

  3. Are You Paying Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A still understudied area in media research is how people pay attention to news in daily life. To do so, the chapter develops a theoretical framework grounded in news audience research and practice theory. This framework conceptualizes practices as different ways in which attention is directed....... In the concluding discussion, the chapter relates the findings to further perspectives on attention to news specifically and media content more generally. Accordingly, this chapter contributes to cross-media news research by analyzing ways in which people attend to news and how these ways of attending vary across...

  4. [Pelvi-perineal chronic pain, urgent demands of care and decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistrebert-Davanne, V; Boudoukha, A-H; Levesque, A; Guérin, P; Nizard, J; Labat, J-J

    2017-06-01

    Some patients suffering from pelvi-perineal chronic pain express urgent, even vital, demands of care. The objective was to compare the profile and the psychological functioning of the patients, who have shown an imperious demand of care, in that of the patients who do not have an imperious demand of care. From the medical consultations for chronic pelviperineal pain, we realized a comparative study including 26 patients (experimental group) expressing an urgent demand of care (i.e., patients who, during the last 3months, called an emergency service concerning the pains for which they consult in the service) and 28 patients (control group) without an urgent demand of care (i.e., patient who, during the last 3months, did not call an emergency service concerning the pains for which they consult in the service). All the patients were tested through a cognitive task of decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task) and through explicit measures of pain and its main psychological associated factors (anxiety, depression, impulsivity an catastrophism). In the first place, the patients from the experimental group possess decision-making abilities equivalent to the patients of the control group; however, both groups of patients show, in the beginning of the test, a deficit in the decision-making (F(4.208)=3.4116; P=.009). Secondly, the measures to questionnaires reveal that the patients of the control group have less severe scores in the scales of depression (t(52)=-2.068; Pcognitivo-behavioral techniques. 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Urgent ERCP for acute cholangitis reduces mortality and hospital stay in elderly and very elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan Sun Park; Hee Seok Jeong; Ki Bae Kim; Joung-Ho Han; Hee Bok Chae; Sei Jin Youn; Seon Mee Park

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute cholangitis in old people is a cause of mortality and prolonged hospital stay. We evaluated the effects of methods and timing of biliary drainage on the outcomes of acute cholangitis in elderly and very elderly patients. METHODS: We analyzed 331 patients who were older than 75 years and were diagnosed with acute calculous cholangitis. They were admitted to our hospital from 2009 to 2014. Pa-tients’ demographics, severity grading, methods and timing of biliary drainage, mortality, and hospital stay were retrospec-tively obtained from medical records. Clinical parameters and outcomes were compared between elderly (75-80 years,n=156) and very elderly (≥81 years,n=175) patients. We analyzed the effects of methods [none, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, or failure] and timing (urgent or early) of biliary drainage on mortality and hospital stay in these patients. RESULTS: Acute cholangitis in older patients manifested as atypical symptoms characterized as infrequent Charcot’s triad (4.2%) and comorbidity in one-third of the patients. Patients were graded as mild, moderate, and severe cholangitis in 104 (31.4%), 175 (52.9%), and 52 (15.7%), respectively. Urgent bili-ary drainage (≤24 hours) was performed for 80.5% (247/307) of patients. Very elderly patients tended to have more severe grades and were treated with sequential procedures of tran-sient biliary drainage and stone removal at different sessions. Hospital stay was related to methods and timing of biliary drainage. Mortality was very low (1.5%) and not related to patient age but rather to the success or failure of biliary drainage and severity grading of the acute cholangitis. CONCLUSIONS: The methods and timing used for biliary drainage and severity of cholangitis are the major determi-nants of mortality and hospital stay in elderly and very elderly patients with acute cholangitis. Urgent successful ERCP is mandatory for

  6. Anesthetic management of a parturient with Stiff person syndrome for urgent cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, B T; Muravyea, M; Kuo, C; Drexler, C; Pagel, P S

    2016-08-01

    Stiff person syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder with an estimated incidence of 1:1000000. The underlying pathophysiology is truncal and proximal limb muscle stiffness resulting from continuous co-contracture of agonist and antagonist muscle groups concomitant with superimposed episodic muscle spasms. Loss of gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition creates chronic excitation manifested by tonic agonist-antagonist muscle contraction. To date, only three case reports referred indirectly to the anesthetic management of parturients with Stiff person syndrome. The authors describe their management of a parturient with Stiff person syndrome who underwent urgent cesarean delivery under epidural anesthesia.

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory: 21st century solutions to urgent national challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcbranch, Duncan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been called upon to meet urgent national challenges for more than 65 years. The people, tools, and technologies at Los Alamos are a world class resource that has proved decisive through our history, and are needed in the future. We offer expertise in nearly every science, technology, and engineering discipline, a unique integrated capability for large-scale computing and experimentation, and the proven ability to deliver solutions involving the most complex and difficult technical systems. This white paper outlines some emerging challenges and why the nation needs Los Alamos, the premier National Security Science Laboratory, to meet these challenges.

  8. Social service in medicine in Mexico. An urgent and possible reform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nigenda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One third of the primary care units in the public system keeps being covered exclusively by interns. It is shown that with the resources available in the System for Social Protection in Health it is possible to hire graduate health personnel for all Ministry of Health rural units. It is necessary to modify the current legislation to impede an intern to be located in units without supervision of a graduate doctor. There is an urgent need for a reform of social service in medicine that responds both to the institutional modernization and to the increased capacity of the newly insured to demand high-quality services.

  9. Urgent-setting magnetic resonance imaging allows triage of extensive penoscrotal hematoma following blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tonolini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uncommon, blunt trauma to the perineum may cause serious injury to the penis. Differentiation between penile fracture with torn tunica albuginea versus extratunical or cavernosal hematomas is crucial because the former condition needs early surgical repair to avoid future deformity and erectile dysfunction, whereas approach is conservative with even large penoscrotal hematomas with albugineal integrity. Urgent-setting magnetic resonance imaging including multiplanar images of the injured penoscrotal region allows precise identification or exclusion of presence, site, and extent of tears of the tunica albuginea, providing a consistent basis for therapeutic choice.

  10. La demanda atendida de consultas médicas y atención urgente

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Begoña

    1998-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar los determinantes de la utilización de las consultas al médico y de la atención urgente en España. En el modelo teórico, los individuos se protegen frente a los riesgos financieros de la enfermedad contratando seguros sanitarios y producen salud a partir de una dotación exógena, combinando asistencia sanitaria y otros bienes de consumo cotidiano. La forma reducida de la demanda de asistencia sanitaria se estima a partir de los datos de la Encuesta Naci...

  11. Urgent endovascular treatment of proximal right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm using kissing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Yuan, Ye; Hu, Yali; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Hui; Lu, Huijun

    2015-08-01

    A 50-year old man, sustained a blunt force injury to the chest during an engineering accident, underwent urgent endovascular angioplasty to treat proximal right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm (RSAP) with a hostile neck in our hospital. Six-month follow-up showed that there was sufficient right carotid artery and right subclavian artery infusion, and the kissing stents were patent. The results show the safety and efficacy of kissing stent technique for RSAP in emergency patients who has no sufficient proximal fixation zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The yin and yang of sleep and attention

    OpenAIRE

    Kirszenblat, Leonie; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is not a single state, but a complex set of brain processes that supports a number of physiological needs. Sleep deprivation is known to affect attention in many animals, suggesting that a key function of sleep is to regulate attention. Conversely, tasks that require more attention drive sleep need and sleep intensity. Attention involves the ability to filter incoming stimuli based on their relative salience, and this is likely to require coordinated synaptic activity across the brain. ...

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these ... children. The main features of ADHD are Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. ...

  14. Contaminación acústica en el transporte sanitario urgente por carretera Acoustic contamination in urgent medical transportation by road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ballesteros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Determinar los niveles de exposición a ruido durante el transporte sanitario urgente por carretera y describir la percepción de deterioro de la función auditiva en los trabajadores del sector y el empleo de mecanismos de protección acústica. Metodología. Estudio observacional realizado en Bizkaia (España. Mediante dosimetrías sonométricas se registraron los valores instantáneos máximos de nivel sonoro (Lpico y niveles continuos equivalentes (Leq medidos en una ambulancia tipo de la red de emergencias. Paralelamente, se realizó una encuesta sobre una muestra representativa compuesta por 127 trabajadores en la que se exploró la percepción subjetiva de pérdida de audición y posibles factores asociados, además de otras cuestiones de interés desde la perspectiva de la prevención de riesgos laborales. Resultados. Se registraron Lpico oscilantes entre 80 y 109 dBA en función de la ubicación. Los niveles Leq medios evaluados durante 10 asistencias, desde la activación hasta la llegada al incidente y durante el traslado al hospital fueron de 79,5 dBA y 74,3 dBA (pBackground. To determine levels of exposure to noise during urgent medical transportation by road and to describe the perception of hearing function impairment in workers and the use of hearing protection devices. Material and methods. An observational study was performed in Bizkaia (Spain. The instantaneous maximum noise levels (Lpeak and its continuous equivalents (Leq were recorded through sonometric dosimetries, measured in a "sample ambulance" of the emergency network. In parallel, a survey was conducted on a representative sample of 127 workers in which self-reported hearing loss and associated factors were explored, in addition to other issues of concern from the perspective of prevention of occupational hazards. Results. Lpeak oscillating between 80 and 109 dBA were recorded depending on the location. The average Leq levels measured over 10 emergency

  15. Adaptive visual attention model

    OpenAIRE

    Hügli, Heinz; Bur, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention, defined as the ability of a biological or artificial vision system to rapidly detect potentially relevant parts of a visual scene, provides a general purpose solution for low level feature detection in a vision architecture. Well considered for its universal detection behaviour, the general model of visual attention is suited for any environment but inferior to dedicated feature detectors in more specific environments. The goal of the development presented in this paper is t...

  16. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process.

  17. Single port laparoscopic colorectal surgery in debilitated patients and in the urgent setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moftah, M

    2012-09-01

    Single port laparoscopy is a relatively new niche in the expanding spectrum of minimal access surgery for colorectal disease. To date the published experience has predominantly focused on planned operations for neoplasia in the elective setting. It seems probable however that the benefits of minimal abdominal wounding will be greatest among those patients with the highest risk of impaired wound healing. Combining this with the impression of improved cosmesis suggests that (the mostly young) patients with inflammatory bowel disease needing urgent operation are the most likely to appreciate and benefit from the extraoperative effort. The extension of single port surgery to the acute setting and for debilitated individuals is therefore a likely next step advance in broadening the category of patients for whom it represents a real benefit and ultimately aid in focusing by selection the subgroups for whom this technique is best suited and most appropriate. We describe here our approach (including routine use of a surgical glove port) to patients presenting for urgent colorectal operation for benign disease. As provision of specialized approaches regardless of timing or mode of presentation is a defining component of any specialty service, this concept will soon be more fully elucidated and established.

  18. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health.

  19. Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media in the urgent care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, George H

    2002-04-01

    The prevalence of otitis media is increasing, which affects health care resource utilization across all segments, including the urgent care setting. One of the greatest challenges in the management of acute otitis media (AOM) is the effective treatment of cases caused by pathogens that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Whereas the production of beta-lactamases among strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis is an important consideration for antimicrobial therapy, the high prevalence of resistance to penicillin and other classes of antibiotics among strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae represents a greater clinical concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently convened the Drug Resistant S. pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group to develop evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of AOM in an era of prevalent resistance. The recommendations from this group included amoxicillin as the preferred first-line drug because of the demonstrated activity against penicillin-intermediate and -resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, using higher dosages of up to 90 mg/kg per day in certain settings. For patients in whom initial treatment is unsuccessful after 3 days, the recommended agents included high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate (for activity against beta-lactamase-producing pathogens), clindamycin, cefuroxime axetil, or 1 to 3 doses of intramuscular ceftriaxone. The principles set forth in these guidelines can assist the therapeutic decisionmaking process for practitioners in the urgent care setting.

  20. Refusing HIV testing in an urgent care setting: results from the "Think HIV" program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Rebecca V; Losina, Elena; Kang, Minhee; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2006-02-01

    Efforts to increase HIV case identification through routine, voluntary HIV testing are hindered by high refusal rates. Our objective was to identify patients most likely to refuse routine HIV testing. We developed a new HIV testing program at four Massachusetts urgent care centers. Patients were asked if they were interested in routine HIV testing. We performed analyses to assess differences in characteristics between those who refused testing and those who accepted it. Data were available for 9129/10,354 (88%) patients offered routine HIV testing from January to December 2002. Of these 9129 patients, 67% refused testing. In the crude analysis, HIV test refusal was associated with female gender, white race, older age, and higher educational level. In multivariate analysis, non-English-speaking patients who were Hispanic, Haitian, and other race were more likely to refuse testing than their English-speaking counterparts. Among all patients, "not at risk" and "already tested" were the most common reasons for test refusal. Two thirds of patients refused routine HIV testing when it was offered in a statewide urgent care-based program. If routine HIV testing programs are to be successful, strategies must be developed to increase HIV test acceptance among patients most likely to refrain from testing.

  1. Urgent Biophilia: Human-Nature Interactions and Biological Attractions in Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Tidball

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution builds upon contemporary work on principles of biological attraction as well as earlier work on biophilia while synthesizing literatures on restorative environments, community-based ecological restoration, and both community and social-ecological disaster resilience. It suggests that when humans, faced with a disaster, as individuals and as communities and populations, seek engagement with nature to further their efforts to summon and demonstrate resilience in the face of a crisis, they exemplify an urgent biophilia. This urgent biophilia represents an important set of human-nature interactions in SES characterized by hazard, disaster, or vulnerability, often appearing in the 'backloop' of the adaptive cycle. The relationships that human-nature interactions have to other components within interdependent systems at many different scales may be one critical source of resilience in disaster and related contexts. In other words, the affinity we humans have for the rest of nature, the process of remembering that attraction, and the urge to express it through creation of restorative environments, which may also restore or increase ecological function, may confer resilience across multiple scales. In making this argument, the paper also represents a novel contribution to further theorizing alternatives to anthropocentric understandings of human-nature relations, and strongly makes the case for humans as part of, not separate from, ecosystems.

  2. [Monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in urgent abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raĭbuzhis, E N; Fot, E V; Gaĭdukov, K M; Kirov, M Iu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) during perioperative period in urgent abdominal surgery and to assess the relationship of these parameters with gas exchange and tissue perfusion. Twenty-four patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery were enrolled into a prospective observational study. We recorded IAP APP, mean arterial pressure, arterial and venous blood gases after induction of anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and 6, 12, 48 and 72 h postoperatively. LAP was measured by nasogastric tube using CiMON monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany). In addition, we studied the relationship of IAP and APP with blood gases parameters. We observed perioperative increase of IAP (> 12 mm Hg) in 75% of enrolled patients, tendency to postoperative rise of IAP and transient increase of arterial lactate at 6 h after surgery. APP remained within normal values. We found positive correlation of APP with PaO2/FiO2 and ScvO2 at 72 hours after surgery. Transient perioperative increase of IAP was observed in 75% patients undergoing urgent abdominal surgery; however in parallel with intensive care the abdominal perfusion pressure remained within normal values. Abdominal perfusion is related with arterial oxygenation and central venous saturation.

  3. Urgent Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in a Patient with Postinfarction Angina and Active Myelomonocytic Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Anthony Galea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML is a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm affecting the production and differentiation of the monocyte cell lineage. Cardiac surgery in the context of CMML poses challenges that are not routinely encountered. This is the first reported case in the literature of a patient with active CMML undergoing urgent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. A 68-year-old Caucasian man with a history of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, hypothyroidism, and hypercholesterolaemia, who had been diagnosed by the haematologists with CMML a few months earlier but had remained untreated, underwent urgent surgical coronary revascularisation because of postinfarction angina following a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction associated with troponin I rise. The patient had fulminant postoperative myelomonocytic leukaemoid reaction, with a clinical picture of severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This led to extensive vasodilation and heart failure that resulted in the death of the patient. Various authors have suggested different techniques and treatment options, each attempting to mitigate the effect of the postoperative inflammatory response. However, this is a high-risk endeavour with a myriad of inflammatory signals mobilised into action because of the surgical insult. Off-pump surgery or preoperative pharmacological attenuation of CMML activity might have dampened this response and resulted in a positive outcome for the patient.

  4. Use of the emergency department for less-urgent care among type 2 diabetics under a disease management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Leann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study analyzed the likelihood of less-urgent emergency department (ED visits among type 2 diabetic patients receiving care under a diabetes disease management (DM program offered by the Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division (LSU HCSD. Methods All ED and outpatient clinic visits made by 6,412 type 2 diabetic patients from 1999 to 2006 were extracted from the LSU HCSD Disease Management (DM Evaluation Database. Patient ED visits were classified as either urgent or less-urgent, and the likelihood of a less-urgent ED visit was compared with outpatient clinic visits using the Generalized Estimating Equation methodology for binary response to time-dependent variables. Results Patients who adhered to regular clinic visit schedules dictated by the DM program were less likely to use the ED for less urgent care with odds ratio of 0.1585. Insured patients had 1.13 to 1.70 greater odds of a less-urgent ED visit than those who were uninsured. Patients with better-managed glycated hemoglobin (A1c or HbA1c levels were 82 times less likely to use less-urgent ED visits. Furthermore, being older, Caucasian, or a longer participant in the DM program had a modestly lower likelihood of less-urgent ED visits. The patient's Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI, gender, prior hospitalization, and the admitting facility showed no effect. Conclusion Patients adhering to the DM visit guidelines were less likely to use the ED for less-urgent problems. Maintaining normal A1c levels for their diabetes also has the positive impact to reduce less-urgent ED usages. It suggests that successful DM programs may reduce inappropriate ED use. In contrast to expectations, uninsured patients were less likely to use the ED for less-urgent care. Patients in the DM program with Medicaid coverage were 1.3 times more likely to seek care in the ED for non-emergencies while commercially insured patients were nearly 1.7 times more likely to do so. Further

  5. Integrating community children’s nursing in urgent and emergency care: a qualitative comparison of two teams in North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Richard G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the policy principle that “children are best cared for at home whenever possible” children continue to have high rates of emergency department (ED attendance and emergency hospital admission. Community Children’s Nursing Teams (CCNTs can care for acutely ill children at home but their potential to provide an alternative to ED attendance and hospitalisation depends on effective integration with other services in the urgent care system, such as EDs and Observation and Assessment Units (OAUs. Although challenges of integrating CCNTs have been identified, there has been no comparative assessment of the factors that facilitate or hinder integration of care of acutely ill children by CCNTs with the urgent care system. The aim of this study was to identify enablers and barriers to integration of CCNTs with urgent and emergency care. Methods Comparative case studies were conducted of two CCNTs serving Primary Care Trusts in North West England. Twenty-two health professionals including CCNT managers and staff; paediatricians; nurses; children’s ward, ED and OAU staff; commissioners of children’s services; GPs and primary care staff were interviewed between June 2009 and February 2010. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using the Framework approach. Results Barriers to integration included paediatricians’ perceived lack of ownership of the CCNT, poor communication between consultants and community children’s nurses (CCNs, and weak personal relationships. This prevented early referral to the CCNT as an alternative to hospital care. Enablers of integration included co-location and rotation of CCNs through urgent care settings including OAUs and EDs. This enabled nurses to develop skills, make decisions about referral to home care and gain the confidence of referring clinicians. Conclusions Integration of CCNTs at multiple points in the urgent care system is required in order to provide an alternative to

  6. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  7. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  8. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  9. Urgent Care Facilities, DPH, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Massachusetts Emergency Managment Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Urgent Care Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described...

  10. 76 FR 35719 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Determination No. 2011-11 of June 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C... to the humanitarian crises resulting from the violence in Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire. You...

  11. 76 FR 53913 - Award of an Urgent Single-Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International (SOTI) in San Diego...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Torture International (SOTI) in San Diego, CA; Correction AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS... urgent single-source grant to Survivors of Torture, International (SOTI), San Diego, CA. The document...

  12. Nonretinotopic exogenous attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Marco; Vergeer, Mark; Ogmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H

    2011-10-25

    Attention is crucial for visual perception because it allows the visual system to effectively use its limited resources by selecting behaviorally and cognitively relevant stimuli from the large amount of information impinging on the eyes. Reflexive, stimulus-driven attention is essential for successful interactions with the environment because it can, for example, speed up responses to life-threatening events. It is commonly believed that exogenous attention operates in the retinotopic coordinates of the early visual system. Here, using a novel experimental paradigm [1], we show that a nonretinotopic cue improves both accuracy and reaction times in a visual search task. Furthermore, the influence of the cue is limited both in space and time, a characteristic typical of exogenous cueing. These and other recent findings show that many more aspects of vision are processed nonretinotopically than previously thought.

  13. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  14. Sequential sampling of visual objects during sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianrong; Liu, Ling; Fang, Fang; Luo, Huan

    2017-06-01

    In a crowded visual scene, attention must be distributed efficiently and flexibly over time and space to accommodate different contexts. It is well established that selective attention enhances the corresponding neural responses, presumably implying that attention would persistently dwell on the task-relevant item. Meanwhile, recent studies, mostly in divided attentional contexts, suggest that attention does not remain stationary but samples objects alternately over time, suggesting a rhythmic view of attention. However, it remains unknown whether the dynamic mechanism essentially mediates attentional processes at a general level. Importantly, there is also a complete lack of direct neural evidence reflecting whether and how the brain rhythmically samples multiple visual objects during stimulus processing. To address these issues, in this study, we employed electroencephalography (EEG) and a temporal response function (TRF) approach, which can dissociate responses that exclusively represent a single object from the overall neuronal activity, to examine the spatiotemporal characteristics of attention in various attentional contexts. First, attention, which is characterized by inhibitory alpha-band (approximately 10 Hz) activity in TRFs, switches between attended and unattended objects every approximately 200 ms, suggesting a sequential sampling even when attention is required to mostly stay on the attended object. Second, the attentional spatiotemporal pattern is modulated by the task context, such that alpha-mediated switching becomes increasingly prominent as the task requires a more uniform distribution of attention. Finally, the switching pattern correlates with attentional behavioral performance. Our work provides direct neural evidence supporting a generally central role of temporal organization mechanism in attention, such that multiple objects are sequentially sorted according to their priority in attentional contexts. The results suggest that selective

  15. Peripheral contrast sensitivity and attention in myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Kristen L.; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J.; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A.

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of normal visual experience or changes in the normal interaction between central and peripheral retinal input may lead to the development of myopia. In order to examine the relationship between peripheral contrast sensitivity and myopia, we manipulated attentional load for foveal vision in emmetropes and myopes while observers detected targets with peripheral vision. Peripheral contrast detection thresholds were measured binocularly using vertical Gabor stimuli presented at three eccentricities (±8°, 17°, 30°) in a spatial 2 alternative forced choice task. Contrast thresholds were measured in young adult (mean age 24.5 ± 2.6 years) emmetropes (n = 17; group SE: +0.19 ± 0.32D) and myopes (n = 25; group SE: −3.74 ± 1.99D). Attention at central fixation was manipulated with: (1) a low attention task, requiring simple fixation; or (2) a high attention task, which required subjects to perform a mathematical task. We found that at 30° all subjects exhibited lower contrast sensitivity (higher thresholds). In addition, myopes (Wilcoxon, p task. However, the attention dependent threshold increase for myopes was not significantly greater than for emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p = 0.27). Attentional load did not increase thresholds at 8° or 17° for either refractive group. These data indicate that myopes experience a greater decrease in contrast sensitivity in the far periphery than emmetropes when attention is deployed in central vision. PMID:27264028

  16. The "weekend effect" in pediatric surgery - increased mortality for children undergoing urgent surgery during the weekend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Seth D; Papandria, Dominic J; Aboagye, Jonathan; Salazar, Jose H; Van Arendonk, Kyle; Al-Omar, Khaled; Ortega, Gezzer; Sacco Casamassima, Maria Grazia; Abdullah, Fizan

    2014-07-01

    For a number of pediatric and adult conditions, morbidity and mortality are increased when patients present to the hospital on a weekend compared to weekdays. The objective of this study was to compare pediatric surgical outcomes following weekend versus weekday procedures. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the Kids' Inpatient Database, we identified 439,457 pediatric (Pediatric patients undergoing common urgent surgical procedures during a weekend admission have a higher adjusted risk of death, blood transfusion, and procedural complications. While the exact etiology of these findings is not clear, the timing of surgical procedures should be considered in the context of systems-based deficiencies that may be detrimental to pediatric surgical care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is urgent CT angiography necessary in cases of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, A Martín; Rodríguez, L Fernández; de Gracia, M Martí

    2017-01-06

    Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding usually presents as hematochezia, rectal bleeding or melena and represents 1-2% of the medical appointments in the Emergency Services. Mortality reaches the 30-40% and it is highly related with the severity and associated comorbidity. Most clinical practice guidelines include colonoscopy at some point in the diagnostic and therapeutic process (urgent for severe cases and ambulatory for mild ones) and look for predictors of severity. In the last years, there have been numerous studies where is clear the relevance and complementarity of advanced diagnostic imaging techniques, gradually incorporated as an alternative or second step in severe cases. Therefore, we have made a review of current scientific evidence to establish a clinical prediction rule for optimal indication of CT angiography in these patients. However, future studies providing greater robustness and level of evidence are necessary.

  18. [Urgent therapeutic penetrating autokeratoplasty for a purulent corneal ulcer in the only functional eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, A L; Kolbasko, A V; Tatarnikova, G N; Mamontova, É G

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a case of severe purulent corneal ulcer in the only functional eye of a young patient with Frank-Kamenetsky glaucoma and high-degree myopia. Combination therapy was ineffective and the patient developed a descemetocele. Due to the absence of cadaver corneas and small size of the only available conserved Alloplant cornea, the contralateral cornea (of the blind eye, which was enucleated under general anesthesia) was used for urgent therapeutic penetrating autokeratoplasty. Postoperative period was complicated with ocular hypertension, which was surgically resolved. To overcome the critical situation around keratoplasty, with results from Russian regulation gaps, the authors suggest creating interregional eye banks in large cities that would provide sampling, conservation and storage control of donor material in accordance with the existing legislation.

  19. [Urgent action needed to raise public awareness of age-related macular degeneration in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-xin

    2009-05-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The impact of AMD to the economics, society and the patients are huge. However, the awareness of AMD is alarmingly low. Even in developed countries, the awareness of AMD is below 30%. In terms of the risk factors of AMD, the awareness is also quite low, e.g., only 32% were aware of the causal link between smoking and AMD. Although cataract is the leading cause of the blindness in China, as the economic and social progress, as the coming of the aging society, as people pursuing higher quality of life, AMD will become a unignoring public health problem. Thus, it is urgent to take action now to increase the public awareness of AMD.

  20. The best management for 'crescendo biliary colic' is urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G S; Wemyss-Holden, S A; Maddern, G J

    1998-11-01

    Gallbladder disease due to stones is well recognised as falling into two categories, presenting with either chronic symptoms or developing acute cholecystitis or other complications. We describe an intermediate group of 14 patients (11 women, three men, median age 31 years) presenting with 4-14 days of at least daily attacks of resolving biliary colic, who underwent early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 hours of presentation. None had any evidence of acute inflammation, either at laparoscopy or on histology. Their surgery was straightforward with operating times ranging from 35-80 minutes and no complications. Patients with 'crescendo biliary colic' are often young women who can rarely afford invalidity. Rather than the current practice of analgesia for each attack and elective surgery weeks later, they are optimally managed by urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, preventing the development of complications and minimising the need for further medical involvement.

  1. Nosocomial outbreak of Pantoea agglomerans in a pediatric urgent care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana L. Bicudo

    Full Text Available Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram-negative bacterium whose isolates can be found in blood cultures and other secretions. This article described one outbreak of sepsis due to this bacterium in the pediatric urgent care center of a tertiary hospital, in Brasilia, Federal District. This was a case-control study and it evaluated the risk factors for acquisition of nosocomial sepsis caused by Pantoea agglomerans. Six case-patients and 15 control-patients have been found. The risk factors were: vomiting in the internment and presence of solution compositions in the intravenous hydration therapy received in bigger number than 2 compositions. The transference tube used for the compositions was contaminated with Pantoea agglomerans, characterizing the outbreak with common source. The evolution of all the patients was favorable.

  2. Hypersensitivity to aspirin and urgent percutaneous coronary intervention: A therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Sara; Sá, Catarina; Marinheiro, Rita; Rodrigues, Rita; Seixo, Filipe; Tomas, Elza; Caria, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common and five types of reactions have been defined. The prevalence of such reactions in patients with myocardial infarction is unclear, and so antiplatelet therapy in this population is a challenge. Various desensitization protocols have been developed but there are no specific guidelines for their use. The authors present the case of a patient with acute coronary syndrome and aspirin hypersensitivity referred for urgent coronary angiography. Aspirin desensitization therapy is safe and successful in many patients, but more randomized trials are needed to confirm its benefits in coronary artery disease patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Echinococcosis of Iliopsoas Muscle and Anaphylaxis as the Cause of Urgent Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Petrić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is an infectious disease which in humans is caused by the larval stadium of two types of parasites (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. It is most frequently localized in the liver, lungs and rarely in muscles. The parasite significantly affects the immune system of the host, which is why anaphylactic reactions are not rare, especially in cases of cyst rupture. This paper presents the case of a 53-year old woman who had urgent laparotomy on the presumed basis of rupture of ovarian tumour, with intra-abdominal haemorrhage and shock. It turned out to be echinococcosis of the iliopsoas muscle and anaphylactic reaction. The differential diagnosis of adnexal tumours should take into consideration echinococcosis as well. Symptoms of anaphylactic shock in the case of parasitic cyst rupture can easily be confused with the signs of haemorrhagic shock.

  4. A neurodynamic model of the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragopanagos, Nickolaos; Kockelkoren, Stephanus; Taylor, John G

    2005-08-01

    A brain-based neural model of attention is used to simulate results for the 'attentional blink', observed when a subject is exposed to a rapid stream of stimuli and required to monitor for two successive targets in the stream. The 'blink' occurs when the time between the first and second targets is 200-500 ms, when there is reduced accuracy for report of the second target. The model gives a qualitative explanation of the phenomenon, especially of how attention is bolstered, during the processing to report of a given stimulus, in order to defend reportable information from attack by distracters.

  5. 环太湖地区的饮水卫生急待重视%The Drinking Water Health around Tai Hu Lake Area Needs Attention Urgently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌勇坚; 沈佳; 吴小莲

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses about farmers' difficulties of water drinking and using arousing from stream pollution down some rural area and problems by exploiting groundwater and using bottled purified-water and some measurements taken to assure health and. Securities.

  6. Problems and Urgent Tasks of Development of the Theory of the Production Strategy of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelianenko Tetiana V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to identification of problem aspects and setting urgent tasks of development of the theory of production strategy of an enterprise. It shows that formation of the foundations of the theory of productiuon strategy started in the end of 60s and beginning of 70s of the twentieth century due to efforts of a number of researchers from western industrially developed countries. It establishes that today the theory of production strategy of an enterprise has a number of paradigmal provisions, generalisation of which shows that the production strategy is a component of the general strategy of an organisation, its goal is to provide the enterprise with strategically important competitive advantages, it refers to the category of functional strategies and is specified in the set of production and strategic decisions that cover the technological, resource, organisational and other aspects of the production activity of the enterprise, the subordinate character is inherent in it since it is developed for support of the general corporate and business strategy of the enterprise. Understanding the idea of the modern production and strategic paradigm made it possible to identify problem planes and set urgent tasks of further development of the theory of production strategy of an enterprise. These tasks are: development of methodological grounds of the study of production strategies of enterprises, systematisation of factors and specification of principles of formation of the production strategy, typologisation of traditional production strategies and specification of characteristic features of the newest, just forming and establishing in realities of the post-industrial environment, strategies.

  7. Interactions between working memory and selective attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) was used to examine the interactions between working memory and selective attention. We combined two unrelated tasks, one requiring working memory and the other selective attention, which were performed by some undergraduates. The ERP results revealed that both congruent and incongruent stimuli in the selective attention task evoked an N400 component, reaching the peak point at around 500 ms. The N400 evoked by incongruent stimuli was more negative than that of congruent, which indicated the difference of semantic N400. Furthermore, working memory load had a significant influence on the N400 evoked by selective attention task in parietal region. And working memory load showed difference in the ERPs of working memory retrieval in central and parietal regions. The ERPs of probe under high working memory load were more positive from 350 to 550 ms post-stimulus; however, stimulus type of selective attention had no influence on working memory retrieval. The present study shows that working memory does not play a major role in the selective attention, especially in ignoring distracter, but it influences the performance of the selective attention as the background. The congruency of target and distracter in the selective attention task does not influence the working memory retrieval.

  8. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  9. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.23 - First aid and medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and medical attention. 1926.23 Section 1926.23... Provisions § 1926.23 First aid and medical attention. First aid services and provisions for medical care... prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained...

  11. Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…

  12. Attention to neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2007-03-15

    Patients with spatial neglect fail to attend to stimuli in the contralesional visual world. He et al. used fMRI to reveal how disrupted functional connectivity, independent of task-evoked activation, in ventral and dorsal attentional networks may explain behavioral impairment in neglect and recovery from acute neglect.

  13. Pain and attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jorian Hendry Gerwin

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sense pain may be considered as a prerequisite for human survival. The experience of pain helps humans to avoid the execution of actions that can seriously endanger their lives; pain is therefore evolutionarily predisposed to interrupt and capture attention. However, this supposed int

  14. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil...

  15. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as co

  16. Personality and Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-28

    1977) have integrated information processing models of attention with social learning theory in order to conoeptualize the behavior change process...consistency at these loci. ’M Nielsen & Sarason 35 References Bandura, A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, Inc

  17. Pain and attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sense pain may be considered as a prerequisite for human survival. The experience of pain helps humans to avoid the execution of actions that can seriously endanger their lives; pain is therefore evolutionarily predisposed to interrupt and capture attention. However, this supposed

  18. Does attention redirection contribute to the effectiveness of attention bias modification on social anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nisha; Yu, Hongyu; Qian, Mingyi; Li, Songwei

    2015-12-01

    Attention bias modification (ABM) is designed to modify threat-related attention bias and thus alleviate anxiety. The current research examined whether consistently directing attention towards targeted goals per se contributes to ABM efficacy. We randomly assigned 68 non-clinical college students with elevated social anxiety to non-valence-specific attend-to-geometrics (AGC), attention modification (AMC), or attention control (ACC) conditions. We assessed subjective, behavioral, and physiological reactivity to a speech task and self-reported social anxiety symptoms. After training, participants in the AMC exhibited an attention avoidance from threat, and those in the AGC responded more rapidly toward targeted geometrics. There was a significant pre- to post-reduction in subjective speech distress across groups, but behavioral and physiological reactivity to speech, as well as self-report social anxiety symptoms, remained unchanged. These results lead to questions concerning effectiveness of ABM training for reducing social anxiety. Further examination of the current ABM protocol is required.

  19. How spatial attention and attentional resources influence the processing of emotional visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G

    2010-08-01

    Pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant pictures appeared for 150 ms in either peripheral or foveal vision, with or without a concurrent foveal load task. Participants indicated whether the visual scene in the picture was or was not pleasant, or was or was not unpleasant. The manipulation of picture location (foveal vs. peripheral) aimed to tap spatial attention, while the perceptual load task was used to manipulate the availability of attentional resources. Results showed that emotional valence was discriminated above the chance level even in the attentionally-constrained conditions (peripheral presentation combined with perceptual load). Nevertheless, valence encoding depended on both attentional mechanisms, as indicated by reductions in accuracy and by slowed reaction times in valence identification when attention was allocated elsewhere, relative to when the scene appeared at fixation and when there was no concurrent task. This indicates that emotional processing requires attention.

  20. Attention theory and training research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  1. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  2. Neural Mechanisms of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-21

    young rat’s ability to modify its response when changing from food to water deprivation. Behavioural Brain Research , 19,89-92. Brenner, E., & Mirmiran, M...environmental stimuli in rabbits. Behavioural Brain Research , j3,231-240. Fontani, G., Grazzi, F., & Meucci, M. (1984b). Effect of piracetam plus... Behavioural Brain Research , 23,147-157. Meck, W. H. (1991). Modality-specific circadian rhythmicities influence mechanisms of attention and memory

  3. Individual Differences in Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Psychology Technical Report, August, 1977. It Attention 50 References Atkinson , R.C., & Shiffrin , R.M. Human memory : A proposed system and its control...referred to as a continuous paired assoc- iates task. The present form was developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), who used it to test their buffer...They found that digit memori - zation Interfered with sentence comprehension. Baddeley and Hitch’s inter- pretation was that the two tasks competed for

  4. 47 CFR 11.12 - Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder... SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.12 Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder. Existing two-tone Attention... Attention Signal decoder will no longer be required and the two-tone Attention Signal will be used...

  5. Between Good Intentions and Urgent Stakeholder Pressures: Institutionalizing the Universities' Third Mission in the Swedish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneworth, Paul; de Boer, Harry; Jongbloed, Ben

    2015-01-01

    There is a widespread recognition across Europe, amongst policy-makers, university managers and scholars, that universities' societal roles (the "third mission") are increasingly important. As universities become increasingly strategically managed, it is perhaps unsurprising that attention has turned towards the strategic management of…

  6. Between good intentions and urgent stakeholder pressures: institutionalizing the universities' third mission in the Swedish context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; de Boer, Harry F.; Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a widespread recognition across Europe, amongst policy-makers, university managers and scholars, that universities’ societal roles (the ‘third mission’) are increasingly important. As universities become increasingly strategically managed, it is perhaps unsurprising that attention has turne

  7. Between Good Intentions and Urgent Stakeholder Pressures: Institutionalizing the Universities' Third Mission in the Swedish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneworth, Paul; de Boer, Harry; Jongbloed, Ben

    2015-01-01

    There is a widespread recognition across Europe, amongst policy-makers, university managers and scholars, that universities' societal roles (the "third mission") are increasingly important. As universities become increasingly strategically managed, it is perhaps unsurprising that attention has turned towards the strategic management of…

  8. Impact of weaning from acute dialytic therapy on outcomes of chronic kidney disease following urgent-start dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Wu, Vin-Cent; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Lin, Shih-Hwa; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2015-01-01

    Discontinuation of acute, unplanned dialysis is always an important therapeutic goal in dialysis-requiring patients with existing chronic kidney disease. Only a limited proportion of patients could be weaned off dialysis and remained dialysis-free. Here we performed a multicenter, observational study to investigate factors associated with successful weaning from acute dialysis, and to explore the potential impact of weaning itself on outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease following urgent-start dialysis. We recruited 440 chronic kidney disease patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate 1 month died, and 36 (8.6%) were removed from dialysis, with 26 (6.2%) remaining alive and dialysis-free. Logistic regression analysis found that age ≧ 65 years, ischemic acute tubular necrosis, nephrotoxic exposure, urinary obstruction, and higher predialysis estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum hemoglobin were predictors of weaning off dialysis. After adjustment for propensity scores for dialysis weaning, Cox proportional hazards models showed successful weaning from dialysis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.06; 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.35), along with a history of hypertension and serum albumin, were independent protectors for early death. Conversely, a history of stroke, peripheral arterial disease and cancer predicted the occurrence of early mortality. In conclusion, this prospective cohort study shows that compared to patients with chronic kidney disease who became end-stage renal disease after acute dialysis, patients who could be weaned off acute dialytic therapy were associated with reduced risk of premature death over a 2-year observation period.

  9. Robotic right colectomy for hemorrhagic right colon cancer: a case report and review of the literature of minimally invasive urgent colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, Emanuele; Brunetti, Francesco; Disabato, Mara; Salloum, Chady; Azoulay, Daniel; De'angelis, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Right colon cancer rarely presents as an emergency, in which bowel occlusion and massive bleeding are the most common clinical presentations. Although there are no definite guidelines, the first line treatment for massive right colon cancer bleeding should ideally stop the bleeding using endoscopy or interventional radiology, subsequently allowing proper tumor staging and planning of a definite treatment strategy. Minimally invasive approaches for right and left colectomy have progressively increased and are widely performed in elective settings, with laparoscopy chosen in the majority of cases. Conversely, in emergent and urgent surgeries, minimally invasive techniques are rarely performed. We report a case of an 86-year-old woman who was successfully treated for massive rectal bleeding in an urgent setting by robotic surgery (da Vinci Intuitive Surgical System®). At admission, the patient had severe anemia (Hb 6 g/dL) and hemodynamic stability. A computer tomography scanner with contrast enhancement showed a right colon cancer with active bleeding; no distant metastases were found. A colonoscopy did not show any other bowel lesion, while a constant bleeding from the right pre-stenotic colon mass was temporarily arrested by endoscopic argon coagulation. A robotic right colectomy in urgent setting (within 24 hours from admission) was indicated. A three-armed robot was used with docking in the right side of the patient and a fourth trocar for the assistant surgeon. Because of the patient's poor nutritional status, a double-barreled ileocolostomy was performed. The post-operative period was uneventful. As the neoplasia was a pT3N0 adenocarcinoma, surveillance was decided after a multidisciplinary meeting, and restoration of the intestinal continuity was performed 3 months later, once good nutritional status was achieved. In addition, we reviewed the current literature on minimally invasive colectomy performed for colon carcinoma in emergent or urgent setting. No

  10. The centroid paradigm: Quantifying feature-based attention in terms of attention filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Chubb, Charles; Wright, Charles E; Sperling, George

    2016-02-01

    This paper elaborates a recent conceptualization of feature-based attention in terms of attention filters (Drew et al., Journal of Vision, 10(10:20), 1-16, 2010) into a general purpose centroid-estimation paradigm for studying feature-based attention. An attention filter is a brain process, initiated by a participant in the context of a task requiring feature-based attention, which operates broadly across space to modulate the relative effectiveness with which different features in the retinal input influence performance. This paper describes an empirical method for quantitatively measuring attention filters. The method uses a "statistical summary representation" (SSR) task in which the participant strives to mouse-click the centroid of a briefly flashed cloud composed of items of different types (e.g., dots of different luminances or sizes), weighting some types of items more strongly than others. In different attention conditions, the target weights for different item types in the centroid task are varied. The actual weights exerted on the participant's responses by different item types in any given attention condition are derived by simple linear regression. Because, on each trial, the centroid paradigm obtains information about the relative effectiveness of all the features in the display, both target and distractor features, and because the participant's response is a continuous variable in each of two dimensions (versus a simple binary choice as in most previous paradigms), it is remarkably powerful. The number of trials required to estimate an attention filter is an order of magnitude fewer than the number required to investigate much simpler concepts in typical psychophysical attention paradigms.

  11. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in road traffic accidents attended at public urgent and emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Souto, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima, Cheila Marina de; Montenegro, Marli de Mesquita Silva

    2016-12-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle road traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Brazil. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents attended in public urgent and emergency services in the state capitals and the Federal District. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA Survey) in 2014. Data were analyzed according to sociodemographic, event and attendance characteristics. Proportional differences between genders were analyzed by chi-square test (Rao-Scott) with 5% significance level. Motorcyclist-related attendances (n = 9,673) reported a prevalence of men (gender ratio = 3.2), young people aged 20-39 years (65.7%), black / brown (73.6%), paid work (76.4%). Helmet use was reported by 79.1% of the victims, 13.3% had consumed alcohol in the six hours prior to the accident, 41.4% of the events were related to the victim's work. Accidents were more frequent on weekends, in the morning and late afternoon. These characteristics can support the development of public accident prevention policies and health promotion.

  12. A severe case of hemobilia and biliary fistula following an open urgent cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del monaco Pamela

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholecystectomy has been the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones, but remains the greatest source of post-operative biliary injuries. Laparoscopic approach has been recently preferred because of short hospitalisation and low morbidity but has an higher incidence of biliary leakages and bile duct injuries than open one due to a technical error or misinterpretation of the anatomy. Even open cholecystectomy presents a small number of complications especially if it was performed in urgency. Hemobilia is one of the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the biliary ducts into the gastrointestinal tract due to trauma, advent of invasive procedures such as percutaneous liver biopsy, transhepatic cholangiography, and biliary drainage. Methods We report here a case of massive hemobilia in a 60-year-old man who underwent an urgent open cholecystectomy and a subsequent placement of a transhepatic biliary drainage. Conclusion The management of these complications enclose endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical therapies. After a diagnosis of biliary fistula, it's most important to assess the adequacy of bile drainage to determine a controlled fistula and to avoid bile collection and peritonitis. Transarterial embolization is the first line of intervention to stop hemobilia while surgical intervention should be considered if embolization fails or is contraindicated.

  13. Environmental Assessment of Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy has completed the Environmental Assessment (EA) of Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel and issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the proposed action. The EA and FONSI are enclosed for your information. The Department has decided to accept a limited number of spent nuclear fuel elements (409 elements) containing uranium that was enriched in the United States from eight research reactors in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. This action is necessary to maintain the viability of a major US nuclear weapons nonproliferation program to limit or eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium in civil programs. The purpose of the EA is to maintain the cooperation of the foreign research reactor operators with the nonproliferation program while a more extensive Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is prepared on a proposed broader policy involving the acceptance of up to 15,000 foreign research reactor spent fuel elements over a 10 to 15 year period. Based on an evaluation of transport by commercial container liner or chartered vessel, five eastern seaboard ports, and truck and train modes of transporting the spent fuel overland to the Savannah River Sits, the Department has concluded that no significant impact would result from any combination of port and made of transport. In addition, no significant impacts were found from interim storage of spent fuel at the Savannah River Site.

  14. Patient-provider secure messaging in VA: variations in adoption and association with urgent care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Stephanie L; Hogan, Timothy P; Rao, Sowmya R; Allison, Jeroan J; Quill, Ann L; Feng, Hua; Phillips, Barrett D; Nazi, Kim M; Haidary, Susan T; Houston, Thomas K

    2013-03-01

    The Veterans Health Administration has implemented patient to clinical team electronic asynchronous secure messaging (SM). This disruptive technology has the potential to support continuous, coordinated quality care, but limited evidence supports this connection. The objective of this paper is to (1) measure SM implementation and identify facility characteristics associated with higher rates of adoption and (2) understand the association of SM use and noncontinuity care [ie, urgent care (UC)] utilization rates. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 132 VA facilities implementing SM in primary care. We used a combination of cross-sectional survey data on predictors of SM implementation and longitudinal data (July 2010-June 2012) on use of SM and UC. Human resources (coordinator and staff/volunteer availability to directly assist Veterans), computer resources (computers and computer rooms for Veterans), and leadership support for coordinators were associated with increased SM adoption rates. Higher SM use was associated with lower UC rates; early adopters of SM achieved a greater decrease in UC utilization over time than later adopters. In this exploratory analysis of early SM implementation in VA, we found a path of associations linking SM and reductions in UC utilization. These results suggest a need for further examination of the relationship between SM and its effects on health care utilization patterns.

  15. Research and increase of expertise in arachno-entomology are urgently needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2012-01-01

    Considering the contents of international journals of parasitology dealing with broader topics inside this field show that rather a few papers appear with studies in the discipline of arachno-entomology. In the journals Journal of Parasitology, Parasitology Research and Trends in Parasitology, the relations of published papers on protozoology, helminthology and arachno-entomology showed that in all three journals, papers on protozoans were the most common, while those on helminths of any kind reached the second place being rather as common as the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research and in the Journal of Parasitology. In Trends of Parasitology, however, the papers on helminths reached only about 25% of the numbers published on protozoan topics. But in all three journals-and this is important-the papers on arachno-entomological themes were scarce reaching less than the half of the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research, and only about 15% in the Journal of Parasitology and in the Trends of Parasitology. These disproportions between the three great subdivisions of targets in the focus of parasitological research are dangerous, since this lack exists already for several decades and thus led to a backlog of unsolved increasing problems that are caused by ticks, mites, insects and/or parasitic crustaceans especially in times of intensive globalization and global warming. Studies on the biology, vectorship, invasion and spreading of wanted vectors and on the control of pests and parasites belonging to the field of arachno-entomology are urgently needed.

  16. Health literacy in the urgent care setting: What factors impact consumer comprehension of health information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Traci L; Morris, Nancy J

    2017-05-01

    An increasing number of Americans are using urgent care (UC) clinics due to: improved health insurance coverage, the need to decrease cost, primary care offices with limited appointment availability, and a desire for convenient care. Patients are treated by providers they may not know for episodic illness or injuries while in pain or not feeling well. Treatment instructions and follow-up directions are provided quickly. To examine health literacy in the adult UC population and identify patient characteristics associated with health literacy risk. As part of a larger cross-sectional study, UC patients seen between October 2013 and January 2014 completed a demographic questionnaire and the Newest Vital Sign. Descriptive, nonparametric analyses, and a multinomial logistic regression were done to assess health literacy, associated and predictive factors. A total of 57.5% of 285 participants had adequate health literacy. The likelihood of limited health literacy was associated with increased age (p literacy is common in a suburban UC setting, increasing the risk that consumers may not understand vital health information. Clear provider communication and confirmation of comprehension of discharge instructions for self-management is essential to optimize outcomes for UC patients. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  17. An urgent need to understand and address the safety and well-being of hospital "sitters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Pompeii, Lisa A; Lipscomb, Hester J; Smith, Claudia D; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Dement, John M

    2015-12-01

    Hospital sitters provide continuous observation of patients at risk of harming themselves or others. Little is known about sitters' occupational safety and well-being, including experiences with patient/visitor-perpetrated violence (type II). Data from surveys, focus groups, individual interviews at six U.S. hospitals were used to characterize the prevalence of and circumstance surrounding type II violence against sitters, as well as broader issues related to sitter use. Sitter respondents had a high 12-month prevalence of physical assault, physical threat, and verbal abuse compared to other workers in the hospital setting. Sitters and other staff indicated the need for clarification of sitters' roles regarding patient care and sitter well-being (e.g., calling for assistance, taking lunch/restroom breaks), training of sitters in personal safety and de-escalation, methods to communicate patient/visitor behaviors, and unit-level support. The burden of type II violence against hospital sitters is concerning. Policies surrounding sitters' roles and violence prevention training are urgently needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. URGENT DESTABILIZERS OF PUBLIC AND STATE SECURITY, TACTICS OF COUNTERACTION TO IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Marinkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At creation of civil society in any constitutional state there is a crime counteraction problem. In the modern Russian Federation safety problems from the negative social phenomena and processes force scientists, public agents and ordinary citizens to investigate constantly such determinants and the reasons (destabilizers of safety of society and the constitutional state, to eliminate their consequences. Such problems as are urgent now: increase in information on ways and consequences of violence in the mass media (MM, the Internet, computer games, traditional physical abuse. The number of questions and assessment by citizens of consequences of the conducted terrorist attacks and infringement of life of citizens causes. The accounting of the specified problems and versions of decisions in law-enforcement practice, will allow to promote as a result efficiency of prevention of offenses and crimes and will bring closer modern Russia to ideal model of the constitutional state with real civil society. In article the author designates a number of the legal and social destabilizers of safety existing now in the Russian society and the state, proposes the solution of their negative impact on society within tactics of crime control.

  19. Newly discovered reefs in the southern Abrolhos Bank, Brazil: Anthropogenic impacts and urgent conservation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, E F; Bertoncini, A A; Pinheiro, H T; Machado, L F; Vilar, C C; Guabiroba, H C; Costa, T J F; Bueno, L S; Santos, L N; Francini-Filho, R B; Hostim-Silva, M; Joyeux, J-C

    2017-01-15

    The Abrolhos Bank is an area of high ecological, socio-economic importance and harbour the richest and most-extensive coral reefs in the South Atlantic. Here we report the discovery of shallow (12-25m depth) reef complex with ten large biogenic structures, intermediate between the typical mushroom-shaped pinnacles of the northern Abrolhos Bank (17°-18° S) and the small patch reefs found on the central/southern coast of the Espírito Santo State (19°-20° S). The newly discovered reefs harbour a relatively rich and abundant reef community, with 73 fish and 14 benthic cnidarian species, including endangered and commercially important ones. We discuss on urgent needs of properly mapping and understanding the ecological functioning of this reef system. Information provided here is a baseline for future impact evaluations, particularly considering the recent worst environmental disaster of Brazil from a dam collapse in Doce river that affected the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyborg practices: call-handlers and computerised decision support systems in urgent and emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Catherine; Halford, Susan; Turnbull, Joanne; Prichard, Jane

    2014-06-01

    This article draws on data collected during a 2-year project examining the deployment of a computerised decision support system. This computerised decision support system was designed to be used by non-clinical staff for dealing with calls to emergency (999) and urgent care (out-of-hours) services. One of the promises of computerised decisions support technologies is that they can 'hold' vast amounts of sophisticated clinical knowledge and combine it with decision algorithms to enable standardised decision-making by non-clinical (clerical) staff. This article draws on our ethnographic study of this computerised decision support system in use, and we use our analysis to question the 'automated' vision of decision-making in healthcare call-handling. We show that embodied and experiential (human) expertise remains central and highly salient in this work, and we propose that the deployment of the computerised decision support system creates something new, that this conjunction of computer and human creates a cyborg practice.

  1. Two-stage liver transplantation: an effective procedure in urgent conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalti, Roberto; Busani, Stefano; Masetti, Michele; Girardis, Massimo; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Begliomini, Bruno; Rompianesi, Gianluca; Rinaldi, Laura; Ballarin, Roberto; Pasetto, Alberto; Gerunda, Giorgio E

    2010-01-01

    Temporary portocaval shunt and total hepatectomy is a technique used in the presence of toxic liver syndrome because of fulminant hepatic failure, hepatic trauma, primary non-function (PNF), and eclampsia. We performed this technique on four patients. An indication for anhepatic state was severe hemodynamic instability in three of them. Etiologies of these three patients were as follows: PNF after liver transplantation, ischemic hepatitis after right hepatic artery embolization, and massive reperfusion syndrome during a liver transplantation. In the fourth patient, during the liver transplantation when hepatic artery was ligated, a kidney carcinoma in the donor graft was discovered. We decided to complete the hepatectomy and to construct a temporary portocaval shunt. Mean anhepatic phases were 19 h and 15 min. All patients survived the two-stage liver transplantation procedure without major complications. Our cases demonstrated that temporary portocaval shunt while awaiting urgent liver transplantation could be an effective "bridge" in selected patients who develop toxic liver syndrome; however, a short time between portocaval shunt and transplantation and careful intensive care managements are mandatory.

  2. Accidental falls in urgent and emergency care: results of the 2014 VIVA Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Sousa, Carlos Augusto Moreira de; Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves de

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the cases of falls in urgent and emergency care services of 24 Brazilian capitals and the Federal District participating in the 2014 VIVA Survey. We sought to describe the epidemiological profile of victims, characterizing the event and the severity of injuries it caused and to perform an association study. We calculated the simple and relative frequencies of variables and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis for complex sample data in order to verify associations between falls and selected variables. Fall victims profile results show a predominance of males, age groups 0-9years and 20-39 years and brown skin. Outcomes show that 56% fell from own height, public road was the most frequent place of falls and 92.7% of people receiving care for falls suffered some kind of injury, of which most common were bruises, sprain and strains, followed by cut/laceration. In the final model, we were able to associate fall with gender, age, education, disability and place of the event. The likelihood of falls at school is 14% higher than at home, but falls in recreation areas, public roads and other places are less likely than at home.

  3. Individual differences in attentional modulation of cortical responses correlate with selective attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inyong; Wang, Le; Bharadwaj, Hari; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Many studies have shown that attention modulates the cortical representation of an auditory scene, emphasizing an attended source while suppressing competing sources. Yet, individual differences in the strength of this attentional modulation and their relationship with selective attention ability are poorly understood. Here, we ask whether differences in how strongly attention modulates cortical responses reflect differences in normal-hearing listeners' selective auditory attention ability. We asked listeners to attend to one of three competing melodies and identify its pitch contour while we measured cortical electroencephalographic responses. The three melodies were either from widely separated pitch ranges ("easy trials"), or from a narrow, overlapping pitch range ("hard trials"). The melodies started at slightly different times; listeners attended either the leading or lagging melody. Because of the timing of the onsets, the leading melody drew attention exogenously. In contrast, attending the lagging melody required listeners to direct top-down attention volitionally. We quantified how attention amplified auditory N1 response to the attended melody and found large individual differences in the N1 amplification, even though only correctly answered trials were used to quantify the ERP gain. Importantly, listeners with the strongest amplification of N1 response to the lagging melody in the easy trials were the best performers across other types of trials. Our results raise the possibility that individual differences in the strength of top-down gain control reflect inherent differences in the ability to control top-down attention.

  4. Attention, Predation, Counterintuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Bram Stoker’s seminal horror novel Dracula (1897) has been subjected to a vast number of different critical readings, many of which are deeply flawed, e.g. by proceeding from defunct psychological theories. Incorporating recent advances in evolutionary social science, I offer a biocultural reading...... of Dracula to account for the novel’s impact and resilience. Dracula connected squarely with late-Victorian anxieties, but the novel also appeals to trans-historical adaptive dispositions. I analyze Stoker’s use of narrative strategies to grab and sustain attention, and Count Dracula as a supercharged...

  5. Neurofibromatozis and Attention Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYILMAZ et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type VI, a disease characterized by the presence of café-au-lait spots withoutthe presence of neurofibromas typically present in neurofibromatosis, as well as cognitivefunction and speech problems, often shows neurological involvement. We describe a case of a14-year-old child who has speech problems and isolated cafè-au-lait macules. We performedan IQ test on him and he scored 70 points. His problems started when he was approximately 5years old (school age. He was diagnosed with attention deficit disorder syndrome withouthyperactivity after neuropsychiatric investigation. We reported this case to improve recognitionof NF VI in children who have cognitive function problems.

  6. Cirurgia colorectal urgente: modelos de morbimortalidade cirúrgica no adulto oncológico idoso e muito idoso

    OpenAIRE

    GOMES,A.; Batista, H.; Sousa, M; Rocha, R.; Marinho, R.; Carneiro, C.; Pignatelli, N.; Nunes, V

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A população idosa que recorre ao Serviço de Urgência tem vindo a aumentar. É uma população com características fisiopatológicas específicas que coloca dilemas sobre o risco/benefício da cirurgia urgente. OBJECTIVOS: Comparar os scores P-POSSUM, CR-POSSUM e ACPGBI enquanto modelos de morbimortalidade cirúrgica nos idosos e muito idosos submetidos a cirurgia coloretal urgente por doença maligna. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal retrospectivo. Foram incluídos doentes c...

  7. Mallas profilácticas en laparotomía urgente. Resultados a largo plazo en un estudio retrospectivo.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar la eficacia y seguridad del uso de mallas sintéticas profilácticas en laparotomías urgentes para la prevención de hernia incisional y evisceración. Planteamos un estudio retrospectivo de datos informatizados de 266 pacientes sometidos a laparotomía media urgente durante dos años. Se analizaon las complicaciones postoperatorias y la incidencia de hernia incisional según el tipo de cierre de pared. Podemos concluir que el uso de malla profiláctica s...

  8. Attention decay in science

    CERN Document Server

    Parolo, Pietro Della Briotta; Ghosh, Rumi; Huberman, Bernardo A; Kaski, Kimmo; Fortunato, Santo

    2015-01-01

    The exponential growth in the number of scientific papers makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to keep track of all the publications relevant to their work. Consequently, the attention that can be devoted to individual papers, measured by their citation counts, is bound to decay rapidly. In this work we make a thorough study of the life-cycle of papers in different disciplines. Typically, the citation rate of a paper increases up to a few years after its publication, reaches a peak and then decreases rapidly. This decay can be described by an exponential or a power law behavior, as in ultradiffusive processes, with exponential fitting better than power law for the majority of cases. The decay is also becoming faster over the years, signaling that nowadays papers are forgotten more quickly. However, when time is counted in terms of the number of published papers, the rate of decay of citations is fairly independent of the period considered. This indicates that the attention of scholars depends on th...

  9. The Commingled Division of Visual Attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechuan Sun

    Full Text Available Many critical activities require visual attention to be distributed simultaneously among distinct tasks where the attended foci are not spatially separated. In our two experiments, participants performed a large number of trials where both a primary task (enumeration of spots and a secondary task (reporting the presence/absence or identity of a distinctive shape required the division of visual attention. The spots and the shape were commingled spatially and the shape appeared unpredictably on a relatively small fraction of the trials. The secondary task stimulus (the shape was reported in inverse proportion to the attentional load imposed by the primary task (enumeration of spots. When the shape did appear, performance on the primary task (enumeration suffered relative to when the shape was absent; both speed and accuracy were compromised. When the secondary task required identification in addition to detection, reaction times increased by about 200 percent. These results are broadly compatible with biased competition models of perceptual processing. An important area of application, where the commingled division of visual attention is required, is the augmented reality head-up display (AR-HUD. This innovation has the potential to make operating vehicles safer but our data suggest that there are significant concerns regarding driver distraction.

  10. The Role of Attention in Subitizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railo, Henry; Koivisto, Mika; Revonsuo, Antti; Hannula, Minna M.

    2008-01-01

    The process of rapidly and accurately enumerating small numbers of items without counting, i.e. subitizing, is often believed to rest on parallel preattentive processes. However, the possibility that enumeration of small numbers of items would also require attentional processes has remained an open question. The present study is the first that…

  11. El Mapa de la Incapacidad en España una necesidad urgente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli López-Guillén García

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Es urgente adaptar los sistemas de recogida de datos en incapacidad laboral para conseguir una mejor explotación epidemiológica de los mismos que facilite conocer la situación, análisis y planificación estratégica sobre incapacidad, creando con una base de datos mínimos básicos el Mapa de la Incapacidad en España permitiendo conocer las causas y el impacto de las situaciones de incapacidad laboral, practicar una gestión integral de recursos, prevenir las situaciones de incapacidad laboral, potenciar los mecanismos de detección de la enfermedad y los aspectos preventivos de la salud laboral, mejorar la gestión sanitaria que precisa y la protección socio laboral. Conclusiones: Proponemos la base mínima de datos para la elaborar el Mapa de Incapacidad. Conociendo el impacto incapacitante de la pérdida de salud en la población trabajadora se procederá a una mejor gestión y adecuación de recursos atencionales, promocionales, preventivos, reintegradores, y prestacionales en torno a la incapacidad temporal y permanente. Conocer nuestra población "incapacitada (por enfermedad" es fundamental para cualquier análisis sobre impacto y necesidades de protección social, para contrastarla con la población activa, la población en formación o inactiva previa a la edad laboral, y la población inactiva jubilada.

  12. Effects of implementation of an urgent surgical care service on subspecialty general surgery training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Leanne; Buczkowski, Andrzej; Panton, Ormond M.N.; Sidhu, Ravi S.; Hameed, S. Morad

    2010-01-01

    Background In July 2007, a large Canadian teaching hospital realigned its general surgery services into elective general surgery subspecialty-based services (SUBS) and a new urgent surgical care (USC) service (also know in the literature as an acute care surgery service). The residents on SUBS had their number of on-call days reduced to enable them to focus on activities related to SUBS. Our aim was to examine the effect of the creation of the USC service on the educational experiences of SUBS residents. Methods We enrolled residents who were on SUBS for the 6 months before and after the introduction of the USC service. We collected data by use of a survey, WEB eVAL and recorded attendance at academic half days. Our 2 primary outcomes were residents’ attendance at ambulatory clinics and compliance with the reduction in the number of on-call days. Our secondary outcomes included residents’ time for independent study, attendance at academic half days, operative experience, attendance at multidisciplinary rounds and overall satisfaction with SUBS. Results Residents on SUBS had a decrease in the mean number of on-call days per resident per month from 6.28 to 1.84 (p = 0.006), an increase in mean attendance at academic half days from 65% to 87% (p = 0.028), at multidisciplinary rounds (p = 0.002) and at ambulatory clinics and an increase in independent reading time (p = 0.015), and they reported an improvement in their work environment. There was no change in the amount of time residents spent in the operating room or in their overall satisfaction with SUBS. Conclusion Residents’ education in the SUBS structure was positively affected by the creation of a USC service. Compliance with the readjustment of on-call duties was high and was identified as the single most significant factor in enabling residents to take full advantage of the unique educational opportunities available only while on SUBS. PMID:20334744

  13. Psychopathology of the General Population Referred by Primary Care Physicians for Urgent Assessment in Psychiatric Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith McLenan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18–65 years referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs to an Urgent Referral Team (URT based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors.Method: One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis. From the total population, a convenience sample of 40 people was selected and assessed to evaluate whether follow-up appointments after the first visit could reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety in the outpatients seen by the URT. A two-sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess the variations in the scores during the follow-up visits.Results: We found a statistically significant prevalence of depressive disorders, comorbid with anxiety at first presentation in people who were females, white, never married, living with a partner, not studying and not in paid employment. The common presentation of borderline personality disorder and dysthymia in this population underscores its vulnerability to major socioeconomic challenges.Conclusion: The data confirmed the impact that primary care cooperation with psychiatric hospitals can have on the psychiatric system, and as a reflection, on the population’s mental health and well-being. In fact, active cooperation and early diagnosis and intervention will help detect cases at risk in the general population and reduce admissions into hospitals.

  14. New challenge of tuberculosis control in shanghai;urgent need to help internal migrants in the period of economic transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Shaokang; Liu xiaoyun; Tang Shenglan; Squire S B; Zheng Ni

    2003-01-01

    @@ RATIONALE: Increasing internal migration from rural areas to cities in the period of economic transition in China has lead to changes in disease pattern and health service provision, including tuberculosis control. Tuberculosis control in migrants, being one forth population in Shanghai, is very important and urgent.

  15. 76 FR 14269 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, March 7, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-6257 Filed 3-15-11... Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C te d'Ivoire Memorandum for the Secretary of State..., including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended,...

  16. 75 FR 34617 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Somalia and Food Pipeline Breaks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 8, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-14879 Filed... Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Somalia and Food Pipeline Breaks for Refugee and... Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended, (22 U.S.C.2601), I hereby...

  17. Genomic analysis of diversity, population structure, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae, an urgent threat to public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Holt (Kathryn E.); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); R.N. Zadoks (Ruth N.); S. Baker (Stephen); C.A. Whitehouse (Chris A.); D. Dance (David); A. Jenney (Adam); T.R. Connor (Thomas R.); L.Y. Hsu (Li Yang); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); S. Brisse; H. Cao (Hanwei); J. Wilksch (Jonathan); C. Gorrie (Claire); M.B. Schultz (Mark B.); D.J. Edwards (David J.); K. Van Nguyen (Kinh); T.V. Nguyen (Trung Vu); T.T. Dao (Trinh Tuyet); M. Mensink (Martijn); V. Le Minh (Vien); N.T.K. Nhu (Nguyen Thi Khanh); C. Schultsz (Constance); K. Kuntaman (Kuntaman); P.N. Newton (Paul N.); C.E. Moore (Catrin E.); R.A. Strugnell (Richard A.); N.R. Thomson (Nicholas R.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractKlebsiella pneumoniae is nowrecognized as an urgent threat to human health because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains associated with hospital outbreaks and hypervirulent strains associated with severe community-acquired infections. K. pneumoniae is ubiquitous in the

  18. Knowledge production connected to the social construction of the Urgent Project System in Sharp Co. : Revisiting social constructionism

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noboru; Urano, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose that the scientific knowledge has a public nature. Our knowledge production, therefore, is inevitably connected to the realities socially constructed. We discuss how our knowledge production is connected to the management practices, according to our field research of the urgent project system in Sharp Co..

  19. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  1. Developmental attentional dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Kerbel, Noa; Shvimer, Lilach

    2010-01-01

    Attentional dyslexia is a reading deficit in which letters migrate between neighboring words, but are correctly identified and keep their correct relative position within the word. Thus, for example, fig tree can be read as fig free or even tie free. This study reports on 10 Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental attentional dyslexia and explores in detail the characteristics of their between-word errors. Each participant read 2290 words, presented in word pairs: 845 horizontally presented word pairs, 240 vertically presented word pairs, and 60 nonword pairs. The main results are that almost all migrations preserve the relative position of the migrating letter within the word, indicating that the between-word position can be impaired while the within-word position encoding remains intact. This result is also supported by the finding that the participants did not make many letter position errors within words. Further analyses indicated that more errors occur in longer words, that most migrations occur in final letters (which are the leftmost letters in Hebrew), and that letters migrate both horizontally and vertically, and more frequently from the first to the second word in horizontal presentation. More migrations occurred when the result of migration was an existing word. Similarity between words in a pair did not increase error rates, and more migrations occurred when the words shared fewer letters. The between-word errors included the classic errors of migration of a letter between words, but also omission of one instance of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, an error that constituted a considerable percentage of the between-word errors, and intrusion of a letter from one word to the corresponding position in the neighboring word without erasing the original letter in the same position.

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  3. Spatial attention in written word perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eMontani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in visual word recognition and reading aloud is a long debated issue. Studies of both developmental and acquired reading disorders provide growing evidence that spatial attention is critically involved in word reading, in particular for the phonological decoding of unfamiliar letter strings. However, studies on healthy participants have produced contrasting results. The aim of this study was to investigate how the allocation of spatial attention may influence the perception of letter strings in skilled readers. High frequency words, low frequency words and pseudowords were briefly and parafoveally presented either in the left or the right visual field. Attentional allocation was modulated by the presentation of a spatial cue before the target string. Accuracy in reporting the target string was modulated by the spatial cue but this effect varied with the type of string. For unfamiliar strings, processing was facilitated when attention was focused on the string location and hindered when it was diverted from the target. This finding is consistent the assumptions of the CDP+ model of reading aloud, as well as with familiarity sensitivity models that argue for a flexible use of attention according with the specific requirements of the string. Moreover, we found that processing of high-frequency words was facilitated by an extra-large focus of attention. The latter result is consistent with the hypothesis that a broad distribution of attention is the default mode during reading of familiar words because it might optimally engage the broad receptive fields of the highest detectors in the hierarchical system for visual word recognition.

  4. Un problema urgente: la dispersione scolastica. Note sul caso-Finlandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giosi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate and analyze the phenomenon of school drop-out in Italy through a comparison with those models, the Finnish first and foremost, in which this phenomenon appears to be significantly reduced. It will, therefore, to examine what are the unique aspects of their education system in Finland, taking into account the specificities of the social, economic and cultural context, with particular attention to the issue of dispersion, trying to identify possible transferable solu- tions to our school system, with particular reference to the upper-secondary school.

  5. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  6. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  7. Conductas urgentes y evaluativas en función del nivel de riesgo en situaciones de conducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Megías

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Las situaciones de riesgo en conducción requieren, en la mayoría de las ocasiones, una decisión de carácter urgente, distinguiéndose de lo que se ajustaría más a una conducta evaluativa que podría llevar a cabo un observador. Para explorar la diferenciación entre conductas evaluativas y urgentes, e intentar estudiar bajo qué condiciones pueden producirse, se diseñó una escala de riesgo subjetivo basada en una taxonomía de situaciones de riesgo en conducción. Este estudio refleja una falta de relación directa entre la evaluación de la situación y la decisión comportamental con carácter urgente que demanda dicha situación. Las conductas urgentes obtuvieron respuestas más conservadoras y diferencias en tiempos de reacción dependiendo del nivel de riesgo de la situación, lo cual abre la posibilidad de que nuestras conductas no se adapten exclusivamente a nuestra evaluación. Las diferencias encontradas pueden ser explicadas en base a los rasgos de la tarea en función del nivel de riesgo que conlleva la situación. Estos datos pueden ser una buena base para el diseño de futuros programas de educación vial y formación de conductores, centrados en el aprendizaje y entrenamiento a través de la ejecución de conductas urgentes.

  8. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  9. Attentional networks functioning, age, and attentional lapses while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ramón, María Fernanda; Castro, Cándida; Roca, Javier; Ledesma, Rubén; Lupiañez, Juan

    2011-10-01

    Based on Posner's (1994) model of attentional functions, the relationship between age and personal proneness to attention-related errors while driving and the functioning of the 3 attentional networks were explored by means of attentional behavioral measures and self-report data. A sample of 55 drivers was drawn from the general population of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Attention Network Test for Interactions (ANTI) (Callejas et al. 2004) task was used to obtain behavioral measures of the attentional networks, and we used the Attention-Related Driving Error Scale (ARDES) (Ledesma et al. 2010) questionnaire to obtain a self-report measure of attention-related driving errors. Drivers reporting the greatest propensity to experience attention-related errors showed an overall slowdown in performance, less endogenous preparation for high = priority warning signs, and a better response to conflict in the presence of valid cues than drivers less prone to attention-related errors while driving. Older participants showed a slowdown in performance, less endogenous preparation for high-priority warning signs, and worse cognitive control when solving conflict in comparison with younger drivers. We suggest that each group variable, attention-related error proneness and age, shows a particular combination of attentional network functioning that implies different ways of being distracted, which have different practical implications for safe driving. It can be inferred that drivers who are more prone to commit attentional errors while driving run less risk in situations in which they can deal with response conflict in the presence of valid cues because of the particular way in which their attentional networks are combined when a valid cue is present, could serve to compensate, with a better response conflict, their general slowdown and less endogenous preparedness for high-priority signs. It can be inferred that older drivers might show a reduction of the general

  10. Urgent percutaneous coronary intervention leads to a decrease in serum concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Inflammation as a consequence of vascular injury after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is a pathological substrate of restenosis and of its complications. The aim of the study was to examine perprocedural inflammatory response expressed by soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L and C-reactive protein (CRP in patients treated with PCI and dual antiplatelet therapy. Methods. The experimental group included 52 patients (80.8% men, age 60 ± 9 years with angina pectoris treated by PCI (22 urgent PCI with stent implantation, and dual antiplatelet therapy (tienopiridins and aspirin, according to the current recommendations for the execution of the intervention. The control group consisted of 8 patients (70.5% men, age 59 ± 7 years with angina pectoris, who had undergone coronarography taking aspirin 3 days prior to it. In all the patients 24 hours before and after the PCI concentrations of CRP and sCD40L in the blood were determined. Results. In the experimental group, the concentration of sCD40L was lower as compared to the control (p < 0.02. In 34 (65% patients postprocedural decrease in sCD40L was recorded, in 18 (34.6% of them increase, while in 50 (96% patients there was a rise in CRP. The patients with postprocedural fall in sCD40L hod greater preprocedural concentration of sCD40L (p < 0.001, and less postprocedural concentration of sCD40L (p < 0.001, compared to the group with an increase in sCD40L after the PCI, while CRP levels tients treated with emergency PCI compared to elective patietns had a postprocedural decrease in sCD40L (p = 0.02. Increase in the level of CRP was higher in the group with emergency PCI in relation to elective PCI (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Emergency PCI procedures in the treatment of patients with unstable angina pectoris lead to a postprocedural fall in the serum concentration of sCD40L. Dual antiplate therapy with tienopiridins and aspirin inhibits the release of sCD40L. Regardless a clinical presentation

  11. Economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in India: Need for urgent action to control the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir B; Dhand, Navneet K; Ghatak, Sandeep; Gill, Jatinder P S

    2014-01-01

    Cystic ehinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus remains a neglected zoonotic disease despite its considerable human and animal health concerns. This is the first systematic analysis of the livestock and human related economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in India. Data about human cases were obtained from a tertiary hospital. Human hydatidosis cases with and without surgical interventions were extrapolated to be 5647 and 17075 per year assuming a total human population of 1210193422 in India. Data about prevalence of hydatid cysts in important food producing animals were obtained from previously published abattoir based epidemiological surveys that reported a prevalence of 5.39% in cattle, 4.36% in buffaloes, 3.09% in pigs, 2.23% in sheep and 0.41% in goats. Animal population data were sourced from the latest census conducted by the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, India. Other input parameters were obtained from published scientific literature. Probability distributions were included for many input values to account for variability and uncertainty. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of important parameters on the estimated economic losses. The analysis revealed a total annual median loss of Rs. 11.47 billion (approx. US $ 212.35 million). Cattle and buffalo industry accounted for most of the losses: 93.05% and 88.88% of the animal and total losses, respectively. Human hydatidosis related losses were estimated to be Rs. 472.72 million (approx. US $ 8.75 million) but are likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting of the disease in the country. The human losses more than quadrupled to Rs. 1953 million i.e. approx. US $ 36.17 million, when the prevalence of human undiagnosed cases was increased to 0.2% in the sensitivity analyses. The social loss and psychological distress were not taken into account for calculating human loss. The results highlight an urgent need for a science based policy

  12. The impact of intonation and valence on objective and subjective attention capture by auditory alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Jessica K; Parmentier, Fabrice

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to study the involuntary capture of attention by spoken words varying in intonation and valence. In studies of verbal alarms, the propensity of alarms to capture attention has been primarily assessed with the use of subjective ratings of their perceived urgency. Past studies suggest that such ratings vary with the alarms' spoken urgency and content. We measured attention capture by spoken words varying in valence (negative vs. neutral) and intonation (urgently vs. nonurgently spoken) through subjective ratings and behavioral measures. The key behavioral measure was the response latency to visual stimuli in the presence of spoken words breaking away from the periodical repetition of a tone. The results showed that all words captured attention relative to a baseline standard tone but that this effect was partly counteracted by a relative speeding of responses for urgently compared with nonurgently spoken words. Word valence did not affect behavioral performance. Rating data showed that both intonation and valence increased significantly perceived urgency and attention grabbing without any interaction. The data suggest a congruency between subjective ratings and behavioral performance with respect to spoken intonation but not valence. This study demonstrates the usefulness and feasibility of objective measures of attention capture to help design efficient alarm systems.

  13. Peripheral Attentional Targets under Covert Attention Lead to Paradoxically Enhanced Alpha Desynchronization in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gilberto; Ribeiro, Maria J; Costa, Gabriel N; Violante, Inês; Ramos, Fabiana; Saraiva, Jorge; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The limited capacity of the human brain to process the full extent of visual information reaching the visual cortex requires the recruitment of mechanisms of information selection through attention. Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disease often exhibiting attentional deficits and learning disabilities, and is considered to model similar impairments common in other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. In a previous study, we found that patients with NF1 are more prone to miss targets under overt attention conditions. This finding was interpreted as a result of increased occipito-parietal alpha oscillations. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to study alpha power modulations and the performance of patients with NF1 in a covert attention task. Covert attention was required in order to perceive changes (target offset) of a peripherally presented stimulus. Interestingly, alpha oscillations were found to undergo greater desynchronization under this task in the NF1 group compared with control subjects. A similar pattern of desynchronization was found for beta frequencies while no changes in gamma oscillations could be identified. These results are consistent with the notion that different attentional states and task demands generate different patterns of abnormal modulation of alpha oscillatory processes in NF1. Under covert attention conditions and while target offset was reported with relatively high accuracy (over 90% correct responses), excessive desynchronization was found. These findings suggest an abnormal modulation of oscillatory activity and attentional processes in NF1. Given the known role of alpha in modulating attention, we suggest that alpha patterns can show both abnormal increases and decreases that are task and performance dependent, in a way that enhanced alpha desynchronization may reflect a compensatory mechanism to keep performance at normal levels. These results suggest that dysregulation of

  14. Peripheral Attentional Targets under Covert Attention Lead to Paradoxically Enhanced Alpha Desynchronization in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Silva

    Full Text Available The limited capacity of the human brain to process the full extent of visual information reaching the visual cortex requires the recruitment of mechanisms of information selection through attention. Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1 is a neurodevelopmental disease often exhibiting attentional deficits and learning disabilities, and is considered to model similar impairments common in other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. In a previous study, we found that patients with NF1 are more prone to miss targets under overt attention conditions. This finding was interpreted as a result of increased occipito-parietal alpha oscillations. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG to study alpha power modulations and the performance of patients with NF1 in a covert attention task. Covert attention was required in order to perceive changes (target offset of a peripherally presented stimulus. Interestingly, alpha oscillations were found to undergo greater desynchronization under this task in the NF1 group compared with control subjects. A similar pattern of desynchronization was found for beta frequencies while no changes in gamma oscillations could be identified. These results are consistent with the notion that different attentional states and task demands generate different patterns of abnormal modulation of alpha oscillatory processes in NF1. Under covert attention conditions and while target offset was reported with relatively high accuracy (over 90% correct responses, excessive desynchronization was found. These findings suggest an abnormal modulation of oscillatory activity and attentional processes in NF1. Given the known role of alpha in modulating attention, we suggest that alpha patterns can show both abnormal increases and decreases that are task and performance dependent, in a way that enhanced alpha desynchronization may reflect a compensatory mechanism to keep performance at normal levels. These results suggest that

  15. Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness-based meditation practices involve various attentional skills, including the ability to sustain and focus ones attention. During a simple mindful breathing practice, sustained attention is required to maintain focus on the breath while cognitive control is required to detect mind wandering. We thus hypothesized that regular, brief mindfulness training would result in improvements in the self-regulation of attention and foster changes in neuronal activity related to attentional con...

  16. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of AD

  17. Economic violence to women and girls: is it receiving the necessary attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2008-07-01

    Most studies on gender-based violence (GBV) have focused on its physical, sexual, and psychological manifestations. This paper seeks to draw attention to the types of economic violence experienced by women, and describes its consequences on health and development. Economic violence experienced included limited access to funds and credit; controlling access to health care, employment, education, including agricultural resources; excluding from financial decision making; and discriminatory traditional laws on inheritance, property rights, and use of communal land. At work women experienced receiving unequal remuneration for work done equal in value to the men's, were overworked and underpaid, and used for unpaid work outside the contractual agreement. Some experienced fraud and theft from some men, illegal confiscation of goods for sale, and unlawful closing down of worksites. At home, some were barred from working by partners; while other men totally abandoned family maintenance to the women. Unfortunately, economic violence results in deepening poverty and compromises educational attainment and developmental opportunities for women. It leads to physical violence, promotes sexual exploitation and the risk of contracting HIV infection, maternal morbidity and mortality, and trafficking of women and girls. Economic abuse may continue even after the woman has left the abusive relationship. There is need for further large-scale studies on economic violence to women. Multi-strategy interventions that promote equity between women and men, provide economic opportunities for women, inform them of their rights, reach out to men and change societal beliefs and attitudes that permit exploitative behavior are urgently required.

  18. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  19. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  20. Attention Networks and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePosner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1 the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2 the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3 the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore t

  1. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention...

  2. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  3. The Urgent Problems of the Youth Policy in the Modern Russian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Yarkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the issue of the Youth Policy in modern Rus- sia, in the sphere of education and upbringing in particular, as well as the reasons for increasing the radical attitudes in society. The special attention is given to the growing influence of the global network - the Internet. Being anonymous and boarder transi- tioning, it facilitates the fast spreading, mythologizing and consolidation of different ideas including the marginal ones. Therefore, only the Internet community itself can counteract such a phenomenon. The authors suggest that the young scientists should create the independent resource in the Internet for channeling the radical mood into the positive dialog field, decreasing thereby the radicalism level, its influence and dif- fusion in society. 

  4. China's urgent need for localization of offshore engineering ships and structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun

    2004-01-01

    @@ Since 1970 and particularly in the last three years, China′s offshore oil industry has been developing by leaps and bounds. Offshore oil output has increased from 86900 tons in 1971to the present 30 million tons of oil equivalent while survey and exploration equipment started from scratch over thirty years ago.China has designed and constructed by its own efforts 12 mobile drilling platforms (24including the 12 imported platforms), 65 fixed(jacket) platforms, 11 FPSO ships, over 2000kilometers of undersea pipelines, 3 shallow water (less than 5 meters) bottom-supported drilling platforms and over 10 production platforms. These outstanding achievements are very encouraging. However, in order to catch up with the world advanced offshore technology, attention should also be directed to our weak points while hailing our achievements because such an attitude will help develop further our offshore oil industry.

  5. Attentional Processing of Letter Strings by Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Virginie; Siéroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading a letter string requires attentional orienting toward the beginning of the string (left-dominant orientation), followed by orienting along the string. These attentional-orienting processes differ according to the lexicality of the letter string: Sequential processes apply when reading nonwords or pseudowords, while words can be processed more globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of these attentional processes involved in reading. We conducted two experiments in 6- (first grade), 7- (second grade), and 9-year-old (fourth grade) children, using a procedure that required the detection of a letter (Experiment 1) or a nonletter (Experiment 2) target in a string of five characters. The target character could occur in the second (left) or fourth (right) position in the string. Results showed an advantage for left nonletter targets as early as age 6 and of left letter targets as early as age 7. In 6-year-olds, only good readers detected a left letter target faster than a right letter target; others detected a right letter target faster. Thus, dominant orienting toward the beginning of the letter string is not fully developed in children before the second year of reading. A possibility is that beginning readers have difficulties inhibiting an attention-orienting bias toward the right visual field in linguistic tasks. The results also showed that the lexicality effect on these attentional processes develops gradually until the fourth year of reading. We believe that the procedure used in this study will be very valuable for evaluating attentional difficulties during reading acquisition.

  6. Congenital malformations in Ecuadorian children: urgent need to create a National Registry of Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio González-Andrade

    2010-04-01

    females 30.40.Conclusion: This report documents the prevalence estimates for birth defects reported in the hospital discharge data. These estimates are important to 1 plan for health-care and education needs of the Ecuadorian population, 2 identify increased occurrences of birth defects in specific geographic regions, 3 serve as a reference point for assessment of provincial surveillance systems, 4 evaluate national public health interventions, 5 compare Ecuador prevalence estimates with those of other countries, and 6 help determine the appropriate allocation of resources for basic and public health research. There is an urgent need to establish a National Registry of Birth Defects involving different sources of information such as prenatal medical records, birth records and medical records during the first year of life at an early stage, and surveys on cytogenetic prenatal diagnostic surveys and cytogenetics of therapeutic abortions.Keywords: Ecuador, genetics, birth defects surveillance, database, prevalence, epidemiology, congenital malformations

  7. Neural correlates of attentional bias in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Luijten, Maartje

    2014-06-01

    A small but growing neuroimaging literature has begun to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the difficulty that substance-use dependent (SUD) groups have with ignoring salient, drug-related stimuli. Drug-related attentional bias appears to implicate the countermanding forces of cognitive control and reward salience. Basic cognitive neuroscience research suggests that ignoring emotionally evocative stimuli in our environment requires both up-regulation of control networks and down-regulation of processing in emotion and reward regions. Research to date suggests that attentional biases for drug-related stimuli emerge from a failure to sufficiently increase control of attention over salient, but task-irrelevant stimuli. While SUD samples have typically shown increased activity in the cognitive control regions (ie, lateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate), during attentional bias such increases appear to have been insufficient for the concomitant increases in processing by the emotion/reward regions (ie, amygdala, insula, and striatum). Given the potential contribution of attentional biases to perpetuating drug use and the development of interventions (both pharmaceutical and cognitive-behavioral) to treat biases, understanding the neural basis of successfully reducing bias remains an important, but as yet unanswered, question for our field.

  8. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life.

  9. Por um cristianismo social: a proposta dos cristãos - o semanário Brasil, Urgente (1963- 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Aparecido Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Com base na análise de editoriais do semanário Brasil, Urgente (1963-1964, o presente artigo ensaia algumas interpretações acerca do conteúdo veiculado por esse hebdomadário de inspiração cristã. Com o objetivo de se legitimar perante os movimentos sociais que também defendiam os direitos da pessoa humana, o jornal lançou mão de recursos variados e inconstantes. Desse modo, o pluralismo de ideias, presentes nas páginas combativas de Brasil, Urgente, variava de uma postura defensora da terceira via até uma opção de fé reorientada pela racionalidade da práxis social.

  10. A Parallel World for the World Bank: A Case Study of Urgent: Evoke, An Educational Alternate Reality Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Waddington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the World Bank launched Urgent: Evoke, an alternate reality game. Conceived in response to the demands of African universities, the game was designed to promote the World Bank Institute’s vision of positive global change through social innovation, and made substantial use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, personal profiles, and social networks. This article offers a case study of Urgent: Evoke, divided into four sections: first, the potential to use video games as citizenship education tools is discussed; second, the unique game genre (alternate reality games into which Evoke falls is explained and some possible uses of this genre in higher education are examined; third, the functioning of the Evoke game world is explained; and fourth, the results of the Evoke educational project are assessed. The case study concludes with some commentary on Evoke’s ideological message, which those less sympathetic to capitalism may view as problematic.

  11. Super obese 33-week parturient undergoing an urgent laparoscopic bowel resection: A case report and review of anesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Khelemsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately two percent of women undergo non-obstetric surgery during their pregnancies. The following case report describes the anesthetic management of a super obese parturient in her third trimester of pregnancy undergoing urgent laparoscopic (converted to open bowel resection. Such a case, which has not been previously reported, has multiple clinical implications for both mother and fetus and was further complicated by super obesity (BMI>50 and laparoscopy. The anesthetic implications for this patient population are reviewed.

  12. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exogenous attention is an automatic mechanism that increases resolution regardless of whether it helps or hinders performance. In contrast, endogenous attention flexibly adjusts resolution to optimize performance according to task demands. We illustrate how psychophysical studies can reveal the underlying mechanisms of these effects and allow us to draw linking hypotheses with known neurophysiological effects of attention. PMID:25948640

  13. Linear Mapping of Numbers onto Space Requires Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anobile, Giovanni; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Burr, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of number onto space is fundamental to mathematics and measurement. Previous research suggests that while typical adults with mathematical schooling map numbers veridically onto a linear scale, pre-school children and adults without formal mathematics training, as well as individuals with dyscalculia, show strong compressive,…

  14. [Benign recurring aseptic meningitis. What requires our attention?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, T; Kredel, L; Nassir, M; Godbersen, M; Schneider, T

    2016-02-01

    Benign recurrent aseptic meningitis (BRAM) or Mollaret's meningitis is a rare disease characterized by recurrent episodes of aseptic meningitis followed by spontaneous recovery. Disease courses over several years have been reported. In most cases, BRAM is caused by HSV-2, less frequently by other viruses or autoimmune diseases. In up to 10 %, the aetiology remains unclear. We present a case of idiopathic BRAM and discuss clinical findings, diagnosis and therapeutic options of this rare illness.

  15. 5 KPIs that require revenue cycle managers' attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Devendra

    2014-09-01

    Revenue cycle leaders can gain the clearest insight into their organizations' revenue cycle performance by focusing in particular on five key performance indicators: Cash ratio. Medicare-billed accounts receivable (A/R) over 30 days as a percentage of total Medicare A/R. Third-party aging over 90 days. Bad debt expense. Customer experience.

  16. Impulse Control or Selective Attention: Remedial Programs for Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald T.; Conrad, Kendon J.

    1982-01-01

    Compared various cognitive treatment approaches for ameliorating the difficulties of hyperactive children on tasks requiring sustained vigilance and accuracy. Differential training techniques comparing training in attention to inhibitory control indicated that a combination of attentional and inhibitory control strategies was most efficacious in…

  17. The Star Counting Test: An attention test for children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.F.; Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Star Counting Test (SCT), an attention test for children, is presented. The test is suitable for groupwise administration. It was developed within a clear theoretical framework and focuses, in contrast to many current attention tests, on accuracy rather than speed. The test requires the control

  18. Effects of a Coactor's Focus of Attention on Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockler, Anne; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Coactors take into account certain aspects of each other's tasks even when this is not required to perform their own task. The present experiments investigated whether the way a coactor allocates attention affects one's own attentional relation to stimuli that are attended jointly (Experiment 1), individually (Experiment 2), or in parallel…

  19. Advertising, Attention, and Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Focke, Florens; Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of product market advertising on investor attention and financial market outcomes. Using daily advertising data allows us to identify short-term effects of advertising. We measure daily investor attention based the company's number of Wikipedia page views. We show that TV and newspaper advertising positively impacts short-term investor attention. It also positively impacts turnover and liquidity, but the effects are not economically significant. Most importantly, ass...

  20. When sustained attention impairs perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Sam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-01-01

    Virtually all behavioral and neurophysiological studies have shown that sustained (endogenous, conceptually driven) attention enhances perception. But can this enhancement be held indefinitely? We assessed the time course of attention’s effects on contrast sensitivity, reasoning that if attention does indeed boost stimulus strength, the strengthened representation could result in stronger adaptation over time. We found that attention initially enhances contrast sensitivity, but that over time...

  1. Cover Lines Using Positive, Urgent, Unique Language Entice Moms to Read Health Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Beluska, Katrina; Quick, Virginia; Tursi, Mary; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Crafting messages that capture consumer interest is a frequent challenge of health communicators. A better understanding of the techniques magazine editors use to create cover lines may aid health communicators in their efforts to arouse interest in their communiqués. This study (a) content-analyzed magazine cover lines, (b) used content analysis findings to create health-related cover lines, and (c) assessed the degree to which the health-related cover lines fostered motivation to read the health communication. Cover lines (N = 867) from 11 magazines published in 2012 frequently read by mothers of young children used a variety of themes, with those focusing on informative/how-to, control/improve, and unique/special being most common. Health communication experts used key descriptor terms corresponding to each theme and wrote 310 cover lines for topics focusing on childhood obesity prevention strategies. Unpaired t tests revealed that mothers of young children (N = 77) reported they were significantly (p health-related magazine article when cover lines had a happiness/fun, unique/special, or quick/urgency theme and were significantly less motivated to read when cover lines used a control/improve theme. Study findings may help health communicators create cover lines that better attract reader attention.

  2. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  3. Attention in a bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    , and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental......The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models...

  4. Limited Attention and Discourse Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    1995-01-01

    This squib examines the role of limited attention in a theory of discourse structure and proposes a model of attentional state that relates current hierarchical theories of discourse structure to empirical evidence about human discourse processing capabilities. First, I present examples that are not predicted by Grosz and Sidner's stack model of attentional state. Then I consider an alternative model of attentional state, the cache model, which accounts for the examples, and which makes particular processing predictions. Finally I suggest a number of ways that future research could distinguish the predictions of the cache model and the stack model.

  5. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-05-01

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Difficulty of Discrimination Modulates Attentional Capture by Regulating Attentional Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Risa; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Attentional capture for distractors is enhanced by increasing the difficulty of discrimination between the standard and the target in the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. In this study, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of this modulation of attentional capture. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants while they…

  7. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. Attention capture hypotheses suggest that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty, decreases saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. Studies examining how T1 difficulty affects...

  8. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discrim...

  9. Attention, President Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, Rob

    2008-12-01

    Richard Muller's new book Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines is both fascinating and frustrating. On the fascinating side is the wide variety of poorly appreciated, presidentially useful facts he includes. For example, did you know that petrol has 15 times the energy of TNT per unit mass, and that just one of the 9/11 aircraft carried the energy equivalent of almost 1 kilotonne of TNT? No wonder that the terrorists' planes did so much damage to a particularly vulnerable part of New York's infrastructure. And did you know that because growing corn requires so much energy and fertiliser, ethanol fuel produced from corn in the US reduces greenhouse-gas emissions by only 13% compared with petrol, whereas ethanol produced from sugar cane in Brazil reduces emissions by 90%?

  10. The Attention Window: A Narrative Review of Limitations and Opportunities Influencing the Focus of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Memmert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Visual attention is essential in many areas ranging from everyday life situations to the workplace. Different circumstances such as driving in traffic or participating in sports require immediate adaptation to constantly changing situations and frequently the conscious perception of 2 objects or scenes at the same time. Method: The…

  11. 42 CFR 417.558 - Emergency, urgently needed, and out-of-area services for which the HMO or CMP accepts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Basis § 417.558 Emergency, urgently needed, and out-of-area services for which the HMO or CMP accepts... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency, urgently needed, and out-of-area services for which the HMO or CMP accepts responsibility. 417.558 Section 417.558 Public Health CENTERS...

  12. Urgent treatment of severe symptomatic direct carotid cavernous fistula caused by ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm using high-flow bypass, proximal ligation, and direct distal clipping: Technical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF secondary to ruptured carotid cavernous aneurysms (CCAs is rare, but patients with this condition who develop acutely worsening and severe neuro-ophthalmic symptoms require urgent treatment. Endovascular methods are the first-line option, but this modality may not be available on an urgent basis. Case Description: In this article, we report a 45-year-old female with severe direct CCF due to rupture of the CCA. She presented with intractable headache and acute worsening of double vision and visual acuity. Emergent radiographic study revealed high-flow fistula tracked from the CCA toward the contralateral cavernous sinus and drained into the engorged left superior orbital vein. To prevent permanent devastating neuro-ophthalmic damages, urgent high-flow bypass with placement of a radial artery graft was performed followed by right cervical internal carotid artery (ICA ligation and the clipping of the ICA at the C3 portion, proximal to the ophthalmic artery. In the immediate postoperative period, her symptoms resolved and angiography confirmed patency of the high-flow bypass and complete occlusion of the CCF. Conclusion: With due consideration of strategy and techniques to secure safety, open surgical intervention with trapping and bypass is a good treatment option for direct severe CCF when the endovascular method is not available, not possible, or is unsuccessful.

  13. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from po...

  14. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  15. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  16. Computational Attention for Event Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mancas, Matei; Couvreur, Laurent; Gosselin, Bernard; Macq, Benoît

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with a biologically-motivated three-level computational attention model architecture based on the rarity and the information theory framework. It mainly focuses on low-level and medium-level steps and their application in pre-attentive detection of tumours in CT scans and unusual events in audio recordings.

  17. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  18. Attention Modulates the Neural Processes Underlying Multisensory Integration of Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tam Ho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrating emotional information from multiple sensory modalities is generally assumed to be a pre-attentive process (de Gelder et al., 1999. This assumption, however, presupposes that the integrative process occurs independent of attention. Using event-potentials (ERP the present study investigated whether the neural processes underlying the integration of dynamic facial expression and emotional prosody is indeed unaffected by attentional manipulations. To this end, participants were presented with congruent and incongruent face-voice combinations (eg, an angry face combined with a neutral voice and performed different two-choice tasks in four consecutive blocks. Three of the tasks directed the participants' attention to emotion expressions in the face, the voice or both. The fourth task required participants to attend to the synchronicity between voice and lip movements. The results show divergent modulations of early ERP components by the different attentional manipulations. For example, when attention was directed to the face (or the voice, incongruent stimuli elicited a reduced N1 as compared to congruent stimuli. This effect was absent, when attention was diverted away from the emotionality in both face and voice suggesting that the detection of emotional incongruence already requires attention. Based on these findings, we question whether multisensory integration of emotion occurs indeed pre-attentively.

  19. Attentive novelty detection in humans is governed by pre-attentive sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiitinen, H; May, P; Reinikainen, K; Näätänen, R

    1994-11-03

    Being able to detect unusual, possibly dangerous events in the environment is a fundamental ability that helps ensure the survival of biological organisms. Novelty detection requires a memory system that models (builds neural representations of) events in the environment, so that changes are detected because they violate the predictions of the model. The earliest physiologically measurable brain response to novel auditory stimuli is the mismatch negativity, MMN, a component of the event-related potential. It is elicited when a predictable series of unvarying stimuli is unexpectedly followed by a deviating stimulus. As the occurrence of MMN is not usually affected by the direction of attention, MMN reflects the operation of automatic sensory (echoic) memory, the earliest memory system that builds traces of the acoustic environment against which new stimuli can be compared. The dependence of attentive novelty detection on earlier, pre-attentive processes, however, has remained elusive. Previous, related studies seem to suggest a relationship between MMN and attentive processes, although no conclusive evidence has so far been shown. Here we address novelty detection in humans both on a physiological and behavioural level, and show how attentive novelty detection is governed by a pre-attentive sensory memory mechanism.

  20. Guiding Attention by Cooperative Cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KangWoo Lee

    2008-01-01

    A common assumption in visual attention is based on the rationale of "limited capacity of information pro-ceasing". From this view point there is little consideration of how different information channels or modules are cooperating because cells in processing stages are forced to compete for the limited resource. To examine the mechanism behind the cooperative behavior of information channels, a computational model of selective attention is implemented based on two hypotheses. Unlike the traditional view of visual attention, the cooperative behavior is assumed to be a dynamic integration process between the bottom-up and top-down information. Furthermore, top-down information is assumed to provide a contextual cue during selection process and to guide the attentional allocation among many bottom-up candidates. The result from a series of simulation with still and video images showed some interesting properties that could not be explained by the competitive aspect of selective attention alone.

  1. Faking attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2011-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase alertness, energy, academic performance, and athletic performance. Stimulants may also decrease psychological distress, alleviate restlessness and weight concerns, and be used for recreational purposes. According to the findings of five studies, the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be believably faked, particularly when assessed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom checklists. Thus, the faking of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a realistic concern in both psychiatric and primary care settings.

  2. Practicing the attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus Mogens

    2007-01-01

    . The results suggest that the majority of subjects may learn to optimize their performance reducing the attentional dwell time effect substantially. Further, the reduction in the attentional dwell time effect seems to be closely linked to the ability of the subject to inhibit eye movements while performing......Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomenon...... is known as the attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). Previous studies of attentional dwell time have all used naive subjects running few (

  3. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  4. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  5. Anesthetic Management of Urgent Cesarean Section with Undiagnosed Transposition of Great Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Nurullah; Koksal, Ersin; Ozgen, Gokce Ultan; Ozen, Ersan; Dilek, Ahmet; Karakaya, Deniz; Ulger, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    We consider that general anesthesia will be an appropriate and safe method as regional methods could lead to significant time loss in the prevention or minimization of complications. High blockage required for regional anesthetic methods in pregnant women with TGA and the maintenance of hemodynamic stability may become difficult due to neuroaxial sympathectomy even if a successful neuroaxial block has been provided. Agents with minimal effect on cardiovascular functions should be preferred for anesthesia induction and maintenance and close hemodynamic monitoring should be done during intraoperative and postoperative periods.

  6. The Yin and Yang of Sleep and Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirszenblat, Leonie; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Sleep is not a single state, but a complex set of brain processes that supports several physiological needs. Sleep deprivation is known to affect attention in many animals, suggesting that a key function of sleep is to regulate attention. Conversely, tasks that require more attention drive sleep need and sleep intensity. Attention involves the ability to filter incoming stimuli based on their relative salience, and this is likely to require coordinated synaptic activity across the brain. This capacity may have only become possible with the evolution of related neural mechanisms that support two key sleep functions: stimulus suppression and synaptic plasticity. We argue here that sleep and attention may have coevolved as brain states that regulate each other.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in imprisoned individuals--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders with lifelong impact of the affected individuals. It is usually co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review current knowledge about ADHD in imprisoned individuals. The rate of ADHD in prisoners ranges from 10% to 70% and it has been suggested that ADHD, even without co-morbidity with conduct disorder, is a risk factor for imprisonment. Based on these findings, it may be wise to include the assessment of ADHD symptoms in all adult and adolescent prisoners. This is while available psychiatric resources for the adequate management of ADHD in prisoners are limited. Most of current knowledge on the topic comes from western countries. There is an urgent need for studies that will explore the effect of other cultures on the interactions between ADHD and imprisonment, especially in developing countries worldwide. At this point, ADHD seems to be an ignored research area in developing countries.

  8. The Effects of Scene Changes and Semantic Relatedness on Attention to Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Seth; Reeves, Byron

    1993-01-01

    Tests the proposition that message structure (cuts) affects attention to television differently, depending on whether the cuts link related or unrelated content. Finds cuts in unrelated sequences require more attention than cuts in related sequences. (NH)

  9. Role of enhanced multi-detector-row computed tomography before urgent endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Youichi; Amano, Yuji; Ueno, Sayaka; Izumi, Daisuke; Mikami, Hironobu; Yazaki, Tomotaka; Okimoto, Eiko; Sonoyama, Takayuki; Ito, Satoko; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Naruaki; Imaoka, Tomonori

    2014-04-01

    Multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has been reported to be a potentially useful modality for detection of the bleeding origin in patients with acute upper massive gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of MDCT as a routine method for detecting the origin of acute upper GI bleeding prior to urgent endoscopy. Five hundred seventy-seven patients with acute upper GI bleeding (514 nonvariceal patients, 63 variceal patients) who underwent urgent upper GI endoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: enhanced MDCT, unenhanced MDCT, and no MDCT before endoscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT for detection of the bleeding origin was evaluated, and the average procedure times needed to endoscopically identify the bleeding origin were compared between groups. Diagnostic accuracy among endoscopists was 55.3% and 14.7% for the enhanced MDCT and unenhanced MDCT groups, respectively. Among nonvariceal patients, accuracy was 50.2% in the enhanced MDCT group, which was significantly better than that in the unenhanced MDCT group (16.5%). In variceal patients, accuracy was significantly better in the enhanced MDCT group (96.4%) than in the unenhanced MDCT group (0.0%). These accuracies were similar to those achieved by expert radiologists. The average procedure time to endoscopic detection of the bleeding origin in the enhanced MDCT group was significantly faster than that in the unenhanced MDCT and no-MDCT groups. Enhanced MDCT preceding urgent endoscopy may be an effective modality for the detection of bleeding origin in patients with acute upper GI bleeding. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Multiple repeated cesarean deliveries: operative complications in the fourth and fifth surgeries in urgent and elective cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedikbasi, Ali; Akyol, Alpaslan; Bingol, Banu; Cakmak, Demet; Sargin, Akif; Uncu, Remzi; Ceylan, Yavuz

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the maternal and neonatal risk related with multiple repeated cesarean sections. A case control study was conducted in a single tertiary maternity and children's center. The outcome of a study group including 122 pregnant women undergoing cesarean section for the fourth or fifth time was compared with a control group comprising 146 women sectioned for the second and third time. All multiple repeated cesarean sections were divided into urgent and elective groups to compare the outcome measures of demographic, neonatal, intra- and post-operative data. Compared with the control group, the study group had significantly lower birth weights (p=0.026), lower Apgar scores at 1 minute (p=0.0001) and 5 minutes (p=0.042), higher numbers of fetal death (p=0.03), higher rate of omentum adhesions (p =0.0001) and peritoneal adhesions (p=0.008), increased risk of cesarean hysterectomy (p = 0.014), increased need for transfusion (p = 0.018), and an increase in hospitalization days (p=0.005). Compared with the elective group, preterm birth incidence was higher (p = 0.01) and birth weight was lower (p=0.004) in the urgent group. The risk for myometrium herniation (p=0.018), need for drainage during operation (p=0.018), and post-operative fever (p =0.001) was also more common in the urgent group. Multiple repeated cesarean sections increase the risks for operative complications and poor perinatal outcomes. Patients must be informed about the related risks of multiple repeated cesarean sections and tubal ligation needs to be encouraged. Copyright © 2010 Taiwan Association of Obstetric & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On the Minimum Attention and the Anytime Attention Control Problems for Linear Systems: A Linear Programming Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Donkers, M C F; Heemels, W P M H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present two control laws that are tailored for control applications in which computational and/or communication resources are scarce. Namely, we consider minimum attention control, where the `attention' that a control task requires is minimised given certain performance requirements, and anytime attention control, where the performance under the `attention' given by a scheduler is maximised. Here, we interpret `attention' as the inverse of the time elapsed between two consecutive executions of a control task. By focussing on linear plants, by allowing for only a finite number of possible intervals between two subsequent executions of the control task, by making a novel extension to the notion of control Lyapunov functions and taking these novel extended control Lyapunov function to be infinity-norm-based, we can formulate the aforementioned control problems as online linear programs, which can be solved efficiently. Furthermore, we provide techniques to construct suitable infinity-norm-based...

  12. Urgent and Compelling Need for Coastal and Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Research Using Space-Based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D. B.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Hestir, E.; Turpie, K. R.; Roberts, D. A.; Frouin, R.; Goodman, J.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Franz, B. A.; Humm, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal and inland waters and associated aquatic habitats, including wetlands, mangroves, submerged grasses, and coral reefs, are some of the most productive and diverse ecosystems on the planet. They provide services critical to human health, safety, and prosperity. Yet, they are highly vulnerable to changes in climate and other anthropogenic pressures. With a global population of over seven billion people and climbing, and a warming atmosphere driven by carbon dioxide now in excess of 400 ppb, these services are at risk of rapidly diminishing globally. We know little about how these ecosystems function. We need to characterize short-term changes in the functional biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles of these coastal and wetland ecosystems, from canopy to benthos, and trace these changes to their underlying environmental influences. This requires an observation-based approach that covers coastal and inland aquatic ecosystems in a repeated, synoptic manner. Space-borne sensing systems can provide this capability, supported by coordinated in situ calibration and product validation activities. The design requires high temporal resolution (weekly or better), medium spatial resolution (30 m pixels at nadir to complement Landsat-class sensors), and highly sensitive, ocean-color radiometric quality, high resolution spectroscopy with Visible and Short-Wave IR bands (order of 10 nm or better) to assess both atmospheric correction parameters and land vegetation composition. The strategy needs to include sunglint avoidance schemes, and methods to maximize signal to noise ratios and temporal coverage of aquatic areas. We describe such a system, and urge the U.S. to implement such an observing strategy in the short-term and sustain it for the benefit of humankind.

  13. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT, a flanker task (FT and a counting task (CT. Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  14. Wire-guided (Seldinger technique intubation through a face mask in urgent, difficult and grossly distorted airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake M Heier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of successful urgent intubation using a Seldinger technique for airway management through an anesthesia facemask, while maintaining ventilation in patients with difficult airways and grossly distorted airway anatomy. In both cases, conventional airway management techniques were predicted to be difficult or impossible, and a high likelihood for a surgical airway was present. This technique was chosen as it allows tracheal tube placement through the nares during spontaneous ventilation with the airway stented open and oxygen delivery with either continuous positive airway pressure and/or pressure support ventilation. This unhurried technique may allow intubation when other techniques are unsuitable, while maintaining control of the airway.

  15. Estimation of Intervention Distances for Urgent Protective Actions Using Comparative Approach of MACCS and InterRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzammal Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distances for taking evacuation as a protective measure during early phase of a nuclear accident have been approximated using MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS. As a reference data, the source term of Pakistan Research Reactor 1 (PARR-1 and meteorological data of Islamabad, Pakistan, have been considered. Based on comparison with published data and international radiological assessment (InterRAS code results, it is concluded that MACCS is a rational tool for estimation of urgent protective actions during early phase of nuclear accident by taking into account the variations in meteorological and release concentrations parameters.

  16. Wire-guided (Seldinger technique) intubation through a face mask in urgent, difficult and grossly distorted airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Jake M; Schroeder, Kristopher M; Galgon, Richard E; Arndt, George A

    2012-07-01

    We report two cases of successful urgent intubation using a Seldinger technique for airway management through an anesthesia facemask, while maintaining ventilation in patients with difficult airways and grossly distorted airway anatomy. In both cases, conventional airway management techniques were predicted to be difficult or impossible, and a high likelihood for a surgical airway was present. This technique was chosen as it allows tracheal tube placement through the nares during spontaneous ventilation with the airway stented open and oxygen delivery with either continuous positive airway pressure and/or pressure support ventilation. This unhurried technique may allow intubation when other techniques are unsuitable, while maintaining control of the airway.

  17. [The expertise evaluation of organization of rendering of acute, emergency and urgent medical care in rural regions of Novosibirsk oblast'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaninskiĭ, O I; Sharapov, I V; Sadovoĭ, M A

    2013-01-01

    The most problematic spheres in the resource support of emergency medical care to rural residents are the completeness of staff of physicians in rural medical surgeries, community hospitals and departments of emergency medical care in central district hospitals. The provision of feldsher obstetrics posts with sanitary motor transport and medical equipment is yet another problematic sphere. The main troubles during provision of emergency medical care at feldsher obstetrics posts are related to surgery treatment. The organization of emergency and urgent medical care suffers of many unresolved problems related to informational program support at feldsher obstetrics posts, polyclinics of central district hospitals.

  18. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  19. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  20. Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe; Frokjaer, Vibe; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2012-02-01

    Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of MBSR, NMSR, and the financial incentive were comparable or significantly larger in the incentive group on all reaction-time-based measures. However, selective attention in the MBSR group improved significantly more than in any other group. Similarly, only the MBSR intervention improved the threshold for conscious perception and visual working memory capacity. Furthermore, stress-reducing effects of MBSR were supported because those in the MBSR group showed significantly less perceived and physiological stress while increasing their mindfulness levels significantly. We argue that MBSR may contribute uniquely to attentional improvements but that further research focusing on non-reaction-time-based measures and outcomes less confounded by test effort is needed. Critically, our data demonstrate that previously observed improvements of attention after MBSR may be seriously confounded by test effort and nonmindfulness stress reduction.

  1. Targeted Communication and Investor Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Boulland, Romain; Degeorge, François; Ginglinger, Edith

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of Merton (1987) we find that targeted communication by firms raises investor attention. Continental European firms using English-language commercial press wires to disseminate corporate press releases exhibit less drift and more trading volume after their earnings announcements than firms that do not, consistent with communication on English speaking wires raising investor attention. Continental European firms using English-language commercial press wires also receive more pres...

  2. Faking Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase aler...

  3. Sustained attention in language production: an individual differences investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it has long been assumed that most linguistic processes underlying language production happen automatically, accumulating evidence suggests that these processes do require some form of attention. Here we investigated the contribution of sustained attention: the ability to maintain alertness over time. In Experiment 1, participants' sustained attention ability was measured using auditory and visual continuous performance tasks. Subsequently, employing a dual-task procedure, participants described pictures using simple noun phrases and performed an arrow-discrimination task while their vocal and manual response times (RTs) and the durations of their gazes to the pictures were measured. Earlier research has demonstrated that gaze duration reflects language planning processes up to and including phonological encoding. The speakers' sustained attention ability correlated with the magnitude of the tail of the vocal RT distribution, reflecting the proportion of very slow responses, but not with individual differences in gaze duration. This suggests that sustained attention was most important after phonological encoding. Experiment 2 showed that the involvement of sustained attention was significantly stronger in a dual-task situation (picture naming and arrow discrimination) than in simple naming. Thus, individual differences in maintaining attention on the production processes become especially apparent when a simultaneous second task also requires attentional resources.

  4. Visual attention in posterior stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K

    Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed and appre......Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed...... and apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects...

  5. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective attention. In our first experiment we measured thresholds for determining the walking direction of a masked point-light figure, and performance on a range of attention-related tasks in the same set of observers. Mask-density thresholds for the direction discrimination task varied quite considerably from observer to observer and this variation was highly correlated with performance on both Stroop and flanker interference tasks. Other components of attention, such as orienting, alerting and visual search efficiency, showed no such relationship. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship between the ability to determine the orientation of unmasked point-light actions and Stroop interference, again finding a strong correlation. Our results are consistent with previous research suggesting that biological motion processing may requite attention, and specifically implicate networks of attention related to executive control and selection.

  6. Simple risk factors to predict urgent endoscopy in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding pre-endoscopically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzong; Hu, Duanming; Tang, Wen; Hu, Chuanyin; Lu, Qin; Li, Juan; Zhu, Jianhong; Xu, Liming; Sui, Zhenyu; Qian, Mingjie; Wang, Shaofeng; Yin, Guojian

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate how to predict high-risk nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) pre-endoscopically. A total of 569 NVUGIB patients between Match 2011 and January 2015 were retrospectively studied. The clinical characteristics and laboratory data were statistically analyzed. The severity of NVUGIB was based on high-risk NVUGIB (Forrest I-IIb), and low-risk NVUGIB (Forrest IIc and III). By logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic curve, simple risk score systems were derived which predicted patients' risks of potentially needing endoscopic intervention to control bleeding. Risk score systems combined of patients' serum hemoglobin (Hb) ≤75 g/L, red hematemesis, red stool, shock, and blood urine nitrogen ≥8.5 mmol/L within 24 hours after admission were derived. As for each one of these clinical signs, the relatively high specificity was 97.9% for shock, 96.4% for red stool, 85.5% for red hematemesis, 76.7% for Hb ≤75 g/L, and the sensitivity was 50.8% for red hematemesis, 47.5% for Hb ≤75 g/L, 14.2% for red stool, and 10.9% for shock. When these 5 clinical signs were presented as a risk score system, the highest area of receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.746, with sensitivity 0.675 and specificity 0.733, which discriminated well with high-risk NVUGIB. These simple risk factors identified patients with high-risk NVUGIB of needing treatment to manage their bleeding pre-endoscopically. Further validation in the clinic was required.

  7. Poor quality vital anti-malarials in Africa - an urgent neglected public health priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Paul N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health problem. A vital component of malaria control rests on the availability of good quality artemisinin-derivative based combination therapy (ACT at the correct dose. However, there are increasing reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. Methods Seven collections of artemisinin derivative monotherapies, ACT and halofantrine anti-malarials of suspicious quality were collected in 2002/10 in eleven African countries and in Asia en route to Africa. Packaging, chemical composition (high performance liquid chromatography, direct ionization mass spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, stable isotope analysis and botanical investigations were performed. Results Counterfeit artesunate containing chloroquine, counterfeit dihydroartemisinin (DHA containing paracetamol (acetaminophen, counterfeit DHA-piperaquine containing sildenafil, counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine containing pyrimethamine, counterfeit halofantrine containing artemisinin, and substandard/counterfeit or degraded artesunate and artesunate+amodiaquine in eight countries are described. Pollen analysis was consistent with manufacture of counterfeits in eastern Asia. These data do not allow estimation of the frequency of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. Conclusions Criminals are producing diverse harmful anti-malarial counterfeits with important public health consequences. The presence of artesunate monotherapy, substandard and/or degraded and counterfeit medicines containing sub-therapeutic amounts of unexpected anti-malarials will engender drug resistance. With the threatening spread of artemisinin resistance to Africa, much greater investment is required to ensure the quality of ACTs and removal of artemisinin monotherapies. The International Health Regulations may need to be invoked to counter these serious public health problems.

  8. Attention demands of spoken word planning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi; Piai, Vitória

    2011-01-01

    Attention and language are among the most intensively researched abilities in the cognitive neurosciences, but the relation between these abilities has largely been neglected. There is increasing evidence, however, that linguistic processes, such as those underlying the planning of words, cannot proceed without paying some form of attention. Here, we review evidence that word planning requires some but not full attention. The evidence comes from chronometric studies of word planning in picture naming and word reading under divided attention conditions. It is generally assumed that the central attention demands of a process are indexed by the extent that the process delays the performance of a concurrent unrelated task. The studies measured the speed and accuracy of linguistic and non-linguistic responding as well as eye gaze durations reflecting the allocation of attention. First, empirical evidence indicates that in several task situations, processes up to and including phonological encoding in word planning delay, or are delayed by, the performance of concurrent unrelated non-linguistic tasks. These findings suggest that word planning requires central attention. Second, empirical evidence indicates that conflicts in word planning may be resolved while concurrently performing an unrelated non-linguistic task, making a task decision, or making a go/no-go decision. These findings suggest that word planning does not require full central attention. We outline a computationally implemented theory of attention and word planning, and describe at various points the outcomes of computer simulations that demonstrate the utility of the theory in accounting for the key findings. Finally, we indicate how attention deficits may contribute to impaired language performance, such as in individuals with specific language impairment.

  9. Effect of attention control on sustained attention during induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Robinson, Oliver J; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety has wide-reaching and complex effects on cognitive performance. Although it can intrude on cognition and interfere with performance, it can also facilitate information processing and behavioural responses. In a previous study, we showed that anxiety induced by threat of shock facilitates performance on the Sustained Attention to Response Task, a vigilance test, which probes response inhibition to infrequent nogo stimuli. The present study sought to identify factors that may have contributed to such improved performance, including on- and off-task thinking (assessed with thought probes) and individual differences in attention control, as measured with the Attention Control Scale. Replicating our prior finding, we showed that shock threat significantly reduced errors of commission on the nogo trials. However, we extended this finding in demonstrating that this effect was driven by subjects with low attention control. We therefore confirm that anxiety increases inhibitory control of prepotent responses--a mechanism which is adaptive under threat--and show that this effect is greater in those who rely more upon such prepotent responding, i.e., those with low attentional control.

  10. Enhancing attention in neurodegenerative diseases: current therapies and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Kanchan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We all experience at least occasional lapses in attention but in some neurological conditions, loss of attention is pervasive and debilitating. Treating deficits in attention first requires an understanding of the neurobiology of attention, which we now understand to be a set of different cognitive processes. Cholinesterase inhibitors are already established as effective attentional enhancers used in the treatment of certain dementias. Other stimulant agents such as modafanil, amphetamine and methylphenidate have demonstrated limited success in healthy individuals where attention is already optimal and clinical trials in patients with neurological disease are sparse. Dietary and lifestyle changes are gaining increasing prominence, as are experimental treatments such as deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. As the therapeutic arsenal widens, clinicians will be able to match specific treatments to selective deficits in attention, giving patients a tailored management plan. Here we review common diseases that impair attention and emphasise how an understanding of attentional processing within the brain might lead to improved therapeutic strategies.

  11. REACH MUSC: A telemedicine facilitated network for urgent stroke: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Adams

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available REACH MUSC provides stroke consults via the internet in South Carolina. From May 2008 to April 2011 231 patients were treated with intravenous (IV thrombolysis and 369 were transferred to Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC including 42 for intra-arterial revascularization (with or without IV tPA. Medical outcomes and hemorrhage rates, reported elsewhere, were good (Lazaridis et al. 2011, in press. Here we report operational features of REACH MUSC which covers 15 sites with 2,482 beds and 471,875 Emergency Department (ED visits per year. Eight Academic Faculty from MUSC worked with 165 different physicians and 325 different nurses in the conduct of 1085 consults. For the 231 who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, time milestones were: Onset to Door: 62 min (mean, 50 (median; Door to REACH Consult: 43 and 33, Consult Request to Consult Start: was 9 and 7 minutes, Consult Start to tPA Decision: 31 and 25 minutes; Decision to Infusion: 20 and 14 minutes, and total Door to Needle: 98 and 87 minutes. The comparable times for the 854 not receiving tPA were: Onset to Door: 140 and 75 minutes; Door to REACH Consult: 61 and 41 minutes; Consult Request to Consult Start 9 and 7 minutes, Consult Start to tPA Decision 27 and 23 minutes. While the consultants respond to consult requests in < 10 minutes, there is a long delay between arrival and Consult request. Tracking of operations indicates if we target shortening Door to Call time and time from tPA decision to start of drug infusion we may be able to improve Door to Needle times to target of < 60 minutes. The large number of individuals involved in the care of these patients, most of whom had no training in REACH usage,will require novel approaches to staff education in ED based operations where turnover is high. Despite these challenges this robust system delivered tPA safely and in a high fraction of patients evaluated using the REACH MUSC system.

  12. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  13. Urgent Need to Antibiotic Pharmacokinetic Services for Iranian Health Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hayatshahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the emergence of both Gram negative and Gram positive resistant bacterial strains in the recent years, makes it more prominent to utilize the existed antibiotics in an appropriate and justified way in the treatment of drug resistant infections. Many of the agents currently used to treat bacterial, viral and fungal infections do not need to be pharmacokinetically monitored; it means we do not require their serum levels in order to adjust the dose in a routine manner. Examples of these antibiotics are penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, etc. Of course these agents need dose adjustment based on renal and hepatic functions. On the other hand there are antibiotics which need to be monitored through their serum levels because of three main following reasons: 1-      To avoid overdosing patient and reduce the incidence of toxicities. 2-      To avoid underdosing patient, this may lead to the emergence of resistant strains and treatment failure. 3-      To optimize the dose of antibiotic to achieve the bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects needed to suppress the infective agent. At this point, we are using vancomycin as a broad spectrum Gram positive agent and aminoglycosides both for the synergism for Gram positive coverage and also for treatment of Gram negative infection in combination with other agents. According to the guidelines published by the accredited organizations like Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA and American Society of Healthcare Pharmacists (ASHP, it is crucially important to perform therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM for both vancomycin and aminoglycosides based on their serum levels for all patients on these agents. In the other word, it is a wrong antibiotic therapy without monitoring the levels. Almost in all medical centers nationwide including teaching hospitals the clinicians prescribe vancomycin very often and aminoglycosides like gentamicin and

  14. Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "The Advanced Montessori Method, Volume 1" was published in 1918 in English and is considered a seminal work along with "The Montessori Method." In the foreword to this book, Mario Montessori writes: "...the refulgent figure of the child, Dr. Montessori pointed out, who had found his own path to mental health, who…

  15. Conservative approach versus urgent appendectomy in surgical management of acute appendicitis with abscess or phlegmon Resultados del tratamiento conservador inicial y de la cirugía urgente en la apendicitis aguda evolucionada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Aranda-Narváez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical management of acute appendicitis with appendiceal abscess or phlegmon remains controversial. We studied the results of initial conservative treatment (antibiotics and percutaneous drainage if necessary, with or without interval appendectomy compared with immediate surgery. Methods: We undertook an observational, retrospective cohort study of patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of acute appendicitis with an abscess or phlegmon, treated in our hospital between January 1997 and March 2009. Patients younger than 14, with severe sepsis or with diffuse peritonitis were excluded. A study group of 15 patients with acute appendicitis complicated with an abscess or phlegmon underwent conservative treatment. A control group was composed of the other patients, who all underwent urgent appendectomy, matched for age and later randomized 1:1. The infectious risk stratification was established with the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS index. Dependent variables were hospital stay and surgical site infection. Analysis was with SPSS, with p Introducción: Existe controversia acerca del tratamiento idóneo de la apendicitis aguda evolucionada en forma de absceso o flemón. Realizamos un estudio para la evaluación de resultados del tratamiento conservador inicial (antibiótico y drenaje percutáneo si se precisa, con/sin apendicectomía diferida y del tratamiento quirúrgico urgente. Método: Estudio observacional analítico de cohortes retrospectivas. Criterios de inclusión: pacientes con diagnóstico clínico y radiológico de apendicitis aguda evolucionada en forma de absceso o flemón, tratados en nuestro hospital entre enero 1997 y marzo 2009, excluyendo pacientes pediátricos, con sepsis grave o peritonitis difusa. En 15 pacientes con apendicitis complicada con absceso o flemón (cohorte de estudio se indicó tratamiento conservador inicial. El grupo control se obtuvo del resto de pacientes (en

  16. De l’urgente nécessité de réformer la gouvernance globale Reframing Global Governance : Apocalypse Soon or Reform !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Held

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Le réchauffement climatique, la pauvreté ou la menace d’une catastrophe nucléaire comptent parmi les défis majeurs auxquels l’humanité se doit de faire face collectivement en ce début de 21e siècle. Malgré la gravité et l’urgence de la situation, les moyens dont nous disposons pour résoudre de tels problèmes demeurent limités et incomplets. Il est dès lors non seulement essentiel mais aussi urgent de penser comment faire face à de tels enjeux globaux. Les solutions passent par des mécanismes de gouvernance globale et se doivent de répondre aux exigences de solidarité, de démocratie, de justice sociale et d’efficacité politique. Il s’agit notamment d’assurer à chaque personne la possibilité d’influencer les conditions sociales qui façonnent sa vie. Il est donc encore possible d’agir sur le cours des choses, mais si aucune réponse n’est rapidement apportée à ces défis majeurs, le futur de l’humanité risque d’être compromis.Global warming, poverty and the threat of nuclear catastrophe are among the major challenges humanity has to face collectively in this early 21st century. In spite of the seriousness and the urgency of the situation, the means at our disposal to solve such problems remain limited and incomplete. It is therefore not only essential but also urgent to think about how to face these growing global challenges. It requires new mechanisms of global governance and taking steps toward solidarity, democracy, justice and policy effectiveness. Among these key issues is the need to ensure the possibility for each person to influence the social conditions that shape his or her life. Thus, there is still hope that the vital task of reframing global governance may be pursued with an increasing sense of urgency. If this does not happen, the very future of humanity is at risk.

  17. Urgent Care Facilities, Trauma Care Facilities - name, address, certification level, contact info, email address, Published in 2007, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Urgent Care Facilities dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'Trauma Care Facilities -...

  18. Association of over-the-counter pharmaceutical sales with influenza-like-illnesses to patient volume in an urgent care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timothy Y; Sanders, Jason L; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U; Dato, Virginia M; Suyama, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We studied the association between OTC pharmaceutical sales and volume of patients with influenza-like-illnesses (ILI) at an urgent care center over one year. OTC pharmaceutical sales explain 36% of the variance in the patient volume, and each standard deviation increase is associated with 4.7 more patient visits to the urgent care center (p<0.0001). Cross-correlation function analysis demonstrated that OTC pharmaceutical sales are significantly associated with patient volume during non-flu season (p<0.0001), but only the sales of cough and cold (p<0.0001) and thermometer (p<0.0001) categories were significant during flu season with a lag of two and one days, respectively. Our study is the first study to demonstrate and measure the relationship between OTC pharmaceutical sales and urgent care center patient volume, and presents strong evidence that OTC sales predict urgent care center patient volume year round.

  19. Urgent Care Facilities, Licensed Healthcare Facilities, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of California - Office of the State Chief Information Officer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Urgent Care Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is...

  20. Spatially distributed encoding of covert attentional shifts in human thalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulme, Oliver J; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Shipp, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    /central-intralaminar (oculomotor thalamus), caudal intralaminar/parafascicular, suprageniculate/limitans, and medial pulvinar/lateral posterior. Hence, the cortical network generating a top-down control signal for relocating attention acts in concert with a spatially selective thalamic apparatus-the set of active nuclei mirroring...... the thalamic territory of cortical "eye-field" areas, thus supporting theories which propose the visuomotor origins of covert attentional selection.......Spatial attention modulates signal processing within visual nuclei of the thalamus--but do other nuclei govern the locus of attention in top-down mode? We examined functional MRI (fMRI) data from three subjects performing a task requiring covert attention to 1 of 16 positions in a circular array...

  1. Attentional control theory: anxiety, emotion, and motor planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Stephen A; Higgins, Torrie; Gamble, Kelly M; Cauraugh, James H; Janelle, Christopher M

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigated how trait anxiety alters the balance between attentional control systems to impact performance of a discrete preplanned goal-directed motor task. Participants executed targeted force contractions (engaging the goal-directed attentional system) at the offset of emotional and non-emotional distractors (engaging the stimulus-driven attentional system). High and low anxious participants completed the protocol at two target force levels (10% and 35% of maximum voluntary contraction). Reaction time (RT), performance accuracy, and rate of change of force were calculated. Expectations were confirmed at the 10% but not the 35% target force level: (1) high anxiety was associated with slower RTs, and (2) threat cues lead to faster RTs independently of trait anxiety. These new findings suggest that motor efficiency, but not motor effectiveness is compromised in high relative to low anxious individuals. We conclude that increased stimulus-driven attentional control interferes with movements that require greater attentional resources.

  2. Evidence for selective attention in the insect brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bivort, Benjamin L; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    The capacity for selective attention appears to be required by any animal responding to an environment containing multiple objects, although this has been difficult to study in smaller animals such as insects. Clear operational characteristics of attention however make study of this crucial brain function accessible to any animal model. Whereas earlier approaches have relied on freely behaving paradigms placed in an ecologically relevant context, recent tethered preparations have focused on brain imaging and electrophysiology in virtual reality environments. Insight into brain activity during attention-like behavior has revealed key elements of attention in the insect brain. Surprisingly, a variety of brain structures appear to be involved, suggesting that even in the smallest brains attention might involve widespread coordination of neural activity.

  3. Cognitive Complexity and Attentional Control in the Bilingual Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    Investigated in preschoolers whether the bilingual advantage in cognitive control or selective attention could be found in a nonverbal task, the dimensional change card sort, requiring minimal demands for analysis or representation. Found that bilingual children were more advanced than monolinguals in solving problems requiring high levels of…

  4. Foreign bodies in upper gastrointestinal tract and urgent endoscopic interventions – review of a ten-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foreign bodies in the upper digestive tube are rarely the cause of an urgent condition in gastroenterology. They usually enter the digestive tube during nutrition or by mistake. However, certain groups of the population such as convicts or psychiatric patients tend to swallow them intentionally. The authors aim was to assess the percentage of patients in which urgent endoscopic investigation revealed true foreign bodies in the upper digestive tube, to evaluate the success of endoscopic procedures and the resolution of eventual complications.Patients and methods: The study includes patients in which urgent endoscopic investigations of the upper digestive tract were performed in a 10-year period (1 January 1994 to 31 December 2003.Results: Altogether 6416 patients were investigated, mean age 59.3 years, SD ± 17.2 years, range 1–106 years, 2452 females and 3964 males. In 51 patients, 0.8% of all subjects, foreign bodies were detected in the esophagus or stomach. In these patients a total of 65 endoscopic investigations were performed, in 94% the foreign bodies were removed endoscopically (48/51 patients, in three cases the endoscopic procedures were not successful. Among the foreign bodies removed were various metal or plastic objects: coins, keys, screws, hooks, batteries, razor blades, needles, parts of kitchen, toilet or writing utensils, lighters, buttons, toys, a toothbrush as well as impacted pieces of bone. In the patients with successful endoscopic removal of the objects, no significant complications were noted. In 3 patients (3/48, 6.3% only mild hemorrhages from the region of the esophagogastric junction were observed.Conclusions: The technological development of endoscopic instruments made it possible to carry out different therapeutic procedures. The method has proved successful in removing foreign bodies from the upper digestive tube. Various factors affect the success of the procedure, the more important being adequate

  5. Components of Attention in Synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common forms of synesthesia is between colors and graphemes (Colizoli, Murre, & Rouw, 2012). Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of attention and synesthesia, e.g. effects of Stroop-like interference by colors that are incongruent with the synesthetic experience....... Here we attempt to isolate how speci¿ c components of attention are affected by grapheme-color synesthesia. Eight carefully screened healthy participants with synesthesia reported the letters in brie¿ y presented, post-masked arrays of letters and digits. On half the trials, the letters and digits were...... presented in colors congruent with the synesthetic experience. On the other half of the trials, the letters and digits were presented in colors that were incongruent with the synesthetic experience. Components of attention were estimated separately for congruent and incongruent trials by ¿ tting the data...

  6. Attention, interpretation, identity and narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, P J

    1989-01-01

    Disturbances of the analyst's attention and interferences in the interpretation process are correlated with narcissistic resistances (NR). Interpretation is considered, not only as verbal communication about the patient's unconscious contents, but also as the analyst's instrument to re-establish subject-object discrimination, altered by the archaic aspects of transference. Different types of NR lead to different transference configurations, with specific patterns of involvement of the analyst. The author describes the characteristics of the object relationships in patients with NR predominance and some genetic hypotheses are proposed. The analyst's tolerance of primitive mental functioning, his permeability and capacity to sustain evenly suspended attention are correlated; a comparison is drawn with some neurophysiological findings about attention. Finally, the importance of temporality in these functions is discussed, with some thoughts regarding its role in the outcome of the analyses mentioned by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable'.

  7. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  8. Selective Attention in the Learning Disabled Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Ann M.

    The paper reviews literature relating to selective attention in the learning disabled child. Three processes related to the concept of selective attention (as proposed by D. Berlyne) are discussed: attention in learning, attention in remembering, and attention in performance. It is pointed out that verbal mediation, the use of verbal labels to…

  9. Timing attention : Cuing target onset interval attenuates the attentional blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, S; Johnson, A

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments tested whether the attentional blink (AB; a deficit in reporting the second of two targets when it occurs 200-500 msec after the first) can be attenuated by providing information about the target onset asynchrony (TOA) of the second target relative to the first. Blocking the TOA di

  10. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  11. When attention wanders: Pupillometric signatures of fluctuations in external attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mahiko; Brown, Kevin; Battaglini, Luca; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Attention is not always directed to events in the external environment. On occasion our thoughts wander to people and places distant from the here and now. Sometimes, this lack of external attention can compromise ongoing task performance. In the current study we set out to understand the extent to which states of internal and external attention can be determined using pupillometry as an index of ongoing cognition. In two experiments we found that periods of slow responding were associated with elevations in the baseline pupil signal over three and a half seconds prior to a behavioural response. In the second experiment we found that unlike behavioural lapses, states of off-task thought, particularly those associated with a focus on the past and with an intrusive quality, were associated with reductions in the size of the pupil over the same window prior to the probe. These data show that both states of large and small baseline pupil size are linked to states when attention is not effectively focused on the external environment, although these states have different qualities. More generally, these findings illustrate that subjective and objective markers of task performance may not be equivalent and underscore the importance of developing objective indicators that can allow these different states to be understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pay Attention! Demonstrating the Role of Attention in Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Janet D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a demonstration to illustrate the importance of knowing what is supposed to be learned before studying begins. Suggests that the exercise may be used to show the basic elements of a scientific experiment. Explains that attention's effect upon memory is shown by students' tendency to remember best what they are told to remember. (DK)

  13. Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instructions to "stay on task" on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b)…

  14. The neurodynamics underlying attentional control in set shifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemme, Anja; Deco, Gustavo; Busch, Astrid

    2007-09-01

    In this work we address key phenomena observed with classical set shifting tasks as the "Wisconsin Card Sorting Test" or the "Stroop" task: Different types of errors and increased response times reflecting decreased attention. A component of major importance in these tasks is referred to as the "attentional control" thought to be implemented by the prefrontal cortex which acts primarily by an amplification of task relevant information. This mode of operation is illustrated by a neurodynamical model developed for a new kind of set shifting experiment: The Wisconsin-Delayed-Match-to-Sample task combines uninstructed shifts as investigated in Wisconsin-like tasks with a Delayed-Match-to-Sample paradigm. These newly developed WDMS experiments in conjunction with the neurodynamical simulations are able to explain the reason for decreased attention in set shifting experiments as well the different consequences of decreased attention in tasks requiring bivalent yes/no responses compared to tasks requiring multivalent responses.

  15. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  16. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  17. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  18. [Anaesthetic management of patients in the third trimester of pregnancy undergoing urgent laparoscopic surgery. Experience in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Collada Estrada, María; Olvera Martínez, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is well accepted as a safe technique when performed on a third trimester pregnant woman. The aim is to describe the anaesthetic management of a group of patients undergoing this type of surgery. An analysis was made of records of 6 patients in their third trimester of pregnancy and who underwent urgent laparoscopic surgery from 2011 to 2013. The study included 6 patients, with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in 4 of them. The other 2 patients had acute appendicitis, both of who presented threatened preterm labour. The most frequent indications for laparoscopic surgery during the last trimester of birth were found to be acute cholecystitis and acute appendicitis. Acute appendicitis is related to an elevated risk of presenting threatened preterm labour. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of air pollution on the burden of chronic respiratory diseases in China: time for urgent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Zheng, Xue-Yan; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2016-10-15

    In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing-particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases. We highlight targets for interventions and recommendations for pollution reduction through industrial upgrading, vehicle and fuel renovation, improvements in public transportation, lowering of personal exposure, mitigation of the direct effects of air pollution through healthy city development, intervention at population-based level (systematic health education, intensive and individualised intervention, pre-emptive measures, and rehabilitation), and improvement in air quality. The implementation of a national environmental protection policy has become urgent.

  20. Extended training to prepare GPs for future workforce needs: a qualitative investigation of a 1-year fellowship in urgent care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy; Russell, Rachel; Harkness, Frances; Wilkie, Veronica; Aiello, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    It has been argued that UK general practice specialist training should be extended to better prepare GPs for the challenges facing 21st-century health care. Evidence is needed to inform how this should occur. To investigate the experience of recently trained GPs undertaking a 1-year full-time fellowship programme designed to provide advanced skills training in urgent care, integrated care, leadership, and academic practice; and its impact on subsequent career development. Semi-structured interviews conducted longitudinally over 2 years augmented by observational data in the West Midlands, England. Participants were interviewed on at least three occasions: twice while undertaking the fellowship, and at least once post-completion. Participants' clinical and academic activities were observed. Data were analysed using a framework approach. Seven GPs participated in the pilot scheme. The fellowship was highly rated and felt to be balanced in terms of the opportunities for skill development, academic advancement, and confidence building. GPs experienced enhanced employability on completing the scheme, and at follow-up were working in a variety of primary care/urgent care interface clinical and leadership roles. Participants believed it was making general practice a more attractive career option for newly qualified doctors. The 1-year fellowship provides a defined framework for training GPs to work in an enhanced manner across organisational interfaces with the skills to support service improvement and integration. It appears to be well suited to preparing GPs for portfolio roles, but its wider applicability and impact on NHS service delivery needs further investigation. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  1. Is there a clinically meaningful difference in patient reported dyspnea in acute heart failure? An analysis from URGENT Dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Peter S; Lane, Kathleen A; Tavares, Miguel; Storrow, Alan B; Shen, Changyu; Peacock, W Frank; Nowak, Richard; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Laribi, Said; Hollander, Judd E; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Collins, Sean P

    Dyspnea is the most common presenting symptom in patients with acute heart failure (AHF), but is difficult to quantify as a research measure. The URGENT Dyspnea study compared 3 scales: (1) 10 cm VAS, (2) 5-point Likert, and (3) a 7-point Likert (both VAS and 5-point Likert were recorded in the upright and supine positions). However, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) to patients has not been well established. We performed a secondary analysis from URGENT Dyspnea, an observational, multi-center study of AHF patients enrolled within 1 h of first physician assessment in the ED. Using the anchor-based method to determine the MCID, a one-category change in the 7-point Likert was used as the criterion standard ('minimally improved or worse'). The main outcome measures were the change in visual analog scale (VAS) and 5-point Likert scale from baseline to 6-h assessment relative to a 1-category change response in the 7-point Likert scale ('minimally worse', 'no change', or 'minimally better'). Of the 776 patients enrolled, 491 had a final diagnosis of AHF with responses at both time points. A 10.5 mm (SD 1.6 mm) change in VAS was the MCID for improvement in the upright position, and 14.5 mm (SD 2.0 mm) in the supine position. However, there was no MCID for worsening, as few patients reported worse dyspnea. There was also no significant MCID for the 5-point Likert scale. A 10.5 mm change is the MCID for improvement in dyspnea over 6 h in ED patients with AHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Urgent replacement of a mechanical mitral prosthesis in an anticoagulated patient with Bombay red blood cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Travis K; Giulivi, Antonio; Neurath, Doris; Tokessy, Melanie; Sia, Ying T; Ruel, Marc; Wilkes, Peter R H

    2010-06-01

    Bombay red blood cell phenotype is an extremely rare blood type for which patients can receive only autologous or Bombay phenotype red blood cells. We report a case of urgent repeat sternotomy for replacement of a mechanical mitral prosthesis in a patient with Bombay phenotype anticoagulated with warfarin, to emphasize the transfusion challenges in such patients. A male of Indian descent presented to hospital with New York Heart Association IV symptoms. His medical history revealed previous mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis in 2005 and Bombay phenotype blood. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated thrombus obstruction of the mitral prosthesis despite anticoagulation with warfarin. Right ventricular systolic pressure was >100 mmHg with 3+ tricuspid regurgitation. The patient's condition was temporized with diuretics, bronchodilators, and bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation while transfusion medicine and cardiac surgery were consulted for urgent surgery. The patient received vitamin K and prothrombin complex concentrate prior to repeat sternotomy and successful mitral prosthesis replacement. After cardiopulmonary bypass, heparinization was corrected with protamine and followed by a second dose of prothrombin complex concentrate and recombinant activated factor VIIa. Postoperatively, the patient received four units of packed red blood cells, two autologous units and two units of Bombay specific red blood cells. Right ventricular pressures stabilized at 40 mmHg following surgery. The patient recovered following several days of inotropic support with milrinone, diuretics, and bronchodilators. Patients with Bombay phenotype red blood cells present as type O, but they are unable to receive red blood cells from any phenotype other than Bombay phenotype. They are able to receive all other blood products, including fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, platelets, prothrombin complex concentrate, and recombinant activated factor

  3. Predictive Factors of One-Year Mortality in a Cohort of Patients Undergoing Urgent-Start Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Luciene P.; dos Reis, Luciene M.; Graciolli, Fabiana G.; Pereira, Benedito J.; de Oliveira, Rodrigo B.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; Moyses, Rosa M.; Elias, Rosilene M.; Jorgetti, Vanda

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 10–15% of adult population worldwide. Incident patients on hemodialysis, mainly those on urgent-start dialysis at the emergency room, have a high mortality risk, which may reflect the absence of nephrology care. A lack of data exists regarding the influence of baseline factors on the mortality of these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of this population and identify risk factors that contribute to their mortality. Patients and methods We studied 424 patients who were admitted to our service between 01/2006 and 12/2012 and were followed for 1 year. We analyzed vascular access, risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mineral and bone disease associated with CKD (CKD-MBD), and clinical events that occurred during the follow-up period. Factors that influenced patient survival were evaluated by Cox regression analysis. Results The patient mean age was 50 ± 18 years, and 58.7% of them were male. Hypertension was the main cause of primary CKD (31.8%). Major risk factors were smoking (19.6%), dyslipidemia (48.8%), and CVD (41%). Upon admission, most patients had no vascular access for hemodialysis (89.4%). Biochemical results showed that most patients were anemic with high C-reactive protein levels, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated parathyroid hormone and decreased 25-hydroxy vitamin D. At the end of one year, 60 patients died (14.1%). These patients were significantly older, had a lower percentage of arteriovenous fistula in one year, and low levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Conclusions The combined evaluation of clinical and biochemical parameters and risk factors revealed that the mortality in urgent-start dialysis is associated with older age and low levels of vitamin D deficiency. A lack of a permanent hemodialysis access after one year was also a risk factor for mortality in this population. PMID:28045952

  4. How facial attractiveness affects sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Oksama, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated whether and how facial attractiveness affects sustained attention. We adopted a multiple-identity tracking paradigm, using attractive and unattractive faces as stimuli. Participants were required to track moving target faces amid distractor faces and report the final location of each target. In Experiment 1, the attractive and unattractive faces differed in both the low-level properties (i.e., luminance, contrast, and color saturation) and high-level properties (i.e., physical beauty and age). The results showed that the attractiveness of both the target and distractor faces affected the tracking performance: The attractive target faces were tracked better than the unattractive target faces; when the targets and distractors were both unattractive male faces, the tracking performance was poorer than when they were of different attractiveness. In Experiment 2, the low-level properties of the facial images were equalized. The results showed that the attractive target faces were still tracked better than unattractive targets while the effects related to distractor attractiveness ceased to exist. Taken together, the results indicate that during attentional tracking the high-level properties related to the attractiveness of the target faces can be automatically processed, and then they can facilitate the sustained attention on the attractive targets, either with or without the supplement of low-level properties. On the other hand, only low-level properties of the distractor faces can be processed. When the distractors share similar low-level properties with the targets, they can be grouped together, so that it would be more difficult to sustain attention on the individual targets. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Attentional window set by expected relevance of environmental signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The existence of an attentional window--a limited region in visual space at which attention is directed--has been invoked to explain why sudden visual onsets may or may not capture overt or covert attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that observers voluntarily control the size of this attentional window to regulate whether or not environmental signals can capture attention. We have used a novel approach to test this: participants eye-movements were tracked while they performed a search task that required dynamic gaze-shifts. During the search task, abrupt onsets were presented that cued the target positions at different levels of congruency. The participant knew these levels. We determined oculomotor capture efficiency for onsets that appeared at different viewing eccentricities. From these, we could derive the participant's attentional window size as a function of onset congruency. We find that the window was small during the presentation of low-congruency onsets, but increased monotonically in size with an increase in the expected congruency of the onsets. This indicates that the attentional window is under voluntary control and is set according to the expected relevance of environmental signals for the observer's momentary behavioral goals. Moreover, our approach provides a new and exciting method to directly measure the size of the attentional window.

  6. Components of working memory and visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Bryan R; Sabia, Matthew; Langan, Catherine

    2014-02-01

    Load theory (Lavie, N., Hirst, A., De Fockert, J. W., & Viding, E. [2004]. Load theory of selective attention and cognitive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 339-354.) proposes that control of attention depends on the amount and type of load that is imposed by current processing. Specifically, perceptual load should lead to efficient distractor rejection, whereas working memory load (dual-task coordination) should hinder distractor rejection. Studies support load theory's prediction that working memory load will lead to larger distractor effects; however, these studies used secondary tasks that required only verbal working memory and the central executive. The present study examined which other working memory components (visual, spatial, and phonological) influence visual selective attention. Subjects completed an attentional capture task alone (single-task) or while engaged in a working memory task (dual-task). Results showed that along with the central executive, visual and spatial working memory influenced selective attention, but phonological working memory did not. Specifically, attentional capture was larger when visual or spatial working memory was loaded, but phonological working memory load did not affect attentional capture. The results are consistent with load theory and suggest specific components of working memory influence visual selective attention.

  7. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  8. Do Multielement Visual Tracking and Visual Search Draw Continuously on the Same Visual Attention Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, George A.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Arsenio, Helga C.; DiMase, Jennifer S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2005-01-01

    Multielement visual tracking and visual search are 2 tasks that are held to require visual-spatial attention. The authors used the attentional operating characteristic (AOC) method to determine whether both tasks draw continuously on the same attentional resource (i.e., whether the 2 tasks are mutually exclusive). The authors found that observers…

  9. Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening with University Students with Dyslexia: Search for a Core Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly changing environments in day-to-day activities, enriched with stimuli competing for attention, require a cognitive control mechanism to select relevant stimuli, ignore irrelevant stimuli, and shift attention between alternative features of the environment. Such attentional orchestration is essential to the acquisition of reading skills. In…

  10. The effect of self-control on attentional bias for alcohol cues in male heavy drinkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, H.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Vohs, K.D.; Engels, R.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Attentional bias for alcohol cues increases craving and subsequent alcohol consumption. Override processes can be used to disengage attention from alcohol cues. This requires self-control and implies that depletion of self-control would impair the ability to disengage attention from alcohol cues. Th

  11. The Effect of Self-Control on Attentional Bias for Alcohol Cues in Male Heavy Drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, H.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Vohs, K.D.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Attentional bias for alcohol cues increases craving and subsequent alcohol consumption. Override processes can be used to disengage attention from alcohol cues. This requires self-control and implies that depletion of self-control would impair the ability to disengage attention from alcohol cues. Th

  12. Recognizing the Degree of Human Attention Using EEG Signals from Mobile Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    During the learning process, whether students remain attentive throughout instruction generally influences their learning efficacy. If teachers can instantly identify whether students are attentive they can be suitably reminded to remain focused, thereby improving their learning effects. Traditional teaching methods generally require that teachers observe students’ expressions to determine whether they are attentively learning. However, this method is often inaccurate and increases the burden...

  13. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  14. An Urgent Task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ An 8-percent goal for GDP growth appeared again in the government's work report delivered earlier this month by Premier Wen Jiabao at the annual session of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature. But this year's "8-percent" means more than maintaining the growth momentum, which clearly implies ensuring the quality of growth, and focusing on transforming the model of economic development and adjusting the economic structure.

  15. Frequent or urgent urination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body) Swelling and infection of the urethra Vaginitis (swelling or discharge of the vulva and vagina) Less common causes include: Alcohol use Anxiety Bladder cancer (not common) Drinking caffeine Diabetes that is not ...

  16. Attention: A Machine Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We review a statistical machine learning model of top-down task driven attention based on the notion of ‘gist’. In this framework we consider the task to be represented as a classification problem with two sets of features — a gist of coarse grained global features and a larger set of low...

  17. Attention and the Testing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Picklesimer, Milton

    2016-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances still later memory as evidenced by the testing effect. Divided attention (DA) is known to produce different effects on encoding and retrieval, substantially disrupting the former and often producing little effect on the latter. The present experiments examine whether the mnemonic consequences of retrieval are…

  18. Attentional bias in math anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms. PMID:26528208

  19. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  20. Dyscalculia and Attention Deficit Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The association of specific academic deficits with attention deficit disorder (ADD) subtypes was determined in 20 students (ages 8-12) with ADD with hyperactivity (ADD/H) compared to 20 with ADD without hyperactivity (ADD/noH), at the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, TX.

  1. Perception and Attention for Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This work examines how a better understanding of visual perception and attention can impact visualization design. In a collection of studies, I explore how different levels of the visual system can measurably affect a variety of visualization metrics. The results show that expert preference, user performance, and even computational performance are…

  2. The Mechanisms of Involuntary Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzmetal, William; Ha, Ruby; Khani, Aniss

    2010-01-01

    We tested 3 mechanisms of involuntary attention: (1) a perceptual enhancement mechanism, (2) a response-decision mechanism, and (3) a serial-search mechanism. Experiment 1 used a response deadline technique to compare the perceptual enhancement and the decision mechanisms and found evidence consistent with the decision mechanism. Experiment 2 used…

  3. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  4. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  5. Perception and Attention for Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This work examines how a better understanding of visual perception and attention can impact visualization design. In a collection of studies, I explore how different levels of the visual system can measurably affect a variety of visualization metrics. The results show that expert preference, user performance, and even computational performance are…

  6. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  8. Paying attention to attention in recognition memory: insights from models and electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Chad; Payne, Lisa; Sekuler, Robert; Rotello, Caren M

    2013-12-01

    Reliance on remembered facts or events requires memory for their sources, that is, the contexts in which those facts or events were embedded. Understanding of source retrieval has been stymied by the fact that uncontrolled fluctuations of attention during encoding can cloud results of key importance to theoretical development. To address this issue, we combined electrophysiology (high-density electroencephalogram, EEG, recordings) with computational modeling of behavioral results. We manipulated subjects' attention to an auditory attribute, whether the source of individual study words was a male or female speaker. Posterior alpha-band (8-14 Hz) power in subjects' EEG increased after a cue to ignore the voice of the person who was about to speak. Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis validated our interpretation of oscillatory dynamics as a marker of attention to source information. With attention under experimental control, computational modeling showed unequivocally that memory for source (male or female speaker) reflected a continuous signal detection process rather than a threshold recollection process.

  9. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  10. Paying attention to attention: evidence for an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F; Maloney, Erin A; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms supporting our comprehension of magnitude information represents a key goal in cognitive psychology. A major phenomenon employed in the pursuit of this goal has been the physical size congruity effect-namely, the observation that comparing the relative numerical sizes of two numbers is influenced by their relative physical sizes. The standard account of the physical size congruity effect attributes it to the automatic influence of the comparison of irrelevant physical magnitudes on numerical judgments. Here we develop an alternative account of this effect on the basis of the operation of attention in the typical size congruity display and the temporal dynamics of number comparison. We also provide a test of a number of predictions derived from this alternative account by combining a physical size congruity manipulation with a manipulation designed to alter the operation of attention within the typical size congruity display (i.e., a manipulation of the relative onsets of the digits). This test provides evidence consistent with an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect. Implications for our understanding of magnitude and the interactions between attention and magnitude are discussed.

  11. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times...

  12. Fluctuating attention in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Aarsland, Dag; Janvin, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    great variability in performance in reactiontime tasks. Aiming to investigate fluctuation of attention in PD, we re- analysed data from a cue-target reactiontime task, specifically searching for differences in variability between patients and controls. The subjects included were a representative group...... a significant difference (pattention might be fluctuating on a moment to moment basis in PD. Some of the PD patients have also been tested with a choice reaction time...... task, shown by Walker et al. (2000) to be sensi- tive to fluctuation of cognition in DLB patients. Preliminary data-analysis indicate that PD patients also show considerable intra-individual variation in performance on this test. These findings suggest that fluctuating attention and cogni- tion...

  13. [Air pollution and urgent hospital admissions in 25 Italian cities: results from the EpiAir2 project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinzi, Cecilia; Alessandrini, Ester Rita; Chiusolo, Monica; Galassi, Claudia; Baldini, Marco; Serinelli, Maria; Pandolfi, Paolo; Bruni, Antonella; Biggeri, Annibale; De Togni, Aldo; Carreras, Giulia; Casella, Claudia; Canova, Cristina; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Morassuto, Caterina; Cernigliaro, Achille; Giannini, Simone; Lauriola, Paolo; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Gherardi, Bianca; Zauli-Sajani, Stefano; Stafoggia, Massimo; Casale, Patrizia; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Piovesan, Cinzia; Tominz, Riccardo; Porcaro, Loredana; Cadum, Ennio

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and hospital admissions in 25 Italian cities that took part in the EpiAir (Epidemiological surveillance of air pollution effects among Italian cities) project. study of time series with case-crossover methodology, with adjustment for meteorological and time-dependent variables. The association air pollution hospitalisation was analyzed in each of the 25 cities involved in the study; the overall estimates of effect were obtained subsequently by means of a meta-analysis. The pollutants considered were PM10, PM2.5 (in 13 cities only), NO2 and ozone (O3); this last pollutant restricted to the summer season (April-September). the study has analyzed 2,246,448 urgent hospital admissions for non-accidental diseases in 25 Italian cities during the period 2006- 2010; 10 out of 25 cities took part also in the first phase of the project (2001-2005). urgent hospital admissions for cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases, for all age groups, were considered. The respiratory hospital admissions were analysed also for the 0-14-year subgroup. Percentage increases risk of hospitalization associated with increments of 10 µg/m(3) and interquartile range (IQR) of the concentration of each pollutant were calculated. reported results were related to an increment of 10 µg/m(3) of air pollutant. The percent increase for PM10 for cardiac causes was 0.34% at lag 0 (95%CI 0.04-0.63), for respiratory causes 0.75% at lag 0-5 (95%CI 0.25-1.25). For PM2.5, the percent increase for respiratory causes was 1.23% at lag 0- 5 (95%CI 0.58-1.88). For NO2, the percent increase for cardiac causes was 0.57% at lag 0 (95%CI 0.13-1.02); 1.29% at lag 0-5 (95%CI 0.52-2.06) for respiratory causes. Ozone (O3) did not turned out to be positively associated neither with cardiac nor with respiratory causes as noted in the previous period (2001-2005). the results of the study confirm an association between PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 on hospital admissions

  14. Unitary attention in callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'acqua, R; Jolicoeur, P; Lassonde, M; Angrilli, A; De Bastiani, P; Pascali, A

    2005-01-01

    The interhemispheric organisation of two specific components of attention was investigated in three patients affected by partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. A visuospatial component of attention was explored using a visual search paradigm in which target and distractors were displayed either unilaterally within a single visual hemifield, or bilaterally across both visual hemifields in light of prior work indicating that split-brain patients were twice as fast to scan bilateral displays compared to unilateral displays. A central component of attention was explored using a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm in which two visual stimuli were presented laterally at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), with each stimulus associated with a different speeded two-alternative choice task. The stimulus-response compatibility in the second task was systematically manipulated in this paradigm, in light of prior work indicating that split-brain patients exhibited a close-to-normal PRP effect (i.e., slowing of the second response as SOA is decreased), with, however, abnormally decreasing effects of the manipulation of the response mapping on the second task speed as SOA was decreased. The present results showed that, although generally slower than normals in carrying out the two tasks, the performance of each of the three acallosal patients was formally equivalent to the performance of a matched control group of normal individuals. In the visual search task, the search rate of the acallosal patients was the same for unilateral and bilateral displays. Furthermore, in the PRP task, there was more mutual interference between the lateralised tasks for the acallosal patients than that evidenced in the performance of the matched control group. It is concluded that the visuospatial component and the central component of attention in agenesis of the corpus callosum are interhemispherically integrated systems.

  15. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing ...

  16. A Real Attention-Getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  17. The AIMS65 Score Is a Useful Predictor of Mortality in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Urgent Endoscopy in Patients with High AIMS65 Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Wook; Song, Young Wook; Tak, Dae Hyun; Ahn, Byung Moo; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2015-11-01

    To validate the AIMS65 score for predicting mortality of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to evaluate the effectiveness of urgent (Nonvariceal, upper gastrointestinal bleeding was assessed by using the AIM65 and Rockall scores. Scores for mortality were assessed by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Patients with high AIMS65 scores (≥2) were allocated to either the urgent or non-urgent endoscopic procedure group. In-hospital mortality, success of endoscopic procedure, recurrence of bleeding, admission period, and dose of transfusion were compared between groups. A total of 634 patients were analyzed. The AIMS65 score successfully predicted mortality (AUROC=0.943; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.876 to 0.99) and was superior to the Rockall score (AUROC=0.856; 95% CI, 0.743 to 0.969) in predicting mortality. The group with high AIMS65 score included 200 patients. The urgent endoscopic procedure group had reduced hospitalization periods (pnonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Urgent endoscopic procedures in patients with high scores may be related to reduced hospitalization periods.

  18. Decreasing delays in urgent and expedited surgery in a university teaching hospital through audit and communication between peri-operative and surgical directorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, J F; Gaughan, M; Snowden, C P; Lees, T

    2008-06-01

    National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death guidelines for urgent surgery recommend a fully staffed emergency operating theatre and restriction of 'after-midnight' operating to immediate life-, limb- or organ-threatening conditions. Audit performed in our institution demonstrated significant decreases in waiting times for urgent surgery and an increased seniority of medical care associated with overnight pre-operative assessment of patients by anaesthetic trainees. Nevertheless, urgent cases continued to be delayed unnecessarily. A classification of delays was developed from existing guidelines and their incidence was audited. The results were disseminated to involved directorates. A repeat of the audit demonstrated a significant decrease in delays (p = 0.001), a significant increase in the availability of surgeons (p = 0.001) and a significant decrease in the median waiting time for urgent surgery compared to the first audit cycle and a previous standard (p auditing delays and disseminating the results of the audit significantly decreases delays and median waiting times for urgent surgery because of improved surgical availability.

  19. Does visual attention drive the dynamics of bistable perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Kevin C; Brascamp, Jan; Tadin, Duje; Blake, Randolph

    2016-10-01

    How does attention interact with incoming sensory information to determine what we perceive? One domain in which this question has received serious consideration is that of bistable perception: a captivating class of phenomena that involves fluctuating visual experience in the face of physically unchanging sensory input. Here, some investigations have yielded support for the idea that attention alone determines what is seen, while others have implicated entirely attention-independent processes in driving alternations during bistable perception. We review the body of literature addressing this divide and conclude that in fact both sides are correct-depending on the form of bistable perception being considered. Converging evidence suggests that visual attention is required for alternations in the type of bistable perception called binocular rivalry, while alternations during other types of bistable perception appear to continue without requiring attention. We discuss some implications of this differential effect of attention for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying bistable perception, and examine how these mechanisms operate during our everyday visual experiences.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, or something else: the broad differential of kindergarten suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojmahamongkol, Pat; Weitzman, Carol; Senturias, Yasmin; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2014-06-01

    Thomas is a 5-year 6-month-old boy whose parents requested an urgent care appointment because he has recently been suspended from kindergarten stating "and his doctor must see him before he can come back." His suspension from kindergarten was due to kicking and biting his classmates, but he has also become increasingly aggressive at home. His teacher reported that he has always had a high activity level and difficulty shifting attention between tasks, as well as noncompliance with rules and directions. He is noted to have learning challenges and is showing difficulties in the concept of numbers and letter sounds. The practice has followed Thomas since his healthy birth. He has a history of delayed language development, and he received early intervention services from 2 years of age. He spoke his first word at 2 years 6 months. He started a half-day preschool program at 3 years of age. He had difficulty acclimating to preschool, interacting with peers, and was described as "hyperactive" by his teachers. His program was modified to decrease his time having to sit in a circle time, and he often required the support of the paraprofessional in the classroom. His parents have always described him as a "difficult child." He gets frustrated easily and can tantrum for up to 2 hours multiple times in a week when his immediate needs or requests are not met. He has difficulty falling asleep, has frequent night awakenings, and often has trouble getting back to sleep. His self-help skills are poor, and he has difficulty with activities such as brushing his teeth and dressing. His parents report that he does not seem to remember rules from day to day. He was evaluated at 5 years of age and diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, but his response to stimulants has been limited. Thomas is an only child. His parents are college educated and professionally employed. They deny drug use, domestic violence, and guns in the home. They reported that prior to the pregnancy

  1. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  2. Oscillatory Dynamics in the Frontoparietal Attention Network during Sustained Attention in the Ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Kristin K; Yu, Chunxiu; Zhou, Zhe Charles; Stitt, Iain; Li, Yuhui; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2016-09-13

    Sustained attention requires the coordination of neural activity across multiple cortical areas in the frontoparietal network, in particular the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Previous work has demonstrated that activity in these brain regions is coordinated by neuronal oscillations of the local field potential (LFP). However, the underlying coordination of activity in terms of organization of single unit (SU) spiking activity has remained poorly understood, particularly in the freely moving animal. We found that long-range functional connectivity between anatomically connected PFC and PPC was mediated by oscillations in the theta frequency band. SU activity in PFC was phase locked to theta oscillations in PPC, and spiking activity in PFC and PPC was locked to local high-gamma activity. Together, our results support a model in which frequency-specific synchronization mediates functional connectivity between and within PFC and PPC of the frontoparietal attention network in the freely moving animal.

  3. Temporal attention as a Scaffold for Language Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth eDe Diego-Balaguer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Language is one of the most fascinating abilities that humans possess. Infants demonstrate an amazing repertoire of linguistic abilities from very early on and reach an adult-like form incredibly fast. However, language is not acquired all at once but in an incremental fashion. In this article we propose that the attentional system may be one of the sources for this developmental trajectory in language acquisition. At birth, infants are endowed with an attentional system fully driven by salient stimuli in their environment, such as prosodic information (e.g., rhythm or pitch. Early stages of language acquisition could benefit from this readily available, stimulus-driven attention to simplify the complex speech input and allow word segmentation. At later stages of development, infants are progressively able to selectively attend to specific elements while disregarding others. This attentional ability could allow them to learn distant non-adjacent rules needed for morphosyntactic acquisition. Because non-adjacent dependencies occur at distant moments in time, learning these dependencies may require correctly orienting attention in the temporal domain. Here, we gather evidence uncovering the intimate relationship between the development of attention and language. We aim to provide a novel approach to human development, bridging together temporal attention and language acquisition.

  4. Developmental trajectories of regulating attentional selection over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHeim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to pay attention and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development.

  5. Developmental trajectories of regulating attentional selection over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to "pay attention" and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development.

  6. Topography of somatosensory processing: cerebral lateralization and focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, K J; Allison, J D; Loring, D W; Lavin, T B; Pillai, J J

    2002-03-01

    Healthy dextrals underwent fMRI during a task of graphesthesia requiring detection of any number written consecutively from an otherwise random number sequence. Test conditions included (1) focus on unilateral right hand stimuli, (2) focus on unilateral left hand stimuli, (3) focus on right hand only during bilateral hand stimulation, (4) focus on left hand only during bilateral hand stimulation, and (5) rest. Attention to unilateral hand stimulation produced bihemispheric activation with minimal or no activation of ipsilateral primary sensorimotor region. Attention to unilateral left hand stimuli resulted in more activation than attention to unilateral right hand stimuli. Stimulation of the nonattended hand activated the contralateral somatosensory area, but to a lesser spatial extent than attended stimuli. Comparing focused attention to the left versus right side during identical sensory inputs (i.e., bilateral hand stimulation), focused attention to the right hand increased activation in the left somatosensory region, but focused attention to the left hand increased activation in both cerebral hemispheres. Thus, focused attention to unilateral somatosensory stimuli produces bilateral cerebral activation, but the increase in blood flow is greater in the contralateral hemisphere. Unattended stimuli activate the contralateral primary somatosensory area. Left/right asymmetries were demonstrated consistent with cerebral lateralization.

  7. Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMalinowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The scientific interest in meditation and mindfulness practice has recently seen an unprecedented surge. After an initial phase of presenting beneficial effects of mindfulness practice in various domains, research is now seeking to unravel the underlying psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms. Advances in understanding these processes are required for improving and fine-tuning mindfulness-based interventions that target specific conditions such as eating disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. This review presents a theoretical framework that emphasizes the central role of attentional control mechanisms in the development of mindfulness skills. It discusses the phenomenological level of experience during meditation, the different attentional functions that are involved, and relates these to the brain networks that subserve these functions. On the basis of currently available empirical evidence specific processes as to how attention exerts its positive influence are considered and it is concluded that meditation practice appears to positively impact attentional functions by improving resource allocation processes. As a result, attentional resources are allocated more fully during early processing phases which subsequently enhance further processing. Neural changes resulting from a pure form of mindfulness practice that is central to most mindfulness programs are considered from the perspective that they constitute a useful reference point for future research. Furthermore, possible interrelations between the improvement of attentional control and emotion regulation skills are discussed.

  8. Fontan's circulation with dextrocardia, recent pulmonary embolism, and inferior vena cava filter: Anesthetic challenges for urgent hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Ramachandran, Rashmi; Trikha, Anjan; Goudra, Basavana Gouda

    2016-01-01

    Fontan's circulation is a unique challenge for the anesthesiologist. Venous pressure is the only source of blood flow for the pulmonary circulation. Patients with such circulation are extremely sensitive to progression of cyanosis (decreased pulmonary blood flow) or circulatory failure. Any major venous compression can compromise the pulmonary blood flow worsening cyanosis; simultaneously, an increased afterload can precipitate circulatory failure. We present a rare patient of surgically corrected Ivemark syndrome with Fontan's physiology with dextrocardia who developed a large uterine fibroid compressing inferior vena cava (IVC). As a result of compression, not only the pulmonary circulation was compromised but she also developed stasis-induced venous thrombosis in the lower limbs that lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) (increased afterload). In addition to oral anticoagulation an IVC filter was inserted to prevent ongoing recurrent PE. Further, to prevent both circulatory compromise and deep venous thrombosis an urgent myomectomy/hysterectomy was planned. In the present case, we discuss the issues involved in the anesthetic management of such patients and highlight the lacunae in the present guidelines for managing perioperative anticoagulation these situations.

  9. Fontan′s circulation with dextrocardia, recent pulmonary embolism, and inferior vena cava filter: Anesthetic challenges for urgent hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Mohinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fontan′s circulation is a unique challenge for the anesthesiologist. Venous pressure is the only source of blood flow for the pulmonary circulation. Patients with such circulation are extremely sensitive to progression of cyanosis (decreased pulmonary blood flow or circulatory failure. Any major venous compression can compromise the pulmonary blood flow worsening cyanosis; simultaneously, an increased afterload can precipitate circulatory failure. We present a rare patient of surgically corrected Ivemark syndrome with Fontan′s physiology with dextrocardia who developed a large uterine fibroid compressing inferior vena cava (IVC. As a result of compression, not only the pulmonary circulation was compromised but she also developed stasis-induced venous thrombosis in the lower limbs that lead to pulmonary embolism (PE (increased afterload. In addition to oral anticoagulation an IVC filter was inserted to prevent ongoing recurrent PE. Further, to prevent both circulatory compromise and deep venous thrombosis an urgent myomectomy/hysterectomy was planned. In the present case, we discuss the issues involved in the anesthetic management of such patients and highlight the lacunae in the present guidelines for managing perioperative anticoagulation these situations.

  10. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity.

  11. Sustained visual-spatial attention produces costs and benefits in response time and evoked neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangun, G R; Buck, L A

    1998-03-01

    This study investigated the simple reaction time (RT) and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of biasing attention towards a location in the visual field. RTs and ERPs were recorded to stimuli flashed randomly and with equal probability to the left and right visual hemifields in the three blocked, covert attention conditions: (i) attention divided equally to left and right hemifield locations; (ii) attention biased towards the left location; or (iii) attention biased towards the right location. Attention was biased towards left or right by instructions to the subjects, and responses were required to all stimuli. Relative to the divided attention condition, RTs were significantly faster for targets occurring where more attention was allocated (benefits), and slower to targets where less attention was allocated (costs). The early P1 (100-140 msec) component over the lateral occipital scalp regions showed attentional benefits. There were no amplitude modulations of the occipital N1 (125-180 msec) component with attention. Between 200 and 500 msec latency, a late positive deflection (LPD) showed both attentional costs and benefits. The behavioral findings show that when sufficiently induced to bias attention, human observers demonstrate RT benefits as well as costs. The corresponding P1 benefits suggest that the RT benefits of spatial attention may arise as the result of modulations of visual information processing in the extrastriate visual cortex.

  12. Feature-based attention resolves depth ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Levinthal, B; Franconeri, S L

    2016-09-07

    Perceiving the world around us requires that we resolve ambiguity. This process is often studied in the lab using ambiguous figures whose structures can be interpreted in multiple ways. One class of figures contains ambiguity in its depth relations, such that either of two surfaces could be seen as being the "front" of an object. Previous research suggests that selectively attending to a given location on such objects can bias the perception of that region as the front. This study asks whether selectively attending to a distributed feature can also bias that region toward the front. Participants viewed a structure-from-motion display of a rotating cylinder that could be perceived as rotating clockwise or counterclockwise (as imagined viewing from the top), depending on whether a set of red or green moving dots were seen as being in the front. A secondary task encouraged observers to globally attend to either red or green. Results from both Experiment 1 and 2 showed that the dots on the cylinder that shared the attended feature, and its corresponding surface, were more likely to be seen as being in the front, as measured by participants' clockwise versus counterclockwise percept reports. Feature-based attention, like location-based attention, is capable of biasing competition among potential interpretations of figures with ambiguous structure in depth.

  13. Temporal constraints on visual perception: A psychophysical investigation of the relation between attention capture and the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon

    While the richness of our visual perceptions is nearly boundless, the rate with which we can perceive information is limited. For instance when we are required to perceive two consecutive target objects following briefly after each other, the accuracy with which we can report the second target...... be triggered by attention capture to the first object (Folk, Leber & Egeth, 2008) and that if making the first target easier to perceive increase its saliency this may increase the attentional blink (Chua, 2005). This thesis examines the attention capture hypothesis with focus on empirical investigations...... and a theoretical review. Specifically this work presents studies in which first target contrast is varied in two different attentional blink paradigms, while potential influences from bottleneck effects are controlled. Publication 1 describes findings using the two-target paradigm (Duncan, Ward & Shapiro, 1994...

  14. Shared visual attention and memory systems in the Drosophila brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno van Swinderen

    required for attention-like processes in the fly brain.

  15. Functional MRI of sustained attention in bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, D E; Eliassen, J C; Durling, M; Lamy, M; Adler, C M; DelBello, M P; Shear, P K; Cerullo, M A; Lee, J-H; Strakowski, S M

    2012-03-01

    We examined sustained attention deficits in bipolar disorder and associated changes in brain activation assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that relative to healthy participants, those with mania or mixed mania would (1) exhibit incremental decrements in sustained attention over time, (2) overactivate brain regions required for emotional processing and (3) progressively underactivate attentional regions of prefrontal cortex. Fifty participants with manic/mixed bipolar disorder (BP group) and 34 healthy comparison subjects (HC group) received an fMRI scan while performing a 15-min continuous performance task (CPT). The data were divided into three consecutive 5-min vigilance periods to analyze sustained attention. Composite brain activation maps indicated that both groups activated dorsal and ventral regions of an anterior-limbic network, but the BP group exhibited less activation over time relative to baseline. Consistent with hypotheses 1 and 2, the BP group showed a marginally greater behavioral CPT sustained attention decrement and more bilateral amygdala activation than the HC group, respectively. Instead of differential activation in prefrontal cortex over time, as predicted in hypothesis 3, the BP group progressively decreased activation in subcortical regions of striatum and thalamus relative to the HC group. These results suggest that regional activation decrements in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex accompany sustained attention decrements in both bipolar and healthy individuals. Stable amygdala overactivation across prolonged vigils may interfere with sustained attention and exacerbate attentional deficits in bipolar disorder. Differential striatal and thalamic deactivation in bipolar disorder is interpreted as a loss of amygdala (emotional brain) modulation by the ventrolateral prefrontal-subcortical circuit, which interferes with attentional maintenance.

  16. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  17. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    into the temporal domain. In the neural interpretation of TVA (NTVA; Bundesen, Habekost and Kyllingsbæk, 2005), processing resources are implemented as allocation of cortical cells to objects in the visual field. A feedback mechanism is then used to keep encoded objects in VSTM alive. The proposed model...... of attentional dwell time extends these mechanisms by proposing that the processing resources (cells) already engaged in a feedback loop (i.e. allocated to an object) are locked in VSTM and therefore cannot be allocated to other objects in the visual field before the encoded object has been released...

  18. Attentional selection by distractor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, G; Guerra, S

    1998-03-01

    Selective attention was studied in displays containing singletons popping out for their odd form or color. The target was defined as the form-singleton, the distractor as the color-singleton. The task was to discriminate the length of a longer line inside the target. Target-distractor similarity was controlled using a threshold measurement as dependent variable in experiments in which distractor presence vs absence, bottom-up vs top-down selection (through knowledge of target features), and target-distractor distance were manipulated. The results in the bottom-up condition showed that length threshold was elevated when a distractor was present and that this elevation progressively increased as the number of distractors was increased from one to two. This set-size effect was not accounted by the hypothesis that selective attention intervenes only at the stage of decision before response. Selective attention produced a suppressive surround in which discriminability of neighboring objects was strongly reduced, and a larger surround in which discriminability was reduced by an approximately constant amount. Different results were found in the top-down condition in which target discriminability was unaffected by distractor presence and no effect of target-distractor distance was found. On the other hand, response times in both bottom-up and top-down conditions were slower the shorter the target-distractor distance was. On the basis of the experimental results, selective attention is a parallel process of spatial filtering at an intermediate processing level operating after objects have been segmented. This filtering stage explores high level interactions between objects taking control on combinatorial explosion by operating over only a limited spatial extent: it picks out a selected object and inhibits the neighboring objects; then, non-selected objects are suppressed across the overall image. When no feature-based selection is available in the current behavior, this

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Almeida Bolognani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study, stated as Previous Notation, is to demonstrate that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pathology presents a differentiated condition in carriers where a significant percentage, close to 60%, present a higher level of zinc elimination by kidneys. In this study, a direct relation of Zinc Mettalicum pathogenetic symptoms, this disturbance and the elimination of this element which participates in neurotransmission process were identified, and the relation with elements from regular diet, which can act as zinc chelating agents would be involved in the evolution of this disturbance, justifying the issue of individual susceptibility, essential in homeopathic investigation

  20. Feihong Corporation's Extremely Urgent Request%飞鸿公司的燃眉之急

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉霞

    2011-01-01

    飞鸿股份有限公司主要从事国内沿海和国际远洋货物运输业务。2008年,该公司准备增加公司的运力,购买一艘7万吨级的散装二手货船,而该船在二手船市场上国内外买家众多,竞争激烈。飞鸿公司急需在最短时间内融资到1500万美元购买该船,于是,飞鸿公司向Z银行提出融资申请。考虑到从海外购买船只需要等待政府批准,这与公司急需购买船只是相矛盾的,且在当时国际金融危机爆发和中国航运业指数下滑背景下,银行向飞鸿公司提供贷款会有较大风险,而银行又有向客户提供优质服务的使命,怎么办?Z银行做出决定变得非常艰难。该案例属于决策型案例,描述了Z银行经理层的决策场景和特定的决策过程。%Feihong Corporation is mainly engaged in domestic and international ocean cargo transportation business. In 2008, the company planned to expand the company' s business capacity through buying a 70,000-ton-bulk vessel from the second-hand market, where there were many other buyers hence making it highly competitive. Feihong Corporation needed 15 million dollars in emergency to deal with the financial difficulties. Accordingly, the company applied to Bank Z for help. Regarding Feihong Corporation's urgent request, Bank Z began a heated discussion internally. Given that an approval from the government was a prerequisite to buy cargo ships from overseas, it contradicts the corporation's urgent need of a freighter. In addition, it was very risky for banks to provide loans to Feihong Corporation under the background of world financial tsunami and the declining BDI (Baltic Dry Index). Considering the bank's mission of providing premium services, this case studies the decision making process of bank Z by describing the considerations of management and illustrating specific scenarios of the process.

  1. USDA registration and rectification requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the requirements of the United States Department of Agriculture for accuracy of aerospace acquired data, and specifically, requirements for registration and rectification of remotely sensed data are discussed. Particular attention is given to foreign and domestic crop estimation and forecasting, forestry information applications, and rangeland condition evaluations.

  2. Reducing Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing for Adults With Acute Bronchitis in an Urgent Care Setting: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Tamara L; Townsend, Mary L; Leung, Eugene; Kommu, Sekhar; Vega, Rhonda Y; Hendrix, Cristina C

    Acute bronchitis is a predominantly viral illness and, according to clinical practice guidelines, should not be treated with antibiotics. Despite clear guidelines, acute bronchitis continues to be the most common acute respiratory illness for which antibiotics are incorrectly prescribed. Although the national benchmark for antibiotic prescribing for adults with acute bronchitis is 0%, a preliminary record review before implementing the intervention at the project setting showed that 96% (N = 30) of adults with acute bronchitis in this setting were prescribed an antibiotic. This quality improvement project utilized a single-group, pre-post design. The setting for this project was a large urgent care network with numerous locations in central North Carolina. The purpose was to determine whether nurse practitioners and physician assistants, after participating in a multifaceted provider education session, would reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for healthy adults with acute uncomplicated bronchitis. Twenty providers attended 1 of 4 training sessions offered in October and November 2015. The face-to-face interactive training sessions focused on factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, current clinical practice guidelines, and patient communication skills. Retrospective medical record review of 217 pretraining and 335 posttraining encounters for acute bronchitis by 19 eligible participating providers demonstrated a 61.9% reduction in immediate antibiotic prescribing from 91.7% to 29.8%. Delayed prescribing, which accounted for a small percentage of the total prescriptions given, had a small but significant increase of 9.3% after training. Overall, this multifaceted, interactive provider training resulted in significant reductions in inappropriate prescriptions.

  3. A single German center experience with intermittent inotropes for patients on the high-urgent heart transplant waiting list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, T; Nickel, T; Steinbeck, G; Massberg, S; Schramm, R; Reichart, B; Hagl, C; Kiwi, A; Weis, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Currently, more than 900 patients with end-stage heart failure are listed for heart transplantation in Germany. All patients on the Eurotransplant high-urgent status (HU) have to be treated in intensive care units and have to be relisted every 8 weeks. Long-term continuous inotropes are associated with tachyphylaxia, arrhythmias and even increased mortality. In this retrospective analysis, we report our single center experience with HU patients treated with intermittent inotropes as a bridging therapy. 117 consecutive adult HU candidates were treated at our intensive care heart failure unit between 2008 and 2013, of whom 14 patients (12 %) were stabilized and delisted during follow-up. In the remaining 103 patients (age 42 ± 15 years), different inotropes (dobutamine, milrinone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, levosimendan) were administered based on the patient's specific characteristics. After initial recompensation, patients were weaned from inotropes as soon as possible. Thereafter, intermittent inotropes (over 3-4 days) were given as a predefined weekly (until 2011) or 8 weekly regimen (from 2011 to 2013). In 57 % of these patients, additional regimen-independent inotropic support was necessary due to hemodynamic instabilities. Fourteen patients (14 %) needed a left- or biventricular assist device; 14 patients (14 %) died while waiting and 87 (84 %) received heart transplants after 87 ± 91 days. Cumulative 3 and 12 months survival of all 103 patients was 75 and 67 %, respectively. Intermittent inotropes in HU patients are an adequate strategy as a bridge to transplant; the necessity for assist devices was low. These data provide the basis for a prospective multicenter trial of intermittent inotropes in patients on the HU waiting list.

  4. Health Care Services in IBD: Factors Associated with Service Utilization and Preferences for Service Options for Routine and Urgent Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Matthew T; Walker, John R; Chhibba, Tarun; Ivekovic, Melony; Singh, Harminder; Targownik, Laura E; Bernstein, Charles N

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to explore factors associated with health service utilization and preference for services, including alternatives to attending the emergency department (ED) when experiencing mild to moderate or severe symptoms. A total of 1143 persons (46% response rate) aged 18 to 65 years in the population-based University of Manitoba IBD Research Registry participated in the survey. Although 61% had a gastroenterologist, when experiencing active symptoms, only 29% felt they could call their gastroenterologist for an urgent appointment, and 42% could call their gastroenterologist for telephone advice. Nine percent of the respondents visited the ED in the previous year. If having severe symptoms, 48% said that they would attend the ED. Visits to the ED were related to higher bowel symptom severity and high health anxiety. When experiencing severe symptoms, women, persons with Crohn's disease and those with high health anxiety, indicated that they would be more likely to use the ED. Considering services which could be available in the future respondents indicated that if acutely symptomatic they would be very likely or likely to use the following services: phone contact with inflammatory bowel disease nurse (77%), phone contact with a gastroenterologist (75%), and going to a walk-in gastroenterology clinic (71%). Persons with inflammatory bowel disease are receptive to options other than the ED when experiencing inflammatory bowel disease symptoms; however, attending the ED remains a prominent choice. Improved access to specialized care may improve timeliness of care and reduce ED attendance. Future research should include the impact of health anxiety on health care utilization.

  5. Genomic analysis of diversity, population structure, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae, an urgent threat to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Kathryn E.; Wertheim, Heiman; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Baker, Stephen; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Dance, David; Jenney, Adam; Connor, Thomas R.; Hsu, Li Yang; Severin, Juliëtte; Brisse, Sylvain; Cao, Hanwei; Wilksch, Jonathan; Gorrie, Claire; Schultz, Mark B.; Edwards, David J.; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Nguyen, Trung Vu; Dao, Trinh Tuyet; Mensink, Martijn; Minh, Vien Le; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Schultsz, Constance; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Newton, Paul N.; Moore, Catrin E.; Strugnell, Richard A.; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is now recognized as an urgent threat to human health because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains associated with hospital outbreaks and hypervirulent strains associated with severe community-acquired infections. K. pneumoniae is ubiquitous in the environment and can colonize and infect both plants and animals. However, little is known about the population structure of K. pneumoniae, so it is difficult to recognize or understand the emergence of clinically important clones within this highly genetically diverse species. Here we present a detailed genomic framework for K. pneumoniae based on whole-genome sequencing of more than 300 human and animal isolates spanning four continents. Our data provide genome-wide support for the splitting of K. pneumoniae into three distinct species, KpI (K. pneumoniae), KpII (K. quasipneumoniae), and KpIII (K. variicola). Further, for K. pneumoniae (KpI), the entity most frequently associated with human infection, we show the existence of >150 deeply branching lineages including numerous multidrug-resistant or hypervirulent clones. We show K. pneumoniae has a large accessory genome approaching 30,000 protein-coding genes, including a number of virulence functions that are significantly associated with invasive community-acquired disease in humans. In our dataset, antimicrobial resistance genes were common among human carriage isolates and hospital-acquired infections, which generally lacked the genes associated with invasive disease. The convergence of virulence and resistance genes potentially could lead to the emergence of untreatable invasive K. pneumoniae infections; our data provide the whole-genome framework against which to track the emergence of such threats. PMID:26100894

  6. Emotional Stroop Dilution: The boundary conditions of attentional capture by threat words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Langerak, Robin M

    2015-07-01

    It is widely believed that threatening stimuli in our environment capture attention. Much of the core evidence for attentional capture by threatening stimuli comes from the Emotional Stroop task. Yet recent evidence suggests that the Emotional Stroop task does not measure attentional capture (e.g., Algom et al., 2004). The present paper assesses whether threat words can capture attention using a modified Stroop Dilution procedure (e.g., Kahneman & Chajczyk, 1983), where attentional capture by a threat word is inferred from a reduction in color-word interference for threat words compared to non-threat words (emotional Stroop Dilution). The outcome of the present experiments indicates that threat words can capture attention, but only when task demands do not require that a word be attended. It is suggested that threat words produce (1) cognitive slowing, and influence two processes of selective attention (2) attentional capture and (3) the ability to filter irrelevant dimensions of an attended stimulus.

  7. Influence of methylphenidate on spatial attention asymmetry in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Timothy J; Newman, Daniel P; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Atypical asymmetries of spatial attention have been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be exacerbated by non-spatial factors such as attentional capacity. Although preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetries of attention in ADHD may be modifiable by the psychostimulant, methylphenidate, further placebo-controlled studies are required. This study first aimed to confirm recent evidence that increasing non-spatial processing load at fixation can unmask a spatial gradient of target detection in children with ADHD but not Controls. Second, we used placebo-controlled randomised trial methodology to ask whether 20mg of methylphenidate (MPH) could remediate any load-dependent asymmetry of spatial attention in adolescents with ADHD. Twelve male adolescents with ADHD were assessed twice in a double-blind, randomized design, under either placebo or an acute dose of methylphenidate. Thirteen typically developing adolescent Controls completed a single session under placebo. Participants completed a computer-based task in which they monitored a centrally presented rapid serial visual presentation stream for a probe stimulus, while also responding to brief peripheral events. The attentional load of the central task was manipulated by varying the target instructions but not the physical stimuli or the frequency of targets. Between-group analyses under placebo conditions indicated that increased attentional load induced a spatial gradient for target detection in the ADHD but not Controls, such that load slowed response times for left, but not, right hemi-field targets. This load-dependent spatial asymmetry in the adolescents with ADHD was abolished by administration of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate may "normalise" target detection between the hemi-fields in ADHD via enhancement of the right-lateralised ventral attention networks that support non-spatial attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Fixation and Visual Attention in Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stereo by matching features and using trigonometry to convert disparity into depth lies in the matching process (correspondence problem). This is...avoid obstacles and perform other tasks which require recognizing specific objects in the environment. An active-attentive vision system is more robust

  9. Attention and Intelligence: The Validity of the Star Counting Test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.F.; Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying performance on the Star Counting Test (SCT) and its nomothetic span were investigated along with the relationships between working memory capacity, fluid intelligence (Gf), speed, and school achievement. The SCT is an attention test for children that requires the alternatio

  10. Yoga as an Intervention for Children with Attention Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Heather L.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2005-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three grade level groups with a comparison group was employed to investigate the effectiveness of yoga for improving time on task with 10 elementary school children who evidenced attention problems. A yoga videotape, published by Gaiam, was used that required the children to follow an adult instructor and three…

  11. Distinguishing Different Strategies of Across-Dimension Attentional Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Selective attention in multidimensional displays has usually been examined using search tasks requiring the detection of a single target. We examined the ability to perceive a spatial structure in multi-item subsets of a display that were defined either conjunctively or disjunctively. Observers saw two adjacent displays and indicated whether the…

  12. Impact of robot-mediated interaction system on joint attention skills for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Zhang, Lian; Bekele, Esubalew; Swanson, Amy; Crittendon, Julie A; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-06-01

    With Centers for Disease Control and Prevention prevalence estimates for children with autism spectrum disorder 1 in 88, identification and effective treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often characterized as a public health emergency. There is an urgent need for more efficacious treatments whose realistic application will yield more substantial impact on the neurodevelopmental trajectories of young children with ASD. Robotic technology appears particularly promising for potential application to ASD intervention. Initial results applying robotic technology to ASD intervention have consistently demonstrated a unique potential to elicit interest and attention in young children with ASD. As such, technologies capable of intelligently harnessing this potential, along with capabilities for detecting and meaningfully responding to young children's attention and behavior, may represent intervention platforms with substantial promise for impacting early symptoms of ASD. Our current work describes development and application of a novel adaptive robot-mediated interaction technology for facilitating early joint attention skills for children with ASD. The system is composed of a humanoid robot endowed with a prompt decision hierarchy to alter behavior in concert with reinforcing stimuli within an intervention environment to promote joint attention skills. Results of implementation of this system over time, including specific analyses of attentional bias and performance enhancement, with 6 young children with ASD are presented.

  13. Acidente vascular cerebral de etiologia rara com indicação cirúrgica urgente: caso clínico Stroke of a rare etiology with need of urgent surgery: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vieira Baptista

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Doente de 19 anos com quadro de febre com 8 dias de evolução e posterior instalação súbita de afasia, hemiparésia esquerda e alterações do comportamento. Aumento das proteínas de fase aguda no estudo analítico. TAC e RMN crânio-encefálicas revelaram lesão isquémica temporo-parietal direita. Ecocardiograma excluiu endocardite. Eco-döppler e angio-TAC carotídeo-vertebrais mostraram formação vegetante, móvel com a pulsação cardíaca, na artéria carótida comum direita. Submetido, de urgência, a cirurgia carotídea. Intraoperatoriamente constatou-se a presença de trombo ligeiramente aderente à artéria carótida comum e na dependência de lesão da íntima subjacente, tendo-se procedido à sua exérese e a arteriorrafia primária. Aponta-se como etiologia mais provável do quadro, uma vasculite secundária a infecção por HSV1 (infecção activa ou por Rickettsia conorii.19 years old patient with fever for 8 days associated with sudden aphasia, left hemiparesis and abnormal behavior. Increased acute phase proteins in the analytical study. Head CT scan and MRI revealed a right temporo-parietal ischemic lesion. An echocardiogram excluded endocarditis. Ultrasound and CT angiography scanning of the extracranial cerebral circulation showed a vegetative formation, mobile with the heartbeat, in the right common carotid artery. Submitted, urgently, to carotid surgery. Intraoperatively, a slightly adherent thrombus to the common carotid artery was found and in the dependence of an underlying injury to the intima. The thrombus was ressected and a primary arteriorrhaphy performed. It is pointed out a vasculitis secondary to HSV1 (active infection or to Rickettsia conorii infection as the most likely etiology of the clinic.

  14. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  15. Social Attention, Joint Attention and Sustained Attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome: Convergences and Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Fanning, Peter A. J.; Hocking, Darren R.; Sievers, Stephanie; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on shared and syndrome-specific attentional profiles in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS). Using eye-tracking, we examined attentional profiles of 35 preschoolers with ASD, 22 preschoolers with WS and 20 typically developing children across social and non-social dimensions of attention. Children…

  16. System of urgent psychological aid to subjects of educational settings in the USA (review of the studies for the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova T. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the strategies of urgent psychological aid in the USA in a chronological order: preparation for critical situations in educational settlements (school crisis plans, immediate reaction to a crisis (the first psychological aid, work with psychological trauma.

  17. Evaluation of a general practitioner-led urgent care centre in an urban setting: description of service model and plan of analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Farzan; Ladbrooke, Tim; Millington, Hugh; Islam, Saiful; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of patients attending with conditions deemed non-urgent or inappropriate for accident and emergency services vary widely, from 6 to 80%. Previous research suggests that general practitioners (GPs) working in emergency departments can reduce referral rates, diagnostic testing, the proportion of patients who become emergency hospital admissions, and inappropriate attendances. However, little of this previous research is recent and new models of care for GPs working in emergency departments have now been developed, which remain to be evaluated. In this paper, we describe an integrated urgent care model, which was commissioned by NHS Hammersmith and Fulham in 2009 to manage the rising number of urgent attendances at local hospitals and its associated evaluation. The evaluation will include examining the effect of the system on outcomes such as utilization of diagnostic tests and effect on unplanned hospital admissions. If the new model of care is shown to be both clinically effective and cost-effective, the model and the proposed plan of evaluation will also be helpful to other areas that are considering the introduction of similar models of GP-led urgent care. PMID:23885294

  18. Learn the effective connectivity pattern of attention networks: a resting functional MRI and Bayesian network study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Rui; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

    2011-03-01

    Task-based neuroimaging studies revealed that different attention operations were carried out by the functional interaction and cooperation between two attention systems: the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the ventral attention network (VAN), which were respectively involved in the "top-down" endogenous attention orienting and the "bottomup" exogenous attention reorienting process. Recent focused resting functional MRI (fMRI) studies found the two attention systems were inherently organized in the human brain regardless of whether or not the attention process were required, but how the two attention systems interact with each other in the absence of task is yet to be investigated. In this study, we first separated the DAN and VAN by applying the group independent component analysis (ICA) to the resting fMRI data acquired from 12 healthy young subjects, then used Gaussian Bayesian network (BN) learning approach to explore the plausible effective connectivity pattern of the two attention systems. It was found regions from the same attention network were strongly intra-dependent, and all the connections were located in the information flow from VAN to DAN, which suggested that an orderly functional interactions and information exchanges between the two attention networks existed in the intrinsic spontaneous brain activity, and the inherent connections might benefit the efficient cognitive process between DAN and VAN, such as the "top-down" and "bottom-up" reciprocal interaction when attention-related tasks were involved.

  19. Changes in otoacoustic emissions during selective auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) measured during behavioral tasks can have different magnitudes when subjects are attending selectively or not attending. The implication is that the cognitive and perceptual demands of a task can affect the first neural stage of auditory processing-the sensory receptors themselves. However, the directions of the reported attentional effects have been inconsistent, the magnitudes of the observed differences typically have been small, and comparisons across studies have been made difficult by significant procedural differences. In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring selective auditory attention (dichotic or diotic listening), selective visual attention, or relative inattention. Within subjects, the differences in nSFOAE magnitude between inattention and attention conditions were about 2-3 dB for both auditory and visual modalities, and the effect sizes for the differences typically were large for both nSFOAE magnitude and phase. These results reveal that the cochlear efferent reflex is differentially active during selective attention and inattention, for both auditory and visual tasks, although they do not reveal how attention is improved when efferent activity is greater.

  20. Changes in otoacoustic emissions during selective auditory and visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) measured during behavioral tasks can have different magnitudes when subjects are attending selectively or not attending. The implication is that the cognitive and perceptual demands of a task can affect the first neural stage of auditory processing—the sensory receptors themselves. However, the directions of the reported attentional effects have been inconsistent, the magnitudes of the observed differences typically have been small, and comparisons across studies have been made difficult by significant procedural differences. In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring selective auditory attention (dichotic or diotic listening), selective visual attention, or relative inattention. Within subjects, the differences in nSFOAE magnitude between inattention and attention conditions were about 2–3 dB for both auditory and visual modalities, and the effect sizes for the differences typically were large for both nSFOAE magnitude and phase. These results reveal that the cochlear efferent reflex is differentially active during selective attention and inattention, for both auditory and visual tasks, although they do not reveal how attention is improved when efferent activity is greater. PMID:25994703

  1. Common neural recruitment across diverse sustained attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Jessica A; Manly, Tom

    2012-01-01

    At one level "sustained attention" is simply a description of a task demand. It is often used, however, in reference to a putatively unitary capacity to remain engaged in tasks that are lengthy, dull, repetitive and/or characterised by long intervals between relevant events. Deficits in sustained attention have been reported in a range of clinical conditions. Despite this, there is paucity of well-controlled human functional imaging evidence about regions commonly recruited during diverse sustained attention tasks. Here, for the first time, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor brain activity patterns as healthy volunteers performed two sustained attention tasks. The first, widely used in clinical assessment, required participants to count tones separated by long unpredictable intervals. This was contrasted with a control counting condition in which tones were presented at a brisk, regular rate. The second task was the Sustained Attention to Response Test (SART) in which participants responded to sequentially presented digits with the exception of a nominated infrequent no-go target. In the control condition, no-go trials were explicitly absent, removing the requirement to maintain a readiness to withhold responses. Although there were distinct patterns of activation associated with each task relative to its control, activity common to both tasks was found in the bilateral inferior frontal operculum, anterior cingulate, and bilateral premotor cortex. Although some researchers argue for a specific role of the inferior frontal operculum in inhibition, our results are consistent with recent findings of a more general attentional role for this area. The maintenance of a goal directed stance in the absence of strong environmental facilitation is challenging and this may underpin the sensitivity of sustained attention tasks to functional difficulties in a range of clinical groups.

  2. A Reevaluation of the Attentional Inertia Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAnderson's (1983) theory about children's attention behavior during television viewing hypothesizes that attention behavior is affected by positive feedback (the inertia hypothesis) and the degree to which a child understands the television program. During an experiment, neither

  3. Infant visual attention and object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D

    2015-05-15

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy.

  4. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visits Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 10.9 ...

  5. A Reevaluation of the Attentional Inertia Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAnderson's (1983) theory about children's attention behavior during television viewing hypothesizes that attention behavior is affected by positive feedback (the inertia hypothesis) and the degree to which a child understands the television program. During an experiment, neither componen

  6. Impaired attentional control in pedophiles in a sexual distractor task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Jordan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedophilic disorder, a subtype of paraphilia, is defined as a recurrent sexual interest in prepubescent children, which is characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal or behavior. Besides a deviant sexual preference, sexual preoccupation was found to be a dynamic risk factor for reoffending. Thus, it is conceivable that sex offenders and especially sex offenders against children have difficulties to control their responses to sexual stimuli. In the current study pedophiles, forensic and non-forensic control subjects had to solve a cognitive task while sexual distractors were presented simultaneously. This kind of task also requires control functions. Therefore, data was analyzed with respect to attentional control while comparing eye movements towards sexual distractors and towards the cognitive task. We were mainly interested in how early (fixation latency and late (relative fixation time attentional processes were allocated to both, the cognitive target stimuli and the sexual distractors. Pedophiles demonstrated significantly lower attentional control in the sexual distractor task than both control groups (non-pedophiles. They showed a shorter fixation latency and longer fixation time for sexual distractors than non-pedophiles. Furthermore, pedophiles demonstrated a longer fixation latency and shorter fixation time for cognitive target stimuli. For classification analyses, an attention control index (ACI was built, i.e. the difference between eye movements on cognitive target stimuli and sexual distractors. For the ACI of early attentional processes, i.e. fixation latency, a good classification between pedophiles and non-pedophiles was found. We assumed that the measured attentional control represents inhibitory executive functions, specifically interference control. Further studies should examine if low attentional control in pedophiles is due to low motivation to solve the task or rather to a lack of ability to

  7. Impaired Attentional Control in Pedophiles in a Sexual Distractor Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kirsten; Fromberger, Peter; von Herder, Jakob; Steinkrauss, Henrike; Nemetschek, Rebekka; Witzel, Joachim; Müller, Jürgen L

    2016-01-01

    Pedophilic disorder, a subtype of paraphilia, is defined as a recurrent sexual interest in prepubescent children, which is characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal, or behavior. Besides a deviant sexual preference, sexual preoccupation was found to be a dynamic risk factor for reoffending. Thus, it is conceivable that sex offenders and especially sex offenders against children have difficulties to control their responses to sexual stimuli. In the current study pedophiles, forensic and non-forensic control subjects had to solve a cognitive task, while sexual distractors were presented simultaneously. This kind of task also requires control functions. Therefore, data were analyzed with respect to attentional control while comparing eye movements toward sexual distractors and toward the cognitive task. We were mainly interested in how early (fixation latency) and late (relative fixation time) attentional processes were allocated to both, the cognitive target stimuli and the sexual distractors. Pedophiles demonstrated significantly lower attentional control in the sexual distractor task than both control groups (non-pedophiles). They showed a shorter fixation latency and longer fixation time for sexual distractors than non-pedophiles. Furthermore, pedophiles demonstrated a longer fixation latency and shorter fixation time for cognitive target stimuli. For classification analyses, an attentional control index (ACI) was built, i.e., the difference between eye movements on cognitive target stimuli and sexual distractors. For the ACI of early attentional processes, i.e., fixation latency, a good classification between pedophiles and non-pedophiles was found. We assumed that the measured attentional control represents inhibitory executive functions, specifically interference control. Further studies should examine if low attentional control in pedophiles is due to low motivation to solve the task or rather to a lack of ability to control

  8. Impaired Attentional Control in Pedophiles in a Sexual Distractor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kirsten; Fromberger, Peter; von Herder, Jakob; Steinkrauss, Henrike; Nemetschek, Rebekka; Witzel, Joachim; Müller, Jürgen L.

    2016-01-01

    Pedophilic disorder, a subtype of paraphilia, is defined as a recurrent sexual interest in prepubescent children, which is characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal, or behavior. Besides a deviant sexual preference, sexual preoccupation was found to be a dynamic risk factor for reoffending. Thus, it is conceivable that sex offenders and especially sex offenders against children have difficulties to control their responses to sexual stimuli. In the current study pedophiles, forensic and non-forensic control subjects had to solve a cognitive task, while sexual distractors were presented simultaneously. This kind of task also requires control functions. Therefore, data were analyzed with respect to attentional control while comparing eye movements toward sexual distractors and toward the cognitive task. We were mainly interested in how early (fixation latency) and late (relative fixation time) attentional processes were allocated to both, the cognitive target stimuli and the sexual distractors. Pedophiles demonstrated significantly lower attentional control in the sexual distractor task than both control groups (non-pedophiles). They showed a shorter fixation latency and longer fixation time for sexual distractors than non-pedophiles. Furthermore, pedophiles demonstrated a longer fixation latency and shorter fixation time for cognitive target stimuli. For classification analyses, an attentional control index (ACI) was built, i.e., the difference between eye movements on cognitive target stimuli and sexual distractors. For the ACI of early attentional processes, i.e., fixation latency, a good classification between pedophiles and non-pedophiles was found. We assumed that the measured attentional control represents inhibitory executive functions, specifically interference control. Further studies should examine if low attentional control in pedophiles is due to low motivation to solve the task or rather to a lack of ability to control

  9. The Role of Attention in Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Meacham, Kristina A.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the role of attention in goal setting theory, using techniques adapted from selective attention research. Specifically, it explored activation and suppression of goal related information in the presence of two conflicting assigned goals. Pre vs. post goal completion and goal commitment were examined as moderators of these attentional effects. In addition, exploratory analyses looked at the impact of individual differences on attention (goal preference & action-state orient...

  10. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Limor eLukov; Naama eFriedmann; Lilach eShalev; Lilach eKhentov-Kraus; Nir eShalev; Rakefet eLorber; Revital eGuggenheim

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on o...

  11. Prefrontal control of attention to threat

    OpenAIRE

    Polly V Peers; Simons, Jon S; Andrew David Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g. trait anxiety) and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threa...

  12. Not all attention orienting is created equal: recognition memory is enhanced when attention orienting involves distractor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Worden, Michael S; Amso, Dima

    2015-04-01

    Learning through visual exploration often requires orienting of attention to meaningful information in a cluttered world. Previous work has shown that attention modulates visual cortex activity, with enhanced activity for attended targets and suppressed activity for competing inputs, thus enhancing the visual experience. Here we examined the idea that learning may be engaged differentially with variations in attention orienting mechanisms that drive eye movements during visual search and exploration. We hypothesized that attention orienting mechanisms that engaged suppression of a previously attended location would boost memory encoding of the currently attended target objects to a greater extent than those that involve target enhancement alone. To test this hypothesis we capitalized on the classic spatial cueing task and the inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism (Posner, 1980; Posner, Rafal, & Choate, 1985) to demonstrate that object images encoded in the context of concurrent suppression at a previously attended location were encoded more effectively and remembered better than those encoded without concurrent suppression. Furthermore, fMRI analyses revealed that this memory benefit was driven by attention modulation of visual cortex activity, as increased suppression of the previously attended location in visual cortex during target object encoding predicted better subsequent recognition memory performance. These results suggest that not all attention orienting impacts learning and memory equally.

  13. Rapid Generation of Human-Like Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Urgent Preparedness for Influenza Pandemics and Virulent Infectious Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixu Meng

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases caused by pathogens such as SARS coronavirus, H5N1, H1N1, and recently H7N9 influenza viruses, have been associated with significant mortality and morbidity in humans. Neutralizing antibodies from individuals who have recovered from an infection confer therapeutic protection to others infected with the same pathogen. However, survivors may not always be available for providing plasma or for the cloning of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs.The genome and the immunoglobulin genes in rhesus macaques and humans are highly homologous; therefore, we investigated whether neutralizing mAbs that are highly homologous to those of humans (human-like could be generated. Using the H5N1 influenza virus as a model, we first immunized rhesus macaques with recombinant adenoviruses carrying a synthetic gene encoding hemagglutinin (HA. Following screening an antibody phage display library derived from the B cells of immunized monkeys, we cloned selected macaque immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain variable regions into the human IgG constant region, which generated human-macaque chimeric mAbs exhibiting over 97% homology to human antibodies. Selected mAbs demonstrated potent neutralizing activities against three clades (0, 1, 2 of the H5N1 influenza viruses. The in vivo protection experiments demonstrated that the mAbs effectively protected the mice even when administered up to 3 days after infection with H5N1 influenza virus. In particular, mAb 4E6 demonstrated sub-picomolar binding affinity to HA and superior in vivo protection efficacy without the loss of body weight and obvious lung damage. The analysis of the 4E6 escape mutants demonstrated that the 4E6 antibody bound to a conserved epitope region containing two amino acids on the globular head of HA.Our study demonstrated the generation of neutralizing mAbs for potential application in humans in urgent preparedness against outbreaks of new influenza infections or

  14. rTMS of medial parieto-occipital cortex interferes with attentional reorienting during attention and reaching tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarro, Marco; Ambrosini, Ettore; Tosoni, Annalisa; Committeri, Giorgia; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    Unexpected changes in the location of a target for an upcoming action require both attentional reorienting and motor planning update. In both macaque and human brain, the medial posterior parietal cortex is involved in both phenomena but its causal role is still unclear. Here we used on-line rTMS over the putative human V6A (pV6A), a reach-related region in the dorsal part of the anterior bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus, during an attention and a reaching task requiring covert shifts of attention and planning of reaching movements toward cued targets in space. We found that rTMS increased RTs to invalidly cued but not to validly cued targets during both the attention and reaching task. Furthermore, we found that rTMS induced a deviation of reaching endpoints toward visual fixation and that this deviation was larger for invalidly cued targets. The results suggest that reorienting signals are used by human pV6A area to rapidly update the current motor plan or the ongoing action when a behaviorally relevant object unexpectedly occurs in an unattended location. The current findings suggest a direct involvement of the action-related dorso-medial visual stream in attentional reorienting and a more specific role of pV6A area in the dynamic, on-line control of reaching actions.

  15. Bilingualism and Enhanced Attention in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated executive attention during nonverbal and verbal processing among adults with a range of bilingual experience. Previous research has found that bilingual children control their attention better than their monolingual peers and that superior attentional control in some processing contexts persists into adulthood…

  16. Attentional bias predicts heroin relapse following treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.E. Marissen; I.H.A. Franken; A.J. Waters; P. Blanken; W. van den Brink; V.M. Hendriks

    2006-01-01

    Aims Previous studies have shown that abstinent heroin addicts exhibit an attentional bias to heroin-related stimuli. It has been suggested that attentional bias may represent a vulnerability to relapse into drug use. In the present study, the predictive value of pre-treatment attentional bias on re

  17. A taxonomy of external and internal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Marvin M; Golomb, Julie D; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is a core property of all perceptual and cognitive operations. Given limited capacity to process competing options, attentional mechanisms select, modulate, and sustain focus on information most relevant for behavior. A significant problem, however, is that attention is so ubiquitous that it is unwieldy to study. We propose a taxonomy based on the types of information that attention operates over--the targets of attention. At the broadest level, the taxonomy distinguishes between external attention and internal attention. External attention refers to the selection and modulation of sensory information. External attention selects locations in space, points in time, or modality-specific input. Such perceptual attention can also select features defined across any of these dimensions, or object representations that integrate over space, time, and modality. Internal attention refers to the selection, modulation, and maintenance of internally generated information, such as task rules, responses, long-term memory, or working memory. Working memory, in particular, lies closest to the intersection between external and internal attention. The taxonomy provides an organizing framework that recasts classic debates, raises new issues, and frames understanding of neural mechanisms.

  18. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  19. Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoep, N.; Van der Stigchel, S.; Nijboer, T. C W

    2015-01-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of t

  20. Attention to Affect in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jane

    2011-01-01

    As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to…