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Sample records for reproductive treatment cycles

  1. Cycle 1 as predictor of assisted reproductive technology treatment outcome over multiple cycles: an analysis of linked cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System online database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Brown, Morton B; Luke, Barbara; Wantman, Ethan; Lederman, Avi; Hornstein, Mark D

    2011-02-01

    To determine whether the first cycle of assisted reproductive technology (ART) predicts treatment course and outcome. Retrospective study of linked cycles. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database. A total of 6,352 ART patients residing or treated in Massachusetts with first treatment cycle in 2004-2005 using fresh, autologous oocytes and no prior ART. Women were categorized by first cycle as follows: Group I, no retrieval; Group II, retrieval, no transfer; Group III, transfer, no embryo cryopreservation; Group IV, transfer plus cryopreservation; and Group V, all embryos cryopreserved. None. Cumulative live-birth delivery per woman, use of donor eggs, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or frozen embryo transfers (FET). Groups differed in age, baseline FSH level, prior gravidity, diagnosis, and failure to return for Cycle 2. Live-birth delivery per woman for groups I through V for women with no delivery in Cycle I were 32.1%, 35.9%, 40.1%, 53.4%, and 51.3%, respectively. Groups I and II were more likely to subsequently use donor eggs (14.5% and 10.9%). Group II had the highest use of ICSI (73.3%); Group III had the lowest use of FET (8.9%). Course of treatment in the first ART cycle is related to different cumulative live-birth delivery rates and eventual use of donor egg, ICSI, and FET. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An Ethnography of the Navajo Reproductive Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Describes the reproductive cycle (menarche, menstrual cycle, fertility and contraceptive use, and menopause) as experienced by two groups of contemporary Navajo women. Eighty Navajo women, 40 traditional and 40 acculturated, participated in the 1978 research project which focused on influences of menopause. (ERB)

  4. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques(ART), progesterone and/or hCG

  5. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques (ART) the progesterone

  6. Female reproductive cycles of wild female felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Janine L

    2011-04-01

    Many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. As a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. The ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. Through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree of variability in estrous cycle characteristics has been found to exist across the taxon, including the type of ovulation. For example, although all felids have induced ovulations, the occurrence of spontaneous ovulations varies across species, and even between individuals within a species. Clouded leopards, fishing cats and margays frequently have spontaneous ovulations, whereas these are rarely observed in the cheetah, tigrina and ocelot. There are marked species differences in the impact of season on reproductive function, with some being exquisitely sensitive to photoperiod (e.g., Pallas' cat), some moderately affected (tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard), and others that are not influenced at all (e.g., ocelot, tigrina, margay, lion, leopard, fishing cat). One of the greatest challenges remaining is overcoming the problems associated with highly variable ovarian responses to ovulation induction therapies used with assisted reproductive procedures, like artificial insemination (AI). Success is relatively high in the cheetah and ocelot, but few pregnancies have resulted after AI in clouded leopard, fishing cat and tiger. Current knowledge of the reproductive physiology of nondomestic felids, including aspects of the anatomy, behavior and ovarian cycles will be presented, and how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The effect of peri-implantation administration of uterine relaxing agents in assisted reproduction treatment cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Dhillon, Rima K; Chu, Justin; Rajkhowa, Madhurima; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2016-04-01

    Sub-endometrial junctional zone peristalsis is increased by ovarian stimulation and traumatic embryo transfer, and is linked with decreased implantation and pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction treatments. Various agents have been used to inhibit uterine hyper-peristalsis at the time of embryo transfer with conflicting results. This systematic review aimed to identify if uterine relaxants administered in the peri-implantation period during assisted reproduction treatments could improve pregnancy outcomes through literature search with no language restrictions. The review reports on 3546 patients in 17 randomized controlled trials published between 1993 and 2014. Women undergoing assisted reproduction techniques who either received a uterine relaxant agent in the peri-implantation period versus placebo or no treatment were included. Primary outcome was live birth rate. The meta-analyses did not show statistically significant benefit of any uterine relaxing agents on live birth rate. Other meta-analyses did not show a significant effect on the clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy and multiple pregnancy rate. Most of the included studies were of low quality and lacked significant power to detect minimally important effect. Evidence is insufficient to recommend using these agents in routine practice. Further methodologically robust randomized controlled trials with more refined selection criteria might reveal a beneficial effect. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproductive cycles in tropical intertidal gastropods are timed around tidal amplitude cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Rachel; Kerr, Kecia; Contolini, Gina; Ochoa, Isis

    2017-08-01

    Reproduction in iteroparous marine organisms is often timed with abiotic cycles and may follow lunar, tidal amplitude, or daily cycles. Among intertidal marine invertebrates, decapods are well known to time larval release to coincide with large amplitude nighttime tides, which minimizes the risk of predation. Such bimonthly cycles have been reported for few other intertidal invertebrates. We documented the reproduction of 6 gastropod species from Panama to determine whether they demonstrate reproductive cycles, whether these cycles follow a 2-week cycle, and whether cycles are timed so that larval release occurs during large amplitude tides. Two of the species ( Crepidula cf. marginalis and Nerita scabricosta ) showed nonuniform reproduction, but without clear peaks in timing relative to tidal or lunar cycles. The other 4 species show clear peaks in reproduction occurring every 2 weeks. In 3 of these species ( Cerithideopsis carlifornica var. valida, Littoraria variegata , and Natica chemnitzi ), hatching occurred within 4 days of the maximum amplitude tides. Siphonaria palmata exhibit strong cycles, but reproduction occurred during the neap tides. Strong differences in the intensity of reproduction of Cerithideopsis carlifornica , and in particular, Littoraria variegata , between the larger and smaller spring tides of a lunar month indicate that these species time reproduction with the tidal amplitude cycle rather than the lunar cycle. For those species that reproduce during both the wet and dry seasons, we found that reproductive timing did not differ between seasons despite strong differences in temperature and precipitation. Overall, we found that most (4/6) species have strong reproductive cycles synchronized with the tidal amplitude cycle and that seasonal differences in abiotic factors do not alter these cycles.

  9. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  10. Reporting multiple cycles in trials on medically assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Irma; Braakhekke, Miriam; Limpens, Jacqueline; Hompes, Peter G. A.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W. J.; Gianotten, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Trials assessing effectiveness in medically assisted reproduction (MAR) should aim to study the desired effect over multiple cycles, as this reflects clinical practice and captures the relevant perspective for the couple. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which multiple cycles are

  11. Reproductive cycle of the Namib giant ground gecko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive cycle of the Namib giant ground gecko, Chondrodactylus angulifer, from southern Africa was described from a histological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. Males followed a seasonal testicular cycle in which (based on available specimens) the major period of spermiogenesis ...

  12. Tributyltin impairs the reproductive cycle in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Podratz, Priscila; Delgado Filho, Vicente Sathler; Lopes, Pedro Francisco Iguatemy; Cavati Sena, Gabriela; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Samoto, Vivian Yochiko; Takiya, Christina Maeda; de Castro Miguel, Emilio; Silva, Ian Victor; Graceli, Jones Bernardes

    2012-01-01

    Triorganotins are environmental contaminants, commonly used in antifouling agents for boats, that bioaccumulate and thus are found in mammals and humans due to ingestion of contaminated seafood diets. The importance of triorganotins as environmental endocrine disruptors and consequent reproductive toxicity in different animal models is well known; however, the adverse effects on reproductive cycle are less well understood. The potential reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) on regular reproductive cycling of female rats was examined. Wistar female rats (12 wk old, weighing approximately 230 g) were divided into two groups: control (vehicle, ethanol 0.4%) and tributyltin (100 ng/kg/d, 7 d/wk, for 16 d by gavage). Tributyltin significantly decreased the cycle regularity (%), duration of the reproductive cycle, the proestrus and diestrus phases, and number of epithelial cell in proestrus phase. TBT also increased the duration of metestrus and the number of cornified cells in this phase. Ovary weight and serum 17β-estradiol levels decreased markedly, accompanied by a significant increase in progesterone levels. Histological analysis showed apoptotic cells in corpus luteum and granulosa cells layer, with cystic follicles after TBT exposure. Tributyltin also elevated number of atretic follicles and corpoa lutea. The micronucleus (MN) test, using Chinese hamster ovary cells, demonstrated a concentration-dependent mutagenic effect of TBT, and at 2.0 × 10(-2)ng/ml most of the cells were nonviable. The toxic potential of TBT over the reproductive cycle may be attributed to changes found in the ovarian weight, unbalanced levels of sexual female hormones, and number of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea.

  13. Assisted reproductive technology treatment outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naasan, M

    2012-05-01

    Information on the outcomes of ART treatments in Ireland is not readily available to Irish practitioners. The data for hospital affiliated clinics has been made available for many years and is included in the hospital reports. We present a 10-year analysis of the Irish ART results voluntarily reported by six out of seven IVF clinics. The data was collected from published ESHRE reports and from results (2007-8) not yet published. Data collected included: number of clinics and ART cycles, female age, clinical and multiple pregnancy rates and treatment complications. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 31.7% for IVF and 29.8% for ICSI. The proportion of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries for IVF and ICSI combined was 75%, 23.35% and 1.64%. The rate of ovarian hyperstimulation was 0.8%. ART practice in Ireland is safe, effective and responsible. Financial and societal savings could result from the introduction of state funded IVF with compulsory eSET where recommended.

  14. Leptin and its potential interest in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteau, A; Caillon, H; Barrière, P; Denis, M G; Masson, D; Fréour, T

    2016-04-01

    Leptin, an adipose hormone, has been shown to control energy homeostasis and food intake, and exert many actions on female reproductive function. Consequently, this adipokine is a pivotal factor in studies conducted on animal models and humans to decipher the mechanisms behind the infertility often observed in obese women. A systematic PubMed search was conducted on all articles, published up to January 2015 and related to leptin and its actions on energy balance and reproduction, using the following key words: leptin, reproduction, infertility, IVF and controlled ovarian stimulation. The available literature was reviewed in order to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the physiological roles of leptin, its involvement in female reproductive function and its potential interest as a prognostic marker in IVF cycles. Animal and human studies show that leptin communicates nutritional status to the central nervous system and emerging evidence has demonstrated that leptin is involved in the control of reproductive functions by acting both directly on the ovaries and indirectly on the central nervous system. With respect to the clinical use of leptin as a biomarker in IVF cycles, a systematic review of the literature suggested its potential interest as a predictor of IVF outcome, as high serum and/or follicular fluid leptin concentrations have correlated negatively with cycle outcome. However, these preliminary results remain to be confirmed. Leptin regulates energy balance and female reproductive function, mainly through its action on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function, whose molecular and cellular aspects are progressively being deciphered. Preliminary studies evaluating leptin as a biomarker in human IVF seem promising but need further confirmation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Reproductive status of opisthoteuthis sp . Over an annual cycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of deepwater cephalopods has received relatively little attention. The cirrate octopus Opisthoteuthis sp. is a regular bycatch in deep benthic trawls from 800 to 1 200 m deep west of Scotland. Specimens were sampled throughout the seasonal cycle. Mature females occurred over a broad size range ...

  16. The reproductive cycle of the intertidal gastropod Turbo coronatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological methods were used to determine the reproductive cycle of Turbo coronatus. Ovarian development was assessed from the relative proportions of mature and immature oocytes in sectioned material. Testicular tissues ware subjectively given a maturity index based on the relative proportions of the various ...

  17. Irregular Reproductive Cycles in the Tongaland Loggerhead Sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of sea-turtles exhibiting regular reproductive cycles is widely accepted. In Tongaland, Natal, after 12 years of research 2 122 female loggerhead turtles have been tagged and the recovery rate of tagged animals back on the nesting beaches has reached SO %. From a sample ofthcsc recoveries it is clear that ...

  18. The reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAM Gomes

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar (= C. brasiliana in the field and the laboratory. The reproductive cycle of the animals was evaluated in the field at Sambaqui Beach, Florianópolis, SC (27° 29′18″ S and 48° 32′12″ W from May 2008 through November 2009. In July, the animals were in the resting stage. The early growth stage began in August and was followed by the late growth stage in October. In November and December, the oysters began to enter the mature stage. Females in spawning condition were predominant during these months. The stages of the reproductive cycle were positively associated with temperature (r=0.77, P<0.01 and negatively associated with salinity (r=−0.56, P=0.042. These findings demonstrated that increased temperature and reduced salinity influence the reproductive development of Crassostrea gasar. The condition index (CI of the animals was also associated with the seawater temperature. The highest values of the condition index were observed during the months when the temperature of the seawater was gradually increasing. A laboratory experiment was performed to test the effect of salinity on the reproductive cycle of the oysters. The experiment was conducted in standardized tanks. The animals were conditioned using two salinities (24‰ and 34‰. The salinity regime influenced the development of the gonadal tissue of the oysters. A salinity of 24‰ produced greater reproductive development.

  19. Resultados das técnicas de reprodução assistida em mulheres doadoras de oócitos no ciclo de tratamento Outcome of assisted reproductive technologies in women with oocyte donation in the treatment cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Cavalcante

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar os resultados de ciclos de reprodução assistida em mulheres doadoras de oócitos no ciclo de tratamento com o de mulheres não doadoras. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas, retrospectivamente, as taxas de gravidez, implantação e abortamento de 50 pacientes que doaram oócitos durante o ciclo de reprodução assistida (grupo de doadoras e de 50 pacientes que não doaram oócitos (grupo de não-doadoras, em clínica privada de reprodução assistida em São Paulo, entre os anos de 2001 e 2003. Os critérios de inclusão no estudo foram os seguintes: idade menor que 35 anos; ciclos menstruais regulares; dosagem basal de FSH0,05. CONCLUSÃO: em pacientes que recuperam mais de seis oócitos, a doação de oócitos no ciclo de tratamento não prejudica os resultados dos ciclos de reprodução assistida e não eleva as taxas de abortamento.PURPOSE: to compare the outcome of treatment in patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART cycles who donated eggs during their own ART treatment with the outcome of patients undergoing ART without egg donation. METHODS: we studied retrospectively the pregnancy and implantation rates of 50 patients who donated eggs during the course of their ART treatment (donor group, and the pregnancy and implantation rates of 50 patients who underwent ART cycles and kept all their eggs (non-donor group. between the years 2001-2003. The inclusion criteria used were as follows: age 0.05. CONCLUSION: this study suggests that in patients who produce more than 6 oocytes, egg donation in the treatment cycle does not influence adversely the outcome of ART cycles and does not increase the miscarriage rate.

  20. [Mexican National Consensus on Assisted Reproduction Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; López Ortiz, Carlos Salazar; Serviere Zaragoza, Claudio; Velázquez Cornejo, Gerardo; Pérez Peña, Efrain; Santos Haliscack, Roberto; Luna Rojas, Martha; Valerio, Emilio; Santana, Héctor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that 15% of couples living in industrialized countries are infertile, ie have failed to conceive, reproductive age, after 12 months ormore of regular intercourse without contraception. During the past decade has increased the demand for fertility treatments because they believe are moreeffective now. To unify the therapeutic approach and service to patients and set a precedent for a Mexican Official Standard respect and support for the legislation of these procedures. Consensus by technical experts group panel with the participation of 34 national centers accredited for use in assisted reproduction. He organized seven workshops with the following themes: 1) selection of patients for assisted reproduction treatment, 2) schemes controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction techniques of high complexity, 3) preparation and egg retrieval technique, 4) transferembryo; 5) luteal phase supplementation; 6) indications and techniques of cryopreservation and 7) informed consent. Each table had a coordinator who wrote and presented the findings to the full, it made a number of observations until they reached unanimity of criteria, which are reflected in this document. Patient selection for assisted reproduction techniques is the first step of the process. Proper selection lead to success, in the same way that a bad pick up for failure. In the case of egg donation the most important recommendation is that only one to two embryos transferred in order to reduce multiple pregnancy rates and maintaining high pregnancy rates.

  1. Freeze-all cycle in reproductive medicine: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The freeze-all strategy has emerged as an alternative to fresh embryo transfer (ET) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Although fresh ET is the norm during assisted reproductive therapies (ART), there are many concerns about the possible adverse effects of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) over the endometrium. The supra-physiologic hormonal levels that occur during a conventional COS are associated with modifications in the peri-implantation endometrium, which may be related to a decrease in pregnancy rates and poorer obstetric and perinatal outcomes when comparing fresh to frozen-thawed embryo transfers. The main objective of this study was to assess the available literature regarding the freeze-all strategy in IVF cycles, in regards to effectiveness and safety. Although there are many potential advantages in performing a freeze-all cycle over a fresh ET, it seems that the freeze-all strategy is not designed for all IVF patients. There is a need to develop a non-invasive clinical tool to evaluate the endometrial receptivity during a fresh cycle, which enables the selection of patients that would benefit from this strategy. Today, it is reasonable to perform elective cryopreservation of all oocytes/embryos in cases with a risk of OHSS development, and in patients with supra-physiologic hormonal levels during the follicular phase of COS. It is not clear if all normal responders and poor responders may benefit from this strategy.

  2. Legal aspects of auxillary reproductive technologies in infertility treatment

    OpenAIRE

    V.Yu. Albitskiy; N.D. Odinayeva; V.O. Mansimova

    2011-01-01

    The article presents several aspects of legal regulation of auxillary reproductive technologies in treatment of infertility in Russia and other countries.Key words: auxillary reproductive technologies, method of extracorporeal fertilization, newborn, premature newborn, multiple pregnancy, embryo, infertility, law.

  3. Correct coding for laboratory procedures during assisted reproductive technology cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This document provides updated coding information for services related to assisted reproductive technology procedures. This document replaces the 2012 ASRM document of the same name. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunocontraception in wild horses (Equus caballus extends reproductive cycling beyond the normal breeding season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M V Nuñez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the physiological effects of immunocontraceptive treatment with porcine zona pellucida (PZP have been well studied, little is known about PZP's effects on the scheduling of reproductive cycling. Recent behavioral research has suggested that recipients of PZP extend the receptive breeding period into what is normally the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine if this is the case, we compiled foaling data from wild horses (Equus caballus living on Shackleford Banks, North Carolina for 4 years pre- and 8 years post-contraception management with PZP (pre-contraception, n = 65 births from 45 mares; post-contraception, n = 97 births from 46 mares. Gestation lasts approximately 11-12 months in wild horses, placing conception at approximately 11.5 months prior to birth. Since the contraception program began in January 2000, foaling has occurred over a significantly broader range than it had before the contraception program. Foaling in PZP recipients (n = 45 births from 27 mares has consistently occurred over a broader range than has foaling in non-recipients (n = 52 births from 19 mares. In addition, current recipients of PZP foaled later in the year than did prior recipient and non-recipient mares. Females receiving more consecutive PZP applications gave birth later in the season than did females receiving fewer applications. Finally, the efficacy of PZP declined with increasing consecutive applications before reaching 100% after five consecutive applications. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For a gregarious species such as the horse, the extension of reproductive cycling into the fall months has important social consequences, including decreased group stability and the extension of male reproductive behavior. In addition, reproductive cycling into the fall months could have long-term effects on foal survivorship. Managers should consider these factors before enacting immunocontraceptive programs in new

  5. Identification of Reproductive Education Needs of Infertile Clients Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment Using Assessments of Their Knowledge and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezabadi, Zahra; Mollaahmadi, Fahimeh; Mohammadi, Maryam; Omani Samani, Reza; Vesali, Samira

    2017-01-01

    Background In order to empower infertile individuals and provide high quality patient-centered infertility care, it is necessary to recognize and meet infertile individuals’ educational needs. This study aims to examine infertility patients’ knowledge and subsequently their education needs given their attitudinal approach to infertility education in terms of patients who undergo assisted reproduction treatment. Materials and Methods This descriptive study enrolled 150 subjects by conveni- ence sampling of all patients who received their first assisted reproductive treatment between July and September 2015 at a referral fertility clinic, Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran. We used a questionnaire that measured fertility and infertility information (8 questions) as well as attitude toward education on the causes and treatment of infertility (5 questions). Chi-square, independent sample t test, and one way ANOVA analyses were conducted to examine differences by sex. Pinfertility treatment (3.97 ± 1.16). The lowest mean knowledge scores related to knowledge of the natural reproductive cycle (2.96 ± 1.12) and anatomy of the genital organs (2.94 ± 1.16). Most females (92.1%) and males (83.3%) were of the opinion that infertility education programs should include causes of infertility and types of treatment associated with diagnostic and laboratory procedures. No statistically significant difference existed between male and female participants (P=0.245). Conclusion Most participants in this study expressed awareness of factors that affect pregnancy and infertility treatment. It is imperative to educate and empower infertile individuals who seek reproduction treatment in terms of infertility causes and types of treatment, as well as diagnostic and laboratory procedures to enable them to make informed decisions about their assisted reproductive procedures. PMID:28367301

  6. Identification of Reproductive Education Needs of Infertile Clients Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment Using Assessments of Their Knowledge and Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezabadi Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In order to empower infertile individuals and provide high quality patient-centered infertility care, it is necessary to recognize and meet infertile individuals’ educational needs. This study aims to examine infertility patients’ knowledge and subsequently their education needs given their attitudinal approach to infertility education in terms of patients who undergo assisted reproduction treatment. Materials and Methods This descriptive study enrolled 150 subjects by conveni- ence sampling of all patients who received their first assisted reproductive treatment between July and September 2015 at a referral fertility clinic, Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran. We used a questionnaire that measured fertility and infertility information (8 questions as well as attitude toward education on the causes and treatment of infertility (5 questions. Chi-square, independent sample t test, and one way ANOVA analyses were conducted to examine differences by sex. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Total mean knowledge was 3.08 ± 0.99. Clients’ responses indicated that the highest mean knowledge scores related to knowledge of factors that affected pregnancy (3.97 ± 1.11 and infertility treatment (3.97 ± 1.16. The lowest mean knowledge scores related to knowledge of the natural reproductive cycle (2.96 ± 1.12 and anatomy of the genital organs (2.94 ± 1.16. Most females (92.1% and males (83.3% were of the opinion that infertility education programs should include causes of infertility and types of treatment associated with diagnostic and laboratory procedures. No statistically significant difference existed between male and female participants (P=0.245. Conclusion Most participants in this study expressed awareness of factors that affect pregnancy and infertility treatment. It is imperative to educate and empower infertile individuals who seek reproduction treatment in terms of infertility causes and types of treatment, as

  7. Reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in a cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.H.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Annual reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected in the heated area of a 1120-hectare reservoir receiving thermal effluent from the Savannah River Plant were similar to cycles from bass collected in unheated waters during 1969 and 1970. Average maximum monthly temperatures at the heated area exceeded those in unheated waters by greater than 10 0 C for the 2 years. Few monthly differences in gonosomatic indices were found between heated and unheated areas. Earlier attainment of maximum gonadal size and the presence of significantly larger juvenile bass at the heated area suggested that reproduction might be accelerated by thermal discharge. However, gonadal condition indicated that the reproductive period started in March and continued through April in both areas. Reproduction may have been advanced in some heated-area bass, although this was not obvious from overall changes in the reproductive cycles of bass from unheated areas. (auth)

  8. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the firs...

  9. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C. C.; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F.; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD

  10. Reproductive cycles of Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada and Liza aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartulović, V; Dulčić, J; Matić-Skoko, S; Glamuzina, B

    2011-06-01

    The reproductive cycles of three mullet species from the Eastern Adriatic coast were described using several biological parameters (gonado-somatic index, oocyte diameter and sex ratio) to improve knowledge about their reproduction. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Legal aspects of auxillary reproductive technologies in infertility treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Albitskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several aspects of legal regulation of auxillary reproductive technologies in treatment of infertility in Russia and other countries.Key words: auxillary reproductive technologies, method of extracorporeal fertilization, newborn, premature newborn, multiple pregnancy, embryo, infertility, law.

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD in reproductive cycle events, and to investigate the likelihood of repeat exacerbation in subsequent pregnancies and postpartum periods. Five hundred forty-two women (United States, n = 352; Dutch, n = 190) who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD, completed self-report questionnaires designed to assess OCD onset and symptom exacerbation associated with reproductive events. OCD onset occurred within 12 months after menarche in 13.0%, during pregnancy in 5.1%, at postpartum in 4.7%, and at menopause in 3.7%. Worsening of pre-existing OCD was reported by 37.6% of women at premenstruum, 33.0% during pregnancy, 46.6% postpartum, and 32.7% at menopause. Exacerbation in first pregnancy was significantly associated with exacerbation in second pregnancy (OR = 10.82, 95% CI 4.48-26.16), as was exacerbation in first postpartum with exacerbation in second postpartum (OR = 6.86, 95% CI 3.27-14.36). Results were replicated in both samples. Reproductive cycle events are periods of increased risk for onset and exacerbation of OCD in women. The present study is the first to provide significant evidence that exacerbation in or after first pregnancy is a substantial risk factor for exacerbation in or after a subsequent pregnancy. Further research is needed to identify factors related to exacerbation, so that physicians may provide appropriate recommendations to women regarding clinical issues involving OCD and reproductive cycle events. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  14. Reproductive Cycle of Hard Clam, Meretrix lyrata Sowerby, 1851 (Bivalvia: Veneridae) from Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamli, Hadi; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Rajaee, Amy Halimah; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    A study of the reproductive cycle of the hard clam, Meretrix lyrata, was documented based on histological observation and Gonad Index (GI). Samples were taken from estuarine waters of the Buntal River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The gonad of M. lyrata started to develop in September 2013. Gametogenesis continued to develop until the maturation and spawning stage from February to April 2014. The GI pattern for a one-year cycle showed a significant correlation with chlorophyll a. The corresponding GI with chlorophyll a suggested that the development of the reproductive cycle of M. lyrata required a high amount of food to increase gametogenesis.

  15. Assisted reproduction professionals' awareness and attitudes towards their own IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, T C S; Melamed, R M M; Braga, D P A F; Madaschi, C; Iaconelli, A; Pasqualotto, F F; Borges, E

    2008-12-01

    Professionals involved in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have in-depth awareness and knowledge of the risks of multiple pregnancies at the conclusion of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate ART professionals' attitudes towards the awareness of the risk of infertility, as well as the decision-making process in IVF issues. Seventy ART professionals answered a questionnaire covering demographic data, infertility awareness and attitudes towards IVF. Approximately half (50.8%) of the participants thought that they were not at risk of infertility. However, if they received a diagnosis of infertility, none would accept childlessness and almost all would undergo IVF. In an IVF cycle, the number of high-quality embryos transferred would be around three, but if treatment was extended to a third cycle, a higher percentage of participants would elect to transfer four or more embryos. All participants would prefer to undergo IVF and accept the risk of multiple pregnancy than remaining childless. It was found that less than a third of ART professionals considered triplets to be an unacceptable complication of IVF. Diagnosis of infertility affects all participants psychosocially, supporting the idea that the emotional aspects of wanting a biological child, and decision making about whether to undertake ART, outweigh the medical position regarding the risks and benefits of IVF.

  16. Variations upon a theme: Australian lizards provide insights into the endocrine control of vertebrate reproductive cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Australian lizards exhibit a broad array of different reproductive strategies and provide an extraordinary diversity and range of models with which to address fundamental problems in reproductive biology. Studies on lizards have frequently led to new insights into hormonal regulatory pathways or mechanisms of control, but we have detailed knowledge of the reproductive cycle in only a small percentage of known species. This review provides an overview and synthesis of current knowledge of the hormonal control of reproductive cycles in Australian lizards. Agamid lizards have provided useful models with which to test hypotheses about the hormonal regulation of the expression of reproductive behaviors, while research on viviparous skinks is providing insights into the evolution of the endocrine control of gestation. However, in order to better understand the potential risks that environmental factors such as climate change and endocrine disrupting chemicals pose to our fauna, better knowledge is required of the fundamental characteristics of the reproductive cycle in a broader range of lizard species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Legal regulation of assisted reproduction treatment in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitnev, Konstantin

    2010-06-01

    Russia remains one of the countries with a most favourable approach towards human reproduction in Europe, allowing almost everybody wanting to have a child of their own through assisted reproduction treatment to fulfill their dream. The legal situation around assisted reproduction treatment in Russia is very favourable; surrogacy, gamete and embryo donation are permitted, even on a commercial level. Gestational surrogacy is an option for heterosexual couples and single women, although a court decision might be needed to register a 'surrogate' child born to a couple who are not officially married or a single woman. However, it is not explicitly allowed nor prohibited for single men. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The VIP/VPACR system in the reproductive cycle of male lizard Podarcis sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, Marisa; Rosati, Luigi; Prisco, Marina; Coraggio, Francesca; Valiante, Salvatore; Scudiero, Rosaria; Laforgia, Vincenza; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2014-09-01

    Starting from the knowledge that in the reproductive period the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is widely distributed in Podarcis sicula testis, we studied VIP expression and the localization of the neuropeptide and its receptors in the testis of the Italian wall lizard P. sicula in the other phases of its reproductive cycle (summer stasis, autumnal resumption, winter stasis, spring resumption). By Real Time-PCR, we demonstrated that testicular VIP mRNA levels change during the reproductive cycle, showing a cyclic trend with two peaks, one in the mid-autumnal resumption and the other in the reproductive period. By in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that both VIP mRNA and protein were widely distributed in the testis in almost all the phases of the cycle, except in the early autumnal resumption. As regards the receptors, the VPAC1R was localized mainly in Leydig cells, while the VPAC2R showed the same distribution of VIP. Our results demonstrate that, differently from mammals, where VIP is present only in nerve fibres innerving the testis, an endotesticular synthesis takes place in the lizard and the VIP synthesis changes throughout the reproductive cycle. Moreover, the VIP/VPAC receptor system distribution observed in germ and somatic cells in various phases of the cycle, and particularly in the autumnal resumption and the reproductive period, strongly suggests its involvement in both spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Finally, the wider distribution of VIP in lizards with respect to mammals leads us to hypothesize that during the evolution the synthesis sites have been transferred from the testis to other districts, such as the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accuracy of self-reported survey data on assisted reproductive technology treatment parameters and reproductive history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; McLain, Alexander C; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Luke, Barbara; Yeung, Edwina H

    2016-08-01

    It is unknown whether data obtained from maternal self-report for assisted reproductive technology treatment parameters and reproductive history are accurate for use in research studies. We evaluated the accuracy of self-reported in assisted reproductive technology treatment and reproductive history from the Upstate KIDS study in comparison with clinical data reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System. Upstate KIDS maternal questionnaire data from deliveries between 2008 and 2010 were linked to data reported to Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System. The 617 index deliveries were compared as to treatment type (frozen embryo transfer and donor egg or sperm) and use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and assisted hatching. Use of injectable medications, self-report for assisted reproductive technology, or frozen embryo transfer prior to the index deliveries were also compared. We report agreement in which both sources had yes or both no and sensitivity of maternal report using Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System as the gold standard. Significance was determined using χ(2) at P < 0.05. Universal agreement was not reached on any parameter but was best for treatment type of frozen embryo transfer (agreement, 96%; sensitivity, 93%) and use of donor eggs (agreement, 97%; sensitivity, 82%) or sperm (agreement, 98%; sensitivity, 82%). Use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (agreement, 78%: sensitivity, 78%) and assisted hatching (agreement, 57%; sensitivity, 38%) agreed less well with self-reported use (P < .0001). In vitro fertilization (agreement, 82%) and frozen embryo transfer (agreement, 90%) prior to the index delivery were more consistently reported than was use of injectable medication (agreement, 76%) (P < .0001). Women accurately report in vitro fertilization treatment but are less accurate about procedures handled in the

  20. Reproductive steroids and ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Martel, Michelle M

    2018-02-01

    Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder shows (ADHD) male predominance, females are significantly impaired and exhibit additional comorbid disorders during adolescence. However, no empirical work has examined the influence of cyclical fluctuating steroids on ADHD symptoms in women. The present study examined estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and testosterone (T) associations with ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle in regularly-cycling young women (N=32), examining trait impulsivity as a moderator. Women completed a baseline measure of trait impulsivity, provided saliva samples each morning, and completed an ADHD symptom checklist every evening for 35days. Results indicated decreased levels of E2 in the context of increased levels of either P4 or T was associated with higher ADHD symptoms on the following day, particularly for those with high trait impulsivity. Phase analyses suggested both an early follicular and early luteal, or post-ovulatory, increase in ADHD symptoms. Therefore, ADHD symptoms may change across the menstrual cycle in response to endogenous steroid changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison between two forms of vaginally administered progesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Moreira, Ana Carolina Ferreira; de Paula, Sálua Oliveira Calil; Sampaio, Marcos

    2007-02-01

    The use of progesterone for luteal phase support has been demonstrated to be beneficial in assisted reproduction cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Two micronized progesterone preparations are available for vaginal administration: capsules and gel. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two forms for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. A total of 244 couples undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included in the study and were randomly allocated (sealed envelopes) into two groups: group 1 (122) received vaginal capsules of 200 mg of micronized progesterone (Utrogestan), 3 times daily, and group 2 (122) received micronized progesterone in gel (Crinone 8%), once daily. Both groups received progesterone for 13 days beginning day 1 after oocyte retrieval, continuing until the pregnancy test was performed and until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Groups were compared by clinical data and assisted reproduction results and had similar ages and causes of infertility. Although the pregnancy rate was higher for those receiving progesterone gel than capsules (44.26 and 36.06% respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that vaginal progesterone gel and capsules used for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles with long protocol GnRHa result in similar pregnancy rates.

  2. Complex treatment of vaginal dysbiosis in women with recurrent miscarriage in assisted reproductive treatment (ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Nosenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents literature data on modern approaches to diagnosis and treatment of vaginal dysbiosis caused by fungi of the genus Candida and personal data on the effectiveness of vaginal dysbiosis treatment in women with recurrent miscarriage occurring in ART cycles by combined local therapy with sertaconazole and povidone-iodine. 240 patients of reproductive age with habitual miscarriage of pregnancy after ART and 30 conditionally healthy fertile women were examined. The state of vaginal microbiota was studied using PCR and culture. It were carried out a species identification of the fungi of the genus Candida and their susceptibility to antimycotics. It has been established that among women with a recurrent miscarriage after cycles of ART that repeatedly receive antibacterial therapy in preparation in the ART cycles and after abortion, in the vaginal microbiota Vaginal dysbiosis was observed in 54.58% of the cases, in which increased colonization by bacterial-fungal associates was noted in 67.18% of individuals. The authors prove that Sertaconazole in combination with povidone iodine is a highly effective regimen of vaginal microbiota normalization in patients with ART with a recurrent miscarriage, even in individuals with the development of cross-resistance to antimycotic therapy.

  3. Airway exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes disrupts the female reproductive cycle without affecting pregnancy outcomes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hansen, J. S.; Elfving, B.

    2017-01-01

    response and inflammation in experimental animals, which may affect female reproduction. This proof-of-principle study therefore aimed to investigate if lung exposure by intratracheal instillation of the MWCNT NM-400 would affect the estrous cycle and reproductive function in female mice.Results: Estrous...... of irregular cycling after exposure. Our data indicates that MWCNT exposure may interfere with events leading to ovulation....

  4. Reproductive cycle of Macrobrachium amazonicum females (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

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    CMS. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.

  5. Energy-containing beverages: reproductive hormones and ovarian function in the BioCycle Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Perkins, Neil J; Ye, Aijun; Zhang, Cuilin J; Stanford, Joseph B; Porucznik, Christina A; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Energy-containing beverages are widely consumed among premenopausal women, but their association with reproductive hormones is not well understood. Objective: The objective was to assess the association of energy-containing beverages, added sugars, and total fructose intake with reproductive hormones among ovulatory cycles and sporadic anovulation in healthy premenopausal women. Design: Women (n = 259) in the BioCycle Study were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles; they provided fasting blood specimens during up to 8 visits/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Results: Women who consumed ≥1 cup (1 cup = 237 mL) sweetened soda/d had 16.3% higher estradiol concentrations compared with women who consumed less sweetened soda (86.5 pg/mL compared with 74.4 pg/mL, P = 0.01) after adjustment for age, BMI, race, dietary factors, and physical activity. Similarly elevated estradiol concentrations were found for ≥1 cup cola/d and noncola soda intake. Neither artificially sweetened soda nor fruit juice intake ≥1 cup/d was significantly associated with reproductive hormones. Added sugar above the average US woman's intake (≥73.2 g/d) or above the 66th percentile in total fructose intake (≥41.5 g/d) was associated with significantly elevated estradiol but not consistently across all models. No associations were found between beverages, added sugars, or total fructose intake and anovulation after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Even at moderate consumption amounts, sweetened soda is associated with elevated follicular estradiol concentrations among premenopausal women but does not appear to affect ovulatory function. Further research into the mechanism driving the association between energy-containing beverages and reproductive hormones, and its potential implications for women's health, is warranted. PMID:23364018

  6. Energy-containing beverages: reproductive hormones and ovarian function in the BioCycle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Perkins, Neil J; Ye, Aijun; Zhang, Cuilin J; Stanford, Joseph B; Porucznik, Christina A; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-03-01

    Energy-containing beverages are widely consumed among premenopausal women, but their association with reproductive hormones is not well understood. The objective was to assess the association of energy-containing beverages, added sugars, and total fructose intake with reproductive hormones among ovulatory cycles and sporadic anovulation in healthy premenopausal women. Women (n = 259) in the BioCycle Study were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles; they provided fasting blood specimens during up to 8 visits/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women who consumed ≥1 cup (1 cup = 237 mL) sweetened soda/d had 16.3% higher estradiol concentrations compared with women who consumed less sweetened soda (86.5 pg/mL compared with 74.4 pg/mL, P = 0.01) after adjustment for age, BMI, race, dietary factors, and physical activity. Similarly elevated estradiol concentrations were found for ≥1 cup cola/d and noncola soda intake. Neither artificially sweetened soda nor fruit juice intake ≥1 cup/d was significantly associated with reproductive hormones. Added sugar above the average US woman's intake (≥73.2 g/d) or above the 66th percentile in total fructose intake (≥41.5 g/d) was associated with significantly elevated estradiol but not consistently across all models. No associations were found between beverages, added sugars, or total fructose intake and anovulation after multivariate adjustment. Even at moderate consumption amounts, sweetened soda is associated with elevated follicular estradiol concentrations among premenopausal women but does not appear to affect ovulatory function. Further research into the mechanism driving the association between energy-containing beverages and reproductive hormones, and its potential implications for women's health, is warranted.

  7. The adverse effects of high fat induced obesity on female reproductive cycle and hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha Reddy

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for abnormal reproductive cycle and tissue damage in female mice. It leads to earlier puberty, menarche in young females and infertility. There are extensive range of consequences of obesity which includes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Obesity is the interaction between dietary intake, genes, life style and environment. The interplay of hormones estrogen, insulin, and leptin is well known on energy homeostasis and reproduction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high fat induced obesity on reproductive cycles and its hormonal abnormalities on mice model. Two week, 3 month and 8 month long normal (WT) and very high fat diet (VHFD) diet course is followed. When mice are fed with very high fat diet, there is a drastic increase in weight within the first week later. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in leptin levels in 6 month VHFD treated animals. 2 week, 3 month and 6 month time interval pap smear test results showed number of cells, length of estrous cycle and phases of the estrous cycle changes with VHFD mice(n=30) compared to normal diet mice(n=10). These results also indicate that the changes in the reproductive cycles in VHFD treated female mice could be due to the changes in hormones. Histo-pathological analyses of kidney, ovary, liver, pancreas, heart and lungs showed remarkable changes in some tissue on exposure to very high fat. Highly deposited fat packets observed surrounding the hepatocytes and nerve cells.

  8. Medicinal plants used in Lesotho for treatment of reproductive and post reproductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteetee, A; Seleteng Kose, L

    2016-12-24

    Reproductive healthcare has been highlighted as a major challenge in Lesotho mainly due to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. As a result other reproductive ailments have not received much attention, particularly because healthcare facilities are already limited and many of them are inaccessible. For these reasons, medicinal plants play a major role in primary healthcare system in the country, in addition the plants are easily accessible, more affordable, and their use forms part of the cultural heritage. However, documentation of medicinal plants used for reproductive ailments is scattered, more importantly the biological and pharmacological properties, as well as toxicity of many of these plants are not yet known. To document the plants used by both male and female Basotho (residing in Lesotho) for the treatment of reproductive ailments, to explore their recorded biological and pharmacological effects as well as their toxicity, and to establish if these plants are used for similar purposes in other southern African cultures. The results stem from published findings of recent interviews of traditional medicinal practitioners in the Maseru District of Lesotho, first author's own experiences and observations from the Qacha's Nek District as well as comprehensive literature survey including numerous books and unpublished data. Electronic databases such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were also used to search for the chemical compounds, pharmacological activity, and toxicity of the plants. A total of 87 plant species are reported to be used for the treatment of several reproductive problems such as infertility, complications associated with pregnancy (twelve plants are used to treat conditions such as colic, heartburn, nausea, and constipation), cleansing and/ or toning of the uterus (with a purpose either to induce pregnancy or to get rid of the placenta, for example Withania somnifera and Zantedeschia

  9. Effect of Air Pollution on Menstrual Cycle Length-A Prognostic Factor of Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklinger-Gruchala, Anna; Jasienska, Grazyna; Kapiszewska, Maria

    2017-07-20

    Air pollution can influence women's reproductive health, specifically menstrual cycle characteristics, oocyte quality, and risk of miscarriage. The aim of the study was to assess whether air pollution can affect the length of the overall menstrual cycle and the length of its phases (follicular and luteal). Municipal ecological monitoring data was used to assess the air pollution exposure during the monitored menstrual cycle of each of 133 woman of reproductive age. Principal component analyses were used to group pollutants (PM 10 , SO₂, CO, and NO x ) to represent a source-related mixture. PM 10 and SO₂ assessed separately negatively affected the length of the luteal phase after standardization (b = -0.02; p = 0.03; b = -0.06; p = 0.02, respectively). Representing a fossil fuel combustion emission, they were also associated with luteal phase shortening (b = -0.32; p = 0.02). These pollutants did not affect the follicular phase length and overall cycle length, neither in single- nor in multi-pollutant models. CO and NO x assessed either separately or together as a traffic emission were not associated with overall cycle length or the length of cycle phases. Luteal phase shortening, a possible manifestation of luteal phase deficiency, can result from fossil fuel combustion. This suggests that air pollution may contribute to fertility problems in women.

  10. Female reproductive cycle of the Southwestern Atlantic estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Brachyura, Grapsoidea, Varunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina B. Ituarte

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The female reproductive biology of a Chasmagnathus granulatus population inhabiting the area near the mouth of Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, Argentina, was studied. An increase in air temperature during the spring is related to the start of the breeding period, when well defined egg-laying and hatching pulses were observed. Hatching is synchronic during the whole summer but the egg production was not, probably due to the gradual incorporation of young females to the reproductive population. Neither egg-laying nor larval release showed a clear relation to moon phase or tidal cycles, suggesting that reproduction is not rigidly programmed in this unpredictable habitat. Females moult at the beginning of autumn, after releasing the last larvae. However, a new cohort of ovocytes, which was in primary vitellogenesis before moulting, completed the secondary ovogenesis after moulting. Consequently, ovaries remained fully developed throughout the winter.

  11. Responsiveness of pituitary to galanin throughout the reproductive cycle of male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, P; Velez, Z; Sousa, C; Santos, S; Andrade, A; Alvarado, M V; Felip, A; Zanuy, S; Canário, A V M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is a putative factor regulating puberty onset and reproduction through its actions on the pituitary. The present study investigated the pituitary responsiveness to galanin and the patterns of galanin receptors (Galrs) expression throughout the reproductive cycle of two years old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an important aquaculture species. Quantitative analysis of pituitary and hypothalamus transcript expression of four galr subtypes revealed differential regulation according to the testicular developmental stage, with an overall decrease in expression from the immature stage to the mid-recrudescence stage. Incubation of pituitary cells with mammalian 1-29Gal peptide induced significant changes in cAMP concentration, with sensitivities that varied according to the testicular development stages. Furthermore 1-29Gal was able to stimulate both follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) release from pituitary cell suspensions. The magnitude of the effects and effective concentrations varied according to reproductive stage, with generalized induction of Fsh and Lh release in animals sampled in January (full spermiation). The differential expression of galrs in pituitary and hypothalamus across the reproductive season, together with the differential effects of Gal on gonadotropins release in vitro strongly suggests the involvement of the galaninergic system in the regulation the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis of male sea bass. This is to our knowledge the first clear evidence for the involvement of galanin in the regulation of reproduction in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum uric acid in relation to endogenous reproductive hormones during the menstrual cycle: findings from the BioCycle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Dasharathy, Sonya S.; Pollack, Anna Z.; Perkins, Neil J.; Mattison, Donald R.; Cole, Stephen R.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do uric acid levels across the menstrual cycle show associations with endogenous estradiol (E2) and reproductive hormone concentrations in regularly menstruating women? SUMMARY ANSWER Mean uric acid concentrations were highest during the follicular phase, and were inversely associated with E2 and progesterone, and positively associated with FSH. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY E2 may decrease serum levels of uric acid in post-menopausal women; however, the interplay between endogenous reproductive hormones and uric acid levels among regularly menstruating women has not been elucidated. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle study was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University at Buffalo research centre from 2005 to 2007, which followed healthy women for one (n = 9) or 2 (n = 250) menstrual cycle(s). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Participants were healthy women aged 18–44 years. Hormones and uric acid were measured in serum eight times each cycle for up to two cycles. Marginal structural models with inverse probability of exposure weights were used to evaluate the associations between endogenous hormones and uric acid concentrations. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Uric acid levels were observed to vary across the menstrual cycle, with the lowest levels observed during the luteal phase. Every log-unit increase in E2 was associated with a decrease in uric acid of 1.1% (β = −0.011; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.019, −0.004; persistent-effects model), and for every log-unit increase in progesterone, uric acid decreased by ∼0.8% (β = −0.008; 95% CI: −0.012, −0.004; persistent-effects model). FSH was positively associated with uric acid concentrations, such that each log-unit increase was associated with a 1.6% increase in uric acid (β = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.005, 0.026; persistent-effects model). Progesterone and FSH were also associated with uric acid levels in acute-effects models. Of 509 cycles, 42 were anovulatory

  13. The Annual Reproductive Cycle of Silurus microdorsalis, a Korean Endemic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Se-Un; Lee, Won-Kyo

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The annual reproductive cycle of the Korean endemic slender catfish, Silurus microdorsalis, was examined histologically regarding water temperature and day length of habitat, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and development characteristics of female and male gonads. The maximum GSI value was found in May, 1.23±0.33 and 11.77±3.23 for male and female respectively (habitat water temperature 21.5°C/13.59hr day length). On the other hand, the minimal level was 0.63±0.10 in July (26.5°C/14.17) for male and 1.36±0.08 in October (20°C/11.2hr) for female. We compared and calculated the stages of testis and ovary development process in order to determine the germ cell development characteristics and the reproductive cycle. According to results, we classified the annual reproductive cycle of the slender catfish into five stages: Growing phase (December-February), Mature phase (March-April), Ripe and spawning phase / Releasing phase in male (May-June), Degenerative phase (July-August), and Resting phase (September-November).

  14. Impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in premenopausal HIV infected females at NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkiruka Rose Ukibe

    Full Text Available This was a prospective study designed to evaluate the impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in HIV infected females at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South-East Nigeria.The study randomly recruited 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females and 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females on antiretroviral therapy (HAART for not less than six weeks from an HIV clinic and 40 apparently heathy control females among the hospital staff of NAUTH Nnewi. They were all premenopausal females with regular menstrual cycle and aged between 15-45 years. Blood samples were collected at follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle for assay of Thyroid indices (FT3, FT4 and TSH and Reproductive indices (FSH, LH, Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin and Testosterone using ELISA method.The result showed significantly higher FSH and LH but significantly lower progesterone (prog and estrogen (E2 in the test females compared to control females at both phases of menstrual cycle (P<0.05. There was significantly lower FT3 but significantly higher TSH value in Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05. FSH, LH and TSH values were significantly lowered while prog and FT3 were significantly higher in Symptomatic HIV on ART compared to Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05. FT3, FT4, Prog and E2 were inversely correlated while FSH and LH were positively correlated with duration of HIV infection in HIV females (P<0.05 respectively. There was a direct correlation between CD4+ count and FT3 while inverse correlation was found between CD4+ count and TSH levels (P<0.05.The present study demonstrated hypothyroidism with a significant degree of primary hypogonadism in Symptomatic HIV infected females at both follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle which tends to normalize on treatments.

  15. Impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in premenopausal HIV infected females at NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukibe, Nkiruka Rose; Ukibe, Solomon Nwabueze; Emelumadu, Obiageli Fidelia; Onyenekwe, Chinedum Charles; Ahaneku, Joseph Eberendu; Igwegbe, Anthony Osita; Monago, Ifeoma Nwamaka; Ilika, Amobi Linus

    2017-01-01

    This was a prospective study designed to evaluate the impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in HIV infected females at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. The study randomly recruited 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females and 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females on antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for not less than six weeks from an HIV clinic and 40 apparently heathy control females among the hospital staff of NAUTH Nnewi. They were all premenopausal females with regular menstrual cycle and aged between 15-45 years. Blood samples were collected at follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle for assay of Thyroid indices (FT3, FT4 and TSH) and Reproductive indices (FSH, LH, Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin and Testosterone) using ELISA method. The result showed significantly higher FSH and LH but significantly lower progesterone (prog) and estrogen (E2) in the test females compared to control females at both phases of menstrual cycle (P<0.05). There was significantly lower FT3 but significantly higher TSH value in Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05). FSH, LH and TSH values were significantly lowered while prog and FT3 were significantly higher in Symptomatic HIV on ART compared to Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05). FT3, FT4, Prog and E2 were inversely correlated while FSH and LH were positively correlated with duration of HIV infection in HIV females (P<0.05 respectively). There was a direct correlation between CD4+ count and FT3 while inverse correlation was found between CD4+ count and TSH levels (P<0.05). The present study demonstrated hypothyroidism with a significant degree of primary hypogonadism in Symptomatic HIV infected females at both follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle which tends to normalize on treatments.

  16. Ovarian cycling and reproductive state shape the vaginal microbiota in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Livermore, Joshua A; Alberts, Susan C; Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-19

    The vaginal microbiome is an important site of bacterial-mammalian symbiosis. This symbiosis is currently best characterized for humans, where lactobacilli dominate the microbial community and may help defend women against infectious disease. However, lactobacilli do not dominate the vaginal microbiota of any other mammal studied to date, raising key questions about the forces that shape the vaginal microbiome in non-human mammals. We used Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to investigate variation in the taxonomic composition of the vaginal microbiota in 48 baboons (Papio cynocephalus), members of a well-studied wild population in Kenya. Similar to prior studies, we found that the baboon vaginal microbiota was not dominated by lactobacilli. Despite this difference, and similar to humans, reproductive state was the dominant predictor of baboon vaginal microbiota, with pregnancy, postpartum amenorrhea, and ovarian cycling explaining 18% of the variance in community composition. Furthermore, among cycling females, a striking 39% of variance in community composition was explained by ovarian cycle phase, with an especially distinctive microbial community around ovulation. Periovulatory females exhibited the highest relative abundance of lactic acid-producing bacteria compared to any other phase, with a mean relative abundance of 44%. To a lesser extent, sexual behavior, especially a history of shared sexual partners, also predicted vaginal microbial similarity between baboons. Despite striking differences in their dominant microbes, both human and baboon vaginal microbiota exhibit profound changes in composition in response to reproductive state, ovarian cycle phase, and sexual behavior. We found major shifts in composition during ovulation, which may have implications for disease risk and conception success. These findings highlight the need for future studies to account for fine-scale differences in reproductive state, particularly differences between

  17. Social and seasonal influences on the reproductive cycle in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Wickings, E Jean

    2004-09-01

    We present 12 years of perineal swelling data for a semifree-ranging colony of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), and evaluate the influence of rank, parity, and seasonality on reproductive parameters. Female sexual swellings showed a seasonal pattern, with August the median month of ovulation. Overlapping periovulatory periods did not decrease the likelihood of conception. Females showed their first genital swelling at age 3.6 years (n = 28; range, 3.2-4.6 years), and higher-ranking females experienced their first swelling earlier than low-ranking females. Median postpartum amenorrhea (PPA) duration was 208 days (n = 92; range, 74-538 days). PPA was longer in primiparous females than in multiparous females, but PPA duration was unrelated to female rank. Median follicular phase duration was 24 days for the first cycle after parturition (n = 84; range, 12-40 days), shortening to 17 days in subsequent cycles (n = 55; range, 6-39 days). The follicular phase was longer in nulliparous females than in parous females, but was unrelated to female rank. Median cycle length (from one sexual swelling breakdown to the next) was 38 days (n = 57; range, 18-108 days). Eighty-seven percent of conceptions occurred within two cycles, and half of the nulliparous females conceived during their first swelling cycle. Lower-ranking females were more likely to require more cycles to conceive than higher-ranking females. The cycling phase was significantly longer in nulliparous females than in parous females, and was also significantly longer in lower-ranking females than in higher-ranking females. We discuss the influence of provisioning on female reproductive parameters, the influence of parity and rank on the different phases of the interbirth interval, and the evolution of long and variable follicular phases in mandrills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Ye, Aijun; Stanford, Joseph B; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Porucznik, Christina A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2012-02-01

    Caffeinated beverages are widely consumed among women of reproductive age, but their association with reproductive hormones, and whether race modifies any such associations, is not well understood. We assessed the relation between caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones in healthy premenopausal women and evaluated the potential effect modification by race. Participants (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens for hormonal assessment at up to 8 visits per cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle. Weighted linear mixed models and nonlinear mixed models with harmonic terms were used to estimate associations between caffeine and hormone concentrations, adjusted for age, adiposity, physical activity, energy and alcohol intakes, and perceived stress. On the basis of a priori assumptions, an interaction between race and caffeine was tested, and stratified results are presented. Caffeine intake ≥200 mg/d was inversely associated with free estradiol concentrations among white women (β = -0.15; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.05) and positively associated among Asian women (β = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.92). Caffeinated soda intake and green tea intake ≥1 cup/d (1 cup = 240 mL) were positively associated with free estradiol concentrations among all races: β = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.22) and β = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.45), respectively. Moderate consumption of caffeine was associated with reduced estradiol concentrations among white women, whereas caffeinated soda and green tea intakes were associated with increased estradiol concentrations among all races. Further research is warranted on the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverages and reproductive hormones and whether these relations differ by race.

  19. Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Ye, Aijun; Stanford, Joseph B; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Porucznik, Christina A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background: Caffeinated beverages are widely consumed among women of reproductive age, but their association with reproductive hormones, and whether race modifies any such associations, is not well understood. Objective: We assessed the relation between caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones in healthy premenopausal women and evaluated the potential effect modification by race. Design: Participants (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens for hormonal assessment at up to 8 visits per cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle. Weighted linear mixed models and nonlinear mixed models with harmonic terms were used to estimate associations between caffeine and hormone concentrations, adjusted for age, adiposity, physical activity, energy and alcohol intakes, and perceived stress. On the basis of a priori assumptions, an interaction between race and caffeine was tested, and stratified results are presented. Results: Caffeine intake ≥200 mg/d was inversely associated with free estradiol concentrations among white women (β = −0.15; 95% CI: −0.26, −0.05) and positively associated among Asian women (β = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.92). Caffeinated soda intake and green tea intake ≥1 cup/d (1 cup = 240 mL) were positively associated with free estradiol concentrations among all races: β = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.22) and β = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.45), respectively. Conclusions: Moderate consumption of caffeine was associated with reduced estradiol concentrations among white women, whereas caffeinated soda and green tea intakes were associated with increased estradiol concentrations among all races. Further research is warranted on the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverages and reproductive hormones and whether these relations differ by race. PMID:22237060

  20. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 in bovine reproductive system during estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several reports suggest the participation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 in progesterone signaling in the reproductive system. This study aimed at investigating the presence and localization of PGRMC1 in bovine ovary, oviduct and uterus, during the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle. In the ovary, PGRMC1 has been detected in surface germinal epithelium, granulosa cells, theca cells and in the germinal vesicle of the oocytesat all stages of folliculogenesis. In the corpus luteum the expression of PGRMC1 was influenced by the stage of the estrous cycle. In the oviducts and in the uterus horns, PGRMC1 was immunolocalized in the luminal epithelium, in the muscle layer cells and in the endothelial cells. In the uterus, PGRMC1 was intensely localized also in the glandular endometrium. However, in the oviducts and in the uterus horns, the localization of PGRMC1 was independent on the stage of the estrous cycle and on whether evaluating the ipsilateral or the contralateral organ. In conclusion, the present immunohistochemical study showed that PGRMC1 is located in various compartments of the bovine female reproductive organs. With the exception of the corpora lutea, PGRMC1 localization showed similar pattern during different stage of the estrous cycle.

  1. Reproductive Health Needs Among Substance Use Disorder Treatment Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terplan, Mishka; Lawental, Maayan; Connah, Melanie Bryant; Martin, Caitlin Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) have unique reproductive health needs. The aim of this study was to evaluate these needs and assess the acceptability of family planning service delivery of SUD treatment clients. Reproductive health needs of drug treatment clients were assessed using a cross-sectional anonymous survey in 4 treatment sites in Baltimore City, MD. Surveys were distributed by staff. Contraceptives assessed included sterilization, intrauterine devices, implants, injections, pills, patches, rings, condoms, spermicide, withdrawal, and the rhythm method. Results are stratified by sex and between those using and not using highly effective contraceptive methods. A total of 115 women and 95 men completed the survey (80% younger than 50 years), with 39% of women and 54% of men reporting using condoms, but only 24% of women and 26% of men reporting consistent use. All other methods were used by less than 12% of the sample. Only 20% of sexually active women reported using a highly reliable form of contraception and only 53% were using any form of contraception at all. Contraceptive use correlated inversely with age, but did not correlate with having had sexually transmitted infection testing or other preventive health services. Although more than 90% of participants had access to health care services in the past 3 years, 25% of women and 33% of men reported difficulty accessing health care providers. The majority of respondents said they would likely use family planning services if available at their SUD treatment (83% of women and 58% of men). Men and women in SUD treatment have unmet reproductive health needs. As SUD treatment moves toward greater integration, the programmatic inclusion of family planning services should be considered.

  2. Venous thromboembolism in assisted reproductive technologies: comparison between unsuccessful versus successful cycles in an Italian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Michela; Favuzzi, Giovanni; Totaro, Pasquale; Chinni, Elena; Vecchione, Gennaro; Vergura, Patrizia; Fischetti, Lucia; Margaglione, Maurizio; Grandone, Elvira

    2018-02-01

    Pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). On the contrary, the magnitude of this risk in unsuccessful ART cycles (not resulting in a clinical pregnancy) has not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we evaluated the incidence of VTE in unsuccessful cycles and compared it with that recorded in successful cycles in the same study population. From a cohort of 998 women consecutively referred by local Fertility Clinics to our Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis Unit (April 2002-July 2011), we identified and included women with at least one cycle of ovarian stimulation and a negative history for VTE. Overall, 661 women undergone 1518 unsuccessful and 318 successful cycles of ovarian stimulation, respectively, were analysed. VTE events occurred in 2/1518 (1.3‰) unsuccessful cycles compared with 3/318 (9.4‰) successful cycles, (Two-tailed Fisher exact test, p = 0.04, OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.02-1.02). Both cases observed in unsuccessful cycles were isolated pulmonary embolism occurred after OHSS; no antithrombotic prophylaxis had been prescribed. At logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of successful cycle and BMI were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of VTE with an OR of 13.94 (95% CI 1.41-137.45) and 1.23 (95% CI 1.01-1.49), respectively. VTE incidence is significantly lower in unsuccessful cycles as compared to that of successful ones. However, although rare, thrombotic risk during ovarian stimulation cannot be excluded and, when it occurs, can be life-threatening. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to these women, independently of ART outcome.

  3. Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of [ 3 H]ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. [ 3 H]ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages

  4. Effects of previous ovarian surgery for endometriosis on the outcome of assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Ferreira, Daniela Parreiras; Spyer Prates, Luis Felipe Víctor; Sales, Liana; Sampaio, Marcos

    2002-01-01

    Endometriosis affects 2-50% of women at reproductive age. Surgery is an option for treatment, but there is no convincing evidence that it promotes a significant improvement in fertility. Also, the removal of ovarian endometrioma might lead to a reduction in the follicular reserve and response to stimulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of previous ovarian surgery for endometriosis on the ovarian response in assisted reproduction treatment cycles and its pregnancy outcome. A total of 61 women, with primary infertility and previously having undergone ovarian surgery for endometriosis, who had received 74 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles, were studied (study group). A further 74 patients with primary infertility who underwent 77 IVF/ICSI cycles within#10; the same period of time, at the same clinic and without previous ovarian surgery or endometriosis were studied as a control group. Patients were matched for age and treatment performed. Patients 35 years with previous ovarian surgery needed more ampoules for ovulation induction (P = 0.017) and had fewer follicles and oocytes than women in the control group (P = 0.001). Duration of folliculogenesis was similar in both groups, as was fertilization rate. A total of 10 patients achieved pregnancy in the study group (34.5%) and 14 (48.3%) in the control group. Although a lower pregnancy rate was observed in patients who had undergone previous ovarian surgery, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.424). In conclusion, ovarian surgery for the treatment of endometriosis reduces the ovarian outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles in women >35 years old, and might also decrease pregnancy rates. Therefore, for infertile patients, non-surgical treatment might be a better option to avoid reduction of the ovarian response.

  5. Menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in women exposed to atrazine in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragin, Lori A; Kesner, James S; Bachand, Annette M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Reif, John S

    2011-11-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and a wide-spread groundwater contaminant. Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence exists that atrazine disrupts reproductive health and hormone secretion. We examined the relationship between exposure to atrazine in drinking water and menstrual cycle function including reproductive hormone levels. Women 18-40 years old residing in agricultural communities where atrazine is used extensively (Illinois) and sparingly (Vermont) answered a questionnaire (n=102), maintained menstrual cycle diaries (n=67), and provided daily urine samples for analyses of luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol and progesterone metabolites (n=35). Markers of exposures included state of residence, atrazine and chlorotriazine concentrations in tap water, municipal water and urine, and estimated dose from water consumption. Women who lived in Illinois were more likely to report menstrual cycle length irregularity (odds ratio (OR)=4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-13.95) and more than 6 weeks between periods (OR=6.16; 95% CI: 1.29-29.38) than those who lived in Vermont. Consumption of >2 cups of unfiltered Illinois water daily was associated with increased risk of irregular periods (OR=5.73; 95% CI: 1.58-20.77). Estimated "dose" of atrazine and chlorotriazine from tap water was inversely related to mean mid-luteal estradiol metabolite. Atrazine "dose" from municipal concentrations was directly related to follicular phase length and inversely related to mean mid-luteal progesterone metabolite levels. We present preliminary evidence that atrazine exposure, at levels below the US EPA MCL, is associated with increased menstrual cycle irregularity, longer follicular phases, and decreased levels of menstrual cycle endocrine biomarkers of infertile ovulatory cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Analysis of factors associated with multiple pregnancies in assisted reproduction treatment complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Nieto, C A; Méndez-Lozano, D H; Fraustro-Ávila, M E; García-Martínez, M R; Soto-Cossio, L E; Basurto-Díaz, D; Flores-Mendoza, H

    2016-01-01

    Today, advances in technology provide the best success rates in the reproductive medicine field. One of the biggest concerns about it, is the high risk of achieving multiple pregnancies, which may carry greater health risks for both; the mother and fetuses. Besides that, multiple pregnancies are considered a complication or an adverse effect of assisted reproduction treatments. To compare the factors associated with multiple pregnancy in patients who underwent complex assisted reproduction techniques. A retrospective and transversal case control study was rolled to compare the factors associated with multiple pregnancy rates, these results were correlated using a logistic regression model. a total of 1063 cases were reviewed, we obtained a pregnancy rate of 35.9%, and a multiple pregnancy rate of 31.5%. We found positive statistical association between patient age, total number of oocytes obtained, total embryos transferred, total vitrified embryos per cycle, total serum cuantitative B-GCH level, endometrial thickness in milimeters, and the Honest of a multiple pregnancy. In the logistic regression model, we found statistical association between the number of embryos transferred, number of embryos obtained, embryo quality, total vitrified embryos and the risk for multiple pregnancies. The total number of embryos transferred in a cycle of a complex assisted reproduction, is the most important factor for the onset of multiple pregnancies. The age of patients, the number of oocytes, total number of embryos obtained, the number of embryos transferred, the quality of embryos transferred and the number of frozen embryos per cycle, correlate significantly with more risk for multiple pregnancies.

  7. Behavioral and endocrine characteristics of the reproductive cycle in wild muriqui monkeys, Brachyteles arachnoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Ziegler, T E

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of fecal ovarian steroids provides a powerful noninvasive method to obtain insights into ovulatory cycles, gestation length, and the timing of sexual interactions relative to the periovulatory period in wild primates. Techniques developed to collect and assay feces from free-ranging muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides) for estradiol and progesterone yield the first explicit reproductive data on this species, and provide the first opportunity to evaluate the timing of observed copulations with muriqui ovarian cycles. Hormonal profiles from seven females indicate average cycle lengths of 21.0 +/- 5.4 days (n = 20). Females conceived after 3-6 ovulatory cycles. Gestation length averaged 216.4 +/- 1.5 days for the five females for which conception cycles were sampled. Discrete copulation periods spanned an average of 2.1 +/- 1.2 days (n = 29), with intervals between these concentrated periods of copulations averaging 15.6 +/- 6.7 days (n = 20). There were no significant differences among females in cycle lengths, copulation period lengths, or copulation interval lengths. Ejaculation was visible following 71.8 +/- 26.7% of copulations during the females preovulatory periods. All females copulated outside the periovulatory period. The proportion of copulation days outside the periovulatory period was slightly greater (p = 0.08) for primiparous females (64.8 +/- 28.3%) than for multiparous females (28.7 +/- 19.7%).

  8. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  10. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Public Health School, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Shi, Wenxiao [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Yutao [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Shanda South Road 27, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Xiangzhi, E-mail: xiangzhi@sdu.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  11. Dietary minerals, reproductive hormone levels and sporadic anovulation: associations in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keewan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Michels, Kara A; Schliep, Karen C; Plowden, Torie C; Chaljub, Ellen N; Mumford, Sunni L

    2018-04-20

    Although minerals are linked to several reproductive outcomes, it is unknown whether dietary minerals are associated with ovulatory function. We hypothesised that low intakes of minerals would be associated with an increased risk of anovulation. We investigated associations between dietary mineral intake and both reproductive hormones and anovulation in healthy women in the BioCycle Study, which prospectively followed up 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18-44 years who were not taking mineral supplements for two menstrual cycles. Intakes of ten selected minerals were assessed through 24-h dietary recalls at up to four times per cycle in each participant. Oestradiol, progesterone, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex-hormone-binding globulin and testosterone were measured in serum up to eight times per cycle. We used weighted linear mixed models to evaluate associations between minerals and hormones and generalised linear models for risk of anovulation. Compared with Na intake ≥1500 mg, Na intake <1500 mg was associated with higher levels of FSH (21·3 %; 95 % CI 7·5, 36·9) and LH (36·8 %; 95 % CI 16·5, 60·5) and lower levels of progesterone (-36·9 %; 95 % CI -56·5, -8·5). Na intake <1500 mg (risk ratio (RR) 2·70; 95 % CI 1·00, 7·31) and Mn intake <1·8 mg (RR 2·00; 95 % CI 1·02, 3·94) were associated with an increased risk of anovulation, compared with higher intakes, respectively. Other measured dietary minerals were not associated with ovulatory function. As essential minerals are mostly obtained via diet, our results comparing insufficient levels with sufficient levels highlight the need for future research on dietary nutrients and their associations with ovulatory cycles.

  12. Influence of age, reproductive cycling status, and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome in baboons (Papio anubis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, M; Bergin, I L; Bassis, C M; Hashway, S A; Chai, D; Bell, J D

    2015-05-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Interpopulational differences in the female reproductive cycle of the southwestern Atlantic estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, 1851 (Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Varunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina B. Ituarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The female reproductive biology of Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, a semiterrestrial burrowing crab endemic to the southwestern Atlantic, was compared in two contrasting coastal habitats: San Antonio (SA, marine and Mar Chiquita (MC, estuarial. Mature females were collected monthly for 1.5 years and the ovarian cycle was described using a qualitative scale. Gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indexes were calculated. The highest GSI and HSI occurred early in the reproductive season in SA and during the non-reproductive season in MC. The beginning and duration of the reproductive season also differed between populations: it started later and was shorter in SA. In MC, secondary vitellogenesis continued when the reproductive season had finished, and the ovaries remained fully developed throughout the non-reproductive season (winter. Therefore, females of MC were ready to lay eggs as soon as spring environmental conditions appeared. However, SA females did not attain a fully developed ovary during winter. A limited food supply would restrict the available energy to complete secondary vitellogenesis at the end of the reproductive season in SA, after the last spawning. Thus, the vitellogenic cycle should be completed in the following spring, causing a delay in the beginning of the reproductive period. In addition, the higher temperature amplitude may cause the reproductive period in SA to end early.

  14. Role of varicocele treatment in assisted reproductive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet G. Sönmez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this review, we investigate the advantage of varicocele repair prior to assisted reproductive technologies (ART for infertile couples and provide cost analysis information. Materials and methods: We searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL. The following search strategy was modified for the various databases and search engines: ‘varicocele’, ‘varicocelectomy’, ‘varicocele repair’, ‘ART’, ‘in vitro fertilisation (IVF’, ‘intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI’. Results: A total of 49 articles, including six meta-analyses, 32 systematic reviews, and 11 original articles, were included in the analysis. Bypassing potentially reversible male subfertility factors using ART is currently common practice. However, varicocele may be present in 35% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility. Varicocele repair has been shown to be an effective treatment for infertile men with clinical varicocele, thus should play an important role in the treatment of such patients due to the foetal/genetic risks and high costs that are associated with increased ART use. Conclusion: Varicocele repair is a cost-effective treatment method that can improve semen parameters, pregnancy rates, and live-birth rates in most infertile men with clinical varicocele. By improving semen parameters and sperm structure, varicocele repair can decrease or even eliminate ART requirement. Keywords: Assisted reproductive technology, In vitro fertilisation, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Varicocele, Varicocelectomy

  15. Female reproductive potential after treatment for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horning, S.J.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The probability of maintaining ovarian function, becoming pregnant, and delivering a normal child is important to young women anticipating successful therapy for Hodgkin's disease. In this study, reproductive function was retrospectively examined in 103 women 40 years old or younger who had undergone treatment for Hodgkin's disease with total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone, combination chemotherapy, or combined TLI and chemotherapy. Infertility was directly related to gonadal exposure to therapy and to age at treatment. Twenty women became pregnant after receiving total-nodal irradiation or combination chemotherapy or both. No fetal wastage occurred, and no birth defects were seen in the 24 infants born to these women. Even after intensive treatment programs, women successfully treated for Hodgkin's disease have become pregnant and delivered phenotypically normal children

  16. Examining Neosho madtom reproductive biology using ultrasound and artificial photothermal cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Noltie, Douglas B.

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether extended laboratory simulation of natural photothermal conditions could stimulate reproduction in the Neosho madtom Noturus placidus, a federally threatened species. For 3 years, a captive population of Neosho madtoms was maintained under simulated natural conditions and monitored routinely with ultrasound for reproductive condition. Female Neosho madtoms cycled in and out of spawning condition, producing and absorbing oocytes annually. Internal measurements made by means of ultrasound indicated the summer mean oocyte size remained consistent over the years, although estimated fecundity increased with increasing fish length. In the summer of 2001, after 3 years in the simulated natural environment, 13 out of 41 fish participated in 10 spawnings. Simulation of the natural photothermal environment, coupled with within-day temperature fluctuations during the spring rise, seemed important for the spawning of captive Neosho madtoms. The use of ultrasound to assess the reproductive status in Neosho madtoms was effective and resulted in negligible stress or injury to the fish. These procedures may facilitate future culture of this species and other madtoms Noturus spp., especially when species are rare, threatened, or endangered. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  17. Indonesia. Adolescent reproductive health forms part of 5th country programme cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Indonesia is now entering the Fifth Country Program Cycle of Population. The reproductive health and family well-being of the youth forms part of the country program. In order to translate this component into concrete action program, a project document in its first draft was developed for UNFPA (UN Population Fund) funding by the government and with the assistance of UNFPA CST, Bangkok and UNFPA Field Office in Jakarta. The project aims to raise the level of commitment and degree of participation of families, particularly parents, for developing among their pre-adolescent and adolescent children a better understanding of the concepts/process of adolescent reproductive health and desirable attitudes and values dealing with family well-being. This is to be achieved through family-centered learning approaches that will contribute to the adoption of the small, happy, and prosperous family norm. To achieve this goal, the project will develop national capacity by creating management teams, developing sets of training and counseling materials, delivering key messages through the media, upgrading skills in adolescent counseling and developing better understanding of adolescent reproductive health and family well-being issues among the facilitators. The strategy to be used is to set up small groups of 20-30 families which will regularly meet to discuss adolescent problems and issues with the help of cadres. They will be supported by provincial reproductive health and family well-being counseling centers which will also be set up to handle serious cases difficult for parents to handle. These centers, to be run by NGOs, will provide counseling services to parents and youth, evolve innovative and culturally acceptable counseling techniques, and at the same time serve as material and information collection, development and dissemination centers. The project will be launched in collaboration with seven NGOs in seven selected provinces. It is currently under review by UNFPA and

  18. Culture media for human pre-implantation embryos in assisted reproductive technology cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed M A; Mantikou, Eleni; van Wely, Madelon; Van der Veen, Fulco; Al-Inany, Hesham G; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2015-11-20

    Many media are commercially available for culturing pre-implantation human embryos in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. It is unknown which culture medium leads to the best success rates after ART. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of different human pre-implantation embryo culture media in used for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the National Research Register, the Medical Research Council's Clinical Trials Register and the NHS Center for Reviews and Dissemination databases from January 1985 to March 2015. We also examined the reference lists of all known primary studies, review articles, citation lists of relevant publications and abstracts of major scientific meetings. We included all randomised controlled trials which randomised women, oocytes or embryos and compared any two commercially available culture media for human pre-implantation embryos in an IVF or ICSI programme. Two review authors independently selected the studies, assessed their risk of bias and extracted data. We sought additional information from the authors if necessary. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. The primary review outcome was live birth or ongoing pregnancy. We included 32 studies in this review. Seventeen studies randomised women (total 3666), three randomised cycles (total 1018) and twelve randomised oocytes (over 15,230). It was not possible to pool any of the data because each study compared different culture media.Only seven studies reported live birth or ongoing pregnancy. Four of these studies found no evidence of a difference between the media compared, for either day three or day five embryo transfer. The data from the fifth study did not appear reliable

  19. Reporting in vitro fertilization cycles to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database: where have all the cycles gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, David; Jindal, Sangita K; Oh, Cheongeun; Morelli, Sara S; Kratka, Scott; McGovern, Peter G

    2016-04-01

    To assess the relationship between live birth rates (LBRs) and the incidence of under-reported cycles by IVF clinics. Cohort study. Not applicable. All patients undergoing IVF cycles in the aforementioned clinics. Not applicable. The reporting percentage (RP), defined as number of cycles with reported pregnancy rates divided by total cycles performed. Results from cryopreservation cycles are only presented by SART if an embryo transfer occurs. Thus, RP decreases as incidence of embryo or oocyte banking cycles increases. The LBRs in women aged cycles than the median. In clinics with very low RP, the cycles that are reported have higher success rates. Regardless of intent, the reduction of reported data to SART makes it increasingly difficult for clinicians and patients to accurately assess a clinic's success rates. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endometrial thickness as a predictor of the reproductive outcomes in fresh and frozen embryo transfer cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Zhou; Ren, Xinling; Huang, Bo; Zhu, Guijin; Yang, Wei; Jin, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the relationship between endometrial thickness during fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and the clinical outcomes of subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. FET cycles using at least one morphological good-quality blastocyst conducted between 2012 and 2013 at a university-based reproductive center were reviewed retrospectively. Endometrial ultrasonographic characteristics were recorded both on the oocyte retrieval day and on the day of progesterone supplementation in FET cycles. Clinical pregnancy rate, spontaneous abortion rate, and live birth rate were analyzed. One thousand five hundred twelve FET cycles was included. The results showed that significant difference in endometrial thickness on day of oocyte retrieval (P = .03) was observed between the live birth group (n = 844) and no live birth group (n = 668), while no significant difference in FET endometrial thickness was found (P = .261) between the live birth group and no live birth group. For endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day, clinical pregnancy rate ranged from 50.0% among patients with an endometrial thickness of ≤6 mm to 84.2% among patients with an endometrial thickness of >16 mm, with live birth rate from 33.3% to 63.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of factors related to live birth indicated endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day was associated with improved live birth rate (OR was 1.069, 95% CI: 1.011–1.130, P = .019), while FET endometrial thickness did not contribute significantly to pregnancy outcomes following FET cycles. The ROC curves revealed the cut-off points of endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day was 8.75 mm for live birth. Endometrial thickness during fresh IVF cycles was a better predictor of endometrial receptivity in subsequent FET cycles than FET cycle endometrial thickness. For those females with thin endometrium in fresh cycles, additional estradiol stimulation might be helpful for

  1. The effect of assisted reproduction treatment on mental health in fertile women

    OpenAIRE

    Zivaridelavar, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The process of assisted reproductive treatment is a stressful situation in the treatment of infertile couples and it would harm the mental health of women. Fertile women who started infertility treatment due to male factor infertility have reported to experience less stress and depression than other women before the assisted reproductive process but considering the cultural and social factors and also the etiology of the assisted reproductive process, it could affect the metal h...

  2. Antiandrogen Treatment Ameliorates Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes in the Letrozole-Induced Mouse Model of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Genevieve E; Malik, Shaddy; Mellon, Pamela L

    2018-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Although its etiology is unknown, excess androgens are thought to be a critical factor driving the pathology of PCOS. We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) in mice produces many hallmarks of PCOS, including elevated testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone, anovulation, and obesity. In the current study, we sought to determine whether androgen receptor (AR) actions are responsible for any of the phenotypes observed in LET mice. C57BL/6 female mice were subcutaneously implanted with LET or placebo control and subsequently treated with the nonsteroidal AR antagonist flutamide or vehicle control. Flutamide treatment in LET females reversed elevated T levels and restored ovarian expression of Cyp17a1 (critical for androgen synthesis) to normal levels. Pituitary expression of Lhb was decreased in LET females that received flutamide treatment, with no changes in expression of Fshb or Gnrhr. Flutamide treatment also restored estrous cycling and reduced the number of ovarian cyst-like follicles in LET females. Furthermore, body weight and adipocyte size were decreased in flutamide-treated LET females. Altogether, our findings provide strong evidence that AR signaling is responsible for many key reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and further establish the LET mouse model as an important tool for the study of androgen excess.

  3. Investigations on the metabolism of metals in decapod crustaceas in relation with moulting cycles and reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.-L.M.

    1975-07-01

    A study of the metabolism of metals was carried out in decapod crustaceas; it showed that it was subject to cyclic variations during the life of the animals, closely correlated with growth moults. The metabolism of metals was also considered in its relations with reproduction, especially oogenesis and spermatogenesis, and embryonic development. In relation with moult, various factors playing a role on metal metabolism were investigated: role of metals in the organism, fasting and nutrition cycles and biochemical reserves, physico-chemical form of the metal and ultrastructure of uptake surfaces. The histological and histochemical aspects of the uptake of a number of metals were studied as well as inter-metallic and inter-organic relationships [fr

  4. Prognostic indicators of assisted reproduction technology outcomes of cycles with ultralow serum antimüllerian hormone: a multivariate analysis of over 5,000 autologous cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database for 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifer, David B; Tal, Oded; Wantman, Ethan; Edul, Preeti; Baker, Valerie L

    2016-02-01

    To assess cycle outcomes when antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is ultralow (≤0.16 ng/mL) and to determine which parameters contribute to the probability of cycle cancellation and/or outcome. Retrospective analysis. Not applicable. 5,087 (7.3%) fresh and 243 (1.5%) thawed cycles with ultralow AMH values. Linear and logistic regression, comparison with age-matched cycles with normal AMH concentrations. Cancellation rate; number of retrieved oocytes, embryos, transferred embryos, and cryopreserved embryos; clinical pregnancy, live-birth, and multiple birth rates. The total cancellation rate per cycle start for fresh cycles was 54%. Of these, 38.6% of the cycles were canceled before retrieval, and 3.3% of cycles obtained no oocytes at time of retrieval. Of all retrieval attempts, 50.7% had three oocytes or fewer retrieved, and 25.1% had no embryo transfer. The live-birth rates were 9.5% per cycle start. Cycles with ultralow AMH levels compared with age-matched normal AMH cycles demonstrated more than a fivefold greater pre-retrieval cancellation rate, a twofold less live-birth rate per cycle and a 4.5-fold less embryo cryopreservation rate. Refusing treatment solely on the basis of ultralow AMH levels is not advisable, but patients should be counseled appropriately about the prognostic factors for cancellation and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies in women with PCOS who do not conceive after six cycles of clomiphene citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Lobke M; Nahuis, Marleen J; Hompes, Peter G; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of treatments for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who ovulate on clomiphene citrate but do not conceive after six cycles. A decision-analytic framework was developed for six scenarios: (1) three cycles of IVF; (2) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, followed by three cycles of IVF in case of no birth; (3) six cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (4) 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (5) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, six cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (6) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF. Two-year cumulative birth rates were 58%, 74%, 89%, 97%, 93% and 98% and costs per couple were € 9518, € 7530, € 9711, € 9764, € 7651 and € 7684 for scenarios 1-6, respectively. Scenario 2 was the lowest cost option. The extra cost for at least one live birth in scenario 5 was € 629 and in scenario 6 € 630. In these subjects, continuation of treatment for six cycles of clomiphene citrate, 6 or 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and IVF is potentially cost-effective. These results should be confirmed in a randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points could be included as recovery metrics with which to monitor seasonal trends and determine whether

  8. The female reproductive cycle of the neotropical snake Atractus pantostictus (Fernandes and Puorto, 1993) from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, F C; Nascimento, L B

    2015-06-01

    Data on reproductive activity of fossorial species are limited because the specimens are difficult to be observed and captured. Here in, we present the reproductive cycle of female Atractus pantostictus, a fossorial neotropical species, and the sexual maturity of males and females in south-eastern Brazil. The female reproductive cycle of A. pantostictus is seasonal, with vitellogenic follicles being found from September to April and eggs in November, February, March and April with the number varying between two and four. Spermatozoa were found in the lumen of the glandular and non-glandular uterus in females collected during the rainy season. Sperm storage tubules were found in the posterior infundibulum of the females, where the storage of sperm occurs for a short time. The storage may occur because mating and ovulation are dissociated. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Factors Associated with Effectiveness of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients with Thin Endometrium Undergoing Estrogen Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Miao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Thinner EMT before estrogen treatment requires longer treatment duration and predicts poorer treatment outcomes. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the duration of estrogen administration. Assisted reproductive outcomes of patients whose treatment is successful (i.e., achieves an EMT ≥8 mm are similar to those of controls. The quality of embryos transferred is an important predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes in patients treated successfully with exogenous estrogen.

  10. Reproductive Cancer Treatment Hospitalizations of U.S. Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Son, Esther; Powell, Robyn M.; Igdalsky, Leah

    2018-01-01

    There is a dearth of existing research on the treatment of reproductive cancers among women with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). This study analyzed the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample and compared the prevalence of reproductive cancer treatment hospitalization discharges among women with…

  11. Male and female alcohol consumption and live birth after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittrup, Ida; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment i...

  12. Initial Effects of Reproduction Cutting Treatments on Residual Hard Mast Production in the Ouachita Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2003-01-01

    We compared indices of total hard mast production (oak and hickory combined) in 20, second-growth, pine-hardwood stands under five treatments to determine the effects of different reproduction treatments on mast production in the Ouachita Mountains. We evaluated mast production in mature unharvested controls and stands under four reproduction cutting methods (single-...

  13. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, E. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crum, J. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, S. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gombert, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maio, V. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nenoff, T. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevigny, G. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, P. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  14. The total pregnancy potential per oocyte aspiration after assisted reproduction-in how many cycles are biologically competent oocytes available?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, J G; Rodríguez, N M; Andreasen, L D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: While stimulation of women prior to assisted reproduction is associated with increased success rates, the total biological pregnancy potential per stimulation cycle is rarely assessed. METHODS: Retrospective sequential cohort study of the cumulative live birth rate in 1148 first IVF/ICSI...

  15. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  16. Pregnancy outcomes decline in recipients over age 44: an analysis of 27,959 fresh donor oocyte in vitro fertilization cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jason S; Steward, Ryan G; Dude, Annie M; Shah, Anish A; Goldfarb, James M; Muasher, Suheil J

    2014-05-01

    To use a large and recent national registry to provide an updated report on the effect of recipient age on the outcome of donor oocyte in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. United States national registry for assisted reproductive technology. Recipients of donor oocyte treatment cycles between 2008 and 2010, with cycles segregated into five age cohorts: ≤34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, and ≥50 years. None. Implantation, clinical pregnancy, live-birth, and miscarriage rates. In donor oocyte IVF cycles, all age cohorts ≤39 years had similar rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth when compared with the 40- to 44-year-old reference group. Patients in the two oldest age groups (45 to 49, ≥50 years) experienced statistically significantly lower rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth compared with the reference group. Additionally, all outcomes in the ≥50-year-old group were statistically significantly worse than the 45- to 49-year-old group, demonstrating progressive decline with advancing age. Recent national registry data suggest that donor oocyte recipients have stable rates of pregnancy outcomes before age 45, after which there is a small but steady and significant decline. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The total pregnancy potential per oocyte aspiration after assisted reproduction-in how many cycles are biologically competent oocytes available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, J G; Rodríguez, N M; Andreasen, L D; Loft, A; Ziebe, S

    2016-07-01

    While stimulation of women prior to assisted reproduction is associated with increased success rates, the total biological pregnancy potential per stimulation cycle is rarely assessed. Retrospective sequential cohort study of the cumulative live birth rate in 1148 first IVF/ICSI-cycles and 5-year follow up of frozen embryo replacement (FER) cycles were used. Oocyte number, number of embryos transferred, and cryopreserved/thawed and transferred embryos in a FER cycle were registered for all patients. Children per oocyte and per transferred embryo and percentage of cycles with births were calculated. We obtained 9529 oocytes. Embryos (2507) were transferred in either fresh or FER cycles, resulting in 422 births and 474 live born children. Median age of the women was 32.5 years (range 20-41.5 years). In total, 34.3 % of all cycles ended with a live birth while in 65.7 % of the cycles, no oocytes were capable of developing into a child. The average number of oocytes needed per live born child after transfer of fresh and thawed embryos was 20 as only 5.0 % of oocytes aspirated in the first IVF/ICSI cycle had the competence to develop into a child. In our setting, overall 5.0 % of the oocytes in a first cycle were biologically competent and in around 2/3 of all cycles, none of the oocytes had the potential to result in the birth of a child.

  18. Sex steroid levels across the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius, from different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Sakata, J T; Zeller, M; Crews, D

    2000-05-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in many reptiles, including the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). In this study, we examined the hormonal and behavioral changes that occur during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos from four (i.e., 26, 30, 32.5, and 34 degrees C) incubation temperatures. Controlling for reproductive status, plasma levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and progesterone (P) varied with incubation temperature but estradiol 17-beta (E2) levels did not. Controlling for the effects of incubation temperature, DHT and T levels were low when females were previtellogenic, increased slightly during early vitellogenesis, increased dramatically during late vitellogenesis (i.e., prior to ovulation), and then decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. In contrast, E2 levels increased gradually from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, peaked during late vitellogenesis, and decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. Levels of P increased from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, remained elevated during late vitellogenesis, and then decreased after ovulation. Moreover, we determined that females were not sexually receptive when previtellogenic, were somewhat receptive during early vitellogenesis (approximately 20% receptive), were most receptive during late vitellogenesis (approximately 80% receptive), and were again unreceptive after ovulation. Incubation temperature did not influence receptivity. Overall, these data show that hormone levels and behavior change coordinately during the reproductive cycle. Although incubation temperature has persistent effects on endocrine physiology in adult female leopard geckos, these effects are modest compared to hormonal changes across the reproductive cycle.

  19. Latitudinal variation in the reproductive cycle of two bivalves with contrasting biogeographical origin along the Humboldt Current Upwelling Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Uribe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 and Mesodesma donacium (Lamarck, 1818 are bivalves that inhabit the Humboldt Current Upwelling Ecosystem. They have contrasting biogeographical origins, suggesting that their responses to exogenous factors should differ. Using circular statistics, we examine synchrony/asynchrony in the reproductive cycle between populations of each species. The results indicate that there is reproductive asynchrony in both species along their distributional range. However, there was synchrony for A. purpuratus in several location-pairs, including Paita-Chimbote, Chimbote-Callao, Callao-Pisco and Pisco-Antofagasta. For M. donacium, there were only two synchronic groups: Camaná-Capellanía-Mehuín and Hornitos-Peñuelas-Longotoma-La Ligua-Cucao-Quilanlar. A. purpuratus showed gametogenenic activity throughout the year. In contrast, M. donacium showed strong seasonality, with gametogenesis in winter and spawning in spring/summer. In conclusion, the patterns observed for these sympatric species suggest that on a large scale the reproductive cycles follow the expected patterns for the contrasting biogeographic origin of each species, so it could be argued that they are modulated by endogenous factors. However, at a local scale, the reproductive cycles of these species show variation, likely determined by local oceanographic or hydrographic processes.

  20. Impacts of temperature and lunar day on gene expression profiles during a monthly reproductive cycle in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Camerron M; Meyer, Eli; Fan, Tung-Yung; Weis, Virginia M

    2017-08-01

    Reproductive timing in brooding corals has been correlated to temperature and lunar irradiance, but the mechanisms by which corals transduce these environmental variables into molecular signals are unknown. To gain insight into these processes, global gene expression profiles in the coral Pocillopora damicornis were examined (via RNA-Seq) across lunar phases and between temperature treatments, during a monthly planulation cycle. The interaction of temperature and lunar day together had the largest influence on gene expression. Mean timing of planulation, which occurred at lunar days 7.4 and 12.5 for 28- and 23°C-treated corals, respectively, was associated with an upregulation of transcripts in individual temperature treatments. Expression profiles of planulation-associated genes were compared between temperature treatments, revealing that elevated temperatures disrupted expression profiles associated with planulation. Gene functions inferred from homologous matches to online databases suggest complex neuropeptide signalling, with calcium as a central mediator, acting through tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor pathways. This work contributes to our understanding of coral reproductive physiology and the impacts of environmental variables on coral reproductive pathways. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Study of sexual cycle, reproductive seasonality and control of oestrus in Criollo goats in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Maria, A.; Cox, J.; Munoz, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Caldera, L.

    1990-01-01

    The study addresses the traditional system of goat production practised by peasant farmers in the marginal areas of Chile. As a significant proportion of peasant families depend exclusively on this animal for their livelihood, an improvement in the efficiency of goat production would have economic and social benefits for this sector of the Chilean community. In order to achieve this improvement experiments were conducted to provide basic knowledge on the reproductive indices of local (Criollo) goats under traditional management conditions. These showed that the mean duration of the oestrous cycle was 20.65±1.38 days (n=95) and that of oestrus was 29.66±7.30 hours (n=89). Sexual activity was concentrated between the months of March and August, with a peak of activity in June-July (corresponding to the months with shortest day length) and a cessation of activity between October and January. Other trials were conducted to evaluate the possibility of introducing artificial insemination as a means of improving the genetic merit of local goats. Thus, the efficacy of locally made sponges impregnated with progesterone or fluorogestone acetate (FGA) (with or without PMSG or prostaglandins) prior to artificial insemination showed that the FGA-PMSG combination was the most reliable in inducing oestrus in local goats. However, in terms of cost effectiveness a progesterone-prostaglandin combination was best. (author). 60 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  2. Life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M V; Pinto, Z T; Lima, M M

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrofasciata were studied along with laboratory conditions for the establishment of a prolific colony. The insects were divided into four groups: two of them were maintained at room temperature (20.5 degrees C to 33 degrees C and 85% +/- 5% of relative humidity), the other two in a climatic chamber (CC) (temperature: 29 degrees C, humidity: 80% +/- 5%). The groups were fed weekly or fortnightly on Swiss mice. The females from the group kept in the CC and fed weekly had longer life span, as well as a higher number of eggs, fertile eggs and hatchings; the group kept in the CC and fed fortnightly had a shorter life span for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars and a lower mortality rate for all instars. It was concluded that a constant high temperature (CC at 29 degrees C) is the most suitable condition for the maintenance of a colony of T. rubrofasciata regardless of the interval between repasts.

  3. The Effect of Intercourse around Embryo Transfer on Pregnancy Rate in Assisted Reproductive Technology Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Tabibnejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implantation failure is the most important cause of recurrent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI failure. Several reports suggest that intercourse during theperitransfer period might improve pregnancy rates. This study is designed to determine whetherintercourse during the peritransfer period will improve pregnancy and implantation rates in patientsundergoing IVF or ICSI.Materials and Methods: In a randomized control trial study, 390 women with at least five yearsinfertility were evaluated. In the study group, 195 patients had intercourse at least once 12 hours afterembryo transfer. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were compared with 195 patients in thecontrol group who had no intercourse for the entire assisted reproductive technology (ART cycle.Results: Implantation rate in the study group was 6.5% in comparison with 5.5% for the controlgroup. Clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly higher in study patients when compared tothe control group (14.2% and 11.7% respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that intercourse during the peritransfer period can not increasepregnancy outcome.

  4. Effects of transfer of embryos independently cultured in essential and sequential culture media on pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Bossi, Renata; Guimarães, Fernando; Valle, Marcello; Sampaio, Marcos

    2012-10-01

    Several culture media are available to be used in ART. However it is uncertain whether embryos would preferably benefit from one type of medium or the association of different media. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of simultaneous transfer of embryos independently cultured in two distinct culture media, on pregnancy outcome. A total of 722 couples who underwent infertility treatment were sequentially allocated into three groups: those who had half of the embryos individually cultured in MEM and the other half cultured in sequential media (MEM + Seq Group) (n = 243); those who had all embryos cultured only in sequential medium (Seq Group) (n = 239); and those who had all embryos cultured only in MEM (MEM Group) (n = 240). The pregnancy rate was higher in the MEM + Seq group (51.8 %) than the Seq group (36.7 %) (p < 0.001). However the pregnancy rate observed in the MEM group was similar to the others (44.2 %). When a logistic regression test was applied it demonstrated that the number of transferred embryos did not interfere in the pregnancy rates. Our results suggests that offering different culture conditions for sibling embryos with subsequent transfer of embryos that were kept in distinct culture media, might increase pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

  5. Reproductive biology of the endangered percid Zingel asper in captivity: a histological description of the male reproductive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Chevalier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Rhodanian percid Zingel asper (Linnaeus, 1758, is usually found throughout the Rhônebasin, but this fish is now in sharp decline. Understanding its reproductive physiology is important so as to be ableto artificially control its reproduction with a view to re-introducing it. This study was carried out on a populationobtained by artificial fertilization and bred in external tanks. Fishes were observed from the juvenile stages throughto adulthood. Patterns of testicular development were defined from histological observations. Testes of Z. asperwere paired, elongated and fusiform dorsocaudal organs. The two lobes of each gonad joined together to forma duct that extended to the urogenital papillae. They showed a lobular structure. The testicular lobules were of theunrestricted spermatogonial type. Up to 10 months-old, most of the males were immature: their testes showed onlytype A spermatogonia. The appearance of type B spermatogonia in the lobules of a testis indicated the beginningof spermatogenesis in 10 months-old fish. Spermiogenesis occurred 24 months after the fertilization and, in 26months-old fish, the cyst opened and released spermatozoa into the lumen of lobules. The spermiation belonged toa cystic type. During the third year, histological observations pointed to the same evolution of adult gonads asduring the second year. Sexual maturity was reached in captive Z. asper after two years. The spawning occurred inMay in the breeding conditions. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 3, 486–496

  6. Reproductive biology of the endangered percid Zingel asper in captivity: a histological description of the male reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christine; de Conto, Christine; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The endemic Rhodanian percid Zingel asper (Linnaeus, 1758), is usually found throughout the Rhône basin, but this fish is now in sharp decline. Understanding its reproductive physiology is important so as to be able to artificially control its reproduction with a view to re-introducing it. This study was carried out on a population obtained by artificial fertilization and bred in external tanks. Fishes were observed from the juvenile stages through to adulthood. Patterns of testicular development were defined from histological observations. Testes of Z. asper were paired, elongated and fusiform dorsocaudal organs. The two lobes of each gonad joined together to form a duct that extended to the urogenital papillae. They showed a lobular structure. The testicular lobules were of the unrestricted spermatogonial type. Up to 10 months-old, most of the males were immature: their testes showed only type A spermatogonia. The appearance of type B spermatogonia in the lobules of a testis indicated the beginning of spermatogenesis in 10 months-old fish. Spermiogenesis occurred 24 months after the fertilization and, in 26 months-old fish, the cyst opened and released spermatozoa into the lumen of lobules. The spermiation belonged to a cystic type. During the third year, histological observations pointed to the same evolution of adult gonads as during the second year. Sexual maturity was reached in captive Z. asper after two years. The spawning occurred in May in the breeding conditions.

  7. Maturation and reproductive cycle of female Pacific cod in waters adjacent to the southern coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Yasunori; Shimazaki, Kenji

    1992-01-01

    The maturation process and reproductive cycle of female Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus were examined in the waters adjacent to the southern and southeastern coasts of Hokkaido, Japan, by collecting fish between April 1989 and September 1990. Histological examination was made of the ovaries. During the course of ovarian maturation, a portion of the oocytes became isolated from immature oocytes at the yolk vesicle stage (less than 0.3mm in diameter) and gradually developed into a group of y...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  9. Psychosocial needs of women and their partners after successful assisted reproduction treatment in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Crespo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that pregnancy and parenthood after a period of infertility are unproblematic and gratifying. However, a review of the literature highlights the complexity of the psychological and social consequences of pregnancy, childbirth and parenting after successful treatment with assisted reproductive technology. These experiences, including those following the creation of new forms of non-genetic and/or social parenthood, require investigation in order to understand how women and their partners integrate their journey from infertility to pregnancy and parenthood after successful assisted reproductive treatment. This paper presents results derived from qualitative interviews with 30 pregnant women and 21 couples after assisted reproductive treatment (repeated rounds of individual interviews with the study participants conducted from July 2010 to April 2014 as part of a larger ethnographic study exploring the psychosocial needs of women and partners following assisted reproductive treatment in Barcelona’s. The transcribed text was coded into categories of either predetermined or emergent topics. Prior studies have found that couples who achieve pregnancy after infertility may experience higher levels of anxiety in relation to pregnancy. This anxiety can be linked with a higher risk of complications during pregnancy after assisted reproductive treatment compared with spontaneous conception. However, the evidence concerning adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood is inconclusive. This study highlights the necessity for participants to give meaning to these treatments, given the variability that exists in perceptions of infertility and pregnancy after successful assisted reproductive treatment.

  10. Impact of Breast Cancer Treatments on Gonadal Function and Reproduction Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganz, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    ...). The main results paper on the baseline CAMS data, "Breast Cancer in Younger Women: Reproductive and Late Health Effects of Treatment," was completed and accepted for publication by the Journal of Clinical Oncology...

  11. Effect of exposure to wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adult fathead minnows were exposed to dilutions of a historically estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent in a 21-d reproduction study. This dataset is...

  12. Patient satisfaction concerning assisted reproductive technology treatments in moderate to severe endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Houwen, Lisette E E; Schreurs, Anneke M F; Schats, Roel; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Hompes, Peter G A; Mijatovic, Velja

    2014-11-01

    A prospective observational cohort study was performed to examine patient satisfaction after one Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment cycle in moderate to severe endometriosis patients. From May 2012 till September 2013, 25 patients with surgically proven endometriosis stage III-IV were included per group and received intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or IVF preceded by long-term pituitary down-regulation (IVF-ultralong). The median patient satisfaction scores were 8.3, 7.9 and 8.0 in patients receiving IUI (n = 22), IVF (n = 24) and IVF-ultralong (n = 23), respectively (p = 0.89). Both deterioration in pain and quality-of-life could not be identified as determinants of decreased patient satisfaction scores. Satisfaction was higher in women receiving their first ART treatment attempt (p = 0.002), after treatment accomplishment (p = 0.04) and after a positive pregnancy test (p = 0.04). A median satisfaction score concerning preceding long term pituitary down-regulation of 6.1 (IVF-ultralong n = 25, IUI n = 8) was reported. Only three patients would refrain from this preceding therapy in a next treatment attempt. We concluded that patient satisfaction scores were comparable between the three different ART treatments. Since patient satisfaction was in particular dependent on treatment outcomes, it is recommended to compare those three ART treatments in a randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  13. The effect of assisted reproduction treatment on mental health in fertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivaridelavar, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    The process of assisted reproductive treatment is a stressful situation in the treatment of infertile couples and it would harm the mental health of women. Fertile women who started infertility treatment due to male factor infertility have reported to experience less stress and depression than other women before the assisted reproductive process but considering the cultural and social factors and also the etiology of the assisted reproductive process, it could affect the metal health of these women. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of fertile women who undergo assisted reproductive treatment due to male factor infertility. This study was a prospective study on 70 fertile women who underwent assisted reproductive treatment due to male factor infertility. The exclusion criterion was to stop super ovulation induction. To assess mental health, anxiety and depression dimensions of the general health questionnaire were used. Before starting ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting, the general health questionnaire was filled by women who were under treatment. Data were analyzed using multi-variable linear regression, paired t-test, and Chi-square. The results showed that the mean score of depression and anxiety before ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting were not significantly different; but the rate of mental health disorder in the depression dimension was significantly decreased after oocytes harvesting (31.7% vs. 39.7%). Also, there was a significant relation between the level of anxiety and depression before ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting (P reproductive treatment does not affect the mental health in fertile women independently, but these women start assisted reproductive process with high levels of depression and anxiety. Therefore, prior to the assisted reproductive treatment mental health consultation is needed.

  14. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system: results from a 5-year follow-up cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra; Ziebe, Søren; Mikkelsen Englund, Anne L; Hald, Finn; Boivin, Jacky; Schmidt, Lone

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Seven hundred and thirty-nine couples having no child at study entry and with data on kind of treatment and live birth (yes/no) for each treatment attempt at the specialized public fertility clinic. Treatment data for medically assisted reproduction attempts conducted at the public fertility clinics were abstracted from medical records. Flow diagrams were drawn for different standard treatment cycles and direct costs at each stage in the flow charts were measured and valued by a bottom-up procedure. Indirect costs were distributed to each treatment cycle on the basis of number of visits as basis. Costs were adjusted to 2012 prices using a constructed medical price index. Live birth, costs. Total costs per live birth in 2012 prices were estimated to 10,755€. Costs per treated couple - irrespective of whether the treatment was terminated by a live birth or not - were estimated at 6607€. Costs per live birth of women <35 years at treatment initiation were 9338€ and 15,040€ for women ≥35 years. The public costs for live births after conception with medically assisted reproduction treatment are relatively modest. The results can be generalized to public fertility treatment in Denmark and to other public treatment settings with similar limitations in numbers of public treatment cycles offered. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Reproductive variability of the Amazon River prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae: influence of life cycle on egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Meireles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse reproductive strategies may be adopted by different species of Macrobrachium prawns, and even among different populations of the same species. The present study evaluated the influence of differences in the reproductive strategies of two geographically isolated populations of Macrobachium amazonicum, upon female fecundity, reproductive output and the chemical content of prawns and eggs. One prawn population from Pará only completes its life cycle in brackish water, whereas another from Mato Grosso do Sul only inhabits freshwater. Pará female prawns exhibited a larger average size and weight and produced more eggs than females from Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the Mato Grosso do Sul population produced eggs that were larger in volume than those of females from the other population. Furthermore, eggs produced by Pará prawns were composed primarily of water (56%, whereas those produced in Mato Grosso do Sul were composed mostly of organic matter (80%. This difference in the eggs' chemical compositions did not apply to the chemical compositions of the females, as individuals from both sites were composed primarily of water. Mato Grosso do Sul females invested a higher amount of energy in brood formation (14% of their wet weight than individuals from Pará (only 10%. It is possible that M. amazonicum populations show a higher degree of plasticity in their reproductive activity due to habitat conditions and genetic differences. Although the brackish population produces larger individuals, and exhibits higher fecundity, the freshwater population exhibited a higher reproductive investment. These results suggest a high reproductive capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions for this species, which should be considered in the context of aquaculture activities.

  16. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  17. Age-specific cost and public funding of a live birth following assisted reproductive treatment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eri; Ishihara, Osamu; Saito, Hidekazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and assess the cost of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles and live-birth events in Japan in 2010. We performed a retrospective analysis of 238,185 ART cycles, registered with the national registry of assisted reproductive treatment during 2010. Costs were calculated, using a decision analysis model. The average cost per live birth was ¥1,974,000. This varied from ¥1,155,000 in women aged birth was ¥442,000. This was ¥6,118,000 in women aged ≥ 45, 15.4 times higher than that of the 35-39-year-old age group. The costs and public funding of a live birth after ART treatment rises with age due to the lower success rates in older women. It may provide economic background to improve the current subsidy system for ART and to provide practical knowledge about fertility for the general population. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. The Female Reproductive Cycle of the Bedriaga Plate-Tailed Gecko, Teratoscincus bedriagai (Sauria: Gekkonidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mojibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bedriaga Plate-tailed Gecko, Teratoscincus bedriagai Nikolsky, 1900, is distributed in the northern and eastern desert basins of the Central Plateau of Iran, Sistan, and the desert regions of southern Afghanistan. Iranian specimens are believed to be rare in collections. In this study, the reproductive cycle of this species has been investigated through focusing on oogenesis from 5 April to 5 August, 2013. Generally, 15 adult females were collected by hand at midnight from southern parts of Damghan County, situated in Semnan Province of Iran. Ovaries were removed and processed for the purpose of histological and morphometric studies. The results revealed that oocyte growth starts in early April and terminates in late July. Moreover, mating commences in spring, especially at the beginning of May, with oviposition occurring from late May to late July. Approximately, 1 to 2 eggs are laid by females per clutch with the possibility of producing a secondary clutch later in the season. The maximum reproductive activity takes place in May and continues with a decreasing trend in June and more reduction in July and finally ends in August. No significant difference was observed between right and left side of reproductive system. Therefore, oogenesis occurs from April to July, while T. bedriagai follows an oogenic cycle typical for temperate species.

  19. Ovarian changes during the reproductive cycle of the Tupinambis merianae lizard raised in a temperate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manes, Mario E.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo reproductor de hembras de Tupinambis merianae criadas en ambiente templado consiste de tres fases gonadales: previtelogénica, vitelogénica y postovulatoria o lútea. Durante la fase previtelogénica, que ocupa gran parte del verano, el otoño e invierno, los ovarios son pequeños, pesan menos de 4 g y contienen solamente folículos no vitelogénicos, los cuales se desarrollan lentamente a partir de los nidos germinales, alcanzando unos 5 mm de diámetro. Debido a una maduración gonadal asincrónica entre ambos sexos, las cópulas acontecen cuando los ovarios son aún previtelogénicos. Luego sobreviene una corta e intensa vitelogénesis, durante la cual los folículos crecen uniformemente incrementando unas 6 veces su diámetro (cerca de 30 mm, mientras que la masa ovárica total alcanza unos 400 g. El proceso culmina entre los 15 y 20 días, con una ovulación generalizada y la subsiguiente oviposición. Como consecuencia, los ovarios postovulatorios aparecen reducidos a unos 5 g, con una superficie casi enteramente cubierta de cicatrices foliculares, las cuales pronto desarrollan cuerpos lúteos. La detención del ciclo ovárico, con atresia folicular previtelogénica masiva, como resultado del aislamiento de las hembras, permite concluir sobre la existencia de estímulos sexuales promotores de la vitelogénesis. The reproductive cycle of Tupinambis merianae females raised in a temperate environment consists of three gonadal phases: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and postovulatory or luteal phases. During the previtellogenic phase, which takes great part of the summer, autumn and winter, the ovaries are small, weigh less than 4 g, and contain only nonvitellogenic follicles, which develop slowly from germinal beds, until they are almost 5 mm diameter. Due to an asynchronous gonadal maturation in both sexes, matings occur when ovaries are still previtellogenic. Then comes a short and intense vitellogenesis, during which follicles grow

  20. Menstrual cycle length: a surrogate measure of reproductive health capable of improving the accuracy of biochemical/sonographical ovarian reserve test in estimating the reproductive chances of women referred to ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Esposito, Federica; Armanini, Decio; Gangemi, Michele; Nardelli, Giovanni B; Litta, Pietro; D'Antona, Donato; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-04-10

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether menstrual cycle length may be considered as a surrogate measure of reproductive health, improving the accuracy of biochemical/sonographical ovarian reserve test in estimating the reproductive chances of women referred to ART. A retrospective-observational-study in Padua' public tertiary level Centre was conducted. A total of 455 normo-ovulatory infertile women scheduled for their first fresh non-donor IVF/ICSI treatment. The mean menstrual cycle length (MCL) during the preceding 6 months was calculated by physicians on the basis of information contained in our electronic database (first day of menstrual cycle collected every month by telephonic communication by single patients). We evaluated the relations between MCL, ovarian response to stimulation protocol, oocytes fertilization ratio, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI) and pregnancy rate in different cohorts of patients according to the class of age and the estimated ovarian reserve. In women younger than 35 years, MCL over 31 days may be associated with an increased risk of OHSS and with a good OSI. In women older than 35 years, and particularly than 40 years, MCL shortening may be considered as a marker of ovarian aging and may be associated with poor ovarian response, low OSI and reduced fertilization rate. When AMH serum value is lower than 1.1 ng/ml in patients older than 40 years, MCL may help Clinicians discriminate real from expected poor responders. Considering the pool of normoresponders, MCL was not correlated with pregnancy rate while a positive association was found with patients' age. MCL diary is more predictive than chronological age in estimating ovarian biological age and response to COH and it is more predictive than AMH in discriminating expected from real poor responders. In women older than 35 years MCL shortening may be considered as a marker of ovarian aging while chronological age remains most accurate parameter in predicting pregnancy.

  1. Changes in androgen receptor mRNA expression in the forebrain and oviduct during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Woolley, Sarah; Porter, Raymond; Crews, David

    2003-06-01

    Successful reproduction requires the coordination of reproductive physiology with behavior. The neural correlates of reproductive behavior have been elucidated in a variety of amphibians, mammals, and birds but relatively few studies have examined reptiles. Here we investigate differences in androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in the forebrain and oviduct between previtellogenic and late vitellogenic female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius. Plasma concentrations of testosterone (T) are low when females are previtellogenic and sexually unreceptive but increase dramatically during late vitellogenesis when females are receptive. In addition, receptivity can be induced by treatment with exogenous T. The relative abundance of AR-mRNA across various nuclei was greater in late vitellogenic than in previtellogenic females. This general pattern was observed in the medial preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, external nucleus of the amygdala, dorsolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral septum, and periventricular hypothalamus. There were also clear differences in AR-mRNA expression among these nuclei. The pattern of gene expression observed in the brain was reversed within stromal cells of the oviduct where expression of AR-mRNA decreased from the previtellogenic stage to the late vitellogenic stage. Overall, these data demonstrate that T concentration in the plasma, abundance of AR-mRNA in the brain and oviduct, and sexual behavior change coordinately during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos. Although the function of AR in the female leopard gecko is not yet clear, our results are in accord with growing evidence that androgens regulate numerous aspects of female physiology and behavior in vertebrates.

  2. Live birth rates are satisfactory following multiple IVF treatment cycles in poor prognosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamarul B; Keane, Kevin N; Walz, Nikita L; Mitrovic, Katarina I; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Yovich, John L

    2017-03-01

    This seven-year retrospective study analysed the live birth rate (LBR) for women undergoing IVF treatment with various antral follicle counts (AFC). The LBR decreased with lower AFC ratings, and in 290 treatment cycles for women in the poorest AFC category, ≤4 follicles (group E), the LBR was the lowest at 10.7%. The pregnancy loss rate (PLR) significantly increased with poorer AFC categories, from 21.8% in AFC group A (≥20 follicles), to 54.4% in AFC group E (p<0.0001). This trend was repeated with advancing age, from 21.6% for younger women (<35years), to 32.9, 48.5 and 100% for ages 35-39, 40-44 and ≥45 years, respectively (p<0.0001). However, LBR within the specific AFC group E cohort was also age-dependent and decreased significantly from 30.0% for <35 years old, to 13.3, 3.9 and 0% for patients aged 35-39, 40-44 and ≥45 years, respectively. Most, importantly, LBR rates within these age groups were not dependent on the number of IVF attempts (1st, 2nd, 3rd or ≥4 cycles), which indicated that cycle number should not be the primary deciding factor for cessation of IVF treatment in responding women <45years old. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae) II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.; ALMEIDA C. E.; CARMO-SILVA M.; COSTA J.

    2002-01-01

    Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W) until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the im...

  4. Serum caffeine and paraxanthine concentrations and menstrual cycle function: correlations with beverage intakes and associations with race, reproductive hormones, and anovulation in the BioCycle Study12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisterman, Enrique F; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J; Radin, Rose G; Zarek, Shvetha M; Mitchell, Emily M; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Mumford, Sunni L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinicians often recommend limiting caffeine intake while attempting to conceive; however, few studies have evaluated the associations between caffeine exposure and menstrual cycle function, and we are aware of no previous studies assessing biological dose via well-timed serum measurements. Objectives: We assessed the relation between caffeine and its metabolites and reproductive hormones in a healthy premenopausal cohort and evaluated potential effect modification by race. Design: Participants (n = 259) were followed for ≤2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens ≤8 times/cycle. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between serum caffeine biomarkers and geometric mean reproductive hormones, whereas Poisson regression was used to assess risk of sporadic anovulation. Results: The highest compared with the lowest serum caffeine tertile was associated with lower total testosterone [27.9 ng/dL (95% CI: 26.7, 29.0 ng/dL) compared with 29.1 ng/dL (95% CI: 27.9, 30.3 ng/dL), respectively] and free testosterone [0.178 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.171, 0.185 ng/dL) compared with 0.186 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.179, 0.194 ng/dL), respectively] after adjustment for age, race, percentage of body fat, daily vigorous exercise, perceived stress, depression, dietary factors, and alcohol intake. The highest tertiles compared with the lowest tertiles of caffeine and paraxanthine were also associated with reduced risk of anovulation [adjusted RRs (aRRs): 0.39 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.87) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.87), respectively]. Additional adjustment for self-reported coffee intake did not alter the reproductive hormone findings and only slightly attenuated the results for serum caffeine and paraxanthine and anovulation. Although reductions in the concentrations of total testosterone and free testosterone and decreased risk of anovulation were greatest in Asian women, there was no indication of effect modification by race. Conclusion: Caffeine intake

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, F; Fraga Sampaio, F; Blumberga, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga’s waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact –eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Cl...

  6. Environmental life cycle assessments for water treatment processes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to generate information on the environmental profile of the life cycle of water, including treatment, distribution and collection and disposal (including recycling), in an urban context. As a case study the eThekwini Municipality (with its main city Durban) in South Africa was used. Another aim of ...

  7. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function

  8. Long-term effects of antibiotics, norfloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole, in a partial life-cycle study with zebrafish (Danio rerio): effects on growth, development, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenhua; Lu, Guanghua; Ye, Qiuxia; Liu, Jianchao

    2016-09-01

    A partial life-cycle study with zebrafish (Danio rerio) was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of antibiotics, norfloxacin (NOR) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). A series of bio-endpoints correlated to the growth, development, and reproduction was assessed. The results showed that the body weight and the condition factor were depressed by SMX at 200 μg/L during the growth period. Meanwhile, the activities of metabolic enzyme (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) were stimulated in all cases. The consequences of parental exposure to antibiotics for the next generation were also examined. The egg production of parents were depressed by the 200 μg/L NOR and SMX alone or in combination. Similarly, decreased hatching, survival, and enhanced development abnormality of the next generation also occurred after parental exposure to SMX at the highest concentration. The heartbeat however was not altered in all cases. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the bio-endpoints between the combined and individual treatment in most cases, with the exception of lower EROD activity and egg production in the co-treatment. The results suggest that long-term exposure to NOR and SMX at environmentally relevant concentrations, individually and in a mixture, may not significantly pose a threat to the growth, development, and reproduction of zebrafish, and an adverse effect may be expected at high concentration.

  9. Trace element distribution during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, with implications for biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norum, Ulrik; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Cullen, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and contents in gills, gonad, kidneys, mantle, muscle and remainder during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, from the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada, were quantified by using ICPMS. The elements investigated were chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and mercury. For all ten elements, the tissue distribution was to some extent influenced by species, sex and reproductive status. The implications of the present study in relation to the design of biomonitoring programmes are: (1) care should be taken to ensure an equal/constant sex composition when making interannual comparisons of pooled samples. Preferably the sexes should be monitored separately. (2) the practice of obtaining pooled samples in the interspawn phase is applicable only to monitoring long-term trends in contaminant levels, while the reproductive status should be heeded when studying short-term changes. (3) the present study confirms that direct temporal or spatial comparisons of absolute accumulated element concentrations are only valid intraspecifically

  10. Reproductive cycle and embryonic development of the gastropod Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ellobiidae in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC. Maia

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus belongs to a primitive group of pulmonate mollusks found mainly in the upper levels of the marine intertidal zone. They are common in the neotropical mangroves. Little is known about the biology of this species, particularly about its reproduction. The aim of this study was to 1 characterize the morphology and histology of M. coffeus' gonad; 2 describe the main gametogenesis events and link them to a range of maturity stages; 3 chronologically evaluate the frequency of the different maturity stages and their relation to environmental factors such as water, air and sediment temperatures, relative humidity, salinity and rainfall; and 4 characterize M. coffeus' spawning, eggs and newly hatched veliger larvae. Samples were collected monthly between February, 2007 and January, 2009 from the mangroves of Praia de Arpoeiras, Acaraú County, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The characterization of the gonad development stages was carried out using routine histological techniques. The results of this study show that Melampus coffeus is a simultaneous hermaphrodite. The follicles have masculine and feminine elements, interleaved within the gonad. M. coffeus presents a well-defined synchronous reproductive cycle, showing successive maturation, release and resting periods. The average diameter of the oocytes was negatively correlated with salinity and positively correlated with rainfall. The results show that no reproductive activity occurs during periods of drought. After the dry season, the increasing rainfall levels and reduced salinity lead to the appearance of very dense populations, predominantly composed of small individuals.

  11. The history of Belgian assisted reproduction technology cycle registration and control: a case study in reducing the incidence of multiple pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neubourg, D; Bogaerts, K; Wyns, C; Albert, A; Camus, M; Candeur, M; Degueldre, M; Delbaere, A; Delvigne, A; De Sutter, P; Dhont, M; Dubois, M; Englert, Y; Gillain, N; Gordts, S; Hautecoeur, W; Lesaffre, E; Lejeune, B; Leroy, F; Ombelet, W; Perrier D'Hauterive, S; Vandekerckhove, F; Van der Elst, J; D'Hooghe, T

    2013-10-01

    What is the effect of a legal limitation of the number of embryos that can be transferred in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycle on the multiple delivery rate? The Belgian national register shows that the introduction of reimbursement of ART laboratory costs in July 2003, and the imposition of a legal limitation of the number of embryos transferred in the same year, were associated with a >50% reduction of the multiple pregnancy rate from 27 to 11% between 2003 and the last assessment in 2010, without any reduction of the pregnancy rate per cycle. Individual Belgian IVF centres have published their results since the implementation of the law, and these show a decrease in the multiple pregnancy rate on a centre by centre basis. However, the overall national picture remains unpublished. Cohort study from 1990 to 2010 of all ART cycles in Belgium (2685 cycles in 1990 evolving to 19 110 cycles in 2010), with a retrospective analysis from 1990 to 2000 and prospective online data collection since 2001. Registration evolved from paper written reports per centre to a compulsory online registration of all ART cycles. From 2001 up to mid-2009, data were collected from Excel spread sheets or MS Access files into an MS Access database. Since mid-2009, data collection is done via a remote and secured web-based system (www.belrap.be) where centres can upload their data and get immediate feedback about missing data, errors and inconsistencies. National Belgian registration data show that reimbursement of IVF laboratory costs in July 2003, coupled to a legal limitation in the number of embryos transferred in utero, were associated with a 50% reduction of the multiple pregnancy rate from 27 to 11% without reduction of the pregnancy rate per cycle, and with an increase in the number of fresh and frozen ART cycles due to improved access to treatment. There is potential underreporting of complications of ART treatment, pregnancy outcome and neonatal health. Over the 20

  12. Factors associated with monozygosity in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies and the risk of recurrence using linked cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B; Wantman, Ethan; Stern, Judy E

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate factors associated with monozygosity (MZ) (number of fetal heartbeats on early ultrasound greater than the number of embryos transferred) and the risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies using a national assisted reproduction database. Historical cohort study. Clinic-based data. 197,327 pregnancies (including 2,824 with evidence of MZ) from cycles reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) between 2004 and 2010. None. Evidence of MZ, adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals computed from logistic regression models. In the univariate analysis, the risk of MZ was increased with ovulation disorders, donor oocytes, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) suppression, assisted hatching (AZH), and day 5-6 transfer, and was decreased with higher follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) doses (≥3,000 IU). In the multivariate analysis, the risk of MZ was increased with GnRH-a suppression, AZH, and decreased with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and higher FSH dose. The interaction showed that although MZ was more likely with day 5-6 embryos, AZH had a minimal nonsignificant effect, whereas in day 2-3 embryos, AZH had a substantial statistically significant effect. Only one woman had a recurrence of MZ in a subsequent assisted reproduction pregnancy, which is consistent with randomness. The risk of MZ was higher with fresh day 5-6 embryos, donor oocytes, GnRH-a suppression, lower FSH doses, and AZH (particularly with day 2-3 embryos). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Life-cycle exposure to microcystin-LR interferes with the reproductive endocrine system of male zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yujing; Li, Li; Hou, Jie; Wu, Ning; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu

    2016-06-01

    Recently, MC-LR reproductive toxicity drew great attention. Limited information was available on endocrine-disrupting effects of MC-LR on the reproduction system in fish. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L MC-LR for 90 d until they reached sexual maturity. Male zebrafish were selected, and changes in growth and developmental parameters, testicular histological structure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones were studied along with the related-gene transcriptional responses in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis). The results, for the first time, show a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes growth inhibition, testicular damage and delayed sperm maturation. A significant decrease in T/E2 ratio indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormones balance. The changes in transcriptional responses of HPG-axis related genes revealed that MC-LR promoted the conversion of T to E2 in circulating blood. It was also noted that vtg1 mRNA expression in the liver was up-regulated, which implied that MC-LR could induce estrogenic-like effects at environmentally relevant concentrations and long-term exposure. Our findings indicated that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes endocrine disruption with organic and functional damage of the testis, which might compromise the quality of life for the survivors and pose a potent threat on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum omega-3 fatty acids and treatment outcomes among women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y-H; Karmon, A E; Gaskins, A J; Arvizu, M; Williams, P L; Souter, I; Rueda, B R; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2018-01-01

    generalizability of the findings to populations not undergoing infertility treatment may be limited. The use of a single measurement of serum fatty acids to characterize exposure may lead to potential misclassification during follow up. Serum ω3-PUFA are considered biomarkers of dietary intake. The association of higher serum long chain ω3-PUFA levels with improved ART outcomes suggests that increased intake of these fats be may be beneficial for women undergoing infertility treatment with ART. NIH grants R01-ES009718 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P30-DK046200 and T32-DK007703-16 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and L50-HD085359 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the Early Life Nutrition Fund from Danone Nutricia US. Dr Rueda is involved in a patent 9,295,662, methods for enhancing, improving, or increasing fertility or reproductive function (http://patents.com/us-9295662.html). This patent, however, does not lead to financial gain for Dr Rueda, or for Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr Rueda does not own any part of the company nor does he have any equity in any fertility related company. As Dr Rueda is not a physician, he does not evaluate patients or prescribe medications. All other coauthors have no conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing - from the reproductive perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sundström Sundström Poromaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI -0.35 – 3.57, suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase.

  16. Preliminary observations on the reproductive cycle of female Tegu lizards (Tupinambis teguizin)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanosky, Ángel Alberto; Mercolli, Claudia

    1991-01-01

    The black tegu lizard, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus 1758) is a common element in the wild all throughout Southamerica except for Chile. This teiid lizard was outstood by earlier travellers such as Sir Charles Waterton who reported for the first time about the delicate food, resembling chicken flesh and frequently consumed by local natives. Despite its relative abundance and both the intense economical and social importance of tegus, as well as its situation in the food web, the reproductive ...

  17. Patterns of Apoptosis and Proliferation throughout the Biennial Reproductive Cycle of Viviparous Female Typhlonectes compressicauda (Amphibia, Gymnophiona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Raquet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhlonectes compressicauda is an aquatic gymnophionan amphibian living in South America. Its breeding cycle is linked to seasons, characterized by a regular alternation of rainy and dry seasons. During a complex biennial cycle, the female genital tract undergoes a series of alternations of increasing and decreasing, governed by equilibrium of proliferation and apoptotic phenomena. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize cell proliferation with the detection of Ki67 antibody, a protein present in proliferative cells; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL and Apostain were performed to detect apoptotic cells on sections of ovaries and oviducts. In ovaries, both phenomena affect the germinal nests and follicles according to the cycle period. In the oviduct, the balance was in favor of proliferation during preparation for reproduction, and in favor of apoptosis when genital ducts regress. Apoptosis and proliferation are narrowly implicated in the remodeling of the genital tract and they are accompanied by the differentiation of tissues according to the phase of the breeding cycle. These variations permit the capture of oocytes at ovulation, always at the same period, and the parturition after 6–7 months of gestation, at a period in which the newborns live with their mother, protected in burrows in the mud. During the intervening year of sexual inactivity, the female reconstitutes body reserves.

  18. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  19. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  20. [Polarized light microscopy for evaluation of oocytes as a prognostic factor in the evolution of a cycle in assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortega, C; Cancino-Villarreal, P; Alonzo-Torres, V E; Martínez-Robles, I; Pérez-Peña, E; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, A M

    2016-04-01

    Identification of the best embryos to transfer is a key element for success in assisted reproduction. In the last decade, several morphological criteria of oocytes and embryos were evaluated with regard to their potential for predicting embryo viability. The introduction of polarization light microscopy systems has allowed the visualization of the meiotic spindle and the different layers of the zona pellucida in human oocytes on the basis of birefringence in a non-destructive way. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the predictive value in ICSI cycles. To assess the predictive ability of meiotic spindle and zona pellucida of human oocytes to implant by polarized microscopy in ICSI cycles. Prospective and observational clinical study. 903 oocytes from 94 ICSI cycles were analyzed with polarized microscopy. Meiotic spindle visualization and zona pellucida birefringence values by polarized microscopy were correlated with ICSI cycles results. Meiotic spindle visualization and birefringence values of zona pellucida decreased in a direct basis with increasing age. In patients aged over the 35 years, the percentage of a visible spindle and mean zona pellucida birefringence was lower than in younger patients. Fertilization rate were higher in oocytes with visible meiotic spindle (81.3% vs. 64%; p vs. 39%; p=0.01). Fertilization rate was higher in oocytes with positive values of birefringence (77.5 % vs. 68.5% p=0.005) with similar embryo quality. Conception cycles showed oocytes with higher mean value of zona birefringence and visible spindle vs. no-conception cycles (pPolarized light microscopy improves oocyte selection, which significantly impacts in the development of embryos with greater implantation potential. The use of polarized light microscopy with sperm selection methods, blastocyst culture and deferred embryo transfers will contribute to transfer fewer embryos without diminishing rates of live birth and single embryo transfer will be more feasible.

  1. Antimüllerian hormone as a predictor of live birth following assisted reproduction: an analysis of 85,062 fresh and thawed cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database for 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Wantman, Ethan; Baker, Valerie; Tal, Oded

    2018-02-01

    To determine if serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is associated with and/or predictive of live birth assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. Retrospective analysis of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database from 2012 to 2013. Not applicable. A total of 69,336 (81.8%) fresh and 15,458 (18.2%) frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles with AMH values. None. Live birth. A total of 85,062 out of 259,499 (32.7%) fresh and frozen-thawed autologous non-preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles had AMH reported for cycles over this 2-year period. Of those, 70,565 cycles which had embryo transfers were included in the analysis. Serum AMH was significantly associated with live birth outcome per transfer in both fresh and FET cycles. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that AMH is an independent predictor of live birth in fresh transfer cycles and FET cycles when controlling for age, body mass index, race, day of transfer, and number of embryos transferred. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC) for AMH as predictors of live birth in fresh cycles and thawed cycles were 0.631 and 0.540, respectively, suggesting that AMH alone is a weak independent predictor of live birth after ART. Similar ROC curves were obtained also when elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) cycles were analyzed separately in either fresh (AUC 0.655) or FET (AUC 0.533) cycles, although AMH was not found to be an independent predictor in eSET cycles. AMH is a poor independent predictor of live birth outcome in either fresh or frozen embryo transfer for both eSET and non-SET transfers. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of reproductive morbidity on women's lives and costs of accessing treatment in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong, Jocelyn; Bahubaishi, Najia; Attal, Bothaina

    2012-12-01

    Research on the consequences of reproductive morbidity for women's lives and their economic and social roles is relatively under-developed. There is also a lack of consensus on appropriate conceptual frameworks to understand the social determinants of reproductive morbidity as well as their social and economic implications. We report here on an exploratory study in Yemen using quantitative (n=72 women) and qualitative methods (n=35 women), in 2005 and 2007 respectively, with women suffering from uterine prolapse, infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It explored women's views on how reproductive morbidity affected their lives, marital security and their households, and the burden of paying for treatment. We also interviewed six health professionals about women's health care-seeking for these conditions. Sixty per cent of women reported that treatment was not affordable, and 43% had to sell assets or take out a loan to pay for care. Prolapse and PID interfered particularly in subsistence and household activities while infertility created social pressure. Reproductive morbidity is not a priority in Yemen, given its multiple public health needs and low resources, but by failing to provide comprehensive and affordable services for women, the country incurs developmental losses. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical prediction models in reproductive medicine: applications in untreated subfertility and in IVF treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C. Hunault

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with two prediction problems in reproductive medicine. The first is the prediction in infertile couples of the chance to conceive without treatment. The second deals with the prediction of the chance of conception in couples treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF).

  4. Early postnatal treatment with clomipramine induces female sexual behavior and estrous cycle impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment outcome of women with a single ovary undergoing in vitro fertilisation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, M S; Chin, H; Loh, S F

    2010-09-01

    Women with a single ovary present a unique problem in assisted reproductive techniques. The aim of our study was to compare the ovarian response and pregnancy rates of women with one ovary and those with two ovaries in assisted reproduction. A total of 18 consecutive women with a single ovary (n is 22 cycles) were identified. The control group included 44 women with two ovaries and mechanical infertility, who were selected as frequency-matched samples (2:1) to meet the distribution of age at treatment and race in the single ovary group. All patients underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation treatment via the long down-regulation protocol using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. Standard procedures were carried out for gamete-embryo handling, and embryo transfer was performed using a soft catheter on day two in all cases. The luteal phase was supported by progesterone or Pregnyl after oocyte pick-up. The duration of stimulation (11.3 +/- 1.7 versus 10.1 +/- 1.4 days) and the total follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) consumption (3906.8 +/- 1860.6 mIU/ml versus 2900.0 +/- 1440.0 mIU/ml) were significantly higher, and the mean number of oocytes (10.8 +/- 4.5 versus 16.8 +/- 10.9) and metaphase II oocytes collected (9.5 +/- 4.5 versus 13.3 +/- 7.7) were significantly lower in the single ovary group (p is less than 0.05). The clinical pregnancy rates (31.8 percent versus 43.2 percent) were comparable between the two groups. Although women with a single ovary required significantly higher doses of FSH and a longer duration of stimulation, as well as produced less oocytes, their clinical pregnancy rates were comparable to those of women with two ovaries in assisted reproduction.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  7. Safety of fluralaner oral solution, a novel systemic poultry red mite treatment, for chicken breeders' reproductive performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Bruno; Le Traon, Gaelle; Flochlay-Sigognault, Annie

    2017-10-31

    Poultry mites are the most significant pest affecting production systems in the chicken egg-laying industry, altering the health condition of the birds, and causing stress, mortality and decline of egg quality impacting economic performance. Fluralaner is a novel systemic parasiticide that is effective against poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in chickens after oral administration. The evaluation of the safety of this new product in breeder chickens is particularly relevant because poultry mite infestation affects long cycle production systems, such as layers and breeders farms, for which the productivity heavily depends on the health of the reproductive function. This study was designed to investigate the safety for reproductive performances of fluralaner in male and female chickens at 3 times the recommended dose (1.5 instead of 0.5 mg/kg body weight) and 2 times the recommended duration (4 administrations instead of 2 administrations, with a 7 day interval between administrations). This randomized, parallel-group, blinded study included 432 Bovans brown parent stock chickens (48 males and 384 females, 17-week old). Birds were randomly assigned to 16 pens (three males and 24 females per pen), and then each pen assigned to one of the two treatment groups (8 pens, i.e. 216 birds per group). Fluralaner was administered via drinking water on a total of four occasions 7 days apart, at daily doses of 1.5 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 3 times the recommended dose of fluralaner per administration and 2 times the recommended number of administrations. Birds supplied with non-medicated drinking water served as controls. The treatments were given at time of peak egg production in the bird's life: i.e. at 30 to 34 week of age. During that period, all adult chickens were clinically observed. The reproductive performances were carefully monitored including the number of eggs laid, egg weight, fertility and hatchability

  8. Cessation of reproduction-related spine elongation after multiple breeding cycles in female naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2009-01-01

    The breeding female or "queen" naked mole-rat has a uniquely elongated body morphology attributed to the lengthening of the lumbar vertebral column that occurs during pregnancy. It is unknown whether this vertebral growth is a continuous process, or associated only with early reproductive experience. We compared pregnancy-related bone elongation in nascent primiparous queens and established queens to determine if this vertebral expansion was a lifelong process in these females. We also investigated the impact of lactation on vertebral elongation in these mole-rats because it is known to be a time of significant bone loss in other mammals. Our data show that after eight or more pregnancies, established queens no longer experienced a net gain in lumbar spine length over the reproductive cycle, whereas the nascent breeders demonstrated significant spine lengthening over this time. Despite the lack of net spine lengthening in established breeders, our results indicated that these queens still experienced some pregnancy-specific vertebral elongation. In naked mole-rats, pregnancy-induced bone elongation may serve the dual purposes of first lengthening the spine, and then once optimal spine size is achieved, serving as a homeostatic mechanism that prepares the spine for the mineral demands of lactation. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Accounting for female reproductive cycles in a superpopulation capture-recapture framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, E. L.; Childerhouse, S. J.; Fewster, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Superpopulation capture-recapture models are useful for estimating the abundance of long-lived, migratory species because they are able to account for the fluid nature of annual residency at migratory destinations. Here we extend the superpopulation POPAN model to explicitly account...... 700 whales, sampled during two sets of winter expeditions in 1995-1998 and 2006-2009. Due to differences in recapture rates between sexes, only sex-specific models were considered. The POPAN-tau models, which explicitly account for a decrease in capture probability in non-calving years, fit the female...... estimate of 1007 males (95% CL 794, 1276) and an estimated annual increase of 7% (95% CL 5%, 9%) for 1995-2009. Combined, the total superpopulation estimate for 1995-2009 was 2169 whales (95% CL 1836, 2563). Simulations suggest that failure to account for the effect of reproductive status on the capture...

  10. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltadze, Ketevan; Barbakadze, Ludmila

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection). At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  11. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan Beltadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection. At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively. The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  12. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    subject. After control for confounders, men whose mothers had received fertility treatment to conceive them had a 46% lower sperm concentration (95% confidence interval (CI): -63, -20) and a 45% lower total sperm count (95% CI: -64, -16). They had a smaller testis size (-0.9 ml, 95% CI: -2.2, 0.4), fewer...... motile sperm (-4.0%, 95% CI: -8.0, -0.1), and fewer morphologically normal spermatozoa (-2.0%, 95% CI: -4.1, 0.0). They also had a lower serum testosterone level and free androgen index (results not statistically significant). These findings should be viewed in light of the increasing use of fertility...

  13. Male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Pedro, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Similarly to women, men suffer from engaging in fertility treatments, both physically and psychologically. Although there is a vast body of evidence on the emotional adjustment of women to infertility, there are no systematic reviews focusing on men's psychological adaptation...... for psychological maladaptation?' SEARCH METHODS: A literature search was conducted from inception to September 2015 on five databases using combinations of MeSH terms and keywords. Eligible studies had to present quantitative prospective designs and samples including men who did not achieve pregnancy or parenthood...... at follow-up. A narrative synthesis approach was used to conduct the review. OUTCOMES: Twelve studies from three continents were eligible from 2534 records identified in the search. The results revealed that psychological symptoms of maladjustment significantly increased in men 1 year after the first...

  14. Diversification and reproductive isolation: cryptic species in the only New World high-duty cycle bat, Pteronotus parnellii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular techniques are increasingly employed to recognize the presence of cryptic species, even among commonly observed taxa. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats using high-duty cycle echolocation may be more likely to speciate quickly. Pteronotus parnellii is a widespread Neotropical bat and the only New World species to use high-duty cycle echolocation, a trait otherwise restricted to Old World taxa. Here we analyze morphological and acoustic variation and genetic divergence at the mitochondrial COI gene, the 7th intron region of the y-linked Dby gene and the nuclear recombination-activating gene 2, and provide extensive evidence that P. parnellii is actually a cryptic species complex. Results Central American populations form a single species while three additional species exist in northern South America: one in Venezuela, Trinidad and western Guyana and two occupying sympatric ranges in Guyana and Suriname. Reproductive isolation appears nearly complete (only one potential hybrid individual found. The complex likely arose within the last ~6 million years with all taxa diverging quickly within the last ~1-2 million years, following a pattern consistent with the geological history of Central and northern South America. Significant variation in cranial measures and forearm length exists between three of the four groups, although no individual morphological character can discriminate these in the field. Acoustic analysis reveals small differences (5–10 kHz in echolocation calls between allopatric cryptic taxa that are unlikely to provide access to different prey resources but are consistent with divergence by drift in allopatric species or through selection for social recognition. Conclusions This unique approach, considering morphological, acoustic and multi-locus genetic information inherited maternally, paternally and bi-parentally, provides strong support to conclusions about the cessation of gene flow and

  15. Patient and cycle characteristics predicting high pregnancy rates with single-embryo transfer: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology outcomes between 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Jennifer; Stanhiser, Jamie; Coddington, Charles; Jones, Tiffany; Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B

    2017-11-01

    To analyze factors associated with high live birth rate and low multiple birth rate in fresh and frozen-thawed assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. The study population included 181,523 women undergoing in vitro fertilization with autologous fresh first cycles, 27,033 with fresh first oocyte donor cycles, 37,658 with fresh second cycles, and 35,446 with frozen-thawed second cycles. None. Live birth rate and multiple birth rate after single-embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET) were measured, in addition to cycle characteristics. In patients with favorable prognostic factors, including younger maternal age, transfer of a blastocyst, and additional embryos cryopreserved, the gain in the live birth rate from SET to DET was approximately 10%-15%; however, the multiple birth rate increased from approximately 2% to greater than 49% in both autologous and donor fresh and frozen-thawed transfer cycles. This study reports a 10%-15% reduction in live birth rate and a 47% decrement in multiple birth rate with SET compared with DET in the setting of favorable patient prognostic factors. Our findings present an opportunity to increase the rate of SET across the United States and thereby reduce the multiple birth rate and its associated poor perinatal outcomes with assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genes responsible for vaginal extracellular matrix metabolism are modulated by women's reproductive cycle and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Shynlova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To analyze the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM biogenesis and remodeling in vaginal tissue of women with clinically normal pelvic floor support (defined as controls according to the phase of menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods This study examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, and the Lysyl oxidase (LOX family genes in the anterior vaginal wall of Caucasian women by real-time RT-PCR. Initially, mRNA expression was assessed in premenopausal controls in the secretory (group 1, n = 10 vs. proliferative (group 2, n = 8 phase of menstrual cycle. In addition, we compared premenopausal controls in the proliferative phase (group 2 vs. postmenopausal controls (group 3, n = 5. Finally, we analyzed postmenopausal controls (group 3 vs. postmenopausal women with advanced POP (group 4, n = 13. Results According to the phase of menstrual cycle, MMP1 was significantly reduced (p = 0.003, whereas the expression of TIMP1 and LOXL4 was significantly up-regulated during proliferative phase (both p < 0.01 when compared to the secretory phase in premenopausal control women. Regarding menopausal status/ageing, all MMPs were down-regulated, while TIMP3, TIMP4 and LOXL2 were significantly up-regulated in postmenopausal control women when compared to premenopausal controls (p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, correspondingly. TIMP4 and LOXL2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in postmenopausal POP patients compared to asymptomatic postmenopausal controls (p < 0.01 for both. Conclusions Our results indicate that ovarian cycle and age-related changes influence the expression of genes encoding proteins responsible for ECM metabolism in human vagina. Moreover, POP is associated with alteration in vaginal ECM components after menopause.

  17. Growth and male reproduction improvement of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment on chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao Zhang, Jiao; Luong Huynh, Do; Chandimali, Nisansala; Kang, Tae Yoon; Kim, Nameun; Mok, Young Sun; Kwon, Taeho; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated whether plasma treatment of fertilized eggs before hatching could affect the growth and reproduction of chickens. Three point five-day-incubated fertilized eggs exposed to non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma at 2.81 W of power for 2 min resulted in the highest growth in chickens. Plasma growth-promoting effect was regulated by the reactive oxygen species homeostasis and the improvement of energy metabolism via increasing serum hormones and adenosine triphosphate levels which were resulted from the regulation of genes involved in antioxidant defense, hormone biosynthesis and energetic metabolism. Interestingly, plasma-treated male chickens conspicuously grew faster than females. Further, aspects of male reproductive system (testosterone level and sperm quality) were improved by the plasma treatment but female reproduction (estradiol and progesterone levels, egg-laying rate and egg weight) had no significant changes. Unfortunately, offspring whose parents were the optimal plasma-treated chickens did not show any difference on growth characteristics and failed to inherit excellent growth features from their parents. Our results suggest a new method to improve the growth rate and male reproductive capacity in poultry but it is only effective in the plasma direct-treated generation.

  18. [Results after assisted reproduction at a public fertility clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Hans Ivar; Kahn, Jarl A; Bergh, Anette; Eriksen, Ellen; Friberg, Unn Mette; Haraldsen, Caroline Vegheim; Nilsen, Trine Gullhaug; Sydtveit, Astrid Helene; Rode, Paula

    2012-04-30

    Assisted reproduction is traditionally regarded as effective when it results in a high pregnancy rate per started treatment cycle. For the patients, it is more interesting to know how high the probability is of giving birth during a full course of assisted reproduction treatment. Retrospective series of 546 patients followed for three years of assisted reproduction at a public fertility clinic. During the follow-up period, 347 of the patients (63.6%) gave birth by means of assisted reproduction. Of the 199 remaining patients, 70 (12.8% of 546) stopped treatment because they had completed the three treatment cycles that are covered by public funding. Thirty seven patients (6.8% of 546) conceived without assisted reproduction. Assisted reproduction at public fertility clinics in Norway is as effective as that in our neighbouring countries. Over the past 18 years, the effectiveness of assisted reproduction has increased by about 50%.

  19. Effect of chronic treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor on reproductive parameters in male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.A.; Anwar, N.; Khan, K.M.; Sarfraz, N.

    2009-01-01

    Indomethacin is a member of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) commonly used for treatment of gout, arthritis, and other inflammatory conditions. It has been shown to inhibit ovarian prostaglandins synthesis in mammals, birds, fish and reptiles. However, the effects of its chronic administration on male reproductive functions remain largely unknown. Using rat as a model, we studied the effect of chronic treatment with indomethacin on the male reproductive system. Methods: Testosterone was measured in the serum, testicular tissue, and testicular interstitial fluid by radioimmunoassay. Moreover, we also studied the direct effect of indomethacin in vitro on luteinizing hormone stimulated testosterone secretion from the Leydig cells isolated from various treatment groups. Results: Indomethacin treatment for 50 days caused a significant but reversible decrease in prostate weight, epididymal sperm reserves and sperm motility score compared with control rats (p<0.05). In vitro stimulation of Leydig cells isolated from treated rat's testes with luteinizing hormone (250 mu IU) produced significantly reduced testosterone compared with cells from control groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone on the control Leydig cells was significantly reduced when these cells were challenged with luteinizing hormone in the presence of indomethacin, (p<0.05). Testosterone concentration in the testicular tissue and testicular interstitial fluid reduced after indomethacin treatment (p<0.05). Conclusion: Due to its significant inhibition of key reproductive hormones, indomethacin effectively inhibits reproductive functions if used on a long-term basis. In his study, we have identified potential risks in the long-term use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. (author)

  20. Mixed-reproductive strategies, competitive mating-type distribution and life cycle of fourteen black morel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xi-Hui; Zhao, Qi; Xia, En-Hua; Gao, Li-Zhi; Richard, Franck; Yang, Zhu L

    2017-05-04

    Morchella species are well known world-round as popular and prized edible fungi due to their unique culinary flavor. Recently, several species have been successfully cultivated in China. However, their reproductive modes are still unknown, and their basic biology needs to be elucidated. Here, we use the morel genome information to investigate mating systems and life cycles of fourteen black morel species. Mating type-specific primers were developed to screen and genotype ascospores, hymenia and stipes from 223 ascocarps of the 14 species from Asia and Europe. Our data indicated that they are all heterothallic and their life cycles are predominantly haploid, but sterile haploid fruiting also exists. Ascospores in all species are mostly haploid, homokaryotic, and multinuclear, whereas aborted ascospores without any nuclei were also detected. Interestingly, we monitored divergent spatial distribution of both mating types in natural morel populations and cultivated sites, where the fertile tissue of fruiting bodies usually harbored both mating types, whereas sterile tissue of wild morels constantly had one MAT allele, while the sterile tissue of cultivated strains always exhibited both MAT alleles. Furthermore, MAT1-1-1 was detected significantly more commonly than MAT1-2-1 in natural populations, which strongly suggested a competitive advantage for MAT1-1 strains.

  1. [Consensus of diagnosis and treatment of obesity in women in reproductive age and climacterium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-González, Carlos; Aguilera-Pérez, Jesús Rafael; Arce-Sánchez, Lidia; Barquera-Cervera, Simón; Díaz-Polanco, Araceli; Fernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Martínez-Cruz, Nayeli; Medina-García, Catalina; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya Guadalupe; Pantoja-Millán, Juan Pablo; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Pimentel-Nieto, Dian; Reyes-Rodríguez, Eduardo Armando; Romero-Zazueta, Alejandro; Ruiz-Padilla, Claudia Lorena; Vergara-López, Alma; Vidrio-Velázquez, Maricela; Villagordoa-Mesa, Juan; Zúñiga-González, Sergio Antonio

    2015-06-01

    The development of obesity is complex and multifactorial, with genetic, biological, environmental and lifestyle of each individual etiology. The different changes in metabolism of women, amongst other factors, lead to disorganization in the distribution of lipids, which gathered in large quantities within the viscera, increases cardiovascular mortality and it is a major determinant factor of the metabolic syndrome. To homologate and to apply concepts of evidence-based clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment of obesity in women in reproductive age and climacterium. The experts' consensus was done by specialized physicians properly endocrinologists, gynecologists, surgeons, psychologists, nutrition specialists, physical activity and public health, according to their expertise and clinical judgment. The recommendations were based in diagnostic criteria aside from the level of evidence of previously established treatment guidelines, controlled clinical trials and standardized guides for women in reproductive age and climacterium with obesity. The establishment of a nutritional intervention amongst other aspects of lifestyle is the first-line in the treatment of obesity. Current pharmacological treatments offer modest results in efficiency and security in weight reduction so these must go along with real changes in lifestyle in order to obtain better results in the short and long term. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in our country, especially in women in reproductive age, compels us to pose and work in prevention strategies as well as diverse therapeutic plans favoring safe weight loss and results in the long term.

  2. Mortality in women treated with assisted reproductive technology treatment - addressing the healthy patient effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Schmidt, Lone; Pinborg, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have reported reduced mortality among women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, possibly related to selection of healthy women into ART treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of relevant selection factors on the association between ART...... treatment and mortality and explore effect modification by parity. Women treated with ART in fertility clinics in Denmark during 1994-2009 (n = 42,897) were age-matched with untreated women from the background population (n = 204,514) and followed until ultimo 2010. With adjustment for relevant confounders...

  3. Incorporation of radioactive leucine as an evidence for protein synthesis in Lizard epididymis. Studies during the reproductive cycle and after testoterone administration to intact and castrated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigon, Annie; Dufaure, J.-P.

    1975-01-01

    Lizard epididymis activity during the reproductive cycle and after testosterone administration results in a marked increase of radioactive leucine incorporation in vivo and in vitro. The electrophoretic distribution of soluble proteins shows different peaks of radioactivity. Comparison between histological response and pattern of electrophoresis suggests that one of these peaks may correspond to an activity of secretion [fr

  4. Life cycle and reproduction of house-dust mites: environmental factors influencing mite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B J

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the life cycle of house-dust mites, as well as environmental factors influencing mite populations, can be exploited in mite control. The most important limiting factor for house-dust-mite populations is air humidity. House-dust mites osmoregulate through the cuticle and therefore require a high ambient air humidity to prevent excessive water loss. In addition, the supracoxal glands actively take up ambient water vapour, and the protonynph stage of the life cycle is resistant to desiccation. Larger house-dust-mite populations are found when the absolute indoor air humidity is above 7 g/kg (45% relative humidity at 20 degrees C). Consequently, ventilation by air-conditioning systems is being developed as a means of control. A number of other aspects of the domestic environment are also being manipulated in an integrated approach to render the habitat less suitable for mites. The potential exists for developing models for house-dust mite populations, environmental characteristics, and the effects of various approaches to control.

  5. LIFE CYCLE, DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF CARCINONEMERTES EPIALTI, A NEMERTEAN EGG PREDATOR OF THE SHORE CRAB, HEMIGRAPSUS OREGONENSIS, IN RELATION TO HOST SIZE, REPRODUCTION AND MOLT CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuris, Armand M

    1978-02-01

    1. The geographic range of Carcinonemertes epialti has been greatly extended. The worms are found from Bahia San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico, to Page's Lagoon, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. 2. New host records for C. epialti include H. oregonensis, and H. nudus. It is rare on its type host Pugettia producta. Specimens of Carcinonemertes of uncertain affinities are also found on Cancer antennarius, C. anthonyi and C. productus. 3. Carcinonemertes epialti adults are egg predators on ovigerous hosts. Growth, demography and abundance are described in relation to the embryogenic stage of the host brood at Bodega Harbor, California. 4. Nonfeeding juveniles are ensheathed on individuals of both host sexes over 8.0 mm carapace width. 5. Transmission experiments show that contact transfer of juvenile nemerteans from males to other hosts may occur. 6. The percentage of infestation and mean density peak in autumn on H. oregonensis at Bodega Harbor. 7. Ovigerous female hosts are more frequently infested with C. epialti, particularly at small host sizes, than are male or nonovigerous female hosts at Bodega Harbor. However, average worm density on ovigerous females is low. 8. Mean density of C. epialti rises through late postmolt, declines during intermolt and rebuilds to a high level in late premolt H. oregonensisfrom Bodega Harbor. 9. Large crabs have a higher percentage of infestations and mean densities per infection than do small crabs. Nemerteans are more frequently found in the sternal-abdominal furrow and less frequently in the limb axillae on large crabs. 10. A model of C. epialti transmission and site occupancy is proposed, incorporating the influence of host size, sex, reproductive state, embryogenesis, molt cycle stage and molt cycle duration of H. oregonensis at Bodega Harbor. Site availability increases with host size. At higher densities the juvenile nemerteans increasingly occupy less preferred sites. Transferral of juvenile nemerteans occurs

  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering of oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Türkgeldi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa have gained increasing attention in the last decade as an alternative trigger for oocyte maturation in patients at high risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. They provide a short luteinizing hormone (LH peak that limits the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, which is the key mediator leading to increased vascular permeability, the hallmark of OHSS. Initial studies showed similar oocyte yield and embryo quality compared with conventional human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG triggering; however, lower pregnancy rates and higher miscarriage rates were alarming in GnRHa triggered groups. Therefore, two approaches have been implemented to rescue the luteal phase in fresh transfers. Intensive luteal phase support (iLPS involves administiration of high doses of progesterone and estrogen and active patient monitoring. iLPS has been shown to provide satisfactory fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates, and to be especially useful in patients with high endogenous LH levels, such as in polycystic ovary syndrome. The other method for luteal phase rescue is low-dose hCG administiration 35 hours after GnRHa trigger. Likewise, this method results in statistically similar ongoing pregnancy rates (although slightly lower than to those of hCG triggered cycles. GnRHa triggering decreased OHSS rates dramatically, however, none of the rescue methods prevent OHSS totally. Cases were reported even in patients who underwent cryopreservation and did not receive hCG. GnRH triggering induces a follicle stimulating hormone (FSH surge, similar to natural cycles. Its possible benefits have been investigated and dual triggering, GnRHa trigger accompanied by a simultaneous low-dose hCG injection, has produced promising results that urge further exploration. Last of all, GnRHa triggering is useful in fertility preservation cycles in patients with hormone sensitive tumors. In conclusion, GnRHa triggering

  7. Unraveling estradiol metabolism and involvement in the reproductive cycle of non-vertebrate animals: The sea urchin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Mercurio; Paolo, Tremolada; Nobile, Maria; Denise, Fernandes; Cinta, Porte; Michela, Sugni

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol (E2) is a well-known hormone in vertebrates whereas in invertebrates its unambiguous presence was verified only in some species. Weather this presence is also associated to similarly conserved roles in animal phylogeny is similarly uncertain. Due to their phylogenetic position, echinoderms represent ideal experimental models to provide evolutionary insights into estrogen appearance and function. Therefore, in this research, we investigated if E2 is truly present and has a role in the reproductive biology of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Presence of 17β estradiol in body fluids was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. By immunological methods (RIA) we evaluated the physiological circulating E2 levels of adult specimens and, on the basis of these, we directly administered E2 to study its metabolism and its putative effects on gonad development at physiological doses. Although different E2 tested concentrations, a correspondent dose-dependent increase of hormone levels was not found in both body fluids and gonads, suggesting the presence of potent homeostatic/detoxification mechanisms. These latter do not involve enzymes such as aromatase-like, sulfotransferase-like and acyltransferase-like, whose activities were not affected by E2 administration. Despite the increase of endogenous E2, the treatment did not induce significant variations in none of the considered reproductive parameters. Overall, this research (1) provides definitive evidence of E2 presence in sea urchin tissues and (2) demonstrate that, differently from vertebrates and starfish, E2 does not play a key role in sea urchins reproductive processes. Intra-phylum differences suggest the existence of class-specific hormonal mechanisms and highlight the risk of Phylum generalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A homologous radioimmunoassay for canine prolactin: plasma levels huring the reproductive cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coster, R. De; Beerens, D.; Mey, J. De; Beckers, J.-F.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the purification of canine prolactin, involving preparative isoelectrofocusing. Canine prolactin has a molecular weight of 23 000 daltons, an isoelectric point of 5.7 and exhibits a high degree of homogeneity in polyacrylamide gels stained by means of a silver method. A specific, homologous radioimmunoassay is described using the Bolton-Hunter method for preparation of the labelled ligand, with a sensitivity of 0.1 ng/tube. Basal plasma prolactin levels of 2-4 ng/ml obtained through the oestrous cycle remained fairly constant but a rise of 9 ng/ml was found at the end of dioestrus in non-pregnant bitches. Level also rose 30 days after mating to reach a peak of about 50 ng/ml near parturition and during early lactation. (author)

  9. Reproductive cycle of Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819 in a Marine Reserve (RESEX Bay of Iguape, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. A. Camilo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mytella guyanensis, consumed and commercialized in coastal regions of Brazil, is one of several bivalve species of socioeconomic interest for coastal communities. Besides serving as a source of income and subsistence for these communities, it also contributes to their food security as it is a source of proteins and micronutrients. Thus, the reproductive cycle of this species was studied aiming to contribute to food security and its preservation. Samples were collected monthly, between March 2014 and March 2015, in a natural stock (12°38'50”S; 38°51'43”W in a Marine Reserve (RESEX Bay of Iguape (community Engenho da Ponte, Bahia, Brazil. Mytella guyanensis is collected by women on site, where the artisanal fishing of this resource is performed without following any specific handling procedure. Also, empirical evidence indicates overexploitation. The specimens collected were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length, and after macroscopic analysis they were fixed in Davidson solution, processed by routine histology techniques and stained with Harris haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The macroscopic analysis showed sexual dimorphism, with the male and female gonads presenting a milky-white and orange colour, respectively. A 1:1 sex ratio (M: F was observed and reproduction of the species was continuous all year round. March, April, July and August were the months with highest values of gamete elimination. We suggest that a M. guyanensis management plan should restrict capture during these months, in order to sustainably regulate exploitation of this food resource in this reserve.

  10. Stable transfection of Eimeria intestinalis and investigation of its life cycle, reproduction and immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanyuan eShi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit coccidiosis, caused by infection of Eimeria spp. is one of the most severe parasitic diseases in rabbits. E. intestinalis is one of the most immunogenic species in rabbit coccidia. Due to the lack of genomic information and unsuccessful in vitro cultivation, genetic manipulation of rabbit coccidia lagged behind other apicomplexan parasites. Using regulatory sequences from E. tenella, we obtained a transgenic line of E. intestinalis expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP. YFP was continuously expressed throughout the whole life cycle. Morphological features of E. intestinalis in the different developmental stages were dynamically observed with the transgenic line. Some important features in the endogenous development stages were observed. Trophozoites were found as early as 4 h post inoculation. Two-types of schizonts and merozoites were observed in first three of the four schizogonies. Beside jejunum and ileum, gametogony stage and oocysts were also found in the duodenum and vermiform appendix. In addition, the transgenic strain was highly immunogenic but less pathogenic than the wild type. Considering the high immunogenicity of E. intestinalis and amenability to transfection with foreign genes, transgenic E. intestinalis could be a promising oral eukaryotic vaccine vector.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    Urea cycle disorder (UCD) is an inborn error of the metabolic pathway producing urea from ammonia, which occurs primarily in the liver. Decreased excretion of nitrogen in the urea cycle due to deficiency of carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPSI), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and N-acetyl glutamate synthase (NAGS) causes hyperammonemia. We examined the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of 177 patients with UCD from January 1999 to March 2009 in Japan. Compared with a previous study conducted in Japan, a larger number of patients survived without mental retardation, even when the peak blood ammonia was >360 μmol/L. In those with peak blood ammonia >360 μmol/L, an indicator of poor prognosis, the frequency of convulsions, mental retardation, brain abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging, hemodialysis, liver transplantation, and intake of non-protein formulas was significantly higher than in those with peak blood ammonia <360 μmol/L. In this article, we have reported the current state of UCD to evaluate prognosis and its relationship with peak blood ammonia and hemodialysis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  13. Effects of advanced treatments of wastewater effluents on estrogenic and reproductive health impacts in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filby, Amy L; Shears, Janice A; Drage, Briane E; Churchley, John H; Tyler, Charles R

    2010-06-01

    Whether the implementation of additional treatments for the removal of estrogens from wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) effluents will eliminate their feminizing effects in exposed wildlife has yet to be established, and this information is crucial for future decisions on investment into WwTWs. Here, granular activated carbon (GAC), ozone (O(3)), and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing steroidal estrogen levels in a WwTW effluent and assessments made on the associated estrogenic and reproductive responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed for 21 days. All treatments reduced the estrogenicity of the standard-treated (STD) effluent, but with different efficacies; ranging between 70-100% for total estrogenicity and 53-100% for individual steroid estrogens. In fish exposed to the GAC- and ClO(2)- (but not O(3)-) treated effluents, there was no induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) or reduction in the weight of the fatpad, a secondary sex character in males, as occurred for fish exposed to STD effluent. This finding suggests likely benefits of employing these treatment processes for the reproductive health in wild fish populations living in rivers receiving WwTW discharges. Exposure of pair-breeding minnows to the GAC-treated effluent, however, resulted in a similar inhibition of egg production to that occurring for exposure to the STD effluent (34-40%). These data, together with a lack of effect on egg production of the estrogen, ethinylestradiol (10 ng/L), alone, suggest that chemical/physical properties of the effluents rather than their estrogenicity were responsible for the reproductive effect and that these factor(s) were not remediated for through GAC treatment. Collectively, our findings illustrate the importance of assessing integrative biological responses, rather than biomarkers alone, in the assessment and improvement of WwTW technologies for the protection of wild fish populations.

  14. The use of hormonal treatments to improve reproductive performance of anestrous beef cattle in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruselli, P S; Reis, E L; Marques, M O; Nasser, L F; Bó, G A

    2004-07-01

    Most of the world's bovine herd is found in tropical regions. Bos indicus predominates, due to their adaptation to the climate and management conditions. Anestrous is the main factor that negatively affects reproductive performance of animals bred in these regions of the globe. Several factors affect postpartum anestrous, including suckling and maternal-offspring bond, and pre- and postpartum nutritional status. The short duration of estrus and the tendency to show estrus during the night, greatly affect the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) programs in B. indicus cattle managed in tropical areas. Several restricted suckling or weaning procedures (temporary or permanent), and hormonal treatments have been used to induce ovulation and cyclicity in postpartum cows. Most hormonal treatments are based on progesterone/progestogen (P4) releasing devices associated with estradiol benzoate (EB), or a combination of GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH (Ovsynch). Treatments with GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH has presented inconsistent results, probably due to the variable number of cows in anestrous. Treatments using P4 devices and EB have resulted in apparently more consistent results than Ovsynch programs in B. indicus cattle; however, pregnancy rates are low in herds presenting high anestrous rates and moderate to low body condition. The addition of an eCG treatment at the time of device removal, which increased plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rates in anestrous postpartum suckled B. indicus cows, may be useful to improve reproductive performance of beef cattle in tropical climates.

  15. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS IN MEN AFTER PREVIOUS SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kalininа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the efficacy and safety of natural complex multi-component biologically active additives (BAA to food Spermstrong and Testogenona in the diagnosis and treating 63 men with reproductive disorders after illness, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. During the 12 weeks 41 patients the primary group assigned Spermstrongom combination therapy in combination with Testogenonom, 22 patient control group received only Spermstrong. Immediate treatment results evaluated through 4 weeks and distant through 12 weeks after stopping treatment. It has been established that the appointment of a combination therapy of complex components Spermstrong and Testogenon was statistically significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment. In the main group was marked by a more pronounced positive clinical effect through 12 weeks after treatment in 84.5 % of patients receiving combination therapy (increase the concentration and mobility of spermatozoa to normozoospermii, increase testosterone levels to normal values, improving the quality of erections, improve blood flow in the prostate gland, testes, in the control group who received Spermstrong, the effect is achieved in two times fewer patients, i. e. normozoospermija in 40.9 % have patients. The results confirm that the components of the Spermstrong complexes and Testogenon in combination therapy is effective, safe, have no side effects and can be used in complex treatment of reproductive disorders in men who have STDs, as well as for prophylaxis of incremental sexual glands: prostate, testicules and improve sexual function. 

  16. Gametogenesis and reproductive cycle of Melanorivulus aff. punctatus (Boulenger, 1895 (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cassel

    Full Text Available The comprehension of the reproductive cycle allows to understand which are the morphological changes that develop in the gonad during this interval. Thus, many studies have been undertaken in order to describe and classify the stages of gonadal development and reproductive status of Neotropical fishes. For this purpose, specimens of Melanorivulus aff. punctatus were collected in a permanent dam in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The gonads were prepared for analysis by light microscopy. The oogenesis and spermatogenesis have been described, characterizing the stages of gonadal development, together with assessments of the gonadosomatic ratio, germ cell count and verification of variation of mature oocytes in females. Throughout the year the male gonads presented themselves as capable of reproducing, characterized by the presence of undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes organized into cysts, spermatids in cysts whose wall was thicker and the spermatozoa was free in the lumen and the duct. This can indicate a continuous reproductive cycle with split spermiation. The females had gonads in the development stage from May to September with undifferentiated and differentiated oogonias and early oocytes always facing the lumen, abundant pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes and some atresias. In the phase capable of spawning, observed from October to March, the mature oocytes are abundant, there are many post-ovulatory complexes and some atresia in advanced stage. The regression, observed in some individuals from February to April, is characterized by ovaries with many atresias and post-ovulatory complexes. The same results were found in the quantitative assessments. Therefore, it may be characterized as discontinuous cycle with split spawning. Thus, the reproductive cycle of this species can be characterized as continuous for males and discontinuous for females, which have a most intense phase of reproduction

  17. Dynamics of ovarian maturation during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus, a reservoir invasive fish species (Teleostei: Characiformes

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    Thiago Scremin Boscolo Pereira

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the dynamics of ovarian maturation and the spawning processes during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus. Adult females (n = 36 were collected bimonthly between April 2010 and March 2011. The mean gonadosomatic index (GSI was determined, ovarian and blood samples were submitted for morphometric evaluation and the steroid plasma concentration was determined by ELISA. This species demonstrated asynchronous ovarian development with multiple spawns. This study revealed that, although defined as a multiple spawning species, the ovaries of M. maculatus have a pattern of development with a predominance of vitellogenesis between April and August and have an intensification in spawning in September; in October, a drop in the mean GSI values occurred, and the highest frequencies of post-ovulatory follicles (POFs were observed. We observed a positive correlation between the POF and the levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Metynnis maculatus has the potential to be used as a source of pituitary tissue for the preparation of crude extracts for hormonal induction; the theoretical period for use is from September to December, but specific studies to determine the feasibility of this approach must be conducted.

  18. Male convict cichlid 11-ketotestosterone levels throughout the reproductive cycle: an exploratory profile study in laboratory and field populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie April van Breukelen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata has been extensively examined in relation to many behavioral topics, such as courtship, pair-bonding, bi-parental care, and territoriality. Recently, this model species has been utilized in studies on genetics, endocrinology, and neuroanatomy, with an ultimate goal of connecting behavior with its underlying mechanisms. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1 profile the circulating levels of plasma 11KT in the male convict cichlid at multiple points during the reproductive cycle and (2 generally compare the hormonal profiles of the widely used laboratory populations and those of a free-living population in the streams of Costa Rica. The results of the field experiment showed that male convict cichlids had higher levels of circulating 11KT during courtship and lower during the parental care and non-breeding phases. The profile of the laboratory population was similar to the profile of the free-living individuals, with significantly higher levels of 11KT occurring during courtship than during parental care, though the level of 11KT during non-breeding phase was elevated in the laboratory. The high levels of 11KT during courtship and low levels of 11KT during parental care found in both the field and the laboratory is similar to what has been reported in other species of teleosts, and may suggest an important function of 11KT in the expression of courtship behavior and the subsequent onset of parental behaviors in this model species.

  19. [Benefits of nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic to self-cycle-management and self-efficiency of infertility patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Chao-Feng; Guo, Mei

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the benefits of nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic to self-cycle-management and self-efficiency of the outpatients with infertility. We randomly divided 600 females preliminarily diagnosed with infertility into a control and an experimental group, 288 in the former and 285 in the latter group excluding those whose husbands had azoospermia. For the women patients of the experimental group, we conducted nursing care intervention concerning related knowledge, skills, diet, excise, medication, and psychology, by one-to-one consultation, individualized or group communication, establishing files, telephone follow-up, and wechat guidance. After 3 months of intervention, we compared the compliance of medical visits, effectiveness of cycle management, sense of self-efficiency, satisfaction, and anxiety score between the two groups of patients. In comparison with the controls, the patients of the experimental group showed significantly better knowledge about assisted reproduction and higher effectiveness of self-cycle-management, self-efficiency, and satisfaction (P <0.05), but a markedly lower degree of anxiety (P <0.05). Nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic can improve the compliance of medical visits, effectiveness of self-cycle-management, self-efficiency, and satisfaction and reduce the anxiety of the patients.

  20. Prevention of congenital Chagas disease by Benznidazole treatment in reproductive-age women. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, María G; Vigliano, Carlos; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2017-10-01

    Since the decline in new cases of infection by insect/vector, congenital Chagas disease has become more relevant in the transmission of Chagas disease. Treatment with benznidazole significantly reduces the parasitemia, which constitutes an important factor linked to vertical transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with benznidazole previously administered to women of childbearing age can prevent or reduce the incidence of new cases of congenital Chagas disease. An historical cohort study that included all women in reproductive age (15-45 years) assisted in our center was designed. We included 67 mothers with chronic Chagas disease; 35 women had not been treated prior to pregnancy, 15 had been treated prior to pregnancy and 17 gave birth prior and after treatment with benznidazole. Eight mothers gave birth to 16 children with congenital Chagas disease (8/67, 12%). The prevalence of congenital Chagas was 16/114 (14%) children born to untreated mothers and 0/42 (0%) children born to benznidazole- treated mothers, p=0.01. No significant differences were observed in clinical, serologic, epidemiological or socioeconomic baseline variables between mothers with and without children born with congenital Chagas. A 32% conversion rate to negative serology was observed in benznidazole-treated women after long-term follow up. Antiparasitic treatment administered to women in reproductive age can prevent the occurrence of congenital Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Reproduction and psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders can have a close connection to reproduction, especially for women but also for men. The most frequent disorders or problems are described, i.e., mental problems during pregnancy and after delivery, during the menstrual cycle and around menopause. Possible consequences of miscarriage, stillbirth and induced abortion are presented as well as the special problem of a wish for a child in mentally ill women and their treatment during pregnancy.

  2. [Suppression of cycling activity in sheep using parenteral progestagen treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janett, F; Camponovo, L; Lanker, U; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic progestagen preparations Chlormadinone acetate (CAP, Chronosyn, Veterinaria AG Zürich) and Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, Nadigest, G Streuli & Co. Uznach) on cycling activity and fertility in sheep. A flock of 28 non pregnant white alpine sheep was randomly divided into three groups, A (n = 10), B (n = 9) and C (n = 9). During a period of 4 weeks the cycling activity was confirmed by blood progesterone analysis. Thereafter, the animals of group A were treated with 50 mg CAP, those of group B with 140 mg MPA and those of group C with physiological saline solution. All injections were given intramuscularly. Suppression of endogenous progesterone secretion lasted from 28 to 49 days (mean = 39 days) in group A and from 42 to 70 days (mean = 50 days) in group B. The synchronization effect of both preparations was unsatisfactory as the occurrence of first estrus was distributed over a period of 3 weeks in group A and 4 weeks in group B. These findings could also be confirmed by the lambing period which lasted 52 days in group A and 36 days in group B. Control animals lambed within 9 days due to the synchronizing effect of the ram. The first fertile estrus was observed 36 days (group A) and 45 days (group B) after the treatment. In group A all 10 animals and in groups B and C 8 of 9 ewes each became pregnant. Parenteral progestagen application with CAP and MPA is a simple, safe and reversible method of estrus suppression in the sheep. The minimal suppressive duration of 4 (CAP) and 5 weeks (MPA) is not sufficient when a period of 3 months (alpine pasture period) is desired.

  3. Psychiatric disorders among women and men in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Hageman, Ida; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted

    2013-01-01

    -matched population-based cohort of couples with no history of ART treatment. Furthermore, the objective is to study the reproductive outcome of ART treatment among women who have a registered diagnosis of a mental disorder or have used medication for mental disorders prior to ART treatment compared with women in ART...

  4. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago, E-mail: yago.lorenzo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Alfonsín, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, 08940 Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. - Highlights: • The influence of LCI quality on the environmental assessment

  5. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in female zebrafish after long-term exposure to MC-LR: A life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jie; Li, Li; Wu, Ning; Su, Yujing; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu; Gu, Zemao

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been found to cause reproductive and developmental impairments as well as to disrupt sex hormone homeostasis of fish during acute and sub-chronic toxic experiments. However, fish in natural environments are continuously exposed to MC-LR throughout their entire life cycle as opposed to short-term exposure. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the mechanism by which MC-LR harms female fish reproduction and development within natural water bodies is through interference of the reproductive endocrine system. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30 μg/L MC-LR for 90 d until reaching sexual maturity. Female zebrafish were selected, and the changes in growth and developmental indicators, ovarian ultrastructure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones and vitellogenin (VTG) were examined along with the transcription of related genes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal–liver axis (HPGL-axis). The results showed for the first time, a life cycle exposure to MC-LR caused growth inhibition, decreased ovary weight and ovarian ultra-pathological lesions. Decreased ovarian testosterone levels indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormone balance. Significantly up-regulated transcription of brain FSHβ and LHβ along with ovarian ERα, FSHR and LHR suggested positive feedback regulation in the HPGL-axis was induced as a compensatory mechanism for MC-LR damage. It was also noted that ovarian VTG content and hepatic ERα and VTG1 expression were all down-regulated, which might be responsible for reduced vitellus storage noted in our histological observations. Our findings indicate that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR impairs the development and reproduction of female zebrafish by disrupting the transcription of related HPGL-axis genes, suggesting that MC-LR has potential adverse effects on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic

  6. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle.

  7. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  8. Thyroid Hormones, Insulin, Body Fat, and Blood Biochemistry Indices in Dairy Cows During the Reproduction/Production Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulíková I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the changes in: thyroid hormones, amount of subcutaneous fat, and selected indices of blood biochemistry in dairy cows in relation to the reproduction/production cycle. The blood samples were collected both ante- and post-partum every two weeks. When evaluating the mean values of the investigated indices, the major changes were recorded in dairy cows 3 to 14 days after calving. During this period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean serum levels of T3 (P < 0.05, T4 (P < 0.01, and triglycerides (P < 0.01. An opposite trend was observed with a significant increase after calving in the: mean serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (P < 0.05, urea (P < 0.01, and mean AST activities (P < 0.05. A significant increase over the normal range was recorded in the average levels of non-esterified fatty acids (P < 0.01 and total bilirubin (P < 0.01. From the next sampling (28 days after calving onwards we recorded a significant increase in the blood serum levels of cholesterol (P < 0.01, total lipids (P < 0.01, total protein (P < 0.01, as well as a significant decrease in the insulin levels (P < 0.05 and a reduced layer of subcutaneous fat (P < 0.01. The blood serum iodine concentration showed only slight significant changes (P < 0.05 during the observation. Blood serum levels of glucose did not show any significant changes during the whole observation period. Within the whole observation period we found a negative correlation between T3 levels and the layer of subcutaneous fat (r = −0.2606; P < 0.05. This correlation was much more marked in cows 3 to 14 days after calving (r = −0.5077; P < 0.05, which may indicate a possible relationships between the thyroid status, body condition, and post partum negative energy balance.

  9. Folate promotes S-adenosyl methionine reactions and the microbial methylation cycle and boosts ruminants production and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja; Abbasi, Farzana; Wang, Lamei; Abd El Hack, Mohamed E; Swelum, Ayman A; Hao, Ren; Yao, Junhu; Cao, Yangchun

    2018-04-23

    Folate has gained significant attention due to its vital role in biological methylation and epigenetic machinery. Folate, or vitamin (B 9 ), is only produced through a de novo mechanism by plants and micro-organisms in the rumen of mature animals. Although limited research has been conducted on folate in ruminants, it has been noted that ruminal synthesis could not maintain folate levels in high yielding dairy animals. Folate has an essential role in one-carbon metabolism and is a strong antiproliferative agent. Folate increases DNA stability, being crucial for DNA synthesis and repair, the methylation cycle, and preventing oxidation of DNA by free radicals. Folate is also critical for cell division, metabolism of proteins, synthesis of purine and pyrimidine, and increasing the de novo delivery of methyl groups and S-adenosylmethionine. However, in ruminants, metabolism of B 12 and B 9 vitamins are closely connected and utilization of folate by cells is significantly affected by B 12 vitamin concentration. Supplementation of folate through diet, particularly in early lactation, enhanced metabolic efficiency, lactational performance, and nutritional quality of milk. Impaired absorption, oxidative degradation, or deficient supply of folate in ruminants affects DNA stability, cell division, homocysteine remethylation to methionine, de novo synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, and increases DNA hypomethylation, uracil misincorporation into DNA, chromosomal damage, abnormal cell growth, oxidative species, premature birth, low calf weight, placental tube defects, and decreases production and reproduction of ruminant animals. However, more studies are needed to overcome these problems and reduce enormous dietary supplement waste and impaired absorption of folate in ruminants. This review was aimed to highlight the vital role of folic acid in ruminants performance.

  10. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FOLLY-RAMOS

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  11. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  12. Safety of fluralaner oral solution, a novel systemic poultry red mite treatment, for chicken breeders’ reproductive performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Huyghe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry mites are the most significant pest affecting production systems in the chicken egg-laying industry, altering the health condition of the birds, and causing stress, mortality and decline of egg quality impacting economic performance. Fluralaner is a novel systemic parasiticide that is effective against poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum in chickens after oral administration. The evaluation of the safety of this new product in breeder chickens is particularly relevant because poultry mite infestation affects long cycle production systems, such as layers and breeders farms, for which the productivity heavily depends on the health of the reproductive function. This study was designed to investigate the safety for reproductive performances of fluralaner in male and female chickens at 3 times the recommended dose (1.5 instead of 0.5 mg/kg body weight and 2 times the recommended duration (4 administrations instead of 2 administrations, with a 7 day interval between administrations. Methods This randomized, parallel-group, blinded study included 432 Bovans brown parent stock chickens (48 males and 384 females, 17-week old. Birds were randomly assigned to 16 pens (three males and 24 females per pen, and then each pen assigned to one of the two treatment groups (8 pens, i.e. 216 birds per group. Fluralaner was administered via drinking water on a total of four occasions 7 days apart, at daily doses of 1.5 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 3 times the recommended dose of fluralaner per administration and 2 times the recommended number of administrations. Birds supplied with non-medicated drinking water served as controls. The treatments were given at time of peak egg production in the bird’s life: i.e. at 30 to 34 week of age. During that period, all adult chickens were clinically observed. The reproductive performances were carefully monitored including the number of eggs laid, egg

  13. Annual reproductive cycle in two free living populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.: patterns of ovarian and testicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sokołowska

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The annual reproductive cycle in two wild populations of three-spinedstickleback was studied. Sticklebacks from the Dead Vistula River(Martwa Wisła (brackish water and the Oliva Stream (Potok Oliwski(freshwater were exposed to annual environmental changes in their naturalhabitats. Ovaries and livers (females, and testes and kidneys (males werecollected during 1-2 years. The gonadosomatic IG, hepatosomaticIH, nephrosomatic IN indices, kidney epithelium height(KEH and size of oocytes were calculated.The number of mature oocytes andpercentage of ovulating females were determined during the spawning season.Histological changes in the ovaries and testes were described throughouta year. Annual reproductive cycles were similar in both populations ofsticklebacks. This is the first histological and morphological study carriedout throughout a year, simultaneously in two wild populations of three-spinedsticklebacks inhabiting different environments. An improved scale of gonadaldevelopment in conjunction with the determined indices and fecundity givea comprehensive description of the reproductive cycle. These new observations,in combination with previously reported features, provide a universal scalethat can be successfully used to distinguish all phases of gametogenesis insticklebacks in different habitats.

  14. Experimental study on the long-term effect of cadmium in mice fed cadmium-polluted rice with special reference to the effect of repeated reproductive cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Shiroishi, K.; Nishino, H.; Shinmura, T.; Murase, H.; Shoji, T.; Naruse, Y.; Kagamimori, S.

    1986-01-01

    Long-term biological effects of cadmium-polluted rice and effect of repeated reproductive cycles on them were examined. Female SLC-B6D2F mice (female C57BL/6, male DBA/2) were fed a rice diet containing 65% unpolished rice for about 2 years from 7 weeks of age. The unpolished rice preparations used were commercially available rice (non-Cd-polluted) and Cd-polluted rice (over 1.0 ppm). Average Cd contents in each diet class were 0.12, 0.48, 1.78, 1.75, and 47.1 ppm (50 ppm Cd as CdCl 2 added). Some experimental mice were subjected to repeated reproductive cycles (parity group). Hematological, biochemical, and pathological examinations of urine, blood, and tissues, including Cd measurement, were carried out. Results after statistical analysis indicate Cd toxicities such as anemia and disturbances of Ca metabolism. These Cd effects were found to be enhanced by the reproductive cycles. Soft X-ray radiograms showed osteoporosis in the parity groups, especially in the groups with diets of higher Cd content. However, we could not find any sign of disturbance of renal function under our experimental conditions

  15. HP-HMG versus rFSH in treatments combining fresh and frozen IVF cycles: success rates and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex-Wechowski, Jaro; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Kildegaard Nielsen, Sandy; Kennedy, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The economic implications of the choice of gonadotrophin influence decision making but their cost-effectiveness in frozen-embryo transfer cycles has not been adequately studied. An economic evaluation was performed comparing highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (HP-HMG) and recombinant FSH (rFSH) using individual patient data (n=986) from two large randomized controlled trials using a long agonist IVF protocol. The simulation model incorporated live birth data and published UK costs of IVF-related medical resources. After treatment for up-to-three cycles (one fresh and up to two subsequent fresh or frozen cycles conditional on availability of cryopreserved embryos), the cumulative live birth rate was 53.7% (95% CI 49.3-58.1%) for HP-HMG and 44.6% (40.2-49.0%) for rFSH (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12-1.85; Pcosts per IVF treatment for HP-HMG and rFSH were pound5393 ( pound5341-5449) and pound6269 ( pound6210-6324), respectively (number needed to treat to fund one additional treatment was seven; Pcosts applied, the median cost per IVF baby delivered with HP-HMG was pound11,157 ( pound11,089-11,129) and pound14,227 ( pound14,183-14,222) with rFSH (Pcost saving using HP-HMG remained after varying model parameters in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disparities in reproductive outcomes according to the endometrial preparation protocol in frozen embryo transfer : The risk of early pregnancy loss in frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum, I; Bellon, L; Swierkowski, N; Ouazana, M; Bouba, S; Fathallah, K; Paillusson, B; Bailly, M; Boitrelle, F; Alter, L; Bergère, M; Selva, J; Wainer, R

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stimulated and artificial endometrial preparation protocols on reproductive outcomes in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. We performed a retrospective study of 1926 FET cycles over a 3.5-year period in the Fertility Unit at a University Hospital. Stimulated and artificial protocols were used for endometrial preparation. The embryos for FET were obtained from either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Live birth rate and early pregnancy loss rates were retrospectively compared. In artificial protocols, oral or vaginal administration of oestradiol 2 mg two or three times a day was followed by vaginal supplementation with progesterone 200 mg two or three times a day. In stimulated protocols, recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone was administered from day 4 onward. Vaginal ultrasound was used for endometrial and ovarian monitoring. A pregnancy test was performed 14 days after FET. If it was positive, oestradiol and progesterone were administered up until the 12th week of gestation in artificial cycles. We defined early pregnancy losses as biochemical pregnancies (preclinical losses) and miscarriages. Data on 865 artificial cycles (45% of the total) and 1061 stimulated cycles (55%) were collected. Early pregnancy loss rate was significantly lower for stimulated cycles (34.2%) than for artificial cycles (56.9%), and the live birth rate was significantly higher for stimulated cycles (59.7%) than for artificial cycles (29.1%). In frozen embryo transfer, artificial cycles were associated with more early pregnancy loss and lower live birth rate than stimulated cycles.

  17. Fertility in Women of Reproductive Age After Breast Cancer Treatment: Practice Patterns and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Devina K S; Simpson, Ashley B; Flyckt, Rebecca; Liu, Yitian; O'Rourke, Colin; Crowe, Joseph P; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Moore, Halle C; Valente, Stephanie A

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women of reproductive age, and systemic treatments may adversely affect childbearing plans. Use of assisted reproductive technologies and therapies for ovarian protection improve fertility prospects. We evaluated whether patients had a documented fertility discussion (FD) with their oncology physician prior to therapy, what options were chosen, and if pregnancy was achieved. A retrospective chart review from 2006 to 2014 was performed to evaluate women aged 40 years and younger who were diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with chemotherapy and/or antihormonal therapy. Patient demographics, treatment regimens, presence or absence of FD, in vitro fertilization (IVF) consultation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, and subsequent successful pregnancy were analyzed. Among 303 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 80 (26 %) had an FD with their physician documented; 71 of these 80 women (89 %) sought further fertility consultation and options. Sixteen (20 %) women were prescribed a GnRH agonist only for ovarian protection during chemotherapy, 50 (63 %) underwent IVF consultation only, and 5 (6 %) had both a GnRH agonist prescribed and an IVF consultation. The overall pregnancy rate was 7 % at a mean of 3 years post breast cancer treatment. Pregnancy after treatment was more common among those pursuing IVF consultation or prescribed a GnRH agonist. In treating young breast cancer patients, it is important to assess fertility desire, discuss treatment risks relating to fertility, and discuss preservation options. Although not every woman in this group desired pregnancy, 71/80 (89 %) women having a documented FD sought further fertility consultation and options.

  18. Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L; Gillman, Matthew W; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Souter, Irene; Toth, Thomas L; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2018-01-01

    Animal experiments suggest that ingestion of pesticide mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations decreases the number of live-born offspring. Whether the same is true in humans is unknown. To examine the association of preconception intake of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables (FVs) with outcomes of infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This analysis included 325 women who completed a diet assessment and subsequently underwent 541 ART cycles in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2007-2016) at a fertility center at a teaching hospital. We categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residues using a validated method based on surveillance data from the US Department of Agriculture. Cluster-weighted generalized estimating equations were used to analyze associations of high- and low-pesticide residue FV intake with ART outcomes. Adjusted probabilities of clinical pregnancy and live birth per treatment cycle. In the 325 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [4.0] y; body mass index, 24.1 [4.3]), mean (SD) intakes of high- and low-pesticide residue FVs were 1.7 (1.0) and 2.8 (1.6) servings/d, respectively. Greater intake of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with a lower probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of high-pesticide FV intake (<1.0 servings/d), women in the highest quartile (≥2.3 servings/d) had 18% (95% CI, 5%-30%) lower probability of clinical pregnancy and 26% (95% CI, 13%-37%) lower probability of live birth. Intake of low-pesticide residue FVs was not significantly related to ART outcomes. Higher consumption of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with lower probabilities of pregnancy and live birth following infertility treatment with ART. These data suggest that dietary pesticide exposure within the range of typical human exposure may be associated with adverse reproductive consequences.

  19. Reproductive Tract Infections and Treatment Seeking Behavior among Married Adolescent Women 15-19 Years in India

    OpenAIRE

    Prusty, Ranjan Kumar; Unisa, Sayeed

    2013-01-01

    Background: India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI) and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Methods: Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08) of India were us...

  20. HLA-G regulatory haplotypes and implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; Mattar, Sibelle Botogosque; Vargas, Rafael Gustavo; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; Bicalho, Maria da Graça

    2012-09-01

    The role of HLA-G in several clinical conditions related to reproduction has been investigated. Important polymorphisms have been found within the 5'URR and 3'UTR regions of the HLA-G promoter. The aim of the present study was to investigate 16 SNPs in the 5'URR and 14-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism located in the 3'UTR region of the HLA-G gene and its possible association with the implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatments (ART). The case group was composed of 25 ART couples. Ninety-four couples with two or more term pregnancies composed the control group. Polymorphism haplotype frequencies of the HLA-G were determined for both groups. The Haplotype 5, Haplotype 8 and Haplotype 11 were absolute absence in ART couples. The HLA-G*01:01:02a, HLA-G*01:01:02b alleles and the 14-bp ins polymorphism, Haplotype 2, showed an increased frequency in case women and similar distribution between case and control men. However, this susceptibility haplotype is significantly presented in case women and in couple with failure implantation after treatment, which led us to suggest a maternal effect, associated with this haplotype, once their presence in women is related to a higher number of couples who underwent ART. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effect of Transient Treatment with Propylthiouracil on Some Reproduction Traits and Live Weight of Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sogut

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of transient treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU on some reproduction traits and live weight of quails. The trial lasted 8 weeks. To accomplish this goal, 700 1-day-old quail chicks were used, randomly divided into 8 groups. PTU was added to feed by 0.1% and 0.5% /wt. The first 4 groups had 0.5% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 2-8 wk., respectively. The 5 th, 6 th and 7 th groups had 0.1% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 wk., respectively, and the 8 th group was the control with no PTU. Quails were bled at 60 days of age. Then right and left testes were taken out and weighed. At the end of the trail, least square means of the live weight of the treatment groups were higher than the control (p<0.05. Similar results (p<0.05 were observed for testis weight, testis diameter and fertility rate. As a result, it can be said that the inclusion of PTU in quail rations positively affects the live weight and reproduction traits of quails.

  2. Depression in Chinese men undergoing different assisted reproductive technique treatments: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Zeng, Dan; Li, Fei; Cui, Dan

    2013-09-01

    To explore the prevalence and risk factors for depression in men undergoing different assisted reproductive technique (ART) treatments in Chinese population. This was a prospective study of 844 men undergoing ART treatments. All men were distributed to four groups, according to they received treatments. The treatments included IUI (intrauterine insemination), IVF(in vitro fertilization), ICSI(intra cytoplasmatic sperm injection) and TESA/PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration/testicular sperm aspiration). Their symptoms of depression were measured with use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale(CES-D). Data were collected about age, BMI, education, duration of marriage, duration of infertility, smoking, type of infertility, infertility causes, history of ejaculation failure, and financial burden of the treatment. We estimated the prevalence of depressive symptom in men undergoing different ART and used logistic regression models to identify risk factors for depression in different groups. The overall prevalence of depression was 13.3 % for men undergoing ART treatments: 14.5 % of IUI group, 12.4 % of IVF group, 19.2 % of ICSI group and 6.2 % of TESA/PESA group. Prevalence of depression among IUI group, IVF group and ICSI group were not significantly different. For IUI group, the factors were found to increase depression risk were treatment financial burden and duration of marriage, to decrease depression risk was age. For IVF group, the risk factors independently associated with depression were both male and female infertility, unexplained infertility, and history of ejaculation failure. In a sample of Chinese men undergoing ART treatments, the prevalence of depression was higher than other country. The risk factors for depression varied in different ART treatments groups. when routine screening to identify the sub-group of vulnerable men which need counselling before ART treatments, we should also consider which pattern of ART

  3. Effectivity of advanced wastewater treatment: reduction of in vitro endocrine activity and mutagenicity but not of in vivo reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebner, Sabrina; Ostermann, Sina; Straskraba, Susanne; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have a limited capacity to eliminate micropollutants. One option to improve this is tertiary treatment. Accordingly, the WWTP Eriskirch at the German river Schussen has been upgraded with different combinations of ozonation, sand, and granulated activated carbon filtration. In this study, the removal of endocrine and genotoxic effects in vitro and reproductive toxicity in vivo was assessed in a 2-year long-term monitoring. All experiments were performed with aqueous and solid-phase extracted water samples. Untreated wastewater affected several endocrine endpoints in reporter gene assays. The conventional treatment removed the estrogenic and androgenic activity by 77 and 95 %, respectively. Nevertheless, high anti-estrogenic activities and reproductive toxicity persisted. All advanced treatment technologies further reduced the estrogenic activities by additional 69-86 % compared to conventional treatment, resulting in a complete removal of up to 97 %. In the Ames assay, we detected an ozone-induced mutagenicity, which was removed by subsequent filtration. This demonstrates that a post treatment to ozonation is needed to minimize toxic oxidative transformation products. In the reproduction test with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a decreased number of embryos was observed for all wastewater samples. This indicates that reproductive toxicants were eliminated by neither the conventional nor the advanced treatment. Furthermore, aqueous samples showed higher anti-estrogenic and reproductive toxicity than extracted samples, indicating that the causative compounds are not extractable or were lost during extraction. This underlines the importance of the adequate handling of wastewater samples. Taken together, this study demonstrates that combinations of multiple advanced technologies reduce endocrine effects in vitro. However, they did not remove in vitro anti-estrogenicity and in vivo reproductive toxicity. This

  4. The pineal gland, but not melatonin, is associated with the termination of seasonal testicular activity in an annual reproductive cycle in roseringed parakeet Psittacula krameri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anamika; Kumar Maitra, Saumen

    2006-01-01

    The role of the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin in the regulation of annual testicular events was investigated for the first time in a psittacine bird, the roseringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Accordingly, the testicular responsiveness of the birds was evaluated following surgical pinealectomy with or without the exogenous administration of melatonin and the experimental manipulations of the endogenous levels of melatonin through exposing the birds to continuous illumination. An identical schedule was followed during the four reproductive phases, each characterizing a distinct testicular status in the annual cycle, namely, the phases of gametogenic quiescence (preparatory phase), seasonal recovery of gametogenesis (progressive phase), seasonal initiation of sperm formation (pre-breeding phase), and peak gametogenic activity (breeding phase). In each reproductive phase, the birds were subjected to various experimental conditions, and the effects were studied comparing the testicular conditions in the respective control birds. The study included germ cell profiles of the seminiferous tubules, the activities of steroidogenic enzymes 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and Delta(5)3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta(5)3beta- HSD) in the testis, and the serum levels of testosterone and melatonin. An analysis of the data reveals that the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin may play an inhibitory role in the development of the testis until the attainment of the seasonal peak in the annual reproductive cycle. However, in all probability, the termination of the seasonal activity of the testis or the initiation of testicular regression in the annual reproductive cycle appears to be the function of the pineal gland, but not of melatonin.

  5. Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Reproductive Disorders of Large Animals in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZH Zuo, TY Zhang, J Chu, Q Zhang, YX Guo, ZQ Shen and C He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive diseases have been a great threat in large animal herds. Before induction of western medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that is based on the use of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage and other forms of therapy has been practiced in China for thousands of years. The foundational text of Chinese medicine dated back to 5th century to 3rd century BCE, humans in China began developing the TCM therapy by maintaining normal homeostasis and body functions. Traditional Chinese medicine prophylaxis is a very different strategy from that of the western medicine, targeting the balance of the diseased animals as compared to the single lesion. Traditional Chinese medicine was also applied to cure ruminant’s reproductive disorders such as infertility, abortion and retained placenta. With the increasing concerns of the antibiotic resistance and drug abuse happened, TCM has acquired re-recognition as compared to western medicines due to eco-friendly consumer-driven developments and less residue in food chains. More importantly, a growing number of active substances or extracts with the reliable efficacy are being identified, meanwhile, the quality control measures are satisfied in the large-scale production already. However, few TCM is recognized to be used internationally as the popular human medication. Even less TCM is prescribed legally to animal industry due to poor understanding TCM philosophy and lack of the right guidelines of the registration. This summary aims to elucidate the TCM application in the treatment of the reproductive disorder in large animals and offer alternative strategies for prophylaxis.

  6. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S. (Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function.

  7. HLA-G profile of infertile couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Nardi, Fabiola Silva; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; da Graça Bicalho, Maria

    2016-12-01

    HLA-G codes for a non-classical class I (Ib) protein which is mainly expressed in trophoblast cells. Many pieces of evidence pointed out its essential role conferring immunological tolerance to the fetus. Some HLA-G alleles have been linked to enhanced or reduced HLA-G protein levels expression, which have been associated with reproductive failure. In this study 33 couples undergoing ART (assisted reproduction treatment; n=66) and 120 couples who conceived naturally (controls; n=240) were enrolled in the study. Genotyping was performed by SBT and tagged an 1837bp at 5'URR as well as exons 2, 3 and4 of HLA-G. Alleles, genotypes and haplotypes were compared between infertile and control groups using Fisher Exact Test. The haplotype HLA-G ∗ 010101b/HLA-G ∗ 01:01:01 showed statistically significant higher frequency in control groups. The immunogenetics of infertility is complex and might be dependent on different genes involved in the establishment of a successful pregnancy. A better understanding of HLA-G alleles and haplotypes structure and how the genetic diversity at their regulatory sites could impact on their level of expression and build up the susceptibility or protection conditions may shed light on the comprehension of immunogenetics mechanisms acting at the fetus-maternal interface. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF Leporinus copelandii (Pisces: Anostomidae FEMALES FROM THE LOWER PARAÍBA DO SUL RIVER BASIN, RJ – BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ribeiro Costa Erthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were investigate the reproductive biology of the fish Leporinus copelandii, a specie at risk of extinction in the lower Paraíba do Sul River basin. During a period of 14 months, a total of 143 females of red-piau were captured, between Itaocara and Campos dos Goytacazes cities (RJ, Brazil. A histological study shows four stages of the oocyte development (I, II, III and IV and five stages of the reproductive cycle of females: rest (1, initial maturation (2A, intermediary (2B, advanced (2C and spawned (4 were identified. The pattern of L. copelandii oocyte development suggests development type synchronous in two groups, characterizing total spawning. Spawned females were captured in November, two months after the peak of frequency of competent females for reproduction. Histologically, a little occurrence of empty follicles was observed in spawned females. The medium diameter of the type IV oocyte of the spawned females (1475.1 ± 884.3mm was significantly larger (Tukey, P <0.001; VC = 41.73%; n = 259 than advanced maturation females (1202.6 ± 245.3mm, what allows suggesting that the study place probably doesn't represent the reproductive area of L. copelandii.

  9. Effect of Melatonin on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technique Cycles in Women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve: A Double-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahia Namavar Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR significantly decreases the success rate of the assisted reproductive technique (ART. In this study, we assessed the effect of melatonin on the ART outcomes in women with DOR. A double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was performed on 80 women with DOR as a pilot study in Shiraz, between 2014 and 2015. DOR was defined as the presence of 2 of the following 3 criteria: 1 anti-Müllerian hormone ≤1, 2 folliclestimulating hormone ≥10, and 3 bilateral antral follicle count ≤6. The women received 3 mg/d melatonin or a placebo since the fifth day of one cycle prior to gonadotropin stimulation and continued the treatment up to the time of ovum pickup. The ART outcomes were compared between the groups using SPSS software. Finally, there were 32 women in the case and 34 in the placebo groups. The mean age and basal ovarian reserve test were the same between the groups. The serum estradiol level on the triggering day was significantly higher in the case group (P=0.005. The mean number of MII oocytes was higher in the case group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Number of the patients who had mature MII oocytes (P=0.014, top-quality embryos with grade 1 (P=0.049, and embryos with grades 1 and 2 (P=0.014 was higher among the women who received melatonin. However, the other ART outcomes were not different between the groups. The serum estradiol level was higher and more women with DOR had good-quality oocytes and embryos after receiving melatonin; however, no other outcome was different between the case and control groups. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014041417264N1

  10. Incidence of depression and influence of depression on the number of treatment cycles and births in a national cohort of 42 880 women treated with ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, C S; Hageman, I; Pinborg, A

    2013-01-01

    differing in fertility status (both mothers and childless women). WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Fewer women in the ART cohort developed depression over time compared with the age-matched background population, which might reflect a healthy patient effect of the women seeking ART treatment. Women......STUDY QUESTION: Does prior depression in women treated with assisted reproduction technology (ART) influence the number of treatment cycles and ART live births? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with a depression diagnosis prior to ART treatment initiated statistically significantly fewer ART treatment cycles...... and had a lower mean number of ART live births compared with women with no history of depression. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies have shown an increased prevalence of depressive symptoms in fertility patients than in the comparison groups. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A register-based national...

  11. Structural Analysis of Treatment Cycles Representing Transitions between Nursing Organizational Units Inferred from Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmer, Matthias; Kurt, Zeyneb; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Them, Christa; Schulc, Eva; Hofer, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate treatment cycles inferred from diabetes data by means of graph theory. We define the term treatment cycles graph-theoretically and perform a descriptive as well as quantitative analysis thereof. Also, we interpret our findings in terms of nursing and clinical management. PMID:26030296

  12. Effect of two virus inactivation methods. Electron beam irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment on determination of reproductive hormones in equine plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Nansen, P. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hoeier, R.; Brueck, I. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Clinical Studies, Section of Reproduction, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P{sub 4}), and oestradiol-17 {beta} (E{sub 2})). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p<0.001) between pre- and post-treatment hormone levels. Thus, the different phases of the oestrous cycle could be distinguished on the basis of measured hormone concentrations of treated samples. However, both treatments significantly changed hormone concentrations of the plasma samples. For LH, FSH, and E{sub 2} the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P{sub 4} the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P{sub 4} concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au). 17 refs.

  13. On certain aspects of reproductive function preservation and social adjustment following complex treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susuleva, N.A.; Il'yashenko, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Data on the reproductive status and social adjustment of 443 children exposed to combined treatment of Hodgkin's disease according 3 different programs (from 1976 up to 1994). 1 program consists of chemoradiotherapy, 2 program includes the irradiation of zones of primary injury (cumulative dose up to 40 Gy), 3 program stipulates the irradiation of zones of primary injury at the cumulative dose 30 Gy. 258 patients reach the age of 18. It is shown that the treatment in childhood does not affect considerably the reproductive function and social adjustment

  14. Endometrial thickness as a predictor of the reproductive outcomes in fresh and frozen embryo transfer cycles: A retrospective cohort study of 1512 IVF cycles with morphologically good-quality blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Zhou; Ren, Xinling; Huang, Bo; Zhu, Guijin; Yang, Wei; Jin, Lei

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between endometrial thickness during fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and the clinical outcomes of subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles.FET cycles using at least one morphological good-quality blastocyst conducted between 2012 and 2013 at a university-based reproductive center were reviewed retrospectively. Endometrial ultrasonographic characteristics were recorded both on the oocyte retrieval day and on the day of progesterone supplementation in FET cycles. Clinical pregnancy rate, spontaneous abortion rate, and live birth rate were analyzed.One thousand five hundred twelve FET cycles was included. The results showed that significant difference in endometrial thickness on day of oocyte retrieval (P = .03) was observed between the live birth group (n = 844) and no live birth group (n = 668), while no significant difference in FET endometrial thickness was found (P = .261) between the live birth group and no live birth group. For endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day, clinical pregnancy rate ranged from 50.0% among patients with an endometrial thickness of ≤6 mm to 84.2% among patients with an endometrial thickness of >16 mm, with live birth rate from 33.3% to 63.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of factors related to live birth indicated endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day was associated with improved live birth rate (OR was 1.069, 95% CI: 1.011-1.130, P = .019), while FET endometrial thickness did not contribute significantly to pregnancy outcomes following FET cycles. The ROC curves revealed the cut-off points of endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day was 8.75 mm for live birth.Endometrial thickness during fresh IVF cycles was a better predictor of endometrial receptivity in subsequent FET cycles than FET cycle endometrial thickness. For those females with thin endometrium in fresh cycles, additional estradiol stimulation might be helpful for adequate

  15. Influence of clinical mastitis and its treatment outcome on reproductive performance in crossbred cows: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Manimaran, A; Sivaram, M; Kumaresan, A; Jeyakumar, S; Sreela, L; Mooventhan, P; Rajendran, D

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of the effect of clinical mastitis (CM) and its treatment outcome on the reproductive performance in crossbred cows retrospectively. Datasets of 835 lactating cows affected with CM during a period of 12 years (2001-2012) were considered for this study. Mastitis treatment related data and reproductive parameters such as days to first detected heat (DTFDH), days to first insemination (DTFI), days open (DO), and number of services per conception (SC) were collected from mastitis treatment and artificial insemination registers, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS 20 software. The means were compared with the Duncan's multiple comparison post-hoc test. CM affected cows had significantly (p<0.05) higher DTFDH, DTFI, DO and SC compared to clinically healthy cows. Cows diagnosed with a single episode of CM had significantly (p<0.05) delayed DTFDH while, DO and SC were significantly higher (p<0.05) in cows diagnosed by multiple episodes of CM. SC was significantly (p<0.05) higher in cows diagnosed with both relapse and recurrence. Severe CM affected cows had significantly (p<0.05) altered reproductive parameters. The reproductive parameters were altered to high extent when CM occurred during the breeding period. CM-affected cows had higher DTFDH, DTFI, DO and SC compared to clinically healthy cows. The negative effects of CM on reproduction parameters were higher when CM occurred during the breeding period.

  16. Influence of clinical mastitis and its treatment outcome on reproductive performance in crossbred cows: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of the effect of clinical mastitis (CM and its treatment outcome on the reproductive performance in crossbred cows retrospectively. Materials and Methods: Datasets of 835 lactating cows affected with CM during a period of 12 years (2001-2012 were considered for this study. Mastitis treatment related data and reproductive parameters such as days to first detected heat (DTFDH, days to first insemination (DTFI, days open (DO, and number of services per conception (SC were collected from mastitis treatment and artificial insemination registers, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS 20 software. The means were compared with the Duncan's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Results: CM affected cows had significantly (p<0.05 higher DTFDH, DTFI, DO and SC compared to clinically healthy cows. Cows diagnosed with a single episode of CM had significantly (p<0.05 delayed DTFDH while, DO and SC were significantly higher (p<0.05 in cows diagnosed by multiple episodes of CM. SC was significantly (p<0.05 higher in cows diagnosed with both relapse and recurrence. Severe CM affected cows had significantly (p<0.05 altered reproductive parameters. The reproductive parameters were altered to high extent when CM occurred during the breeding period. Conclusion: CM-affected cows had higher DTFDH, DTFI, DO and SC compared to clinically healthy cows. The negative effects of CM on reproduction parameters were higher when CM occurred during the breeding period.

  17. Reproductive biology of the endangered percid Zingel asper in captivity: a histological description of the male reproductive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Exbrayat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Rhodanian percid Zingel asper (Linnaeus, 1758, is usually found throughout the Rhône basin, but this fish is now in sharp decline. Understanding its reproductive physiology is important so as to be able to artificially control its reproduction with a view to re-introducing it. This study was carried out on a population obtained by artificial fertilization and bred in external tanks. Fishes were observed from the juvenile stages through to adulthood. Patterns of testicular development were defined from histological observations. Testes of Z. asper were paired, elongated and fusiform dorsocaudal organs. The two lobes of each gonad joined together to form a duct that extended to the urogenital papillae. They showed a lobular structure. The testicular lobules were of the unrestricted spermatogonial type. Up to 10 months-old, most of the males were immature: their testes showed only type A spermatogonia. The appearance of type B spermatogonia in the lobules of a testis indicated the beginning of spermatogenesis in 10 months-old fish. Spermiogenesis occurred 24 months after the fertilization and, in 26 months-old fish, the cyst opened and released spermatozoa into the lumen of lobules. The spermiation belonged to a cystic type. During the third year, histological observations pointed to the same evolution of adult gonads as during the second year. Sexual maturity was reached in captive Z. asper after two years. The spawning occurred in May in the breeding conditions. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 3, 486–496

  18. The reproductive cycle, condition index, and glycogen reserves of the cockles Cerastoderma glaucum from the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, Sahar; Smaoui-Damak, Wafa; Rebai, Tarek; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2015-11-01

    The gametogenic cycle of the Cerastoderma glaucum was analyzed using both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. The condition index and glycogen concentrations were determined in order to provide information on energy storage. The cockles were collected monthly from a Bayyadha site located 15 km south of Sfax City (Gulf of Gabès) between January 2007 and January 2008. From histological point of view, we applied two approaches: (i) the qualitative method describing the various stages of gamete development for males and females during a cycle of 13 months, and (ii) the semi-quantitative method concerning the estimation of different tissue surfaces. The results showed that there is evidence of three periods of reproduction in this population. A comparison between the surfaces occupied by the three organs showed that the foot and the gonad surfaces are higher than the surface of the adductor muscle. This could suggest that these two organs are more involved in the process of glycogen reserve storage. The results of the glycogen concentrations in the different tissues (gonad, adductor muscle, and "remainders") show that during the second and third periods of reproduction, glycogen was stored in the adductor muscle and in the remainder during sexual rest, and in the gonad during the gametogenesis phases in order to supply the reproductive effort. On the contrary, in the first period of reproduction, the low concentrations of glycogen recorded in the gonad coincided with its high degree of development. This fact could be related to environmental conditions (low temperature and food) recorded during this period.

  19. Effects of 6-mercaptopurine treatment on sperm production and reproductive performance: a study in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligumsky, Moshe; Badaan, Shadi; Lewis, Hadassa; Meirow, Dror

    2005-04-01

    Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine interact in purine metabolism and DNA synthesis, thus their potential mutagenic effects have been of concern in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially in patients of childbearing age. Although several clinical studies have indicated their safety in both reproduction and pregnancy, in a recent large epidemiological study concerns were raised about their adverse effects in pregnant patients with IBD, and experimental or basic data on this subject are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate sperm production, sperm quality, and reproductive outcome following prolonged 6-MP administration to male mice. Highly inbred Balb/c adult male mice were used. 6-MP at doses of 2, 5, and 8 mg/kg (n = 9 for each group) was given daily for 51 days and the treatment group was compared with controls. After 45 days of treatment, the mice were mated with females. Following 13 days of pregnancy, the products of conception were evaluated and live fetuses were examined for gross malformations. Sperm production and morphology were examined after 51 days of 6-MP administration. Treatment with 6-MP at all doses did not affect sperm morphology and sperm production in the testicular tubules, as compared with controls (70% normal sperm). However, pregnancy rates were inversely related to escalating doses of 6-MP: 55%, 41%, 28%, and 16% for control, 2, 5, and 8 mg/kg groups, respectively. Resorption rates (abortions) were 21% in the control group as compared with 45-50% in all the treatment groups, but the incidence of major congenital malformations was not increased. Long-term 6-MP treatment in male mice did not impair sperm production and sperm morphology. However, a significantly high rate of embryonic resorption indicated occult sperm damage. Thus, normal sperm analysis does not necessarily imply that sperm damage at genetic level did not occur. It is difficult to extrapolate from these results to the clinical use of 6-MP

  20. Role of temperature in the reproductive cycle of Thais chocolata (Gastropoda, Muricidae in Chanavaya, Tarapacá, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillanez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive condition of Thais chocolata (copulative aggregation establishment, clutch laying in capsules and specimen density, was studied monthly between February 2009 and January 2010, in the locality of Chanavaya (Tarapacá, Chile. Results showed that the specimens are mainly distributed in aggregations, and that their gonad development is asynchronous with the presence of mature females being registered during the entire year. Reproductive aggregations were found in the shallow stratus from late January to August 2009 and reappearing in January 2010. However, the larger ones (which sustained extraction occurred during June-July and January. An increase in specimen density in the 5 to 17 m stratum was registered in May-August and December-January, coinciding with the periods previous to, during and after the highest aggregation magnitudes registered. The aggregation periods coincided with temperatures over 15°C, with a lower reproductive activity associated to a decrease in temperature. We state that abrupt temperature changes occurring in short time periods could cause mature specimen to move, increasing their density in shallow waters for reproductive purposes. We suggest increasing protection for the resource during the reproductive aggregation processes given that extraction leaves the clutches unprotected and prone to predation from other organisms.

  1. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    were abstracted from medical records. Flow diagrams were drawn for different standard treatment cycles and direct costs at each stage in the flow charts were measured and valued by a bottomup procedure. Indirect costs were distributed to each treatment cycle on the basis of number of visits as basis...

  2. Differential expression patterns of PQRFamide peptide and its two receptor genes in the brain and pituitary of grass puffer during the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Pain-modulatory neuropeptides, PQRFamide (PQRFa) peptides, have recently been implicated in the regulation of reproduction in fish. As a first step toward investigating the role of PQRFa peptides on reproductive function in the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, which is a semilunar spawner, we cloned genes encoding PQRFa peptide precursor (pqrfa) and its two types of receptors (pqrfa-r1 and pqrfa-r2), and examined changes in their expression levels in the brain and pituitary over several months during the reproductive cycle. The grass puffer PQRFa peptide precursor of 126 amino acid residues contains two putative PQRFa peptides, PQRFa-1 and PQRFa-2, which correspond to NPFF and NPAF in other vertebrates, respectively. The grass puffer PQRFa-R1 and PQRFa-R2 consist of 426 and 453 amino acid residues, respectively, and contain distinct characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors. These three genes were exclusively expressed in the brain and pituitary. The expression levels of pqrfa and pqrfa-r1 were significantly increased during the late stage of sexual maturation, but low in the spawning fish just after releasing sperms and eggs. Therefore, the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have a role in the late stage of sexual maturation before spawning via PQRFa-R1. In contrast, the pqrfa-r2 expression showed maximum levels in the spawning fish and in the post-spawning period. The present results provide fundamental data suggesting that the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have multiple roles in the control of reproduction that are dependent on the reproductive stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in female zebrafish after long-term exposure to MC-LR: A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Li, Li; Wu, Ning; Su, Yujing; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu; Gu, Zemao

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been found to cause reproductive and developmental impairments as well as to disrupt sex hormone homeostasis of fish during acute and sub-chronic toxic experiments. However, fish in natural environments are continuously exposed to MC-LR throughout their entire life cycle as opposed to short-term exposure. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the mechanism by which MC-LR harms female fish reproduction and development within natural water bodies is through interference of the reproductive endocrine system. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30 μg/L MC-LR for 90 d until reaching sexual maturity. Female zebrafish were selected, and the changes in growth and developmental indicators, ovarian ultrastructure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones and vitellogenin (VTG) were examined along with the transcription of related genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis (HPGL-axis). The results showed for the first time, a life cycle exposure to MC-LR caused growth inhibition, decreased ovary weight and ovarian ultra-pathological lesions. Decreased ovarian testosterone levels indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormone balance. Significantly up-regulated transcription of brain FSHβ and LHβ along with ovarian ERα, FSHR and LHR suggested positive feedback regulation in the HPGL-axis was induced as a compensatory mechanism for MC-LR damage. It was also noted that ovarian VTG content and hepatic ERα and VTG1 expression were all down-regulated, which might be responsible for reduced vitellus storage noted in our histological observations. Our findings indicate that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR impairs the development and reproduction of female zebrafish by disrupting the transcription of related HPGL-axis genes, suggesting that MC-LR has potential adverse effects on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic environment

  4. Melatonin treatment in spring and reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luridiana, S; Mura, M C; Daga, C; Farci, F; Di Stefano, M V; Zidda, F; Carcangiu, V

    2015-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the effect of melatonin treatment on the advanced reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score (BCS) and age, 800 ewes were selected from two farms. These ewes (3-6 years old, multiparous and with BCS 2.5-4.0) were subdivided into two Groups (200 M and 200 C), balanced on their BCS and age. On 20 March, Group M was treated with one melatonin implant (18 mg). Group C was untreated. Males were introduced to the groups 35 days after treatment. Gestation was diagnosed between day 45 and 90 after mating by transabdominal ultrasonography. From day 150 to 190 after rams introduction, lambing date and newborns' number were recorded. The average time in days between male introduction and lambing resulted shorter in treated than in control ewes (166.4 ± 0.48 vs. 172.5 ± 0.50) (P scored 2.5-3.0 (166.1 ± 0.48 vs. 174.8 ± 0.51) (P < 0.05). We concluded that the ewes with BCS 3.5-4.0 and aged 5-6 years showed a better response to melatonin treatment in spring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproduction in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M; Gonzalez-Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G S; Villafañe, P; Formía, N; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    1999-06-01

    The effect of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproductive performance was studied in Holstein heifer calves grown on pastures in comparison to naturally nematode-infected, untreated animals. Ivermectin effectively abated the presence of nematode eggs in feces. Eggs per gram (EPG) in parasitized animals increased rapidly from wk 12 to 18 of age and then decreased. Animals treated with ivermectin grew faster than untreated ones, and differences in body weight became significant at 6 wk of life, even before eggs appeared in the feces of either treatment group. Ivermectin-treated heifers reached puberty 3 wk earlier than infected ones as assessed with serum progesterone concentrations (ivermectin, 30.4 +/- .8 vs untreated, 33.7 +/- 1.3 wk of age). This delay was not directly related to body weight. In addition, pelvic area at 39 wk and at 15 mo of age was increased in treated heifers (8 and 11%, respectively) compared with parasitized animals. No differences in the wither heights were observed. We conclude that ivermectin treatment in dairy heifers may increase growth rate during development, advance the onset of ovarian function, and positively affect yearling pelvic area.

  6. Association of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and parental infertility diagnosis with autism in ART-conceived children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissin, D M; Zhang, Y; Boulet, S L; Fountain, C; Bearman, P; Schieve, L; Yeargin-Allsopp, M; Jamieson, D J

    2015-02-01

    Are assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment factors or infertility diagnoses associated with autism among ART-conceived children? Our study suggests that the incidence of autism diagnosis in ART-conceived children during the first 5 years of life was higher when intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was used compared with conventional IVF, and lower when parents had unexplained infertility (among singletons) or tubal factor infertility (among multiples) compared with other types of infertility. Some studies found an increased risk of autism among ART-conceived infants compared with spontaneously-conceived infants. However, few studies, and none in the USA, have examined the associations between types of ART procedures and parental infertility diagnoses with autism among ART-conceived children. Population-based retrospective cohort study using linkages between National ART Surveillance System (NASS) data for 1996-2006, California Birth Certificate data for 1997-2006, and California Department of Developmental Services (DDS) Autism Caseload data for 1997-2011. All live born ART-conceived infants born in California in 1997-2006 (n = 42 383) with 5-year observation period were included in the study. We assessed the annual incidence of autism diagnosis documented in DDS, which includes information on the vast majority of persons with autism in California, and the association of autism diagnosis with ART treatment factors and infertility diagnoses. Among ART-conceived singletons born in California between 1997 and 2006, the incidence of autism diagnosis remained at ∼0.8% (P for trend 0.19) and was lower with parental diagnosis of unexplained infertility (adjusted hazard risk ratio [aHRR]; 95% confidence interval: 0.38; 0.15-0.94) and higher when ICSI was used (aHRR 1.65; 1.08-2.52), when compared with cases without these patient and treatment characteristics. Among ART-conceived multiples, the incidence of autism diagnosis between 1997 and 2006 remained at

  7. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies with treatment of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in a single center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, YueQiu; Gao, Ya; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to report the performance of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies after the treatment of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Method: In two years period, 565 pregnant women with ART twin pregnancies were prospectively tested by NIPT...

  8. A treatment of thermal efficiency improvement in the Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji; Nakanishi, Shigeyasu; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Ishigai, Seikan.

    1982-01-01

    So far, as the working fluid for power-generating plants, mainly water and air (combustion gas) have been used. In this study, in regeneration and isothermal compression processes being considered as the means for the efficiency improvement in Brayton cycle, the investigation of equivalent graphical presentation method with T-S diagrams, the introduction of the new characteristic number expressing the possibility of thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, and the investigation of the effect of the difference of working fluid on thermal efficiency were carried out. Next, as the cycle approximately realizing isothermal compression process with condensation process, the super-critical pressure cycle with liquid phase compression was rated, and four working fluids, NH 3 , SO 2 , CO 2 and H 2 O were examined as perfect gas and real gas. The advantage of CO 2 regeneration for the thermal efficiency improvement was clarified by using the dimensionless characteristic number. The graphical presentation of effective work, the thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, the thermal efficiency improvement by making compression process isothermal, the effect on thermal efficiency due to various factors and working fluids, the characteristic number by regeneration, and the application to real working fluids are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Impact of Breast Cancer Treatments on Gonadal Function and Reproductive Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganz, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    .... These data include information on demographics, menstrual and reproductive history, medication history, pregnancy/fertility history, past and current symptoms that may be menopause related, use...

  10. Impact of Breast Cancer Treatments on Gonadal Function and Reproductive Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganz, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    .... These data include information on demographics, menstrual and reproductive history, medication history, pregnancy/fertility history, past and current symptoms that may be menopause related, use...

  11. Some aspects on the reproductive cycle of European conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Anguilliformes, Congridae captured from Western Algerian coasts: a histological description of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi-ayad Sidi-Mohammed El-Amine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the annual reproductive cycle of European conger eel (Conger conger,Linnaeus, 1758 through analysis and description of spermatogenesis. A sample of 168 males was capturedbetween September 2008 and August 2009 from the Western coast of Algeria, from Béni Saf. Fish length andweight varied between 26.20-112 cm and 0.45-3.44 kg, respectively.Condition factors (K, gonadosomatic index (G.S.I. and hepatosomatic index (H.S.I. were calculatedmonthly. Factor K reached the minimum in August/September (0.10% corresponding to reproductive periodand a maximum in January (0.18%. Although G.S.I. values revealed to be statistically not significant, therewere two peaks for G.S.I., the first in March, denoting the beginning of spermatogenesis, and the second inAugust/September, indicating the reproduction period. H.S.I. reached a peak in December (1.90%, then thevalue decreased to a minimum in April.Histological analysis of testis allowed us to distinguish 5 stages summarized as follows: Stage 1:Spermatogonia A; Stage 2: Spermatogonia B; Stage 3: Spermatocytes and spermatids; Stage 4: Spermatocytes,spermatids and spermatozoa (cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa; Stage 5: Spermatozoa(spermiogenesis or cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa.

  12. Evaluation of Efficacy of Herbal Intrauterine Infusion Uterofix Liquid in Treatment of Various Reproductive Disorders in Cows: A Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Satinder; Choudhary, Adarsh; Maini, Shivi; Ravikanth, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat b...

  13. Assisted reproductive technology with donor sperm: national trends and perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkowicz, Sabrina A; Crawford, Sara B; Hipp, Heather S; Boulet, Sheree L; Kissin, Dmitry M; Kawwass, Jennifer F

    2018-04-01

    Information regarding the use of donor sperm in assisted reproductive technology, as well as subsequent treatment and perinatal outcomes, remains limited. Outcome data would aid patient counseling and clinical decision making. The objectives of the study were to report national trends in donor sperm utilization and live birth rates of donor sperm-assisted reproductive technology cycles in the United States and to compare assisted reproductive technology treatment and perinatal outcomes between cycles using donor and nondonor sperm. We hypothesize these outcomes to be comparable between donor and nondonor sperm cycles. This was a retrospective cohort study using data from all US fertility centers reporting to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System, accounting for ∼98% of assisted reproductive technology cycles (definition excludes intrauterine insemination). The number and percentage of assisted reproductive technology cycles using donor sperm and rates of pregnancy, live birth, preterm birth (accounting for approximately 6% of all assisted reproductive technology cycles in 2014. Assisted reproductive technology treatment and perinatal outcomes were clinically similar in donor and nondonor sperm cycles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation on Hope and Psychological Symptoms in Infertile Couples Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam mohammadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated hope, depression, anxiety, and stress among three groups of infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of three groups of infertile couples-candidates for oocyte donation (n=60, embryo donation (n=60, and normal infertile (n=60. Participants included couples seen at Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2014 who were at least 18 years of age and could read and write in Persian. Participants provided demographic and general characteristics and completed the Persian version of the Adult Trait Hope Scale (hope, agency and pathway and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS. Data was analyzed by the paired t test, ANOVA, ANCOVA and Pearson correlation tests using SPSS statistical software. Results: Overall, 180 infertile couples participated in the three groups. There was a significant higher mean score for hope in husbands compared to wives in the normal infertile group (P=0.046. Husbands in the normal infertile group also had a significantly higher mean score for pathway (P=0.032. The frequency of anxiety significantly differed in female subjects (P=0.028. In the normal infertile group, the anxiety distribution significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.006. There was a significantly different stress frequency in male subjects (P=0.048. In the embryo donation group, stress significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.002. In the normal infertile group, stress also significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.05. Conclusion: The results have suggested that hope might be important in reducing psychological symptoms and psychological adjustment in those exposed to infertility problems who follow medical recommendations, which accelerates recovery. It is recommended to hold psychological counseling sessions (hope therapy during reproduction cycles.

  15. POSSIBILITIES OF USING LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT HEPARIN IN THE COMPLEX TREATMENT OF WOMEN WITH TUMORS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kedrova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign and malignant tumors of the organs of the female reproductive system are the most common diseases requiring medical and surgical treatment. They are rarely the cause of acute complications. However, the thromboembolic disease is a serious illness, sometimes causing death due to acute the pulmonary embolism. Venous thromboembolism secondary to Benign and malignant tumors of the organs of the female reproductive system should be considered in a female presenting with abdominal mass and pelvic pressure. Thromboembolic disease secondary to large tumors should be treated with anticoagulation then hysterectomy. The article presents an analysis of modern literature on optimal prevention of the pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with tumors of the female reproductive system. There are analysis data of 17 (0.7 % cases of the pulmonary thromboembolism that occurred of 2358 gynecological and oncogynecologic patients.

  16. Honeymoon, medical treatment or big business? An analysis of the meanings of the term "reproductive tourism" in German and Israeli public media discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Sharon; Michaelsen, Merle A

    2013-08-20

    Infertile couples that travel to another country for reproductive treatment do not refer to themselves as "reproductive tourists". They might even be offended by this term. "Tourism" is a metaphor with hidden connotations. We will analyze these connotations in public media discourses on "reproductive tourism" in Israel and Germany. We chose to focus on these two countries since legal, ethical and religious restrictions give couples a similar motivation to travel for reproductive care, while the cultural backgrounds and conceptions of reproduction are different. Our research shows that the use of the metaphor "reproductive treatment" and its hidden messages depends on the writers' intention and the target population. Although the phenomenon of patients travelling for reproductive treatment can fit into the definitions of tourism, the term emphasizes aspects that do not reflect patients' reality. In both the German and the Israeli public media debate the term "reproductive tourism" is either used to criticize the economic aspects of the phenomenon or to attract patients as potential clients. Ethicists should be cautious when borrowing metaphors like "reproductive tourism" from the public debate. Our findings support Penning's suggestion to use instead an unloaded term like cross-border reproductive care to describe the phenomenon in a more neutral way and to make it explicit whenever criticism is necessary.

  17. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the advanced treatment technologies, i...

  18. Adaptations in the Microarchitecture and Load Distribution of Maternal Cortical and Trabecular Bone in Response to Multiple Reproductive Cycles in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Chantal M. J.; Altman-Singles, Allison R.; Li, Yihan; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Li, Connie; Liu, X. Sherry

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy, lactation, and weaning result in dramatic changes in maternal calcium metabolism. In particular, the increased calcium demand during lactation causes a substantial degree of maternal bone loss. This reproductive bone loss has been suggested to be largely reversible, as multiple clinical studies have found that parity and lactation history have no adverse effect on post-menopausal fracture risk. However, the precise effects of pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning recovery on maternal bone structure are not well understood. Our study aimed to address this question by longitudinally tracking changes in trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture at the proximal tibia in rats throughout three cycles of pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning using in vivo μCT. We found that the trabecular thickness underwent a reversible deterioration during pregnancy and lactation, which was fully recovered after weaning, while other parameters of trabecular microarchitecture (including trabecular number, spacing, connectivity density, and structure model index) underwent a more permanent deterioration which recovered minimally. Thus, pregnancy and lactation resulted in both transient and long-lasting alterations in trabecular microstructure. In the meantime, multiple reproductive cycles appeared to improve the robustness of cortical bone (resulting in an elevated cortical area and polar moment of inertia), as well as increase the proportion of the total load carried by the cortical bone at the proximal tibia. Taken together, changes in the cortical and trabecular compartments suggest that while rat tibial trabecular bone appears to be highly involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis during female reproduction, cortical bone adapts to increase its load-bearing capacity, allowing the overall mechanical function of the tibia to be maintained. PMID:28109138

  19. Survival, reproduction, growth, and parasite resistance of aquatic organisms exposed on-site to wastewater treated by advanced treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Vorberg, Lisa; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Ternes, Thomas; Coors, Anja

    2017-05-01

    Advanced wastewater treatment technologies are generally known to be an effective tool for reducing micropollutant discharge into the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, some processes such as ozonation result in stable transformation products with often unknown toxicity. In the present study, whole effluents originating from nine different steps of advanced treatment combinations were compared for their aquatic toxicity. Assessed endpoints were survival, growth and reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor chronically exposed in on-site flow-through tests based on standard guidelines. The treatment combinations were activated sludge treatment followed by ozonation with subsequent filtration by granular activated carbon or biofilters and membrane bioreactor treatment of raw wastewater followed by ozonation. Additionally, the impact of treated wastewater on the immune response of invertebrates was investigated by challenging D. magna with a bacterial endoparasite. Conventionally treated wastewater reduced reproduction of L. variegatus by up to 46%, but did not affect D. magna and L. minor with regard to survival, growth, reproduction and parasite resistance. Instead, parasite susceptibility was significantly reduced in D. magna exposed to conventionally treated as well as ozonated wastewater in comparison to D. magna exposed to the medium control. None of the three test organisms provided clear evidence that wastewater ozonation leads to increased aquatic toxicity. Rather than to the presence of toxic transformation products, the affected performance of L. variegatus could be linked to elevated concentrations of ammonium and nitrite that likely resulted from treatment failures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlates of Self-reported Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Treatment in Sexually Experienced Reproductive Age Women in the United States, 1995 to 2006–10

    OpenAIRE

    Leichliter, Jami S.; Chandra, Anjani; Aral, Sevgi O.

    2013-01-01

    Data from a national probability sample of reproductive-aged women found a decrease in receipt of treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease from 1995 to 2006–10 but treatment was highest among women with a lower socioeconomic status.

  1. Endometritis treatment with a PGF2alpha analog does not improve reproductive performance in a large dairy herd in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Miguel Eduardo; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel María

    2005-03-15

    In Argentina, most dairy cows with endometritis are treated with prostaglandin (PGF(2alpha) or its analogs) and insemination is withheld until there are no signs of endometritis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate if this method of managing endometritis enhances reproductive performance. Three experiments were conducted over 4 years in a large farm in the west of Buenos Aires province. In Experiment 1, half of the cows diagnosed with endometritis (>1.5-fold difference in diameter of uterine horns, as determined by rectal palpation) received standard endometritis management (treatment with tiaprost, a PGF(2alpha) analog, rectal palpation every 20 days, and withholding of AI until endometritis apparently resolved) and the other half was untreated, with AI at the first estrus after the voluntary waiting period. Untreated cows were inseminated and conceived 20 days earlier than treated cows, and the pregnancy rate by Day 90 postpartum was higher in the untreated group. In Experiment 2, cows with endometritis were divided into four groups according to the severity of symptoms; within each group, cows were allocated to treatment or control, as in Experiment 1. Although first service conception rate decreased as endometritis severity increased, reproductive performance in treated versus control cows was similar to that of Experiment 1 (with no interaction due to degree of endometritis). Re-evaluation of the treated cow (to confirm uterine "normality") may have been responsible for the delay in conception in both experiments. The objective of Experiment 3 was to determine the effects of tiaprost treatment on clinically normal postpartum cows (no evidence of endometritis). Tiaprost treatment reduced the interval from calving to conception in multiparous cows, but it delayed conception and reduced the conception rate in primiparous cows. In conclusion, treatment with tiaprost impaired reproductive performance in primiparous cows (in the absence of

  2. Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida

    2015-01-01

    of unipolar depression compared with women with a live birth after ART treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) Cohort is a national register-based cohort study that consists of women who received ART treatment from 1 January 1994 to 30 September 2009, in Denmark (n = 41 050......INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown conflicting results whether unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction is a risk factor for depression among women. This study therefore investigated if women with no live birth after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment had a higher risk......). Information on unipolar depression was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The analyses were conducted in Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: During the 308 494 person-years of follow up, 552 women were diagnosed with unipolar depression. A Cox proportional hazards model showed...

  3. Honeymoon, medical treatment or big business? An analysis of the meanings of the term “reproductive tourism” in German and Israeli public media discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background/Introduction Infertile couples that travel to another country for reproductive treatment do not refer to themselves as “reproductive tourists”. They might even be offended by this term. “Tourism” is a metaphor with hidden connotations. We will analyze these connotations in public media discourses on “reproductive tourism” in Israel and Germany. We chose to focus on these two countries since legal, ethical and religious restrictions give couples a similar motivation to travel for reproductive care, while the cultural backgrounds and conceptions of reproduction are different. Results Our research shows that the use of the metaphor “reproductive treatment” and its hidden messages depends on the writers’ intention and the target population. Although the phenomenon of patients travelling for reproductive treatment can fit into the definitions of tourism, the term emphasizes aspects that do not reflect patients’ reality. In both the German and the Israeli public media debate the term “reproductive tourism” is either used to criticize the economic aspects of the phenomenon or to attract patients as potential clients. Conclusions Ethicists should be cautious when borrowing metaphors like “reproductive tourism” from the public debate. Our findings support Penning’s suggestion to use instead an unloaded term like cross-border reproductive care to describe the phenomenon in a more neutral way and to make it explicit whenever criticism is necessary. PMID:23962355

  4. Ovulatory disorders are an independent risk factor for pregnancy complications in women receiving assisted reproduction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Sumita; Hng, Tien-Ming; Smith, Howard; Bradford, Jennifer; McLean, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Conception using assisted reproduction treatments (ART) has been associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications. It is uncertain if this is caused by ART directly, or is an association of the underlying factors causing infertility. We assessed the relationship between assisted conception (AC) and maternal or fetal complications in a large retrospective cohort study. In a nested cohort of women receiving infertility treatment, we determined if such risk rests predominantly with certain causes of infertility. Retrospective database analysis of 50 381 women delivering a singleton pregnancy in four public hospital obstetric units in western Sydney, and a nested cohort of 508 women receiving ART at a single fertility centre, in whom the cause of infertility was known. A total of 1727 pregnancies followed AC; 48 654 were spontaneous conceptions. Adjusted for age, body mass index and smoking, AC was associated with increased risk of preterm delivery (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.50-2.02), hypertension (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.34-1.82) and diabetes (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.30-1.75). In the nested cohort, ovulatory dysfunction was present in 145 women and 336 had infertility despite normal ovulatory function. Ovulatory dysfunction was associated with increased risk of diabetes (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.72-5.02) and hypertension (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.15-5.00) compared to women with normal ovulatory function. Assisted conception is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications. This risk appears greatest for women whose underlying infertility involves ovulatory dysfunction. Such disorders probably predispose towards diabetes and hypertension, which is then exacerbated by pregnancy. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Actor and partner effects of coping on adjustment in couples undergoing assisted reproduction treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kroemeke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Infertility is a shared experience as it affects both partners. However, mutual dependencies between coping and adjustment at the couple level remain to be fully elucidated. The study attempted to address this issue using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM to examine the actor effect (the extent to which an individual’s score on coping predicted their own level of depressive symptoms and life purpose and the partner effect (the extent to which an individual’s score on coping predicted the level of adjustment in the partner in couples undergoing assisted reproduction treatment (ART. Participants and procedure Coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and life purpose were assessed among 31 married couples (aged 27-38 years undergoing ART. The Brief COPE, CES-D, and PIL questionnaires were used. Data were analyzed by multilevel modeling (MLM. Results The results of MLM indicated that focus on positive and active coping had an actor effect with depressive symptoms and life purpose, respectively. The actor effect of evasive coping on depression was moderated by gender and significant only in women. The partner effect was demonstrated for evasive coping, social support seeking, and substance use – the first two were gender moderated and significant in men. Conclusions Coping efforts in the couple during infertility treatment are not only associated with the individual but also the partner’s adjustment to that situation. Although the focus on positive and active coping was associated with individual benefits, other coping strategies which have the function of a protective buffer may also result in the occurrence of side effects, especially in females.

  6. Microbial Pathogens Implicated in Reproductive Health Infections in a Special Treatment Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Ogunshe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The lack of adequate recognition of health importance of non-HIV reproductive health infections (RHIs in Nigeria has led into this study, which was to determine clinical pathogens in non-HIV RHI in Nigeria using a tertiary health facility as case study.Materials and Methods: A nine-year investigation was carried out between 1997 and 2005 on 4047 (n = 1626 males; n = 2421 females patients presenting at Special Treatment Clinic (STC of University College Hospital (UCH Ibadan, Nigeria. Routine laboratory procedures using appropriate culture media, culture conditions, and current phenotypic taxonomic tools for classification of isolated pathogens were employed.Results: Age (p = 0.019 and gender (p<0.0001 were related to the recovery rates of pathogens Candida species (55.6 %, Neisseria gonorrhoae (11.1%, Gardenella vaginalis (10.3%, Escherichia coli (9.2 %, Klebsiella sp. (4.2%, streptococci (4.0%, Staphylococcus aureus (2.3%, Proteus sp., (1.8%, Haemophilus ducreyi (0.5%, Trichomonas vaginalis (0.44% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.18%. Candida and Gardenella vaginalis species were mostly recovered from female patients, while N.gonorrhoeae were mostly isolated from male patients. Age brackets for the recovery of pathogens were Neisseria gonorrhoeae (16-30 years; Gardenella vaginalis (21-25 and 31-35 years and C.albicans (21-30 years.Conclusion: Candida, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Gadrenella vaginalis were the most recovered pathogens from patients presenting at Special Treatment Clinic of a tertiary health institution in Nigeria, and the relationship between age, gender and the aetiological agents was statistically significant.

  7. Changes in lipid content and fatty acid composition along the reproductive cycle of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha: Its modulation by clofibrate exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzara, Raimondo; Fernandes, Denise, E-mail: deniseferna@gmail.com; Faria, Melissa; Lopez, Jordi F.; Tauler, Roma; Porte, Cinta, E-mail: cinta.porte@cid.csic.es

    2012-08-15

    Total lipids and fatty acid profiles were determined along the reproductive cycle of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). A total of 33 fatty acids with carbon atoms from 14 to 22 were identified: palmitic acid (16:0) was the most abundant fatty acid (13-24%) followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7). Some individual fatty acids (16:0, 16:2n-4, 18:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-4, 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3, 20:5n-3) were strongly related to reproductive events, while others having structural-type functions (18:0 and 22:6n-3) were rather stable during the study period. Multivariate analysis of the whole data set using the multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares method confirmed the strong relationship of fatty acid profiles with the reproductive cycle of zebra mussel. Additionally, the effects of the pharmaceutical clofibrate on lipid composition and fatty acid profiles were assessed following 7-day exposure of zebra mussels to a wide range of concentrations (20 ng/L to 2 mg/L). A significant reduction in total triglycerides (38%-48%) together with an increase in the amount of fatty acids per gram wet weight (1.5- to 2.2-fold) was observed in the exposed mussels. This work highlights the ability of clofibrate to induce changes on the lipidome of zebra mussels at concentrations as low as 200 ng/L. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clofibrate exposure leads to a reduction of total triglycerides in zebra mussel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of fatty acids per gram wet weight increased in exposed mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects were evidenced at concentrations of clofibrate as low as 200 ng/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fatty acid profiles were closely related to reproductive events.

  8. Changes in lipid content and fatty acid composition along the reproductive cycle of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha: Its modulation by clofibrate exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzara, Raimondo; Fernandes, Denise; Faria, Melissa; López, Jordi F.; Tauler, Romà; Porte, Cinta

    2012-01-01

    Total lipids and fatty acid profiles were determined along the reproductive cycle of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). A total of 33 fatty acids with carbon atoms from 14 to 22 were identified: palmitic acid (16:0) was the most abundant fatty acid (13–24%) followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n−3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n−3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n−7). Some individual fatty acids (16:0, 16:2n−4, 18:1n−7, 18:2n−6, 18:3n−4, 18:4n−3, 20:4n−3, 20:5n−3) were strongly related to reproductive events, while others having structural-type functions (18:0 and 22:6n−3) were rather stable during the study period. Multivariate analysis of the whole data set using the multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares method confirmed the strong relationship of fatty acid profiles with the reproductive cycle of zebra mussel. Additionally, the effects of the pharmaceutical clofibrate on lipid composition and fatty acid profiles were assessed following 7-day exposure of zebra mussels to a wide range of concentrations (20 ng/L to 2 mg/L). A significant reduction in total triglycerides (38%–48%) together with an increase in the amount of fatty acids per gram wet weight (1.5- to 2.2-fold) was observed in the exposed mussels. This work highlights the ability of clofibrate to induce changes on the lipidome of zebra mussels at concentrations as low as 200 ng/L. -- Highlights: ► Clofibrate exposure leads to a reduction of total triglycerides in zebra mussel. ► The amount of fatty acids per gram wet weight increased in exposed mussels. ► The effects were evidenced at concentrations of clofibrate as low as 200 ng/L. ► Fatty acid profiles were closely related to reproductive events.

  9. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  10. Life cycle assessment applied to wastewater treatment; Analyse de cycle de vie appliquee aux systemes de traitement des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renou, S.

    2006-01-15

    Nowadays, the environmental performances of wastewater treatment systems are not properly analyzed. Thus, the development of an exhaustive and reliable method is needed to help stakeholders to choose the best environmental solutions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was selected as a starting point to answer this problem. LCA has been tested. This tool is essential to analyze the environmental performances of wastewater treatment systems. In order to fulfill our goal, the best compromise seems to be the association of LCA, to assess global impacts, with others methodologies, to assess local impacts. Finally, a software has been developed to compare urban sludge treatment and recovering process trains. Two impacts, energy and greenhouse effect, are currently included in. The software and its development steps are described and illustrated through two case studies. This tool has made LCA easier to apply and more useful to wastewater field stakeholders. (author)

  11. Reproductive cycle and sexual maturation of the musky octopus Eledone moschata (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in the northern and central Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Krstulović Šifner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight relationships, sex ratio, maturity patterns, reproductive outputs, fecundity and spawning period of the musky octopus Eledone moschata (Lamarck, 1798 in the northern and central Adriatic Sea are presented for the first time. Samples were collected on a monthly basis by commercial bottom trawls between October 2001 and June 2003. A total of 1552 specimens were analysed (779 males, 764 females, 9 undetermined. The overall sex ratio was close to 1:1, but during summer males were dominant. Length-weight relationships calculated for each sex and the whole sample showed negative allometric growth (b

  12. Reproductive Tract Infections and Treatment Seeking Behavior among Married Adolescent Women 15-19 Years in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Prusty, MPS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Methods: Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08 of India were used. The prevalence of RTIs symptoms and treatment seeking behavior among women by different socio-demographic characteristics was analyzed. Factor analysis was utilized to create an index using information about 11 symptoms of RTI/STI collected in the survey. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to know the association between infections and treatment seeking behavior with socio-demographic factors. Results: About 15 percent of adolescent women reported having any symptoms of RTI/STI. The main symptoms reported were low backache, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse and itching or irritation around the vulvar region. Factor analysis showed the concentration of diseases in three clusters – infection in around the vulva, other reproductive infection and abnormal discharge; and intercourse related problems. Major predictors of both symptoms of reproductive infections and treatment seeking behavior from multivariate analysis are age, education, wealth, region and awareness about RTI/STI. Conclusion and Public Health Implications: Knowledge and treatment seeking behavior is poor among adolescent women in India. There is need for programmatic and policy emphasis on increasing knowledge and awareness through family life education including in educational curriculum at school level.

  13. Reproductive Tract Infections and Treatment Seeking Behavior among Married Adolescent Women 15-19 Years in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Ranjan Kumar; Unisa, Sayeed

    2013-01-01

    India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI) and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08) of India were used. The prevalence of RTIs symptoms and treatment seeking behavior among women by different socio-demographic characteristics was analyzed. Factor analysis was utilized to create an index using information about 11 symptoms of RTI/STI collected in the survey. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to know the association between infections and treatment seeking behavior with socio-demographic factors. About 15 percent of adolescent women reported having any symptoms of RTI/STI. The main symptoms reported were low backache, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse and itching or irritation around the vulvar region. Factor analysis showed the concentration of diseases in three clusters - infection in around the vulva, other reproductive infection and abnormal discharge; and intercourse related problems. Major predictors of both symptoms of reproductive infections and treatment seeking behavior from multivariate analysis are age, education, wealth, region and awareness about RTI/STI. Knowledge and treatment seeking behavior is poor among adolescent women in India. There is need for programmatic and policy emphasis on increasing knowledge and awareness through family life education including in educational curriculum at school level.

  14. The menstrual cycle regularization following D-chiro-inositol treatment in PCOS women: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Dondi, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Cianci, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by irregular cycles, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary at ultrasound and insulin resistance. The effectiveness of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) treatment in improving insulin resistance in PCOS patients has been confirmed in several reports. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the effect of DCI on menstrual cycle regularity in PCOS women. This was a retrospective study of patients with irregular cycles who were treated with DCI. Of all PCOS women admitted to our centre, 47 were treated with DCI and had complete medical charts. The percentage of women reporting regular menstrual cycles significantly increased with increasing duration of DCI treatment (24% and 51.6% at a mean of 6 and 15 months of treatment, respectively). Serum AMH levels and indexes of insulin resistance significantly decreased during the treatment. Low AMH levels, high HOMA index, and the presence of oligomenorrhea at the first visit were the independent predictors of obtaining regular menstrual cycle with DCI. In conclusion, the use of DCI is associated to clinical benefits for many women affected by PCOS including the improvement in insulin resistance and menstrual cycle regularity. Responders to the treatment may be identified on the basis of menstrual irregularity and hormonal or metabolic markers.

  15. Accuracy of Robotic Radiosurgical Liver Treatment Throughout the Respiratory Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jeff D.; Wong, Raimond; Swaminath, Anand; Chow, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify random uncertainties in robotic radiosurgical treatment of liver lesions with real-time respiratory motion management. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 27 liver cancer patients treated with robotic radiosurgery over 118 fractions. The robotic radiosurgical system uses orthogonal x-ray images to determine internal target position and correlates this position with an external surrogate to provide robotic corrections of linear accelerator positioning. Verification and update of this internal–external correlation model was achieved using periodic x-ray images collected throughout treatment. To quantify random uncertainties in targeting, we analyzed logged tracking information and isolated x-ray images collected immediately before beam delivery. For translational correlation errors, we quantified the difference between correlation model–estimated target position and actual position determined by periodic x-ray imaging. To quantify prediction errors, we computed the mean absolute difference between the predicted coordinates and actual modeled position calculated 115 milliseconds later. We estimated overall random uncertainty by quadratically summing correlation, prediction, and end-to-end targeting errors. We also investigated relationships between tracking errors and motion amplitude using linear regression. Results: The 95th percentile absolute correlation errors in each direction were 2.1 mm left–right, 1.8 mm anterior–posterior, 3.3 mm cranio–caudal, and 3.9 mm 3-dimensional radial, whereas 95th percentile absolute radial prediction errors were 0.5 mm. Overall 95th percentile random uncertainty was 4 mm in the radial direction. Prediction errors were strongly correlated with modeled target amplitude (r=0.53-0.66, P<.001), whereas only weak correlations existed for correlation errors. Conclusions: Study results demonstrate that model correlation errors are the primary random source of uncertainty

  16. [Survey of the cycle of reproduction of red algae Gelidium sesquipedale (Turner) Thuret (case of the maritime zone of El Jadida-Jarf lasfer of Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidane, H; Orbi, A; Sqalli, N; Zidane, F; Talbaoui, M; Hasnaoui, M; Fakhaoui, M

    2006-08-01

    The industrial exploitation of the agarophyte, Gelidium sesquipedale, is an important part of the economy of Morocco, however the species is in danger of being overexploited. The development of research on the biological cycle of the species enbles a better understanding of environmental influencies on its reproduction periods and of the effect of pulling up on the growth of the thalli. This should assist in helping to avoid excessive collection of the species and to reinforce a period of rest where no collection takes place. The major are of collection supplying industries is the maritime sector of El Jadida - Jarf Lasfar. In order to study the methods of reproduction of G sesquipedale, a first series of experimentation was carried out by the INRH. Studies relating to biology and the effect of pulling up on the biometrics of the thalli of this species were carried out at two stations of the maritime zone El Jadida - Jarf lasfar: Moulay Abdellah and Sidi Bouzid during the period 2000-2002. The results obtained show that the fertile thalli are present all the year with a maximum reproductive activity in winter. The recruitment of the young slings takes place before the winter and occurs more in Sidi Bouzid. The regeneration and the growth of the thalli are carried out in spring and summer. To preserve this resource, it is necessary to put in place a system whereby one zone or area is allowed to rest whilst another area is cultivated for a year; whilst in the following year the rercise occurs.

  17. Live-Birth Rate Associated With Repeat In Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D A C; Tilling, Kate; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    The likelihood of achieving a live birth with repeat in vitro fertilization (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to 3 or 4 embryo transfers. To determine the live-birth rate per initiated ovarian stimulation IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed up until June 2012. In vitro fertilization, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted, and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30%, and 100%, respectively, of women who discontinued due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of 0 had they continued. Among the 156,947 women, the median age at start of treatment was 35 years (interquartile range, 32-38; range, 18-55), and the median duration of infertility for all 257,398 cycles was 4 years (interquartile range, 2-6; range, cycle was 29.5% (95% CI, 29.3%-29.7%). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth cycle, with 65.3% (95% CI, 64.8%-65.8%) of women achieving a live birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 years using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (95% CI, 32.0%-32.5%) and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (95% CI, 67.8%-68.9%). For women aged 40 to 42 years, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-12.8%), with 6 cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (95% CI, 29.7%-33.3%). For women older than 42 years, all rates within each cycle

  18. Extraterritoriality for cross-border reproductive care: should states act against citizens travelling abroad for illegal infertility treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of assisted reproduction technologies, there has been discussion on which people should have access to these technologies and which treatments and techniques are morally acceptable. However, national legislation can no longer determine what citizens do. Some countries react to their citizens going abroad to evade restrictions by implementing even more restrictive laws. Turkey has recently become the first state to ban reproductive travel in pursuit of donor gametes. Several states in Australia have enacted or are considering laws that prohibit international commercial surrogacy. This article investigates the consistency and morality of several state reactions to cross-border reproductive care (CBRC), including extraterritorial regulation. The only widespread existing extraterritorial regulation of private life concerns female genital cutting (FGC), sex with children and (largely in the past) abortion. This discussion develops an analogy with these cross-border crimes to evaluate the morality of similar legislation in cases of CBRC. The dissimilarity in these analogies shows that extraterritoriality is a radical position that is generally inappropriate in the case of CBRC. Subsequently, several potential state reactions to CBRC for law evasion are considered. It is concluded that legislation of CBRC should be modest, tolerant and nuanced. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between pre-treatment maternal alcohol and caffeine intake and outcomes of assisted reproduction in a prospectively followed cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadia, L; Chiu, Y-H; Williams, P L; Toth, T L; Souter, I; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E; Gaskins, A J

    2017-09-01

    Is pre-treatment alcohol and caffeine intake associated with infertility treatment outcomes among women undergoing ART? Low to moderate alcohol and caffeine intakes in the year prior to infertility treatment were not related to ART outcomes. Alcohol and caffeine intake have been found to be associated with infertility in some studies. Nevertheless, data on their relation with outcomes of infertility treatments are scarce and inconsistent. We included 300 women (493 ART cycles) from the Environment and Reproductive Health Study, an ongoing cohort study (2006-2016). Pre-treatment intakes of alcohol and caffeine were assessed retrospectively using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Intermediate and clinical endpoints of ART were abstracted from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts to account for multiple ART cycles per woman were used to evaluate the association with ART outcomes adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, protocol type, race, dietary patterns, and calories, vitamin B12 and folate intake. Median (range) pre-treatment alcohol and caffeine intakes were 5.6 (0.0-85.8) g/day and 124.9 (0.3-642.2) mg/day, respectively. The adjusted percentage of initiated cycles resulting in live birth (95% CI) for women in increasing categories of pre-treatment alcohol intake was 34% (20, 52%) for non-consumers, 46% (36, 57%) for 0.1-6 g/day, 41% (29, 53%) for 6.1-12 g/day, 42% (31, 55%) for 12.1-24 g/day, and 41% (22, 63%) for >24 g/day (P, trend = 0.87). The adjusted percentage of cycles resulting in live birth (95% CI) for women in increasing categories of caffeine intake was 46% (36-57%) for 300 mg/day (P, trend = 0.34). When specific types of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages were evaluated, no relations with ART treatment outcomes were observed. Residual confounding by other diet and lifestyle factors cannot be ruled out owing to the observational nature of this study. It is also unclear how

  20. Antral follicle counts are strongly associated with live-birth rates after assisted reproduction, with superior treatment outcome in women with polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Jan; Brodin, Thomas; Berglund, Lars; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Olovsson, Matts; Bergh, Torbjörn

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the association of antral follicle count (AFC) with in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcome in a large unselected cohort of patients covering the entire range of AFC. Prospective observational study. University-affiliated private infertility center. 2,092 women undergoing 4,308 IVF-ICSI cycles. AFC analyzed for associations with treatment outcome and statistically adjusted for repeated treatments and age. Pregnancy rate, live-birth rate, and stimulation outcome parameters. The AFC was log-normally distributed. Pregnancy rates and live-birth rates were positively associated with AFC in a log-linear way, leveling out above AFC ∼30. Treatment outcome was superior among women with polycystic ovaries, independent from ovulatory status. The findings were significant also after adjustment for age and number of oocytes retrieved. Pregnancy and live-birth rates are log-linearly related to AFC. Polycystic ovaries, most often excluded from studies on ovarian reserve, fit as one extreme in the spectrum of AFC; a low count constitutes the other extreme, with the lowest ovarian reserve and poor treatment outcome. The findings remained statistically significant also after adjustment for the number of oocytes retrieved, suggesting this measure of ovarian reserve comprises information on oocyte quality and not only quantity. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pex11α in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario): Expression dynamics during the reproductive cycle reveals sex-specific seasonal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L Filipe C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Rocha, Maria J; Urbatzka, Ralph; Rocha, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    A negative correlation between female gonadal maturation kinetics and size variations of hepatic peroxisomes was earlier documented in brown trout, as a probable impact of serum estrogen changes during the reproductive cycle. Herein, we investigated whether the organelle volume/surface dynamics seen in female brown trout liver peroxisomes - without numerical changes within each hepatocyte - is followed by variations in the expression of the membrane peroxisome protein Pex11α gene. For comparison, we also studied males. We find in females a seasonal variation with the highest Pex11α expression in February, which was statistically different from all other tested periods. Overall, the expression of PEX11α had over a fivefold decrease from February to September. This period coincides with the reproductive transition between the earlier post-spawning gonadal remodeling and preparatory staging and the pre-spawning period. Males did not show changes. Our approach allowed the first characterization of a peroxin gene in a teleost, the Pex11α, while offering a correlation scenario were, as we hypothesized, the peroxisomal size kinetics is paralleled by membrane-related gene alterations (measured herein as proxy of Pex11α gene expression). Our data support and expand previous results on the regulation, function and morphology of peroxisome dynamics in brown trout, with a broader interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproductive cycle of Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in two areas of the Magellan Region (53ºS, 70-72ºW, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Oyarzún

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the Chilean edible sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, was studied in two areas of the Magellan region, the Cockburn Channel (53°43´S, 70°42´W and Dawson Island (53°43´S, 72°00´W. Eleven monthly samplings were carried out from April 1996 to May 1997 in each area and samples of between 88 and 100 organisms were collected. Test diameter, total wet weight, and wet gonad weight was measured for each organism. Sex, gonad index, maturity index and gametogenic condition were estimated for each organism through histological analyses. The results indicate that L. albus in the Magellan region has an annual reproductive cycle in which the temporal sequence of different gametogenic processes can not be distinguished accurately due to the rapid and continuous gonadal recovery and gamete production after the spawning period. Although mature organisms were present most of the year, simultaneous spawning of males and females occurred from August to September in Dawson Island and from July to September in the Cockburn Channel. Gametes of those organisms that became mature after the spawning period were resorbed by nutritive phagocytes. Results from this study suggest that small-scale variability of spawning period in the Magellan region may be explained by the differences in food type and availability among areas. Our results also suggest that the Magellan region is an exception to the latitudinal pattern of spawning period reported for most of the Chilean coast. This large-scale variability may be explained by the simultaneous occurrence of low temperatures and short days during late winter and early spring.

  3. Fertility-sparing treatment of endometrial cancer precursors among young women: a reproductive point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, E; Maniglio, P; Frega, A; Marci, R; Caserta, D; Moscarini, M

    2012-12-01

    Early-stage endometrial cancer and complex atypical hyperplasia are treated with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. An emerging issue among younger women affected is the possibility of a fertility-sparing treatment with progestative therapy and close follow-up. To assess the possibility of conceiving after a diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia among women younger than 40 years old, in term of delaying definitive treatment and achieving pregnancy. 15 women younger than 40 years old with complex CAH or early carcinoma of the endometrium and a wish to preserve fertility. Progestins were administered orally for at least a 12 weeks period. Endometrial biopsies were used at follow-up. In 11 women, a complete pathological remission of the disease was observed. 4 pregnancies were attained in 4 women. 3 showed progression and underwent definitive surgery at 18 months. 1 showed no response at 24 months and 3 cycles and was counseled to receive a hysterectomy. A conservative approach in patients younger than 40 years appears a valid option, and a progestative therapy trial should be attempted whether a valid consensus is attained. Considering the risk to find AEH at biopsies and eventually a carcinoma at hysterectomy (25% of cases) a careful management is strictly required.

  4. [A pilot study of antibiotic cycling for the treatment of febrile neutropenia patients with hematological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Keiichi; Urasaki, Yoshimasa; Tsutani, Hiroshi; Ueda, Takanori

    2004-03-01

    Two antibiotics recommended by the guideline of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) were selected for treatment of febrile neutropenia, and these paired antibiotics were changed periodically three times. The clinical efficacy of each antibiotic was retrospectively evaluated at the end of the final period. There was no significant difference about efficacy rate between two kinds of antibiotics in the same sequential period. However, the efficacy rate has been rising and febrile duration has been shortening by degrees. Only a few drug resistant bacteria were recognized by the surveillance culture during antibiotic cycling. Recently, antibiotic cycling therapy has attracted attention especially in the ICU. However, a clinical study of treatment for febrile neutropenia has not been reported. Our trial suggests that cycling therapy may be useful for febrile neutropenia. However, Some deviation in the patients characteristics of each period may affect the result. It seems that further examination is necessary about usefullness of the cycling therapy for febrile neutropenia.

  5. Evaluation of Efficacy of Herbal Intrauterine Infusion Uterofix Liquid in Treatment of Various Reproductive Disorders in Cows: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satinder; Choudhary, Adarsh; Maini, Shivi; Ravikanth, K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat breeder cows, Group T2 (n = 5) endometritis effected cows, Group T3 (n = 5) anoestrus cows, and Group T4 (n = 5) metritis suffered cows were treated with Uterofix liquid (25 ml as intrauterine infusion once a day for 3-5 days). Total observational period was 60 days. Number of treatments needed, nature of discharge in first posttreatment estrus (physical examination), after treatment number of animal showing heat/estrus out of total treated, and posttreatment conception rate were used as criteria to judge the success or failure of treatment. Results revealed that 18 out of 20 animals (90%) showed signs of heat with clear discharge, recovered completely without causing any irritation, or severe irritation/sloughing of genital mucous membrane after Uterofix liquid treatment. Herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid significantly treated the uterine infections in cows. Uterine infection is a major problem in reproductive management. A wide variety of genital tract diseases of female domestic animals are known to produce significant losses and responsible for poor fertility. Amongst these highly prevalent are metritis and repeat breeding in high-producing dairy cows which if remains untreated are associated with low conception rate per artificial insemination (AI), extended interval to pregnancy, increased culling, and economic losses. As herbal remedy the Uterofix liquid (Ayurvet Limited, India) was highly efficacious as an intrauterine infusion to treat different reproductive disorders.

  6. Technical project of complex fast cycle heat treatment of hydrogenous coal preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Moiseev, V. A.; Andrienko, V. G.; Pileckij, V. G.; Urvancev, A. I.; Gvozdyakov, Dmitry Vasilievich; Gubin, Vladimir Evgenievich; Matveev, Aleksandr Sergeevich; Savostiyanova, Ludmila Viktorovna

    2015-01-01

    Problems of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation site creation in leading fast cycle heat treatment complex were considered. Conditions for effective use of electrostatic methods of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation were set. Technical project of heat treatment of milled hydrogenous coal preparation site was developed including coupling of working equipment complex on fast heat treatment and experimental samples of equipment being designed for manufacturing. It was ...

  7. Life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae under constant and fluctuating conditions of temperature and humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damborsky Miryam P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature and relative humidity influence in the life cycle, mortality and fecundity patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria. Four cohorts with 60 recently laid eggs each were conformed. The cohorts were divided into two groups. In the controlled conditions group insects were maintained in a dark climatic chamber under constant temperature and humidity, whereas triatomines of the ambiental temperature group were maintained at room temperature. Average incubation time was 15.6 days in the controlled conditions group and 19.1 days in the ambiental temperature. In group controlled conditions the time from egg to adult development lasted 10 months while group ambiental temperature took four months longer. Egg eclosion rate was 99.1% and 98.3% in controlled conditions and ambiental temperature, respectively. Total nymphal mortality in controlled conditions was 52.6% whereas in ambiental temperature was 51.8%. Mean number of eggs/female was 817.6 controlled conditions and 837.1 ambiental temperature. Fluctuating temperature and humidity promoted changes in the life cycle duration and in the reproductive performance of this species, although not in the species mortality.

  8. Reproductive-phase and interphase lethal cell damage after irradiation and treatment with cytostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.

    1979-01-01

    After X-ray irradiation of manual cells, two lethal fractions occur due to reproductive and interphase death under low and high radiation doses. The damage kinetics on which this fact is based is compared with hypothetical tumour frequencies and leucemia induction caused in experiments. The reproductive-lethal damage can be manifested by means of colony size spectrometry, with the median colony size class differences (MCD) serving as measure for the damage found. The simultaneous effects of the cytostatics BLEOMYCIN or ICRF 159 and X-rays on reproductive lethal and interphase-lethal damage are measured by means of MCD and survival fraction, and the additive and intensifying effect' is judged with the help of suitably defined terms. This shows that the clinically used ICRF 159 has an additive effect on interphase-lethal and a sub-additive effect on reproductive-lethal cell damage. Thus, favourable results may be expected for the electivity factor in fractionated irradiation and with regard to delayed damage in healthy tissue. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RDG [de

  9. Strategies for the prevention and treatment of reproductive tract infections among women in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huong, Nguyen My; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents selected findings from a larger study on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among women seeking abortion in Northern Vietnam. In particular it focuses on women's experience of RTIs within the context of their perceptions of female physiology and what women do to prevent and ...

  10. Effect of duration of the GnRH agonists in the luteal phase in the outcome of assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Sampaio, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    The effect of long-acting GnRHa, in the luteal phase, during ART cycles varies from one patient to another. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of long-acting GnRHa in the luteal phase, in ART cycles, affects pregnancy rates according to the duration of its action in such phase. This is a retrospective study of 367 patients submitted to ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures that used long-acting depot GnRHa for pituitary suppression. Patients were stratified according to the period of action of the agonist in the luteal phase: group 1, ≤ 6 days; group 2, 7 to 12 days; and group 3, >12 days. The following variables were analyzed: ovarian response, age, infertility causes and pregnancy rates. Group 1 (n = 53) had a mean age of 33.8 ± 4.55 years (23-44 years) and a pregnancy rate of 45.2%. In group 2 (n = 118), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.5 years (24-44 years) and the pregnancy rate was 38.9%. In group 3 (n = 196), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.4 years (23-43 years) and the pregnancy rate was 47.4%. Regardless of the duration of depot GnRHa action in the luteal phase, no significant association with pregnancy rates was found.

  11. Effect of Prostatilene® AC and Prostatilene® on the ejaculate level of antisperm antibodies in the treatment of patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis and concomitant reproductive dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kh. Al’-Shukri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the comparative effects of Prostatilene® AC (rectal suppositories and Prostatilene® (rectal suppositories 30 mg on the ejaculate level of antisperm antibodies in the treatment of patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis and concomitant reproductive dysfunctions.Subjects and methods. A total of 98 men aged 25–45 years with a verified diagnosis of chronic abacterial prostatitis and related reproductive functions were examined. The patients were treated and examined in an outpatient setting at 2 specialized research centers. A study group (n = 49 received therapy with Prostatilene® AC, a control group (n = 49 had Prostatilene®. A direct mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR test was used to determine antisperm antibody levels in all the patients before and after a cycle of therapy. The findings were compared.Results. Primary examination revealed the presence of ejaculate antisperm antibodies in 43 (87.8 % and 40 (81.6 % cases in the study and control groups, respectively. After treatment, Prostatilene® was found to affect ejaculate antisperm antibody levels. The latter were reduced by Prostatilene® AC treatment. Final examination showed that 17 (34.6 % patients had antisperm antibodies in the ejaculate.Conclusion. Prostatilene® AC, unlike and Prostatilene®, is able to lower the ejaculate level of antisperm antibodies in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis and concomitant reproductive dysfunctions.

  12. Lifestyle-Related Factors Associated with Reproductive Health in Couples Seeking Fertility Treatments: Results of A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Lou Piché

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a larger prospective cohort study, which will aim at determining the independent contribution of male and female lifestyle-related factors to assisted reproductive technology (ART success. The study also examined whether couples seeking fertility treatments present lifestyle-related factors that may interfere with their reproductive health. Materials and Methods This prospective pilot study was conducted in a fertility clinic between May 2015 and February 2016. Feasibility factors evaluated were recruitment rates, compliance with the protocol, retention rate and ART outcomes at six-month follow-up. Anthropometric profile and lifestyle habits of both partners were evaluated before the beginning of infertility treatments. Results We approached 130 eligible infertile couples. Among them, 32 (25% agreed to participate and 28 (88% complied with the protocol. At six-month follow-up, seven couples (25% did not start, or stop, infertility treatments and 13 couples (62% achieved a clinical pregnancy. Among the 28 couples included in the analyses, 16% of the partners were obese and 23% had abdominal obesity. The majority of the subjects were still drinking alcohol (84%. Sixty-eight percent of women needed improvement in their diet (vs. 95% of men, P=0.05 and none of them achieved the Canadian recommendations for physical activity (vs. 33% of men, P=0.001. Moreover, 35% of the partners had a poor sleep quality. Overall, women presented a worse reproductive health profile than men, with 3.1 and 2.4 out of seven adverse factors, respectively (P=0.04. Conclusion Conducting a large prospective cohort study in our fertility clinic will be feasible but recruitment and compliance with the protocol need to be improved. Many women and men seeking fertility treatments present unfavourable lifestyle-related factors that may explain, at least partially, their difficulties in

  13. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF: Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Wulf Christensen

    Full Text Available Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF. Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following treatment-cycles and a more favorable outcome. The main objective was to explore if treatment cycle number modifies the outcome when investigating the effect of female Body Mass Index (BMI on oocyte quantity in IVF.A historical cohort study was conducted on 5,342 treatment-cycles during the period 1999-2009. Exclusion criteria were missing information on BMI or treatment type. Further, women were excluded if they had ovulated before oocyte retrieval. According to baseline BMI, women were divided into four categories following the World Health Organization standards. Multiple linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman.Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect modification from cycle number or a factor related to cycle number. The median dose of total follicular stimulating hormone given to the four BMI groups could not straight forwardly explain the less optimal oocyte outcome observed in first treatment cycles. No statistically significant differences were observed in oocyte yield for underweight, overweight and obesity compared to normal weight women when analyzing all treatment-cycles. Overweight women had significantly fewer mature (MII oocytes (p = 0.009 than normal weight women, whereas no differences was observed for underweight and obese women.Our study suggests a possible interaction or effect modification related to treatment cycle number. Investigating the effects of BMI on IVF-results in first treatment-cycles alone should be carried out cautiously.

  14. Comparison of treatment outcome using two definitions of rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Jay D; Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We examined differences in treatment outcome between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined rapid cycling and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that, compared with the DSM-IV definition, the average lifetime definition of rapid cycling may better identify subjects with a history of more mood lability and a greater likelihood of hypomanic symptom induction during long-term treatment. Subjects ≥18 years old with a bipolar II major depressive episode (n=129) were categorized into DSM-IV- and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling and prospectively treated with either venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n=59) received continuation monotherapy for six additional months. These exploratory analyses found moderate agreement between the two rapid-cycling definitions (κ=0.56). The lifetime definition captured subjects with more chronic courses of bipolar II depression, whereas the DSM-IV definition captured subjects with more acute symptoms of hypomania. There was no difference between rapid-cycling definitions with respect to the response to acute venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy. However, the lifetime definition was slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying subjects who went on to experience hypomanic symptoms during continuation therapy. Although sample sizes were limited, the findings suggest that the lifetime definition of rapid cycling may identify individuals with a chronic rapid-cycling course and may also be slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying individuals with hypomania during relapse-prevention therapy. These findings are preliminary in nature and need replication in larger, prospective, bipolar II studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Profile of sodium phenylbutyrate granules for the treatment of urea-cycle disorders: patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Quintana, Luis; Llarena, Marta; Reyes-Suárez, Desiderio; Aldámiz-Echevarria, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Urea-cycle disorders are a group of rare hereditary metabolic diseases characterized by deficiencies of one of the enzymes and transporters involved in the urea cycle, which is necessary for the removal of nitrogen produced from protein breakdown. These hereditary metabolic diseases are characterized by hyperammonemia and life-threatening hyperammonemic crises. Pharmacological treatment of urea-cycle disorders involves alternative nitrogen-scavenging pathways. Sodium benzoate combines with glycine and phenylacetate/phenylbutyrate with glutamine, forming, respectively, hippuric acid and phenylacetylglutamine, which are eliminated in the urine. Among the ammonia-scavenging drugs, sodium phenylbutyrate is a well-known long-term treatment of urea-cycle disorders. It has been used since 1987 as an investigational new drug, and was approved for marketing in the US in 1996 and the EU in 1999. However, sodium phenylbutyrate has an aversive odor and taste, which may compromise patients' compliance, and many patients have reported difficulty in taking this drug. Sodium phenylbutyrate granules are a new tasteless and odor-free formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate, which is indicated in the treatment of urea-cycle disorders. This recently developed taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate granules was designed to overcome the considerable issues that taste has on adherence to therapy. Several studies have reported the clinical experience of patients with urea-cycle disorders treated with this new tasteless formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate. Analysis of the data indicated that this taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate granules improved quality of life for urea-cycle disorder patients. Furthermore, a postmarketing report on the use of the product has confirmed the previous observations of improved compliance, efficacy, and safety with this taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate.

  16. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: an examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly cycling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleil, Maria E; Gregorich, Steven E; Adler, Nancy E; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P; Cedars, Marcelle I

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether reproductive age, as indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies among women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Cross-sectional study. Community-based sample. Multiethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly cycling premenopausal women, ages 25-45. None. AMH level. A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, nonlinear terms for age (age(2), age(3)), and body mass index (BMI(2), BMI(3)), and two-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each of the other predictor variables in relation to AMH. After backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F = 8.45), age (F = 349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F = 4.67), age(2) (F = 31.61), and BMI (F = 10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower among Latina women compared with white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower among African American and Chinese women compared with the white women at younger and middle ages, respectively. The AMH levels were higher among African American compared with Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Although the results must be considered preliminary, the findings are twofold: African American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age, and Latina and Chinese women compared with white women may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and a possibly increased risk for earlier menopause. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New methodology in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    chose among different waste water treatments? Which ones are most beneficial in a holistic perspective? Here, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach as a decision supporting tool may help because its goal is to allow quantification and direct comparison of characteristics as diverse as energy...

  18. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF): Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Wulf; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Degn, Birte

    2016-01-01

    linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman. RESULTS: Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect......INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF). Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following...

  19. Inhibin activity in male rat reproductive organs during treatment with dihydrotestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the inhibin level in the male reproductive system is studied. Hormones were determined in the peripheral blood of the donor rats by radioimmunoassay. Inhibin activity in the male rats is shown. DHT caused a very small increase in inhibin activity in the testis. Further study of relations between androgens and inhibin at peripheral and central levels will facilitate fertility control

  20. Endocrine correlates of reproduction in the wolf. I. Serum progesterone, estradiol and LH during the estrous cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.; Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    The estrous cycle of 10 intact female wolves, aged 8 months-8 years at the initiation of the study, was characterized in terms of vaginal smears, behavioral observations and serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) from January through June. No estrous cycles occurred in these animals between June and December. All were housed with male wolves. Two pups and 1 adult remained anestrous during this interval. One pup and 2 adults produced litters between May 4-6. Four adults exhibited endocrine changes similar to those of the pregnant animals but no litters or signs of abortion were observed. The duration of proestrus was 15.7 ± 1.6 days (X ± SEM, n = 6), of estrus 9.0 ± 1.2 days (n = 4) and of the luteal phase 63 ± 2 days (n = 6). The duration of pregnancy was between 60-65 days. The anestrous females (86 blood samples) had 6 progesterone values between 1-2 ng/ml and the remainder below 1 ng/ml. Their estradiol-17β concentrations varied between 5-20 pg/ml. Values for LH varied between 0.1-2 ng/ml, except for 1 value above 15 ng/ml for each of the 2 anestrous pups on 12 January.The 7 estrous animals (260 samples) included 1 pup and 2 adults that delivered litters. Estradiol-17β varied between 10-20 pg/ml during proestrus, peaked at 30-70 pg/ml late in proestrus and fluctuated between 10-30 pg/ml during pregnancy or the duration of luteal activity in the nonpregnant animals. The preovulatory LH rise, 5-15 ng/ml, extended over 3 days during and immediately following the peak estradiol-17β values. An earlier elevation in LH was observed in 3 of the estrous animals. Progesterone began increasing during the LH surge and peaked 11-14 days later at 22-40 ng/ml. Progesterone concentrations greater than 3 ng/ml were maintained for 56-68 days in 6 of the 7 animals exhibiting estrus. Progesterone concentrations declined at parturition but continued to fluctuate between 0.2-3 ng/ml for 3-6 weeks.

  1. The effect of inorganic and organic form of zinc on digestibility of nutrients in dairy cows in three stages of reproductive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Balabánová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to compare the effect of feeding inorganic and organic forms of zinc in premix on the coefficient of digestibility of nutrients in the feeding ration for cows in three stages of reproductive cycle – 14 d before calving and 30 and 60 d after calving. The experiment was carried out on 19 Holstein cows that were divided into two groups. A control group of nine cows designated as “Inorganic zinc form” (IZF was fed a diet supplemented with mineral premix containing inorganic form of zinc (ZnO. An experimental group of ten cows designated as “Organic zinc form” (OZF had zinc oxide replaced with zinc fixed to methionine (Khei-chelate Zn powder 15% by Kheiron. The experiment was divided into three periods - the first period lasted from 14th day before calving until 2nd day after calving, the second period lasted from 3rd day to 30th day after calving and the third period lasted from 31st day to 60th day after calving. Cows were fed the diet based on maize silage, lucerne haylage, sugar beet pulp silage, grass or lucerne hay and concentrate containing premix with either inorganic or organic zinc form. During the experiment samples of feeding ration and faeces were taken in 3 intervals, it si on 14th day before calving, on 30th day and on 60th day after calving to determine nutrients content. Digestibility of nutrients was calculated using indicator method (ash insoluble in 3 M HCl.After feeding organic forms of zinc a tendency to higher digestibility of crude protein, fat, crude fiber, nitrogen-free extracts, ash and zinc was observed in cows regardless of stage of reproductive cycle. The digestibility of the zinc and fiber were the most increased. Digestibility of zinc in OZF on 14th day before calving was higher than in IZF (P < 0.05. Feeding of organic zinc forms had downward effect only on the digestibility of copper.

  2. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring: a study of 1,925 young men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    motile sperm (-4.0%, 95% CI: -8.0, -0.1), and fewer morphologically normal spermatozoa (-2.0%, 95% CI: -4.1, 0.0). They also had a lower serum testosterone level and free androgen index (results not statistically significant). These findings should be viewed in light of the increasing use of fertility......Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample...

  3. The psychological impact of IVF failure after two or more cycles of IVF with a mild versus standard treatment strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Klerk, Cora; Macklon, Nick; Heijnen, E.M.; Eijkemans, René; Fauser, Bart; Passchier, Jan; Hunfeld, Joke

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Failure of IVF treatment after a number of cycles can be devastating for couples. Although mild IVF strategies reduce the psychological burden of treatment, failure may cause feelings of regret that a more aggressive approach, including the transfer of two embryos, was not employed. In this study, the impact of treatment failure after two or more cycles on stress was studied, following treatment with a mild versus a standard treatment strategy. Methods: Randomized cont...

  4. Pregnancy outcomes decline with increasing body mass index: analysis of 239,127 fresh autologous in vitro fertilization cycles from the 2008-2010 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Meredith P; Acharya, Kelly S; Acharya, Chaitanya R; Yeh, Jason S; Steward, Ryan G; Eaton, Jennifer L; Goldfarb, James M; Muasher, Suheil J

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on IVF outcomes in fresh autologous cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 239,127 fresh IVF cycles from the 2008-2010 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry were stratified into cohorts based on World Health Organization BMI guidelines. Cycles reporting normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) were used as the reference group (REF). Subanalyses were performed on cycles reporting purely polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-related infertility and those with purely male-factor infertility (34,137 and 89,354 cycles, respectively). None. Implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss rate, and live birth rate. Success rates and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all pregnancy outcomes were most favorable in cohorts with low and normal BMIs and progressively worsened as BMI increased. Obesity also had a negative impact on IVF outcomes in cycles performed for PCOS and male-factor infertility, although it did not always reach statistical significance. Success rates in fresh autologous cycles, including those done for specifically PCOS or male-factor infertility, are highest in those with low and normal BMIs. Furthermore, there is a progressive and statistically significant worsening of outcomes in groups with higher BMIs. More research is needed to determine the causes and extent of the influence of BMI on IVF success rates in other patient populations. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural and genomic properties of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus ATV with an extracellular stage of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangishvili, David; Vestergaard, Gisle; Häring, Monika; Aramayo, Ricardo; Basta, Tamara; Rachel, Reinhard; Garrett, Roger A

    2006-06-23

    A novel virus, ATV, of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus has the unique property of undergoing a major morphological development outside of, and independently of, the host cell. Virions are extruded from host cells as lemon-shaped tail-less particles, after which they develop long tails at each pointed end, at temperatures close to that of the natural habitat, 85 degrees C. The extracellularly developed tails constitute tubes, which terminate in an anchor-like structure that is not observed in the tail-less particles. A thin filament is located within the tube, which exhibits a periodic structure. Tail development produces a one half reduction in the volume of the virion, concurrent with a slight expansion of the virion surface. The circular, double-stranded DNA genome contains 62,730 bp and is exceptional for a crenarchaeal virus in that it carries four putative transposable elements as well as genes, which previously have been associated only with archaeal self-transmissable plasmids. In total, it encodes 72 predicted proteins, including 11 structural proteins with molecular masses in the range of 12 to 90 kDa. Several of the larger proteins are rich in coiled coil and/or low complexity sequence domains, which are unusual for archaea. One protein, in particular P800, resembles an intermediate filament protein in its structural properties. It is modified in the two-tailed, but not in the tail-less, virion particles and it may contribute to viral tail development. Exceptionally for a crenarchaeal virus, infection with ATV results either in viral replication and subsequent cell lysis or in conversion of the infected cell to a lysogen. The lysogenic cycle involves integration of the viral genome into the host chromosome, probably facilitated by the virus-encoded integrase and this process can be interrupted by different stress factors.

  6. Profile of sodium phenylbutyrate granules for the treatment of urea-cycle disorders: patient perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Quintana L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Luis Peña-Quintana,1–3 Marta Llarena,2 Desiderio Reyes-Suárez,2 Luis Aldámiz-Echevarria4 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Unit, Universitario Materno-Infantil Hospital de Canarias, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 2Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, 3CIBEROBN, Madrid, 4Unit of Metabolism, Cruces University Hospital, BioCruces Health Research Institute, GCV-CIBER de Enfremedades Raras (CIBERER, Barakaldo, Spain Abstract: Urea-cycle disorders are a group of rare hereditary metabolic diseases characterized by deficiencies of one of the enzymes and transporters involved in the urea cycle, which is necessary for the removal of nitrogen produced from protein breakdown. These hereditary metabolic diseases are characterized by hyperammonemia and life-threatening hyperammonemic crises. Pharmacological treatment of urea-cycle disorders involves alternative nitrogen-scavenging pathways. Sodium benzoate combines with glycine and phenylacetate/phenylbutyrate with glutamine, forming, respectively, hippuric acid and phenylacetylglutamine, which are eliminated in the urine. Among the ammonia-scavenging drugs, sodium phenylbutyrate is a well-known long-term treatment of urea-cycle disorders. It has been used since 1987 as an investigational new drug, and was approved for marketing in the US in 1996 and the EU in 1999. However, sodium phenylbutyrate has an aversive odor and taste, which may compromise patients’ compliance, and many patients have reported difficulty in taking this drug. Sodium phenylbutyrate granules are a new tasteless and odor-free formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate, which is indicated in the treatment of urea-cycle disorders. This recently developed taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate granules was designed to overcome the considerable issues that taste has on adherence to therapy. Several studies have reported the

  7. Centrosome structure and function is altered by chloral hydrate and diazepam during the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the mode of action of the tranquillizers chloral hydrate and diazepam during fertilization and mitosis of the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs. Most striking effects of these drugs are the alteration of centrosomal material and the abnormal microtubule configurations during exposure and after recovery from the drugs. This finding is utilized to study the mechanisms of centrosome compaction and decompaction and the dynamic configurational changes of centrosomal material and its interactions with microtubules. When 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam is applied at specific phases during the first cell cycle of sea urchin eggs, expanded centrosomal material compacts at distinct regions and super-compacts into dense spheres while microtubules disassemble. When eggs are treated before pronuclear fusion, centrosomal material aggregates around each of the two pronuclei while microtubules disappear. Upon recovery, atypical asters oftentimes with multiple foci are formed from centrosomal material surrounding the pronuclei which indicates that the drugs have affected centrosomal material and prevent it from functioning normally. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies with antibodies that routinely stain centrosomes in sea urchin eggs (4D2; and Ah-6) depict centrosomal material that is altered when compared to control cells. This centrosomal material is not able to reform normal microtubule patterns upon recovery but will form multiple asters around the two pronuclei. When cells are treated with 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam during mitosis, the bipolar centrosomal material becomes compacted and aggregates into multiple dense spheres while spindle and polar microtubules disassemble. With increased incubation time, the smaller dense centrosome particles aggregate into bigger and fewer spheres. Upon recovery, unusual irregular microtubule configurations are formed from centrosomes that have lost their

  8. Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaksson, Erik; Gustavsson, Bodil; Linderoth, Maria; Zebuehr, Yngve; Broman, Dag; Balk, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17α enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17α-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17α,20β-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

  9. [Rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age in China in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z Q; Zhao, Y F; Yang, J; Wang, L M; Zhao, Z P; Zeng, X Y; Wang, L H

    2017-12-06

    Objective: To analyze the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013. Methods: The analysis used data obtained from the China Chronic and non-communicable disease surveillance in 2013.The surveillance included 176 534 adults aging ≥18 years old, who were selected from 302 surveillance points by multi-stage cluster random sampling method. A total of 46 674 women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) were investigated. Blood pressures were measured by electronic blood pressure monitor. After being weighted according to complex sampling scheme and post-stratification, the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were compared by different characteristics such as age, education, urban and rural areas, and geographic locations. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013 was 13.5%. The rate in the rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (χ(2)=46.23, P 0.05). The hypertension prevalence in all age groups (18-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49 years old) were 6.6%, 9.2%, 9.6%, 12.0%, 17.9% and 28.3%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension showed a rising trend with age increasing ( t= 12.32, Pareas; and 21.3%, 18.5% and 5.9%, respectively in rural areas. The rates in urban areas were all higher than those in rural areas (chi square were separately 18.98, 21.31, and 6.80, P values areas.

  10. Melatonin treatment at dry-off improves reproductive performance postpartum in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Abdelfatah, A; López-Gatius, F

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin treatment during the early dry-off period on subsequent reproductive performance and milk production in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. In experiment I, addressing the pharmacokinetics of melatonin treatment in lactating dairy cows, doses of untreated, 3, 6, 9 or 12 implants/animal (18-mg melatonin each implant) were given as subcutaneous implants on gestation day 120-20 multiparous lactating dairy cows (four cows/dose group). Experiment II was performed during the warm season on 25 heifers and 114 high milk-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were randomly assigned to a control (C) or melatonin group (M). Animals in the M group received nine implants (heifers) or 12 (cows) of melatonin on day 220 of gestation. In experiment I, cows in the 12 implants group showed a higher maximum melatonin concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration curve from treatment day 0 to day 49 (AUC0-49d ) than those in the remaining groups, among which there were no significant differences in this variable. In experiment II, the likelihood of repeat breeding syndrome (pregnancy loss (first trimester) were 0.36 and 0.19 times lower in treated than control animals, respectively. Plasma prolactin levels decreased significantly (p = 0.01) after melatonin treatment and recovered during the postpartum compared to control cows. No significant effects on milk production were observed in the subsequent lactation. Significant differences in days open between groups (means 123 ± 71.9 and 103 ± 43, respectively, for C and M; p = 0.02) were registered. In conclusion, melatonin treatment in the early dry-off period improves the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, reducing the number of days open, repeat breeding syndrome and pregnancy loss. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The impact of postnatal leuprolide acetate treatment on reproductive characteristics in a rodent model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Mujica, Lady Katerine; Bertolin, Kalyne; Bridi, Alessandra; Glanzner, Werner Giehl; Rissi, Vitor Braga; de Camargo, Flávia de Los Santos; Zanella, Renato; Prestes, Osmar Damian; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Quites; Dias Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard; Premaor, Melissa Orlandin; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate (LA), was given as a single depot injection before 48 h of life to Wistar female rats allotted to prenatal (E16-18) and postnatal androgenization (day 5 of life) by the use of testosterone propionate, looking for reproductive endpoints. Remarkably, a single injection of LA increased the estrus cycles in the postnatal group (PostN) from 0% to 25% of the estrus cycles in the postnatal LA treated group (PostN L). LA also reduced the serum testosterone levels and cysts and atretic follicles in PostN L in contrast with rats (>100 days) from the PostN group (p = 0.04). Prenatally androgenized rats (PreN) exhibited significant modifications in the hypothalamic genes, such as Gnrh. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that blockage of the GnRH axis with leuprolide acetate depot prevented the development of typical features (anovulation, cysts, atretic follicles) in a postnatal testosterone propionate rat model of PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Life cycle assessment in wastewater treatment: : Influence of site-oriented normalization factors, life cycle impact assessment methods, and weighting methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Shunwen; Wang, Xiuheng; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Xinyue; Ren, N

    2017-01-01

    This present study aims to analyze the differences in results of different site-directional life cycle assessment
    (LCA) methods applied in the field of wastewater treatment. Site-generic methods were employed and
    compared with China-specific methods on a full-scale wastewater treatment case.

  13. Depression and Treatment Among U.S. Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Reproductive Age, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jean Y.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Robbins, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is often undiagnosed and untreated. It is not clear if differences exist in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among pregnant and nonpregnant women. We sought to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed depression, treatment by modality, and treatment barriers by pregnancy status among U.S. reproductive-aged women. Methods We identified 375 pregnant and 8,657 nonpregnant women 18–44 years of age who met criteria for past-year major depressive episode (MDE) from 2005–2009 nationally representative data. Chi-square statistics and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated. Results MDE in pregnant women (65.9%) went undiagnosed more often than in nonpregnant women (58.6%) (aPR 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–1.3). Half of depressed pregnant (49.6%) and nonpregnant (53.7%) women received treatment (aPR 1.0, 95% CI 0.90–1.1), with prescription medication the most common form for both pregnant (39.6%) and nonpregnant (47.4%) women. Treatment barriers did not differ by pregnancy status and were cost (54.8%), opposition to treatment (41.7%), and stigma (26.3%). Conclusions Pregnant women with MDE were no more likely than nonpregnant women to be diagnosed with or treated for their depression. PMID:22691031

  14. Comparative life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment in Denmark including sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Pizzol, Massimo; Gundorph Bruun, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment has nowadays multiple functions and produces both clean effluents and sludge, which is increasingly seen as a resource rather than a waste product. Technological as well as management choices influence the performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the multiple...... functions. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can determine what choices provide the best environmental performance. However, the assessment is not straightforward due to the intrinsic space and time-related variability of the wastewater treatment process. These challenges were addressed...... in a comparative LCA of four types of WWTPs, representative of mainstream treatment options in Denmark. The four plant types differ regarding size and treatment technology: aerobic versus anaerobic, chemical vs. combined chemical and biological. Trade-offs in their environmental performance were identified...

  15. Life cycle cost analysis changes mixed waste treatment program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; England, J.L.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    A direct result of the reduced need for weapons production has been a re-evaluation of the treatment projects for mixed (hazardous/radioactive) wastes generated from metal finishing and plating operations and from a mixed waste incinerator at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was conducted for two waste treatment projects to determine the most cost effective approach in response to SRS mission changes. A key parameter included in the LCC analysis was the cost of the disposal vaults required for the final stabilized wasteform(s) . The analysis indicated that volume reduction of the final stabilized wasteform(s) can provide significant cost savings. The LCC analysis demonstrated that one SRS project could be eliminated, and a second project could be totally ''rescoped and downsized.'' The changes resulted in an estimated Life Cycle Cost saving (over a 20 year period) of $270,000,000

  16. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin improves glycemic control, white adipose tissue metabolism and reproductive axis of diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ariclecio Cunha de; Andreotti, Sandra; Sertie, Rogério António Laurato; Campana, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Oliveira, Keciany Alves de; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Donato-Junior, José; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2018-04-15

    Melatonin treatment has been reported to be capable of ameliorating metabolic diabetes-related abnormalities but also to cause hypogonadism in rats. We investigated whether the combined treatment with melatonin and insulin can improve insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes during neonatal period and the repercussion of this treatment on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. At the fourth week of age, diabetic animals started an 8-wk treatment with only melatonin (0.2 mg/kg body weight) added to drinking water at night or associated with insulin (NHP, 1.5 U/100 g/day) or only insulin. Animals were then euthanized, and the subcutaneous (SC), epididymal (EP), and retroperitoneal (RP) fat pads were excised, weighed and processed for adipocyte isolation for morphometric analysis as well as for measuring glucose uptake, oxidation, and incorporation of glucose into lipids. Hypothalamus was collected for gene expression and blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. The treatment with melatonin plus insulin (MI) was capable of maintaining glycemic control. In epididymal (EP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes, the melatonin plus insulin (MI) treatment group recovered the insulin responsiveness. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment alone promoted a significant reduction in kisspeptin-1, neurokinin B and androgen receptor mRNA levels, in relation to control group. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin promoted a better glycemic control, improving insulin sensitivity in white adipose tissue (WAT). Indeed, melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic genes related to reproductive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Influence of a metaphylactic treatment with Baycox(®) Bovis on the reproductive performances of Fresian heifers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Nisoli, Lucio; Diaferia, Manuela; Falcini, Roberto; Ficola, Emanuele; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili

    2013-06-01

    A blind, randomised, controlled, multicentric field trial was conducted to assess the influence of a metaphylactic treatment with an oral solution of toltrazuril on some reproductive parameters of Italian Fresian heifers during the first 18-20 months of life. For this goal 40 calves were selected from two dairy farms and randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: MTol, treated with toltrazuril and NegC, left untreated. The calves were clinically and coprologically examined over the entire study period. The body condition scores, the body weights and the age at the first service were recorded and compared between the two groups, in addition to some other reproductive parameters including number of pregnancies, average service per pregnancy, conception rate, conception rate at first service and post first service conception rate. The analysis of the results showed that the metaphylactic treatment with toltrazuril influenced positively the average age of the first service (MTol 461.4 days versus NegC 485.45 days), the overall conception rate (MTol 95 % versus NegC 85 %), the success at first (MTol 60 % versus NegC 45 %) and second (MTol 75 % versus NegC 45 %) services and, consequently, the mean number of services to be carried out for each animal (MTol 1.4 ± 0.6 versus NegC 1.6 ± 0.79). Furthermore, the results confirmed that toltrazuril treatment, applied in accordance with the epidemiological aspects of each farm, is highly efficacious in persistent reduction of oocyst excretions with particular reference to Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria bovis, considered to be mainly responsible for clinical coccidiosis.

  18. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  19. Effects of GnRHa treatment during vitellogenesis on the reproductive physiology of thermally challenged female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Anderson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tasmanian Atlantic salmon (S. salar broodstock can experience temperatures above 20 °C, which impairs reproductive development and inhibits ovulation. The present study investigated the prolonged use of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa during vitellogenesis as a means of maintaining endocrine function and promoting egg quality at elevated temperature in maiden and repeat spawning S. salar. GnRHa-treatment during vitellogenesis did not compensate for the negative effects of thermal challenge on the timing of ovulation, egg size, egg fertility or embryo survival in any fish maintained at 22 °C relative to 14 °C. The lack of effectiveness was reflected by the endocrine data, as plasma follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone levels were not different between treated and untreated groups at 22 °C. Furthermore, plasma testosterone and E2 levels were unchanged in GnRHa-treated fish at 22 °C, and plasma levels were generally lower in both groups maintained at 22 °C relative to 14 °C. Transcription of vitellogenin, and zona pellucida B and C was not enhanced in GnRHa-treated fish relative to untreated fish at 22 °C, presumably due to observed suppression of plasma E2. These results indicate that thermal impairment of reproduction is likely to occur on multiple levels, and is difficult to overcome via hormonal manipulation.

  20. Reproductive cycle of the leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea in La Paz Bay, Mexico | Ciclo reproductivo de la cabrilla sardinera Mycteroperca rosacea en la bahía de La Paz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada-Godínez, J. A.; Maldonado-García, M.; Gracia-López, Vicente; Carrillo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea is an endemic species from the northwestern coast of Mexico and, like other serranid fishes, it has a high commercial value; hence, it is a good candidate for cultivation. This study aimed to describe the reproductive cycle of the leopard grouper in the wild as a step toward evaluating its aquaculture and restocking potential. From March 2008 to February 2009, 197 specimens were collected in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Overall sex ratio was 3.6 fem...

  1. Morfometria testicular durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Dendropsophus minutus (Peters (Anura, Hylidae Testicular morphometry during the reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Peters (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia R. de S. Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve o ciclo reprodutivo de machos de Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872 com base na análise da morfometria testicular e a correlação com parâmetros climáticos. Cinqüenta indivíduos foram coletados em São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. Após as análises macroscópicas, os testículos foram encaminhados à rotina histológica, fixados com Bouin e incluídos em historesina. Cortes de 2 µm foram corados com azul de toluidina 1% e observados ao microscópio. Testículos de D. minutus são órgãos pequenos (comprimento 1,90 ± 0,13 mm, esbranquiçados, com forma oval e encontrados na cavidade abdominal. Estão localizados na extremidade cranial dos rins e apresentam assimetria quanto a sua posição. Estatisticamente não há variação intra-individual no comprimento e no peso dos testículos, bem como na área e diâmetro dos lóculos seminíferos. Quanto à histologia testicular, foi possível identificar ao longo do ano nos lóculos seminíferos, todos os tipos celulares da linhagem espermatogênica, caracterizando uma gametogênese contínua, corroborada por fatores ecológicos e comportamentais. Informações sobre a morfometria testicular e ciclo reprodutivo tem importante valor biológico para anuros de regiões neotropicais.This study describes the male reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872 based on testicular morphometric analysis, related to climatic conditions. Fifty individuals where collected in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. After macroscopic analysis, the testes were submitted to histological routine, fixed with Bouin, embedded in historesin. Sections of 2 µm were stained with 1% toluidine blue and observed to the microscope. The testes of D. minutus are small organs (length 1.90 ± 0.13 mm, whitish, oviform and found in the abdominal cavity. They are located in the cranial extremity of the kidneys and present asymmetry as far as position. According to statistical analyses, there

  2. Effet de Panicum maximum sur la productivité des femelles primipares durant le cycle de reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum on Productivity of Primiparous Females during Reproduction Cycle in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum. To assess the effect of the latter during pregnancy and lactation (RC of these animals, primiparous dams were fed ad libitum, Panicum maximum alone during the RC (MOD1 or associated with pellets for rabbits during lactation (MOD2, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the last part of the pregnancy period and the lactation (MOD3, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the entire RC (MOD4. The number of corpora lutea per female was 1.3 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.0 respectively for MOD1 and MOD4. No pre-embryonic mortality was recorded. The mean weight of the young guinea pigs of MOD1 (54.7 ± 10. g was only 55% of that of MOD4 (98.6 ± 13.6 g. At weaning, the average weight gain of young guinea pigs of MOD1 (40.5 ± 22.2 g represented a third of those obtained with other diets that did not significantly differ. At the end of RC, the weight gain of dams was 17 ± 13.3% for MOD1 compared to 50% for MOD2, MOD3 and MOD4. Feeding Panicum maximum alone induces chronic malnutrition which in turn is responsible of the low ovulation rate and reduced growth in guinea pig breeding.

  3. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  4. Role of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in environmental cycling of poly- and perfluoroalkyl (PFAS compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in environmental cycling of the poly- and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFASs through the aqueous effluent, sludge and air emission has been critically reviewed here. Understanding the role WWTPs can provide better understanding of global cycling of persistent PFASs and assist in formulating relevant environmental policies. The review suggested that, the WWTP effluent is a major source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs in surface water. Land application of biosolids (treated sludge have shown preferential bioaccumulation of short chain (cycle. Elevated air concentration (1.5 to 15 times of ∑PFASs were reported higher on WWTP sites (above aeration tanks, compared to reference sites not contaminated with WWTP emission. The air emission of neutral PFASs has important implication considering the long-range transport and subsequent degradation of the neutral compounds leading to the occurrence of recalcitrant PFAAs in pristine, remote environments. Research gap exist in terms of fate of polyfluroalkyl compounds (neutral PFASs during wastetwater treatment and in aquatic and terrestrial environemnt. Considering the wide range of commercially available PFASs, measuring only perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA and perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA can lead to underestimation total PFAS load derived from WWTPs. Knowledge of the various pathways of PFAS from WWTP to receiving environment, outlined in this study can help to adopt best possible management practices to reduce the release of PFASs from WWTP.

  5. Human health tradeoffs in wellhead drinking water treatment: Comparing exposure reduction to embedded life cycle risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Mac; Chester, Mikhail; Hristovski, Kiril; Westerhoff, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Treatment of drinking water decreases human health risks by reducing pollutants, but the required materials, chemicals, and energy emit pollutants and increase health risks. We explored human carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic disease tradeoffs of water treatment by comparing pollutant dose-response curves against life cycle burden using USEtox methodology. An illustrative wellhead sorbent groundwater treatment system removing hexavalent chromium or pentavalent arsenic serving 3200 people was studied. Reducing pollutant concentrations in drinking water from 20 μg L -1 to 10 μg L -1 avoided 37 potential cancer cases and 64 potential non-cancer disease cases. Human carcinogenicity embedded in treatment was 0.2-5.3 cases, and non-carcinogenic toxicity was 0.2-14.3 cases, depending on technology and degree of treatment. Embedded toxicity impacts from treating Cr(VI) using strong-base anion exchange were 90% of the toxicity impacts for treatment options requiring pH control. In scenarios where benefits exceeded burdens, tradeoffs still existed. Benefits are experienced by a local population but burdens are born externally where the materials and energy are produced, thus exporting the health risks. Even when burdens clearly exceeded benefits, cost considerations may still drive selecting a detrimental treatment level or technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anxiety and depression after failure of assisted reproductive treatment among patients experiencing infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufizadeh, Saman; Karimi, Elaheh; Vesali, Samira; Omani Samani, Reza

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the impact of the number of previous infertility treatment failures on anxiety and depression. In a cross-sectional study, individuals (men and women, but not couples) aged at least 18 years who had a history of infertility and could read and write in Persian were enrolled at the Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between November 1, 2013, and February 28, 2014. Participants provided demographic and infertility information and completed the Persian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Overall, 330 patients (122 men, 208 women) were included. Mean scores on the HADS anxiety and depression subscales (HADS-A and HADS-D) were 8.40±4.51 and 5.95±3.54, respectively. In multiple regression analysis, mean HADS-A scores were significantly higher for patients with one treatment failure (9.57±4.58) than for those without a history of treatment (7.79±4.13; P=0.003). HADS-D scores were significantly higher for patients with two failures (6.92±3.69) than for those with no previous treatment (5.59±3.79; P=0.019). Patients with infertility have increased depression and anxiety after infertility treatment failure. Counseling or treatment for these potential psychological effects should be considered after infertility treatment failure. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Depression and state anxiety scores during assisted reproductive treatment are associated with outcome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Satvinder; Chapman, Sarah C E; van den Akker, Olga B A

    2018-06-01

    This meta-analysis investigated whether state anxiety and depression scores during assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and changes in state anxiety and depression scores between baseline and during ART treatment are associated with treatment outcome. PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and Scopus were searched and meta-analytic data analysed using random effects models to estimate standardized mean differences. Eleven studies (2202 patients) were included. Women who achieved pregnancy had significantly lower depression scores during treatment than women who did not become pregnant (-0.302; 95% CI: -0.551 to -0.054, z = -2.387, P = 0.017; I 2 = 77.142%, P = 0.001). State anxiety scores were also lower in women who became pregnant (-0.335; 95% CI: -0.582 to -0.087, z = -2.649, P = 0.008; I 2 = 81.339%, P = 0.001). However, changes in state anxiety (d = -0.056; 95% CI: -0.195 to 0.082, z = -0.794; I 2 = 0.00%) and depression scores (d = -0.106; 95% CI: -0.296 to 0.085, z = -1.088; I 2 = 0.00%) from baseline to treatment were not associated with ART outcome. Clinics should aim to promote better psychosocial care to help patients manage the psychological and physical demands of ART treatment, giving realistic expectations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish reproduction utilizing the adverse outcome pathway conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a known contributor of chemical mixture inputs into the environment. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, efficient and cost-effective approaches for screenin...

  9. Reproduction cycles and strategies of the cold-water sponges Halisarca dujardini (Demospongiae, Halisarcida), Myxilla incrustans and Iophon piceus (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the White Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereskovsky, A V

    2000-02-01

    The reproductive development of the Demospongiae species Halisarca dujardini (Halisarcida), Myxilla incrustans and Iophon piceus (Poecilosclerida) from Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, the White Sea) was studied histologically during 1982-1994 and 1997. These species are all viviparous. Halisarca dujardini inhabits shallow waters (1.5-5 m); M. incrustans and I. piceus are common in a more stable environment at depths between 15 and 25 m. Initiation of sexual reproduction stages is dependent upon water temperature. Reproductive effort is low in Myxilla incrustans and I. piceus (reproductive elements contribute 7.3% and 12% of maternal tissue volume respectively), but much higher in H. dujardini (up to 69% of the parental tissue volume). Reproduction leads to localized destruction of maternal tissue for M. incrustans and I. piceus and complete disorder of central and basal parts of the choanosoma of H. dujardini after each period of reproduction. Myxilla incrustans and I. piceus reproduce throughout the hydrological summer, but reproduction in H. dujardini is restricted to 3 weeks. The average life span of M. incrustans and I. piceus is more than 4 years, and that of H. dujardini is about 7-12 months. The data suggest that M. incrustans and I. piceus are K-strategists, whereas H. dujardini is an r-strategist.

  10. Life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment options for small and decentralized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A P; Urbano, L; Brito, A G; Janknecht, P; Salas, J J; Nogueira, R

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability has strong implications on the practice of engineering. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an appropriate methodology for assessing the sustainability of a wastewater treatment plant design. The present study used a LCA approach for comparing alternative wastewater treatment processes for small and decentralised rural communities. The assessment was focused on two energy-saving systems (constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration) and a conventional one (activated sludge process). The low environmental impact of the energy-saving wastewater treatment plants was demonstrated, the most relevant being the global warming indicator. Options for reduction of life cycle impacts were assessed including materials used in construction and operational lifetime of the systems. A 10% extension of operation lifetime of constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration systems led to a 1% decrease in CO2 emissions, in both systems. The decrease in the abiotic depletion was 5 and 7%, respectively. Also, replacing steel with HDPE in the activated sludge tank resulted in a 1% reduction in CO2 emission and 1% in the abiotic depletion indicator. In the case of the Imhoff tank a 1% reduction in CO2 emissions and 5% in the abiotic depletion indicator were observed when concrete was replaced by HDPE.

  11. Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: a qualitative study into the experiences and moral perspectives of French women who go to Belgium for treatment with donor sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    One consequence of the legal diversity in Europe is that legal restrictions on treatments can be evaded by going abroad. Many French lesbian couples and single women are crossing the border to Belgium because they are denied access to treatments with donor sperm at home. This is the first qualitative research study into the experiences and moral perspectives of these women. Between June 2012 and May 2013, 11 lesbian couples and 2 single women were recruited at the department of reproductive medicine at Ghent University Hospital. The data from the semi-structured interviews was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results show that these women face several additional challenges to the already difficult process of cross-border treatment. Before they can start the treatment, they can only obtain information from the internet or from stories of friends who also went abroad for treatment with donor sperm. During the treatment, they need to find local clinics or physicians to monitor their cycle. Several women managed to game the French system to ensure partial reimbursement for their treatment when they were successful in finding a physician who was willing to prescribe drugs and perform tests. Most women had difficulties justifying their absence from work. In general these women felt that they were discriminated against and that their rights were not protected because of who they are. In that regard, the lack of legal recognition of the genetically unrelated partner in their country was particularly hard to cope with for the lesbian couples. These women have to develop many different strategies to deal with the difficulties they face during cross-border reproductive care. It is concluded that it is very important that they find a physician who is willing to support them in their 'baby project'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of urban wastewater reuse with ozonation as tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Rodriguez, Antonio; Rosal, Roberto; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment has been used to compare different scenarios involving wastewater reuse, with special focus on toxicity-related impact categories. The study is based on bench-scale experiments applying ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide to a wastewater effluent from a Spanish sewage treatment plant. Two alternative characterisation models have been used to account for toxicity of chemical substances, namely USES-LCA and EDIP97. Four alternative scenarios have been assessed: wastewater discharge plus desalination supply, wastewater reuse without tertiary treatment, wastewater reuse after applying a tertiary treatment consisting on ozonation, and wastewater reuse after applying ozonation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The results highlight the importance of including wastewater pollutants in LCA of wastewater systems assessing toxicity, since the contribution of wastewater pollutants to the overall toxicity scores in this case study can be above 90%. Key pollutants here are not only heavy metals and other priority pollutants, but also non-regulated pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Wastewater reuse after applying any of the tertiary treatments considered appears as the best choice from an ecotoxicity perspective. As for human toxicity, differences between scenarios are smaller, and taking into account the experimental and modelling uncertainty, the benefits of tertiary treatment are not so clear. From a global warming potential perspective, tertiary treatments involve a potential 85% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared with desalination

  13. From Centralized Disassembly to Life Cycle Management: Status and Progress of E-waste Treatment System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Yang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    China is now facing e-waste problems from both growing domestic generation and illegal imports. Many stakeholders are involved in the e-waste treatment system due to the complexity of e-waste life cycle. Beginning with the state of the e-waste treatment industry in China, this paper summarizes the latest progress in e-waste management from such aspects as the new edition of the China RoHS Directive, new Treatment List, new funding subsidy standard, and eco-design pilots. Thus, a conceptual model for life cycle management of e-waste is generalized. The operating procedure is to first identify the life cycle stages of the e-waste and extract the important life cycle information. Then, life cycle tools can be used to conduct a systematic analysis to help decide how to maximize the benefits from a series of life cycle engineering processes. Meanwhile, life cycle thinking is applied to improve the legislation relating to e-waste so as to continuously improve the sustainability of the e-waste treatment system. By providing an integrative framework, the life cycle management of e-waste should help to realize sustainable management of e-waste in developing countries.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies in women with PCOS who do not conceive after six cycles of clomiphene citrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Nahuis, Marleen J.; Hompes, Peter G.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of treatments for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who ovulate on clomiphene citrate but do not conceive after six cycles. A decision-analytic framework was developed for six scenarios: (1) three cycles of IVF; (2) continuation of clomiphene

  15. Survival after treatment with phenylacetate and benzoate for urea-cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Gregory M; Berry, Susan A; Berry, Gerard T; Rhead, William J; Brusilow, Saul W; Hamosh, Ada

    2007-05-31

    The combination of intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate has been shown to lower plasma ammonium levels and improve survival in small cohorts of patients with historically lethal urea-cycle enzyme defects. We report the results of a 25-year, open-label, uncontrolled study of sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate therapy (Ammonul, Ucyclyd Pharma) in 299 patients with urea-cycle disorders in whom there were 1181 episodes of acute hyperammonemia. Overall survival was 84% (250 of 299 patients). Ninety-six percent of the patients survived episodes of hyperammonemia (1132 of 1181 episodes). Patients over 30 days of age were more likely than neonates to survive an episode (98% vs. 73%, Purea-cycle disorder and treatment with both sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate, in conjunction with other therapies, such as intravenous arginine hydrochloride and the provision of adequate calories to prevent catabolism, effectively lower plasma ammonium levels and result in survival in the majority of patients. Hemodialysis may also be needed to control hyperammonemia, especially in neonates and older patients who do not have a response to intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  16. Economics of assisted reproduction : Access to fertility treatments and valuing live births in economic terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Ledger, William; Postma, Maarten J.

    2010-01-01

    The intricate relationship between economic conditions and natural fertility is known to influence both the timing and number of children conceived. For infertile couples, the relationship between economics and fertility is more explicit because of the necessity for many couples to pay for treatment

  17. [Protective effect of melatonin and epithalon on hypothalamic regulation of reproduction in female rats in its premature aging model and on estrous cycles in senescent animals in various lighting regimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenevsky, A V; Milyutina, Yu P; Bukalyov, A V; Baranova, Yu P; Vinogradova, I A; Arutjunyan, A V

    2013-01-01

    Potential neuroprotective effects of the pineal gland hormone melatonin and peptide preparation epitalon on estrous cycles and the central regulation of reproduction in female rats exposed to unfavourable environmental factors have been studied. Estrous cycles of young, mature and aging rats exposed to light pollution were described. The diurnal dynamics and daily mean content of biogenic amines in the hypothalamic areas responsible for gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesis and secretion in animals of different age groups were investigated. An effect of a chemical factor on the noradrenergic system of the medial preoptic area and on the dopaminergic system of the median eminence with arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus was studied in premature aging of reproduction model. Administration of the pineal gland peptide melatonin and peptide preparation epitalon was shown to be able to correct a number of impairments of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that can be observed, when the experimental animals were exposed to permanent artificial lighting and a neurotoxic xenobiotic 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. The data obtained testify to an important role of the pineal gland in the circadian signal formation needed for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in order to exert its preovulatory peak secretion and to the protective effect of melatonin and epitalon, which are able to reduce unfavourable environmental influences on reproduction of young and aging female rats.

  18. Treatment and final storage of radioactive wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-05-01

    Types, amounts and activity concentrations of the radioactive wastes arising from the different sections of the fuel cycle are described as well as the methods of their treatment and final disposal. By conversion to glass products, highly active fission product solutions can be transferred into a form well suited for final disposal. Low and medium level waste waters are purified so far that safe discharge or reuse is possible. The concentrates thus produced are incorporated into concrete or bitumen. Baling lends itself for treatment of non-combustible solid wastes. Combustible wastes can be incinerated, the residues are incorporated into concrete. For final storage of the conditioned wastes, salt formations in the deep underground are chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany. They offer a series of favourable preconditions for this purpose and guarantee the isolation of the radionuclides from the biocycle over secular periods of time.

  19. Resilience of Floating Treatment Wetlands to Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, K.; Marchetto, P.; Magner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs), made of a matrix of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers, are currently being used as a method to reduce nutrient loading in lakes. The matrix encourages growth of biofilms, which uptake nutrients from the water. However, the usefulness of FTWs has only been assessed in areas where the lakes do not freeze over in the winter. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles were run on sections of the FTWs in a laboratory setting in order to test the resilience of the PET fibers over the FTWs' advertised fifteen-year lifespan. Preliminary findings suggest that the stresses caused by freezing and thawing of the surrounding water contribute to deterioration of the PET fibers, leading to production of microplastics. Estimations indicate that approximately 0.063% of a FTW's mass could be lost as microplastics over the course of its lifespan. Production of microplastics contributes to plastic pollution in the treatment water, possibly offsetting any nutrient remediation the FTWs perform.

  20. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  1. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Beibei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wei, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: Zhangb@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bi, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%.

  2. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%

  3. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Shumate, S.E. II.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods are presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. However, a strong case is made for the use of biological processes for removing nitrates and heavy metals fron nuclear fuel cycle effluents. The estimated costs for these methods are as low as, or lower than, those for alternate processes. In addition, the resulting disposal products - nitrogen gas, CO 2 , and heavy metals incorporated into microorganisms - are much more ecologically desirable than the end products of other waste treatment methods

  4. Estresse, ciclo reprodutivo e sensibilidade cardíaca às catecolaminas Stress, reproductive cycle and cardiac sensitivity to cathecolamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Tanno

    2002-09-01

    íacas observadas na espécie humana após exposição à água e à natação.Stress is an organic answer to aversive stimulus or unknown situations to provide the adaptation of host to the new condition. The stressor can be a physical, chemical, emotional and social agent. Different stressors are present in human daily life and can be involved in degenerative diseases and lead to a fast aging process disturbing the body physiology. The main mediators of the stress reaction are the catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine released by the sympathetic nervous system and by the adrenal medulla, and the glucocorticoids released by the adrenal cortex. The catecholamines and glucocorticoids act in the cells and tissues inducing adaptive changes in order to protect the organism and allow its survival. This response to stressors can be modified by the host and stressor characteristics. Among the host ones, age, gender, and in females, the reproductive cycle are relevant. The variations in the levels of sexual steroids estradiol and progesterone, related to the reproductive cycle, modulate the secretion of CRH, ACTH and glucocorticoids during the stress reaction and are involved in the different responses between men and women. Many studies have shown that the exposure to stressors may induce alterations in the sensitivity to catecholamines in the heart, which are related to adaptive processes. These alterations include changes in the activity of the metabolizing system of catecholamines, in the affinity or number of adrenoceptors, in the coupling between the receptor and G protein, and in enzymes mediating intracellular processes after the receptor activation. The study of these alterations may be helpful to the understanding of the cardiac effects of the water activities and swimming in humans.

  5. Hochu-ekki-to Treatment Improves Reproductive and Immune Modulation in the Stress-Induced Rat Model of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkuk; Choi, Chun Whan; Kim, Soo Jeong; Kim, Yong-In; Sin, Samkee; Chu, Jong-Phil; Heo, Jun Young

    2017-06-13

    The traditional herbal medicine, Hochu-ekki-to, has been shown to have preventive effects on viral infection and stress. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of Hochu-ekki-to on two stress-related rat models of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and treatment groups, the latter of which were subjected to stress induced by exposure to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cold temperatures. After these stress inductions, rats were orally treated with dissolved Hochu-ekki-to once per day for 7 days. Rats subjected to the two different stressors exhibited upregulation of steroid hormone receptors (in ovaries) and reproductive hormones (in blood), and consequent stimulation of abnormal follicle development accompanied by elevation of Hsp 90 expression (in ovaries). Treatment with Hochu-ekki-to for 7 days after stress induction increased immune functions, reduced the stress-induced activation of Hsp 90, and normalized the levels of the tested steroid hormone receptors and reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that stress stimulations may promote the activation of Hsp 90 via the dysregulation of steroid hormone receptors and reproductive hormones, but that post-stress treatment with Hochu-ekki-to improves reproductive and immune functions in the ovaries of stressed rats.

  6. Assisted reproductive technology in the United States: 2001 results generated from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    To summarize the procedures and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that were initiated in the United States in 2001. Data were collected electronically using the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) Clinic Outcome Reporting System software and submitted to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/SART Registry. Three hundred eighty-five clinics submitted data on procedures performed in 2001. Data were collated after November 2002 [corrected] so that the outcomes of all pregnancies would be known. Incidence of clinical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, and delivery. Programs reported initiating 108,130 cycles of ART treatment. Of these, 79,042 cycles involved IVF (with and without micromanipulation), with a delivery rate per retrieval of 31.6%; 340 were cycles of gamete intrafallopian transfer, with a delivery rate per retrieval of 21.9%; 661 were cycles of zygote intrafallopian transfer, with a delivery rate per retrieval of 31.0%. The following additional ART procedures were also initiated: 8,147 fresh donor oocyte cycles, with a delivery rate per transfer of 47.3%; 14,509 frozen ET procedures, with a delivery rate per transfer of 23.5%; 3,187 frozen ETs employing donated oocytes or embryos, with a delivery rate per transfer of 27.4%; and 1,366 cycles using a host uterus, with a delivery rate per transfer of 38.7%. In addition, 112 cycles were reported as combinations of more than one treatment type, 8 cycles as research, and 85 as embryo banking. As a result of all procedures, 29,585 deliveries were reported, resulting in 41,168 neonates. In 2001, there were more programs reporting ART treatment and a significant increase in reported cycles compared with 2000.

  7. Redox cycling-based amplifying electrochemical sensor for in situ clozapine antipsychotic treatment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Winkler, Thomas E.; Kim, Eunkyoung; Chocron, Sheryl E.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Payne, Gregory F.; Ghodssi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept for clozapine in situ sensing with minimal pre-treatment procedures. • A catechol-chitosan redox cycling system amplifies clozapine oxidation current. • The modified amplifier signal is 3 times greater than the unmodified system. • Differentiation between clozapine and its metabolite norclozapine has been shown. • The sensor has the capability to detect clozapine in human serum. - Abstract: Schizophrenia is a lifelong mental disorder with few recent advances in treatment. Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for schizophrenia treatment. However, it remains underutilized since frequent blood draws are required to monitor adverse side effects, and maintain clozapine concentrations in a therapeutic range. Micro-system technology utilized towards real-time monitoring of efficacy and safety will enable personalized medicine and better use of this medication. Although work has been reported on clozapine detection using its electrochemical oxidation, no in situ monitoring of clozapine has been described. In this work, we present a new concept for clozapine in situ sensing based on amplifying its oxidation current. Specifically, we use a biofabricated catechol-modified chitosan redox cycling system to provide a significant amplification of the generated oxidizing current of clozapine through a continuous cycle of clozapine reduction followed by re-oxidation. The amplified signal has improved the signal-to-noise ratio and provided the required limit-of-detection and dynamic range for clinical applications with minimal pre-treatment procedures. The sensor reports on the functionality and sensitivity of clozapine detection between 0.1 and 10 μg/mL. The signal generated by clozapine using the catechol-modified chitosan amplifier has shown to be 3 times greater than the unmodified system. The sensor has the ability to differentiate between clozapine and its metabolite norclozapine, as well as the feasibility to detect clozapine in

  8. The use of recombinant human LH (lutropin alfa) in the late stimulation phase of assisted reproduction cycles: a double-blind, randomized, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlatzis, B; Tavmergen, E; Szamatowicz, M; Barash, A; Amit, A; Levitas, E; Shoham, Z

    2006-01-01

    The effect of recombinant human LH (r-hLH; lutropin alfa) in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant human FSH (r-hFSH) prior to IVF was investigated. After down-regulation with the GnRH agonist, buserelin, 114 normo-ovulatory women (aged 18-37 years) received r-hFSH alone until the lead follicle reached a diameter of 14 mm. Patients were then randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive r-hFSH in addition to r-hLH, 75 IU s.c., or placebo daily for a maximum of 10 days prior to oocyte retrieval and IVF. The primary end-point was the number of metaphase II oocytes. There were no significant differences between treatment groups for the primary end-point. Serum estradiol concentrations on the day of HCG administration were significantly higher in the group receiving r-hLH plus r-hFSH than in the group receiving r-hFSH alone (P = 0.0001), but there were no significant differences between the groups in dose and duration of r-hFSH treatment required, oocyte maturation, fertilization rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate. In this patient population, the addition of r-hLH during the late follicular phase of a long GnRH agonist and r-hFSH stimulation cycle provides no further benefit in terms of oocyte maturation or other end-points.

  9. Heparin for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-08-17

    heterogeneity). There was also a significant improvement in the clinical pregnancy rate with use of LMWH (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.53, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 29%, very low quality evidence with low heterogeneity).However these findings should be interpreted with extreme caution as they were dependent upon the choice of statistical method: they were no longer statistically significant when a random-effects model was used.Adverse events were poorly reported in all included studies, with no comparative data available. However, LMWH did cause adverse effects including bruising, ecchymosis, bleeding, thrombocytopenia and allergic reactions. It appeared that these adverse effects were increased if heparin therapy was used over a longer duration. The results of this Cochrane review of three randomised controlled trials with a total of 386 women suggested that peri-implantation LMWH in assisted reproduction treatment (ART) cycles may improve the live birth rate in women undergoing assisted reproduction. However, these results were dependent on small low quality studies with substantial heterogeneity, and were sensitive to the choice of statistical model. There were side effects reported with use of heparin, including bruising and bleeding, and no reliable data on long-term effects. The results do not justify this use of heparin outside well-conducted research trials.These findings need to be further investigated with well-designed, adequately powered, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials. Further investigations could also focus on the effects of the local (uterine) and not systemic application of heparin during ART.

  10. Life cycle assessment of four potable water treatment plants in northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great concern about the processes that directly or indirectly contribute to the potential for global warming, such as stratospheric ozone depletion or acidification. In this context, and provided that treated water is a basic public utility in urban centers around the world as well as in some rural areas, its impact on the environment is of great interest. Therefore, this study applied the environmental methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental loads of four potable water treatment plants (PWTPs located in northeastern Colombia following the international guidelines delineated in ISO 14040. The different stages of the drinking water process were thoroughly assessed, from the catchment point through pumping to the distribution network. The functional unit was defined as 1 m3 of drinking water produced at the plant. The data were analyzed through the database Ecoinvent v.3.01, and modeled and processed in the software LCA-Data Manager. The results showed that in plants PLA-CA and PLA-PO, the flocculation process has the highest environmental load, which is mostly attributable to the coagulant agent, with a range between 47-73% of the total impact. In plants PLA-TON and PLA-BOS, electricity consumption was identified as the greatest impact source, with percentages ranging from 67 to 85%. Treatment processes and techniques, bioclimatic conditions and culturally driven consumption behavior varied from region to region. Furthermore, changes in treatment processes and techniques are likely to affect the environment during all stages of a plant’s operational cycle.

  11. Urinary steroid hormone analysis of ovarian cycles and pregnancy in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) indicate that menses, copulatory behavior, sexual swellings and reproductive condition are associated with changing estrone conjugates (E(1)C) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rebecca Sellin; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if sexual swellings in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are a reflection of reproductive endocrine state. Urine samples were assayed using an enzyme immunoassay measuring pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E(1)C). Hormone patterns of ovarian cycles, pregnancy and lactation were characterized and compared with sexual swellings and copulations relative to menses and peak E(1)C. Cycle lengths averaging 28.7 days and pregnancy length of 181 days determined by hormonal and sexual swelling measures were similar to those reported in other Old World primate species. First day of copulation was observed during rising E(1)C concentrations and preceded observations of peak swelling by 1-2 days. Observations of peak sexual swellings occurred at or on the day after peak E(1)C and decreased following the ovulatory increase in PdG. Observations of menses and sexual swellings are a useful method to track mandrill ovarian cycles and can assist zoos in determining the reproductive state of females in their collections. Zoo Biol 27:320-330, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction? The next step to improving outcomes of IVF : consider the whole treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, EMEW; Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    Changing the way in which successful IVF treatment is defined offers a tool to improve efficacy while reducing costs and complications of treatment. Crucial to this paradigm shift is the move away from considering outcomes in terms of the single IVF cycle, and towards the started IVF treatment as a

  13. Treatment-related fluctuations in guillain barre syndrome and the conundrum of additional cycles of plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasree Ramakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS, worsening of weakness or disability after initial period of recovery or stabilization is described as treatment-related fluctuations (TRF. Aim: This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of six patients with GBS and TRF. Patients and Methods: Six patients with GBS fulfilling NINCDS criteria, evaluated at a tertiary care university hospital during 2008–2017, were diagnosed to have TRF. They form the basis of this report. Results: All patients were men and their mean age was 40 years. At presentation, mean duration of illness was 15 days; the illness had plateaued in three and progressive in other three patients. Two of the four patients had variant GBS. Initially, five patients were treated with large volume plasmapheresis (LVPP and one patient with methyl prednisolone. At 17–28 days after disease onset, three patients developed new neurologic deficits (bilateral facial paresis in two; paralytic ileus in one. Other three patients with worsening of limb weakness (medical research council sum score of >5 and disability (Hughes disability grade by ≥1 fulfilled Kleyweg's criteria for TRF. All the six patients were treated with the completion of five cycles or additional cycles of LVPP. Conclusion: Awareness about TRF is essential for correct diagnosis and management of patients with GBS.

  14. System Life Cycle Evaluation(SM) (SLiCE): harmonizing water treatment systems with implementers' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joseph; Caravati, Kevin; Foote, Andrew; Nelson, Molly; Woods, Emily

    2013-06-01

    One of the methods proposed to improve access to clean drinking water is the mobile packaged water treatment system (MPWTS). The lack of published system performance comparisons combined with the diversity of technology available and intended operating conditions make it difficult for stakeholders to choose the system best suited for their application. MPWTS are often deployed in emergency situations, making selection of the appropriate system crucial to avoiding wasted resources and loss of life. Measurable critical-to-quality characteristics (CTQs) and a system selection tool for MPWTS were developed by utilizing relevant literature, including field studies, and implementing and comparing seven different MPWTS. The proposed System Life Cycle Evaluation (SLiCE) method uses these CTQs to evaluate the diversity in system performance and harmonize relevant performance with stakeholder preference via a selection tool. Agencies and field workers can use SLiCE results to inform and drive decision-making. The evaluation and selection tool also serves as a catalyst for communicating system performance, common design flaws, and stakeholder needs to system manufacturers. The SLiCE framework can be adopted into other emerging system technologies to communicate system performance over the life cycle of use.

  15. Prevalence and incidence of depressive and anxious symptoms in couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment in an Italian infertility department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaffarino, Francesca; Baldini, Maria P; Scarduelli, Claudia; Bommarito, Francesca; Ambrosio, Stefania; D'Orsi, Cristiana; Torretta, Rossella; Bonizzoni, Micol; Ragni, Guido

    2011-10-01

    We have conducted a longitudinal observational study in order to evaluate the prevalence and the incidence of depressive and anxious symptoms in women and men seeking infertility treatment and to analyze associated factors or risk factors for these kinds of disorders. A total of 1000 consecutive couples that visited our center for the first time were asked to join this study. Depressive and anxious symptoms were assessed with self-rating Zung Depression Scale (ZDS) and Zung Anxiety Scale (ZAS) questionnaires. A second assessment was planned at the time of β HCG dosage (or at the moment of cycle suspension). A standard questionnaire was used to investigate socio-demographic information and the psychological aspects of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. The fertility history and outcome of IVF treatment were collected from patients' medical records. 14.7% of women had anxious symptoms and 17.9% depressive symptoms, whereas 4.5% of men had anxious symptoms and 6.9% depressive symptoms. Women with depressive and anxious symptoms were younger, more often had an anxious partner and had a longer history of infertility. Men with depressive and anxious symptoms more frequently had a temporary job, they had an anxious partner and they were more frequently at the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. The incidence of depressive and/or anxious symptoms was 18.5% in women and 7.4% in men. Age and previous IVF treatments seem not to be associated with incidence of depressive or anxious symptoms. Both the prevalence and incidence of depressive and/or anxious symptoms in couples undergoing IVF treatment were worthy of note and should not be underestimated. More attention must be paid to psychological aspects in young women and in couples with a long history of infertility or previous failure treatments. Having an anxious partner was associated with anxious and depressive symptoms. For this reason, both males and females might benefit from psychological

  16. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2004: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goossens, V.; Ferraretti, A.P.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: European results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated during 2004 are presented in this eighth report. METHODS: Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. From 29 countries, 785 clinics reported 367,066 treatment cycles including: IVF (114,67...

  17. Antibiotic treatment of the tick vector Amblyomma americanum reduced reproductive fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lone star tick Amblyomma americanum is a common pest and vector of infectious diseases for humans and other mammals in the southern and eastern United States. A Coxiella sp. bacterial endosymbiont was highly prevalent in both laboratory-reared and field-collected A. americanum. The Coxiella sp. was demonstrated in all stages of tick and in greatest densities in nymphs and adult females, while a Rickettsia sp. was less prevalent and in lower densities when present. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated the numbers of both bacterial species in laboratory-reared A. americanum by injecting engorged nymphs or engorged, mated females with single doses of an antibiotic (rifampin or tetracycline or buffer alone. Burdens of the bacteria after molting or after oviposition were estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with primers and probes specific for each bacterial species or, as an internal standard, the host tick. Post-molt adult ticks that had been treated with rifampin or tetracycline had lower numbers of the Coxiella sp. and Rickettsia sp. and generally weighed less than ticks that received buffer alone. Similarly, after oviposition, females treated previously with either antibiotic had lower burdens of both bacterial species in comparison to controls. Treatment of engorged females with either antibiotic was associated with prolonged time to oviposition, lower proportions of ticks that hatched, lower proportions of viable larvae among total larvae, and lower numbers of viable larvae per tick. These fitness estimators were associated with reduced numbers of the Coxiella sp. but not the Rickettsia sp. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings indicate that the Coxiella sp. is a primary endosymbiont, perhaps provisioning the obligately hematophagous parasites with essential nutrients. The results also suggest that antibiotics could be incorporated into an integrated pest management plan for control of these and other

  18. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Peters, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range...... of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000. kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient...... on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil...

  19. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material...... production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery...

  20. Gender issues in reproductive health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, Echendu D; Adinma, Brian-D J I

    2011-01-01

    Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women's sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals--legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming.

  1. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of dmrt1 and sox9 during gonad development and male reproductive cycle in the lambari fish, astyanax altiparanae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adolfi, Mateus C.; Carreira, Ana C O; Jesus, Lázaro W O; Bogerd, Jan; Funes, Rejane M.; Schartl, Manfred; Sogayar, Mari C.; Borella, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The dmrt1 and sox9 genes have a well conserved function related to testis formation in vertebrates, and the group of fish presents a great diversity of species and reproductive mechanisms. The lambari fish (Astyanax altiparanae) is an important Neotropical species, where studies on

  3. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Tagliaferri, Carla; Clift, Roland; Lettieri, Paola; Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of an advanced two-stage process is undertaken. • A comparison of the impacts of the process when fed with 7 feedstock is presented. • Sensitivity analysis on the system is performed. • The treatment of RDF shows the lowest impact in terms of both GWP and AP. • The plasma shows a small contribution to the overall impact of the plant. - Abstract: In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20 MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams

  4. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelisti, Sara [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Tagliaferri, Carla [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power (APP), Unit B2, Marston Gate, South Marston Business Park, Swindon SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Clift, Roland [Centre for Environmental Strategy, The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris [Advanced Plasma Power (APP), Unit B2, Marston Gate, South Marston Business Park, Swindon SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of an advanced two-stage process is undertaken. • A comparison of the impacts of the process when fed with 7 feedstock is presented. • Sensitivity analysis on the system is performed. • The treatment of RDF shows the lowest impact in terms of both GWP and AP. • The plasma shows a small contribution to the overall impact of the plant. - Abstract: In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20 MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams

  5. Application of seminal plasma to female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology cycles (IVF, ICSI and frozen embryo transfer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Seyhan, Ayse; Buckett, William

    2018-02-28

    The female genital tract is not exposed to seminal plasma during standard assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. However, it is thought that the inflammatory reaction triggered by seminal plasma may be beneficial by inducing maternal tolerance to paternal antigens expressed by the products of conception, and may increase the chance of successful implantation and live birth. To assess the effectiveness and safety of application of seminal plasma to the female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in ART cycles. We searched the following databases from inception to October 2017: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Studies Online (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched trial registers for ongoing trials, including International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. Other sources searched were; Web of Knowledge, OpenGrey, LILACS, PubMed, Google Scholar and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted among women undergoing ART, comparing any procedure that would expose the female genital tract to seminal plasma during the period starting five days before embryo transfer and ending two days after it versus no seminal plasma application. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We pooled data to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed statistical heterogeneity using the I 2 statistic. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for the main outcomes using GRADE methods. Our primary outcomes were live birth rate and miscarriage rate. Secondary outcomes were live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate and the incidence of other adverse events. We included 11 RCTs (3215 women). The quality of the evidence ranged

  6. Non-reproductive Effects of Anovulation: Bone Metabolism in the Luteal Phase of Premenopausal Women Differs between Ovulatory and Anovulatory Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, B; Körner, C; Schmidmayr, M; Luppa, P B; Seifert-Klauss, V R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: Several authors have linked subclinical ovulatory disturbances in normal length menstrual cycles to premenopausal fracture risk and bone changes. This study systematically examined the influence of ovulation and anovulation on the bone metabolism of premenopausal women. Participants and Methods: In 176 cycles in healthy premenopausal women, FSH, 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) as well as bone alkalic phosphatase (BAP), pyridinoline (PYD) and C-terminal crosslinks (CTX) were measured during the follicular and during the luteal phase. The probability and timing of ovulation was self-assessed by a monitoring device. In addition, bone density of the lumbar spine was measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at baseline and at the end of the study. Analysis was restricted to blood samples taken more than three days before the following menstruation. Results: 118 cycles out of the 176 collected cycles were complete with blood samples taken within the correct time interval. Of these, 56.8 % were ovulatory by two criteria (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display and LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), 33.1 % were possibly ovulatory by one criterion (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display or LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), and 10.2 % were anovulatory by both criteria). Ovulation in the previous cycle and in the same cycle did not significantly influence the mean absolute concentrations of the bone markers. However, bone formation (BAP) was higher in the luteal phase of ovulatory cycles than in anovulatory cycles (n. s.) and the relative changes within one cycle were significantly different for bone resorption (CTX) during ovulatory vs. anovulatory cycles (p cycles following each other directly, both ovulation in the previous cycle and ovulation in the present cycle influenced CTX, but not the differences of other bone markers. Conclusion: Ovulatory cycles reduce bone resorption in their luteal phase and that of the

  7. Environmental and economic life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment processes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Hong, Jingmin; Otaki, Masahiro; Jolliet, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment was carried out by estimating the environmental and economic impacts of the six alternative scenarios most often used in Japan: dewatering, composting, drying, incineration, incinerated ash melting and dewatered sludge melting, each with or without digestion. Three end-of-life treatments were also studied: landfilling, agricultural application and building material application. The results demonstrate that sewage sludge digestion can reduce the environmental load and cost through reduced dry matter volume. The global warming potential (GWP) generated from incineration and melting processes can be significantly reduced through the reuse of waste heat for electricity and/or heat generation. Equipment production in scenarios except dewatering has an important effect on GWP, whereas the contribution of construction is negligible. In addition, the results show that the dewatering scenario has the highest impact on land use and cost, the drying scenario has the highest impact on GWP and acidification, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the highest impact on human toxicity due to re-emissions of heavy metals from incinerated ash in the melting unit process. On the contrary, the dewatering, composting and incineration scenarios generate the lowest impact on human toxicity, land use and acidification, respectively, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the lowest impact on GWP and cost. Heavy metals released from atmospheric effluents generated the highest human toxicity impact, with the effect of dioxin emissions being significantly lower. This study proved that the dewatered sludge melting scenario is an environmentally optimal and economically affordable method.

  8. Multi-center clinical evaluation of the Access AMH assay to determine AMH levels in reproductive age women during normal menstrual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Clarisa R; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Prewitt, Maureen; Chamberlin, Janna S; Lofaro, Lori R; Jones, Kristin L; Clendenin, Marta; Manzanera, Katherine E; Broyles, Dennis L

    2018-03-14

    AMH is widely used for assessing ovarian reserve, and it is particularly convenient, because it is thought to have minimal variability throughout the menstrual cycle. However, studies assessing the stability of AMH over the menstrual cycle have been conflicting. The purpose of this study is to determine whether AMH levels vary across the normal menstrual cycle. A multi-center, prospective cohort study conducted at three US centers. Fifty females with regular menstrual cycles aged 18-45 underwent serial venipuncture every 3-5 days starting in the early follicular phase and lasting up to 10 collections. AMH was tested using the Access 2 immunoassay system. Age-adjusted mixed-effect models utilizing data from 384 samples from 50 subjects demonstrated a within subject standard deviation of 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.88) with a coefficient of variation of 23.8% across the menstrual cycle and between subject standard deviation of 2.56 (95% CI 2.13-3.21) with a coefficient of variation of 75.1%. Intra-class correlation (ICC) of AMH across the menstrual cycle was 0.91. Overall, AMH levels, using the automated Access AMH assay, appear to be relatively stable across the menstrual cycle. Fluctuations, if any, appear to be small, and therefore, clinicians may advise patients to have AMH levels drawn at any time in the cycle.

  9. Heat treatments and thermomechanical cycling influences on the R-phase in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Henrique Gonzalez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies changes observed on the R-phase thermoelastic behavior in a near-equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloy. Three kinds of procedures have been performed: different treatments, thermomechanical cycling under constant loading in shape memory helical springs and thermal cycling in as-treated and trained samples. Several heat treatments were carried out to investigate evolution of the R-phase by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. A heat treatment was chosen on which R-phase is absent. Shape memory springs were produced and submitted to a training process in an apparatus by tensioning the springs under constant loading. Thermal cycling in DSC was realized in as-treated and trained samples. Several aspects of one-step (B2→B19' and two-steps (B2→R→B19' martensitic transformations and R-phase formation and their evolution during tests were observed and discussed.

  10. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Lee, Kathy E.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P.; Nelson, Krysta R.; Milsk, Rebecca Y.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Berninger, Jason P.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Blanskma, Chad; Jicha, Terri M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Johnson, Rodney C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  11. An optimized approach towards the treatment of high level liquid waste in the nuclear cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, V.; Todd, T.; Law, J.; Roach, J.; Sabharwall, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to realize the successful growth of nuclear power is an economical, politically acceptable, stakeholder-compatible, and technically feasible resolution pertaining to the safe treatment and disposal of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLLW). In addition to spent nuclear reactor fuel, HLLW poses a unique challenge in regard to environmental and security concerns, since future scenarios for a next generation of domestic and commercialized nuclear fuel cycle infrastructures must include reprocessing - the primary source of HLLW-to ensure the cost effectiveness of nuclear power as well as mitigate any threats as related to proliferation. Past attempts to immobilize HLLW - generated by both the weapons complex and the commercial power sector-have been plagued by an inability to convince the public and some technical peer reviewers that any proposed geological disposal sites (e.g., Yucca Mountain) can accommodate and contain the HLLW for a period of geological time equivalent to ten fold the radiological half-life of the longest lived of the actinides remaining after reprocessing. The paper explores combined equipment and chemical processing approaches for advancing and economizing the immobilization of high level liquid waste to ensure its long term durability, its decoupling from the unknown behavior of the repository over long geological time periods, and its economical formulation as required for the nuclear fuel cycle of the future. One approach involves the investigation of crystalline based waste forms as opposed to the glass/amorphous based waste forms, and how recent developments in crystalline forms show promise in sequestering the long lived actinides for over tens of millions of years. Another approach -compatible with the first- involves the use of an alternative melter technology-the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM)- to overcome the engineering material problems of Joule Heated Meters (JHM

  12. Treatment of wastes in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.; Chow, L.S.H.; Carls, E.L.; Hannum, W.H.; Laidler, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    In both the reactor portion and the fuel-cycle portion of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), handling, treatment and disposal of wastes are simpler than in current fuel cycles. The vast majority (> 99.9%) of the very-long-lived radioactive TRU elements are not sent to the repository; rather, they are recycled. High-level waste volume from the IFR process (called ''the pyroprocess'') is lower than that from either the direct disposal of spent fuel or from conventional PUREX-type reprocessing. The quantity of low-level waste is very low. In the pyroprocess, the actinides are recovered and separated from the bulk of the fission products by an electrorefining step wherein the actinides are electrotransported from chopped fuel elements and deposited at cathodes. The volatile fission products xenon, krypton, and tritium are collected for long-term storage and decay. Zirconium and the ''noble metal'' fission products (those that are less easily oxidized than zirconium) remain in the anode compartment, to be removed with the fuel cladding fragments and made into a metal waste form. The remaining fission products collect in the salt as chlorides. A process has been developed to periodically remove the contaminated salt from the electrorefiner, separate most of the fission products, and return the purified salt in a form that is ready for continuing use. To clean up the electrorefiner salt, the fission products are removed by ion exchange onto a column of Zeolite A. After the purification step, the column material and the contained fission products are converted to a mineral waste form for disposal. The processes and equipment for waste isolation and conversion to suitable disposal forms are described in this paper. (author)

  13. Authors' reply to comment on "Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S.; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our national register-based study (1) was to investigate the risk of a new episode of unipolar depression among women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in regards to whether they had achieved a live birth (as a result of treatment or spontaneous conception) or not. He...... compared to women having conceived spontaneously. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......The aim of our national register-based study (1) was to investigate the risk of a new episode of unipolar depression among women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in regards to whether they had achieved a live birth (as a result of treatment or spontaneous conception) or not....... Hence, we did not aim to compare unipolar depression in women who received ART treatment with women who did not. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis (2) was published recently which shows no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted reproduction...

  14. Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record : An Ethical Analysis of a State-Enforced "Presumption Against Treatment" With Regard to Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    As assisted reproductive technologies (ART) become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or child protection order, are given a "presumption against treatment." This article reviews the legislation and identifies arguments that may be used to justify restricting access to ART for various reasons. The arguments reviewed include limitations of reproductive rights, inheriting undesirable genetic traits, distributive justice, and the welfare of the future child. We show that none of these arguments justifies restricting access to ART in the context of past criminal history. We show that a "presumption against treatment" is an unjustified infringement on reproductive freedom and that it creates various inconsistencies in current social, medical, and legal policy. We argue that a state-enforced policy of restricting access to ART based on the non-medical factor of past criminal history is an example of unjust discrimination and cannot be ethically justified, with one important exception: in cases where ART treatment may be considered futile on the basis that the parents are not expected to raise the resulting child.

  15. A multi-system interface module for automating the patient treatment cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Tim; Brooks, Ken; Davis, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The use of many different computer systems in a radiation oncology department for treatment simulation, planning, and delivery typically introduces increased planning times and redundant data entry. This redundancy is not only a time-consuming chore, but it also has the possibility of introducing human errors at each step. These computer systems often have different hardware platforms and operating systems making it even more difficult to the users for accessing the data. In addition, there is typically a common set of patient and treatment information scattered among these various systems. The purpose of this study is to describe our experience for automating the patient treatment cycle which includes treatment simulation, planning, and delivery using an interface module for sharing this core set of data among the various computer systems in a department without additional complexity to the staff. Materials and Methods: An object-oriented software tool was developed to support a user-driven, dependent query, retrieve, and update of different radiation therapy data systems using Networked File Systems (NFS) and the Structured Query Language (SQL). The interface module was designed to support a many-to-many systems' connectivity depending on the needs of a department. The software tool makes use of the Virtual Machine Platform and Foundation Library specifications of the NCI-sponsored Radiation Therapy Planning Tools Collaborative Working Group for accessing treatment planning data from a system that conforms to these standards. It also takes advantage of the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard for accessing commercial radiation therapy database systems. A custom data access method is developed for any data system that does not conform to these two standards. The software tool has an intuitive graphical user interface for review and verification of the data after the query and retrieve process. The software was written in the C++ language

  16. The impact of in situ methotrexate injection after transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian endometriomas on ovarian response and reproductive outcomes during IVF-cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E. Shawki

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion(s: In situ methotrexate injection after transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration was a simple, safe and successful method for treating ovarian endometriomas with minimal effects on ovarian response. Short term effects on reproductive outcomes, risk of fetal loss or anomaly were minimal. Six months was enough as washout period of the drug prior to conception and was advisable to prevent the small chance of chromosomal abnormalities in the offspring.

  17. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  18. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D and D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low

  19. Treatment of malignant neoplasms by combined radio- and chemotherapy with cell-cycle synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrov, G.; Dobrev, D.; Bakalov, M.; Angelova, J.

    1975-01-01

    Immediate and short-term results are reported from treatment of 12 cases of malignancies affecting the face jaw area by the method of cell-cycle synchronization using 5-fluorouracyl. The patients, ranging from 49 to 73 years of age, presented with developed differentiated planocellular carcinomas distributed according to the TNM system, as follows: T 1 , N 0 , M 0 , 2 subjects; T 2 , N 0 , M 0 , 2 subjects; T 3 , N 1 , M 0 , 4 subjects; and T 4 , N 1 , M 0 , 4 subjects. Based on a scheme, 750 mg 5-fluorouracyl was infused over a 12-hour period (drop-by-drop administration), the procedure being repeated twice weekly up to a total dose of 8.5-11.5 mg. Radiotherapy (gamma teletherapy) followed under the same schedule, namely 8 hours after discontinuing the drop-by drop system, at 500 rad daily tumor dose and 6000-7000 rad total focal dose delivered over a 6-7 week period. Directly after cessation of radiotherapy, clinical disappearance (100) of the tumor was observed in 8 patients, reduction by 90% in 1 patient, and by 80% in 3 patients. No recurrences were noted at 3 months following radiotherapy; the proportion of recurrences did not increase until after the 6th month (40%). The most common local response was radioepithelitis; severe cases calling for temporary interruption of treatment occurred in 7 of the 12 patients. The hematopoietic system showed no deviations from the norm. No marked general radiation reactions were observed. Long-term results as regards primary tumors and survival will be reported in a second paper. (author)

  20. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G.; Hospido, A.; Bagley, D.M.; Moreira, M.T.; Feijoo, G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO 2 and N 2 O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin®, making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N 2 O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO 2 emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: ► A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. ► Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. ► N 2 O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. ► CO 2 emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  1. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  2. Comparison of municipal solid waste treatment technologies from a life cycle perspective in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao; Huang, Qunxing; Ni, Mingjiang

    2014-01-01

    China has endured the increasing generation of municipal solid waste; hence, environmental analysis of current waste management systems is of crucial importance. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of three waste treatment technologies practiced in Hangzhou, China: landfill with and without energy recovery, and incineration with waste-to-energy. Adopting region-specific data, the study covers various environmental impacts, such as global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation, human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results show that energy recovery poses a positive effect in environmental savings. Environmental impacts decrease significantly in landfill with the utilization of biogas owing to combined effects by emission reduction and electricity generation. Incineration is preferable to landfill, but toxicity-related impacts also need to be improved. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the benefit of carbon sequestration will noticeably decrease global warming potential of both landfill scenarios. Gas collection efficiency is also a key parameter influencing the performance of landfill. Based on the results, improvement methods are proposed. Energy recovery is recommended both in landfill and incineration. For landfill, gas collection systems should be upgraded effectively; for incineration, great efforts should be made to reduce heavy metals and dioxin emissions.

  3. Dynamics of testosterone concentration in male steppe lemmings (Lagurus lagurus) in the reproductive cycle reflects the species-specific mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, O F; Potapov, M A; Kondratyuk, E Yu; Evsikov, V I

    2016-05-01

    In the blood of male steppe lemmings, relatively low background levels of testosterone were detected, this is characteristic of a monogamous species. A significant increase in testosterone level, more expressed in sexually active males, was observed at the initial stage of formation of reproductive couples. Apparently, in the future, the couple will exist in a stable relationship, and, hence, the maintenance of a high testosterone level becomes excessive. The decrease in, and the relative "normalization" of, the hormone level during the existence of the pair, including raising of the young, promotes higher expression of the male paternal care of the offspring at the species level.

  4. Cumulative pregnancy rates after sequential treatment with modified natural cycle IVF followed by IVF with controlled ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, M. J.; Knol, H. M.; Vogel, N. E. A.; Arts, E. G. J. M.; Simons, A. H. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: In modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF), treatment is aimed at using the one follicle that spontaneously develops to dominance, using a GnRH-antagonist together with gonadotrophins in the late follicular phase only. The MNC-IVF is of interest because of its low-risk and patient-friendly

  5. Cumulative pregnancy rates after sequential treatment with modified natural cycle IVF followed by IVF with controlled ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, M. J.; Knol, H. M.; Vogel, N. E. A.; Arts, E. G. J. M.; Simons, A. H. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Hoek, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF), treatment is aimed at using the one follicle that spontaneously develops to dominance, using a GnRH-antagonist together with gonadotrophins in the late follicular phase only. The MNC-IVF is of interest because of its low-risk and patient-friendly

  6. Role of rescue IVF-ET treatment in the management of high response in stimulated IUI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufowobi, O; Sharif, K; Papaioannou, S; Mohamed, H; Neelakantan, D; Afnan, M

    2005-02-01

    Rescue in-vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) has been used in high response gonadotrophin intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles to minimise the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation and multiple gestation. Such unplanned IVF treatment increases the cost of treatment. But can this added cost and the risks associated with IVF be justified? We present our experience with this treatment using clinical pregnancy and live birth rates as the primary outcomes. Between 1998 to 2001, 40 women undergoing IUI cycles who over responded (>3 follicles measuring >15 mm in diameter on the planned day of hCG administration) to gonadotrophin were offered the choice of conversion to IVF-ET or cancel the cycle. 17/40 declined rescue IVF/ET and had their cycles cancelled. 23/40 converted to IVF/ET and underwent transvaginal oocyte retrieval. 21/23 had embryo transferred. The clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were 52% and 48%, respectively. Rescue IVF-ET offers excellent clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in high responders. However, affordability can be an obstacle in the utilization of this treatment option.

  7. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  8. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  9. The effect of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on stress in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technlogy (ART) treatment: A randomized controlled pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Signe Maria Schneevoigt; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Infertile couples undergoing fertility treatments may experience stress and could benefit from psychological intervention. Expressive Writing Intervention (EWI) has shown promising results on various psychological outcomes, yet only one study has applied the method to infertility......-related stress. Our aim was to assess feasibility and effectiveness of EWI for patients in treatment with Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Design and participants. Patients enrolling in their first ART treatment at the fertility clinic, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark were offered to participate....... A total of 82 participants (45 women, 37 men), mean age: 33.17, were randomized to home-based EWI or neutral writing control group and completed an infertility-related stress questionnaire at treatment enrollment, 3 weeks later (at the time of down regulation), and 6 weeks after the intervention...

  10. The economic value of innovative treatments over the product life cycle: the case of targeted trastuzumab therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Veenstra, David L

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomic analyses typically project the expected cost-effectiveness of a new product for a specific indication. This analysis develops a dynamic life-cycle model to conduct a multi-indication evaluation using the case of trastuzumab licensed in the United States for both early-stage and metastatic (or late-stage) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer therapy (early breast cancer [EBC]; metastatic breast cancer [MBC]), approved in 2006 and 1998, respectively. This dynamic model combined information on expected incremental cost-utility ratios for specific indications with an epidemiologically based projection of utilization by indication over the product life cycle-from 1998 to 2016. Net economic value was estimated as the cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained over the life cycle multiplied by a societal valuation of health gains ($/QALY) minus cumulative net direct treatment costs. Sensitivity analyses were performed under a range of assumptions. We projected that the annual number of EBC patients receiving trastuzumab will be more than three times that of MBC by 2016, in part because adjuvant treatment reduces the future incidence of MBC. Over this life cycle, the estimated overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $35,590/QALY with a total of 432,547 discounted QALYs gained. Under sensitivity analyses, the overall ICER varied from $21,000 to $53,000/QALY, and the projected net economic value resulting from trastuzumab treatment ranged from $6.2 billion to $49.5 billion. Average ICERs for multi-indication compounds can increase or decrease over the product life cycle. In this example, the projected overall life-cycle ICER for trastuzumab was less than one half of that in the initial indication. This dynamic perspective-versus the usual static one-highlights the interdependence of drug development decisions and investment incentives, raising important reimbursement policy issues.

  11. Purulent vaginal discharge in grazing dairy cows: Risk factors, reproductive performance, and prostaglandin F2α treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, M J; Magnasco, M; Magnasco, R P; Lacau-Mengido, I M; de la Sota, R L

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the association of a 4-point scale of vaginal discharge score (VDS) with time to pregnancy to define criteria for a practical case of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) in dairy cows, to test the risk factors for PVD, and, finally, the effect of a dose of PGF 2α on cure and reproductive performance. In experiment 1, grazing Holstein cows (n = 2,414) had their vaginal discharge scored at ∼32 d in milk (DIM) on a 4-point scale, the effect of VDS on the hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was then assessed to derive a case definition of PVD. Risk factors for PVD and self-cure were also assessed. In experiment 2, grazing Holstein cows (n = 6,326) from 5 herds were checked for PVD at ∼30 DIM. Cows with PVD were assigned to receive one dose of 500 μg of PGF 2α analog (Cloprostenol; Ciclase, Syntex SA, Buenos Aires, Argentina) per cow (odd ear tag number) or to remain untreated (even tag number). Cure was declared if cows presented clear normal vaginal discharge (VDS-0) at visit 2 (∼62 DIM). Data were analyzed with Cox's regression and mixed logistic models. In experiment 1, cows with VDS ≥1 had lower hazard of pregnancy and longer calving to pregnancy interval than cows with VDS-0. This finding was not affected by the time at which the diagnosis was performed. Therefore, a cow ≥21 DIM and having VDS ≥1 was used to define a case of PVD. The odds of PVD were greater in primiparous cows compared with multiparous, in cows with abnormal calving compared with those with normal calving, and in those losing BCS peripartum. In experiment 2, PGF 2α treatment tended to slightly increase the hazard of pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.13). Conversely, PGF 2α had no effect on the odds of cure of PVD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.19], pregnancy at first service (AOR = 1.03), or pregnancy by 100 DIM (AOR = 0.89) or 200 DIM (AOR = 1.27). In conclusion, cows with VDS ≥1 can be considered to have PVD because of their lower hazard

  12. The environmental footprint of a membrane bioreactor treatment process through Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L.; Foteinis, S.; Chatzisymeon, E.; Fatta-Kassinos, D.

    2016-01-01

    This study includes an environmental analysis of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), the objective being to quantitatively define the inventory of the resources consumed and estimate the emissions produced during its construction, operation and end-of-life deconstruction. The environmental analysis was done by the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, in order to establish with a broad perspective and in a rigorous and objective way the environmental footprint and the main environmental hotspots of the examined technology. Raw materials, equipment, transportation, energy use, as well as air- and waterborne emissions were quantified using as a functional unit, 1 m"3 of urban wastewater. SimaPro 8.0.3.14 was used as the LCA analysis tool, and two impact assessment methods, i.e. IPCC 2013 version 1.00 and ReCiPe version 1.10, were employed. The main environmental hotspots of the MBR pilot unit were identified to be the following: (i) the energy demand, which is by far the most crucial parameter that affects the sustainability of the whole process, and (ii) the material of the membrane units. Overall, the MBR technology was found to be a sustainable solution for urban wastewater treatment, with the construction phase having a minimal environmental impact, compared to the operational phase. Moreover, several alternative scenarios and areas of potential improvement, such as the diversification of the electricity mix and the material of the membrane units, were examined, in order to minimize as much as possible the overall environmental footprint of this MBR system. It was shown that the energy mix can significantly affect the overall sustainability of the MBR pilot unit (i.e. up to 95% reduction of the total greenhouse gas emissions was achieved with the use of an environmentally friendly energy mix), and the contribution of the construction and operational phase to the overall environmental footprint of the system. - Highlights: • The environmental sustainability of an

  13. The environmental footprint of a membrane bioreactor treatment process through Life Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L.; Foteinis, S. [Nireas-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Chatzisymeon, E. [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Fatta-Kassinos, D., E-mail: dfatta@ucy.ac.cy [Nireas-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2016-10-15

    This study includes an environmental analysis of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), the objective being to quantitatively define the inventory of the resources consumed and estimate the emissions produced during its construction, operation and end-of-life deconstruction. The environmental analysis was done by the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, in order to establish with a broad perspective and in a rigorous and objective way the environmental footprint and the main environmental hotspots of the examined technology. Raw materials, equipment, transportation, energy use, as well as air- and waterborne emissions were quantified using as a functional unit, 1 m{sup 3} of urban wastewater. SimaPro 8.0.3.14 was used as the LCA analysis tool, and two impact assessment methods, i.e. IPCC 2013 version 1.00 and ReCiPe version 1.10, were employed. The main environmental hotspots of the MBR pilot unit were identified to be the following: (i) the energy demand, which is by far the most crucial parameter that affects the sustainability of the whole process, and (ii) the material of the membrane units. Overall, the MBR technology was found to be a sustainable solution for urban wastewater treatment, with the construction phase having a minimal environmental impact, compared to the operational phase. Moreover, several alternative scenarios and areas of potential improvement, such as the diversification of the electricity mix and the material of the membrane units, were examined, in order to minimize as much as possible the overall environmental footprint of this MBR system. It was shown that the energy mix can significantly affect the overall sustainability of the MBR pilot unit (i.e. up to 95% reduction of the total greenhouse gas emissions was achieved with the use of an environmentally friendly energy mix), and the contribution of the construction and operational phase to the overall environmental footprint of the system. - Highlights: • The environmental sustainability of

  14. Effects on reproduction in female offspring from Sprague-Dawley rats fed 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy and concurrent treatment with safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, E C; Smith, G S; Greenberg, J A

    1995-10-01

    Previous studies determined that safflower oil administration provided protection against the embryotoxicity seen following ingestion of 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy. Sixty-two young primiparous female rats born in those studies were paired with adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 d they were removed and carried their litters to term. Observations were made of the presence and extent of reproductive effects attributable to the 10% snakeweed exposure and differences in fecundity that were attributable to dosing with safflower oil or normal saline during the snakeweed exposure. Of the 62 rats, 50 carried litters to term and approximated the reproductive efficiency of normal primiparous Sprague-Dawley rats. There was no significant difference between the fecundity of females born to rats fed the 10% snakeweed and dosed with safflower oil, those born of rats fed snakeweed dosed with normal saline, or those fed a snakeweed-free diet and dosed with normal saline. Regardless of the diet or treatment administered, dams carrying their litters to parturition gave birth to healthy, normo-reproductive offspring. While the toxic principles in Gutierrezia species plants may act as estrogenic or anti-estrogenic compounds, they did not impair fertility in the female offspring of dosed rats.

  15. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies world report: Assisted Reproductive Technology 2008, 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, S; Chambers, G M; de Mouzon, J; Nygren, K G; Zegers-Hochschild, F; Mansour, R; Ishihara, O; Banker, M; Adamson, G D

    2016-07-01

    What were utilization, outcomes and practices in assisted reproductive technology (ART) globally in 2008, 2009 and 2010? Global utilization and effectiveness remained relatively constant despite marked variations among countries, while the rate of single and frozen embryo transfers (FETs) increased with a concomitant slight reduction in multiple birth rates. ART is widely practised in all regions of the world. Monitoring utilization, an approximation of availability and access, as well as effectiveness and safety is an important component of universal access to reproductive health. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional survey on utilization, effectiveness and safety of ART procedures performed globally from 2008 to 2010. Between 58 and 61 countries submitted data from a total of nearly 2500 ART clinics each year. Aggregate country data were processed and analyzed based on forms and methods developed by the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART). Results are presented at country, regional and global level. For the years 2008, 2009 and 2010, >4 461 309 ART cycles were initiated, resulting in an estimated 1 144 858 babies born. The number of aspirations increased by 6.4% between 2008 and 2010, while FET cycles increased by 27.6%. Globally, ART utilization remained relatively constant at 436 cycles/million in 2008 and 474 cycles/million population in 2010, but with a wide country range of 8-4775 cycles/million population. ICSI remained constant at around 66% of non-donor aspiration cycles. The IVF/ICSI combined delivery rate (DR) per fresh aspiration was 19.8% in 2008; 19.7% in 2009 and 20.0% in 2010, with corresponding DRs for FET of 18.8, 19.7 and 20.7%. In fresh non-donor cycles, single embryo transfer increased from 25.7% in 2008 to 30.0% in 2010, while the average number of embryos transferred fell from 2.1 to 1.9, again with wide regional variation. The rates of twin deliveries following fresh non-donor transfers

  16. Circadian rhythms and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Michael J; Kennaway, David J

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing recognition that the circadian timing system, in particular recently discovered clock genes, plays a major role in a wide range of physiological systems. Microarray studies, for example, have shown that the expression of hundreds of genes changes many fold in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, liver heart and kidney. In this review, we discuss the role of circadian rhythmicity in the control of reproductive function in animals and humans. Circadian rhythms and clock genes appear to be involved in optimal reproductive performance, but there are sufficient redundancies in their function that many of the knockout mice produced do not show overt reproductive failure. Furthermore, important strain differences have emerged from the studies especially between the various Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycle Kaput) mutant strains. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that the primary clock genes, Clock and Bmal1 (Brain and Muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as Mop3), strongly influence reproductive competency. The extent to which the circadian timing system affects human reproductive performance is not known, in part, because many of the appropriate studies have not been done. With the role of Clock and Bmal1 in fertility becoming clearer, it may be time to pursue the effect of polymorphisms in these genes in relation to the various types of infertility in humans.

  17. Effects of laser peening treatment on high cycle fatigue and crack propagation behaviors in austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Kiyotaka; Ochi, Yasuo; Matsumura, Takashi; Ikarashi, Takaaki; Sano, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Laser peening without protective coating (LPwC) treatment is one of surface enhancement techniques using an impact wave of high pressure plasma induced by laser pulse irradiation. High compressive residual stress was induced by the LPwC treatment on the surface of low-carbon type austenitic stainless steel SUS316L. The affected depth reached about 1mm from the surface. High cycle fatigue tests with four-points rotating bending loading were carried out to confirm the effects of the LPwC treatment on fatigue strength and surface fatigue crack propagation behaviors. The fatigue strength was remarkably improved by the LPwC treatment over the whole regime of fatigue life up to 10 8 cycles. Specimens with a pre-crack from a small artificial hole due to fatigue loading were used for the quantitative study on the effect of the LPwC treatment. The fracture mechanics investigation on the pre-cracked specimens showed that the LPwC treatment restrained the further propagation of the pre-crack if the stress intensity factor range ΔK on the crack tip was less than 7.6 MPa√m. Surface cracks preferentially propagated into the depth direction as predicted through ΔK analysis on the crack by taking account of the compressive residual stresses due to the LPwC treatment. (author)

  18. What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction? The next step to improving outcomes of IVF: consider the whole treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, E.M.; Macklon, Nick; Fauser, Bart

    2004-01-01

    textabstractChanging the way in which successful IVF treatment is defined offers a tool to improve efficacy while reducing costs and complications of treatment. Crucial to this paradigm shift is the move away from considering outcomes in terms of the single IVF cycle, and towards the started IVF treatment as a whole. We propose the most informative end-point of success in IVF to be the term singleton birth rate per started IVF treatment (or per given time period) in the overall context of pat...

  19. Níveis de fibra da dieta sobre o desempenho de coelhas no primeiro e segundo ciclos reprodutivos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1930 Dietary fiber levels on rabbit does’ performance on the first and second reproductive cycles - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Frederico Lui

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos dos níveis de fibra em detergente ácido (15,1%; 17,9%; 20,6%; 23,0% da dieta sobre o desempenho de 64 coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, nos dois primeiros ciclos reprodutivos. As dietas continham 2850 kcal/kg de ED, 19,8% de PB e 28,8% de amido. No primeiro ciclo, o consumo diário apresentou variação quadrática (p0,05 sobre o tamanho das ninhadas. Dietas mais fibrosas promoveram uma maior produção de leite (pThe experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary acid detergent fiber levels (15.1; 17.9; 20.6; 23.0% ADF on the performance of 64 New Zealand White rabbit does, during first and second reproductive cycles. The experimental diets contained 2850 kcal/kg digestive energy (DE, 19.8% crude protein (CP and 28.8% starch. In the first cycle, the feed intake in pregnancy presented quadratic variation (P0.05 of treatments on litter size. More fibrous diets provided greater milk production (P<0.02.

  20. Successful Oocyte Cryopreservation in Reproductive-Aged Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, Sarah; Goldman, Kara N; Labella, Patty A; Fino, M Elizabeth; Bazzocchi, Antonia; Noyes, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate that oocyte cryopreservation is a feasible reproductive option for patients with cancer of childbearing age who require gonadotoxic therapies. This study is a university-based retrospective review of reproductive-aged cancer patient treatment cycles that included ovarian stimulation, transvaginal oocyte retrieval, oocyte cryopreservation, and, in some cases, subsequent oocyte thaw, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer. Outcome measures included ovarian stimulation response, number of oocytes retrieved, cryopreserved, and thawed, and pregnancy data. From 2005 to 2014, 176 reproductive-aged patients with cancer (median age 31 years, interquartile range 24-36) completed 182 oocyte cryopreservation cycles. Median time between consult request and oocyte retrieval was 12 days (interquartile range 10-14). Median peak stimulation estradiol was 1,446 pg/mL (interquartile range 730-2,687); 15 (interquartile range 9-23) oocytes were retrieved and 10 (interquartile range 5-18) metaphase II oocytes were cryopreserved per cycle. Ten patients (11 cycles) have returned to attempt pregnancy with their cryopreserved oocytes. Among thawed oocytes, the cryopreservation survival rate was 86% (confidence interval [CI] 78-94%). Nine of 11 thaw cycles resulted in embryos suitable for transfer. The embryo implantation rate was 27% (CI 8-46%) and the live birth rate was 44% (CI 12-77%) per embryo transfer. Chance for live birth with embryos created from cryopreserved oocytes was similar between the patients with cancer in this study and noncancer patients who underwent the same treatment at our center (44% [CI 12-77%] compared with 33% [CI 22-44%] per embryo transfer). Oocyte cryopreservation is now a feasible fertility preservation option for reproductive-aged patients with cancer who require gonadotoxic therapies.

  1. Stopping Onabotulinum Treatment after the First Two Cycles Might Not Be Justified: Results of a Real-life Monocentric Prospective Study in Chronic Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sarchielli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionOnabotulinum toxin A (OnabotA cyclic treatment is approved for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine (CM, a highly disabling disorder. Although treatment response varies among patients, current guidelines suggest to stop treatment after cycle 2 if no response is achieved. This prospective study aimed to define, in real-life setting, the evolution of the response to OnabotA over five cycles of treatment among patients non-responding to cycle 1. The results of this study might help in decision-making, in particular whether prosecuting OnabotA further or not, when facing a patient not responding to cycle 1.MethodsPatients failing to respond at cycle 1 were recruited to complete five cycles. Key outcomes were: (i a ≥50% reduction in headache days, (ii a ≥50% reduction in total cumulative hours of headache on headache days and (iii a ≥5-point improvement in Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6 scores.ResultsOverall, 56 patients were included. Mean age was 45.7 years (female 83.9%. Severe (≥60 HIT-6 score was reported at baseline by 95.8% of patients. Responders (headache days reduction of more than 50% progressively increased cycle after cycle, doubling from cycle 2 to cycle 5 (from 27 to 48%. In addition, patients regressed from CM to episodic migraine moving on with each cycle, with 78% of them reaching less than nine migraine days/month after cycle 5. The headache days per month decreased significantly from cycle 1 to cycle 5 (overall from 23.3 ± 5.7 to 9.2 ± 3.6; p < 0.001. During 12 months (5 cycles, migraine days per month progressively abated (from 18.5 to 8.7; p < 0.001, days with symptomatic medications intake/month consistently decreased (from 17.4 to 8.1; p < 0.001, and mean HIT-6 score lowered (from 72.4 ± 5.7 to 50.2 ± 4.3; p < 0.001.ConclusionThe positive effect of OnabotA treatment spreads over the course of the treatment and might also manifest late in treatment course

  2. Evaluation of the properties of anodized aluminum 6061 subjected to thermal cycling treatment using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yuelong [Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory (CEEL), Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0241 (United States); Shih Hong [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States)], E-mail: hong.shih@lamrc.com; Daugherty, John [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Mansfeld, Florian [Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory (CEEL), Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0241 (United States)], E-mail: mansfeld@usc.edu

    2009-10-15

    The corrosion resistance of anodized Al 6061 produced by two different anodizing and sealing processes was evaluated for 30 days during exposure to 3.5 wt% NaCl using EIS. Thermal cycling treatments at 120, 160 and 200 deg. C have been applied for the two types of samples. The degradation of the properties of the anodized layers has been determined by thorough analysis of the EIS data for control samples and samples that had undergone thermal cycling. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to evaluate the damage to the anodized aluminum layers due to thermal cycling. It was found that the thermal treatment produced considerable damage of both the porous layer and the barrier layer. The EIS data suggest that some cracks extended into the bare metal. The damage of the oxide layers increased with increasing thermal cycling temperature for both types of samples. Self-sealing of the porous layer and the barrier layer occurred during immersion in NaCl.

  3. Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats Hipposideros commersoni ... Reproductive females dispersed twice during the annual cycle, while in ... Synchronized parturitions within maternity roosts (in late October) created a hot, ...

  4. Mercury cycling in a wastewater treatment plant treating waters with high mercury contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Noguero, Eva M.; García-Noguero, Carolina; Higueras, Pablo; Reyes-Bozo, Lorenzo; Esbrí, José M.

    2015-04-01

    The Almadén mercury mining district has been historically the most important producer of this element since Romans times to 2004, when both mining and metallurgic activities ceased as a consequence both of reserves exhaustion and persistent low prices for this metal. The reclamation of the main dump of the mine in 2007-2008 reduced drastically the atmospheric presence of the gaseous mercury pollutant in the local atmosphere. But still many areas, and in particular in the Almadén town area, can be considered as contaminated, and produce mercury releases that affect the urban residual waters. Two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) where built in the area in year 2002, but in their design the projects did not considered the question of high mercury concentrations received as input from the town area. This communication presents data of mercury cycling in one of the WWTP, the Almadén-Chillón one, being the larger and receiving the higher Hg concentrations, due to the fact that it treats the waters coming from the West part of the town, in the immediate proximity to the mine area. Data were collected during a number of moments of activity of the plant, since April 2004 to nowadays. Analyses were carried out by means of cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS), using a PSA Millennium Merlin analytical device with gold trap. The detection limit is 0.1 ng/l. The calibration standards are prepared using the Panreac ICP Standard Mercury Solution (1,000±0,002 g/l Hg in HNO3 2-5%). Results of the surveys indicate that mercury concentrations in input and output waters in this plant has suffered an important descent since the cessation of mining and metallurgical activities, and minor reduction also after the reclamation of the main mine's dump. Since 2009, some minor seasonal variations are detected, in particular apparently related to accumulation during summer of mercury salts and particles, which are washed to the plant with the autumn's rains. Further

  5. Life cycle environmental impacts of advanced wastewater treatment techniques for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon Tarpani, Raphael Ricardo; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-06-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are of increasing interest because of their ecotoxicological properties and environmental impacts. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are the main pathway for their release into freshwaters due to the inefficiency of conventional WWTPs in removing many of these contaminants from effluents. Therefore, different advanced effluent treatment techniques have been proposed for their treatment. However, it is not known at present how effective these treatment methods are and whether on a life cycle basis they cause other environmental impacts which may outweigh the benefits of the treatment. In an effort to provide an insight into this question, this paper considers life cycle environmental impacts of the following advanced treatment techniques aimed at reducing freshwater ecotoxicity potential of PPCPs: granular activated carbon (GAC), nanofiltration (NF), solar photo-Fenton (SPF) and ozonation. The results suggest that on average NF has the lowest impacts for 13 out of 18 categories considered. GAC is the best alternative for five impacts, including metals and water depletion, but it has the highest marine eutrophication. SPF and ozonation are the least sustainable for eight impacts, including ecotoxicity and climate change. GAC and NF are also more efficient in treating heavy metals while avoiding generation of harmful by-products during the treatment, thus being more suitable for potable reuse of wastewater. However, releasing the effluent without advanced treatment to agricultural land achieves a much higher reduction of freshwater ecotoxicity than treating it by any of the advanced treatments and releasing to the environment. Therefore, the use of advanced effluent treatment for agricultural purposes is not recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Creatine for women: a review of the relationship between creatine and the reproductive cycle and female-specific benefits of creatine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine/creatine kinase circuit is instrumental in regulating high-energy phosphate metabolism, and the maintenance of cellular energy turnover. The mechanisms by which creatine is able to buffer and regulate cellular energy balance, maintain acid-base balance, and reduce the effects of oxidative stress have led to a large number of studies into the use of creatine supplementation in exercise performance and to treat diseases associated with cellular energy depletion. Some of these studies have identified sex-specific responses to creatine supplementation, as such; there is the perception, that females might be less receptive to the benefits of creatine supplementation and therapy, compared to males. This review will describe the differences in male and female physique and physiology that may account for such differences, and discuss the apparent endocrine modulation of creatine metabolism in females. Hormone-driven changes to endogenous creatine synthesis, creatine transport and creatine kinase expression suggest that significant changes in this cellular energy circuit occur during specific stages of a female's reproductive life, including pregnancy and menopause. Recent studies suggest that creatine supplementation may be highly beneficial for women under certain conditions, such as depression. A greater understanding of these pathways, and the consequences of alterations to creatine bioavailability in females are needed to ensure that creatine is used to full advantage as a dietary supplement to optimize and enhance health outcomes for women.

  7. Modified natural cycle versus controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF: a cost-effectiveness evaluation of three simulated treatment scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Henk; Tonch, Nino; Simons, Arnold H M; van der Veen, Fulco; Hoek, Annemieke; Land, Jolande A

    2013-12-01

    Can modified natural cycle IVF or ICSI (MNC) be a cost-effective alternative for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF or ICSI (COH)? The comparison of simulated scenarios indicates that a strategy of three to six cycles of MNC with minimized medication is a cost-effective alternative for one cycle of COH with strict application of single embryo transfer (SET). MNC is cheaper per cycle than COH but also less effective in terms of live birth rate (LBR). However, strict application of SET in COH cycles reduces effectiveness and up to three MNC cycles can be performed at the same costs as one COH cycle. The cost-effectiveness of MNC versus COH was evaluated in three simulated treatment scenarios: three cycles of MNC versus one cycle of COH with SET or double embryo transfer (DET) and subsequent transfer of cryopreserved embryos (Scenario 1); six cycles of MNC versus one cycle of COH with strictly SET and subsequent transfer of cryopreserved embryos (Scenario 2); six cycles of MNC with minimized medication (hCG ovulation trigger only) versus one cycle of COH with SET or DET and subsequent transfer of cryopreserved embryos (Scenario 3). We used baseline data obtained from two retrospective cohorts of consecutive patients (2005-2008) undergoing MNC in the University Medical Center Groningen (n = 499, maximum six cycles per patient) or their first COH cycle with subsequent transfer of cryopreserved embryos in the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam (n = 392). Data from 1994 MNC cycles (958 MNC-IVF and 1036 MNC-ICSI) and 392 fresh COH cycles (one per patient, 196 COH-IVF and 196 COH-ICSI) with subsequent transfer of cryopreserved embryos (n = 72 and n = 94 in MNC and COH cycles, respectively) in ovulatory, subfertile women cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated, defined as the ratio of the difference in IVF costs up to 6 weeks postpartum to the difference in LBR. Live birth was the primary outcome measure and was defined as the birth of at least one living child

  8. In Vivo Treatment Sensitivity Testing With Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography After One Cycle of Chemotherapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Kostakoglu, Lale; Zaucha, Jan Maciej

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Negative [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) -positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) after two cycles of chemotherapy indicates a favorable prognosis in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We hypothesized that the negative predictive value would be even higher in patients responding....... In the absence of precise pretherapeutic predictive markers, PET1 is the best method for response-adapted strategies designed to select patients for less intensive treatment....

  9. The influence of short-time period of an adaptation to decreased ambient temperature on interleukin-6 and corticosterone levels in female Wistar strain rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been little research examining whether short-time changes of external environmental conditions exert any effects on immune responses. The activation of metabolic changes, release of hormones responsive for immunomodulation and the action of interleukins play an important role in interaction with hormones of an anterior pituitary gland in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of a short-time change of ambient temperature (30 minutes on interleukin-6 (IL-6 and corticosterone plasma concentration of female rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal environmental parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used during the experiment. The estimation of the vaginal lavage using a microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. On the day of the experiment, animals were divided into 2 groups: the control group (ambient temperature 21 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 and the test group (ambient temperature 10 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes. The blood samples were collected before the experiment and after 30, 60, 90, 150 and 210 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone were measured in blood plasma samples using ELISA method. There was a significant elevation of IL-6 levels after staying in 10 degrees C during the first 150 minutes from the beginning of the experiment, with the highest value occurring after 60 minutes (426.6 pg/ml; SE - 146.1 with comparison to the value at first sampling (108.5 pg/ml; SE - 29.5; p<0.05 and with comparison to the control group at the same time from the beginning of the experiment (87.6 pg/ml; SE - 2.3; p<0.05. The changed level of corticosterone in the test group in comparison to control group was observed but the differences were

  10. Tavaborole, a Novel Boron-Containing Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis: I. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaravino, Vic; Coronado, Dina; Lanphear, Cheryl; Hoberman, Alan; Chanda, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Tavaborole is a topical antifungal agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. As part of the nonclinical development program, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies were conducted (rat oral fertility and early embryonic development, rat (oral) and rabbit (dermal) embryo-fetal development). There were no effects on fertility or reproductive performance at doses up to 300 mg/kg/d (107 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] based on mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve comparisons). In the rat embryo-fetal development toxicity studies, teratogenicity was not observed at doses up to 100 mg/kg/d (29 times the MRHD). However, several treatment-related skeletal malformations and variations were observed at 300 mg/kg/d (570 times the MRHD). In rabbit embryo-fetal development toxicity studies dosed via oral or dermal administration, the no observable adverse effect level for maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal toxicity was 50 mg/kg/d (16 times the MRHD) and 5% (26 times the MRHD), respectively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Longevity and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia in receiving waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Konetsky, B.K.

    1998-01-01

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield no toxicity outcomes even if pollutants are present. The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) determine whether tests with longer exposure periods to low concentrations of contaminants in ambient water might reveal evidence of toxicity that could not be discerned from 7-d tests and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia longevity and reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (a negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only. Before testing, though, water in the second set of tests was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. Ceriodaphnia dubia longevity and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but both longevity and reproduction were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water quality factors but sensitive to food-related factors. In five of the six full life-cycle tests, lifetime reproduction by C. dubia could not be reliably predicted from reproduction data from the first 7 d of testing. The increase in predictability of lifetime reproduction of C. dubia as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests and among treatments in the second set of tests. This, it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of 7-d tests with C. dubia to longer time scales

  12. Sustainable nitrate-contaminated water treatment using multi cycle ion-exchange/bioregeneration of nitrate selective resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Roberts, Deborah J

    2013-11-15

    The sustainability of ion-exchange treatment processes using high capacity single use resins to remove nitrate from contaminated drinking water can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin and reusing it multiple times. In this study, multi cycle loading and bioregeneration of tributylamine strong base anion (SBA) exchange resin was studied. After each cycle of exhaustion, biological regeneration of the resin was performed using a salt-tolerant, nitrate-perchlorate-reducing culture for 48 h. The resin was enclosed in a membrane to avoid direct contact of the resin with the culture. The results show that the culture was capable of regenerating the resin and allowing the resin to be used in multiple cycles. The concentrations of nitrate in the samples reached a peak in first 0.5-1h after placing the resin in medium because of desorption of nitrate from resin with desorption rate of 0.099 ± 0.003 hr(-1). After this time, since microorganisms began to degrade the nitrate in the aqueous phase, the nitrate concentration was generally non-detectable after 10h. The average of calculated specific degradation rate of nitrate was -0.015 mg NO3(-)/mg VSS h. Applying 6 cycles of resin exhaustion/regeneration shows resin can be used for 4 cycles without a loss of capacity, after 6 cycles only 6% of the capacity was lost. This is the first published research to examine the direct regeneration of a resin enclosed in a membrane, to allow reuse without any disinfection or cleaning procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Life cycle assessment of an intensive sewage treatment plant in Barcelona (Spain) with focus on energy aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L; Ferrer, I

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate environmental impacts associated to a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with a treatment capacity of 2 million population equivalent, focussing on energy aspects and resources consumption. The wastewater line includes conventional pre-treatment, primary settler, activated sludge with nitrogen removal, and tertiary treatment; and the sludge line consists of thickening, anaerobic digestion, cogeneration, dewatering and thermal drying. Real site data were preferably included in the inventory. Environmental impacts of the resulting impact categories were determined by the CLM 2 baseline method. According to the results, the combustion of natural gas in the cogeneration engine is responsible for the main impact on Climate Change and Depletion of Abiotic Resources, while the combustion of biogas in the cogeneration unit accounts for a minor part. The results suggest that the environmental performance of the WWTP would be enhanced by increasing biogas production through improved anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

  14. Glycoprotein 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain SD16 inhibits viral replication and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest, but does not induce cellular apoptosis in Marc-145 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yang; Li, Liangliang; Zhang, Beibei; Huang, Baicheng; Gao, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    Cell apoptosis is common after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV GP5 has been reported to induce cell apoptosis. To further understand the role of GP5 in PRRSV induced cell apoptosis, we established Marc-145 cell lines stably expressing full-length GP5, GP5 Δ84-96 (aa 84-96 deletion), and GP5 Δ97-119 (aa 97-119 deletion). Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell apoptosis and virus replication in these cell lines were evaluated. Neither truncated nor full-length GP5 induced cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells. However, GP5 Δ97-119 , but not full-length or GP5 Δ84-96 , induced a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase resulting in a reduction in the growth of Marc-145 cells. Additionally, GP5 Δ84-96 inhibited the replication of PRRSV in Marc-145 cells through induction of IFN-β. These findings suggest that PRRSV GP5 is not responsible for inducing cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells under these experimental conditions; however it has other important roles in virus/host cell biology. - Highlights: • Marc-145 cell lines stable expression PRRSV GP5 or truncated GP5 were constructed. • GP5 Δ97-119 expression in Marc-145 cell induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. • Expression of GP5 and truncated GP5 could not induce Marc-145 cells apoptosis. • PRRSV replication in Marc-145-GP5 Δ84-96 was significantly inhibited

  15. Reduced degree of irritation during a second cycle of ingenol mebutate gel 0.015% for the treatment of actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim On, Shelbi C; Haddican, Madelaine; Yaroshinsky, Alex; Singer, Giselle; Lebwohl, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Ingenol mebutate gel is a topical field treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). One of several proposed mechanisms of action for ingenol mebutate is induction of cell death in proliferating keratinocytes, suggesting a preferential action on AKs rather than healthy skin. Local skin reactions (LSRs) during 2 sequential 4-week cycles of AK treatment with ingenol mebutate gel 0.015% on the face or scalp were evaluated to test the hypothesis that reapplication of the study product would produce lower LSR scores than during the first treatment cycle. In this unblinded study, 20 participants with AKs on the face or scalp were treated with ingenol mebutate gel 0.015% once daily for 3 days in 2 sequential 4-week cycles. Composite LSR scores were evaluated during both cycles. The composite LSR score during the second cycle was found to be significantly lower than the first cycle (P=.0002). The proportion of participants who experienced LSRs in the second treatment cycle was less than the first cycle. Ingenol mebutate gel 0.015% may cumulatively reduce the burden of sun-damaged skin over 2 treatment cycles by targeting and removing transformed keratinocytes.

  16. Development of substance flow based Life Cycle Assessment tool for sewage sludge treatment and disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Clavreul, Julie; Scheutz, Charlotte

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method to quantify environmental impacts of products or systems. It is often done by correlating material and energy demands with certain input characteristics. An attempt was made to evaluate the robustness of the substance flow based LCA for wastewater and sludg...

  17. Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment - Decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Won, Hui Jun; Yoon, Ji Sup and others

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of D econtamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology development , the following were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Environmental remediation technology development. (author). 95 refs., 45 tabs., 163 figs

  18. Female cancer survivors exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy have unique reproductive hormone profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Sammel, Mary D; Schanne, Allison; Lechtenberg, Lara; Prewitt, Maureen; Gracia, Clarisa

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate reproductive hormone patterns in women exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy. Prospective cohort. University hospital. Normally menstruating mid-reproductive-age women (20-35 years old) who had previously been exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy for cancer treatment were compared with two healthy control populations: similarly-aged women and late-reproductive-age women (43-50 years old). Subjects collected daily urine samples for one cycle. Integrated urinary pregnanediol glucuronide (PDG) and estrone conjugate (E1c) and urinary excretion of gonadotropins (FSH and LH). Thirty-eight women (13 survivors, 11 same-age control subjects, 14 late-reproductive-age control subjects) provided 1,082 urine samples. Cycle length, luteal phase length, and evidence of luteal activity were similar among the groups. As expected, ovarian reserve was impaired in cancer survivors compared with same-age control subjects but similar between survivors and late-reproductive-age control subjects. In contrast, survivors had total and peak PDG levels that were similar to same-age control subjects and higher than those observed in late-reproductive-age control subjects. Survivors had higher E1c levels than both same-age and late-reproductive-age control subjects. There was no difference in urinary gonadotropins among the groups. Women exposed to alkylating agents have a unique reproductive hormone milieu that is not solely explained by age or ovarian reserve. The urinary hormone profile observed in survivors appears more similar to same-age control subjects than to late-reproductive-age women with similar ovarian reserve, which may suggest that age plays a more important role than ovarian reserve in the follicular dynamics of survivors. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Eight weeks of citicoline treatment does not perturb sleep/wake cycles in cocaine-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bethany K; Penetar, David M; Rodolico, John; Ryan, Elizabeth T; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-06-01

    Citicoline (cytidine-5'-diphosphate) is a mononucleotide composed of ribose, cytosine, pyrophosphate, and choline, and is involved in the biosynthesis of the structural phosopholipids of cell membranes. Treatment with citicoline, improves memory in patients with dementia, and reduces damage to the brain after traumatic brain injury or stroke. Recent research has been conducted to assess whether citicoline is an effective treatment for cocaine dependence. In cocaine-dependent individuals, withdrawal from cocaine is associated with disturbed sleep, which may contribute to the high rate of relapse to cocaine use. Therefore, it is important to know the impact of citicoline on the sleep/wake cycle in these individuals in order to rate its overall efficacy. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the effects of citicoline treatment on the sleep/wake cycles of cocaine dependent participants were assessed. The results of the current study are reported as part of a larger study, consisting of an eight-week treatment period to assess the efficacy of longer-term treatment with citicoline at decreasing cocaine consumption in cocaine-dependent polydrug using participants. In this non-abstinent, cocaine-dependent population, citicoline had no effect on any of the sleep parameters measured including sleep efficiency, sleep latency, total sleep time, number of waking episodes, time awake per episode, amount of time in bed spent moving, number of sleep episodes, time asleep per episode, and amount of time in bed spent immobile. These data suggest that eight weeks of citicoline administration does not disturb sleep/wake cycles of cocaine-dependent individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Total Cumulative Dose, Number of Treatment Cycles, Interval between Injections, and Length of Treatment on the Frequency of Occurrence of Antibodies to Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Treatment of Muscle Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid O.; Liptrot, Anthea; Newton, Rachel; Pickett, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    A large cumulative dose of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), frequent injections, a short interval between treatment cycles, and a long duration of treatment have all been suggested, but not confirmed, to be associated with a high incidence of neutralizing antibodies to the neurotoxin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these…

  1. Fasting cycles potentiate the efficacy of gemcitabine treatment in in vitro and in vivo pancreatic cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Tommaso; Panebianco, Concetta; Saracino, Chiara; Pereira, Stephen P.; Graziano, Paolo; Pazienza, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Background/aims Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. Short-term fasting cycles have been shown to potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapy against glioma. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting cycles on the efficacy of gemcitabine, a standard treatment for PC patients, in vitro and in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods BxPC-3, MiaPaca-2 and Panc-1 cells were cultured in standard and fasting mimicking culturing condition to evaluate the effects of gemcitabine. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to 24h starvation prior to gemcitabine injection to assess the tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed ad libitum. Results Fasted pancreatic cancer cells showed increased levels of equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1), the transporter of gemcitabine across the cell membrane, and decreased ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) levels as compared to those cultured in standard medium. Gemcitabine was more effective in inducing cell death on fasted cells as compared to controls. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to fasting cycles prior to gemcitabine injection displayed a decrease of more than 40% in tumor growth. Conclusion Fasting cycles enhance gemcitabine effect in vitro and in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that restrictive dietary interventions could enhance the efficacy of existing cancer treatments in pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:26176887

  2. Assisted reproductive technology in Japan: a summary report of 1992-2014 by the Ethics Committee, Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irahara, Minoru; Kuwahara, Akira; Iwasa, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tomonori; Ishihara, Osamu; Kugu, Koji; Sawa, Rintaro; Banno, Kouji; Saito, Hidekazu

    2017-04-01

    The Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology implemented a registry report system for the clinical practice of assisted reproductive technology in 1986. The aggregated results from 1992 to 2014 are reported herein. The total number of registered treatments was 393 745 cycles, of which 66 550 were pregnancy cycles and 46 008 were cycles with a live birth. Compared to the number of registered treatments in 2008, when the cycle-based registry was newly introduced, there was a 2.07-fold increase in the total number of treatments and a 2.25-fold increase in the number of cycles with a live birth. As the average age of patients who receive assisted reproductive technology has become markedly higher year by year, the most common age of those patients who received assisted reproductive technology in 2014 was 40 years. The total numbers of both assisted reproductive technology treatments and assisted reproductive technology live births are likely to be higher in the future. In addition, the trend toward aging patients seems to be continuing into the future.

  3. Sex steroid levels in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), during the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, E; Josa, A; Gil, L; González, N

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17β-oestradiol (E2) and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared, for XY males (n=35) and sex-reversed XX males (n=27) rainbow trout, to establish possible endocrinology differences. Both in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, significant correlation was shown between body weight and T (r=0.5046 and 0.34078, respectively; psex-reversed XX males were similar and showed an intense seasonal variation. The highest levels for T and 11-KT were detected from December to April with a peak in January (51.67 ± 5.11 and 61.95 ± 4.25 ng/ml, for XY males and 57.1 ± 5.82 and 59.27 ± 4.84 ng/ml, respectively, for XX males). In addition, there was a positive correlation (psex-reversed XX males (r=0.6019). Concentrations of DHP in XY males also showed seasonal variation with a peak in February (25.18 ± 12.99 ng/ml). However, DHP levels in sex-reversed XX males were undetectable (sex-reversed XX males were similar to those observed in XY males. The only difference in the annual gonadal steroid cycle between XY and sex-reversed XX males was in the DHP profile. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Positive effects of melatonin treatment on the reproductive performance of young border leicester rams mated to merino ewes in spring: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, D O; Kelly, J M; Arney, L J; Farley, I L; Tilbrook, A J; Walker, S K

    2014-12-01

    Poor reproductive performance of Merino ewe flocks when mated to Border Leicester rams during spring may be due to seasonality of the Border Leicester breed. Two approaches were taken to test this assumption. Six young (12 months old) or six mixed-age (12, 24 and ≥36 months old) Border Leicester rams were either treated or not treated with melatonin implants (2 × 2 design) 6 weeks before the four groups of rams were each put with approximately 300 Merino ewes for an 8-week mating period. Implants were inserted in early September (experiment 1). The second approach was to yard or not yard ewes and mixed-age rams on several occasions during the first 3 weeks of the mating period (experiment 2). Pregnancy rate and twinning percentage were assessed by ultrasonography. In experiment 1, melatonin treatment in young rams increased (p pregnancy rate from 5.0% to 92.6%, but mixed-age rams did not respond (90.7% vs 89.5% for melatonin and non-melatonin treatments, respectively). Twinning rate was similar (p > 0.05) for ewes mated to either melatonin or non-melatonin-treated young rams (36.8% vs 40.0%, respectively), whereas melatonin significantly improved (p melatonin treatment, scrotal circumference was greater (p pregnancy rate compared with non-yarded counterparts (89.5% vs 65.5%). Twinning rate was not affected (37.7% vs 36.1%, respectively). In summary, melatonin treatment of Border Leicester rams significantly improved flock reproductive performance in spring due to improved pregnancy rates with young rams and improved litter size with mixed-age rams. © 2014 Commonwealth of Australia.

  5. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of rabbits does fed a half-simplified diet based on cassava byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Fróes Galuci Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 70 five-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were assigned in a completely randomized design, over three reproductive cycles, with two treatments: a reference diet and a half-simplified diet containing 79.83% cassava byproduct. The study evaluated body weight and feed intake of does, feed cost, number and total body weight of kits at kindling and weaning per female during three cycles, number and percentage of mortality/female/cycle, and weight gain of kits from birth to weaning. No interaction was observed between the diets and among the reproductive cycles for any evaluated characteristics. The body weight of does at the moment of weaning was similar in both groups for all three reproductive cycles. However, does fed the half-simplified diet had lower feed intake during the three reproductive cycles and, consequently, more reproductive flaws. The number of kits at weaning, body weight of kits at kindling and weaning, weight gain of kits from birth to weaning, and total body weight of kits at weaning were lower for the group of does fed the half-simplified diet and, consequently, there was a higher number and percentage of dead kits in this group. The total numbers of kits at kindling and weaning and total body weight of kits at birth during all three reproductive cycles were similar between the groups; however, total body weight of weaning rabbits was higher for the animals receiving the reference diet. It is possible to conclude that although the use of the half-simplified diet decreases the reproductive performance of does, it reduces feed cost per kg of body weight by 23.63% compared with the reference diet, proving to be a viable nutritional option for rabbit production.

  6. Orexin receptor expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes of free-living European beavers (Castor fiber L.) in different periods of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinska, Joanna; Chojnowska, Katarzyna; Kaminski, Tadeusz; Bogacka, Iwona; Smolinska, Nina; Kaminska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides acting via two G protein-coupled receptors in mammals: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). In European beavers, which are seasonally breeding animals, the presence and functions of orexins and their receptors remain unknown. Our study aimed to determine the expression of OXR mRNAs and the localization of OXR proteins in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal (HPA/HPG) axes in free-living beavers. The expression of OXR genes (OX1R, OX2R) and proteins was found in all analysed tissues during three periods of beavers' reproductive cycle (April, July, November). The expression of OXR mRNAs in the beaver HPA axis varied seasonally (Ppituitary and adrenals, OX1R mRNA levels were relatively constant in females and peaked in July in males (P<0.05), whereas the OX2R was most highly expressed in males in November and in females in April (P<0.05). In gonads, OX1R expression did not fluctuate between seasons or sexes, but transcript levels were elevated in the testes in November and in the ovaries in July (P<0.05). In turn, OX2R mRNA levels varied between the sexes (P<0.05) and were higher in females (July and November) than in males (P<0.05). The circannual variations in OXR mRNA levels in HPA and HPG axes suggest that the expression of these receptors is associated with sex-specific changes in beavers' reproductive activity and their environmental adaptations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ásgeirsson, Hrafn; Nordal, Salvör

    2015-01-01

    During the past few years, reproductive technology and surrogacy have emerged in a number of European countries as issues of debate. There has been a steady increase in the use of reproductive technology in the Nordic countries, as well as an increase in the use of cross-border medical treatment in order to achieve pregnancy. At the same time, a number of ethical issues have been raised concerning the rights of the participants, including the children. In the fall of 2013, the Nordic Committe...

  8. Technical, hygiene, economic, and life cycle assessment of full-scale moving bed biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Kamble, Sheetal Jaisingh; Sawant, Megha; Chakravarthy, Yogita; Kazmi, Absar; Aymerich, Enrique; Starkl, Markus; Ghangrekar, Makarand; Philip, Ligy

    2018-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a highly effective biological treatment process applied to treat both urban and industrial wastewaters in developing countries. The present study investigated the technical performance of ten full-scale MBBR systems located across India. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, pathogens, and nutrient removal efficiencies were low as compared to the values claimed in literature. Plant 1 was considered for evaluation of environmental impacts using life cycle assessment approach. CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology was adopted, in which 11 impact categories were considered. The life cycle impact assessment results revealed that the main environmental hot spot of this system was energy consumption. Additionally, two scenarios were compared: scenario 1 (direct discharge of treated effluent, i.e., no reuse) and scenario 2 (effluent reuse and tap water replacement). The results showed that scenario 2 significantly reduce the environmental impact in all the categories ultimately decreasing the environmental burden. Moreover, significant economic and environmental benefits can be obtained in scenario 2 by replacing the freshwater demand for non-potable uses. To enhance the performance of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), there is a need to optimize energy consumption and increase wastewater collection efficiency to maximize the operating capacity of plant and minimize overall environmental footprint. It was concluded that MBBR can be a good alternative for upgrading and optimizing existing municipal wastewater treatment plants with appropriate tertiary treatment. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  9. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  10. Progeny reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on clarification of importance of different harmful factors of radiation and chemical nature on the function of progeny reproduction, growth and development are presented. Intake of radionuclides to organism, of white mices and rats in concentrations corresponding to 10 6 PCsub(s) ( 90 Sr, 210 Po, 210 Pb and other) is shown to result in 100% sterility of females, 10 5 -10 4 PCsub(s) concentrations cause damaging effect of different degrees of expression at later stages of effect. Smaller contents of radionuclides (10 3 -10 2 PCsub(s)) did not result in noticeable changes in reproductivity of animals. Similar regularities were observed under effect of different concentrations of chemical agent. Some peculiarities of animal physiology should be taken into account to obtain data of estimation of damaging effect of harmful factors on reproduction function

  11. Bacterial reproductive pathogens of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J

    2012-05-01

    With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.

  12. Proinsulin, adiponectin and hsCRP in reproductive age women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)--the effect of metformin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Jeske, Wojciech; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often suffer from obesity and insulin resistance. The role of proinsulin, which is known to be an indicator of fertility outcomes in PCOS women, and that of adiponectin, in the pathogenesis of PCOS is not well elucidated. Our objective was to determine proinsulin, adiponectin, hsCRP and other hormonal and metabolic parameters in PCOS women before and after metformin treatment. Two PCOS groups of patients of reproductive age (90 lean and 88 obese or overweight) with two control groups, adjusted for body mass index (BMI), were compared at baseline. 32 PCOS women were studied at baseline, after three and six months of metformin (1,000 mg/day) treatment. Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters were assessed. Proinsulin and hsCRP levels were the highest in obese PCOS women and were statistically different than in lean PCOS women (proinsulin: 11.4 v. 6.9 pmol/L; hsCRP 2.46 v. 0.47 mg/L, p treatment only in obese PCOS women. PCOS, when accompanied by obesity, is associated with elevated proinsulin concentrations, which correlates with higher hsCRP and increased FAI. Proinsulin level decreases due to metformin treatment. Our results suggest that obese or overweight PCOS and lean PCOS are characterised by different hormonal and metabolic parameters and have a different response to metformin treatment.

  13. Reproduction in laboratory of the morphology distribution and orientation of hydrides in different stages fuel cycle; Reproduccion en laboratorio de la morfologia, distribucion y orientacion de hidruros en distintas etapas del ciclo de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Rengel, M. A.; Gomez, F. J.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the experimental techniques employed to reproduce in the laboratory the distribution, morphology and orientation of the hydrides during the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle are reported. A cathodic charging technique was employed to produce ZIRLO cladding samples with an homogeneous distribution of hydrides and concentrations of 150, 250, 500, 1200 and 2000 ppm of hydrogen. The treatments developed to produce radial hydride reorientation, hydride blisters and a peripheral rim of hydrides are described.

  14. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...

  15. THE DISCOUNTED REPRODUCTIVE NUMBER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Reluga, Timothy C.; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The basic reproductive number, , and the effective reproductive number, , are commonly used in mathematical epidemiology as summary statistics for the size and controllability of epidemics. However, these commonly used reproductive numbers can be misleading when applied to predict pathogen evolution because they do not incorporate the impact of the timing of events in the life-history cycle of the pathogen. To study evolution problems where the host population size is changing, measur...

  16. Morphological indicators of initial reproductive commitment in Mustelus schmitti (Springer 1939 (Chondrichthyes, Triakidae: folliculogenesis and ovarian structure over the life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Galíndez

    Full Text Available This work provides information about the sexual commitment and the folliculogenesis of the gatuzo, Mustelus schmitti. A total of 112 females of all maturity stages were fished in the Bahía Blanca estuary, between 2009 and 2010. The oogonia were present throughout the life cycle of the animals. The folliculogenesis follows a pattern similar to other elasmobranchs. The granulosa layer keeps monolayered throughout the folliculogenesis, but with two cell types in the vitellogenic follicle. The zona pellucida forms in the primordial follicles. The thecal system shows a connective inner layer and a glandular outer sheath. The microscopic beginning of the sexual commitment, indicated by the vitello hoarding, takes place in follicles from 500 micrometres, while the macroscopic evidence appears in follicles of 2500-3000 micrometres. The results presented in this study suggest that the fishery pressure may affect a susceptible range of sizes of the species, not previously considered and provides a biological framework for the development of fisheries policy.

  17. Low fertility awareness in United States reproductive-aged women and medical trainees: creation and validation of the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Chernyak, Elizabeth; McAvey, Beth

    2017-10-01

    To create, validate, and use a fertility awareness survey based on current U.S. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. Phase 1 included U.S. women ages 18-45; phase 2 included female medical students and obstetrics and gynecology trainees at two urban academic programs. Survey including demographics, the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS) instrument, and General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire. Knowledge of natural fertility and infertility treatments. The FIT-KS was validated through detailed item and validity analyses. In phase 1, 127 women participated; their median age was 31 years, and 43.7% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 16.2 ± 3.5 (55.9% correct). In phase 2, 118 medical trainees participated; their median age was 25 years, and 12.4% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 18.8 ± 2.1 (64.9% correct), with year of training correlating to a higher score (r=0.40). Participant awareness regarding lifestyle factors varied, but it was particularly low regarding the effects of lubricants. The majority underestimated the spontaneous miscarriage rate and overestimated the fecundability of 40-year-old women. There was general overestimation of success rates for assisted reproductive technologies, particularly among medical trainees. The FIT-KS is validated to current U.S. data for use in both general and medical populations as a quick assessment of fertility knowledge. The knowledge gaps demonstrated in this study correlate with national trends in delayed childbearing and time to initiate treatment. For medical trainees, these results raise concerns about the quality of fertility counseling they may be able to offer patients. Greater educational outreach must be undertaken to enhance fertility awareness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of life cycle assessment for an evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse project--case study of Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q H; Wang, X C; Xiong, J Q; Chen, R; Cao, B

    2010-03-01

    In order to illuminate the benefit of a wastewater treatment and reuse project, a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was proposed by combining the process-based LCA and the input-output based LCA in one framework and using energy consumption as the sole parameter for quantitative evaluation of the project. The life cycle consumption was evaluated mainly by life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis taking into account the construction phase, operation phase and demolishment phase of the project. For evaluating the life cycle benefit of treated water reuse, attention was paid to the decrease of secondary effluent discharge and water saving. As a result of comprehensive LCA analysis of a case project in Xi'an, China, it was understood that the life cycle benefit gained from treated wastewater reuse much surpassed the life cycle energy consumption. The advantage of wastewater treatment and reuse was well shown by LCA analysis using the proposed model. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasticity of Signaling by Spinal Estrogen Receptor α, κ-Opioid Receptor, and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors over the Rat Reproductive Cycle Regulates Spinal Endomorphin 2 Antinociception: Relevance of Endogenous-Biased Agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-Jiang; Murugaiyan, Vijaya; Storman, Emiliya M; Schnell, Stephen A; Kumar, Arjun; Wessendorf, Martin W; Gintzler, Alan R

    2017-11-15

    varies with stage of reproductive cycle, but is also differentially regulated during diestrus and proestrus. This finding highlights the need for sex-specific and cycle-specific approaches to pain management. Additionally, our finding that spinal EM2 antinociception in female rats is regulated by both the ebb and flow of spinal dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor signaling over the estrous cycle, as well as the nature of the endogenous mGluR 1 activator, could encourage noncanonical pharmacological approaches to pain management, such as harnessing endogenous opioids for pain relief. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711181-11$15.00/0.

  20. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  1. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  2. [Liver transplantation for the treatment of hyperammonemia due to urea cycle disorder: report of four cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhijun; Sun, Liying; Wei, Lin; Qu, Wei; Zeng, Zhigui; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Liang; He, Enhui; Wang, Dong

    2015-02-01

    To analyze clinical efficacy and prognosis of liver transplantation in children with hyperammonemia caused by urea cycle disorders. A retrospective analysis was performed on the occurrence of disease, operation and the follow-up post liver transplantation in 4 patients with urea cycle disorders who underwent liver transplantation during June 2001 to May 2014. Four girls were diagnosed with ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency by genetic test. They had the clinical onset at the age of 1.5 to 3.0 years. Liver transplantation had been performed at their age of 53.9 months, 40.6 months, 40.3 months and 22.8 months, respectively. The grafts of case 1 and case 2 were from left lateral lobe of liver of cadaveric donor, the graft of case 3 was from left lateral lobe of liver of a living donor, the graft of case 4 was a whole liver of a dead child. The liver function of 4 patients gradually returned to normal, blood ammonia levels were normal and restored the normal diet, 4 children were discharged on postoperative 25-30 days. Regular follow-up was done, the liver function, biochemical features and growth status have been followed up for 162.2 months, 124.2 months, 12.0 months and 4.8 months after liver transplantation, respectively. Now, all the four cases are healthy and growth is normal. Liver transplantation is an important way to the patients with severe hyperammonemia caused by urea cycle disorders. In this study, the patients with ornithine carbamoyl transferase defect got satisfactory long-term outcome after liver transplantation.

  3. Investigation of the environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment plants through a Life Cycle Assessment software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, G; Ferrara, C

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the total and per capita environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment in the function of the population equivalent (PE) with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach using the processes of the Ecoinvent 2.2 database available in the software tool SimaPro v.7.3. Besides the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), the study also considers the sewerage system. The obtained results confirm that there is a 'scale factor' for the wastewater collection and treatment even in environmental terms, in addition to the well-known scale factor in terms of management costs. Thus, the more the treatment plant size is, the less the per capita environmental impacts are. However, the Ecoinvent 2.2 database does not contain information about treatment systems with a capacity lower than 30 PE. Nevertheless, worldwide there are many sparsely populated areas, where it is not convenient to realize a unique centralized WWTP. Therefore, it would be very important to conduct an LCA study in order to compare alternative on-site small-scale systems with treatment capacity of few PE.

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Diminished Ovarian Reserve in ART Cycles of Women Up to Age 40 Years: The Role of Insurance Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Samantha F.; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Dokras, Anuja; Seifer, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective To explore correlates of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) and predictors of ART treatment outcome in DOR cycles using the SART-CORS database. We hypothesized that state insurance coverage for ART is associated with the prevalence of DOR diagnosis in ART cycles and with treatment outcomes in DOR cycles. Design Cross sectional study using ART cycles between 2004–2007. Setting United States ART registry data. Patients 182,779 fresh, non-donor, initial ART cycles in women up to age 40. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of DOR and elevated FSH, odds ratio of DOR and elevated FSH in ART mandated vs. non-mandated states, live birth rates. Results Compared to cycles performed in states with mandated ART coverage, cycles in states with no ART mandate were more likely to have DOR (AOR 1.43 95% CI 1.37–1.5, pcycles. Conclusions A significant association was observed between lack of mandated insurance for ART and the proportion of cycles treating DOR or elevated FSH. The presence or absence of state mandated ART coverage could impact access to care and the mix of patients that pursue and initiate ART cycles. Additional studies are needed that consider the coalescence of insurance mandates, patient and provider factors, and state level variables on the odds of specific infertility diagnoses and treatment prognosis. PMID:23102859

  5. Manipulation of reproductive performance of lactating buffaloes using melatonin and controlled internal drug release device treatment during out-of-breeding season under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, T A; Sharma, R K; Phulia, S K; Balhara, A K; Ghuman, S S; Singh, I

    2016-09-01

    Twelve lactating Murrah buffalo, divided into control and treatment group of six animals each, were used to study the effect of melatonin and controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device treatment on the resumption of ovarian activity during out-of-breeding season (summer solstice). Treated group implanted with melatonin (18-mg melatonin/50-kg body weight) for 45 days and then animals of both groups received CIDR for 9 days. All animals received intramuscular 500 IU eCG, at day before CIDR removal, and 10-μg GnRH at day after CIDR withdrawal. All animals were subjected to estrus detection daily. Blood samples in conjunction with transrectal ultrasonography were performed once a week to determine serum concentrations of melatonin, progesterone, and antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as to monitor the ovarian activity. Melatonin treatment resulted in an increase (P Day 21 and Day 30 after artificial insemination and achieved higher percentage of conception rate than control. In conclusion, the CIDR treatment preceded by melatonin improved the reproductive performance in lactating buffaloes during out-of-breeding season under tropical conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Life cycle assessment of cellulose nanofibrils production by mechanical treatment and two different pretreatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Rickard; Nguyen, Duong; Svanström, Magdalena

    2015-06-02

    Nanocellulose is a bionanomaterial with many promising applications, but high energy use in production has been described as a potential obstacle for future use. In fact, life cycle assessment studies have indicated high life cycle energy use for nanocellulose. In this study, we assess the cradle-to-gate environmental impacts of three production routes for a particular type of nanocellulose called cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) made from wood pulp. The three production routes are (1) the enzymatic production route, which includes an enzymatic pretreatment, (2) the carboxymethylation route, which includes a carboxymethylation pretreatment, and (3) one route without pretreatment, here called the no pretreatment route. The results show that CNF produced via the carboxymethylation route clearly has the highest environmental impacts due to large use of solvents made from crude oil. The enzymatic and no pretreatment routes both have lower environmental impacts, of similar magnitude. A sensitivity analysis showed that the no pretreatment route was sensitive to the electricity mix, and the carboxymethylation route to solvent recovery. When comparing the results to those of other carbon nanomaterials, it was shown that in particular CNF produced via the enzymatic and no pretreatment routes had comparatively low environmental impacts.

  7. Pain and quality of life of children and adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta over a bisphosphonate treatment cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimicalis, Argerie; Boitor, Madalina; Ferland, Catherine E; Rauch, Frank; Le May, Sylvie; Carrier, Jaimie Isabel; Ngheim, Tracy; Bilodeau, Claudette

    2018-06-01

    The objective was to describe the pain and quality of life among children and adolescents with any osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type over one intravenous bisphosphonate treatment cycle from a child and parental perspective. A prospective, observational study was conducted, where children and adolescents evaluated their pain intensity, location, and quality, as well as quality of life before, 1 week after treatment, and 6 months later. Quality of life was also evaluated from the parental perspective at the same three time points. Thirty-three child/parent dyads participated. The results showed that pain intensity on the 0-10 self-report scale after the Zoledronate infusion (median = 0, range = 0-6) was not different from pre (median = 2, range = 0-10) and 6-months post-scores (median = 2, range = 0-8) (p = 0.170). Children and adolescents with OI reported experiencing pain mainly in the ankles and the anterior and posterior shoulders. They selected evaluative pain descriptors such as uncomfortable (n = 16, 48%) and annoying (n = 13, 39%). Children and adolescents' functioning and quality of life did not change significantly across the bisphosphonate treatment cycle (p = 0.326), parents perceived an improvement immediately after the treatment compared to before (p = 0.016). Children and adolescents with OI experience mild, yet complex pain localized across several body areas. There is little fluctuation in the pain intensity and functioning of children with OI undergoing bisphosphonate treatment. What is Known: • Acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain remains a major issue in OI. • Pain has a negative impact on quality of life. What is New: • New and unpublished methods and findings describing the pain and quality of life of children and adolescents with OI over one intravenous bisphosphonate treatment cycle from a child- and parental-proxy perspective. • Children and adolescents with OI experience pain intensity that is mild, yet

  8. Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare-Up versus Ultrashort GnRH Agonist Combined with Fixed GnRH Antagonist in Poor Responders of Assisted Reproductive Techniques Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Khani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study compares the microdose flare-up protocol to the ultrashort gonadotropinreleasinghormone (GnRH agonist flare combined with the fixed multidose GnRH antagonistprotocol in poor responders undergoing ovarian stimulation.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 120 women who were candidates forassisted reproductive techniques (ART and had histories of one or more failed in vitro fertilization(IVF cycles with three or fewer retrieved oocytes were prospectively randomized into two groups.Group I (60 patients received the microdose flare-up regimen and group II (60 patients receivedthe ultrashort GnRH agonist combined with fixed GnRH antagonist.Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in the number of used gonadotropinampoules (p=0.591, duration of stimulation (p=0.610, number of retrieved oocytes (p=0.802,fertilization rate (p=0.456, and the number of transferred embryos (p=0.954. The clinical pregnancyrates were statistically similar in group I (10% compared with group II (13.3%, p=0.389.Conclusion: According to our results, there is no significant difference between these protocolsfor improving the ART outcome in poor responders. Additional prospective, randomizedstudies with more patients is necessary to determine the best protocol (Registration Number:IRCT201105096420N1.

  9. Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare-Up versus Ultrashort GnRH Agonist Combined with Fixed GnRH Antagonist in Poor Responders of Assisted Reproductive Techniques Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Mohammadian, Farnaz; Yousefnejad, Fariba; Khani, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the microdose flare-up protocol to the ultrashort gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) agonist flare combined with the fixed multidose GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders undergoing ovarian stimulation. In this randomized clinical trial, 120 women who were candidates for assisted reproductive techniques (ART) and had histories of one or more failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with three or fewer retrieved oocytes were prospectively randomized into two groups. Group I (60 patients) received the microdose flare-up regimen and group II (60 patients) received the ultrashort GnRH agonist combined with fixed GnRH antagonist. There were no significant differences between the groups in the number of used gonadotropin ampoules (p=0.591), duration of stimulation (p=0.610), number of retrieved oocytes (p=0.802), fertilization rate (p=0.456), and the number of transferred embryos (p=0.954). The clinical pregnancy rates were statistically similar in group I (10%) compared with group II (13.3%, p=0.389). According to our results, there is no significant difference between these protocols for improving the ART outcome in poor responders. Additional prospective, randomized studies with more patients is necessary to determine the best protocol (Registration Number: IRCT201105096420N1).

  10. Complete life cycle of the lichen fungus Calopadia puiggarii (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycetes) documented in situ: propagule dispersal, establishment of symbiosis, thallus development, and formation of sexual and asexual reproductive structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, William B

    2014-11-01

    The life histories of lichen fungi are not well known and cannot be readily studied in laboratory culture. This work documents in situ the complete life cycle of the widespread crustose lichen Calopadia puiggarii, which reproduces sexually and asexually on the surfaces of leaves. Plastic cover slips held in a mesh frame were placed over leaves in the field and successively removed for microphotography of colonizing lichens. Macroconidia produced within campylidia encircled photobiont cells and codispersed with them, a feature not reported previously for C. puiggarii. Dispersed macroconidia readily germinated and lichenized the photobionts. Algal cells were often dislodged from the encircling macroconidia, providing a likely source for the free-living populations observed. Aposymbiotically dispersed ascospores germinated and lichenized nearby algal cells soon after dispersal. Thallus areolae merged readily in early development, although adjacent mature thalli were often separated by growth inhibition zones. Pycnidia are reported for the first time in Calopadia; their pyriform microconidia probably function as male gametes (spermatia). Pycnidia, apothecia, and campylidia began development similarly as darkly pigmented primordia on the fungal prothallus. Abundant dispersal of ascospores, conidia, and photobionts allows C. puiggarii to quickly colonize leaves with the dual advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction, and with the added convenience of having its algal partner on hand. Fusions and prothallic capture of additional algae provide many opportunities for multiple mycobiont and photobiont genotypes to be combined in a single thallus, but the outcomes of such events remain to be explored. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Comparison of Post Weld Treatment of High Strength Steel Welded Joints in Medium Cycle Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of three post-weld treatments for fatigue life improvement of welded joints. The objective is to determine the most suitable post-weld treatment for implementation in mass production of certain crane components manufactured from very high-strength steel...... the stress range can exceed the yield-strength of ordinary structural steel, especially when considering positive stress ratios (R > 0). Fatigue experiments and qualitative evaluation of the different post-weld treatments leads to the selection of TIG dressing. The process of implementing TIG dressing...... in mass production and some inherent initial problems are discussed. The treatment of a few critical welds leads to a significant increase in fatigue performance of the entire structure and the possibility for better utilization of very high-strength steel....

  12. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrades - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many municipalities are facing the call to increase nutrient removal performance of their wastewater treatment plants in order to limit the impacts of eutrophication on the receiving waterbodies. The associated upgrades often demand investment in new technologies and increases in...

  13. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath, NY Wastewater Treatment Plant: Potential Upgrade Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many communities across the U.S. are required to upgrade wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to meet increasingly stringent nutrient effluent standards. However, increased capital, energy and chemical requirements of upgrades create potential trade-offs between eutrophication pot...

  14. The duration of gonadotropin stimulation does not alter the clinical pregnancy rate in IVF or ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, N; Emerson, G; Kirkham, C; Harrity, C; Walsh, D; Mocanu, E

    2017-08-01

    Ovarian stimulation is an essential part of assisted reproduction treatments. Research on whether the duration of stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction has not been conclusive. The purpose of the study was to establish whether the duration of ovarian stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction treatments. All fresh (non-donor) stimulation cycles performed in an academic tertiary referral ART centre over a period of 18 years, between 1st January 1997 and 31st December 2014, were identified. Data were prospectively and electronically collected. IVF and ICSI cycles were analysed independently. Each category was then subdivided into assisted reproduction cycles where the antagonist, long (down regulation) and flare protocol were used. Clinical pregnancy was the main outcome measured. A total of 10,478 stimulation cycles (6011 fresh IVF and 4467 fresh ICSI) reaching egg collection were included. We showed no significant difference in CP rates in IVF cycles for the long (p = 0.082), antagonist (p = 0.217) or flare (p = 0.741) protocol cycles or in ICSI cycles with the long (p = 0.223), antagonist (p = 0.766) or the flare (p = 0.690) protocol with regards the duration of stimulation. The duration of stimulation does not alter the CP rate in ICSI or IVF cycles using the long, antagonist or flare stimulation protocol.

  15. Experimental toxoplasmosis in Balb/c mice. Prevention of vertical disease transmission by treatment and reproductive failure in chronic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fux

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of congenital transmission during acute infection of Toxoplasma gondii, 23 pregnant Balb/c mice were inoculated orally with two cysts each of the P strain. Eight mice were inoculated 6-11 days after becoming pregnant (Group 1. Eight mice inoculated on the 10th-15th day of pregnancy (Group 2 were treated with 100 mg/kg/day of minocycline 48 h after inoculation. Seven mice inoculated on the 10th-15th day of pregnancy were not treated and served as a control (Group 3. Congenital transmission was evaluated through direct examination of the brains of the pups or by bioassay and serologic tests. Congenital transmission was observed in 20 (60.6% of the 33 pups of Group 1, in one (3.6% of the 28 pups of Group 2, and in 13 (54.2% of the 24 pups of Group 3. Forty-nine Balb/c mice were examined in the study of congenital transmission of T. gondii during chronic infection. The females showed reproductive problems during this phase of infection. It was observed accentuated hypertrophy of the endometrium and myometrium. Only two of the females gave birth. Our results demonstrate that Balb/c mice with acute toxoplasmosis can be used as a model for studies of congenital T. gondii infection. Our observations indicate the potential of this model for testing new chemotherapeutic agents against congenital toxoplasmosis.

  16. Pollutant emissions from vehicles with regenerating after-treatment systems in regulatory and real-world driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Novak, Philippe

    2008-07-15

    Regenerating exhaust after-treatment systems are increasingly employed in passenger cars in order to comply with regulatory emission standards. These systems include pollutant storage units that occasionally have to be regenerated. The regeneration strategy applied, the resultant emission levels and their share of the emission level during normal operation mode are key issues in determining realistic overall emission factors for these cars. In order to investigate these topics, test series with four cars featuring different types of such after-treatment systems were carried out. The emission performance in legislative and real-world cycles was monitored as well as at constant speeds. The extra emissions determined during regeneration stages are presented together with the methodology applied to calculate their impact on overall emissions. It can be concluded that exhaust after-treatment systems with storage units cause substantial overall extra emissions during regeneration mode and can appreciably affect the emission factors of cars equipped with such systems, depending on the frequency of regenerations. Considering that the fleet appearance of vehicles equipped with such after-treatment systems will increase due to the evolution of statutory pollutant emission levels, extra emissions originating from regenerations of pollutant storage units consequently need to be taken into account for fleet emission inventories. Accurately quantifying these extra emissions is achieved by either conducting sufficient repetitions of emission measurements with an individual car or by considerably increasing the size of the sample of cars with comparable after-treatment systems.

  17. Using a life cycle assessment methodology for the analysis of two treatment systems of food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Baun, Anders

    2007-01-01

    criteria involve sludge disposal strategies and electrical energy consumption. However, there is a need to develop a systematic methodology to quantify relevant environmental indicators; comprising information of the wastewater treatment system in a life cycle perspective. Also, to identify which...... are the parameters that have the greatest influence on the potential environmental impacts of the systems analyzed. In this study, we present a systematic methodology for the analysis of the operation of two modern wastewater treatment technologies: Biological removal of nitrogen and organic matter by activated...... sludge (Scenario 1), and anaerobic removal of organic matter by a continuous stirred tank reactor (Scenario 2). Both technologies were applied to wastewater coming from a fish meals industry and a pet food industry discharging about 250 to 260 thousand cubic meters of wastewater per year. The methodology...

  18. Fast in situ X-ray diffraction phase and stress analysis during complete heat treatment cycles of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. da S.; Hirsch, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained with a method for time and temperature resolved analysis of changes in phase composition and stresses/residual stresses during complete heat treatment cycles of steel, including quenching. Sample temperatures of up to 930 deg. C could be reached with a specially designed furnace, where fast cooling of the samples was realized by gas quenching. Measurements for phase and stress analysis could be performed with an acquisition rate of at least one value every 3 s. Results concerning residual stress relaxation during heating, and stress/residual stress development during quenching are presented and discussed for AISI E52100 ball bearing steel. The observed stress development during quenching followed the expected transformation behavior with some deviations that could be explained through the effects of surface decarburization. The system developed proved to be a suitable tool for characterizing phase and stress changes that occur during heat treatment of steels, as a function of time and temperature

  19. Effect of shot peening treatment in the behavior of residual stress in duplex stainless steel during medium cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, Peter D.S.; Rebello, Joao Marcos A.; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime of duplex stainless steel parts experiencing cyclic fatigue is directly influenced by the residual stresses present in the ferrite and austenite phases. The motivation for this work was to analyze the behaviour of the residual stresses fields introduced by shot peening treatment in both phases, in the sample surface as in the subsurface layers, in low fatigue cycles, using the X-rays diffraction technique. The results shows that the compressive residual stresses introduced by the shot peening treatment in both phases improved fatigue life of the material. However, the cyclical loads produce partial or total relief in these residual stresses fields. It was verified that the shot peening process induced the formation of microcracks only in the ferrite phase. The largest variations in the total compressive residual stresses fields also occurred in this phase. The samples surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  20. Reprodução de Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: efeito do ciclo lunar e características da população = Reproduction of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: effect of lunar cycle and population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mara Cruz Lage

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as características reprodutivas de uma população do ouriço do mar Lytechinus variegatus e a influência do ciclo lunar na liberação de gametas. Foram realizadas oito coletas para avaliação do índice gonadossomático (IG e dos parâmetros populacionais relacionados com a reprodução. Para avaliação do efeito da Lua na liberação de gametas foram realizadas coletas em três ciclos lunares completos. Ao todo foram coletados 295 indivíduos, sendo 156 machos e 131 fêmeas (proporção 1,19:1, porém não houve diferença significativa na proporção sexual da população. O peso dos machos foisignificativamente maior que o das fêmeas, porém não houve diferença significativa no IG, peso gonadal e diâmetro entre os sexos. Com a amplitude no diâmetro dos animais coletados (5,5-8,7 cm foram estabelecidas cinco classes de tamanho. Não houve diferençassignificativas no IG entre as classes de tamanho. Houve efeito da periodicidade lunar na liberação de gametas, com menor IG na lua nova, indicando que esta ocorre no primeiro quarto lunar e em marés de sizígia.This work evaluated the spawning of sea urchin Lytechinus variegates based on lunar cycle and population characteristics. Eight monthly collections were realized to estimate the gonadosomatic index (GI and population parameters regarding reproduction. To evaluate the effect of the lunar cycle on spawning, samples were taken for each moon phase of three lunar cycles. In the entire work 295 individuals were collected, 156 males and 131 females (1.19:1 ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the sex ratio of the population. The weight of males was significantly greater than that of females. There were no differences between males and females in gonadosomatic index (GI, gonad weight and diameter. There was aneffect of the lunar periodicity on spawning, with lower GI in new moon, indicating that spawning occurs on the first lunar quarter in spring

  1. EFFECT OF PROSTATILEN® AC ON SPERM DNA FRAGMENTATION DURING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC NONBACTERIAL PROSTATITIS AND CONCOMITANT DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Borovets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to analyze the effect of Prostatilen® AC on sperm DNA fragmentation during treatment of patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and concomitant disorders of the reproductive function.Materials and methods. The study is based on the results of treatment of 25 men aged 24 to 45 years (mean age 35.3 ± 4.4 years with a verified diagnosis of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and complaints of early-stage missed miscarriage in a spouse/sexual partner. All patients received Prostatilen® AC daily in rectal suppositories formulation. The duration of treatment was 10 days with retreatment after 20 days. In all patients before treatment and 20 days after it, spermiogram parameters (5th ed., WHO, 2010 and sperm DNA fragmentation level using SCSA (sperm chromatin structure assay by FACSCantoll with monoclonal antibodies (Roche, Germany were determined, and all patients underwent the MAR (mixed antiglobulin reaction test with normal value considered to be 10 % or less. The normal value of sperm DNA fragmentation was considered to be 15 % or less (low risk of fertility impairment. The analysis of the obtained data was carried out using the IBM SPSS Statistics program 22.Results. Before the treatment, pathologic level of sperm DNA fragmentation was observed in 6 (43 % of 14 patients with normozoospermia and in 7 (63 % of 11 patients with pathozoospermia (χ² = 1.06; p <0.3. Thus, there weren’t any significant difference between the rates of occurrence of increased sperm DNA fragmentation in patients with normo- and pathozoospermia. A correlation was found between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and the results of MAR test before treatment (r = 0.8, p <0.05, which varied between 0 and 99 % (mean 16.48 ± 31.64 %. Meanwhile, increased sperm DNA fragmentation was observed in 7 (53 % of 13 patients with pathological MAR test results, and in 2 (40 % of 5 patients with normal MAR test results (χ² = 0.67; p <0.01. The level

  2. Chronic fluoxetine treatment directs energy metabolism towards the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in rat hippocampal nonsynaptic mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Dragana; Costina, Victor; Perić, Ivana; Stanisavljević, Andrijana; Findeisen, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Fluoxetine (Flx) is the principal treatment for depression; however, the precise mechanisms of its actions remain elusive. Our aim was to identify protein expression changes within rat hippocampus regulated by chronic Flx treatment versus vehicle-controls using proteomics. Fluoxetine-hydrohloride (15mg/kg) was administered daily to adult male Wistar rats for 3weeks, and cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial hippocampal proteomes were analyzed. All differentially expressed proteins were functionally annotated according to biological process and molecular function using Uniprot and Blast2GO. Our comparative study revealed that in cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial fractions, 60 and 3 proteins respectively, were down-regulated, and 23 and 60 proteins, respectively, were up-regulated. Proteins differentially regulated in cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial fractions were primarily related to cellular and metabolic processes. Of the identified proteins, the expressions of calretinin and parvalbumine were confirmed. The predominant molecular functions of differentially expressed proteins in both cell hippocampal fractions were binding and catalytic activity. Most differentially expressed proteins in nonsynaptic mitochondria were catalytic enzymes involved in the pyruvate metabolism, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis, ATP transduction and glutamate metabolism. Results indicate that chronic Flx treatment may influence proteins involved in calcium signaling, cytoskeletal structure, chaperone system and stimulates energy metabolism via the upregulation of GAPDH expression in cytoplasm, as well as directing energy metabolism toward the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in nonsynaptic mitochondria. This approach provides new insight into the chronic effects of Flx treatment on protein expression in a key brain region associated with stress response and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Life cycle assessment of integrated solid state anaerobic digestion and composting for on-farm organic residues treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Manandhar, Ashish; Li, Guoxue; Shah, Ajay

    2018-03-20

    Driven by the gradual changes in the structure of energy consumption and improvements of living standards in China, the volume of on-farm organic solid waste is increasing. If untreated, these unutilized on-farm organic solid wastes can cause environmental problems. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of different on-farm organic waste (which includes dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residue) treatment strategies, including anaerobic digestion (AD), composting, and AD followed by composting. The input life cycle inventory data are specific to China. The potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies were assessed based on their acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ecotoxicity potential (ETP), and resource depletion (RD). The results show that the preferred treatment strategy for dairy manure is the one that integrated corn stover and tomato residue utilization and solid state AD technologies into the system. The GWP of integrated solid state AD and composting was the least, which is -2900 kg CO 2 eq/ t of dairy manure and approximately 14.8 times less than that of current status (i.e., liquid AD of dairy manure). Solid state AD of dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residues is the most favorable option in terms of AP, EP and ETP, which are more than 40% lower than that of the current status (i.e., AP: 3.11 kg SO 2 , EP: -0.94 kg N, and ETP: -881 CTUe (Comparative Toxic Units ecotoxicity)). The results also show that there is a significant potential for AP, EP, ETP, and GWP reduction, if AD is used prior to composting. The scenario analysis for transportation distance showed that locating the AD plant and composting facility on the farm was advantageous in terms of all the life cycle impact categories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Imposed Thermal Fatigue and Post-Thermal-Cycle Wear Resistance of Biomimetic Gray Cast Iron by Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Deping; Chen, Zhikai; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to create coupling biomimetic units on gray cast iron substrate by laser surface treatment (LST). LSTs for single-step (LST1) and two-step (LST2) processes, were carried out on gray cast iron in different media (air and water). Their effects on microstructure, thermal fatigue, and post-thermal-cycle wear (PTW) resistance on the specimens were studied. The tests were carried out to examine the influence of crack-resistance behavior as well as the biomimetic surface on its post-thermal-cycle wear behavior and different units, with different laser treatments for comparison. Results showed that LST2 enhanced the PTW behaviors of gray cast iron, which then led to an increase in its crack resistance. Among the treated cast irons, the one treated by LST2 in air showed the lowest residual stress, due to the positive effect of the lower steepness of the thermal gradient. Moreover, the same specimen showed the best PTW performance, due to its superior crack resistance and higher hardness as a result of it.

  5. Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Aguilar, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic effect of different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca, Yellow Maca and Black Maca). Male rats were treated by gavage with aqueous extract of each variety of maca equivalent to 1 g hypocotyl kg(-1) body weight (BW) for 84 days. At the end of the treatment, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal sperm count (ESC) and sperm count in vas deferens (SCVD) were assessed. In addition, testis DNA quantification was also determined. Any toxic effect was assessed in liver and spleen by histological studies. The results indicate that Yellow Maca and Black Maca improved ESC and that three varieties of maca increased the SCVD without affecting DSP. Moreover, testis DNA levels were not affected by treatment with any of the three varieties of maca. Histological picture of the liver in animals treated with the three varieties of maca was similar to that observed in controls. In conclusion, Yellow and Black Maca increased epididymal sperm count after 84 days of treatment without affecting DSP. Maca seems to act as a modulator of s