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Sample records for reproductive tract epithelial

  1. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in the Female Reproductive Tract: From Normal Functioning to Disease Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyk, Olena; Coatham, Mackenzie; Jewer, Michael; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process that is vital throughout the human lifespan. In addition to contributing to the development of various tissues within the growing embryo, EMT is also responsible for wound healing and tissue regeneration later in adulthood. In this review, we highlight the importance of EMT in the development and normal functioning of the female reproductive organs (the ovaries and the uterus) and describe how dysregulation of EMT can lead to pathological conditions, such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, and carcinogenesis. We also summarize the current literature relating to EMT in the context of ovarian and endometrial carcinomas, with a particular focus on how molecular mechanisms and the tumor microenvironment can govern cancer cell plasticity, therapy resistance, and metastasis. PMID:28725636

  2. Diabetes (db/db mutation-induced endometrial epithelial lipoapoptosis: Ultrastructural and cytochemical analysis of reproductive tract atrophy

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    Garris David R

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diabetes (db/db mutation in C57BL/KsJ mice promotes a progressive cytolipidemia within the endometrial epithelial (EE layer of the female reproductive tract which results in premature cellular and organ atrophy. The current studies focus on the ultrastructural and cytochemical changes which promote nuclear apoptosis and cytostructural disruption following the expression of endometrial hypercytolipidemia which promotes diabetes-associated organoinvolution and manifest infertility. Methods Control (normal:+/+ and diabetes (db/db genotype groups were prepared for high resolution light microscopic analysis of cytolipidemia and nuclear apoptosis (TUNEL-labeled 3'-DNA fragmentation indices and compared to the transmission electron (TEM microscopic analysis of endometrial tissue samples collected from 8–16 week-old groups. Results Compared to controls, db/db mutation expression induced a dramatic increase in EE cytolipid vacuole volume and density within the epithelial endometrial layer. TEM analysis revealed that cytolipid vacuole accumulations initially aggregated at the baso-polar regions of UEE cells in response to the systemic hyperglycemic/hypertriglyceridemic conditions which characterized the (db/db groups. Progressive cytoplasmic movement of the lipid pools into perinuclear compartments of affected EE cells induced nuclear isolation from organelles that were displaced towards peripheral cytoplasmic compartments. Cytochemical analysis of lipid vacuole accumulations indicated attraction towards, and incorporation within, the nuclear envelope of hyperlipidemic cells. Co-localization of nuclear apoptotic 3'-DNA fragments within identified hyperlipidemic EE cells was coincident with the cytochemical and ultrastructural identification of lipid penetration through the nuclear envelope in db/db mutants. Conclusion These results are the first cytochemical indication that the metabolic disturbances in db/db mutants which

  3. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

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    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy.

  4. Synergy between IL-8 and GM-CSF in reproductive tract epithelial cell secretions promotes enhanced neutrophil chemotaxis.

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    Shen, Li; Fahey, John V; Hussey, Stephen B; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2004-07-01

    Neutrophils occur in tissues of the female reproductive tract (FRT) under non-infected conditions. These cells generally enter tissues under the influence of chemoattractants called chemokines. Primary epithelial cells (EC) from FRT were a potent source of chemokines, IL-8 being the chief neutrophil chemoattractant secreted. Blocking with neutralizing anti-IL-8 showed that IL-8 did not account for all of the chemoattraction observed. A mixture of 25 ng/mL rIL-8 and 1 ng/mL rGM-CSF mediated 2.7-fold more chemotaxis than that expected if the two agents were additive. We then found that GM-CSF was produced by EC in amounts that synergised strongly with IL-8 to enhance chemotaxis. Treatment of uterine EC conditioned medium with saturating doses of anti-IL-8 plus anti-GM-CSF antibodies produced an 84% inhibition of chemotaxis. These findings demonstrate that the majority of neutrophil chemoattractant activity produced by FRT EC results from the synergistic effects of IL-8 and GM-CSF.

  5. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

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    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  6. Manifestations of Immune Privilege in the Human Reproductive Tract

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    Gary F Clark

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other mucosal surfaces (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the human female reproductive tract acts as an initial barrier to foreign antigens. In this role, the epithelial surface and subepithelial immune cells must balance protection against pathogenic insults against harmful inflammatory reactions and acceptance of particular foreign antigens. Two common examples of these acceptable foreign antigens are the fetal allograft and human semen/sperm. Both are purposely deposited into the female genital tract and appropriate immunologic response to these non-self antigens is essential to the survival of the species. In light of the weight of this task, it is not surprising that multiple, redundant and overlapping mechanisms are involved. For instance, cells at the immunologic interface between self (female reproductive tract epithelium and non-self (placental trophoblast cells or human sperm express glycosylation patterns that mimic those on many metastatic cancer cells and successful pathogens. The cytokine/chemokine milieu at this interface is altered through endocrine and immunologic mechanisms to favor tolerance of non-self. The foreign cells themselves also play an integral role in their own immunologic acceptance, since sperm and placental trophoblast cells are unusual and unique in their antigen presenting molecule expression patterns. Here, we will discuss these and other mechanisms that allow the human female reproductive tract to perform this delicate and indispensible balancing act.

  7. Prevention and Treatment of Reproductive Tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangLifang

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment is one of the three major projects organized by the National Population and Family Planning Commission. The author, based on the practice of this project and the China/UNFPA reproductive health and family planning project, made some suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the efforts made to prevent and treat RTIs.

  8. Subtotal obstruction of the male reproductive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, F.H.; Dohle, G.R.; Roijen, J.H. van; Vreeburg, J.T.M.; Weber, R.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal dys

  9. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh

    2010-01-01

    -technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract...... infections included: inadequate training of health staff, lack of equipment, and cultural assumptions regarding the overwhelming prevalence of reproductive tract infections in Vietnamese women, especially among those who receive abortion services. Misconceptions of reproductive tract infections led...... to substantial over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of reproductive tract infections in this hospital. To enhance reproductive tract infection care, providers need to be sensitized to the social and medical consequences of their own cultural perceptions and to increase their awareness of the risks associated...

  10. Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract

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    Maxime Reverchon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.

  11. Molecular characterization of Lingual antimicrobial peptide in the female reproductive tract of Buffalo

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    Dhanya Joseph and Tukaram More

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bubalus bubalis (Ruminantia: Bovidae, Bovinae is an economically important animal of many Asian countries, making significant contribution to milk and meat production. Sub clinical infection of the reproductive tract is one of the important causes for reduced reproductive efficiency in dairy herd of buffaloes. Antimicrobial peptides are component of innate immune system which helps in augmenting the resistance to infection at epithelial surfaces e.g reproductive tract epithelium. In this study we have identified a ß-defensin called Lingual Antimicrobial Peptide (LAP in buffalo reproductive tract. Interestingly the gene was 100 % identical to the LAP isolated from the tongue epithelium of Bos taurus. The 195 bp cDNA of LAP codes for 64 amino acids and of which 50% are cationic amino acids. Phylogenetic studies indicate that LAP of reproductive epithelium of buffalo is different from other beta defensins isolated from the various tissues of same species, but all beta defensin were found to have the same progenitor gene. It is concluded that buffalo reproductive tract epithelium lining contains LAP. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 120-123

  12. Comparative study of reproductive tract infections of female sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Corresponding ... and general population. Materials and methods: The study was conducted ... Key words: Female sex workers, reproductive tract infections, pathogens, distribution ... problem, especially in developing countries. FSWs constitute the ...

  13. 上皮细胞离子通道对雌性生殖道内液体微环境的调节作用:对生殖与不孕的影响%Epithelial ion channels in the regulation of female reproductive tract fluid microenvironment: implications in fertility and Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小章; 何琼; AJONUMA; Louis-Chukwuemeka; 王晓飞

    2007-01-01

    An optimal fluid microenvironment in the female reproductive tract is considered to be crucial for successful reproductive events. Fluid absorption and secretion across the reproductive tract epithelia largely depends on electrolyte transport through the apically and basolaterally located ion channels, working together with an array of other transporters. This review will discuss the role of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in regulating the fluid volume and composition of the reproductive tract and their importance in various reproductive events such as sperm capacitation and implantation. Disturbance of the fluid microenvironment due to defects or abnormal regulation of these ion channels as causes for a number of pathological conditions, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndromes, hydrosalpinx and infertility, is also discussed.%雌性生殖道内适宜的液体微环境对一系列生殖事件起至关重要的作用.位于生殖道上皮细胞顶膜或基底膜的一系列离子通道和转运体,通过对水、电解质的跨膜转运,从而调节雌性生殖道内液体的分泌与吸收.本综述着重探讨了上皮细胞钠离子通道和囊性纤维化跨膜电导调节体对雌性生殖道内液体容量和成分的调节以及它们在不同生殖事件,比如精子获能及着床中的重要作用.同时对因离子通道失活或失调引起的雌性生殖道内液体微环境稳态失衡导致的一系列病理改变,如卵巢过度刺激综合征、输卵管积水以及不孕提出了新的见解.

  14. Modulation of inflammation in the female reproductive tract

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, Shalini Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Physiological inflammation occurs in the female reproductive tract, but pathological inflammation is implicated in reproductive pathologies such as preterm labour and endometrial cancer. Preterm labour (PTL, before 37 weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of preterm birth, neonatal mortality and perinatal morbidities. Endometrial cancer is the commonest gynaecological cancer, and its pathogenesis is characterised by chronic inflammation. The overall aims of this thesis were ...

  15. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA Signaling in Human and Ruminant Reproductive Tract

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    Izabela Wocławek-Potocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.

  16. Generation of human female reproductive tract epithelium from human embryonic stem cells.

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    Louie Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified stem/progenitor cells in human and mouse uterine epithelium, which are postulated to be responsible for tissue regeneration and proliferative disorders of human endometrium. These progenitor cells are thought to be derived from Müllerian duct (MD, the primordial female reproductive tract (FRT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a model of human reproductive tract development in which inductive neonatal mouse uterine mesenchyme (nMUM is recombined with green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged human embryonic stem cells (hESCs; GFP-hESC (ENVY. We demonstrate for the first time that hESCs can be differentiated into cells with a human FRT epithelial cell phenotype. hESC derived FRT epithelial cells emerged from cultures containing MIXL1(+ mesendodermal precursors, paralleling events occurring during normal organogenesis. Following transplantation, nMUM treated embryoid bodies (EBs generated epithelial structures with a typical MD phenotype that expressed the MD markers PAX2, HOXA10. Functionally, the hESCs derived FRT epithelium responded to exogenous estrogen by proliferating and secreting uterine-specific glycodelin A (GdA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show nMUM can induce differentiation of hESC to form the FRT epithelium. This may provide a model to study early developmental events of the human FRT.

  17. Endocrine disruption of oestrogen action and female reproductive tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Douglas A; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2014-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are ubiquitous and persistent compounds that have the capacity to interfere with normal endocrine homoeostasis. The female reproductive tract is exquisitely sensitive to the action of sex steroids, and oestrogens play a key role in normal reproductive function. Malignancies of the female reproductive tract are the fourth most common cancer in women, with endometrial cancer accounting for most cases. Established risk factors for development of endometrial cancer include high BMI and exposure to oestrogens or synthetic compounds such as tamoxifen. Studies on cell and animal models have provided evidence that many EDC can bind oestrogen receptors and highlighted early life exposure as a window of risk for adverse lifelong effects on the reproductive system. The most robust evidence for a link between early life exposure to EDC and adverse reproductive health has come from studies on women who were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Demonstration that EDC can alter expression of members of the HOX gene cluster highlights one pathway that might be vulnerable to their actions. In summary, evidence for a direct link between EDC exposure and cancers of the reproductive system is currently incomplete. It will be challenging to attribute causality to any single EDC when exposure and development of malignancy may be separated by many years and influenced by lifestyle factors such as diet (a source of phytoestrogens) and adiposity. This review considers some of the evidence collected to date.

  18. Melatonin MT1 and MT2 Receptors in the Ram Reproductive Tract

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    González-Arto, Marta; Aguilar, David; Gaspar-Torrubia, Elena; Gallego, Margarita; Carvajal-Serna, Melissa; Herrera-Marcos, Luis V.; Serrano-Blesa, Edith; Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A.; Casao, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Some melatonin functions in mammals are exerted through MT1 and MT2 receptors. However, there are no reports of their presence in the reproductive tract of the ram, a seasonal species. Thus, we have investigated their existence in the ram testis, epididymis, accessory glands and ductus deferens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed higher levels of m-RNA for both receptors in the testis, ampulla, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens, than in the other organs of the reproductive tract (p < 0.05). Western blot analyses showed protein bands compatible with the MT1 in the testis and cauda epididymis, and for the MT2 in the cauda epididymis and deferent duct. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed the presence of MT1 receptors in spermatogonias, spermatocytes, and spermatids, and MT2 receptors in the newly-formed spermatozoa in the testis, whereas both receptors were located in the epithelial cells of the ampulla, seminal vesicles, and ductus deferens. Indirect immunofluorescence showed significant differences in the immunolocation of both receptors in spermatozoa during their transit in the epididymis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that melatonin receptors are present in the ram reproductive tract. These results open the way for new studies on the molecular mechanism of melatonin and the biological significance of its receptors. PMID:28335493

  19. Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushic, Charu; Nazli, Aisha; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K

    2011-10-01

    Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that women are disproportionately susceptible to sexually transmitted viral infections. To understand the underlying biological basis for this increased susceptibility, more studies are needed to examine the acute events in the female reproductive tract following exposure to viruses during sexual transmission. The epithelial lining of the female reproductive tract is the primary barrier that sexually transmitted viruses, such as HIV-1 and HSV-2 need to infect or traverse, in order to initiate and establish productive infection. We have established an ex-vivo primary culture system to grow genital epithelial cells from upper reproductive tract tissues of women. Using these cultures, we have extensively examined the interactions between epithelial cells of the female genital tract and HSV-2 and HIV-1. In this review, we describe in detail the experimental protocol to grow these cultures, monitor their differentiation and inoculate with HSV-2 and HIV-1. Prospective use of these cultures to re-create the microenvironment in the reproductive tract is discussed.

  20. Microphysiological modeling of the reproductive tract: a fertile endeavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddie, Sharon L; Kim, J Julie; Woodruff, Teresa K; Burdette, Joanna E

    2014-09-01

    Preclinical toxicity testing in animal models is a cornerstone of the drug development process, yet it is often unable to predict adverse effects and tolerability issues in human subjects. Species-specific responses to investigational drugs have led researchers to utilize human tissues and cells to better estimate human toxicity. Unfortunately, human cell-derived models are imperfect because toxicity is assessed in isolation, removed from the normal physiologic microenvironment. Microphysiological modeling often referred to as 'organ-on-a-chip' or 'human-on-a-chip' places human tissue into a microfluidic system that mimics the complexity of human in vivo physiology, thereby allowing for toxicity testing on several cell types, tissues, and organs within a more biologically relevant environment. Here we describe important concepts when developing a repro-on-a-chip model. The development of female and male reproductive microfluidic systems is critical to sex-based in vitro toxicity and drug testing. This review addresses the biological and physiological aspects of the male and female reproductive systems in vivo and what should be considered when designing a microphysiological human-on-a-chip model. Additionally, interactions between the reproductive tract and other systems are explored, focusing on the impact of factors and hormones produced by the reproductive tract and disease pathophysiology. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  1. Individualized medicine and the microbiome of the reproductive tract

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    Andrea G Braundmeier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans have evolved along with the millions of microorganisms that populate their bodies. These microbes (1014 outnumber human cells by 10 to 1 and account for 3x 106 genes, more than ten times the 25,000 human genes. This microbial metagenome acts as our other genome and like our own genes, is unique to the individual. Recent international efforts such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP and the MetaHIT Project have helped catalog these microbial genomes using culture-independent, high-throughput, next-generation sequencing. This manuscript will describe recent efforts to define microbial diversity in the female reproductive tract because of the impact that microbial function has on reproductive efficiency. In this review, we will discuss current evidence that microbial communities are critical for maintaining reproductive health and how perturbations of microbial community structures can impact reproductive health from the aspect of infection, reproductive cyclicity, pregnancy and disease states. Investigations of the human microbiome are propelling interventional strategies from treating medical populations to treating individual patients. In particular, we highlight how understanding and defining microbial community structures in different disease and physiological states heave lead to the discovery of biomarkers and, more importantly, the development and implementation of microbial intervention strategies (probiotics into modern day medicine. Finally this review will conclude with a literature summary of the effectiveness of microbial intervention strategies that have been implemented in animal and human models of disease and the potential for integrating these microbial intervention strategies into standard clinical practice.

  2. Analysis of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) reproductive tract: A methods manual

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    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Gill, Verena A.

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction in the female sea otter, Enhydra lutris, was relatively unstudied until Sinha et al. (1966) examined 140 reproductive tracts collected 1955-62 and used their findings to describe sea otter reproductive anatomy and biology. Two years later Sinha and Conaway (1968) published a more detailed paper on the ovary of the sea otter. These descriptive papers have been used as the basis for all subsequent studies of sea otter reproductive tracts.

  3. Anatomy and histology of the reproductive tract of the female Babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehmer, B; Ogle, S; Signorella, A; Knorr, C; Macdonald, A A

    2010-07-15

    The anatomy and histology of the female reproductive tract of the Indonesian wild pig Babyrousa celebensis was studied by means of reproductive tracts obtained from seven animals aged between two and 22 years of age. The ovary appeared to have the ability to ovulate up to four ova at one time. However, the combined ovarian output seemed to average 1.86 ova. Ovulation can take place at any time from puberty to old age (22 years). The opening to the uterine tube was indicated by a 'flower-like' array of tall, broad epithelial 'petals' arising from the luminal surface of the funnel. The mucosal surfaces of these structures were covered in a mixture of prominent ciliated cells and bulbous secretory cells. The uterine tube followed a tightly convoluted path to the tip of the uterine horn. The uterus was proportionately short. The anatomical construction of the uterus was similar to those of other suids in that the columnar endometrium was heavily folded, there was a rich supply of uterine glands in the lamina propria, and the uterus was provided with a good blood supply. The cervix was thick walled and had a spiral lumen.

  4. Avian WNT4 in the female reproductive tracts: potential role of oviduct development and ovarian carcinogenesis.

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    Chul-Hong Lim

    Full Text Available The wingless-type MMTV integration site family of proteins (WNTs is highly conserved secreted lipid-modified signaling molecules that play a variety of pivotal roles in developmental events such as embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and cell polarity. Although, of these proteins, WNT4 is known to be involved in genital development in fetuses of mammalian species, its role is unknown in avian species. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression profiles, as well as hormonal and post-transcriptional regulation of WNT4 expression in the reproductive tract of female chickens. Results of this study demonstrated that WNT4 is most abundant in the stromal and luminal epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct, respectively. WNT4 is also most abundant in the glandular epithelium of the shell gland of the oviduct of laying hens at 3 h post-ovulation during the laying cycle. In addition, treatment of young chicks with diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen agonist stimulated WNT4 only in the glandular epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct. Moreover, results of our study demonstrated that miR-1786 influences WNT4 expression via specific binding sites in its 3'-UTR. On the other hand, our results also indicate that WNT4 is expressed predominantly in the glandular epithelium of cancerous ovaries, but not in normal ovaries of hens. Collectively, these results indicate cell-specific expression of WNT4 in the reproductive tract of chickens and that it likely has crucial roles in development and function of oviduct as well as initiation of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens.

  5. Female reproductive tract pain: targets, challenges, and outcomes

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    Phillip eJobling

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain from the female reproductive tract (FRT is a significant clinical problem for which there are few effective therapies. The complex neuroantomy of pelvic organs not only makes diagnosis of pelvic pain disorders difficult but represents a challenge to development of targeted therapies. A number of potential therapeutic targets have been identified on sensory neurons supplying the FRT but our knowledge on the basic neurophysiology of these neurons is limited compared with other viscera. Until this is addressed we can only guess if the new experimental therapies proposed for somatic, gastrointestinal or bladder pain will translate to the FRT. Once suitable therapeutic targets become clear, the next challenge is drug delivery. The FRT represents a promising system for topical drug delivery that could be tailored to act locally or systemically depending on formulation. Development of these therapies and their delivery systems will need to be done in concert with more robust in vivo and in vitro models of FRT pain.

  6. Intrauterine Devices and Reproductive Tract Infections: A Cross-sectional Study in Urban Slum

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: The concern that intrauterine devices (IUDs) might cause or facilitate reproductive tract infection has limited its use. Objectives: The study aims to explore the relationship between reproductive tract infections & IUD use. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study conducted in STI/RTI Clinic located in urban slums of Mumbai, involving total 169 married females of reproductive age group who presented with symptoms of RTI and using atleast o...

  7. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.

  8. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.

  9. Gene duplication and adaptive evolution of digestive proteases in Drosophila arizonae female reproductive tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Kelleher

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It frequently has been postulated that intersexual coevolution between the male ejaculate and the female reproductive tract is a driving force in the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. The dearth of research on female tracts, however, presents a major obstacle to empirical tests of this hypothesis. Here, we employ a comparative EST approach to identify 241 candidate female reproductive proteins in Drosophila arizonae, a repleta group species in which physiological ejaculate-female coevolution has been documented. Thirty-one of these proteins exhibit elevated amino acid substitution rates, making them candidates for molecular coevolution with the male ejaculate. Strikingly, we also discovered 12 unique digestive proteases whose expression is specific to the D. arizonae lower female reproductive tract. These enzymes belong to classes most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of a diverse array of organisms. We show that these proteases are associated with recent, lineage-specific gene duplications in the Drosophila repleta species group, and exhibit strong signatures of positive selection. Observation of adaptive evolution in several female reproductive tract proteins indicates they are active players in the evolution of reproductive tract interactions. Additionally, pervasive gene duplication, adaptive evolution, and rapid acquisition of a novel digestive function by the female reproductive tract points to a novel coevolutionary mechanism of ejaculate-female interaction.

  10. Seminal Fluid-Mediated Inflammation in Physiology and Pathology of the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio O. Adefuye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a multifaceted process involving a host of resident and recruited immune cells that eliminate the insult or injury and initiate tissue repair. In the female reproductive tract (FMRT, inflammation-mediated alterations in epithelial, vascular, and immune functions are important components of complex physiological processes and many local and systemic pathologies. It is well established that intracoital and postcoital function of seminal fluid (SF goes beyond nutritive support for the spermatozoa cells. SF, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins present in vast quantities in SF, have a role in localized immune modulation and regulation of pathways that can exacerbate inflammation in the FMRT. In sexually active women SF-mediated inflammation has been implicated in physiologic processes such as ovulation, implantation, and parturition while also enhancing tumorigenesis and susceptibility to infection. This review highlights the molecular mechanism by which SF regulates inflammatory pathways in the FMRT and how alterations in these pathways contribute to physiology and pathology of the female reproductive function. In addition, based on findings from TaqMan® 96-Well Plate Arrays, on neoplastic cervical cells treated with SF, we discuss new findings on the role of SF as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix.

  11. Community Based Study Of Self Reported Morbidity Of Reproductive Tract Among Women Of Reproductive Age In Rural Area Of Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Monika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: What is the prevalence of morbidity of reproductive tract among women in a rural area of Rajasthan? Objectives: 1. To assess the load of reproductive morbidity among the rural women. 2. To study the association of potential risk factors with reproductive tract infection. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A village of Bikaner (rural western Rajasthan. Participants: 1044 rural women aged 15-45. Study period: June 2000 to October 2000. Statistical analysis: Percentages and Chi square test. Results: The prevalence of self reported morbidity related to reproductive tracts was 31.8% and reproductive tract infections (RTIs was 22.3%. Only 12.5% of symptomatic women consulted health personnel for their illness before this survey. Prevalence of RTIs was significantly associated with age, married life, gravida status, invasive contraceptives, gynaecological surgical interventions and type of family. Conclusion: There was a moderately high prevalence of self reported morbidity of reproductive tract, whereas, treatment seeking behavior was low. Many factors were found to be associated with RTIs.

  12. Inhibition of experimental ascending urinary tract infection by an epithelial cell-surface receptor analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edén, C. Svanborg; Freter, R.; Hagberg, L.; Hull, R.; Hull, S.; Leffler, H.; Schoolnik, G.

    1982-08-01

    It has been shown that the establishment of urinary tract infection by Escherichia coli is dependent on attachment of the bacteria to epithelial cells1-4. The attachment involves specific epithelial cell receptors, which have been characterized as glycolipids5-10. Reversible binding to cell-surface mannosides may also be important4,11-13. This suggests an approach to the treatment of infections-that of blocking bacterial attachment with cell membrane receptor analogues. Using E. coli mutants lacking one or other of the two binding specificities (glycolipid and mannose), we show here that glycolipid analogues can block in vitro adhesion and in vivo urinary tract infection.

  13. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in yo

  14. Evidence of melatonin synthesis in the ram reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Arto, M; Hamilton, T R dos S; Gallego, M; Gaspar-Torrubia, E; Aguilar, D; Serrano-Blesa, E; Abecia, J A; Pérez-Pé, R; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Casao, A

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule found in a wide range of fluids, one of them being ram seminal plasma, in which it can reach higher concentrations than those found in blood, suggesting an extrapineal secretion by the reproductive tract. In order to identify the source of the melatonin found in ram seminal plasma, we first tried to determine whether the melatonin levels were maintained during the day. For this purpose, melatonin concentrations were measured in seminal plasma obtained from first ejaculates of six rams at 6:00 a.m. in total darkness, at 10:00 a.m. and at 14:00 p.m. The melatonin concentration was higher (p ram testes, epididymis, and accessory glands. The RT-PCR showed the presence of the m-RNA codifying both AANAT and ASTM in all the tissues under study, but the q-PCR and Western-blot revealed that gene expression of these enzymes was significantly higher in the testis (p ram seminal plasma, at least during the day.

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in the human fetal and adult male reproductive tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, A; Liotta, D R; Yao, S; Liu, X H; Klausner, A P; Unger, P; Shapiro, E; Leav, I; Levine, A C

    2000-09-01

    The first rate-limiting step in the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGs is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase (Cox). Two isoforms of Cox have been identified, Cox-1 (constitutively expressed) and Cox-2 (inducible form), which are the products of two different genes. In this study we describe the immunohistochemical localization of Cox-1 and -2 in the human male fetal and adult reproductive tracts. There was no Cox-1 expression in fetal samples (prostate, seminal vesicles, or ejaculatory ducts), and only minimal expression in adult tissues. There was no expression of Cox-2 in the fetal prostate. In a prepubertal prostate there was some Cox-2 expression that localized exclusively to the smooth muscle cells of the transition zone. In adult hyperplastic prostates, Cox-2 was strongly expressed in smooth muscle cells, with no expression in the luminal epithelial cells. Cox-2 was strongly expressed in epithelial cells of both fetal and adult seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts. The Cox-2 staining intensity in the fetal ejaculatory ducts during various times of gestation correlated with previously reported testosterone production rates by the fetal testis. These data indicate that Cox-2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the fetal male reproductive tract, and its expression may be regulated by androgens. The distinct cell type-specific expression patterns of Cox-2 in the prostate (smooth muscle) vs. the seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts (epithelium) may reflect the different roles of PGs in these tissues.

  16. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediated tumourigenesis in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ammar Natalwala; Robert Spychal; Chris Tselepis

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved process that has been well characterised in embryogenesis.Studies have shown that the aberrant activation of EMT in adult epithelia can promote tumour metastasis by repressing cell adhesion molecules,including epithelial (E)-cadherin.Reduced intracellular adhesion may allow tumour cells to disseminate and spread throughout the body.A number of transcription proteins of the Snail superfamily have been implicated in EMT.These proteins have been shown to be overexpressed in advanced gastrointestinal (GI) tumours including oesophageal adenocarcinomas,colorectal carcinomas,gastric and pancreatic cancers,with a concomitant reduction in the expression of E-cadherin.Regulators of EMT may provide novel clinical targets to detect GI cancers early,so that cancers previously associated with a poor prognosis such as pancreatic cancer can be diagnosed before they become inoperable.Furthermore,pharmacological therapies designed to inhibit these proteins will aim to prevent local and distant tumour invasion.

  17. Gelatinases and serine proteinase inhibitors of seminal plasma and the reproductive tract of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotłowska, M; Kowalski, R; Glogowski, J; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2005-04-01

    This study examined proteolytic enzymes and serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma with relation to their distribution within the reproductive tract and to yellow semen syndrome (YSS). Proteases of blood plasma, extracts from the reproductive tract, and seminal plasma were analyzed by gelatin zymography. We found a clear regional distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the turkey reproductive tract. Each part was characterized by a unique profile of serine proteolytic enzymes of molecular weights ranging from 29 to 88 kDa. The ductus deferens was found to be a site of very intense proteolytic activity. Two metalloproteases of 58 and 66 kDa were detected in all parts of the reproductive tract and seminal plasma. Using electrophoretic methods for detection of anti-trypsin activity, we found three serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma. Two inhibitors were found in the testis and epididymis and a third in the ductus deferens and seminal plasma. Blood plasma was characterized by the presence of two metalloproteinases and one serine proteinase inhibitor (of low migration rate) that were also detected in the reproductive tract. Amidase and anti-trypsin activities (expressed per gram of protein) differed for yellow and white seminal plasma. We concluded that turkey seminal plasma contains metalloproteases, serine proteinases, and serine proteinase inhibitors. The metalloproteases and one proteinase inhibitor are related to blood proteinases but the other two inhibitors and serine proteinases seem to be unique for the reproductive tract.

  18. An Intervention Study of Reproductive Tract Infections among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-min JIANG; Yu-yan LI; Jun-qing WU; Wen-ying LI; Zeng-yu WEN; Er-sheng GAO; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Ben-cheng ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impacts of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) intervention on RTIs-related knowledge, attitudes, practices and prevalence of married women at reproductive age.Methods Four sub-districts from Xuhui district, Shanghai were selected by multistage cluster random sampling and residence committees were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control one. RTIs intervention was implemented in intervention group, while routine family planning program was conducted in control group.Results Compared with control group, intervention group have improved the following targets: the increment of RTI knowledge score was higher than that in control group (OR=9.22, 95%CI: 7.01-12.14); the increment score of individual health behaviors (6.31)was higher than that in control group (4.50) (OR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.21-2.10); the increase of condom use frequency in intervention group was higher than that in control group (4.12% vs 0.69%) (OR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.31 -2.57); the decreased RTIs rate was higher than that in control group (7.45% vs 0.96%) (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.95).Conclusion It is an effective way to conduct community-based intervention to increase women's RTIs knowledge, improve RTIs-related attitudes, promote good individual health behaviors, so as to decrease RTIs prevalence.

  19. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to deter

  20. Imaging the male reproductive tract: current trends and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Futterer, J.J.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Spermon, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The male reproductive system encompasses several organs: the testes, ejaculatory ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis. The function of this system is to accomplish reproduction. Diagnostic imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET), are inc

  1. The TGF-β Family in the Reproductive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diana; Matzuk, Martin M; Pangas, Stephanie A

    2017-10-03

    The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family has a profound impact on the reproductive function of various organisms. In this review, we discuss how highly conserved members of the TGF-β family influence the reproductive function across several species. We briefly discuss how TGF-β-related proteins balance germ-cell proliferation and differentiation as well as dauer entry and exit in Caenorhabditis elegans. In Drosophila melanogaster, TGF-β-related proteins maintain germ stem-cell identity and eggshell patterning. We then provide an in-depth analysis of landmark studies performed using transgenic mouse models and discuss how these data have uncovered basic developmental aspects of male and female reproductive development. In particular, we discuss the roles of the various TGF-β family ligands and receptors in primordial germ-cell development, sexual differentiation, and gonadal cell development. We also discuss how mutant mouse studies showed the contribution of TGF-β family signaling to embryonic and postnatal testis and ovarian development. We conclude the review by describing data obtained from human studies, which highlight the importance of the TGF-β family in normal female reproductive function during pregnancy and in various gynecologic pathologies. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Identification of quiescent, stem-like cells in the distal female reproductive tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi Wang

    Full Text Available In fertile women, the endometrium undergoes regular cycles of tissue build-up and regression. It is likely that uterine stem cells are involved in this remarkable turn over. The main goal of our current investigations was to identify slow-cycling (quiescent endometrial stem cells by means of a pulse-chase approach to selectively earmark, prospectively isolate, and characterize label-retaining cells (LRCs. To this aim, transgenic mice expressing histone2B-GFP (H2B-GFP in a Tet-inducible fashion were administered doxycycline (pulse which was thereafter withdrawn from the drinking water (chase. Over time, dividing cells progressively loose GFP signal whereas infrequently dividing cells retain H2B-GFP expression. We evaluated H2B-GFP retaining cells at different chase time points and identified long-term (LT; >12 weeks LRCs. The LT-LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor-α and express low levels of progesterone receptors. LRCs sorted by FACS are able to form spheroids capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Upon serum stimulation spheroid cells are induced to differentiate and form glandular structures which express markers of mature műllerian epithelial cells. Overall, the results indicate that quiescent cells located in the distal oviduct have stem-like properties and can differentiate into distinct cell lineages specific of endometrium, proximal and distal oviduct. Future lineage-tracing studies will elucidate the role played by these cells in homeostasis, tissue injury and cancer of the female reproductive tract in the mouse and eventually in man.

  3. Disentangling Contributions of Reproductive Tract Infections to HIV Acquisition in African Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.H.M. van de Wijgert; C.S. Morrison; J. Brown; C. Kwok; B. van der Pol; T. Chipato; J.K. Byamugisha; N. Padian; R.A. Salata

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the effects of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) on HIV acquisition among Zimbabwean and Ugandan women. Methods: A multicenter prospective observational cohort study enrolled 4439 HIV-uninfected women aged 18 to 35 attending family planning clinics in Zimbabwe and Uganda. P

  4. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (chiroptera: myzopodidae) endemic to madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...

  5. Multiscale Systems Modeling of Male Reproductive Tract Defects: from Genes to Populations (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB...

  6. Strategies for the prevention and treatment of reproductive tract infections among women in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huong, Nguyen My; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents selected findings from a larger study on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among women seeking abortion in Northern Vietnam. In particular it focuses on women's experience of RTIs within the context of their perceptions of female physiology and what women do to prevent and ...

  7. Toll-like receptors in the gonads and reproductive tract: emerging roles in reproductive physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Jane E; Hedger, Mark P

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between the immune system and reproductive system have important consequences for fertility and reproductive health in general. There is increasing evidence that many of the interactions between the immune and reproductive systems involve the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). While there is no doubt that TLRs are important in providing protection against infection in the reproductive tract, there is increasing evidence for the involvement of TLRs in more basic pathology and physiology of reproduction. In the female, TLRs have been implicated in critical aspects of ovarian, endometrial and placental function, as well as in ovarian cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and preterm birth. In the male, TLRs appear to play a role in the control of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in disease and, potentially, during normal function, as well. Recent studies also have begun to highlight the role of various TLRs in the aetiology of prostatitis and prostatic cancer. Given the nascent state of knowledge concerning this important area, it is clear that more studies are needed, which should provide valuable new insights into the biology of the TLRs and reproductive function in general.

  8. Ductuli efferentes of the male Golden Syrian hamster reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J; Carnes, K; Hess, R A

    2014-07-01

    Efferent ductules are responsible for the transportation of spermatozoa from the testis to the epididymis and their epithelium is responsible for the reabsorption of over 90% of the luminal fluid. The purpose of this research was to characterize the gross morphology and histology of efferent ductules in the male Golden Syrian hamster. The efferent ductules emerge from rete testis with a unique polarity at the apex or cephalic pole of the testis. The number of efferent ductules varied from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.0 and blind ending ducts were observed in approximately 56% of the males. The ductules merged into a single common duct prior to entering the caput epididymidis. The proximal efferent ductule lumen was wider than the distal (conus and common ducts), consistent with reabsorption of most of the luminal fluid, as was morphology of the ductal epithelium. Non-ciliated cells in the proximal region had prominent endocytic apparatuses, showing both coated pits and apical tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Large basolateral, intercellular spaces were also present in the epithelium of the proximal region. Distal non-ciliated cells had an abundance of large endosomes and lysosomal granules. Localisation of sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3; SLC9A3) and aquaporins 1 and 9 (AQP1, AQP9) along the microvillus border was also consistent with ion transport and fluid reabsorption by this epithelium. In comparison, the caput epididymidis epithelium expressed only AQP9 immunostaining. Another unusual feature of the hamster efferent ductules was the presence of glycogen aggregates in the basal cytoplasm of small groups of epithelial cells, but only in the proximal ducts near the rete testis. Androgen (AR), estrogen (ESR1 and ESR2) and vitamin D receptors (VDR) were also abundant in epithelial nuclei of proximal and distal efferent ductules. In comparison, caput epididymidis showed very little immunostaining for ESR1.

  9. Mechanosensitive neurons on the internal reproductive tract contribute to egg-laying-induced acetic acid attraction in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Bin; Liu, Ying; Guntur, Ananya R; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2014-10-23

    Selecting a suitable site to deposit their eggs is an important reproductive need of Drosophila females. Although their choosiness toward egg-laying sites is well documented, the specific neural mechanism that activates females' search for attractive egg-laying sites is not known. Here, we show that distention and contraction of females' internal reproductive tract triggered by egg delivery through the tract plays a critical role in activating such search. We found that females start to exhibit acetic acid (AA) attraction prior to depositing each egg but no attraction when they are not laying eggs. Artificially distending the reproductive tract triggers AA attraction in non-egg-laying females, whereas silencing the mechanosensitive neurons we identified that can sense the contractile status of the tract eliminates such attraction. Our work uncovers the circuit basis of an important reproductive need of Drosophila females and provides a simple model for dissecting the neural mechanism that underlies a reproductive need-induced behavioral modification.

  10. Regulation of mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract: the role of sex hormones in immune protection against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wira, Charles R; Fahey, John V; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V

    2014-08-01

    The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2 ) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets.

  11. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My Huong; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Do, Thi Thu Thuy

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated d......BACKGROUND: Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well......-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI....... METHOD: The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH) from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea...

  12. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thủy Đỗ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI. Method The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis (VC, bacterial vaginosis (BV and syphilis. To assess the validity of the obtained results, the study was repeated among 100 women and the duplicate samples were analysed at PSH and Copenhagen University Hospital (CUH. Results In all 54% of the women were diagnosed as having an RTI, including 3.3% with sexually transmitted infections. Endogenous infections were most prevalent (VC 34% and BV 12% followed by chlamydia (1.3% and trichomoniasis (0.7%. The sensitivity of culture for VC and BV was 30% and 88%, respectively, when tests in PSH were measured against tests in CUH. Antibiotic resistance was common among bacterial isolates. Conclusion RTIs are common among women seeking abortion. The presence of RTIs is associated with an increased risk of developing iatrogenic infections, routine administration of prophylactic antibiotic to all women undergoing abortion should be considered. However, the choice of routine prophylactic antibiotics should be based on relevant surveillance data of antibiotic resistance

  13. Expression and function of G-protein-coupled receptorsin the male reproductive tract

    OpenAIRE

    Avellar, Maria Christina W.; Lázari,Maria Fatima M.; Porto, Catarina S. [UNIFESP

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the expression and function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), α1-adrenoceptors and relaxin receptors in the male reproductive tract. The localization and differential expression of mAChR and α1-adrenoceptor subtypes in specific compartments of the efferent ductules, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle and prostate of various species indicate a role for these receptors in the modulation of luminal fluid composition and smooth muscle contract...

  14. Localization of porcine seminal plasma (PSP) proteins in the boar reproductive tract and spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manásková, P; Jonáková, V

    2008-06-01

    Spermadhesins are proteins containing a characteristic CUB domain, originally isolated from seminal plasma and ejaculated spermatozoa in domestic animals. Boar spermadhesins are multifunctional proteins exhibiting ligand-binding abilities with various endogenous ligands present in the male and female reproductive tracts and may play a role in the reproduction process. Porcine spermadhesins (AQN, AWN, PSP protein families) are secreted mainly by the seminal vesicles, but their mRNAs have been found also in the cauda epididymis and prostate. Unlike AQN and AWN spermadhesins, localization of porcine seminal plasma (PSP) proteins in the boar reproductive tract has not been completely resolved. This work has focused on PSP protein expression and localization in the boar reproductive organs and on spermatozoa. Using specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies (anti-PSP I and anti-PSP II), PSP I and PSP II proteins were immunodetected in tissue extracts and in secretory tissues of cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowper's glands on the blots and by an indirect immunofluorescence technique, respectively. Moreover, the ability of PSP proteins to bind to epididymal spermatozoa indicated their presence on cauda epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa. Porcine seminal plasma proteins bind to the sperm surface at ejaculation and may modulate several aspects of sperm activity during reproduction. PSP proteins are produced not only by seminal vesicles and prostate, but also by epididymis. However, their prospective role in sperm epididymal maturation is not clear. Further characterization of seminal plasma protein forms expressed in the individual reproductive organs will help to understand their subsequent role in the reproduction process.

  15. Female reproductive tract of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra). Anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S

    2011-11-01

    The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra.

  16. Effect of diet on male reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    W. P Lemos

    Full Text Available The morphology and histology of the reproductive tract of males of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas fed on different diets were studied. P. nigrispinus was fed on diets of: larvae of Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Tenebrio molitor L., Musca domestica L., and an artificial diet. The male reproductive tract, independent of diet, showed testes with intense red coloration in a compact, circular, or slightly oval structure. The vasa deferentia were similar in color to the testes and formed long filaments, which joined with the yellow-cream colored ejaculatory duct. The morphological characteristics of the male reproductive tract were similar under all diets, except for the artificial one. The histological studies demonstrated that independent of the diet the testes of P. nigrispinus were composed of four to six follicles. The testes with six follicles generally had four developed and two atrophied follicles. The morphological and histological differences of the testes of P. nigrispinus when fed with different prey are presented and discussed.

  17. Transforming growth factor β receptor type 1 is essential for female reproductive tract integrity and function.

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    Qinglei Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily proteins are principle regulators of numerous biological functions. Although recent studies have gained tremendous insights into this growth factor family in female reproduction, the functions of the receptors in vivo remain poorly defined. TGFβ type 1 receptor (TGFBR1, also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5, is the major type 1 receptor for TGFβ ligands. Tgfbr1 null mice die embryonically, precluding functional characterization of TGFBR1 postnatally. To study TGFBR1-mediated signaling in female reproduction, we generated a mouse model with conditional knockout (cKO of Tgfbr1 in the female reproductive tract using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. We found that Tgfbr1 cKO females are sterile. However, unlike its role in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 signaling in vitro, TGFBR1 seems to be dispensable for GDF9 signaling in vivo. Strikingly, we discovered that the Tgfbr1 cKO females develop oviductal diverticula, which impair embryo development and transit of embryos to the uterus. Molecular analysis further demonstrated the dysregulation of several cell differentiation and migration genes (e.g., Krt12, Ace2, and MyoR that are potentially associated with female reproductive tract development. Moreover, defective smooth muscle development was also revealed in the uteri of the Tgfbr1 cKO mice. Thus, TGFBR1 is required for female reproductive tract integrity and function, and disruption of TGFBR1-mediated signaling leads to catastrophic structural and functional consequences in the oviduct and uterus.

  18. Transforming Growth Factor β Receptor Type 1 Is Essential for Female Reproductive Tract Integrity and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglei; Agno, Julio E.; Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Nagashima, Takashi; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily proteins are principle regulators of numerous biological functions. Although recent studies have gained tremendous insights into this growth factor family in female reproduction, the functions of the receptors in vivo remain poorly defined. TGFβ type 1 receptor (TGFBR1), also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5, is the major type 1 receptor for TGFβ ligands. Tgfbr1 null mice die embryonically, precluding functional characterization of TGFBR1 postnatally. To study TGFBR1–mediated signaling in female reproduction, we generated a mouse model with conditional knockout (cKO) of Tgfbr1 in the female reproductive tract using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. We found that Tgfbr1 cKO females are sterile. However, unlike its role in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) signaling in vitro, TGFBR1 seems to be dispensable for GDF9 signaling in vivo. Strikingly, we discovered that the Tgfbr1 cKO females develop oviductal diverticula, which impair embryo development and transit of embryos to the uterus. Molecular analysis further demonstrated the dysregulation of several cell differentiation and migration genes (e.g., Krt12, Ace2, and MyoR) that are potentially associated with female reproductive tract development. Moreover, defective smooth muscle development was also revealed in the uteri of the Tgfbr1 cKO mice. Thus, TGFBR1 is required for female reproductive tract integrity and function, and disruption of TGFBR1–mediated signaling leads to catastrophic structural and functional consequences in the oviduct and uterus. PMID:22028666

  19. Recrudescence mechanisms and gene expression profile of the reproductive tracts from chickens during the molting period.

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    Wooyoung Jeong

    Full Text Available The reproductive system of chickens undergoes dynamic morphological and functional tissue remodeling during the molting period. The present study identified global gene expression profiles following oviductal tissue regression and regeneration in laying hens in which molting was induced by feeding high levels of zinc in the diet. During the molting and recrudescence processes, progressive morphological and physiological changes included regression and re-growth of reproductive organs and fluctuations in concentrations of testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and corticosterone in blood. The cDNA microarray analysis of oviductal tissues revealed the biological significance of gene expression-based modulation in oviductal tissue during its remodeling. Based on the gene expression profiles, expression patterns of selected genes such as, TF, ANGPTL3, p20K, PTN, AvBD11 and SERPINB3 exhibited similar patterns in expression with gradual decreases during regression of the oviduct and sequential increases during resurrection of the functional oviduct. Also, miR-1689* inhibited expression of Sp1, while miR-17-3p, miR-22* and miR-1764 inhibited expression of STAT1. Similarly, chicken miR-1562 and miR-138 reduced the expression of ANGPTL3 and p20K, respectively. These results suggest that these differentially regulated genes are closely correlated with the molecular mechanism(s for development and tissue remodeling of the avian female reproductive tract, and that miRNA-mediated regulation of key genes likely contributes to remodeling of the avian reproductive tract by controlling expression of those genes post-transcriptionally. The discovered global gene profiles provide new molecular candidates responsible for regulating morphological and functional recrudescence of the avian reproductive tract, and provide novel insights into understanding the remodeling process at the genomic and epigenomic levels.

  20. Naturally occurring and melengestrol acetate-associated reproductive tract lesions in zoo canids.

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    Moresco, A; Munson, L; Gardner, I A

    2009-11-01

    As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions in zoo felids, but effects in zoo canids have not been evaluated. This retrospective study documented spontaneously occurring lesions and investigated the impact of MGA on the reproductive health of zoo canids. Reproductive tracts from adult females were submitted by US zoos to the Association of Zoos & Aquariums' Wildlife Contraception Center Health Surveillance Program. Reproductive tracts were sampled and processed for histopathologic examination following standard protocols. Microscopic evaluations were performed without prior knowledge of MGA treatment status. Prevalence of uterine lesions was evaluated and compared between MGA-treated animals (n = 20) and control (untreated) animals (n = 61). Common lesions within the study population as a whole included endometrial hyperplasia (predominantly cystic) (53%), hydrometra (33%), and adenomyosis (25%). Treatment with MGA was a risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia, hydrometra, fibrosis, and adenomyosis. Uterine mineralization occurred exclusively in MGA-treated animals. Results indicate that MGA contraception can lead to lesions that may permanently impair the fertility of females. Therefore, if long-term contraception of zoo canids is necessary, the use of alternate methods of reproductive control such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs or GnRH vaccines that reduce gonadal hormone exposure should be pursued.

  1. The putative roles of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) is a key regulator of normal cyclical reproductive functions in the females of mammalian species. The physiological effects of progesterone are mediated by the canonical genomic pathway after binding of progesterone to its specific nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), which acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor and has two main isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. These PGR isoforms play different roles in the cell; PGRB acts as an activator of progesterone-responsive genes, while PGRA can inhibit the activity of PGRB. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and it corresponds to the different levels of progesterone signaling occurring in the reproductive tract. Progesterone exerts its effects on cells also by a non-genomic mechanism by the interaction with the progesterone-binding membrane proteins including the progesterone membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, and the membrane progestin receptors (mPRs). These receptors rapidly activate the appropriate intracellular signal transduction pathways, and subsequently they can initiate specific cell responses or modulate genomic cell responses. The diversity of progesterone receptors and their cellular actions enhances the role of progesterone as a factor regulating the function of the reproductive system and other organs. This paper deals with the possible involvement of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the function of target cells within the female reproductive tract.

  2. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

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    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  3. Innate and adaptive immune responses in male and female reproductive tracts in homeostasis and following HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Philip V; Kafka, Jessica K; Ferreira, Victor H; Roth, Kristy; Kaushic, Charu

    2014-01-01

    The male and female reproductive tracts are complex microenvironments that have diverse functional demands. The immune system in the reproductive tract has the demanding task of providing a protective environment for a fetal allograft while simultaneously conferring protection against potential pathogens. As such, it has evolved a unique set of adaptations, primarily under the influence of sex hormones, which make it distinct from other mucosal sites. Here, we discuss the various components of the immune system that are present in both the male and female reproductive tracts, including innate soluble factors and cells and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immunity under homeostatic conditions. We review the evidence showing unique phenotypic and functional characteristics of immune cells and responses in the male and female reproductive tracts that exhibit compartmentalization from systemic immunity and discuss how these features are influenced by sex hormones. We also examine the interactions among the reproductive tract, sex hormones and immune responses following HIV-1 infection. An improved understanding of the unique characteristics of the male and female reproductive tracts will provide insights into improving clinical treatments of the immunological causes of infertility and the design of prophylactic interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24976268

  4. Genetic Syndromes and Genes Involved in the Development of the Female Reproductive Tract: A Possible Role for Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Mt; Owen, Cm; Segars, Jh

    2013-01-01

    Müllerian and vaginal anomalies are congenital malformations of the female reproductive tract resulting from alterations in the normal developmental pathway of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and vagina. The most common of the Müllerian anomalies affect the uterus and may adversely impact reproductive outcomes highlighting the importance of gaining understanding of the genetic mechanisms that govern normal and abnormal development of the female reproductive tract. Modern molecular genetics with study of knock out animal models as well as several genetic syndromes featuring abnormalities of the female reproductive tract have identified candidate genes significant to this developmental pathway. Further emphasizing the importance of understanding female reproductive tract development, recent evidence has demonstrated expression of embryologically significant genes in the endometrium of adult mice and humans. This recent work suggests that these genes not only play a role in the proper structural development of the female reproductive tract but also may persist in adults to regulate proper function of the endometrium of the uterus. As endometrial function is critical for successful implantation and pregnancy maintenance, these recent data suggest a target for gene therapy. Future research will be needed to determine if gene therapy may improve reproductive outcomes for patients with demonstrated deficient endometrial expression related to abnormal gene expression.

  5. A cyto-epidemiological study on married women in reproductive age group (15-49 years regarding reproductive tract infection in a rural community of West Bengal

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    Shamima Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infection (RTI represents a major public health problem in India. Women are either not aware of the symptoms of RTI or refuse to seek health care due to economic and time constrains unless suffering from alarming symptoms. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of women with suggestive symptoms of RTI; to identify clinical and cytological abnormalities among the symptomatic women and to find out association between socio-demographic profile and risk factors with RTI symptomatic and cytology positive patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 385 married women in reproductive age group residing in Baligori sub-center area in Tarakeswar block of Hooghly district, West Bengal, India, were screened for symptom suggestive of RTI; symptomatic women went through gynecological examination and cancer cervix screening by Pap smear. Analysis of results was done by Odds ratio and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Overall, 23.6% of the study population had symptoms suggestive of RTI. Most of them (68.1% had abnormal vaginal discharge. Among the symptomatic women, cytology proved that 24.4% were suffering from acute cervicitis, 4.7% from A Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS and 2.3% from Low Grade Intra epithelial Lesion (LSIL Squamous. Statistically significant association was observed for age, number of children, contact history of husband, pond bathing, menstrual hygiene, intra uterine device insertion, non-usage of barrier method, and history of abortion among women symptomatic for RTI and asymptomatic women. Conclusions: Prevalence of suggestive symptoms of RTI in women was found to be high (23.6%, and among them 7% had cervical dysplasia. Therefore, enhancing awareness and organizing screening camps are absolute necessity and must be held at frequent intervals to curb the menace due to cervical cancer.

  6. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions.

  7. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  8. Protective Mechanisms of Respiratory Tract Streptococci against Streptococcus pyogenes Biofilm Formation and Epithelial Cell Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Tomas; Riani, Catur; Koczan, Dirk; Standar, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) encounter many streptococcal species of the physiological microbial biome when entering the upper respiratory tract of humans, leading to the question how GAS interact with these bacteria in order to establish themselves at this anatomic site and initiate infection. Here we show that S. oralis and S. salivarius in direct contact assays inhibit growth of GAS in a strain-specific manner and that S. salivarius, most likely via bacteriocin secretion, also exerts this effect in transwell experiments. Utilizing scanning electron microscopy documentation, we identified the tested strains as potent biofilm producers except for GAS M49. In mixed-species biofilms, S. salivarius dominated the GAS strains, while S. oralis acted as initial colonizer, building the bottom layer in mixed biofilms and thereby allowing even GAS M49 to form substantial biofilms on top. With the exception of S. oralis, artificial saliva reduced single-species biofilms and allowed GAS to dominate in mixed biofilms, although the overall two-layer structure was unchanged. When covered by S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms, epithelial cells were protected from GAS adherence, internalization, and cytotoxic effects. Apparently, these species can have probiotic effects. The use of Affymetrix array technology to assess HEp-2 cell transcription levels revealed modest changes after exposure to S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms which could explain some of the protective effects against GAS attack. In summary, our study revealed a protection effect of respiratory tract bacteria against an important airway pathogen and allowed a first in vitro insight into local environmental processes after GAS enter the respiratory tract. PMID:23241973

  9. Multipotent epithelial cells in the process of regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial tunicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuo; Sugino, Yasuo; Sunanaga, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Shigeki

    2008-01-01

    The cellular and molecular features of multipotent epithelial cells during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial tunicates are described in the present study. The epicardium has been regarded as the endodermal tissue-forming epithelium in the order Enterogona, because only body fragments having the epicardium exhibit the regenerative potential. Epicardial cells in Polycitor proliferus have two peculiar features; they always accompany coelomic undifferentiated cells, and they contain various kinds of organelles in the cytoplasm. During strobilation a large amount of organelles are discarded in the lumen, and then, each tissue-forming cell takes an undifferentiated configuration. Septum cells in the stolon are also multipotent in Enterogona. Free cells with a similar configuration to the septum inhabit the hemocoel. They may provide a pool for epithelial septum cells. At the distal tip of the stolon, septum cells are columnar in shape and apparently undifferentiated. They are the precursor of the stolonial bud. In Pleurogona, the atrial epithelium of endodermal origin is multipotent. In Polyandrocarpa misakiensis, it consists of pigmented squamous cells. The cells have ultrastructurally fine granules in the cytoplasm. During budding, coelomic cells with similar morphology become associated with the atrial epithelium. Then, cells of organ placodes undergo dedifferentiation, enter a cell division cycle, and commence morphogenesis. Retinoic acid-related molecules are involved in this dedifferentiation process of multipotent cells. We conclude that in colonial tunicates two systems support the flexibility of tissue remodeling during regeneration and asexual reproduction; dedifferentiation of epithelial cells and epithelial transformation of coelomic free cells.

  10. Pathological and anatomical abnormalities affecting buffalo cows reproductive tracts in Mosul

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    O. I. Azawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3% of cases. Twenty two (5.4% were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167/405 were macroscopically normal. The most common abnormalities encountered were endometritis 50 (12.3%, ovarobursal adhesions 26 (6.4% and hydrosalpinx 20 (4.9%. Other abnormalities recorded were follicular cyst, luteal cyst, cystic corpus luteum, paraovarian cyst, ovarian sarcoma, inactive ovaries, senility anestrous, pyosalpinx, hemosalpinx, obstruction of oviduct, salpingitis, double oviduct, hydrometra, mucometra, pyometra, permetritis, parametritis, uterine edema, perimetrial adhesions, parametrial adhesions, parauterine abscess and uterine tumor. Histopathological examinations in this study revealed that reproductive tract lesions seem to be an important problem with possible subsequent infertility and sterility in buffalo cows leading to animals slaughtered.

  11. Sperm survival in the female reproductive tract in the fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, G; Hellriegel, B; Heyland, A; Ward, P I.

    2002-02-01

    While sperm competition risk favours males transferring many sperm to secure fertilizations, females of a variety of species actively reduce sperm numbers reaching their reproductive tract, e.g. by extrusion or killing. Potential benefits of spermicide to females include nutritional gains, influence over sperm storage and paternity, and the elimination of sperm bearing somatic mutations that would lower zygote fitness.We investigated changes in sperm viability after in vivo and in vitro exposure to the female tract in the polyandrous fly, Scathophaga stercoraria. Sperm viability was significantly lower in the females' spermathecae immediately after mating than in the experimental males' testes. Males also varied significantly in the proportion of live sperm found in storage in vivo. However, the exact mechanism of sperm degradation remains to be clarified. In vitro exposure to extracts of the female reproductive tract, including female accessory glands, failed to significantly lower sperm viability compared to controls. These results are consistent either with postcopulatory sperm mortality in vivo depending entirely on the male (with individual differences in sperm viability, motility or longevity) or with postcopulatory sperm mortality being subtly affected by female effects which were not detected by the in vitro experimental conditions. Importantly, we found no evidence in support of the hypothesis that female accessory glands contribute to sexual conflict via spermicide. Therefore, female muscular control remains to date the only ascertained mechanism of female influence on sperm storage in this species.

  12. Intrauterine Devices and Reproductive Tract Infections: A Cross-sectional Study in Urban Slum

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    Poonam P Shingade, Naveen C Khargekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Introduction: The concern that intrauterine devices (IUDs might cause or facilitate reproductive tract infection has limited its use. Objectives: The study aims to explore the relationship between reproductive tract infections & IUD use. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study conducted in STI/RTI Clinic located in urban slums of Mumbai, involving total 169 married females of reproductive age group who presented with symptoms of RTI and using atleast one type of contraceptive method, who attended OPD from January to March 2012. Tool for interview was the questionnaire about sociodemographic profile, contraceptive practices, and symptoms of the participants. Disease specific laboratory methods were used to confirm diagnosis of RTI. Results: 47(27.81% females were using IUD as contraceptive method in this study. Proportion of the symptoms was more among IUD users than non IUD users. 33(70.2% had suffered from STI / RTI who were using IUDs as compared to 63 (51.6% non-IUD users showing statistically significant association. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant association between use of IUD and RTI. "

  13. Reproductive and Sexual Tract Infections Among Married Female Youth in an Urban Slum of Mumbai

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    Yasmeen K Kazi, Anita G Shenoy, Gajanan Velhal, Sudam R Suryawanshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The issues faced by the youth (15 – 24 years today like illiteracy, unemployment, high risky behavior can result in adverse economic, social and political consequences. Young women face additional problems, like malnutrition, anemia. They are forced into early marriage and child bearing. Hence, this study was carried out to study the Sexual & Reproductive Tract Infections among the Married Female Youth, in an Urban Slum of Mumbai. Methodology: Married Female Youth in the age group 15 – 24 who attended the Out Patient Department at the Urban Health Centre, Shivaji Nagar during the period from October to December 2011 were included in the study ( n= 192. Women were enquired about their socioeconomic status, including their age at marriage, age at 1st childbirth, number of children, spacing between children and history of Reproductive Tract Infection/ Sexually Transmitted Infection with the help of pretested, preformed, semi structured interview questionnaire. Results: It was found that women were married early (mean = 16.90, S.D=2.37 & even had their 1st child at an earlier age (mean 18.43, S.D=1.94. Factors, such as early age at marriage ( p= 0.059, early age at 1st childbirth ( p = 0.038, & less spacing between children ( p = 0.0316 was seen to have an influence on the Reproductive health of the women.

  14. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to determine whether pre-breeding RTS in heifers is a valid tool to predict long-term reproductive performance. Outcomes measured were failure to show oestrus during the first 24 days of the first 50-day AI season (24-day anoestrus), failure to become pregnant during each yearly artificial insemination (AI) season (reproductive failure), number of days from the start of each AI season to calving, and number of years to reproductive failure. The effect of RTS on each outcome was adjusted for year of birth, pre-breeding age, BW and body condition score (BCS), and for 24-day anoestrus, bull, gestation length, previous days to calving and previous cow efficiency index, the latter two in the case of the 2nd to the 5th calving season. During their first breeding season, heifers with RTS 1 and 2 combined were more likely to be in anoestrus for the first 24 days (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.5, 6.4, P=0.003), and were also more likely to fail to become pregnant even after adjusting for 24-day anoestrus (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.9, P=0.025), compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined. Animals with RTS 1 and 2 combined were at increased risk of early reproductive failure compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined (HR=1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, P=0.045) although RTS was not associated with calving rate or days to calving after the second calving season. Low RTS at a threshold of 1 had consistent specificity of ≥94% for both 24-day anoestrus and pregnancy failure, however its predictive value was lower in the age cohort with a higher prevalence of anoestrus. We conclude that RTS is a valid management tool for culling decisions intended to improve long-term reproductive success in a seasonal breeding system

  15. Vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the human male reproductive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Nielsen, John E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    , since it is not solely dependent on VDR expression, but also on cellular uptake of circulating VD and presence and activity of VD metabolizing enzymes. Expression of VD metabolizing enzymes has not previously been investigated in human testis and male reproductive tract. Therefore, we performed......The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human testis, and vitamin D (VD) has been suggested to affect survival and function of mature spermatozoa. Indeed, VDR knockout mice and VD deficient rats show decreased sperm counts and low fertility. However, the cellular response to VD is complex...

  16. Expression and function of G-protein-coupled receptorsin the male reproductive tract

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    Maria Christina W. Avellar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the expression and function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs, α1-adrenoceptors and relaxin receptors in the male reproductive tract. The localization and differential expression of mAChR and α1-adrenoceptor subtypes in specific compartments of the efferent ductules, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle and prostate of various species indicate a role for these receptors in the modulation of luminal fluid composition and smooth muscle contraction, including effects on male fertility. Furthermore, the activation of mAChRs induces transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and the Sertoli cell proliferation. The relaxin receptors are present in the testis, RXFP1 in elongated spermatids and Sertoli cells from rat, and RXFP2 in Leydig and germ cells from rat and human, suggesting a role for these receptors in the spermatogenic process. The localization of both receptors in the apical portion of epithelial cells and smooth muscle layers of the vas deferens suggests an involvement of these receptors in the contraction and regulation of secretion.Esta revisão enfatiza a expressão e a função dos receptores muscarínicos, adrenoceptores α1 e receptores para relaxina no sistema reprodutor masculino. A expressão dos receptores muscarínicos e adrenoceptores α1 em compartimentos específicos de dúctulos eferentes, epidídimo, ductos deferentes, vesícula seminal e próstata de várias espécies indica o envolvimento destes receptores na modulação da composição do fluido luminal e na contração do músculo liso, incluindo efeitos na fertilidade masculina. Além disso, a ativação dos receptores muscarínicos leva à transativação do receptor para o fator crescimento epidermal e proliferação das células de Sertoli. Os receptores para relaxina estão presentes no testículo, RXFP1 nas espermátides alongadas e células de Sertoli de rato e RXFP2 nas células de Leydig e germinativas

  17. Development of a microfluidics model for studying migration of sperm in the female reproductive tract

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    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Ardón, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suárez, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Infertility is a significant issue, both for humans and dairy cattle. In order for fertilization to happen, sperm must migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg in the oviduct (fallopian tube). There is strong evidence that sperm interact with the female tract via both chemical and physical mechanisms. In this work, we focus on how the physical environment of the female tract influences the migration of bull sperm, which also serve as models for human sperm. In order for bull and human sperm to pass from the vagina into the uterus, they must swim through the cervical canal, which is lined by microchannels. Then, sperm must swim through the uterotubal junction, which also contains microchannels, in order to reach the oviduct. In both passageways, sperm must swim against a fluid flow, which would be less in the microchannels than in the central passageways. We have developed a microfluidic model for studying the sperm migration effects of the geometry of the cervix and uterotubal junction and the fluid flow within. Supported by NIH grant 1R01HD070038.

  18. Deletion of Dicer in Somatic Cells of the Female Reproductive Tract Causes Sterility

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    Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia; Franco, Heather L.; Ma, Lang; Chen, Ruihong; Han, Derek Y.; Zhu, Huifeng; Agno, Julio E.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    Dicer is an evolutionarily conserved ribonuclease III that is necessary for microRNA (miRNA) processing and the synthesis of small interfering RNAs from long double-stranded RNA. Although it has been shown that Dicer plays important roles in the mammalian germline and early embryogenesis, the functions of Dicer-dependent pathways in the somatic cells of the female reproductive tract are unknown. Using a transgenic line in which Cre recombinase is driven by the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter, we conditionally inactivated Dicer1 in the mesenchyme of the developing Müllerian ducts and postnatally in ovarian granulosa cells and mesenchyme-derived cells of the oviducts and uterus. Deletion of Dicer in these cell types results in female sterility and multiple reproductive defects including decreased ovulation rates, compromised oocyte and embryo integrity, prominent bilateral paratubal (oviductal) cysts, and shorter uterine horns. The paratubal cysts act as a reservoir for spermatozoa and oocytes and prevent embryos from transiting the oviductal isthmus and passing the uterotubal junction to enter the uterus for implantation. Deep sequencing of small RNAs in oviduct revealed down-regulation of specific miRNAs in Dicer conditional knockout females compared with wild type. The majority of these differentially expressed miRNAs are predicted to regulate genes important for Müllerian duct differentiation and mesenchyme-derived structures, and several of these putative target genes were significantly up-regulated upon conditional deletion of Dicer1. Thus, our findings reveal diverse and critical roles for Dicer and its miRNA products in the development and function of the female reproductive tract. PMID:18687735

  19. Reproductive Tract Histology in South American Fur Seal Pups (Arctophoca australis).

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    Katz, Helena; Johansson, Olle

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a detailed histological description of the female reproductive tract of South American fur seal (Arctophoca australis) pups has been conducted. The uterine tube was covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium; nerve fibers were present in the mesosalpinx and beneath the muscular layer. The uterus was bipartitus; the endometrial surface of the horns was lined by a simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium with deep tubular glands; caudally ("the transition area"), the epithelium changed to pseudostratified columnar, few tubular glands were present and the myometrium increased in width. A bistratified epithelium internally coated the uterine body, whereas it changed to cylindrical stratified epithelium with a highly vascularized lamina propria and a strong muscular layer in the cervix; no endometrial glands were observed in this region. From the transition area of the uterus to the vagina there were several nerve fibers and ganglia belonging to the uterovaginalis plexus. In the vestibule, hymenal folds were poorly developed; adnexa structures included the major vestibular glands and a neurovascular structure similar to the vestibular bulb. Minor vestibular glands were associated with the clitoris. The skin of the perineum was lined by a keratinized stratified epithelium, pigmented, with sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles. This is the first detailed histological description of the reproductive tract of South American fur seal pups, including the glandular adnexa and nerve structures. These results contribute to the reproductive biology in Pinniped species, and give a better understanding of the utero-placental perfusion mechanism during diving. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:600-613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reproductive tract infections in HIV positive women: A case control study

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    Sharma Archana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection primarily affects women during their reproductive years, and the coexistence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs is not surprising given the fact that HIV is mainly acquired via heterosexual contact. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of RTIs among infected and noninfected women. Materials and Methods: A case control study of 83 HIV positive women, tested by two enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a matched control of 87 HIV negative women were screened for RTIs. They were submitted to gynecological examination and cervical cytology. Results: The mean age for HIV positive women was 30 years and that for HIV negative women was 27 years. 18% HIV positive women had menstrual irregularities compared to 6% in seronegative group ( P = 0.024. Vaginal infections including sexually transmitted infections (STIs were found in 47 (57% HIV positive women and 30 (34% HIV negative women ( P = 0.0037. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common infection (34% in HIV positive women, followed by trichomoniasis (12%. Human papilloma virus (HPV infection was seen in nine HIV positive women versus none in HIV negative women. Cervical cytology showed inflammation in 53 (64% HIV positive women compared to 27 (31% HIV negative women ( P = 0.000023. Genital neoplasia, including carcinoma in situ was observed in 2 (2.5% HIV positive women and in none of the HIV negative women. Conclusion: It is seen that reproductive tract morbidities are common in HIV positive women. So it is imperative that HIV positive women have a complete gynecological evaluation including a Papanicolaou (PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs.

  1. p53 is not related to Ki-67 immunostaining in the epithelial and mesenchymal components of female genital tract carcinosarcomas.

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    Bałon, Beata; Kaznowska, Ewa; Ignatov, Atanas; Steć, Anna; Semczuk-Sikora, Anna; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Jóźwik, Maciej; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Cybulski, Marek; Szumiło, Justyna; Semczuk, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    Carcinosarcomas (CSs) are composed of two separate histological components and are rare neoplasms of the female genital tract. Therefore, CS pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the role of p53 and Ki-67 overexpression in female genital tract CSs. The study group was comprised of 36 patients with CSs originating from the uterus (n=31), cervix (n=3) and ovary (n=2), as well as 3 metastatic tissues. p53 was overexpressed in the epithelial component of 23 out of 36 (64%) tumors, and in the mesenchymal component of 20 out of 36 (56%) tumors. In both CS components, there was a significant correlation between p53 overexpression and patient age and ovarian metastases. Ki-67 overexpression was detected in the epithelial component in 15 out of 36 (42%) cases, and in the mesenchymal component in 13 out of 36 (36%) neoplasms. There was a significant correlation of p53 overexpression between the carcinomatous and sarcomatous components (R=0.884, Ptumor components. In conclusion, based on immunohistochemical results, p53 was overexpressed in more than half of the female genital tract CSs included in the present study, either at the epithelial or mesenchymal component. The correlation between p53 or Ki-67 overexpression in both tumor components supports the combination theory of histogenesis in the majority of these tumors.

  2. Female reproductive tract infections: understandings and care seeking behaviour among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinlusi Fatimat M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive tract infections (RTI's are endemic in developing countries and entail a heavy toll on women. If untreated, RTI's can lead to adverse health outcomes such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy and increased vulnerability to transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. It is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While RTI's and its sequelae abound in Nigeria, there is paucity of publications on the subject in the country. This study assessed the understandings and care seeking behavior with regards to RTI's among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria with the aim of improving awareness on the subject. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey of women attending the gynaecological outpatient and family planning clinics of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital was carried out between 1st June 2008 and 31st August 2008 using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analysed using the Epi-Info 3.5 statistical software of the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta U.S.A. Results Most of the respondents (77.2% had heard of RTI's. Toilet was the most perceived mode of contracting RTI's (44.6%, followed by sexual intercourse and poor hygiene. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom of RTI's named while inability to get pregnant was the commonest named complication. Majority of the respondent's demonstrated poor overall knowledge of symptoms and complications of RTI"s. 37.4% of the respondents had experienced symptoms of RTI's in the preceding six months. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom reported (21.8% and the majority of those who reported symptoms sought medical treatment. Government health centres were the most visited health facilities for treatment. Conclusion Even though most of the respondents have heard of RTI's and sought treatment when symptomatic, they demonstrated poor overall understanding of the subject. There is need to educate women on preventive

  3. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

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    Suarez David L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the reproductive tract of turkey hens after experimental intrauterine inoculation, causing decreased egg production. This route of exposure is realistic in modern turkey production because turkey hens are handled once a week for intrauterine insemination in order to produce fertile eggs. This understanding of virus exposure provides an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and can improve poultry husbandry to prevent disease outbreaks.

  4. Measuring sperm movement within the female reproductive tract using Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, Philip R; Macartney, Erin L; Whan, Renee M; Crean, Angela J

    2015-02-01

    The adaptive significance of variation in sperm phenotype is still largely unknown, in part due to the difficulties of observing and measuring sperm movement in its natural, selective environment (i.e., within the female reproductive tract). Computer-assisted sperm analysis systems allow objective and accurate measurement of sperm velocity, but rely on being able to track individual sperm, and are therefore unable to measure sperm movement in species where sperm move in trains or bundles. Here we describe a newly developed computational method for measuring sperm movement using Fourier analysis to estimate sperm tail beat frequency. High-speed time-lapse videos of sperm movement within the female tract of the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis were recorded, and a map of beat frequencies generated by converting the periodic signal of an intensity versus time trace at each pixel to the frequency domain using the Fourier transform. We were able to detect small decreases in sperm tail beat frequency over time, indicating the method is sensitive enough to identify consistent differences in sperm movement. Fourier analysis can be applied to a wide range of species and contexts, and should therefore facilitate novel exploration of the causes and consequences of variation in sperm movement.

  5. Photonic Characteristics and Ex Vivo Imaging of Escherichia coli-Xen14 Within the Bovine Reproductive Tract

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    The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the photonic properties of Escherichia coli-Xen14 and (2) conduct photonic imaging of E. coli-Xen14 within bovine reproductive tract segments (RTS) ex vivo (Bos indicus). E. coli-Xen14 was grown for 24 h in Luria Bertani medium (LB), with or with...

  6. Physician-patient communication in the prevention of female reproductive tract infections: some limitations

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    Makuch María Y.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the information that women with tubal infertility recalled having received from physicians when they consulted for a reproductive tract infection (RTI and the information physicians reported having provided to women consulting for RTIs. Interviews were conducted with 16 women presenting primary tubal infertility selected on the basis of purposeful sampling criteria. Also, 15 physicians working in the public health network in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were selected at random and interviewed. Analysis of the women's statements concerning previous RTI-related medical consultations showed that they did not recall having received any information on either prevention or the impact of RTI on their reproductive future. Analysis of interviews with physicians showed that the information they provided to women consulting for RTIs was incomplete and unclear. The information women recalled having received and that which physicians remembered having provided at the time of treating a patient with RTI was similar. In conclusion, these women lacked adequate or complete information and that it was probably not possible for them to adopt measures to avoid repetition of RTI and minimize risk of tubal infertility.

  7. Effects of endocrine disruptors in the development of the female reproductive tract.

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    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Hohl, Alexandre; Bachega, Tânia A S S

    2014-03-01

    Environmental agencies have identified a growing number of environmental contaminants that have endocrine disrupting activity, and these can become a major public health problem. It is suggested that endocrine disruptors could account for the higher-than-expected increase in the prevalence of some non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, thyroid diseases, and some cancers. Several endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs), such as pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, can interact with the female reproductive system and lead to endocrine disruption. Initially, it was assumed that EDCs exert their effects by binding to hormone receptors and transcription factors, but it is currently known that they may also alter the expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis or catabolism of steroids. Biomonitoring studies have identified these compounds in adults, children, pregnant women, and fetuses. Among the diseases of the female reproductive tract associated with EDCs exposure are the following: precocious puberty, polycystic ovary syndrome, and premature ovarian failure. The different populations of the world are exposed to a great number of chemicals through different routes of infection; despite the various available studies, there is still much doubt regarding the additive effect of a mixture of EDCs with similar mechanisms of action.

  8. Expression of oxytocin, progesterone, and estrogen receptors in the reproductive tract of bitches with pyometra.

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    Prapaiwan, N; Manee-In, S; Olanratmanee, E; Srisuwatanasagul, S

    2017-02-01

    Canine pyometra is considered a serious and life-threatening condition. Due to the relationship among sex steroid hormones, oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression, and canine pyometra pathogenesis, this study aimed to investigate the expression of oxytocin, progesterone, and estrogen receptors in the reproductive tissues of canines with pyometra by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. A total of 27 pyometra bitches were classified into open- and closed-cervix pyometra groups based on the presence of vaginal discharge. Moreover, 15 normal bitches in the luteal phase served as a control group. The results showed that OTR gene expression in the ovary of pyometra bitches was higher than that of normal bitches, whereas the level of OTR gene expression in the cervix of pyometra bitches was less than that of normal bitches (P pyometra bitches compared with normal bitches, whereas a higher percentage of OTR-positive immunostaining in uteri and cervices were found in pyometra bitches compared with normal bitches (P pyometra bitches were less than that of normal bitches (P pyometra bitches was not different. Our findings suggest that pyometra pathogenesis is associated with a change in expression of OTR and sex steroid receptors in the canine reproductive tract. However, cervical dilation in bitches with pyometra was not influenced by the expression of OTR and sex steroid receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Reproductive Tract Infections in Gongolia Village, Rupandehi District, Nepal

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    Pravina Kafle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of reproductive tract infection (RTI and its associated factors among married women of reproductive age group (15–49 yrs. Method. A cross sectional approach was employed. The study collected data of symptoms suggestive of RTI experienced in the previous six months according to World Health Organization (WHO syndromic approach guideline. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data and data were entered into EPI data and transferred into SPSS (16 version for further analysis. Chi square was used for statistical analysis. Result. Among 258 married women the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of RTI was found to be 39.9%. Low back pain, vaginal discharge, and low abdominal pains were common symptoms reported in study. Irregular menstrual cycle, sexual contact during menstruation, marriage below 19 yrs, pregnancy below 20 yrs, high parity, delivery at home, and use of temporary family planning device were significant risk factors for prevalence of RTI symptoms. Conclusion. RTI still remains neglected by married women. Training and education session needs to be carried out to identify the early symptoms of RTI. Awareness about marriage and pregnancy after 19 yrs of age, sex education, delivery at health institution by health personnel, menstrual and personnel hygiene, and use of the condom are needed for prevention of RTI.

  10. PAX8 and PAX2 immunostaining facilitates the diagnosis of primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guo-Xia; Memeo, Lorenzo; Colarossi, Cristina; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Zhou, Ming; Lagana, Stephen M; Harik, Lara; Oliver-Krasinski, Jennifer M; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Falcone, Lorenzo; Hibshoosh, Hanina; O'Toole, Kathleen

    2011-10-01

    PAX8 and PAX2 are cell-lineage-specific transcription factors that are essential for the development of Wolffian and Müllerian ducts and have recently emerged as specific diagnostic markers for tumors of renal or Müllerian origin. Little is known about their expression in the Wolffian duct-derived human male genital tract. We report our findings of PAX8 and PAX2 expression in the epithelium of the normal male genital tract and in epithelial tumors derived therefrom using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We found that PAX8 and PAX2 were expressed in the epithelium of the male genital tract from the rete testis to the ejaculatory duct. Rare glands in the prostatic central zone, a tissue of purported Wolffian duct origin, were focally positive for PAX2, but no PAX8 was detected in this area, a finding that may warrant further study. We found diffuse expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in 1 case each of serous cystadenoma of the epididymis, carcinoma of the rete testis, Wolffian adnexal tumor of the seminal vesicle, and endometrioid carcinoma of the seminal vesicle. Neither PAX8 nor PAX2 was detected in the seminiferous tubules and interstitium of the normal testis, nor in Leydig cell tumors (n=6), Sertoli cell tumors (n=2), or 48 of 49 germ cell tumors. One pediatric yolk sac tumor showed focal and weak staining for PAX8. Tumors of mesothelial origin, that is, adenomatoid tumors (n=3) and peritoneal malignant mesotheliomas (n=37) in men, were negative for PAX2 and PAX8. Neither PAX2 nor PAX8 was present in other areas of the prostate. Expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in these primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract is due to their histogenetic relationship with Wolffian or Müllerian ducts. PAX8 and PAX2 IHC may facilitate the diagnosis of these tumors and should be included in the differential diagnostic IHC panel.

  11. Changes in the expression of HSL and OCTN2 in the female reproductive tract of the bat, Scotophilus heathii in relation to sperm storage.

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    Roy, Vikas Kumar; Krishna, Amitabh

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the changes in the expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2) in different regions of the female reproductive tract of bats (Scotophilus heathii) during the period of sperm storage. Western blot analysis revealed that both HSL and OCTN2 showed elevated expression in the utero-tubal junction, the site of sperm storage, compared to the vagina, cervix and uterus. An immunohistochemical study showed localization of HSL and OCTN2 in the cytoplasm of luminal epithelial cells in the utero-tubal junction of S. heathii, which suggests a role of fatty acids metabolism at the site of sperm storage. Furthermore, this study showed the presence OCTN2 immunostaining in the tail of stored sperm, which suggests a direct role of carnitine in sperm physiology. However, the role of carnitine in sperm storage needs further investigation. It is hypothesized that the utero-tubal junction may be finely tuned with fat depletion to support sperm storage in the female genital tract of S. heathii.

  12. Understandings of reproductive tract infections in a peri-urban pueblo joven in Lima, Peru

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    Parker Kea

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control programs for Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs typically focus on increasing awareness of risks associated with different forms of sexual contact, and pay little attention to how or why people may link RTIs to other features of their physical or social environments. This paper describes how women in a peri-urban pueblo joven located in the coastal desert surrounding Lima, Peru conceptualize the links between RTIs, sexual behaviour, personal hygiene, and the adverse environment in which they live. Methods We combined qualitative interviews and a participatory voting exercise to examine social and physical environmental influences on RTIs and gynaecologic symptom interpretation. Results Knowledge of RTIs in general was limited, although knowledge of AIDS was higher. Perceived causes of RTIs fell into three categories: sexual contact with infected persons, personal hygiene and exposure to the contaminated physical environment, with AIDS clearly related to sexual contact. The adverse environment is thought to be a major contributor to vaginal discharge, "inflamed ovaries" and urinary tract infection. The more remote parts of this periurban squatter settlement, characterized by blowing sand and dust and limited access to clean water, are thought to exhibit higher rates of RTIs as a direct result of the adverse environment found there. Stigma associated with RTIs often keeps women from seeking care or obtaining information about gynaecologic symptoms, and favours explanations that avoid mention of sexual practices. Conclusion The discrepancy between demonstrated disease risk factors and personal explanations influenced by local environmental conditions and RTI-related stigma poses a challenge for prevention programs. Effective interventions need to take local understandings of RTIs into account as they engage in dialogue with communities about prevention and treatment of RTIs.

  13. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

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    Schulman, M L; Kirberger, R M; Tordiffe, A S W; Marker, L L; Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Hartman, M J

    2015-12-01

    The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A

  14. Molecular Detection,Culture and Isolation of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae From Reproductive Tract of STD Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jidong(王继东); ZHAO Jiwen(赵季文); LI Qin(李琴); XU Cuiyu(徐萃瑜); XIE Ping(谢平); HUA Yong(华咏); WANG Shengqiang(汪圣强); XIAO Chenyue(肖琛月)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To confirm whether Mycoplasma pneumoniae(MP) are present in reproductive tract of STD patients in China.Methods: Application of nested PCR (nPCR) and DNA sequencing to test samples of urethral/vaginal swabs withMP culture confirmation of several nPCR positive patients.Results: 74 of 786 STD patients were positive for MP bynPCR, with a rate of 9.4%. Of the 484 male patients, 10.5%were positive, and among the 302 female patients, 7.6%were positive. There was no significant difference betweenthem (P>0.05). Of 12 cases of MP positive samples by nPCR,4 cases were first generation culture-positive, and one ofthem passed to the next generation successfully. DNAsequencing was performed on the nPCR product of oneswab sample and one MP culture isolation. The determinedsequence was identical to the typical MP strain.Conclusion: In China, MP are present in reproductivetract of both male and female STD patients.

  15. Antibacterial Peptides of The Ovine Reproductive Tract%绵羊生殖道抗菌肽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琛; 王新华; 薄新文

    2009-01-01

    The female sheep reproductive tracts were freshly collected from a local meat processing plant and used as experimental materials. Two antibacterial peptides were isolated and characterized from female sheep reproductive tracts by two consecutive chromatographic steps. The peptide isolation procedures included acetic acid extraction, dialyzed, gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50, and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Their molecular mass were 4 820.47 u and 4 012.5 u, respectively, analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. The partial N-terminal amino acid sequences of two peptides were determined as AYVLDEPKP and YDSGA, respectively, by Edman degradation. The antimicrobial activity was tested during each purification step by the radial diffusion plate assay and broth microdilution method. These two peptides showed good antimicrobial activities against reference strains of G~+(S. Aureus ATCC2592 and Streptococcu ATCC55121), G~-(E. Coli ATCC25922) and fungi(C. Albicans ATCC2002). The peptides did not show active hemolytic activity against rabbit blood red cells and had no significant effects on human blood coagulation system. The discovery of antibacterial peptides in sheep reproductive system reveals that antibacterial peptides may play a role in innate immunity against microorganisms in a wide range of animal species.%以屠宰场收集的新鲜、健康、雌性绵羊牛殖器官为原材料.采用乙酸浸提、透析、Sephadex G-50凝胶过滤层析和反相高效液相色谱(RP-HPLC)等方法分离纯化绵羊生殖道抗菌肽.以G+、G-和真菌为抗菌活性检测指示菌株,利用薄层琼脂糖孔穴扩散法、微量肉汤稀释法进行抗菌活性检测.对分离纯化所得纯品进行分子质量质谱测定、纯度鉴定、N端测序,并对其性质进行研究.结果表明:分离纯化所得两个绵羊生殖道抗菌肽分子质量分别为4820.47 u和4012.5 u,N端部分氨基酸序列分别

  16. Morphology of the reproductive tract and acquisition of sexual maturity in males of Potamotrygon magdalenae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreros-Sierra, Tania Del Mar; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of the reproductive tract of males of Potamotrygon magdalenae before, during, and after they acquire sexual maturity, and to establish the first maturity scale for males within the family Potamotrygonidae. The male reproductive tract of P. magdalenae is composed of testes, efferent ducts, epididymides, deferent ducts, seminal vesicles, Leydig, alkaline, and clasper glands, and claspers, all of which are paired and functional. Four sexual maturity stages were established: immature, maturing, reproductively active, and resting. The degree of claspers calcification is also a good indicator of sexual maturity in this species. The testes are lobulated, each lobe contains numerous spermatocysts which are organized in zones and are displaced radially from germinal papillae to the spermatozoa zone where individual spermatozoa are conveyed to the efferent ducts. The epididymis can be regionalized in head, body, and tail; these regions are distinguished by external pigmentation and by the epithelium lining configuration. The tail of the epididymis is connected with the deferent duct and this, in turn, with the seminal vesicle. The spermatozoa are organized in spermatozeugmata which begin to form in the deferent duct; this latter organ is attached laterally at the Leydig gland that is composed by simple glandular units. Irregular and vesicular secretions can be found in the genital ducts. These secretions might be associated with the maturation of the spermatozoa and formation of spermatozeugmata. The male reproductive tract of P. magdalenae is similar to other elasmobranchs; however, two types of primary spermatogonia, an epididymis internally regionalized, and the presence and structure of spermatozeugmata are specific features not yet described in freshwater stingrays. Most of the year, the males were reproductively active, however, few resting adult males occurred during one of the months of the lowest waters.

  17. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  18. Association of microorganisms of reproductive tract of women with vaginal microbiome disorders

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    Tetyana V. Sklyar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the microbiome of the reproductive tract of women is quite common and can have significant consequences for the woman and for her sexual partners or to the fetus during pregnancy. The study of vaginal microbiome and biological properties of same microorganisms is a necessary step for choice the treatment strategy. The aim of research was to analyze qualitative and quantitative composition of microbiome of the vagina of women using the test-system Femoflor-16 and to study the ability of staphylococci strains to biofilm-formation. Using molecular genetic methods for detecting of microorganisms disorders of vaginal microbiome was confirmed in 92.7% of the surveyed women. It our study, 21 (41.2% cases of dysbiosis were found to accompany infectious diseases. Candida spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma (urealyticum + parvum showed overwhelming. Most of the pathogens detected were a monoinfection (71%, with two-agent associations accounting for only 29% of the cases. The predominant associations of opportunistic bacteria, detected during disorders of vaginal microbiome, were Gardnerella vaginalis + Prevotella bivia + Porphyromonas spp. that found in 50.9% of patients and Megasphaera spp. + Veillonella spp. + Dialister spp. – found in 34.5% of patients. Among cases of monoinfection the most often found opportunistic pathogens were Eubacterium spp. – 50.9% of cases and Staphylococcus spp. – 49.1% of cases: 92.6% of these were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis and 7.4% – as Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 44% of S. epidermidis strains were able to form biofilm. None of S. saprophyticus strains was film-forming.

  19. Community-based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the reproductive age group in the urban health training centre area in Hubli, Karnataka

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    Sangeetha S Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs is a global health problem including both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and non-sexually transmitted infections (non-STIs of the reproductive tract. RTI/STI is an important concern, as it possess risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Hence a community study was done in Hubli, in terms of active search of the cases based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and feasible laboratory tests along with providing treatment, counseling, and follow-up. Objectives: The objective was to know the prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women and the socio-demographic factors influencing the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a simple random sampling technique to select households. A pretested structured pro forma was used to collect data on RTIs from 656 women of 15-45 years, residing in the field practice area. This was followed by clinical examination and collection of samples for laboratory tests in Urban Health Training Centre, attached to Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 40.4% based on their symptoms, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. The prevalence of RTIs based on clinical finding was 37.4% with majority having vaginitis. The laboratory test revealed a prevalence of 34.3% with majority having Candidiasis. The influence of socio-demographic factors like increased parity, poor socio-economic conditions, poor menstrual hygiene, illiteracy has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in the community. Conclusion: This depicts that whereever possible, clinical and laboratory findings should support self-reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.

  20. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in young heifers. The objectives of this study were to determine which transrectal ultrasound or pelvis measures taken at a single examination are independent predictors of reproductive failure and whether the RTS system can be optimized with this information. In this observational study, year-old beef heifers (n = 488) in 2 birth cohorts were followed from just before the first breeding until confirmation of pregnancy. A single pre-breeding examination included body condition score, RTS, ultrasound measures of the reproductive tract (length and diameter of the left and right ovaries, presence and diameter of a CL, largest follicle diameter and left uterus horn diameter) and transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvis. Additional farm records including dam parity, sire, birth weight and birth date, weaning weight, weaning date, prebreeding body weight, AI dates, and semen used were available. Breeding consisted of 50 days of AI, followed 5 to 7 days later by a 42-day bull breeding period. Pregnancy failure was defined as the failure to become pregnant after the AI and bull breeding periods, while anestrus was defined as the failure to be detected in estrus during the 50-day AI period. From the prebreeding data and farm records, independent predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus were identified using stepwise reduction in multiple logistic regression models. Age at the onset of breeding was the only consistent independent predictor of pregnancy failure and anestrus in both cohorts of this study (P pelvis area (PA) were the prebreeding examination variables that remained in prognostic models (P < 0.1). Combining either the model based on the 3 remaining ultrasound

  1. Distribution of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus provirus, RNA, and antigen in the reproductive tract of one naturally and seven experimentally infected bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Andréia P; Paniago, Juliana J; da Costa, Luciana F; da Cruz, Juliano C M; Braz, Gissandra F; Gouveia, Aurora M G; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L; Heinemann, Marcos B

    2013-11-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis is a worldwide, multisystemic disease caused by a small ruminant lentivirus. Although the main route of transmission is oral, detection of proviral DNA of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in caprine semen has been previously described. However, the presence of viral antigens in the male reproductive tract has apparently never been reported. The objective was to study lesions in the buck reproductive system and to detect, in these tissues, the presence of proviral DNA, viral RNA and CAEV antigens. Tissues from eight CAEV-infected bucks (one naturally and seven experimentally infected) were analyzed by histopathology, nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Interstitial pneumonia, synovitis, and lesions in the male reproductive tract were detected in some of the bucks. Proviral DNA was detected in the lungs and joints as well as in the reproductive systems of all animals, whereas viral RNA was detected only in the genital tract of the naturally infected buck. Viral antigens were immunostained in most of the organs of the male reproductive tract. This report was apparently the first to clearly demonstrate CAEV antigen expression in the male reproductive tract, which indicates the possibility of venereal transmission of CAEV.

  2. Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney (MEST) simulating an upper tract TCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sountoulides, Petros; Koptsis, Michail; Metaxa, Linda; Theodosiou, Alexandros; Kikidakis, Dimitrios; Filintatzi, Chrysa; Paschalidis, Konstantinos

    2012-02-01

    We present a rare and interesting case of a mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST) of the kidney. The case is unique as it involves a male patient with no history of hormonal therapy presenting with a filling defect in the renal collecting system and positive urine cytology. The patient was diagnosed with transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and subjected to nephroureterectomy, which revealed a solid tumour arising from the lower calyces and extending into the renal pelvis and upper ureter. Pathology revealed a MEST. The patient was disease-free at the 6-month follow-up.

  3. The Reproductive Tract of the Males of the Zoophytophagous Predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with Different Diets and Ages

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    Walkymario P. Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is a common and important species for the biological control of defoliating Lepidoptera caterpillars. Although it has a predatory feeding habit, this species make use of plant resources, which are essential for the maintenance of its population in laboratory colonies as well as in the field during periods of prey shortage. Thus B. tabidus has been considered an obligate zoophytophagous insect. However the impact of the age and herbivory on the morphology of the reproductive organs has been poorly studied in predatory Pentatomidae. The morphology of the reproductive tract of B. tabidus males with different ages and fed on different diets were analyzed. Approach: Nymphs of B. tabidus were maintained in the field with or without plants and fed on T. molitor pupae without plant (T1; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plants (T2; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus urophylla plants (T3 or T. molitor pupae and guava plants (Psidium guajava L. (T4. Adults of B. tabidus obtained from each treatment were sexed in the first day of their emergence and thirty-six pairs were formed per treatment. Ten males of B. tabidus 15 and 21 days old, obtained in each treatment were dissected and the reproductive tract submitted to histological analyses. The total area of the testes of B. tabidus was measured and the data were submitted to the variance analysis and means between treatments were compared by the test of Newman-Keuls (p = 0.05. Results: The inner genitalia of B. tabidus males had red color and the testes with six follicles. Males 15 days old presented larger testes when fed on E. cloeziana (0.94 mm2, E. urophylla (0.98 mm2 or only T. molitor pupae (0.99 mm2 than with guava plants (0.76 mm2. Twenty-one days old B. tabidus males presented testes with similar size, independent of the diet. The testes follicles of B. tabidus had larger amount of spermatozoa with

  4. Comparison of syndromic diagnosis of reproductive tract infections with laboratory diagnosis among rural married women in Medak district, Andhra Pradesh

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    M. L.S. Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing countries, reproductive tract infections (RTI commonly affect the quality of life. Many reproductive tract infections including sexually transmitted infections (STI and cervical cancers remain asymptomatic for long periods. Syndromic case management (SCM is the mainstay in the control of RTI/STI, especially at primary level, where laboratory diagnosis is not possible. However, lab diagnosis should be used when it is available. Objective: To assess the consistency of syndromic diagnosis with laboratory diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 407 women were screened. Women were categorized according to Syndromic Diagnosis of RTI/STI based on history and clinical examination. Microbiological tests and Pap smears were done to confirm the diagnosis and compared with Syndromic Diagnosis. Results: Microbiologically, 33.14% were positive for at least one organism. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common finding (14%. Pap smear showed 32.9% inflammatory changes and 0.25% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Sensitivity and specificity of syndromic diagnosis with laboratory findings: Vaginal discharge syndrome with microbiological tests- (Se 58.9; Sp55.1% Lower abdominal pain syndrome with microbiological tests-(Se 14.4%; Sp76.6% Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight the wide variation of syndromic and laboratory diagnosis.

  5. Maturational changes in the survivability and fertility of fowl sperm during their passage through the male reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammad, Muslah U; Nishino, C; Tatemoto, H; Okura, N; Kawamoto, Y; Okamoto, S; Nakada, T

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) sperm undergo maturation in their capacity for survival and fertilization in the male reproductive tract. Sperm collected from the testis, epididymis and the proximal, middle and distal vas deferens were simultaneously stored in vitro in minimum essential medium (MEM) at 39°C for 0, 3 and 6h, and at 4°C for 24 and 48h. Sperm membrane integrity was measured using the dual fluorescent stain SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI). Aliquots of sperm from the various sites were subjected to artificial insemination (AI) into the uteri of hens to assess the duration of sperm survival in the oviduct and to determine the fertility status of the sperm. Testicular sperm exhibited a very low capacity to survive under in vitro liquid storage conditions, irrespective of the storage temperature used, and in the oviduct, and they had a low ability to fertilize the ovum. On the contrary, sperm from the distal vas deferens had a higher survival rate during in vitro storage periods, a longer life span in the oviduct, and high fertility. Survival and fertilizing capacity of the sperm recovered from the testes increased gradually (P<0.05) from the testes to the distal vas deferens. In conclusion, we suggest that fowl sperm may undergo functional maturation through a process of gradual changes in their survival and fertilization capacities during their passage through the successive parts of the male reproductive tract.

  6. Mars is close to venus--female reproductive proteins are expressed in the fat body and reproductive tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones.

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    Colonello-Frattini, Nínive Aguiar; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and lipophorin (Lp) are lipoproteins which play important roles in female reproductive physiology of insects. Both are actively taken up by growing oocytes and especially Vg and its receptor are considered as female-specifically expressed. The finding that the fat body of in honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones synthesizes Vg and is present in hemolymph has long been viewed as a curiosity. The recent paradigm change concerning the role played by Vg in honey bee life history, especially social division of labor, has now led us to investigate whether a physiological constellation similar to that seen in female reproduction may also be represented in the male sex. By means of Western blot analysis we could show that both Vg and Lp are present in the reproductive tract of adult drones, including the accessory (mucus) glands, but apparently are not secreted. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcript levels of the genes encoding these proteins (vg and lp), as well as their putative receptors (Amvgr and Amlpr) in fat body and accessory glands. Whereas lp, vg and Amlpr transcript levels decreased with age in both tissues, Amvgr mRNA levels increased with age in fat body. To our knowledge this is the first report that vitellogenin and its receptor are co-expressed in the reproductive system of a male insect. We interpret these findings as a cross-sexual transfer of a social physiological trait, associated with the rewiring of the juvenile hormone/vitellogenin circuitry that occurred in the female sex of honey bees.

  7. Epithelial binding of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in the respiratory and upper alimentary tract

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    Eriksson, C.; Brittebo, E.B. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

    1991-01-01

    The bioactivation and binding of {sup 14}C-labelled 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE) in the tissues of C57B1 mice were studied. As shown by autoradiography with heated and organic solvent-extracted tissue sections of i.v. injected mice, a high and selective localization of bound metabolites occurred in the nasal olfactory mucosa, preferentially in the Bowman's glands. High levels of bound metabolites were also present in epithelia of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioli and in the squamous epithelia of the oral cavity, tongue and esophagus. An epithelial binding was observed in tissue slices incubated with {sup 14}C-TCE. Incubation of {sup 14}C-TCE with homogenates of the olfactory mucosa and liver showed that the olfactory mucosa had a higher ability to activate {sup 14}C-TCE into products that become irreversibly bound to protein. Addition of metyrapone, glutathione or sodium dithionite to the incubations decreased the level of irreversible binding, suggesting that the activation of TCE to reactive products is mediated via an oxidative cytochrome P-450 dependent process in the olfactory mucosa. (orig.).

  8. Drosophila sperm swim backwards in the female reproductive tract and are activated via TRPP2 ion channels.

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    Michael Köttgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sperm have but one purpose, to fertilize an egg. In various species including Drosophila melanogaster female sperm storage is a necessary step in the reproductive process. Amo is a homolog of the human transient receptor potential channel TRPP2 (also known as PKD2, which is mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In flies Amo is required for sperm storage. Drosophila males with Amo mutations produce motile sperm that are transferred to the uterus but they do not reach the female storage organs. Therefore Amo appears to be a mediator of directed sperm motility in the female reproductive tract but the underlying mechanism is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amo exhibits a unique expression pattern during spermatogenesis. In spermatocytes, Amo is restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER whereas in mature sperm, Amo clusters at the distal tip of the sperm tail. Here we show that flagellar localization of Amo is required for sperm storage. This raised the question of how Amo at the rear end of sperm regulates forward movement into the storage organs. In order to address this question, we used in vivo imaging of dual labelled sperm to demonstrate that Drosophila sperm navigate backwards in the female reproductive tract. In addition, we show that sperm exhibit hyperactivation upon transfer to the uterus. Amo mutant sperm remain capable of reverse motility but fail to display hyperactivation and directed movement, suggesting that these functions are required for sperm storage in flies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Amo is part of a signalling complex at the leading edge of the sperm tail that modulates flagellar beating and that guides a backwards path into the storage organs. Our data support an evolutionarily conserved role for TRPP2 channels in cilia.

  9. Expression of Attractin in male reproductive tract of human and mice and its correlation with male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Ming, Yu; Li, Jie; Chi, Yan; Li, Hong-Gang; Zou, Yu-Jie; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2014-10-01

    The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis and semen of human and male mice was investigated. Human testis and semen samples were all collected from Reproductive Center of Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University in December, 2012. Testis samples were collected from 7 cases of obstructive azoospermias when they were subjected to diagnosed testis biopsy, and 30 normal human semen samples were obtained from those cases of semen analysis. Adult mice testis tissues were obtained from 10 2-month-old male BALB/c mice, and 60 male mice at different ages were classified into 10 groups (day 1, 5, 10, 15, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, and 120 respectively, n=6 each). The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Human semen samples were centrifuged into sperm plasma (SP) and sperm extract (SE), and mice sperm samples were collected from the epididymis of 10 adult male BALB/c mice. Western blotting was used to determine the Attractin protein expression level. Attractin mRNA and protein were expressed in the testis of both patients with obstructive azoospermias and adult Bcl/B mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that no Attractin mRNA was detectable in day 1 male BALB/c mice group. The Attractin mRNA and protein levels were low on the day 10, and increased with age until day 56. On the day 120, the expression levels of Attractin were decreased. As for human semen samples, Attractin protein was expressed in both SP and SE, but didn't exist in samples from the epididymis of male BALB/c mice. It was suggested that Attractin acted as a novel active substance and was involved in male reproduction in both human and BALB/c mice, but it exerted a different expression profile in different mammal species.

  10. Ovarian down Regulation by GnRF Vaccination Decreases Reproductive Tract Tumour Size in Female White and Greater One-Horned Rhinoceroses.

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    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available Reproductive tract tumours, specifically leiomyoma, are commonly found in female rhinoceroses. Similar to humans, tumour growth in rhinoceroses is thought to be sex hormone dependent. Tumours can form and expand from the onset of ovarian activity at puberty until the cessation of sex-steroid influences at senescence. Extensive tumour growth results in infertility. The aim of this study was to down regulate reproductive function of tumour-diseased and infertile females to stop further tumour growth using a Gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF vaccine. Four infertile southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum and three Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis with active ovaries and 2.7 ± 0.9 and 14.0 ± 1.5 reproductive tract tumours respectively were vaccinated against GnRF (Improvac®, Zoetis, Germany at 0, 4 and 16 weeks and re-boostered every 6-8 months thereafter. After GnRF vaccination ovarian and luteal activity was suppressed in all treated females. Three months after vaccination the size of the ovaries, the number of follicles and the size of the largest follicle were significantly reduced (P<0.03. Reproductive tract tumours decreased significantly in diameter (Greater-one horned rhino: P<0.0001; white rhino: P<0.01, presumably as a result of reduced sex-steroid influence. The calculated tumour volumes were reduced by 50.8 ± 10.9% in Greater one-horned and 48.6 ± 12.9% in white rhinoceroses. In conclusion, GnRF vaccine effectively down regulated reproductive function and decreased the size of reproductive tract tumours in female rhinoceros. Our work is the first to use down regulation of reproductive function as a symptomatic treatment against benign reproductive tumour disease in a wildlife species. Nonetheless, full reversibility and rhinoceros fertility following GnRF vaccination warrants further evaluation.

  11. Reproductive Tract Infections and Treatment Seeking Behavior among Married Adolescent Women 15-19 Years in India

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    Ranjan Kumar Prusty, MPS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Methods: Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08 of India were used. The prevalence of RTIs symptoms and treatment seeking behavior among women by different socio-demographic characteristics was analyzed. Factor analysis was utilized to create an index using information about 11 symptoms of RTI/STI collected in the survey. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to know the association between infections and treatment seeking behavior with socio-demographic factors. Results: About 15 percent of adolescent women reported having any symptoms of RTI/STI. The main symptoms reported were low backache, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse and itching or irritation around the vulvar region. Factor analysis showed the concentration of diseases in three clusters – infection in around the vulva, other reproductive infection and abnormal discharge; and intercourse related problems. Major predictors of both symptoms of reproductive infections and treatment seeking behavior from multivariate analysis are age, education, wealth, region and awareness about RTI/STI. Conclusion and Public Health Implications: Knowledge and treatment seeking behavior is poor among adolescent women in India. There is need for programmatic and policy emphasis on increasing knowledge and awareness through family life education including in educational curriculum at school level.

  12. Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Strbo, Natasa; Romero, Laura; Jones, Deborah L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Bolivar, Hector; Podack, Eckhard R; Fischl, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to

  13. Repeated Superovulation via PMSG/hCG Administration Induces 2-Cys Peroxiredoxins Expression and Overoxidation in the Reproductive Tracts of Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Ji; Kim, Tae-Shin; Kim, Jin-Man; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Superovulation induced by exogenous gonadotropin treatment (PMSG/hCG) increases the number of available oocytes in humans and animals. However, Superovulatory PMSG/hCG treatment is known to affect maternal environment, and these effects may result from PMSG/hCG treatment-induced oxidative stress. 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs) act as antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative stress induced by various exogenous stimuli. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated PMSG/hCG treatment induces 2-Cys Prx expression and overoxidation in the reproductive tracts of female mice. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses further demonstrated that, after PMSG/hCG treatment, the protein expression levels of 2-Cys Prxs increased most significantly in the ovaries, while that of Prx1 was most affected by PMSG/hCG stimulation in all tissues of the female reproductive tract. Repeated PMSG/hCG treatment eventually leads to 2-Cys Prxs overoxidation in all reproductive organs of female mice, and the abundance of the 2-Cys Prxs-SO2/3 proteins reported here supports the hypothesis that repeated superovulation induces strong oxidative stress and damage to the female reproductive tract. Our data suggest that excessive oxidative stress caused by repeated PMSG/hCG stimulation increases 2-Cys Prxs expression and overoxidation in the female reproductive organs. Intracellular 2-Cys Prx therefore plays an important role in maintaining the reproductive organ environment of female mice upon exogenous gonadotropin treatment.

  14. Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health

    OpenAIRE

    Lotti F; Maggi M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infertility affects ∼7% of all men. Despite much progress, mainly in genetics, its etiology remains obscure in ∼50% of cases. To fill this gap, imaging of the male genital tract (MGT) has progressively expanded, providing useful information in the assessment of MGT abnormalities. METHODS: A critical, systematic review of the available literature was performed using Medline, with no restrictions regarding date of publication (i.e. from inception date until March 2014), a...

  15. Paracrine interactions of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulation hormone in the female reproductive tract have an impact on female fertility

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    Anneli eStavreus-Evers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disease often causes menstrual disturbances and infertility problems. Thyroid hormone (TH acts through its receptors, transcription factors present in most cell types in the body. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH stimulates TH synthesis in the thyroid gland, but seems to have other functions as well in the female reproductive tract. The receptors of both TH and TSH increase in the receptive endometrium, suggesting that they are important for implantation, possible by influencing inflammatory mediators such as LIF. The roles of these receptors in the ovary need further studies. However, it is likely that the thyroid system is important for both follicular and embryo development. The association between thyroid disease and infertility indicate that TH and TSH affect the endometrium and ovary on the paracrine level.

  16. KAP Study on Sexually Transmitted Infections/Reproductive Tract Infections (STIs/RTIs among married women in rural Haryana

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    S A Rizwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: About 490 million cases of curable Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI occur throughout the world, of which 79 million cases occur in India annually. Sexually Transmitted Infections/Reproductive Tract Infections (STI/RTI confers a huge economic burden on the individual and the health system. Complications of RTI/STI are many, ranging from chronic pain syndrome to infertility. Most of these complications can be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices on STI/RTIs among married women aged 15-45 years in rural Haryana. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study, conducted in selected villages under the primary health centre Mandi, Sonepat, Haryana. Subjects and Methods: Systematic sampling was used to cover 10 villages. In each village, every tenth house was sampled, taking first house from the center of the village. Face-to-face interview was conducted using pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and results were described in percentages. Results: A total of 344 women were interviewed. About 44% women had never heard of STI/RTI. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of STI/RTI was very high (60%. Only 40% of them opted for treatment and most common cause for not opting for treatment was that they considered it as a minor problem. Advice for use of condom during the treatment was received by only 20% of patients and only 26.5% of their husbands also received treatment. Conclusions: Overall knowledge, attitude and practices relating to STI/RTI among married women in rural Haryana was poor. The prevalence of self-reported STI/RTI was found to be high and treatment seeking behavior was poor.

  17. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  18. Violence against women, symptom reporting, and treatment for reproductive tract infections in Kerala state, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Morrison, Sharon; Zhu, Limei

    2007-03-01

    In this article we examine factors associated with women's self-reports of reproductive ill health symptoms and factors associated with seeking and receiving treatment for the symptoms. We focus on indicators of women's societal position, especially empowerment (indicated by experience of and attitudes toward violence against women), autonomy, and education. We used data from the National Family Health Survey-2 from Kerala state in Southern India. Based on our results we suggest that violence against women, whether actually experienced or internalized as acceptance of its justification, is associated with increased ill health symptoms, and the acceptance of violence is associated with decreased chance of treatment. Women's higher formal education appeared to reduce treatment seeking for reproductive ill health, perhaps due to the stigma associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) in this cultural setting. Women's work participation had no significant impact, nor did indicators of women's economic and personal autonomy.

  19. The emergence of molecular gynecology: homeobox and Wnt genes in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajewski, J; Sassoon, D

    2000-10-01

    Reproductive tissues respond to steroid hormones and thus are particularly vulnerable to the effects of exogenous steroid 'mimic' compounds (endocrine disrupters). One such endocrine disrupter, diethylstilbestrol (DES), is linked to gynecological cancers and changes in uterine structure that reduce or completely abrogate reproductive competence. Until recently, little was known about the identity of target genes and signaling pathways involved in pathologies linked to endocrine disrupters such as DES. We outline genetic, cellular and molecular roles for patterning genes, with emphasis on homeobox and Wnt genes. There is evidence that changes in the expression of Wnt and homeogenes underlie many of the defects induced by DES. Data obtained from murine systems will likely apply to a broad spectrum of gynecological pathologies involving abnormal cell behaviors ranging from fibroids to malignant tumors. Knowledge garnered from modern molecular genetics should lead to progress in the emerging field of molecular gynecology.

  20. Field use of ultrasonography to characterize the reproductive tract and early pregnancy in a phocid, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shero, Michelle R; Adams, Gregg P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    The utility of transrectal ultrasonography was tested in a field setting to characterize the reproductive tract and detect early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles body, ovaries with follicles and corpora lutea) using a 5-10 MHz linear-array probe with a 70 cm-long extension. A single pregnancy was detected in 14 of 17 seals (82.4%) as a circular or guitar-pick shaped nonechogenic (black) vesicle with a clearly visible echogenic border within the lumen of the uterus. The stage of embryonic development (ostensibly the gestational age) varied markedly among individuals, ranging from a vesicle with no embryo proper to a large fetus with an ocular orbit, nose/mouth, limb buds, spinal column, umbilical cord, and prominent vasculature. Two of the pregnant seals were re-examined 3-6 days after the initial examination to obtain longitudinal growth rates. Images of one or both ovaries were obtained in nine and seven of the 19 examinations, respectively. Numerous ovarian follicles (3 to 12 mm diameter) were detected and animals typically had a single well-perfused corpus luteum (determined by Doppler color-flow) ipsilateral to the uterine horn containing the pregnancy. We conclude that real-time transrectal ultrasonography is an effective tool for characterizing reproductive events in phocids including ovarian dynamics, and for elucidating the nature of embryonic diapause.

  1. Morphology and function of the reproductive tract of the spider crab Libinia spinosa (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea): pattern of sperm storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Moyano, M. P.; Gavio, M. A.; Cuartas, E. I.

    2010-09-01

    Morphology and function of the male reproductive tract, female spermatheca and patterns of sperm storage were assessed in the crab Libinia spinosa using histological methods. Testes are characterized by the presence of peripheral spermatogonia and different sequences of sperm maturity. Spermatophores begin to be packed in the last portion. The vas deferens consists of three sections: anterior, with undeveloped spermatophores and free sperm; median, with well-developed spermatophores; and posterior with granular secretions. Female spermathecae are of the ventral type, with a velum separating dorsal and ventral chambers. Live individuals were kept in the laboratory and arranged in pairs. An experiment was conducted toward the end of the reproductive season, in which males with the right gonopod excised were placed with receptive females. After mating, females were killed and the spermathecae dissected for histological study and observation of the pattern of sperm storage. Spermatozoa were found forming discrete sperm packages. New ejaculates can fill the entire spermatheca or be restricted to the ventral chamber; sperm are rounded, with a distinguishable acrosomal core. Old ejaculates are restricted to the dorsal chamber and are of irregular shape and larger size; an acrosomal core was not distinguishable. The secretions produced by the glandular epithelium of the dorsal chamber of the spermathecae are likely to have a role in the removal of dead sperm.

  2. Estructura del aparato reproductor masculino de Uca uruguayensis (Decapoda, Ocypodidae Structure of the male reproductive tract of Uca uruguayensis (Decapoda, Ocypodidae

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    Elena Irene Cuartas

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las estructuras del sistema reproductor de machos de Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 y estudiar los cambios relacionados con la madurez sexual. Se trabajó con observación estereoscópica de material fresco, técnica histológica de rutina y observaciones en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido. Se incluyó la caracterización de los gonopodos 1 (G1 y 2 (G2. El tracto reproductor del macho se compone de un par de testículos (T, un vaso deferente (VD tubular y sinuoso y una ampolla terminal (AT. El VD tiene tres secciones, la anterior (VDA, la media (VDM y la posterior (VDP. El VDA y VDM están conformadas por un epitelio simple de células cúbicas. El epitelio del VDP es columnar y con núcleos basales y alongados. El diseño tubular se modifica al ocuparse el lumen del VDP con líquido espermático durante el verano y la musculatura circular se hace más evidente. La porción terminal del VDP se ensancha formando una ampolla (AT que comprende cuatro cámaras interconectadas. Todas las estructuras están rodeadas de una capa de tejido conectivo de poco espesor. Se identifican las modificaciones observadas en la histología de T y VD, definiendo como mas relevantes las observadas desde el mes de noviembre hasta marzo. Estas modificaciones sugieren que U. uruguayensis tiene, en la localidad estudiada, una única estación reproductiva durante el verano en esta latitud. La AT, tal como es descripta, es una estructura que hasta el momento no ha sido mencionada para los Brachyura.The structure of the male reproductive tract was described in Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, by using histological methods, scanning electron microscopy techniques, and stereoscopic observations of fresh material. The aim of this work was to establish the functional changes associated with sexual maturation. The morphology of the first (G1 and second (G2 pair of gonopods was described. The male reproductive tract consists of paired

  3. Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in broiler breeding roosters: Presence in the reproductive tract and effect on sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, Halima; Boyen, Filip; Touazi, Leg-Hel; Garmyn, An; Moula, Nassim; Smet, Annemieke; Haesbrouck, Freddy; Martel, An; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane; Touati, Abdelaziz

    2015-08-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli have emerged worldwide in animal husbandry and they were reported from different ecosystems. The purpose of this study was firstly, to investigate the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the gastrointestinal (GIT) and reproductive (RT) tracts of broiler breeding roosters, and secondly to study the impact of an ESBL-producing E. coli on artificially infected semen. A total of seventeen ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from the gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts of nine broiler breeding roosters. All isolates were identified to the species level by API 20E system and MALDI-TOF, serotyped, and genetically characterized for ESBL production. Semen was artificially infected with E. coli ATCC25922 or with an ESBL-producing E. coli strain recovered from the reproductive tract. A computer aided semen analyzer (CASA) was used to compare different spermatozoa motility parameters in each sample. All ESBL-producing E. coli isolates could not be typed with the currently used sera and they were harboring a blaCTX-M gene alone or in combination with a blaTEM gene. The semen quality was notably less affected in samples infected with ESBL-producing E. coli strain compared to the control and sample infected with E. coli ATCC25922. The present study revealed that ESBL-producing E. coli can be isolated from both reproductive and digestive tracts of broiler breeding roosters. Contamination of the reproductive tract with ESBL-producing E. coli could lead to contamination of semen and could be an important factor in the dissemination of ESBL-producing E. coli in poultry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA.

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    Uma Shanmugasundaram

    Full Text Available The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT and gastrointestinal (GI tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect.EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues.Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens.

  5. MicroRNA in the ovary and female reproductive tract1

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, M.Z.; Christenson, L. K.

    2008-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation plays a vital role in male and female germ cell function, but our understanding of this regulatory process in somatic cells and its impact on reproductive tissue development and function is not understood. In mammalian cells, microRNA (miRNA) are key post-transcriptional regulators and function by modulating translation or degradation of their target mRNA. Mature miRNA are synthesized through a multi-step process that concludes with the cleavage of stem-lo...

  6. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract of the captive female African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirberger, Robert M; Schulman, Martin L; Hartman, Marthinus J

    2011-09-15

    The use of transabdominal ultrasonography to assess the oestrous cycle has not been previously described in the African lion (Panthera leo). Twelve sexually mature lionesses and five female cubs had their reproductive organs assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Ovarian findings were compared to laparoscopic findings while performing laparoscopic ovariectomy or salpingectomy. Vaginal cytology was performed and serum progesterone levels were determined. By combining all data the oestrous cycle stage of each lion was determined. One lion was far pregnant and was not operated on. In adults a uterine body could be seen ultrasonographically in 67% of lions while mural structures could be distinguished in 44% of lions. Five uterine horns could be seen in 3 lions. In 12 adults 10 ovaries were found of which eight had discernable follicles or luteal structures. During laparoscopy 12 active ovaries were seen with luteal structures seen in 11 ovaries and follicles in 2 ovaries. Using laparoscopy as the gold standard, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 83% to detect ovarian reproductive activity. Two uterine cysts and a cluster of periovarian cysts were seen in three different lions. Three lions were pregnant, two were in oestrus, three in a luteal phase (dioestrus), and four were in anoestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound in combination with serum progesterone levels and vaginal cytology can be used to assess ovarian cyclical activity with reasonable accuracy in captive bred lions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms and their functions in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekawiecki, R; Kowalik, M K; Kotwica, J

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone (P4), which is produced by the corpus luteum (CL), creates proper conditions for the embryo implantation, its development, and ensures proper conditions for the duration of pregnancy. Besides the non-genomic activity of P4 on target cells, its main physiological effect is caused through genomic action by the progesterone nuclear receptor (PGR). This nuclear progesterone receptor occurs in two specific isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. PGRA isoform acts as an inhibitor of transcriptional action of PGRB. The inactive receptor is connected with chaperone proteins and attachment of P4 causes disconnection of chaperones and unveiling of DNA binding domain (DBD). After receptor dimerization in the cells' nucleus and interaction with hormone response element (HRE), the receptor coactivators are connected and transcription is initiated. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and reflects the different levels of P4 effect on the reproductive system. Both isoforms, PGRA and PGRB, also show a different response to the P4 receptor antagonist activity. Connection of the antagonist to PGRA can block PGRB, but acting through the PGRB isoform, P4 receptor antagonist may undergo conversion to a strongly receptor agonist. A third isoform, PGRC, has also been revealed. This isoform is the shortest and does not have transcriptional activity. Alternative splicing and insertion of additional exons may lead to the formation of different PGR isoforms. This paper summarizes the available data on the progesterone receptor isoforms and its regulatory action within the female reproductive system.

  8. Reproductive and hormone-related risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer by histologic pathways, invasiveness and histologic subtypes : Results from the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Merritt, Melissa A.; Schock, Helena; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Duell, Eric J.; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María José; Chirlaque, M. D.; Brändstedt, Jenny; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Whether risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) differ by subtype (i.e., dualistic pathway of carcinogenesis, histologic subtype) is not well understood; however, data to date suggest risk factor differences. We examined associations between reproductive and hormone-related risk factors for

  9. Molting, Ecdysis, and Reproduction of Trichinella spiralis Are Supported In Vitro by Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardo, L. F.; McVay, C S; Appleton, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis is an obligate parasite of animals that has an unusual intracellular life cycle. Investigation of parasitism at the cellular and molecular levels has been challenging because of a shortage of tools for in vitro cultivation of T. spiralis. We have found that T. spiralis larvae molt, ecdyse, develop to adulthood, and reproduce when they are inoculated onto cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Initially, larvae invade and migrate through cells in a monolayer (T. ManWarren, ...

  10. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related and humans (more distantly related. Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E−46, across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be

  11. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L; Vercoe, Phillip E; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related) and humans (more distantly related). Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E-46), across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids) along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be different

  12. Gold in the male reproductive tract of rat: A chronobiological study

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    Kalanghot Padmanabhan Skandhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a 24 hour study, 10 adult male albino rats (total=60 were sacrificed at every four hour starting from 00:00 hours. Reproductive tissues and ndash; testis, epididymis (caput, corpus, cauda, vas deference, seminal vesicle, prostate (ventral, dorso ventral and coagulating glands were dissected out and the level of gold was measured in each tissue by employing atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Level of gold differed showing peaks and nadirs at different timings, like dorso ventral prostate gland showed the highest amount (3.31 and micro;g per gram tissue at 08:00 hrs and the lowest (0.03 and micro;g per gram at 00:00 hrs. Fluctuation observed in the level of gold is discussed in terms of chronobiology. [J Med Allied Sci 2016; 6(2.000: 52-55

  13. Gynecologic health and disease in relation to the microbiome of the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Katherine A; Zarek, Shvetha M; Catherino, William H

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that the vagina is colonized by bacteria that serve important roles in homeostasis. Imbalances in the proportion of bacteria may lead to a predisposition to infection or reproductive complications. Molecular-based approaches demonstrated a greater degree of microbial diversity both within and between women than previously recognized. The vaginal microbiome may fluctuate during various states of health, such as during the menstrual cycle or after menopause, and there may be differences in the vaginal microbiome between women of different ethnicities. Furthermore, the specific composition of the vaginal microbiome may influence the predisposition to dysbiosis and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. An understanding of the diversity of the vaginal microbial environment during states of health is essential for the identification of risk factors for disease and the development of appropriate treatment.

  14. Recovery of Mollicutes from the reproductive tract of dairy cattle in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Sandra B. Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of members of the Mollicutesclass in the reproductive system of dairy cattle in Brazil. Five farms containing dairy cattle were visited in January of 2012. In total, 100 cows of different ages, breeds and stages of lactation were examined in the present study. The cows were part of intensive or semi-intensive management systems and were submitted to mechanical milking or hand milking. The samples were collected after washing the vulvar region with water and soap, and then drying it with paper towels and disinfecting the area with alcohol (70°GL. Vaginal mucous was collected using a sterile alginate cotton swab, which was rubbed on the vagina, as well as the lateral and internal walls. Vulvovaginal mucous samples were cultured in both liquid and solid modified Hayflick´s medium, for mycoplasmas, and UB medium, for ureaplasmas. The PCR assays for Mollicutesand Ureaplasmaspp. were performed according to the standard protocols described in the current literature. During isolation, the frequency of Mycoplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 6.0% (6/100. In the PCR assays the frequency of Mollicuteswas of 26.0% (26/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 in the dairy cattle studied. This is the first report of these agents in reproductive system of bovine of the Pernambuco state. Further studies are necessary to determine the pathogenic potential and species of these field isolates.

  15. Sterility in breeding sows as a consequence of reproductive tract diseases

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    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the effects of certain pathological conditions on the sterility of breeding sows. Pathomorphological investigations were performed on 185 reproductive organs. We analyzed the reasons for elimination from local records. The biggest number of sows with pathological changes on reproductive organs were in the group of barren sows, 48.68% followed by anestric sows, 30.26%, and the smallest number in sows with failed fertilizations, 21.05%. Cysts in ovaries, ovarian tubes, oviducts and  the mesosalpinx were found in 23.77% of the examined sows. Lutein cysts were found in a significantly higher percentage in sows which fail to be fertilized than in barren or anestric animals. Small granular degeneration of the ovaries was determined in barren sows and those which cannot be fertilized, while it was not determined in anestric sows. Cysts on uterus ligaments and ovaries and on ovarian tubes and oviducts were found in significantly higher numbers in sows which fail be fertilized than in barren or anestric sows. Their presence can be connected to obstructions in the transport process of spermatozoa, eggs, and the fertilization process in sows which fail to be fertilized, especially in cases of cysts located on the very serosa of ovarian tubes which we found in these sows. We determined small granular degeneration of the ovaries in barren sows and those which fail to fertilized, but not in anestric sows. Ovarian insufficiency was mostly connected to anestric sows. Vaginitis, endometritis, periometritis and oocytis present an important factor in the occurrence of sterility primarily in sows which are barren or which fail to be fertilized.

  16. Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, I Martin; Cronin, James; Goetze, Leopold; Donofrio, Gaetano; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2009-12-01

    Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. Chemokines attract neutrophils and macrophages to eliminate the bacteria, although persistence of neutrophils is associated with subclinical endometritis and infertility. Cows with uterine infections are less likely to ovulate because they have slower growth of the postpartum dominant follicle in the ovary, lower peripheral plasma estradiol concentrations, and perturbation of hypothalamic and pituitary function. The follicular fluid of animals with endometritis contains LPS, which is detected by the TLR4/CD14/LY96 (MD2) receptor complex on granulosa cells, leading to lower aromatase expression and reduced estradiol secretion. If cows with uterine disease ovulate, the peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone are lower than those in normal animals. However, luteal phases are often extended in animals with uterine disease, probably because infection switches the endometrial epithelial secretion of prostaglandins from the F series to the E series by a phospholipase A2-mediated mechanism, which would disrupt luteolysis. The regulation of endometrial immunity depends on steroid hormones, somatotrophins, and local regulatory proteins. Advances in knowledge about infection and immunity in the female genital tract should be exploited to develop new therapeutics for uterine disease.

  17. Prevalence and etiologic agents of female reproductive tract infection among in-patients and out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Benin city, Nigeria

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    Christopher Aye Egbe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections are public health problems in women of reproductive age and can result in serious consequences if not treated. Aims: To determine the prevalence and causes of reproductive tract infections among in-patients and out-patients attending a tertiary health institution in Benin City. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of bacterial agents will also be determined. Patients and Methods: High vaginal swabs or endocervical swabs and blood were collected from 957 patients consisting of 755 out-patients and 202 in-patients. The swabs were processed and microbial isolates identified using standard technique. Disc susceptibility tests were also performed on microbial isolates. The blood samples were used for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Results: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of female reproductive tract infections between in-patients (52.48% and out-patients (47.02%, although in-patients showed a significantly higher risk of developing mixed infections (in-patients vs. out-patients; 34.91% vs. 22.25%, OR = 1.873 95% CI = 1.169, 3.001; P = 0.01. Candida albicans was the most prevalent etiologic agent among out-patients studied while Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent etiologic agent among in-patients. Trichomonas vaginalis was observed only among out-patients. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were the most active antibacterial agents. Syphilis was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: An overall prevalence of 48.17% of female reproductive tract infection was observed among the study population. Although there was no significant difference between in-patients and out-patients, in-patients appeared to have 1-3-fold increase risk of developing mixed infections. The most prevalent etiologic agent differs between in-patients and out-patients. Despite the high activity of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against bacterial isolates from both in-patients and out

  18. Prevalence and etiologic agents of female reproductive tract infection among in-patients and out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Benin city, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Omoregie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections are public health problems in women of reproductive age and can result in serious consequences if not treated. Aims: To determine the prevalence and causes of reproductive tract infections among in-patients and out-patients attending a tertiary health institution in Benin City. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of bacterial agents will also be determined. Patients and methods: High vaginal swabs or endocervical swabs and blood were collected from 957 patients consisting of 755 out-patients and 202 in-patients. The swabs were processed and microbial isolates identified using standard technique. Disc susceptibility tests were also performed on microbial isolates. The blood samples were used for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Results: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of female reproductive tract infections between in-patients (52.48% and out-patients (47.02%, although in-patients showed a significantly higher risk of developing mixed infections (in-patients vs. out-patients; 34.91% vs. 22.25%, OR = 1.873 95% CI = 1.169, 3.001; P = 0.01. Candida albicans was the most prevalent etiologic agent among out-patients studied while Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent etiologic agent among in-patients. Trichomonas vaginalis was observed only among out-patients. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were the most active antibacterial agents. Syphilis was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: An overall prevalence of 48.17% of female reproductive tract infection was observed among the study population. Although there was no significant difference between in-patients and out-patients, in-patients appeared to have 1-3-fold increase risk of developing mixed infections. The most prevalent etiologic agent differs between in-patients and out-patients. Despite the high activity of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against bacterial isolates from both in-patients and out

  19. Galectins: Double-edged Swords in the Cross-roads of Pregnancy Complications and Female Reproductive Tract Inflammation and Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandor Gabor Than

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient and widely expressed family of lectins that have unique glycan-binding characteristics. They are pleiotropic regulators of key biological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and pre-mRNA splicing, as well as homo- and heterotypic cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Galectins are also pivotal in immune responses since they regulate host-pathogen interactions, innate and adaptive immune responses, acute and chronic inflammation, and immune tolerance. Some galectins are also central to the regulation of angiogenesis, cell migration and invasion. Expression and functional data provide convincing evidence that, due to these functions, galectins play key roles in shared and unique pathways of normal embryonic and placental development as well as oncodevelopmental processes in tumorigenesis. Therefore, galectins may sometimes act as double-edged swords since they have beneficial but also harmful effects for the organism. Recent advances facilitate the use of galectins as biomarkers in obstetrical syndromes and in various malignancies, and their therapeutic applications are also under investigation. This review provides a general overview of galectins and a focused review of this lectin subfamily in the context of inflammation, infection and tumors of the female reproductive tract as well as in normal pregnancies and those complicated by the great obstetrical syndromes.

  20. Phenotype and susceptibility to HIV infection of CD4+ Th17 cells in the human female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, M; Barr, F D; Crist, S G; Fahey, J V; Wira, C R

    2014-11-01

    Prevention of sexual acquisition of HIV in women requires a substantial increase in our knowledge about HIV-target cell availability and regulation in the female reproductive tract (FRT). In this study, we analyzed the phenotype and susceptibility to HIV infection of CD4(+) T cell in the endometrium (EM), endocervix (END), and ectocervix (ECT) of the FRT. We found that T helper type 17 (Th17) cells represent a major subset in FRT tissues analyzed and that Th17 cells were the main CD4(+) T-cell population expressing C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CD90. In premenopausal women, CD4(+) T cells and Th17 cells, in particular, were significantly lower in EM relative to END and ECT. Th17 cells were elevated in EM from postmenopausal women relative to premenopausal tissues but not changed in END and ECT. Susceptibility of CD4(+) T cells to HIV infection measured as intracellular p24 was lowest in the EM and highest in the ECT. Additionally, we found that Th17 cells co-expressing CCR5 and CD90 were the most susceptible to HIV infection. Our results provide valuable information for designing preventive strategies directed at targeting highly susceptible target cells in the FRT.

  1. The prevalence of sexually transmitted and other lower reproductive tract infections among rural women in Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongjun, Tang; Samuelson, Julia; Qingsheng, Dong; Ali, Mohamed Mahmoud; Li, Xie; Yanjian, Meng; Xiaoqing, Cheng; Jun, Lan; Jian, Cheng; Bi, Luo

    2009-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and lower reproductive tract infections (RTI) and determine risk factors for STI among rural women in Sichuan Province, China, a cross-sectional, community-based cluster sample of 2,000 rural, married women were interviewed, examined and clinical specimens collected to assess for six STI and two non-sexually transmitted RTI. The overall prevalence of any STI was 10.9% (95% CI 9.5-12.3); of any STI or RTI was 30.8% (95% CI 28.7-32.8). Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 6.4% of women, Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 1.7%, Treponema pallidum in 0.5%, human papilloma virus in 0.6%, herpes simplex virus type-2 in 2.0%, Candida albicans in 8.8%, Trichomonas vaginalis in 0.7% and bacterial vaginosis in 15.4%. The reported low risk sexual behavior was corroborated by the prevalence of STIbased on laboratory findings. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis alone and the combined prevalence rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were high enough (7.9%) to consider interventions for the control of cervical infections. Health promotion messages regarding safe sexual and health care seeking behavior is important. Routine STI surveillance, including prevalence studies, which provide accurate information for decision-making should be continued as an essential component of good STI control.

  2. An in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the virulence of egg drop syndrome virus for the chicken reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, G D; Sivakumar, S; Manohar, B M; Nachimuthu, K; Nainar, A M

    2001-02-01

    The virulence of strains of egg drop syndrome (EDS) 1976 virus for the female reproductive tract of chickens was assessed in vitro using oviduct organ cultures (OOC) prepared from precociously induced oviducts in young chicks by oestrogen treatment. Ciliostasis, haemagglutination and virus titres in infected OOC supernatants, histology and immunoperoxidase test results indicated the pathogenic ability of the four viruses for the precocious oviducts. One of the isolates, EDS TN4, produced higher virus titres in the supernatants of infected OOC and more severe glandular atrophy and necrosis, but caused slightly delayed ciliostasis. When this isolate was used in vivo, virus could not be detected by haemagglutination, but was detected in a few birds using a polymerase chain reaction on the allantoic fluids of infected duck embryos. Ciliostasis of OOC and histological lesions were confined to early stages of infection. This technique could be a pointer to possible variations in virulence of EDS virus isolates, and warrants further investigation. The potential value of OOC from young chickens for EDS diagnosis is emphasized.

  3. Genital tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, HIV, and reproductive health issues among Lima-based clandestine female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, M E; Ghee, Annette E; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42-0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  4. Intranasal Vaccination Affords Localization and Persistence of Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes in the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailbala Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunization strategies generating large numbers of antigen-specific T cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT can provide barrier protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and human papillomaviruses (HPV. The kinetics and mechanisms of regulation of vaccine-induced adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses in FRT are less well defined. We present here evidence for intranasal delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA along with alpha-galactosylceramide adjuvant as a protein vaccine to induce significantly higher levels of antigen-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cells in the FRT, relative to other systemic and mucosal tissues. Antibody blocking of the CXCR3 receptor significantly reduced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells subsequent to intranasal delivery of the protein vaccine suggesting an important role for the CXCR3 chemokine-receptor signaling for T cell trafficking. Further, intranasal vaccination with an adenoviral vector expressing OVA or HIV-1 envelope was as effective as intramuscular vaccination for generating OVA- or ENV-specific immunity in the FRT. These results support the application of the needle-free intranasal route as a practical approach to delivering protein as well as DNA/virus vector-based vaccines for efficient induction of effector and memory T cell immunity in the FRT.

  5. Genital Tract Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, HIV, and Reproductive Health Issues among Lima-Based Clandestine Female Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Perla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%. Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%, but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%. In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR=0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96. Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.. Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57% and induced abortion was common (68%. High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  6. Discovery of Novel MicroRNAs in Female Reproductive Tract Using Next Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahjabeen F.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Fountain, Michael D.; Dziadek, Olivia; Han, Derek; Ma, Lang; Kim, Jong; Hawkins, Shannon M.; Anderson, Matthew L.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing. Over 700 human miRNAs have currently been identified, many of which are mutated or de-regulated in diseases. Here we report the identification of novel miRNAs through deep sequencing the small RNAome (<30 nt) of over 100 tissues or cell lines derived from human female reproductive organs in both normal and disease states. These specimens include ovarian epithelium and ovarian cancer, endometrium and endometriomas, and uterine myometrium and uterine smooth muscle tumors. Sequence reads not aligning with known miRNAs were each mapped to the genome to extract flanking sequences. These extended sequence regions were folded in silico to identify RNA hairpins. Sequences demonstrating the ability to form a stem loop structure with low minimum free energy (<−25 kcal) and predicted Drosha and Dicer cut sites yielding a mature miRNA sequence matching the actual sequence were considered putative novel miRNAs. Additional confidence was achieved when putative novel hairpins assembled a collection of sequences highly similar to the putative mature miRNA but with heterogeneous 3′-ends. A confirmed novel miRNA fulfilled these criteria and had its “star” sequence in our collection. We found 7 distinct confirmed novel miRNAs, and 51 additional novel miRNAs that represented highly confident predictions but without detectable star sequences. Our novel miRNAs were detectable in multiple samples, but expressed at low levels and not specific to any one tissue or cell type. To date, this study represents the largest set of samples analyzed together to identify novel miRNAs. PMID:20224791

  7. Discovery of novel microRNAs in female reproductive tract using next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Creighton

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing. Over 700 human miRNAs have currently been identified, many of which are mutated or de-regulated in diseases. Here we report the identification of novel miRNAs through deep sequencing the small RNAome (<30 nt of over 100 tissues or cell lines derived from human female reproductive organs in both normal and disease states. These specimens include ovarian epithelium and ovarian cancer, endometrium and endometriomas, and uterine myometrium and uterine smooth muscle tumors. Sequence reads not aligning with known miRNAs were each mapped to the genome to extract flanking sequences. These extended sequence regions were folded in silico to identify RNA hairpins. Sequences demonstrating the ability to form a stem loop structure with low minimum free energy (<-25 kcal and predicted Drosha and Dicer cut sites yielding a mature miRNA sequence matching the actual sequence were considered putative novel miRNAs. Additional confidence was achieved when putative novel hairpins assembled a collection of sequences highly similar to the putative mature miRNA but with heterogeneous 3'-ends. A confirmed novel miRNA fulfilled these criteria and had its "star" sequence in our collection. We found 7 distinct confirmed novel miRNAs, and 51 additional novel miRNAs that represented highly confident predictions but without detectable star sequences. Our novel miRNAs were detectable in multiple samples, but expressed at low levels and not specific to any one tissue or cell type. To date, this study represents the largest set of samples analyzed together to identify novel miRNAs.

  8. A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory tracts of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Influenza viruses recognize sialoglycans as receptors. Although viruses isolated form chickens preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3 galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as do those of ducks, chickens were not experimentally infected with viruses isolated from ducks. A chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR) bound to fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the binding towards linear SAα2,3Gal glycans was weak. On the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tracts of chickens, fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans were detected, but not linear SAα2,3Gal glycans. The growth of Ck/IBR in MDCK-FUT cells, which were genetically prepared to express fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, was significantly higher than that in the parental MDCK cells. The present results indicate that fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans existing on the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tracts of chickens are critical for recognition by Ck/IBR.

  9. Epithelial Cell-Neutrophil Interactions in the Alimentary Tract: A Complex Dialog in Mucosal Surveillance and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Colgan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory diseases of mucosal organs as diverse as the lung, kidney, and intestine, inevitably require the intimate interactions of neutrophils with columnar epithelia. The physiologic consequences of such interactions often determine endpoint organ function, and for this reason, much recent interest has developed in identifying mechanisms and novel targets for the treatment of mucosal inflammation. Elegant in vitro model systems incorporating purified human neutrophils and human epithelial cells grown in physiologic orientations have aided in discovery of new and insightful pathways to define basic inflammatory pathways. Here, we will review the recent literature regarding the interactions between columnar epithelial cells and neutrophils, with an emphasis on intestinal epithelial cells, structural aspects of neutrophil transepithelial migration, molecular determinants of neutrophil-epithelial cell interactions, as well as modulation of these pathways. These recent studies highlight the dynamic nature of these pathways and lend insight into the complexity of treating mucosal inflammation.

  10. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Le; Pham Lien; Vu Lan; Schelling Esther

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract i...

  11. The secretory activity of the seminal vesicles and its relationship to sperm motility: effects of infection in the male reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Garcia-Hjarles, M A; Gutierrez, R; Guerra-Garcia, R

    1989-08-01

    In 146 males aged between 20 years and 40 years attending an infertility service, the secretory activity of the seminal vesicles was assessed by measurement of corrected seminal fructose concentration. This value was related to the presence of a positive semen culture, other evidence of inflammatory processes in the reproductive tract and sperm motility. Only 48% of subjects with a positive semen culture showed evidence of inflammation in the reproductive tract, as assessed by the presence of more than 20 white blood cells per high power field, and greater than 10% spermagglutination in the ejaculate. There was a relationship between the inflammatory process, hypofunction of the seminal vesicles and poor sperm motility. When the semen culture was positive but there was no evidence of inflammation neither seminal vesicle function nor sperm motility was affected. When the semen culture was negative, i.e. no evidence of inflammation and the subjects were asthenozoospermic, the corrected fructose levels were normal. It is proposed that in these conditions the cause of asthenozoospermia may be factors other than accessory sex organ dysfunction. In conclusion, there was no close relationship between the bacteriological results and evidence of inflammation of the accessory glands. A positive semen culture was related to lower levels of corrected fructose (hypofunction of the seminal vesicles) when the positive sperm culture was associated with inflammation of the reproductive tract and asthenozoospermia.

  12. The anatomy and histology of the reproductive tract of the male Babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehmer, B; Signorella, A; Kneepkens, A F L M; Hunt, C; Ogle, S; Agungpriyono, S; Knorr, C; Macdonald, A A

    2013-04-15

    The anatomy and histology of the reproduction organs of the male Babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis) were studied in 21 specimens collected between birth and approximately 17 years of age. In adult animals the testes were located in a subanal position against the caudal surface of the thigh musculature. Average adult testis length was 68.9 ± 5.1 mm, width was 40.3 ± 5.7 mm, and depth was 47.9 ± 7.0 mm (N = 11). The average combined adult testicular weight was estimated to be 82.7 ± 23.2 g (N = 11). The testes of newborn Babyrousa had descended through the inguinal canal into the scrotum before birth. Adult seminiferous tubules had an average diameter of 199 ± 33.6 μm (N = 9) and were randomly distributed among a smaller volume of Leydig cells. Connective tissue was sparse. In one 13-month-old prepubertal animal the diameter of the seminiferous tubules was 85.3 ± 16.1 μm (N = 7). The spermatozoa was 42.2 ± 4.9 μm (N = 19) long and had a flat, paddle shaped head, 6.3 ± 0.6 μm (N = 50) long, 3.9 ± 0.5 μm (N = 47) wide, and a thickness of approximately 0.5 μm. An apical ridge along its front represented the acrosome. The two adult vesicular glands each had an irregular shape and were approximately 48.7 ± 7.4 mm long, 25.6 ± 4.3 mm wide, and 20.6 ± 8.7 mm deep (N = 6). The prostate, comprising a corpus and disseminate parts, lay ventral to the vesicular glands partly embedded in the dorsal wall of the urethra. The paired adult bulbourethral glands were approximately shaped like prolate (elongated) spheroids and had a length of 51.2 ± 14.2 mm, a width of 22.6 ± 4.5 mm, and a depth of 14.4 ± 4.5 mm (N = 7). The secretions from the bulbourethral glands drained into the urethral recess, which in adults measured approximately 10 to 14 mm in length and was located caudodorsal to a narrowing of the pelvic urethra. The penis was 330 ± 16 mm long and 8.2 ± 0.6 mm in diameter, and rotated approximately two and a half turns counterclockwise along its

  13. The reproductive tracts of two malaria vectors are populated by a core microbiome and by gender- and swarm-enriched microbial biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segata, Nicola; Baldini, Francesco; Pompon, Julien; Garrett, Wendy S.; Truong, Duy Tin; Dabiré, Roch K.; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Levashina, Elena A.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    Microbes play key roles in shaping the physiology of insects and can influence behavior, reproduction and susceptibility to pathogens. In Sub-Saharan Africa, two major malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii, breed in distinct larval habitats characterized by different microorganisms that might affect their adult physiology and possibly Plasmodium transmission. We analyzed the reproductive microbiomes of male and female An. gambiae and An. coluzzii couples collected from natural mating swarms in Burkina Faso. 16S rRNA sequencing on dissected tissues revealed that the reproductive tracts harbor a complex microbiome characterized by a large core group of bacteria shared by both species and all reproductive tissues. Interestingly, we detected a significant enrichment of several gender-associated microbial biomarkers in specific tissues, and surprisingly, similar classes of bacteria in males captured from one mating swarm, suggesting that these males originated from the same larval breeding site. Finally, we identified several endosymbiotic bacteria, including Spiroplasma, which have the ability to manipulate insect reproductive success. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of the reproductive microbiome of important human disease vectors, and identifies a panel of core and endosymbiotic bacteria that can be potentially exploited to interfere with the transmission of malaria parasites by the Anopheles mosquito. PMID:27086581

  14. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slow, yet no other field in medicine has integrated new knowledge ... Many countries have introduced tight ethical regulation ... and research, such as human reproductive cloning." Howover ... human pregnancy and birth after embryo donation.

  15. Morphology of female reproductive tract of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on different diets

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    Walkymário de Paulo Lemos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The reproductive tract of females of this species presented yellow coloration and independent of the diet, each ovary had seven ovarioles joined through terminal filaments and forming a bunch shape structure. The histological data revealed that the ovary of P. nigrispinus was of meroistic telotrophic type, with each individual ovariole divided in a terminal filament, a tropharium (trophic chamber, a vitellarium, and a pedicel. The prey type affected the development and morphometry of these structures. Females of P. nigrispinus fed with 3rd or 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm (A. argillacea presented developed ovaries with ovarioles showing a great number of oocytes in advanced stages of development. Females fed with artificial diet presented atrophic ovaries and ovarioles practically without oocytes. Females fed with T. molitor or M. domestica showed ovaries in intermediary stage of development. The central ovariole was longer in females fed with 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm and shorter in those fed with artificial diet. Most developed oocytes were observed in ovaries of females fed with 5th or 3rd instar larvae of cotton leafworm, and the majority of atrophic oocytes were found in females fed with artificial diet.Este estudo apresenta a morfologia do sistema reprodutor feminino de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas alimentado com larvas de Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Musca domestica L. e de Tenebrio molitor L. ou dieta artificial. As gônadas internas desse predador apresentaram coloração amarelada e, independente da dieta, cada ovário apresentou sete ovaríolos unidos pelos filamentos terminais em uma estrutura em forma de cacho. A análise histológica revelou que o ovário de P. nigrispinus é do tipo meroístico telotr

  16. The burden and risk factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Reproductive Tract Infections among pregnant women in Zimbabwe

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    Munjoma Marshal W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and Reproductive tract infections (RTIs are responsible for high morbidity among women. We aim to quantify the magnitude of the burden and risk factors of STI/RTI s among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Methods A cross sectional study of pregnant women enrolled at 36 weeks of gestation from the national PMTCT program. Study was conducted from three peri-urban clinics around Harare Zimbabwe offering maternal and child health services. Results A total of 691 pregnant women were enrolled. Prevalence of HSV was (51.1%, HIV (25.6% syphilis (1.2%, Trichomonas vaginalis (11.8%, bacterial vaginosis (32.6% and Candidiasis (39.9%. Seven percent of the women had genital warts, 3% had genital ulcers and 28% had an abnormal vaginal discharge. Prevalence of serological STIs and vaginal infections were 51% and 64% respectively. Risk factors for a positive serologic STI were increasing age above 30 years, polygamy and multigravid; adjusted OR (95% CI 2.61(1.49-4.59, 2.16(1.06-4.39, 3.89(1.27-11.98 respectively, partner taking alcohol and number of lifetime sexual partners. For vaginal infections it was age at sexual debut; OR (95% CI 1.60(1.06-2.42. More than 25% of the women reported previous STI treatment. Fifty two percent reported ever use of condoms and 65% were on oral contraceptives. Mean age gap for sexual partners was 6.3 years older. Conclusions There is a high morbidity of STI/RTIs in this cohort. There is need to continuously screen, counsel, treat and monitor trends of STI/RTIs to assess if behaviour changes lead to reduction in infections and their sustainability.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human uterine epithelial cells: viral shedding and cell contact-mediated infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asin, Susana N; Wildt-Perinic, Dunja; Mason, Sarah I; Howell, Alexandra L; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-15

    We examined the mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection of human uterine epithelial cells to gain a clearer understanding of the events by which HIV-1 infects cells within the female reproductive tract. We demonstrated that these cells can be productively infected by HIV-1 and that infection is associated with viral RNA reverse transcription, DNA transcription, and secretion of infectious virus. Levels of viral DNA and secreted virus decreased gradually after infection. Moreover, virus released by the uterine epithelial cells shortly after infection was able to infect human T cell lines, but virus released later did not. In contrast, human CD4(+) T cell lines were infected after cocultivation with epithelial cells at both early and late stages of infection. These data demonstrated that HIV-1 infects human epithelial cells of upper reproductive tract origin and that productive viral infection of epithelial cells may be an important mechanism of transmission of HIV-1 infection in women.

  18. Regucalcin is widely distributed in the male reproductive tract and exerts a suppressive effect on in vitro sperm capacitation in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Harikrishna; Shende, Ashish Mukunda; Parmar, Mehtab Sing; A, Anjaneya; L, Sreela; Kumaresan, Arumugam; G, Taru Sharma; Bhure, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Regucalcin is a multi-functional, calcium-binding protein with roles in calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and free radical neutralization. Regucalcin is broadly expressed in the male reproductive organs of rat and bovine; here, we report its expression in the reproductive tract of male buffalo-especially in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate, and bulbourethral gland of buffalo-as analyzed by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunolocalization. Regucalcin degradation in seminal plasma, despite its high abundance in vesicular fluid, was demonstrated using recombinant regucalcin co-incubated with buffalo seminal plasma. This depletion of regucalcin appears to be related to its suppressive effect on in vitro sperm capacitation, observed using the chlortetracycline assay after treating buffalo spermatozoa with recombinant protein. Indeed, addition of recombinant regucalcin to capacitating media significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa to 6.1 ± 0.6 from 36.4 ± 1.8 in the untreated group. Taken together, the wide distribution of regucalcin in male buffaloes, versus its degradation in the seminal plasma and suppressive effects on in vitro capacitation of spermatozoa, indicate its possible anti-capacitation role in the reproductive tract. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 212-221, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L.; Vercoe, Phillip E.; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    Background.Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of...

  20. Selective impact of HIV disease progression on the innate immune system in the human female reproductive tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lahey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated intrinsic anti-HIV activity in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL from HIV-infected women with high CD4 counts and not on antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of HIV disease progression on CVL innate immune responses has not been delineated. METHODS: CVL from 57 HIV-infected women not on antiretroviral therapy were collected by washing the cervicovaginal area with 10 ml of sterile normal saline. We characterized subject HIV disease progression by CD4 count strata: >500 cells/µl, 200-500 cells/µl, or <200 cells/µl of blood. To assess CVL anti-HIV activity, we incubated TZM-bl cells with HIV plus or minus CVL. Antimicrobials, cytokines, chemokines and anti-gp160 HIV IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA and Luminex. RESULTS: CVL exhibited broad anti-HIV activity against multiple laboratory-adapted and transmitted/founder (T/F viruses, with anti-HIV activity ranging from 0 to 100% showing wide variation between viral strains. Although there was broad CVL inhibition of most both laboratory-adapted and T/F virus strains, there was practically no inhibition of T/F strain RHPA.c, which was isolated from a woman newly infected via heterosexual intercourse. HIV disease progression, measured by declining CD4 T cell counts, resulted in a selective reduction in intrinsic anti-HIV activity in CVL that paralleled CVL decreases in human beta-defensin 2 and increases in Elafin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. HIV disease progress predicted decreased CVL anti-HIV activity against both laboratory-adapted and T/F strains of HIV. Anti-HIV activity exhibited close associations with CVL levels of fourteen cytokines and chemokines. CONCLUSIONS: Amid a multifaceted immune defense against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted pathogens, HIV disease progression is associated with selective disturbances in both CVL anti-HIV activity and specific innate immune defenses in the human female reproductive tract (FRT

  1. Study on Relationship between Reproductive Tract Infections and Personal Hygiene Behaviors among Vulnerable Married Women in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng-yu WEN; Jun-qing WU; Xi-hua ZHONG; Wen-ying LI; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Er-sheng GAO

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To understand the influence of personal hygiene behaviors on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and to provide evidence for the intervention among married women at childbearing ageMethods:A total of 1 631 married women in 60 residence neighborhoods from 4 streets and 2 stagnant enterprises were selected by multistage cluster random sampling and interviewed face-to-face through questionnaires, laboratory tests assay and gynecological examination. All data were analyzed by SAS 8.2. Results:The positive detection rates of five target pathogens, trichomonas vaginalis, candida albicans, G.vaginalis, chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in the study were 3.04%, 5.04%, 1.52%, 6.68%, and 0.12%, respectively. Personal hygiene practices and sexual behaviors among married women in the study were good in general. The vast majority of women (98.77%) rinsed their vulvae every day and more than half of the women (53.03%) took bath every day. In terms of the prevalence of endogenous infection, there were statistical differences between women who had different frequencies of rinsing their vulvae and taking bath; and for the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection, there were significant differences between women whose husband had different frequency of washing their external genital organs before sexual intercourses each time. The mostly adopted contraceptive methods among women ranked by frequency were intra-uterine devices (IUD) (68.69%), male condom (16.69%) and safe period (6.20%), among which male condom could prevent sexually transmitted infections. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the frequency of taking bath, the husband washing his external genital organ before sexual intercourse and the age of marriage were the influencing factors of RTIs, too.Conclusion:It is very urgent that health educational intervention of RTIs among married women be conducted and especially the knowledge on condom's double effects on contraception and

  2. 妊娠期妇女生殖道感染的分析%Reproductive tract infections in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱瑛; 邵耀明; 李琴

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of reproductive tract infections(RTI) in pregnant women in Wuxi, so as to safeguard the health of the mothers and infants. METHODS The cervical or vaginal secretions from 1117 pregnant women were collected and examined for RTI. RESULTS The overall prevalence rate of RTI in the 1117 pregnant women in Wuxi was 37. 5%; the prevalence rate of Mycoplasma vaginitis was 16. 2%, Chlamydia trachomatis vaginitis 0. 8%, Trichomoniasis vaginitis 1. 8%, bacterial vaginitis 3. 7%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0. 4% , Syphilis 1.3%, Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) 13. 3%. Statistically significances were observed in the detection rates of Chlamydia trachomatis vaginitis, Trichomoniasis vaginitis and Syphilis comparing pregnant women with varied census registrations, professions or education background(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The prevalence of RTI in pregnant women is relatively high in Wuxi. It is necessary to pay attention to the routinely screening of RTI in pregnant women.%目的 了解无锡市妊娠期妇女的生殖道感染情况,为保障母婴健康提供依据.方法 采集1117例妊娠期妇女阴道或宫颈分泌物进行生殖道感染检测.结果 无锡市1117例妊娠期妇女生殖道感染患病率为37.5%;支原体性阴道炎患病率为16.2%,衣原体性阴道炎患病率为0.8%,滴虫性阴道炎患病率为1.8%,细菌性阴道病(BV)患病率为3.7%,淋病患病率为0.4%,梅毒患病率为1.3%,外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染患病率为13.3%;在不同户籍、职业、文化程度的孕妇中衣原体性阴道炎、滴虫性阴道炎、梅毒检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 无锡地区妊娠期妇女的生殖道感染率较高,应重视妊娠期妇女的生殖道感染常规筛查工作.

  3. 胎膜早破早产合并生殖道感染的治疗%Treatment of Premature Rupture of Membrane and Reproductive Tract Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海利

    2011-01-01

    Premature delivery is a major concern of perinatal health care.Appropriate management of premature delivery is one of critical measures minimizing the perinatal mortality.Premature rupture of membrane ( PROM ) is the primary factor contributing to premature delivery whilst ascending reproductive tract infection is one of the major causes of PROM.In the case of PROM under 35 gestational weeks complicated with reproductive tract infection, proper antimicrobial treatment, prolongation of gestation, and acceleration of fetal lung maturity will reduce the perinatal mortality and greatly improve the ouctomes of mothers and babies.This article reviews treatments for PROM ( < 35 weeks ) complicated with reproductive tract infection.%早产是围生期保健的一个重要问题,早产的合理治疗是降低围生儿病死率的重要措施之一.胎膜早破是诱发早产的最主要因素,而生殖道病原微生物上行性感染则是胎膜早破的主要原因之一.对临床中<35周的胎膜早破早产合并生殖道感染患者,进行合理的控制感染、延长孕周、促胎肺成熟治疗,能降低围生儿病死率,显著改善母婴结局.现就胎膜早破早产(<35周)合并生殖道感染患者的治疗进行相关综述.

  4. In vivo and in vitro effects of the organochlorine pesticides DDT, TCPM, methoxychlor, and lindane on the female reproductive tract of mammals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, U

    2008-04-01

    The present paper summarizes the toxicological data on the effects of the organochlorine pesticides DDT, its metabolites, TCPM, methoxychlor and lindane on folliculogenesis, ovulation, fertilization, and implantation of female reproductive organs in human, laboratory, and farm animals. These compounds possess the ability to disrupt endogenous hormone synthesis, storage or metabolism. Cells of the ovary, oviduct, and uterus are susceptible to the disruptive effects of organochlorine compounds (OCCs). This review discusses that the exposure to OCC causes an impairment of (1) female fertility by altering ovarian development and function and (2) implantation by altering endometrial function through their estrogenic activity. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview on data which support that assumption that OCC can substitute for estradiol in regulating the microanatomy of the female reproductive tract. The data indicate the potential of these compounds act as endocrine disrupting agents, but in a different extent.

  5. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females Detecção de papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 em trato reprodutivo e gametas de fêmeas bovinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir de Carvalho

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cutaneous papillomatosis. BPV-2 DNA sequences were found in ovarian and uterine tissues as well as in oocytes, cumulus cells and uterine flushings. The presence of papillomavirus sequences in reproductive organ tissues and fluids shows that viral infection in organisms can be verified in others tissues, not only in epithelial ones. The present findings alert to the possibility of BPV transmission in embryo transfer programs and assisted fertilization procedures.Os vírus do papiloma bovino, descritos como agentes infectantes específicos do epitélio, têm sido associados a diversas formas de câncer em diferentes espécies animais. Dada a intensa disseminação da papilomatose nos rebanhos, a investigação de diferentes formas de transmissão e seus respectivos mecanismos tem exigido especial atenção. No presente estudo, é relatada a detecção de seqüências genômicas do papilomavirus bovino (BPV em ovócitos e tecidos do trato reprodutivo oriundos de fêmeas abatidas comercialmente, não apresentando papilomatose cutânea. A presença de DNA de BPV-2 em tecidos do trato reprodutivo, lavado uterino, ovócitos e células do cumulus traz evidências de que a infecção viral pode se desenvolver fora do tecido epitelial. Esses achados alertam para a possibilidade de transmissão do BPV através dos procedimentos de transferência de embriões e de fertilização in vitro.

  6. Different Effects of Androgen on the Expression of Fut1, Fut2, Fut4 and Fut9 in Male Mouse Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The α-(1,2 fucosyltransferases (Fut1 and Fut2 and α-(1,3 fucosyltransferases (Fut4, Fut9 are responsible for the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX and Lewis Y (LeY conjugated to glycoproteins. We recently reported that these fucosyltransferases were differentially expressed in the reproductive tract of male mouse. Here, we studied the effect of androgen on fucosyltransferase expression through the use of mouse castration models. We found that Fut1 mRNA and Fut4 mRNA were upregulated, while Fut2 mRNA and Fut9 mRNA were downregulated by androgen in the caput epididymis. However, in the vas deferens and prostate, only Fut4 mRNA and Fut2 mRNA were respectively upregulated following exposure to androgen. In the seminal vesicle, all fucosyltransferases, with the exception of Fut9, were upregulated. We identified the androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs of Fut2, Fut4 and Fut9 in the caput epididymis. Luciferase assay for these ARBSs is able to provide an indication as to why Fut4 and Fut9 are differently expressed and regulated by androgen, although they catalyze the same α-(1,3 fucose linkage. Our study showed that androgen could differentially regulate the expression of these fucosyltransferases and provided an insight into the characteristic distribution of each fucosyltransferase responsible for LeX/LeY biosynthesis in the male reproductive tract.

  7. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induced antimicrobial gene expression in the male reproductive tract of rat: evaluation of the potential of Defensin 21 to limit infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, B; Bhushan, S; Rajesh, A; Suraj, S K; Lu, Y; Meinhardt, A; Yenugu, S

    2015-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common pathogen in epididymitis, which represents a prevalent entity in male reproductive tract infections (RTI). Although current treatment regimens using antibiotics are satisfactory, development of antimicrobial resistance by the pathogen represents a challenge in the management of RTI. Hence, identification of antimicrobial peptides as alternatives to antibiotics has gained importance. We demonstrate that in a rat epididymo-orchitis model induced with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain MTCC 729, the expression of defensins and defensin-like Spag11 genes are induced in the epididymis and testes. The induction of antimicrobial gene expression is paralleled by phosphorylation of the NF-kB subunit p65 and the inhibitor of NFkB (IkB-alpha), decreased levels of histone deacetylase 1 and increased methylation of Histone 3, indicating the role of classical Toll-like receptor mediated signaling and epigenetic regulation. Recombinant Defensin 21, when administered to UPEC-infected rats, substantially reduced the bacterial load in the epididymis and testis and proved to be more effective than gentamycin. The ability of Defensin 21 to limit RTI provides support that antibacterial proteins of the male reproductive tract may be used as potential alternatives to antibiotics in treatment of this disease.

  8. Pathogens causing reproductive tract infections in gynecological outpatients%妇科门诊患者生殖道病原体感染状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仙芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨妇科门诊患者生殖道病原体感染状况.方法 回顾性分析2009年8月-2011年10月妇科门诊进行治疗的900例生殖道病原体感染患者的资料,统计并比较生殖道病原体感染患者的年龄分布及感染率.结果 900例生殖道病原体感染患者中,31~40岁患者457例,占50.78%,明显高于其他年龄段,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);314例患者感染滴虫,占34.89%,其中168例患者为单纯滴虫感染,占18.67%,与其他病原体的感染率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 发生生殖道病原体感染的患者以31~40岁妇女为主,多数为滴虫性阴道炎,因此建议31~40岁的妇女应多注意保持阴部卫生,并且采取有效的防御措施来减少生殖道病原体感染的发生率.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the status of reproductive tract infections in the gynecological outpatients. METHODS A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 900 patients with reproductive tract infections who enrolled in hospitals from Aug 2009 to Oct 2011 was performed, the age distribution and the infection rates of those patients were statistically analyzed and compared. RESULTS Of 900 patients with reproductive tract infections, there were 457 patients aged from 31 to 40 years old, accounting for 50. 78%, which was significantly higher than that of the patients of other age groups, the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 05); there were314 (34.89%) patients who were infected with Trichomonas among which 168 (18. 67%) patients were with single trichomonas infections, as compared with the incidence of the infections caused by other pathogens, the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The pregnant women aged from 30 to 40 years old are the major population with reproductive tract infections, most are Trichomoniasis vaginitis; it is recommended that the women aged between 31 and 40 years old should pay more attention to maintenance of

  9. Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin αvβ3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B; González, Pablo A; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Jacobs, William R; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These

  10. Nanoparticles containing siRNA to silence CD4 and CCR5 reduce expression of these receptors and inhibit HIV-1 infection in human female reproductive tract tissue explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Eszterhas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 1 (HIV- 1 binds to CD4 and CCR5 receptors on target cells in the human female reproductive tract. We sought to determine whether reducing levels of messenger RNA (mRNA transcripts that encode these receptors in female reproductive tract cells could protect mucosal tissue explants from HIV- 1 infection. Explants prepared from the endometrium, endocervix, and ectocervix of hysterectomy tissues from HIV-1 sero-negative women were exposed to nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific short-interfering RNA (siRNA sequences. Explants were then exposed two days later to HIV-1, and HIV-1 reverse transcripts were measured five days post-infection. Explants treated with nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific siRNA showed reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5 transcripts, and significantly lower levels of HIV-1 reverse transcripts compared to those treated with an irrelevant siRNA. In female reproductive tract explants and in peripheral blood cell cultures, siRNA transfection induced the secretion of IFN-alpha (IFN-α, a potent antiviral cytokine. In female mice, murine-specific Cd4-siRNA nanoparticles instilled within the uterus significantly reduced murine Cd4 transcripts by day 3. Our findings demonstrate that siRNA nanoparticles reduce expression of HIV-1 infectivity receptors in human female reproductive tract tissues and also inhibit HIV-1 infection. Murine studies demonstrate that nanoparticles can penetrate the reproductive tract tissues in vivo and silence gene expression. The induction of IFN-α after siRNA transfection can potentially contribute to the antiviral effect. These findings support the therapeutic development of nanoparticles to deliver siRNA molecules to silence host cell receptors in the female reproductive tract as a novel microbicide to inhibit mucosal HIV-1 transmission.

  11. Sheep (Ovis aries) Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: molecular cloning, characterization, tissue distribution and expression in the ewe reproductive tract and in the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Federica; Vannoni, Alessandro; Sestini, Silvia; Casciaro, Alessandra; Carducci, Antonietta; Bartolommei, Sabrina; Toschi, Paola; Ptak, Grazyna; Cintorino, Marcella; Arcuri, Felice

    2011-06-01

    Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is a pivotal regulator of innate and acquired immunity affecting the response and behavior of macrophages and lymphocytes. However, a number of studies indicated wider physiological functions for this cytokine to include key-roles in reproductive biology. The present study was designed to clone the coding sequence of sheep MIF, to examine the characteristics of the protein in vitro, and to evaluate its expression in sheep tissues and in the ewe reproductive tract in vivo. Ovine MIF cDNA consisted of 348 nucleotides encoding a 115 amino acids protein with an estimated molecular mass of 12,343 Da and an isoelectric point of 7.68. Sheep MIF shared high amino acid identity with the other mammalian MIF family members and showed parallel functions to human MIF, displaying enzymatic oxoreductase activity and inducing monocyte transmigration. Expression studies detected a MIF transcript in all the sheep tissues examined. Among reproductive tissues, MIF mRNA and protein were detected in the ovary, oviduct, uterus and placenta. These results indicate that sheep MIF shares crucial features with other MIF family members and delineate its potential involvement in several aspects of ovine physiology.

  12. Isolation and Culture of Bovine Oviductal Epithelial Cells for Use in the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory and Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents methods for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells from the bovine oviduct for use in both research and the teaching laboratory and provides examples of ways that an oviductal cell culture can be incorporated into an undergraduate research program. Cow reproductive tracts are readily available from area butchers, and…

  13. Effects of epithelial cell injury of the lower respiratory tract in the pathogenesis of allergic responses in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Wei-li; CHU Ming; WANG Yue-dan; HU Yan; ZHAO Can; SU Li; XIONG Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a complex disease involving genetic and environment interactions.Atopy is a strong risk factor for asthma.The airway epithelium not only forms a physical barrier but also provides immune defense against harmful materials.To explore the effects of airway epithelium on asthma,we hypothesized that environmental injuries could act on bronchial epithelial cells and damage the physical barrier,which might facilitate allergens to stimulate immunoreactions and play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma.Methods Thirty eight-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups with six rats in each group:control group,asthma group,ovalbumin (OVA)+OVA group,lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group and LPS+OVA group.In the control group,0.9% saline was injected intraperitoneally on day 1.Fourteen days later,the rats were exposed to aerosolized 0.9% saline.In the asthma group,the rats were sensitized with an injection of 10 mg of OVA,followed by an aerosolized 2% OVA challenge14 days later.The OVA+OVA group was sensitized by an inhalation 2% OVA,20 minutes a day,from day 1 to day 7,and then OVA challenged in the same way as the asthma group.In the LPS group,LPS (200 μl,1 μg/μl) was given by airway on day 1 and day 3,with a simultaneous aerosol inhalation of 2% OVA for 20 minutes a day from day 1 to day 7.Fourteen days later,the rats were challenged with saline as in the control group.While in the LPS+OVA group,LPS (200 μl,1 μg/μl) was given by airway on day 1 and day 3,with a simultaneous aerosol inhalation of 2% OVA for 20 minutes a day from day 1 to day 7.Fourteen days later,the rats were challenged with OVA as in the asthma group.The expression of interleukin (IL)-4,interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the lungs was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the pulmonary pathological changes were also observed.The level of IL-4,IFN-γ and IgE in plasma was

  14. Unexpected Inflammatory Effects of Intravaginal Gels (Universal Placebo Gel and Nonoxynol-9 on the Upper Female Reproductive Tract: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith-McCune

    Full Text Available Intravaginal anti-HIV microbicides could provide women with a self-controlled means for HIV prevention, but results from clinical trials have been largely disappointing. We postulated that unrecognized effects of intravaginal gels on the upper female reproductive tract might contribute to the lower-than-expected efficacy of HIV microbicides. Our objective was to study the effects of intravaginal gels on the immune microenvironment of the cervix and uterus. In this randomized crossover study, 27 healthy female volunteers used a nightly application of intravaginal nonoxynol-9 (N9 gel as a "failed" microbicide or the universal placebo gel (UPG as a "safe" gel (intervention cycles, or nothing (control cycle from the end of menses to the mid-luteal phase. At a specific time-point following ovulation, all participants underwent sample collection for measurements of T-cell phenotypes, gene expression, and cytokine/chemokine protein concentrations from 3 anatomic sites above the vagina: the cervical transformation zone, the endocervix and the endometrium. We used hierarchical statistical models to estimate mean (95% CI intervention effects, for N9 and UPG relative to control. Exposure to N9 gel and UPG generated a common "harm signal" that included transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory genes chemokine (C-C motif ligand 20 (macrophage inflammatory factor-3alpha and interleukin 8 in the cervix, decreased protein concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory mediators glycodelin-A and osteopontin in the endometrium. These results need to be replicated with a larger sample, but underscore the need to consider the effects of microbicide agents and gel excipients on the upper female reproductive tract in studies of vaginal microbicides.

  15. Extracellular vesicles in blood, milk and body fluids of the female and male urogenital tract and with special regard to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B P; Balassa, T; Benen, T D; Dominovic, M; Elmadjian, G K; Florova, V; Fransolet, M D; Kestlerova, A; Kmiecik, G; Kostadinova, I A; Kyvelidou, C; Meggyes, M; Mincheva, M N; Moro, L; Pastuschek, J; Spoldi, V; Wandernoth, P; Weber, M; Toth, B; Markert, U R

    2016-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from almost all cells and tissues. They are able to transport substances (e.g. proteins, RNA or DNA) at higher concentrations than in their environment and may adhere in a receptor-controlled manner to specific cells or tissues in order to release their content into the respective target structure. Blood contains high concentrations of EVs mainly derived from platelets, and, at a smaller amount, from erythrocytes. The female and male reproductive tracts produce EVs which may be associated with fertility or infertility and are released into body fluids and mucosas of the urogenital organs. In this review, the currently relevant detection methods are presented and critically compared. During pregnancy, placenta-derived EVs are dynamically detectable in peripheral blood with changing profiles depending upon progress of pregnancy and different pregnancy-associated pathologies, such as preeclampsia. EVs offer novel non-invasive diagnostic tools which may reflect the situation of the placenta and the foetus. EVs in urine have the potential of reflecting urogenital diseases including cancers of the neighbouring organs. Several methods for detection, quantification and phenotyping of EVs have been established, which include electron microscopy, flow cytometry, ELISA-like methods, Western blotting and analyses based on Brownian motion. This review article summarises the current knowledge about EVs in blood and cord blood, in the different compartments of the male and female reproductive tracts, in trophoblast cells from normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies, in placenta ex vivo perfusate, in the amniotic fluid, and in breast milk, as well as their potential effects on natural killer cells as possible targets.

  16. Bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogen prevent diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and type 2 diabetes in mice without impacting the reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Jose; Chambliss, Ken L; Ahmed, Mohamed; Tanigaki, Keiji; Thompson, Bonne; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W

    2014-08-01

    Despite the capacity of estrogens to favorably regulate body composition and glucose homeostasis, their use to combat obesity and type 2 diabetes is not feasible, because they promote sex steroid-responsive cancers. The novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) bazedoxifene acetate (BZA) uniquely antagonizes both breast cancer development and estrogen-related changes in the female reproductive tract. How BZA administered with conjugated estrogen (CE) or alone impacts metabolism is unknown. The effects of BZA or CE + BZA on body composition and glucose homeostasis were determined in ovariectomized female mice fed a Western diet for 10-12 wk. In contrast to vehicle, estradiol (E₂), CE, BZA, and CE + BZA equally prevented body weight gain by 50%. In parallel, all treatments caused equal attenuation of the increase in body fat mass invoked by the diet as well as the increases in subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue. Diet-induced hepatic steatosis was attenuated by E₂ or CE, and BZA alone or with CE provided even greater steatosis prevention; all interventions improved pyruvate tolerance tests. Glucose tolerance tests and HOMA-IR were improved by E₂, CE, and CE + BZA. Whereas E₂ or CE alone invoked a uterotrophic response, BZA alone or CE + BZA had negligible impact on the uterus. Thus, CE + BZA affords protection from diet-induced adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance with minimal impact on the female reproductive tract in mice. These combined agents may provide a valuable new means to favorably regulate body composition and glucose homeostasis and combat fatty liver.

  17. Cytolipotoxicity-induced involution of the female reproductive tract following expression of obese (ob/ob) and diabetes (db/db) genotype mutations: progressive, hyperlipidemic transformation into adipocytic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, David R; Garris, Bryan L

    2004-01-01

    Both diabetes (db/db) and obese (ob/ob) single gene mutations induce a progressive, hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic endometabolic environment which promotes hypercytolipidemic, utero-ovarian involution in C57BL/KsJ mice. The progressive expression of the induced diabetes-obesity syndrome (DOS) results in female reproductive sterility and eventual organoatrophy. In order to define the intra-cytoplasmic alterations induced by the progressive cytolipidemia on cellular vitality, utero-ovarian tissue samples were collected from both control (+/?) and littermate-matched ob/ob or db/db C57BL/KsJ mice at either 4 weeks (initial-onset DOS phase), 8 weeks (progressive, overt DOS phase), or 16 weeks (chronic-DOS phase) of age for cytolipid distribution analysis. All db/db and ob/ob mutant groups exhibited phenotypic obesity and systemic hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia relative to age-matched littermate +/? groups. In all db/db and ob/ob age groups, a progressive hypercytolipidemia was noted relative to +/? groups. When analyzed for lipid channeling, a progressive perinuclear mapping pattern of cytolipid distribution was noted. The primary locus of initial db/db and ob/ob cytolipid deposition was localized to the baso-polar regions in endometrial epithelia samples, or to the interstitium-thecal layer border of ovarian follicular compartments, during the initial-onset DOS phase. Progressively, intra-cytoplasmic lipid mobilization promoted a consistent perinuclear channeling of lipid vacuoles, ultimately isolating nuclear loci from the peripherally displaced cytoplasmic organelles within uterine epithelial layers. In db/db and ob/ob ovarian tissue samples, a progressive, gradient-related lipid infiltration of interstitial, thecal and, ultimately, granulosa cell layers promoted an enhanced rate of follicular-lipidemic atresia relative to +/? groups. In each tissue layer, the cytolipidemia promoted a dramatic perinuclear lipid-isolation barrier from intra-cytoplasmic organelle

  18. Anatomy and histology of the male reproductive tract and spermatogenesis fine structure in the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra): morphological evidences of reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Aldana Marcos, H J; Cetica, P D; Perez Jimeno, G; Merani, M S

    2013-08-01

    The anatomy and histology of the male genital tract of the lesser anteater were studied. Fine details of spermatozoa regarding their genesis and morphology were also studied in six adult specimens. The testes lie in the pelvic cavity. The deferent duct emerges from the epididymis and opens into the ejaculatory duct, which drains into the membranous urethra. Accessory glands (prostate, seminal vesicle and bulbourethral gland) are histologically similar to those described in other mammals. The short penis presents an urethral orifice, while the corpus spongiosum becomes thinner at the end indicating the absence of a histologically defined glans. The seminiferous epithelium shows: (1) Sertoli cells with deep nuclear indentations, (2) spermatogonia with crusty-like chromatin, (3) spermatocytes at different stages of maturation and (4) three morphologically distinct stages of spermatid differentiation according to nuclear shape, acrosome development and chromatin condensation. Sperm heads appear oval. The length of the spermatozoa averages 67.33 ± 1.60 μm. Two specimens with inactive spermatogenesis were azoospermic. Their testes and epididymis presented sizes smaller than those with active spermatogenesis. These studies together with others in anteaters may contribute to successful breeding in conservation programmes.

  19. Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus crispatus 2,029: Homeostatic Interaction with Cervicovaginal Epithelial Cells and Antagonistic Activity to Genitourinary Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Vyacheslav; Khlebnikov, Valentin; Kosarev, Igor; Bairamova, Guldana; Vasilenko, Raisa; Suzina, Natalia; Machulin, Andrey; Sakulin, Vadim; Kulikova, Natalia; Vasilenko, Nadezhda; Karlyshev, Andrey; Uversky, Vladimir; Chikindas, Michael L; Melnikov, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 isolated upon investigation of vaginal lactobacilli of healthy women of reproductive age was selected as a probiotic candidate. The aim of the present study was elucidation of the role of L. crispatus 2029 in resistance of the female reproductive tract to genitourinary pathogens using cervicovaginal epithelial model. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 has surface layers (S-layers), which completely surround cells as the outermost component of their envelope. S-layers are responsible for the adhesion of lactobacilli on the surface of cervicovaginal epithelial cells. Study of interactions between L. crispatus 2029 and a type IV collagen, a major molecular component of epithelial cell extracellular matrix, showed that 125I-labeled type IV collagen binds to lactobacilli with high affinity (Kd = (8.0 ± 0.7) × 10(-10) M). Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 consistently colonized epithelial cells. There were no toxicity, epithelial damage and apoptosis after 24 h of colonization. Electronic microscope images demonstrated intimate association between L. crispatus 2029 and epithelial cells. Upon binding to epithelial cells, lactobacilli were recognized by toll-like 2/6 receptors. Lactobacillus crispatus induced NF-κB activation in epithelial cells and did not induce expression of innate immunity mediators IL-8, IL-1β, IL-1α and TNF-α. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 inhibited IL-8 production in epithelial cells induced by MALP-2 and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, maintaining the homeostasis of female reproductive tract. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 produced H2O2 and provided wide spectrum of antagonistic activity increasing colonization resistance to urinary tract infections by bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis associated agents.

  20. Reproductive and hormone-related risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer by histologic pathways, invasiveness and histologic subtypes: Results from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Merritt, Melissa A; Schock, Helena; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Duell, Eric J; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, M-D; Brändstedt, Jenny; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-09-01

    Whether risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) differ by subtype (i.e., dualistic pathway of carcinogenesis, histologic subtype) is not well understood; however, data to date suggest risk factor differences. We examined associations between reproductive and hormone-related risk factors for EOC by subtype in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among 334,126 women with data on reproductive and hormone-related risk factors (follow-up: 1992-2010), 1,245 incident cases of EOC with known histology and invasiveness were identified. Data on tumor histology, grade, and invasiveness, were available from cancer registries and pathology record review. We observed significant heterogeneity by the dualistic model (i.e., type I [low grade serous or endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, malignant Brenner] vs. type II [high grade serous or endometrioid]) for full-term pregnancy (phet  = 0.02). Full-term pregnancy was more strongly inversely associated with type I than type II tumors (ever vs. never: type I: relative risk (RR) 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.69]; type II, RR: 0.81 [0.61-1.06]). We observed no significant differences in risk in analyses by major histologic subtypes of invasive EOC (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell). None of the investigated factors were associated with borderline tumors. Established protective factors, including duration of oral contraceptive use and full term pregnancy, were consistently inversely associated with risk across histologic subtypes (e.g., ever full-term pregnancy: serous, RR: 0.73 [0.58-0.92]; mucinous, RR: 0.53 [0.30-0.95]; endometrioid, RR: 0.65 [0.40-1.06]; clear cell, RR: 0.34 [0.18-0.64]; phet  = 0.16). These results suggest limited heterogeneity between reproductive and hormone-related risk factors and EOC subtypes.

  1. Conversion of cortisone to cortisol and prostaglandin F2α production by the reproductive tract of cows at the late luteal stage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, H T; Skarzynski, D J; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Bah, M M; Jankowska, K; Warmowski, P; Łukasik, K; Okuda, K; Acosta, T J

    2012-12-01

    Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that bovine endometrium has the capacity to convert inactive cortisone to biologically active cortisol (Cr) and that Cr inhibits cytokine-stimulated prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF) production. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that bovine reproductive tract has the capacity to convert cortisone to Cr in vivo and to evaluate the effects of intravaginal application of exogenous cortisone on uterine PGF secretion during the late luteal stage. The temporal relationships between PGF and Cr levels in uterine plasma were also determined. Catheters were inserted into jugular vein (JV), uterine vein (UV), vena cava caudalis (VCC) and aorta abdominalis (AA) of six cows on Day 15 of the oestrous cycle (ovulation = Day 0) for frequent blood collection. On Day 16, the cows were divided randomly into two groups and infused intravaginally with vaseline gel (10 ml; control; n = 3) or cortisone dissolved in vaseline gel (100 mg; n = 3). Blood samples were collected at -2, -1, -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after treatments (0 h). Intravaginal application of cortisone increased plasma concentrations of Cr between 0.5 and 1.5 h in UV, at 0.5 h in VCC, at 1 h in JV and at 1.5 h in AA. The plasma concentrations of PGF in UV and of PGF metabolite in JV were greater at 0.5 and 1 h in the cortisone-treated animals than in control animals. The levels of PGF in UV blood plasma decreased after Cr reached its highest levels. The overall findings suggest that the female reproductive tract has the capacity to convert cortisone to Cr in vivo. Based on the temporal changes of PGF and Cr levels in the uterine plasma, a biphasic response in PGF secretion was found to be associated to the Cr increase induced by the cortisone treatment at the late luteal stage in non-pregnant cows. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Study of pathogens of reproductive tract mixed infections in reproductive age women and its influential factors%育龄女性生殖道混合感染病原体及相关因素调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江立千

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the common pathogens and incidence of reproductive tract mixed infections in reproductive age women and its influential factors .Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted in 5 000 outpatients from June 2013 to June 2014 ,So did the gynecological examination and laboratory tests statistical analysis was performed .Results The incidence of repro‐ductive tract infections(RTI) in reproductive age women was 1845 cases(36 .9% ) ,10 types of monitoring of pathogens were ob‐served .Positive rates were 38 .0% for AV ,36 .5% for UU ,30 .3% for BV ,28 .6% for VVC ,9 .9% for CT ,8 .5% for MH ,2 .1%for TP ,0 .9% for TV ,0 .4% for NG ,0 .0% for HIV ,respectively .747 patients of mixed infection ,accounted for 40 .5% ,1 097 pa‐tients in 59 .5% of total cases suffered from one kind of infectious diseases ,537 (29 .1% ) two kind and 210 (11 .4% ) more than three kind .The common mode of mixed infection were BV + AV ,CA+ AV ,CT+ AV ,UU+CA ,BV+CA ,CT+BV ,CA+BV+AV .Influential factors to female RTI included age ,the education level and the way of contraception .Conclusion For the prevalence rate of reproductive tract mixed infections in reproductive age women is high ,studying pathogens and relative factors in female re‐productive tract mixed infections has positive meaning to it′s prevention and cure .%目的:了解顺德地区育龄女性生殖道混合感染患病情况及相关影响因素。方法以2013年6月至2014年6月在妇科门诊就诊的5000例育龄妇女作为研究对象进行问卷调查、妇科检查和实验室检查。结果1845例患者检出生殖道感染,患病率为36.9%,10种监测疾病构成依次为需氧菌性阴道(AV)38.0%、解脲脲原体感染(UU)36.5%、细菌性阴道病(BV)30.3%、外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)28.6%、沙眼衣原体感染(CT)9.9%、人型支原体感染(MH)8.5%、梅毒(TP)2.1%、滴虫性阴道炎(TV)0.9

  3. Seasonal-dependent variations in metabolic status of spermatozoa and antioxidant enzyme activity in the reproductive tract fluids of wild boar/domestic pig hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekońska, A; Fraser, L; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Strzezek, J; Koziorowski, M; Kordan, W

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated seasonal changes in the metabolic performance of spermatozoa and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the seminal plasma of three wild boar/domestic pigs (aged 1.5 to 2.5 years) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes in fluids of the cauda epididymidis and vesicular glands from 16 wild boar/domestic pig hybrids (aged 1 to 3 years). Parameters of the sperm metabolic activity, such as total motility, mitochondrial functions, and measurements of oxygen uptake, ATP content and L-lactate production, were analyzed during the spring-summer and autumn-winter periods. Besides these sperm metabolic parameters, the sperm membrane integrity was also assessed. Total protein content and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were measured in the reproductive tract fluids. There were no marked significant differences (P > 0.05) between the seasonal periods in terms of sperm motility, mitochondrial function and oxygen uptake; however, spermatozoa collected during the autumn-winter period exhibited higher (P pig hybrids.

  4. Intranasal Vaccination Affords Localization and Persistence of Antigen-Specific CD8⁺ T Lymphocytes in the Female Reproductive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailbala; Schluns, Kimberly S; Yang, Guojun; Anthony, Scott M; Barry, Michael A; Sastry, K Jagannadha

    2016-03-17

    Immunization strategies generating large numbers of antigen-specific T cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) can provide barrier protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human papillomaviruses (HPV). The kinetics and mechanisms of regulation of vaccine-induced adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses in FRT are less well defined. We present here evidence for intranasal delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) along with alpha-galactosylceramide adjuvant as a protein vaccine to induce significantly higher levels of antigen-specific effector and memory CD8⁺ T cells in the FRT, relative to other systemic and mucosal tissues. Antibody blocking of the CXCR3 receptor significantly reduced antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells subsequent to intranasal delivery of the protein vaccine suggesting an important role for the CXCR3 chemokine-receptor signaling for T cell trafficking. Further, intranasal vaccination with an adenoviral vector expressing OVA or HIV-1 envelope was as effective as intramuscular vaccination for generating OVA- or ENV-specific immunity in the FRT. These results support the application of the needle-free intranasal route as a practical approach to delivering protein as well as DNA/virus vector-based vaccines for efficient induction of effector and memory T cell immunity in the FRT.

  5. Prevalence of symptoms suggestive of reproductive tract infections/sexually transmitted infections in women in an urban area of Ludhiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi S Philip

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: RTIs/STIs present a huge burden of disease, adversely impact reproductive health, and cause suffering for both men and women with consequences more devastating and widespread among women. These infections often go undiagnosed and untreated. Objectives: 1 To identify the most common reported symptoms of RTI/STI among married women aged 15-44 years in an urban population of Ludhiana. 2 To identify important risk factors associated with symptoms of RTI/STI in the study population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among married women aged 15-44 years in an urban area in Ludhiana, using the WHO-Syndromic Approach for diagnosis and management of RTIs/STIs. The sample consisted of 260 eligible women obtained by systematic random sampling, from amongst those residing in the population served by one MPHW (F. Results: The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of RTIs/STIs in the study population was found to be 17.3%. The most common symptoms reported by the women sufferers were urinary (dysuria 57.8%, frequent urination 53.3%, followed by dyspareunia (26.7%, unusual vaginal discharge (24.4% and vaginal itching (22.2%. Age 35-44 years, gravidity >4, education high school/above, joint families, history of abortion, and using ordinary cloth during menstruation were found to be significant risk factors. 64.4% of those with symptoms were untreated, 68.7% of those treated reported partial relief, most of those treated preferred private doctors, and the partners were not treated.

  6. Molecular evolution of a gene cluster of serine proteases expressed in the Anopheles gambiae female reproductive tract

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    Tramontano Anna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in post-mating processes of multiple mating organisms are known to evolve rapidly due to coevolution driven by sexual conflict among male-female interacting proteins. In the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae - a monandrous species in which sexual conflict is expected to be absent or minimal - recent data strongly suggest that proteolytic enzymes specifically expressed in the female lower reproductive tissues are involved in the processing of male products transferred to females during mating. In order to better understand the role of selective forces underlying the evolution of proteins involved in post-mating responses, we analysed a cluster of genes encoding for three serine proteases that are down-regulated after mating, two of which specifically expressed in the atrium and one in the spermatheca of A. gambiae females. Results The analysis of polymorphisms and divergence of these female-expressed proteases in closely related species of the A. gambiae complex revealed a high level of replacement polymorphisms consistent with relaxed evolutionary constraints of duplicated genes, allowing to rapidly fix novel replacements to perform new or more specific functions. Adaptive evolution was detected in several codons of the 3 genes and hints of episodic selection were also found. In addition, the structural modelling of these proteases highlighted some important differences in their substrate specificity, and provided evidence that a number of sites evolving under selective pressures lie relatively close to the catalytic triad and/or on the edge of the specificity pocket, known to be involved in substrate recognition or binding. The observed patterns suggest that these proteases may interact with factors transferred by males during mating (e.g. substrates, inhibitors or pathogens and that they may have differently evolved in independent A. gambiae lineages. Conclusions Our results - also examined in light of

  7. Review of epidemiological evidence for reproductive and hormonal factors in relation to the risk of epithelial ovarian malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riman, Tomas; Nilsson, Staffan; Persson, Ingemar R

    2004-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality related to gynecologic malignancies in Sweden but there is no current screening program. Based upon epidemiological research there is evidence that certain reproductive factors are associated with ovarian cancer risk. Most studies generally indicate that each childbirth incurs a 15-20% risk reduction. Women who have used oral contraceptives for 5 years or longer experience about half the risk of ovarian cancer compared with never users. Breastfeeding seems to be protective while age at menarche and at menopause are less consistent risk predictors. Tubal ligation and hysterectomy seem to reduce ovarian cancer risk by up to 80%. Although some studies found endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) to be positively related to ovarian cancer, the role of these factors is not yet established. Most recent studies observed an approximately 50% ovarian cancer risk increase among ever users of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) compared with never users, and the risk increased further with long-term use. There is less information concerning separate estrogen and progestin effects of HRT and ovarian cancer risk. Although the cause of ovarian cancer remains obscure, hypotheses relating to "incessant" ovulation, excessive gonadotropin secretion, retrograde carcinogen transportation, apoptosis and estrogen/progestin imbalance have been invoked as etiological explanations. All these hypotheses find various epidemiological support. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiological findings on reproductive factors and ovarian cancer risk. These findings are considered in the context of etiologic hypotheses and some new research areas are suggested.

  8. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

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    Kim Le

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings

  9. Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nyothach, Elizabeth; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. Design 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. Setting 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Participants Primary schoolgirls 14–16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. Interventions 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against ‘usual practice’ control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. Results Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. Conclusions Provision of

  10. Clinical analysis of reproductive tract infections among women with intrauterine devices%使用宫内节育器女性生殖道感染临床特征及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐美清

    2012-01-01

    目的 对使用宫内节育器的女性发生生殖道感染的相关因素进行分析,以降低生殖道感染率.方法 对255例使用宫内节育器妇女的临床资料进行回顾性分析,主要包括患者的年龄、孕次、官腔深度、宫内节育器的使用时间、是否发生异常子宫出血、节育器有无尾丝和节育环种类.结果 生殖道感染的发生与孕次、官内节育器的使用时间、是否发生异常子宫出血、节育器有无尾丝和节育环种类相关;感染率为40.4%;阴道炎、宫颈炎、盆腔炎患者感染分别占39.8%、42.7%、17.5%.结论 尽量减少孕次、注意异常子宫出血、避免节育器携带尾丝和使用含铜节育器可有效减少宫内节育器使用者发生生殖道感染.%OBJECTIVE To analyze the related factors for reproductive tract infections among women with intrauterine devices (IUD) so as to reduce the incidence of reproductive tract infections. METHODS Totally 255 patients with intrauterine devices were chosen and studied to analyze the risk factors which might cause the reproductive tract infections. The main factors included the age, gravidity, the uterine cavity depth, the using time of IUD, abnormal uterine bleeding, the tailed IUD , and type of IUD. RESULTS The incidence of the reproductive tract infections was closely related to the gravidity, the using time of IUD, abnormal uterine bleeding, the tailed IUD, and IUD types. The infection rate was 40.4%. Of all the patients with infections, the patients with vaginitis accounted for 39. 8%, the patients with cervicitis 42. 7%, and the patients with pelvic inflammatory 17. 5%. CONCLUSION It is an effective way to reduce the incidence of reproductive tract infections in the women with IUD by reducing the pregnancies, avoiding using the tailed IUD, noting the abnormal uterine bleeding ,and using the IUD containing copper.

  11. Assessing pathogenicity of Gallibacterium anatis in a natural infection model: the respiratory and reproductive tracts of chickens are targets for bacterial colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Surya; Alispahic, Merima; Liebhart, Dieter; Hess, Michael; Hess, Claudia

    2013-12-01

    Two separate bird trials were performed to establish a reliable route of infection for Gallibacterium anatis in chickens, comparing intranasal (i.n.) and intravenous (i.v.) applications. Additionally, three mutually divergent isolates from three geographical locations, as shown by MALDI-TOF-MS and partial rpoB gene sequence analysis, were compared. In the first trial, birds were infected with one of the selected isolates by the i.v. or i.n. route. Subsequently, birds were killed 3, 12 and 24 h post infection following i.v. infection while at 3, 7 and 10 days post infection (dpi) in the case of i.n. infection along with birds of the control group. As a result, i.n. infection showed prominent and consistent bacterial tissue distribution in different organs persisting until 10 dpi, which was a striking contrast to the i.v. infection route. Likewise, histopathology revealed mild to severe tracheal lesions following i.n. infection. The second trial was set up to confirm both the achieved results and the robustness of i.n. infection but with an extended observation period, until 28 dpi In agreement with the preceding trial, identical results for bacteriological and histopathological examinations were obtained with persistency of bacteria until 28 dpi Comparing the three different isolates from Mexico, China and Austria, the Mexican isolate showed a somewhat higher pathogenicity than the other strains. Consequently, pathogenesis of G. anatis strains was studied in chickens elucidating i.n. infection as the most reliable route characterized by a long-lasting bacteraemia, targeting the respiratory and reproductive tract.

  12. Prospective randomized trial of iliohypogastric-ilioinguinal nerve block on post-operative morphine use after inpatient surgery of the female reproductive tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltzman Steven L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the impact of pre-operative and intra-operative ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block on post-operative analgesic utilization and length of stay (LOS. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial to assess effectiveness of ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block (IINB on post-operative morphine consumption in female study patients (n = 60. Patients undergoing laparotomy via Pfannenstiel incision received injection of either 0.5% bupivacaine + 5 mcg/ml epinephrine for IINB (Group I, n = 28 or saline of equivalent volume given to the same site (Group II, n = 32. All injections were placed before the skin incision and after closure of rectus fascia via direct infiltration. Measured outcomes were post-operative morphine consumption (and associated side-effects, visual analogue pain scores, and hospital length of stay (LOS. Results No difference in morphine use was observed between the two groups (47.3 mg in Group I vs. 45.9 mg in Group II; p = 0.85. There was a trend toward lower pain scores after surgery in Group I, but this was not statistically significant. The mean time to initiate oral narcotics was also similar, 23.3 h in Group I and 22.8 h in Group II (p = 0.7. LOS was somewhat shorter in Group I compared to Group II, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.8. Side-effects occurred with similar frequency in both study groups. Conclusion In this population of patients undergoing inpatient surgery of the female reproductive tract, utilization of post-operative narcotics was not significantly influenced by IINB. Pain scores and LOS were also apparently unaffected by IINB, indicating a need for additional properly controlled prospective studies to identify alternative methods to optimize post-surgical pain management and reduce LOS.

  13. Effect of cisplatin exposure on platinum accumulation and growth inhibition in human neoplastic and normal squamous epithelial cells of the mucosa of the upper-aerodigestive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Welters, M.J.P.; Cloos, J.; Pankras, J.E.; Smeets, S.J.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.-M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how normal head and neck epithelial cells (NHNEC) respond to cisplatin compared to their neoplastic counterparts with respect to intracellular platinum (Pt) levels and growth inhibition. A colorimetric assay was used to assess growth inhibition after e

  14. Application analysis of CTB staining technique in female reproductive tract infectious diseases%CTB染色技术在女性生殖道感染性疾病中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解本县已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染情况。方法:白带涂片CTB染色镜检。结果:受检669例,检出各类感染358例,感染率53.51%。结论:CTB染色技术一张涂片可同时作多项检查,方法简便、省时、检出率高,能使妇女生殖道感染性疾病达到早预防、早发现、早治疗的目的。%Objective:To understand the reproductive tract infections of married reproductive life women in the county.Methods:Leucorrhoea was given smear CTB staining microscopic examination.Results:669 cases were examined.It detected 358 cases of all kinds of infections.The infection rate was 53.51%.Conclusion:CTB staining technique is a smear at the same time can do a number of checks,its method is simple,it is time-saving,the detection rate is high.It can achieve the purpose of early prevention, early discovery,early treatment of female reproductive tract infectious diseases.

  15. Immunolocalization of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors (TrkA and p75LNGFR) in the reproductive organs of Shiba goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, LongQuan; Medan, Mohamed S; Weng, Qiang; Jin, Wanzhu; Li, ChunMei; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the immunolocalization of NGF and its receptors (TrkA and p75LNGFR) in the reproductive tract of the Japanese Shiba goats. Five adult goats were used in this study and sections of ovaries, uteri and oviducts were immunostained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method (ABC). The results showed that NGF and its receptors (TrkA and p75LNGFR) were expressed in granulosa cells, theca cells, interstitial cells and lutein cells in ovaries. Immunoreactions for NGF, TrkA and p75LNGFR were also detectable in epithelial cells and muscle cells of the ampulla and isthmus of the oviduct, and in epithelial cells and uterine glands of the uterus. These results strongly suggest autocrine and paracrine regulation of reproductive function by NGF in the reproductive tract of female Shiba goats.

  16. Effects of subinhibitory amounts of ampicillin, amoxycillin and mecillinam on the adhesion of Escherichia coli bacteria to human urinary tract epithelial cells: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg-Edén, C; Sandberg, T; Stenqvist, K; Ahlstedt, S

    1979-01-01

    Attachment to mucous surfaces may be a prerequisite for bacteria colonizing these surfaces or invading underlying tissues. Subinhibitory amounts of ampicillin and amoxycillin but not mecillinam decreased the attachment of Escherichia coli bacteria to human uro-epithelial cells in vitro. No significant synergistic effect on the attachment by the antibiotics was obtained. The present report indicates a new parameter for the study of antibacterial actions of drugs.

  17. Evaluation of Skill-oriented Training on Enhanced Syndromic Case Management (ESCM) of Reproductive Tract Infections / Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTI/STIs) of Care Providers from Three-tier Health-care System of Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Prajapati, Shailesh; Patel, Brijesh; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced syndromic case management (ESCM) deals with reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections. Capacity building of service providers not only boosts the program but also inputs from them improve the quality of services. To (1) identify problem areas from providers' perspectives and the gaps in knowledge and application and (2) assess the gains (if any) through pre and post-training evaluation. A total of 121 participants (medical/para medical) from various medical colleges, district/sub-district hospitals/ community health centers, and urban dispensaries across Gujarat were trained at a teaching institute. Trainings were of 2-3 days duration involving different learning methodology. Pre- and post-training evaluation were done on a designed pro forma and data were entered in MS office Excel 2007. Gains in knowledge/skills if any were assessed by comparing pre-/post-evaluation responses and applying test of significance (x(2) test). Out of total 121 participants, half (60) were doctors and the rest were paramedics [staff nurse (SN) and lab technicians (LT)]. Doctors revealed significant gain in basics of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexually transmitted infections (STI), syndrome identification, STI/HIV co-infection, and ESCM and less gain in asymptomatic STI/ complications, vulnerability, male reproductive organs, causes of vaginal/urethral discharge, STI complications, cervical cancer screening, and limitation of syndromic management. Gain was statistically significant in basics of RTI/STI amongst adolescent in paramedics; lab technicians showed significant gain in knowledge of laboratory-related areas. Assessment revealed (1) poor baseline knowledge and (2) gains following training sometimes significant and other times not significant even in core areas. Quality monitoring and contents/ methodologies modification are essential for robust trainings. Gains in skills could not be assessed through this evaluation.

  18. Evaluation of skill-oriented training on enhanced syndromic case management (ESCM of reproductive tract infections / sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STIs of care providers from three-tier health-care system of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enhanced syndromic case management (ESCM deals with reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections. Capacity building of service providers not only boosts the program but also inputs from them improve the quality of services. Objectives: To (1 identify problem areas from providers' perspectives and the gaps in knowledge and application and (2 assess the gains (if any through pre and post-training evaluation. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 participants (medical/para medical from various medical colleges, district/sub-district hospitals/ community health centers, and urban dispensaries across Gujarat were trained at a teaching institute. Trainings were of 2-3 days duration involving different learning methodology. Pre- and post-training evaluation were done on a designed pro forma and data were entered in MS office Excel 2007. Gains in knowledge/skills if any were assessed by comparing pre-/post-evaluation responses and applying test of significance (x2 test. Observations: Out of total 121 participants, half (60 were doctors and the rest were paramedics [staff nurse (SN and lab technicians (LT]. Doctors revealed significant gain in basics of reproductive tract infections (RTI and sexually transmitted infections (STI, syndrome identification, STI/HIV co-infection, and ESCM and less gain in asymptomatic STI/ complications, vulnerability, male reproductive organs, causes of vaginal/urethral discharge, STI complications, cervical cancer screening, and limitation of syndromic management. Gain was statistically significant in basics of RTI/STI amongst adolescent in paramedics; lab technicians showed significant gain in knowledge of laboratory-related areas. Conclusion: Assessment revealed (1 poor baseline knowledge and (2 gains following training sometimes significant and other times not significant even in core areas. Quality monitoring and contents/ methodologies modification are essential for robust trainings. Gains in

  19. Surfactant protein D inhibits adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to the bladder epithelial cells and the bacterium-induced cytotoxicity: a possible function in urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimura, Yuichiro; Nishitani, Chiaki; Ariki, Shigeru; Saito, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Motoko; Hashimoto, Jiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kuroki, Yoshio

    2012-11-16

    The adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to the host urothelial surface is the first step for establishing UPEC infection. Uroplakin Ia (UPIa), a glycoprotein expressed on bladder urothelium, serves as a receptor for FimH, a lectin located at bacterial pili, and their interaction initiates UPEC infection. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is known to be expressed on mucosal surfaces in various tissues besides the lung. However, the functions of SP-D in the non-pulmonary tissues are poorly understood. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible function of SP-D expressed in the bladder urothelium and the mechanisms by which SP-D functions. SP-D was expressed in human bladder mucosa, and its mRNA was increased in the bladder of the UPEC infection model in mice. SP-D directly bound to UPEC and strongly agglutinated them in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Co-incubation of SP-D with UPEC decreased the bacterial adherence to 5637 cells, the human bladder cell line, and the UPEC-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, preincubation of SP-D with 5637 cells resulted in the decreased adherence of UPEC to the cells and in a reduced number of cells injured by UPEC. SP-D directly bound to UPIa and competed with FimH for UPIa binding. Consistent with the in vitro data, the exogenous administration of SP-D inhibited UPEC adherence to the bladder and dampened UPEC-induced inflammation in mice. These results support the conclusion that SP-D can protect the bladder urothelium against UPEC infection and suggest a possible function of SP-D in urinary tract.

  20. 门诊生殖道感染患者实行健康教育的效果观察%Effect of health education for outpatients with reproductive tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海宁; 李敏香; 黄李芸

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of the implementation of health education of the outpatients with reproductive tract infections (RTI) so as to provide reference for clinical treatment.METltODS A total of 127 cases of women were selected from Jan 2008 to Jul 2012 in the hospital and were diagnosed as reproductive tract infections,they were divided into the control group with 63 cases and the education group with 64 cases in strict accordance with the principle of randomization,all patients were enrolled in an odd and even number,health education seminars were carried out,and knowledge about reproductive tract infections was popularized in the education group,while the control group did not receive health education.RESULTS The cognition of related knowledge,score of correct attitude,and score of related behaviors of the education group were respectively higher than those of the control group,the difference between the two groups was significant(P <0.05).The improved rate of bacterial vaginosis was 80.00%,genital candidiasis 77.78%,trichomoniasis vaginitis 57.14 %,and cervical chlamydial infection 85.71% in the education group,which were higher than those of the control group,the difference was significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSION The health education can improve the cognition of reproductive tract infections and the related behaviors as well as the self-protection.%目的 探讨实行健康教育对门诊生殖道感染(RTI)患者的可行性和临床疗效,为临床治疗提供参考依据.方法 选择2008年1月-2012年7月就诊并被诊断为生殖道感染的127例患者,严格按照随机的原则将患者按奇、偶数分为对照组63例和教育组64例,对教育组开展健康教育讲座和普及有关生殖道感染的知识,对照组不接受健康教育.结果 教育组的相关知识知晓、态度正确、相关行为的评分分别高于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);教育组患者

  1. The transmission of sperm in the female reproduction tract of cotton bollworm,Helicoverpa armigera%棉铃虫精子在雌蛾生殖道内的转移动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绪生; 李国清; 陈长琨

    2001-01-01

    The transmission and distribution of sperm in the reproduction tract of mated female Helicoverpa armigera,were studied with Feulgen smear and microscope count methods.The results were summarized as follows:(1)Both eupyrene and apyrene sperms started their transmission from the spermatophore to spermatheca at 1.5 h after copulation,and finished this process in half hour.Thereafter,the number of sperms in spermatheca decreased gradually;(2)After transferred to spermatheca,the sperms stored in the utriculus in the form of sperm mass.No sperm was found in lagena;(3)Transportation of sperm to the spermatheca was achieved by means of rhythmic muscular contraction of the female reproduction tract.The active apyrene sperm was also believed to assist in the transmission of the eupyrene sperm.%通过显微镜观察、孚尔根涂片法和显微镜计数法研究了棉铃虫精子在雌蛾生殖道内的转移、分布及转移的动力。结果表明:(1)交配结束后1.5 h,雌蛾精包内的真核精子和无核精子开始向受精囊转移,2 h时近2/3的精子已转入受精囊,其后受精囊内精子的数量逐渐下降;(2)精子转移至受精囊后只分布于主囊,成团聚集,副囊中没有精子;(3)雌虫生殖道肌肉的节律性收缩推动精子转移,同时无核精子的运动也有助于真核精子的移动。

  2. CXCL12 expression by healthy and malignant ovarian epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Dominique

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CXCL12 has been widely reported to play a biologically relevant role in tumor growth and spread. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, CXCL12 enhances tumor angiogenesis and contributes to the immunosuppressive network. However, its prognostic significance remains unclear. We thus compared CXCL12 status in healthy and malignant ovaries, to assess its prognostic value. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze CXCL12 expression in the reproductive tracts, including the ovaries and fallopian tubes, of healthy women, in benign and borderline epithelial tumors, and in a series of 183 tumor specimens from patients with advanced primary EOC enrolled in a multicenter prospective clinical trial of paclitaxel/carboplatin/gemcitabine-based chemotherapy (GINECO study. Univariate COX model analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of clinical and biological variables. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to generate progression-free and overall survival curves. Results Epithelial cells from the surface of the ovary and the fallopian tubes stained positive for CXCL12, whereas the follicles within the ovary did not. Epithelial cells in benign, borderline and malignant tumors also expressed CXCL12. In EOC specimens, CXCL12 immunoreactivity was observed mostly in epithelial tumor cells. The intensity of the signal obtained ranged from strong in 86 cases (47% to absent in 18 cases ( Conclusion Our findings highlight the previously unappreciated constitutive expression of CXCL12 on healthy epithelia of the ovary surface and fallopian tubes, indicating that EOC may originate from either of these epithelia. We reveal that CXCL12 production by malignant epithelial cells precedes tumorigenesis and we confirm in a large cohort of patients with advanced EOC that CXCL12 expression level in EOC is not a valuable prognostic factor in itself. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00052468

  3. Reproductive Tract Infections-A Main Factor Influencing Women's Mental Status: Comparison on Depression and Anxiety between Naxi Women with and without RTIs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-dong CAI; Shi-zhong WU; Lin LUO

    2007-01-01

    Objectives 1) To explore the relationship between RTIs and mental status of Naxi women; 2) to compare the differences of depression & anxiety between Naxi women who have and not have RTIs; and 3) to put forward some suggestions for improving Naxi women's reproductive health in psychological point of view.Methods A cross-sectional survey was adopted, 280 married Naxi female volunteers who aged above 20 years old were selected by cluster random sampling from the two selected villages of Lugufu Township of Yanyuan county in Sichuan. Two selfreporting scales, CES-D and SAS were used for assessment of depression and anxiety of the subjects.Results The facts of mental status of Sichuan Naxi women brook no optimism. Among 280 Naxi reproductive age women who were investigated in current study, only 74 (26.4%) have no depression symptoms, and 116 (41.4%) have no anxiety symptoms.For the study population, the average total scores (TS) of CES-D was 20.1, and the average total index scores (TIS) of SAS was 50.2, and both of them were above a minimum value doubted to have symptoms. There were big differences of both average TS of CES-D and TIS of SAS between Naxi women who have and not have RTIs.Further analysis revealed that RTI was a main risk factor influencing women's mental status (OR=16.043 for depression, and OR=12.954 for anxiety). In addition, Naxi women's depression and anxiety were related to order births (≤2, OR=3.149, 95%CI: 1.228, 8.076), sex debut was younger (≤17, OR=3.043, 95% CI: 1.895, 4.884),and multiple pregnancy (≥3, OR=2.728, 95% CI: 1.990, 4.173), etc.Conclusion For improving Naxi women's mental status, a pressing matter of the moment is for local medical persons to gain the knowledge about mental health and the diagnosis and treatment levels of psychological disorders. At the same time,psychological counselling should become a main activity of reproductive health services.

  4. Virus present in the reproductive tract of asymptomatic drones of honey bee (Apis mellifera l.), and possible infection of queen during mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Roat, Thaisa C; Fernadez, Fernanda C

    2012-07-01

    Virus particles and viral inclusions were detected by transmission electron microscopy examination of sections of the seminal vesicles and mucus gland of asymptomatic young drones from colonies of Apis mellifera lightly infested by Varroa mite. In the mucus gland the infection was found in the muscular sheath and epithelium, while in the seminal vesicle in cells of the outer serosa. Isolated viral particles were also observed in the hemolymph occupying the intercellular spaces of the muscular sheath fibers. In the muscle the virus appeared as polygonal crystalloid inclusions, while in the epithelium mainly inside cytoplasmic vesicles. The infected cells apparently are not damaged. The virus particles are present in the hemolymph and forming more mature structures, as crystalloids, in the muscle. This suggests that the virus is liberated in the body fluid and infects the tissues penetrating the cells through endocytosis. The presence of virus in mucus gland epithelial vesicles raise the possibility of its transference to the gland secretion and therefore, to the semen.

  5. The normal genital tract of the female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus): cyclic changes in histomorphology and hormone receptor distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    Changes in reproductive tract histomorphology, and estrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression throughout the breeding cycle were evaluated in free-ranging stranded female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. During a large portion of the cycle, ovaries contained both a corpora lutea (CL) and follicles in varying stages of development. In the periods of pupping and estrus during June and July, and in the spring morphologic features of the endometrium suggested estrogen influence. There were areas of squamous differentiation in the pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the cervix and vagina in some animals during estrus and in the spring. Estrogen receptor immunohistochemical scores were highest during pupping and estrus and in the spring and lowest during embryonic diapause. Cyclic changes in uterine PR expression throughout the cycle were minimal. Both ERalpha and PR were expressed in epithelial and stromal cells throughout the cervix and vagina, however, receptor expression was typically higher in the stroma. Stromal cell hormone receptors may play an important role in epithelial responses to circulating sex hormones. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of California sea lion reproduction and establish baseline information on reproductive tract hormone receptors that will aid in determining the factors involved in urogenital cancer development in sea lions.

  6. Sinonasal epithelial-Myoepithelial carcinoma-A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Sultan A.; Khannan, Rajan; Hazarika, Biswajyoti; Desai, Meena

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare salivary gland tumor. It comprises less than 1% of all salivary gland tumors. It generally arises from the parotid gland. Unusual sites of occurrence include sinonasal tract, lung, trachea, lacrimal gland and breast. Histopathologically epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma comprises a dual population of ductal and myoepithelial cells. We report an extremely rare case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma occurring in the sinonasal tract of young man.

  7. Long-term label retaining cells localize to distinct regions within the female reproductive epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Amanda L; Pru, James K

    2013-09-01

    The uterus is an extremely plastic organ that undergoes cyclical remodeling including endometrial regeneration during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial remodeling and regeneration also occur during pregnancy and following parturition, particularly in hemochorial implanting species. The mechanisms of endometrial regeneration are not well understood. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells are proposed to contribute to endometrial regeneration in both humans and mice. BrdU label retention has been used to identify potential stem/progenitor cells in mouse endometrium. However, methods are not available to isolate BrdU label-retaining cells (LRC) for functional analyses. Therefore, we employed a transgenic mouse model to identify H2B-GFP LRCs throughout the female reproductive tract with particular interest on the endometrium. We hypothesized that the female reproductive tract contains a population of long-term LRCs that persist even following pregnancy and endometrial regeneration. Endometrial cells were labeled (pulsed) either transplacentally/translactationally or peripubertally. When mice were pulsed transplacentally/translactationally, the label was not retained in the uterus. However, LRCs were concentrated to the distal oviduct and endocervical transition zone (TZ) following natural (i.e., pregnancy/parturition induced) and mechanically induced endometrial regeneration. LRCs in the distal oviduct and endocervical TZ expressed stem cell markers and did not express ERα or PGR, implying the undifferentiated phenotype of these cells. Oviduct and endocervical TZ LRCs did not proliferate during endometrial re-epithelialization, suggesting that they do not contribute to the endometrium in a stem/progenitor cell capacity. In contrast, when mice were pulsed peripubertally long-term LRCs were identified in the endometrial glandular compartment in mice as far out as 9 months post-pulse. These findings suggest that epithelial tissue of the female reproductive tract contains 3

  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae breaches the apical junction of polarized epithelial cells for transmigration by activating EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Vonetta L; Wang, Liang-Chun; Dawson, Valerie; Stein, Daniel C; Song, Wenxia

    2013-06-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae initiates infection at the apical surface of columnar endocervical epithelial cells in the female reproductive tract. These cells provide a physical barrier against pathogens by forming continuous apical junctional complexes between neighbouring cells. This study examines the interaction of gonococci (GC) with polarized epithelial cells. We show that viable GC preferentially localize at the apical side of the cell-cell junction in polarized endometrial and colonic epithelial cells, HEC-1-B and T84. In GC-infected cells, continuous apical junctional complexes are disrupted, and the junction-associated protein β-catenin is redistributed from the apical junction to the cytoplasm and to GC adherent sites; however, overall cellular levels remain unchanged. This redistribution of junctional proteins is associated with a decrease in the 'fence' function of the apical junction but not its 'gate' function. Disruption of the apical junction by removing calcium increases GC transmigration across the epithelial monolayer. GC inoculation induces the phosphorylation of both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and β-catenin, while inhibition of EGFR kinase activity significantly reduces both GC-induced β-catenin redistribution and GC transmigration. Therefore, the gonococcus is capable of weakening the apical junction and polarity of epithelial cells by activating EGFR, which facilitates GC transmigration across the epithelium.

  9. Study on Prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections and Influence Factors on Married Reproductive Age Women in Kunshan City%昆山市城区已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染现况及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈军; 孙晓明; 周爱萍

    2009-01-01

    目的:了解昆山市城区已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染(RTI)流行情况及影响因素.方法:采用整群抽样方法抽取昆山市城区3 465例已婚育龄妇女为研究对象进行调查问卷、妇科检查及相关实验室检查,分析RTI的影响因素.结果:针对检测念珠菌阴道炎、细菌性阴道炎、滴虫阴道炎和宫颈炎4种目标疾病,昆山市城区已婚育龄妇女RTI总患病率为48.57%.多因素Logistic逐步回归分析表明:RTI的发病与年龄、职业、婚育史及不良生活习惯等因素密切相关.结论:昆山市城区已婚育龄妇女RTI患病率较高,应积极采取措施;进一步加大生殖健康知识宣传力度,针对与其发病有关的多种影响因素,开展有效的干预.%Objective: To investigate the prevalence of reproductive tract infections (RTI) in married reproductive age women in Kunshan city zone. Methods: Cluster sampling method was employed to sample the 3 465 women in Kunshan city zone for the study, and the questionnaires, gynecologic and laboratory examinations were carried out to analyze the influence factors of RTI. Results: The total prevalence rate of 4 target diseases (monilia vaginilis, bacterial vaginitis, trichomonal vaginitis and cervicitis) among married reproductive age women in Kunshan city zone was 48.57%. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that the incidence of RTI was closely related to age, career, history of marriage, child rearing and bad life style. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of RTI is higher among the married reproductive age women in Kunshan city zone. Comprehensive prevention and treatment of RTI should be carried out. We should further increase awareness of reproductive health knowledge for influence factors.

  10. 广东省深圳市生殖道感染妇女相关知信行调查分析%Investigation and analysis of KAP of prevention and treatment of woman reproductive tract infections in Shenzhen of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜蕾; 王竹珍

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市生殖道感染妇女的防治知识、态度、行为,进一步规范生殖道感染的防治工作.方法 在深圳市68家医疗保健机构随机抽取1689名生殖道感染妇女开展问卷调查.结果 95%妇女听说过生殖道感染/性传播疾病,94.0%认为有必要定期行妇女病普查,97.2%愿意了解生殖道感染知识;愿意接受保健知识的方式,依次是医生讲解咨询、宣传小册子、讲座、专栏、报刊等,16.0%妇女不知道或说不清如何预防生殖道感染.生殖道感染防治知识的掌握程度受年龄、婚姻、文化程度和职业影响,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).深圳市20岁以下育龄妇女、未婚、文化程度低下、无业、服务人员、退休、工人等类型妇女对生殖道感染防治知识的正确掌握程度及重要性的认识较低.结论 通过各种途径开展适宜的健康教育,增强生殖道感染防治知识,改变错误观念和行为,促进生殖健康.%Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of prevention and treatment of woman reproductive tract infections in Shenzhen and regulate further prevention and treatment. Methods A total of 1689 reproductive tract infections from 68 health care facilities in Shenzhen were randomly selected to complete a questionnaire survey. Results 95% of the respondents heard of reproductive tract infections/sexually transmitted diseases; 94.0% considered it necessary for them to have regular gynecological examinations; 97.2% were willing to leam the knowledge of reproductive tract infections (the most popular ways of learning knowledge in order were consultation seminars, pamphlets, seminars, columns, newspapers, etc. ) ; 16.0% did not know or could not tell how to prevent reproductive tract infections. The knowledge levels differed by age, marital status, education level and professional impact (P <0. 05). Women less than 20 years old, unmarried, with low education

  11. Neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure alters the metabolic profile of uterine epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yin

    2012-11-01

    Developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES causes reproductive tract malformations, affects fertility and increases the risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and cervix in humans. Previous studies on a well-established mouse DES model demonstrated that it recapitulates many features of the human syndrome, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is far from clear. Using the neonatal DES mouse model, the present study uses global transcript profiling to systematically explore early gene expression changes in individual epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the neonatal uterus. Over 900 genes show differential expression upon DES treatment in either one or both tissue layers. Interestingly, multiple components of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, including PPARγ itself, are targets of DES in the neonatal uterus. Transmission electron microscopy and Oil-Red O staining further demonstrate a dramatic increase in lipid deposition in uterine epithelial cells upon DES exposure. Neonatal DES exposure also perturbs glucose homeostasis in the uterine epithelium. Some of these neonatal DES-induced metabolic changes appear to last into adulthood, suggesting a permanent effect of DES on energy metabolism in uterine epithelial cells. This study extends the list of biological processes that can be regulated by estrogen or DES, and provides a novel perspective for endocrine disruptor-induced reproductive abnormalities.

  12. Effects of the level of seminal plasma fructose on the infertile patients with reproductive tract infections%生殖道感染对男性不育患者精浆果糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛金观; 李琴

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between male infertility patients with reproductive tract infection and seminal plasma fructose.Methods1 390 patients were divided into asthenozoospermia (691 cases), normal group (422 cases), oligospermia (134 cases), severe oligozoospermia (62 cases), obstructive azoospermia (39 cases), non-obstructive azoospermia (24 cases), oligozoospermia (18 cases). Retrospectively analyzed the sperm quality of male infertility patients and seminal plasma fructose and seminal plasma elastase data.Results Compared with normal group, the seminal plasma fructose levels of obstructive azoospermia group and oligospermia group all showed significantly decreasing (t=5.049, 2.797,P<0.05). The non obstructive azoospermia showed significantly increasing (t=2.985,P<0.05). In normal sperm group, the seminal plasma fructose level of the confirmed infection patients compared with normal group showed significant decreasing (t=2.844,P<0.05). In oligospermia group, the seminal plasma fructose level of the confirmed infection patients compared with normal group also showed significant decreasing (t=2.647,P<0.05).ConclusionThe level of seminal plasma fructose can reduce in the infertile patients with reproductive tract infections.%目的:探讨男性不育患者生殖道感染与精浆果糖的相关性。方法选择2008年7月至2012年6月嘉兴市妇幼保健院收治的1390例不育症患者,分为弱精子症(691例)、正常精子组(422例)、少弱精子症(134例)、严重少精子症(62例)、梗阻性无精子症(39例)、非梗阻性无精子症(24例)、少精子症(18例)。回顾性分析男性不育患者的精子质量与精浆果糖及精浆弹性硬蛋白酶资料。结果(1)与正常精子组比较,梗阻性无精子症、弱精子症患者的精浆果糖水平降低,差异有统计学意义(t=5.049、2.797,均P<0.05);非梗阻性无精子症的精浆果糖水平增高,

  13. 原发不孕与继发不孕妇女生殖道感染的临床分析%Reproductive tract infections in women with primary infertilities and secondary infertilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英英; 夏舟岚; 陈惠娟; 陆月红; 姚利萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解原发不孕与继发不孕妇女生殖道感染的情况及其病原体分布。方法对1462例不孕患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,分为原发不孕组和继发不孕组,分别对其阴道分泌物、宫颈分泌物及血清进行生殖道感染相关病原体的检测。结果1462例不孕妇女中,原发不孕477例,继发不孕985例。共检出生殖道感染者655例,总体感染率为44.80%。原发不孕组中共检出生殖道感染者186例,感染率为38.99%;继发不孕组中共检出生殖道感染者469例,感染率为47.61%。总体病原体检出率:依次为解脲支原体(25.72%)、阴道加德纳氏菌(15.87%)、假丝酵母菌(11.08%)、沙眼衣原体(5.06%)、人型支原体(2.33%)、阴道毛滴虫(0.75%)、梅毒螺旋体(0.55%)、淋球菌(0.34%)、人类免疫缺陷病毒(0.07%)。两组中衣原体感染率继发不孕组明显高于原发不孕组,其余病原体感染率差异无统计学意义。结论在不孕妇女中常规进行阴道分泌物病原体检测及血清梅毒螺旋体、HIV的检测非常重要。继发不孕妇女尤其要重视衣原体的检测。%Objective To assess reproductive tract infections(RTI) and pathogens distribution in women with primary in-fertilities and secondary infertilities. Methods The clinical data of 1462 women with infertilities, including 477 cases of primary infertilities and 985 cases with secondary infertilities, were retrospectively analyzed. The samples of vaginal secretion, cervical secretion and serum were col ected and pathogens of reproductive tract infection were detected. Results Among 1462 cases, reproductive tract infections were detected in 655 (44.80%); the infection rate in primary infertility group was 38.99%(186/477) and that in secondary infertility group was 47.61%(469/985). Ureaplasma urealyticum(25.72%) was the most common pathogen of RTI, fol owed by Gardnerel a vaginalis (15

  14. Contributions of an animal scientist to reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W

    2011-08-01

    I became interested in biology as an undergraduate in a premedical curriculum but developed a passion for the field of reproductive biology because of a course in physiology of reproduction taken to meet requirements for admission to veterinary school. My career path changed, and I entered graduate school, obtained the Ph.D., and have enjoyed an academic career as a reproductive biologist conducting research in uterine biology and pregnancy in animal science departments at the University of Florida and at Texas A&M University. However, I have never allowed academic boundaries to interfere with research and graduate education as that is contrary to collegiality, the cornerstone of great universities. I consider that my major contributions to science include 1) identification of proteins secreted by cells of the uterine endometrium that are critical to successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy; 2) discovery of steroids and proteins required for pregnancy recognition signaling and their mechanisms of action in pigs and ruminant species; 3) investigation of fetal-placental development and placental transport of nutrients, including water and electrolytes; 4) identification of linkages between nutrition and fetal-placental development; 5) defining aspects of the endocrinology of pregnancy; and 6) contributing to efforts to exploit the therapeutic value of interferon tau, particularly for treatment of autoimmune diseases. My current studies are focused on the role of select nutrients in the uterine lumen, specifically amino acids and glucose, that affect development and survival of the conceptus and translation of mRNAs and, with colleagues at Seoul National University, gene expression by the avian reproductive tract at key periods postovulation. Another goal is to understand stromal-epithelial cell signaling, whereby progesterone and estrogen act via uterine stromal cells that express receptors for sex steroids to stimulate secretion of growth factors (e

  15. TLR-dependent human mucosal epithelial cell responses to microbial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eMassari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractToll-Like Receptor (TLR signaling represents one of the best studied pathways to implement defense mechanisms against invading microbes in humans as well as in animals. TLRs respond to specific microbial ligands and to danger signals produced by the host during infection, and initiate downstream cascades that activate both innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs are expressed by professional immune cells and by the large majority of non-hematopoietic cells, including epithelial cells. In epithelial tissues, TLR functions are particularly important because these sites are constantly exposed to microorganisms, due to their location at the host interface with the environment. While at these sites, specific defense mechanisms and inflammatory responses are initiated via TLR signaling against pathogens, suppression or lack of TLR activation is also observed in response to the commensal microbiota. The mechanisms by which TLR signaling is regulated in mucosal epithelial cells include differential expression and levels of TLRs (and their signaling partners, their cellular localization and positioning within the tissue in a fashion that favors responses to pathogens while dampening responses to commensals and maintaining tissue homeostasis in physiologic conditions. In this review, the expression and activation of TLRs in mucosal epithelial cells of several sites of the human body are examined. Specifically, the oral cavity, the ear canal and eye, the airways, the gut and the reproductive tract are discussed, along with how site-specific host defense mechanisms are implemented via TLR signaling.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection.

  17. Analysis of the Oxidative Stress Status in Nonspecific Vaginitis and Its Role in Vaginal Epithelial Cells Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaojie; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Haiyan; Xie, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    Nonspecific vaginitis (NSV), also named bacterial vaginosis, is one of the most common genital system diseases in women during their reproductive years. The specific pathogenic mechanism of NSV is not clear yet. Upon the balance alteration, large amount of reactive oxidant species (ROS) is generated and accumulated in the genital tract, and thus resulting in oxidative stress, which has been reported to be an important trigger of mitochondrial pathway cell apoptosis. In this study, the antioxidant secretion level and antioxidant enzyme activity in the vaginal discharge were evaluated to analyze the oxidative status in the vaginal tract of NSV patients. The effect of oxidative stress on the vaginal mucosa epithelial cell apoptosis was then studied. The role of oxidative stress on NSV development was uncovered; thus open new direction for the prevention and treatment of NSV by providing antiradical agents was revealed. PMID:26558281

  18. Analysis of the Oxidative Stress Status in Nonspecific Vaginitis and Its Role in Vaginal Epithelial Cells Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojie Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific vaginitis (NSV, also named bacterial vaginosis, is one of the most common genital system diseases in women during their reproductive years. The specific pathogenic mechanism of NSV is not clear yet. Upon the balance alteration, large amount of reactive oxidant species (ROS is generated and accumulated in the genital tract, and thus resulting in oxidative stress, which has been reported to be an important trigger of mitochondrial pathway cell apoptosis. In this study, the antioxidant secretion level and antioxidant enzyme activity in the vaginal discharge were evaluated to analyze the oxidative status in the vaginal tract of NSV patients. The effect of oxidative stress on the vaginal mucosa epithelial cell apoptosis was then studied. The role of oxidative stress on NSV development was uncovered; thus open new direction for the prevention and treatment of NSV by providing antiradical agents was revealed.

  19. Effect Evaluation on Syndrome Screening of Reproductive Tract Infection among Women with Intrauterine Devices%使用宫内节育器妇女生殖道感染的病征筛查效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴磊; 李瑛; 杨明明; 周健; 潘丽

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of syndrome screening used for reproductive tract infection (RTI) among the women with intrauterine devices (IUD). Methods:The RTI situations of 10,884 repro-ductive women with IUD in Jiangsu province were investigated using cross-sectional study. Results:The o-verall RTI infection rate reached 52.55%. The risks of RTI among IUD users in central and northern Jiangau were respectively 1.08 times (95% CI:1.02-1.14) and 1.42 times (95 CI%:1.32-1.53) higher than southern Jiangsu after the adjustment of age, educational level and parity. The risk of positive symptoms/signs among IUD users infected RTI in central and northern Jiangau were respectively 3.80 times (95% CI:3.32-4.35) and 4.71 times (95CI%:3.91-5.67) higher than southern Jiangau. The trend chi-square test indicated that the positive rate of RTI presented an increasing trend with the increasing of sign types(P<0.0001 ). The sensitivities of syndrome screening among IUD users with RTI in southern, central and northern Jiangsu were respectively 54.70%, 82.11% and 85.04%, and the positive predictive values were 60.82%, 65.39% and 81.92%, respectively. Conclusions:The situations of various RTI among IUD users in southern, central and northern Jiangsu are different. Signifieandy regional differences are showed on the positive rates of symptom/signs among IUD users with RTI. For RTI, sign screening is superior to symptom screening. Screening of RTI should be individually chosen in different conditions.%目的:评价病征筛查用于宫内节育器(IUD)使用者生殖道感染(RTI)的效果.方法:对江苏省10884名使用IUD的育龄妇女RTI感染情况进行横断面调查.结果:RTI感染率为52.55%,经年龄、文化程度和活产数调整,苏中和苏北地区IUD使用者中RTI感染风险分别是苏南地区的1.08倍(95%CI=1.02~1.14)和1.42倍(95%CI=1.32~1.53).感染RTI的IUD使用者在苏中、苏北地区有症状/体征的风险分别是苏南地区的3.80倍(95

  20. Analysis of the reproductive tract infectious and sexually transmitted diseases in floating females%女性流动人口生殖道感染与性传播疾病状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鹿舫; 何微微

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases (RTI/STD) in town floating women,and investigate their awareness to reproductive health.Methods From January 2012 to August 2013,a total of 256 floating females who were taken pelvic examination and laboratory tests for 8 kinds of regular RTI/STD in Tanzhou Family Planning Technical Guidance Station were enrolled in this research,and the demographic information and awareness to reproductive health were investigated by questionnaires.At the same time,a total of 98 permanent females were enrolled as the control group.The data obtained were processed by SPSS 13.0.Results The prevalence rate in floating group (51.2%,131/256) was significantly higher than that in the permanent group (32.7%,32/98)(x2=5.7,P<0.05).In 131 floating patients,chronic pelvic inflammatory disease,bacterial vaginosis and ch]amyolia infection were diagnosed as the major diseases with the infection rates of 26.7%,20.6% and 22.9%,respectively.There were also significant indifferences of infection rates in different ages and sex partners groups (x2=5.3,9.6,P all<0.05).Of the 256 repondents,80.1% would visit clinic timely,36.7% would choose normal hospital,77.7% did not receive regular pelvic examination,18.0% had sex during menstruatiou,and 61.3% were eager for reproductive health information about sexual physiology,maternal care and sexually transmitted disease prevention.Conclusions The RTI/STD prevalence in floating population is not optimistic,the relevant department should strengthen the attention,management and knowledge propaganda to this population,so as to reduce the RTI/STD incidence in urban and rural areas.%目的 调查城乡女性流动人口生殖道感染(RTI)/性传播疾病(STD)患病状况,了解其对生殖健康的关注度.方法 对2012年1月至2013年8月在台州市计划生育技术指导站就诊的256名女性流动人员

  1. gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Vaicekauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  2. 深圳育龄妇女宫颈糜烂与生殖道HR-HPV感染的关系分析%Cervical erosion in shenzhen women of childbearing age and reproductive tract HR-HPV infection analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳双燕; 李瑞珍; 张礼婕; 程德敏; 吴瑞芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To study the women of childbearing age in Shenzhen of cervical erosion with HR-HPV infection in , the degree of cervical erosion and HR-HPV viral load relationship. Methods : March 2004 ~ March 2008 in Shenzhen city during the 1943 cases of women for cervical cancer screening,including the questionnaire , pelvic examination, collection of cervical secretions. Using the Hybrid Capture ( HC-Ⅱ ) detected 13 kinds of high risk HPV. Results : Reproductive tract of women HR-HPV infection rate was 19. 6% ,41. 8% prevalence of cervical erosion. Different degrees of cervical erosion caused HR-HPV infection are related. Patients with different degrees of cervical erosion opportunity to HR-HPV infection is significantly different( P<0. 01 ) . Moderate cervical erosion , severe erosion group and mild erosion group , respectively,was a significant difference ( P<0. 001) , moderate and severe was no significant difference ( P>0. 05 ) . Patients with cervical erosion of HR-HPV infection OR = 1. 569 ( 1 . 310 ~1. 878) , with the severity of cervical erosion, OR values increased, with severe cervical erosion OR = 2. 439 ( 1. 815 ~ 3. 278 ) . Patients with different degrees of cervical erosion HR-HPV infection in viral load was significant difference between( P<0. 05 ) , and increased with the higher degrees of cervical erosion ,infection higher HR-HPV viral load of OR values increased. Conclusion : Patients with cervical erosion in the region had a higher HR-HPV infection,and was positively correlated with the degree of erosion ; cervical erosion degree and HR-HPV viral load also has a positive correlation. Control of reproductive tract HR-HPV infection on cervical cancer prevention and treatment is important.%目的:研究深圳育龄妇女宫颈糜烂与高危型人乳头瘤病毒(HR-HPV)感染的相关性,探讨宫颈糜烂程度与HR-HPV病毒载量的关系.方法:2004年3月~2008年3月对深圳市城区育龄妇女1943

  3. Neurotrophins and specific receptors in the oviduct tracts of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruccio, L; Castaldo, L; D'Angelo, L; Gatta, C; Lucini, C; Cotea, C; Solcan, C; Nechita, E L

    2016-09-01

    Neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF and NT-3) and their specific receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) were studied in the oviduct of egg laying quails. Neurotrophins (NTs) are mainly involved in the development and maintenance of neuronal populations in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also in reproductive system. In this survey, we first studied the morphological organization of the quail oviduct, distinguished in infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina, and then we analyzed the expression and localization of NTs and Trks receptors in the whole tracts. By western blotting we detected that the investigated NTs and Trks receptors are expressed in all oviductal tracts. By immunohistochemistry we were able to define the distribution of NTs and Trks. Specifically, NGF, BDNF and NT3 were localized in lining and ductal epithelial cells, and NGF was also detected in secretory cells of tubular glands and in nervous fibers of vessel wall. TrkA and TrkB were present in the lining and ductal epithelium; TrkA and TrkC were present in nervous fibers of vessel wall in all oviductal tracts. Furthermore, we also observed NGF and BDNF co-localized with TrkA and TrkB in cells of the lining and ductal epithelium, suggesting an autocrine mechanism of action.

  4. Identification of epithelialization in high transsphincteric fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Mitalas (Litza); R.S. van Onkelen (Robbert); K. Monkhorst (Kim); D.D.E. Zimmerman (David); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.R. Schouten (Ruud)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground At present, transanal advancement flap repair (TAFR) is the treatment of choice for transsphincteric fistulas passing through the upper and middle third of the external anal sphincter. It has been suggested that epithelialization of the fistula tract contributes to the failure

  5. Identification of epithelialization in high transsphincteric fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Mitalas (Litza); R.S. van Onkelen (Robbert); K. Monkhorst (Kim); D.D.E. Zimmerman (David); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.R. Schouten (Ruud)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground At present, transanal advancement flap repair (TAFR) is the treatment of choice for transsphincteric fistulas passing through the upper and middle third of the external anal sphincter. It has been suggested that epithelialization of the fistula tract contributes to the failure

  6. 北京地区25~54岁已婚妇女下生殖道感染现状调查%Prevalence and determinants of lower reproductive tract infections among women aged 25-54 years in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彩炎; 张为远; 武明辉; 张淞文

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and determinants of the most commonly seen lower reproductive tract infections among women aged 25-54 years in Beijing.Methods The study population consisted of 6339 women aged 25-54 years in 137 communities of Beijing.Focus of this study was to understand the prevalence of the following diseases as:bacterial vaginosis,trichomoniasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis.In addition to their prevalence rates,a generalized equation for estimation was used to analyze those infection-associated factors.Results The overall infection prevalence in the lower reproductive tract was 11.4%,including bacterial vaginitis as 8.7%,trichomonads as 1.0% and vulvovaginal candidiasis as 1.7%.Factors which were found to be significantly associated with lower reproductive tract infections in women were age,profession,family income,number of sex partners and frequency of condom use during sexual contacts.In patients with bacterial vaginitis,both prevalence rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and infection of human papillomavirus were high.Conclusion The prevalence of the most commonly seen lower reproductive tract infections among women aged 25-54 years in Beijing was lower than other areas in China.Lower reproductive tract infections seemed to be related to 30-49 years of age,nongovernmental employee,poverty,higher number of sex partners and not using condoms during sexual contacts.%目的 描述北京地区已婚妇女下生殖道感染现状,分析其危险因素,并探讨其与宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)的关系.方法 用分层抽样的方法,随机选取北京市部分社区作为研究现场,对6339名25~54岁已婚妇女进行问卷调查、妇科检查和实验室检测.结果 北京地区25~54岁已婚妇女下生殖道感染检出率为11.4%,细菌性阴道病检出率为8.7%,滴虫性阴道炎和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的检出率分别为1.0%和1.7%.妇女下生殖道感染的危险因素主要有年龄、文化程度、职

  7. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of ... UTI spreads to your kidneys. Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to ...

  9. Biopsy - biliary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  10. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miessen Katrin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. Results We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. Conclusions We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material.

  11. Infiltration of local immune cells in the sow reproductive tracts after intra-uterine and deep intra-uterine insemination with a reduced number of spermatozoa is less than conventional artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Tienthai, Paisan

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigated the infiltration of leukocyte subpopulations in the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and each part of the oviducts at about 24 hr after intra-uterine insemination (IUI) and deep intra-uterine insemination (DIUI) compared to conventional artificial insemination (CAI) in sows. Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire multiparous sows were used (CAI, n=5; IUI, n=5; DIUI, n=5). The sperm dose contained 3,000 × 10(6) (100 ml), 1,000 × 10(6) (50 ml) and 150 × 10(6) (5 ml) motile spermatozoa for CAI, IUI and DIUI, respectively. The sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen at 6 to 8 hr prior to the expected time of ovulation. At 25.2 ± 1.6 hr after insemination, the oviducts and the UTJ were collected. The tissue samples of UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla were transversely cut to a thickness of 5 µm and stained with H&E. The total numbers of lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils and plasma cells were determined under light microscope. It was found that the numbers of lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages after CAI, IUI and DIUI were not significantly different (P>0.1) in both epithelial and sub-epithelial connective tissue layer of the UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. Intra-epithelial neutrophils in the UTJ were higher than cranial isthmus (P<0.05) and ampulla (P<0.05). In the UTJ, the intra-epithelial neutrophil in the CAI group was higher than DIUI group (P<0.01). Plasma cells in sub-epithelial layer of the endosalpinx in the CAI group were higher than DIUI group (P<0.05) and tended to be higher than the IUI group (P=0.08). In conclusion, compared to CAI, IUI and DIUI do not influence the infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and eosinophils in the UTJ and the oviduct prior to fertilization. But a lower number of neutrophils in the intra-epithelial layer of the UTJ and plasma cells in the sub-epithelial layers of the oviduct was observed in the DIUI group compared to CAI.

  12. Current status of reproductive tract infections among rural married women in Shanxi province%陕西省农村已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席毛毛; 吉宁; 何电; 周猷; 张颖; 茅群霞; 程台民

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解陕西省农村已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染(RTIs)现状及其影响因素,为有关部门制定和采取干预措施提供科学依据.方法:多阶段、整群抽取陕西省20 878例农村已婚妇女进行妇科临床检查和实验室检查,并进行生殖道感染相关的问卷调查.结果:20 878例妇女中,生殖道感染的患病率为53.4%(11 141例),其中25.4%的患者自我报告无明显症状.而14.6%(3 052例)的妇女患有2种RTIs,7.4%(1 557例)的妇女患有3种或者3种以上RTIs.阴道炎、宫颈炎和盆腔炎的患病率分别为26.1%(5 457例),37.8%(7 893例)和3.9%(810例).单因素分析,育龄妇女的年龄、职业、文化程度、家庭年收入、结婚年龄、流产次数、分娩次数、生殖道疾病史、每周性行为数量、避孕情况以及过去6个月服用抗生素情况都对生殖道感染的影响有统计学意义.多因素分析发现,年龄越大、职业为农民、家庭年收入较低、较多的流产或分娩次数、经常使用抗生素越有可能罹患生殖道感染.结论:陕西省农村已婚妇女生殖道感染率较高,且受多种因素影响,应采取综合、有效的措施以降低患病率.%Objective: To explore the current status of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among rural married women and influent factors that contribute to RTIs in rural areas of Shanxi province. Methods: A total of 20 878 married women in rural Shanxi province were chosen and completed an standardized questionnaire, underwent gynecological examination and laboratory investigation. Results: The total prevalence rate of RTIs of the sample was 53. 4% with 25. 4% of them were asymptomatic. Multiple infections were common, with 14. 6% (3 052/20 878) had two RTIs and 7. 4% (1 557/20 878) had at least three RTIs. The prevalence rate of vaginitis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) was 26. 1% , 37. 8% and 3. 9% respectively. Single - variable analysis showed that age

  13. 生殖道解脲支原体感染与胚胎停育和反复自然流产关联的meta分析%A meta-analysis of ureaplasma urealyticum infection of reproductive tract in women with early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽君; 王亚菲; 刘向国; 陈华; 卜雯婷; 王佳; 刘亚芳; 郑晓瑛

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价早孕妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染与胚胎体育和反复自然流产发生的风险关联性.方法:在全面回顾文献基础上,分别对检索到的胚胎停育和反复自然流产文献进行数据整理,用Mantel-Haenszel法合并OR值,并进行meta分析.结果:meta分析表明,妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染发生胚胎停育的合并OR值为3.62(95%CI:2.80~4.67),发生反复自然流产的合并OR值为5.66(95%CI:4.46~7.18);有有解脲支原体感染史的妇女中,胚胎停育和反复自然流产的发生风险随着其复发次数的增加发生风险逐渐加强.结论:妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染与胚胎停育和反复自然流产之间存在关联,其强度随着复发次数的增加而逐渐加强.有效治疗生殖道解脲支原体感染,对预防育龄妇女不良妊娠结局的再次发生具有重要作用.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of association between the risk of early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion and ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) of reproductive tract infections.Methods: Based on a comprehensive review of literatures, meta- analyses were performed to analyze the data collected from the literatures on early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion.A meta- regression analysis was conducted using restricted estimation of maximum likelibood.Odd ratios (OR) was pooled using Mantel - Haenszel method.Results: The risks of early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion wereasseciated with UU infection of reproductive tract, the pooled OR were 3.62 (95% CI 2.80 - 4.67 ) and 5.66 (95% CI 4.46 -7.18), respectively.The risks of early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion enhanced significantly along with the increasing frequency of UU infection.Conclusion: There was a significant association between the risk of early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion and UU infection of reproductive tract, and the association degree

  14. Telomeres and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, Keri Horan; Fontes Antunes, Danielle Mota; Dracxler, Roberta Caetano; Knier, Taylor Warner; Seth-Smith, Michelle Louise; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lin; Keefe, David Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres mediate biologic aging in organisms as diverse as plants, yeast, and mammals. We propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging that posits telomere shortening in the female germ line as the primary driver of reproductive aging in women. Experimental shortening of telomeres in mice, which normally do not exhibit appreciable oocyte aging, and which have exceptionally long telomeres, recapitulates the aging phenotype of human oocytes. Telomere shortening in mice reduces synapsis and chiasmata, increases embryo fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, spindle dysmorphologies, and chromosome abnormalities. Telomeres are shorter in the oocytes from women undergoing in vitro fertilization, who then produce fragmented, aneuploid embryos that fail to implant. In contrast, the testes are replete with spermatogonia that can rejuvenate telomere reserves throughout the life of the man by expressing telomerase. Differences in telomere dynamics across the life span of men and women may have evolved because of the difference in the inherent risks of aging on reproduction between men and women. Additionally, growing evidence links altered telomere biology to endometriosis and gynecologic cancers, thus future studies should examine the role of telomeres in pathologies of the reproductive tract.

  15. Prostasomes: Their Characterisation: Implications for Human Reproduction: Prostasomes and Human Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The prostate is a principal accessory genital gland that is vital for normal fertility. Epithelial cells lining the prostate acini release in a defined fashion (exocytosis) organellar nanosized structures named prostasomes. They are involved in the protection of sperm cells against immune response in the female reproductive tract by modulating the complement system and by inhibiting monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. The immunomodulatory function most probably involves small non-coding RNAs present in prostasomes. Prostasomes have also been proposed to regulate the timing of sperm cell capacitation and induction of the acrosome reaction, since they are rich in various transferable bioactive molecules (e.g. receptors and enzymes) that promote the fertilising ability of sperm cells. Antigenicity of sperm cells has been well documented and implicated in involuntary immunological infertility of human couples, and antisperm antibodies (ASA) occur in several body fluids. The propensity of sperm cells to carry attached prostasomes suggests that they are a new category of sperm antigens. Circulating human ASA recognise prostasomes, and among 12 identified prostasomal antigens, prolactin- inducible protein (95 %) and clusterin (85 %) were immunodominant at the expense of the other 10 that were sporadically occurring.

  16. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  17. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  18. Qualified Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...

  19. A meta-analysis of spontaneous abortion associated with ureaplasma urealyticum infection of reproductive tract in women%妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染与自然流产关联的 meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽君; 王亚菲; 郭超; 朱琳; 江素真; 郑晓瑛

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染与自然流产、稽留流产发生关联.方法:检索自然流产和稽留流产文献数据并进行整理,用Mantel-Haenszel法合并OR值,并进行meta分析.结果:妇女孕早期生殖道解脲支原体感染发生自然流产的合并OR值为4.72(95%CI:3.77 ~5.92),发生稽留流产的合并OR值为4.31(95%CI:2.68 ~6.94);在有解脲支原体感染史妇女中,自然流产和稽留流产的发生危险随着其复发次数的增加而升高.结论:妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染是自然流产和稽留流产发生的可能危险因素,有效诊断解脲支原体感染,可避免妇女生殖道感染中滥用或误用抗生素问题.%Objective: To evaluate the associations between the risk of missed abortion and spontaneous abortion and ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) of reproductive tract infections among Chinese women. Methods: Multiple databases were searched and odd ratio (OR) was pooled using Mantel - Haenszel method. A meta - regression analysis was performed using restricted maximum likelihood. Results: The risks of spontaneous abortion and missed abortion were associated with intrauterine UU infection, the pooled OR was 4.72 (95% CI: 3.77-5.92) and 4.31 (95% CI: 2.68-6.94), respectively. The risks of spontaneous abortion and missed abortion recurrence enhanced significantly along with the increasing frequency of UU infection. Conclusion ; There are significant associations between UU infection of reproductive tract and the risks of spontaneous abortion as well as missed abortion. It suggests that the combination of UU quantitative and qualitative detection should be considered in order to prevent the antibiotic misuse in reproductive women.

  20. Study on Ureaplasma urealyticum infection test of female reproductive tract and results of drug resistance test%女性生殖道解脲支原体感染检验及耐药性检验结果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许林芬; 林美双

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨女性生殖道解脲支原体(UU)感染情况,并对耐药性结果进行检测分析.方法:收集近期在该院妇科诊治的疑似UU感染病例246例女性.检测其生殖道解脲支原体感染情况,并分析UU阳性标本抗生素耐药性检测结果.结果:79例UU阳性标本对9种常用抗生素的药敏试验显示克拉霉素(79.7%)对UU敏感最强,其后依次是强力霉素(74.7%)和美满霉素(72.2%).耐药发生率依次为氧氟沙星(40.5%)、左氧氟沙星(36.7%)和交沙霉素(31.6%).结论:解脲支原体是导致非淋菌性尿道(宫颈)炎等女性生殖系统疾病的最重要致病菌,应依据药物敏感试验确定治疗药物.%Objective: To explore the infection status of Ureaplasma urealylkum ( UU) of female reproductive tract, and analyze the results of drug resistance test. Methods; A total of 246 women suspected of UU infection who were treated in the hospital recently were collected; the infection status of UU of reproductive tract was detected, and the results of drug resistance test for UU positive samples were analyzed. Results; The results of drug sensitive test with 9 kinds of common antibiotics for 79 UU positive samples showed that clarithromy-cin was the most sensitive drug (79. 7% ) , followed by doxycycline (74. 7% ) and minocycline (72. 2% ) . The rates of drug resistance from high to low were ofloxacin (40. 5% ) , levofloxacin (36. 7% ) , and josamycin (31. 6% ) . Conclusion; UU is the most important pathogenic bacterium inducing female reproductive system diseases, such as non - gonococcal urethritis (cervicitis) , the drugs should be determined according to drug sensitive test.

  1. Qualidade de ovos, parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos e desenvolvimento do aparelho reprodutor de poedeiras comerciais Lohmann LSL alimentadas com níveis crescentes de lisina digestível - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3596 Egg quality, blood biochemical parameters and reproductive tract development for Lohmann LSL hens fed increasing levels of digestible lysine - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3596

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anúzia Barini Nunes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de lisina para poedeiras Lohmann LSL sobre a qualidade dos ovos, parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos e mensurações do aparelho reprodutor. Cento e sessenta poedeiras com 24 semanas foram submetidas a níveis crescentes de lisina digestível (600, 700, 800 e 900 mg Lys kg-1 de ração até 48 semanas de idade. As dietas foram isoenergéticas e isonutritivas com 15,8%PB e 2.800 kcal EM kg-1. Delineamento inteiramente casualizado foi adotado com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram analisados: percentagem de casca, de gema e albúmen, gravidade específica dos ovos, unidade Haugh, índice gema, sólidos totais da gema, do albúmen e do ovo, parâmetros sanguíneos e mensuração do aparelho reprodutor. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial (5%, utilizando o programa SAS, e para os resultados sanguíneos e do aparelho reprodutor, foram analisados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de lisina não influenciaram os resultados para qualidade dos ovos. Houve aumento no peso do aparelho reprodutor com o avançar da idade. Os resultados do parâmetro sanguíneo não foram influenciados; já nas semanas, observa-se aumento na albumina, uratos e uratina. O nível de 600 mg kg-1 pode ser recomendado para poedeiras no período avaliado.In this experiment, the effect of lysine levels on egg quality, biochemical parameters and measurements of the reproductive tract on the diets of Lohmann LSL laying hens diets were evaluated. One hundred-sixty hens with 24 weeks of age were submitted to increasing levels of digestible lysine (600, 700, 800 e 900 mg Lys kg-1 of feed until 48 weeks of age. The diets were isoenergetic and isonutritive. A completely randomized design was used, with four treatments and four replicates. Percentages of eggshell, yolk and albumen, specific egg gravity, yolk index, total yolk, albumen and egg solids, blood parameters

  2. Transmission of HIV-1 by primary human uterine epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asin, Susana N; Fanger, Michael W; Wildt-Perinic, Dunja; Ware, Patricia L; Wira, Charles R; Howell, Alexandra L

    2004-07-15

    Women can become infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) after the heterosexual transmission of virus from an infected male partner. To understand the events that result in transmission of HIV-1 across the female reproductive tract, we characterized the life-cycle events of HIV-1 in primary cultures of human uterine epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts. Epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts released virus particles after exposure to either X4- or R5-tropic strains of HIV-1. Virus released by these cells was able to infect CD4(+) T cells. When exposed to an X4-tropic strain of HIV-1, these cells supported HIV-1 reverse transcription, integration, and viral DNA transcription. When exposed to an R5-tropic strain, however, these cells released unmodified virus. These data suggest that uterine cells are targets for productive infection with X4-tropic strains and release unmodified R5-tropic viruses that would then be able to infect submucosal target cells, including T cells and macrophages.

  3. Open chromatin mapping identifies transcriptional networks regulating human epididymis epithelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, James A; Yang, Rui; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2014-12-01

    The epithelium lining the epididymis in the male reproductive tract maintains a luminal environment that promotes sperm cell maturation. This process is dependent on the coordinated expression of many genes that encode proteins with a role in epithelial transport. We previously generated genome-wide maps of open chromatin in primary human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells to identify potential regulatory elements controlling coordinated gene expression in the epididymis epithelium. Subsequent in silico analysis identified transcription factor-binding sites (TFBS) that were over-represented in the HEE open chromatin, including the motif for paired box 2 (PAX2). PAX2 is a critical transcriptional regulator of urogenital tract development, which has been well studied in the kidney but is unexplored in the epididymis. Due to the limited lifespan of primary HEE cells in culture, we investigated the role of PAX2 in an immortalized HEE cell line (REP). First, REP cells were evaluated by DNase I digestion followed by high-throughput sequencing and the PAX2-binding motif was again identified as an over-represented TFBS within intergenic open chromatin, though on fewer chromosomes than in the primary HEE cells. To identify PAX2-target genes in REP cells, RNA-seq analysis was performed after siRNA-mediated depletion of PAX2 and compared with that with a non-targeting siRNA. In response to PAX2-repression, 3135 transcripts were differentially expressed (1333 up-regulated and 1802 down-regulated). Novel PAX2 targets included multiple genes encoding proteins with predicted functions in the epididymis epithelium.

  4. Reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This article explores the reproductive health status of China. Since 1990, China has stepped up its efforts in promoting reproductive health and maternal and child health. Several studies demonstrated a remarkable progress made in this area. By 1997, maternal and infant mortality rates have declined, while the penetration rate for the immunization program and inpatient delivery rate increased. Despite these achievements, however, much remains to be done such as the lack of client-centered approaches to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the population for family planning services. A survey conducted in 1995 showed that the country's family planning program was focused primarily on demographic issues while little attention was given to reproductive health objectives. The situation improved when the State Planning Commission implemented its pilot program called the Quality of Care in Family Planning in China. The program yielded encouraging results including a reoriented philosophy towards reproductive health services, enhanced service facilities, informed choices for family planning methods, and the development of an operational information system. Another strategy adopted to address fertility and reproductive health issues was the implementation of adolescent reproductive health education as a required course for senior middle schools. Lastly, this article provided a brief overview of China's HIV/AIDS situation.

  5. Glycobiome: Bacteria and mucus at the epithelial interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, J.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Belzer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised with a dense and diverse microbial community, that is an important player in human health and physiology. Close to the epithelial cells the mucosal microbiota is separated from the host with a thin lining of host derived glycans, including the cell surfa

  6. AN IN VITRO MODEL FOR MURINE URETERIC EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents a model developed to study growth and differentiation of primary cultures of ureteric epithelial cells from embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tracts. Single cells were resuspended in medium and plated onto transwells coated with collagen IV and laminin. Basa...

  7. Glycobiome: Bacteria and mucus at the epithelial interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, J.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Belzer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised with a dense and diverse microbial community, that is an important player in human health and physiology. Close to the epithelial cells the mucosal microbiota is separated from the host with a thin lining of host derived glycans, including the cell

  8. Arteriovenous shunt graft ulceration with sinus and graft epithelialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous fistula and grafts are used as access sites for patients with chronic kidney disease and are prone for complications. Stent grafts are used to treat access site complications. We report a rare and unusual finding of epithelialization of the sinus tract and the lumen of a polytetrafluoroethylene graft, following ulceration of the overlying skin.

  9. An atypical CD8 T-cell response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections includes T cells that produce interleukin-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S; Slaven, James E

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars D-K are intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate almost exclusively in human reproductive tract epithelium. In the C. muridarum mouse model for human Chlamydia genital tract infections CD4 T helper type 1 cell responses mediate protective immunity while CD8 T-cell responses have been associated with scarring and infertility. Scarring mediated by CD8 T cells requires production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); however, TNF-α is associated with protective immunity mediated by CD4 T cells. The latter result suggests that TNF-α in-and-of itself may not be the sole determining factor in immunopathology. CD8 T cells mediating immunopathology presumably do something in addition to producing TNF-α that is detrimental during resolution of genital tract infections. To investigate the mechanism underlying CD8 immunopathology we attempted to isolate Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones from mice that self-cleared genital tract infections. They could not be derived with antigen-pulsed irradiated naive splenocytes; instead derivation required use of irradiated immune splenocyte antigen-presenting cells. The Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones had relatively low cell surface CD8 levels and the majority were not restricted by MHC class Ia molecules. They did not express Plac8, and had varying abilities to terminate Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. Two of the five CD8 clones produced interleukin-13 (IL-13) in addition to IL-2, TNF-α, IL-10 and interferon-γ. IL-13-producing Chlamydia-specific CD8 T cells may contribute to immunopathology during C. muridarum genital tract infections based on known roles of TNF-α and IL-13 in scar formation.

  10. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  11. Congenital optic tract hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Fujio, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Taylor, David

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of isolated unilateral optic tract hypoplasia, described only twice previously. Bilateral optic disk hypoplasia was seen ophthalmoscopically and visual field studies showed an incongruous right homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral hypoplasia of both optic nerves and the left optic tract. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography mapping correlated well with the visual field studies.

  12. Interaction of Botulinum Toxin with the Epithelial Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Fujinaga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT is a protein toxin (~150 kDa, which possesses a metalloprotease activity. Food-borne botulism is manifested when BoNT is absorbed from the digestive tract to the blood stream and enters the peripheral nerves, where the toxin cleaves core proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus and elicits the inhibition of neurotransmitter release. The initial obstacle to orally ingested BoNT entering the body is the epithelial barrier of the digestive tract. Recent cell biology and molecular biology studies are beginning to elucidate the mechanism by which this large protein toxin crosses the epithelial barrier. In this review, we provide an overview of the structural features of botulinum toxins (BoNT and BoNT complex and the interaction of these toxins with the epithelial barrier.

  13. Release of beryllium into artificial airway epithelial lining fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Inhaled beryllium particles that deposit in the lung airway lining fluid may dissolve and interact with immune-competent cells resulting in sensitization. As such, solubilization of 17 beryllium-containing materials (ore, hydroxide, metal, oxide, alloys, and process intermediates) was investigated using artificial human airway epithelial lining fluid. The maximum beryllium release in 7 days was 11.78% (from a beryl ore melter dust), although release from most materials was beryllium ions may be released in the respiratory tract via dissolution in airway lining fluid. Beryllium-containing particles that deposit in the respiratory tract dissolve in artificial lung epithelial lining fluid, thereby providing ions for absorption in the lung and interaction with immune-competent cells in the respiratory tract.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What ...

  15. Tuberculosis and female reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world and is particularly relevant in developing countries like India where the disease is endemic. Female reproductive system is very vulnerable to this infection and clinical presentation of this disease in female reproductive tract is protean in nature and in a large majority of patients could be completely silent. This disease is an important cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss, and in association with pregnancy, morbidity to both the mother and child increases. Some of the effects of TB infection on female genital tract could be remote in nature due to infection elsewhere. Medicines used to treat TB infection can also have adverse effects on contraception and other areas of female reproductive health. HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and increased population migration from developed to developing countries have now added a whole new dimension to this infection. Though new, finer diagnostic tools of detection of TB are increasingly available in the form of bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR based diagnostics, suspicion by clinicians remains the main tool for diagnosis of the condition. Hence, doctors need to be properly trained to become "Tuberculosis Minded".

  16. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  17. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  18. Reproductive hacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  19. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011359 Effect of CIP4 on human renal tubular epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by transforming growth factor β1. BAI Shoujun(白壽軍),et al.Dept Nephrol,Tongji Hosp,Tongji Med Coll,Wuhan 430030. Abstract:Objective To observe the effect of CIP4(Cdc32 interacting protein 4) on human renal tubular epithelial to mesenchymal transition(EMT) induced by transforming growth

  20. Multilevel Analysis on the Determinants of Reproductive Tract Infections among Married Women in Rural Aera of Eight Provinces of China%我国8省农村已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染影响因素的多水平模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 徐倩倩; 车焱; 蔡建华; 胡云; 商颖; 周维谨

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of socioeconomic environments and individual characteristics on women's reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural China. Methods: By using stratified and random cluster sampling methods, married women aged 20-49 year-old were identified in rural villages in 8 provinces of China. Structured questionnaire was used to collect information on household living conditions, living expenditure, women's demographic background, reproductive history and contraceptive use etc. Symptoms of RTIs during last 12 months were collected. X2 tests and three-level Logistic regression modeling methods were used to explore potential risk factors of RTIs and variations of the risks between villages and across provinces. SAS V9.1 and MLwiN 2.22 were used for the data analyses. Results: A total of 10 612 married women were interviewed. About 31.1% of them reported at least one symptom of RTIs during last 12 months. Vulva itching and abnormal odor of vaginal discharge were the most common symptoms, each accounting for 19% of all respondents, respectively. Results of three-level Logistic regression modeling indicated that the risk of RTIs among married women in reproductive age was similar among provinces, but varied among rural villages. Women from poor families without flush toilet, elder, farmers, less-educated, sterilization users, IUD users, smokers and/or drinkers, those with abortion history were associated with significant higher risk of RTIs. Results of random coefficient model emphasized that the effects of women's occupation, abortion history, contraceptive adoption and alcohol / tobacco habits on the risks of female RTIs varied among villages. Conclusion: A variety of individual and family factors were associated with the risks of RTIs among married women in reproductive ages. Moreover, some effects varied among villages. Intervention project to prevent RTIs in rural China should be tailored to meet the local demands in order to achieve better

  1. In Caenorhabditis elegans nanoparticle-bio-interactions become transparent: silica-nanoparticles induce reproductive senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Pluskota

    Full Text Available While expectations and applications of nanotechnologies grow exponentially, little is known about interactions of engineered nanoparticles with multicellular organisms. Here we propose the transparent roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple but anatomically and biologically well defined animal model that allows for whole organism analyses of nanoparticle-bio-interactions. Microscopic techniques showed that fluorescently labelled nanoparticles are efficiently taken up by the worms during feeding, and translocate to primary organs such as epithelial cells of the intestine, as well as secondary organs belonging to the reproductive tract. The life span of nanoparticle-fed Caenorhabditis elegans remained unchanged, whereas a reduction of progeny production was observed in silica-nanoparticle exposed worms versus untreated controls. This reduction was accompanied by a significant increase of the 'bag of worms' phenotype that is characterized by failed egg-laying and usually occurs in aged wild type worms. Experimental exclusion of developmental defects suggests that silica-nanoparticles induce an age-related degeneration of reproductive organs, and thus set a research platform for both, detailed elucidation of molecular mechanisms and high throughput screening of different nanomaterials by analyses of progeny production.

  2. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pronounced: meh-DUH-luh) has 10 to 15 fan-shaped structures called pyramids . These drain urine into ... tract, especially in the bladder and urethra. Teen girls are more likely to develop UTIs than boys; ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerklund Johansen, Truls E.; Naber, Kurt G.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of urinary tract infections regarding causative pathogens and antibiotic treatment calling for an update of current trends. The worldwide increase of uropathogens resistant to former first line antibiotics, such as cotrim...

  4. 先天性氯离子腹泻致病基因Slc26a3在雄性啮齿类动物生殖道中的表达定位%Expression pattern of congenital chloride diarrhea pathogenic gene Slc26a3 in the reproductive tract of male rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良榉; 许文明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the expression pattern of Slc26a3 gene in reproductive tract of male rodents to clarify whether the expression pattern is related to the subfertility observed in congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) disease.Methods The expression of Slc26a3 in mouse and rat epididymis has been studied with immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.Its developmental expression pattern in rat testis was detected by Western blotting,while both of immunofluorescence and Western blotting were used to localize the expression of Slc26a3 in mouse sperms.The potential change of Slc26a3 expression in CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) knockout mice and CFTR mutant mice was also detected with Western blotting.Results The expression level of Slc26a3 gradually decreased along epididymis from its caput to corpus,then to its cauda part.This gradually decreasing expression pattern was also found in rat testis during development.Slc26a3 was localized mainly on the trunk of mouse sperm tail.In the testis and epididymis of CFTR knockout mice and CFTR mutant mice,no significant change of Slc26a3 expression was found.Conclusion Slc26a3 is expressed in male reproductive tract,and its expression pattern is related to the function.Thus,the subfertility observed in CLD disease may be related to the important role of SLC26A3 in acid-base regulation of epididymis.%目的 通过检测小鼠和大鼠附睾、睾丸、精子中Slc26a3基因的表达模式,探索SLC26A3的表达模式是否与先天性氯离子腹泻(congenital chloride diarrhea,CLD)男性的生育力低下有关.方法 应用免疫组织化学技术和Western印迹用于研究Slc26a3在大鼠、小鼠附睾上皮中的表达定位.应用Western印迹检测Slc26a3在大鼠睾丸发育过程中的表达模式,免疫荧光和Western印迹用于研究Slc26a3在小鼠精子上的定位.同时应用Western印迹在CFTR敲除小鼠以及CFTR定点突变小鼠的睾丸和附睾中检测Slc26a3

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Urinary Tract Infections Print A ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  6. 男性生殖道感染患者脂多糖对成熟精子直接损伤作用与机制研究%Effect and mechanism of lipopolysaccharide of male patients with reproductive tract infections on direct damage of mature sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 王成彬; 向代军; 陈运霞; 薛丹丹; 张帆; 孙崇云; 王策; 梁臻龙; 刘晓婷

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the changes of sperm motility ,reactive oxygen ,and sperm apoptosis after the li-popolysaccharide (LPS) of male patients with reproductive tract infections acts on the mature sperm and explore the impact of LPS on damage of the mature sperm so as to observe the related mechanism of impact of reproductive tract infections on the male fertility .METHODS The normal semen specimens were treated by using swim-up meth-od ,the concentration was adjusted as 5 × 106/ml of high-vitality sperm resuspension ,and the control group and the experimental group were set .The sperm motility ,sperm reactive oxygen ,sperm apoptosis ,and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected after the high-vitality sperm resuspension was incubated at 37℃ for a certain time .RESULTS The mean fluorescence intensity of sperm reactive oxygen of the experimental group was 559 ± 42 .7 ,the ratio of red and green fluorescence intensity of mitochondrial membrane potential of the experimental group was 11 .1 ± 2 .61 ,and there was significant difference in the increase of sperm reactive oxygen or decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential between the control group and the experimental group (P<0 .05) .However , they did not result in the increase of rate of sperm apoptosis or reduction of sperm vitality .CONCLUSION The LPS and high-vitality sperm resuspension act on the surfaces of sperm ,which may lead to the increase of the sperm re-active oxygen and the damage of sperm mitochondria as well as the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential . The LPS of the male patients with reproductive tract infections may play a direct role in the mechanism of the sperm′s participating the male infertility .%目的:研究男性生殖道感染患者脂多糖(L PS )作用成熟精子后精子活力、活性氧以及凋亡指标的变化,探讨L PS对成熟精子的损伤情况,从而研究生殖道感染后影响男性生育能力的相关机制。方法通过上游法处理

  7. Epithelial restitution and wound healing in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Sturm; Axel U Dignass

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. The mucosal epithelium of the alimentary tract constitutes a key element of the mucosal barrier to a broad spectrum of deleterious substances present within the intestinal lumen including bacterial microorganisms, various dietary factors, gastrointestinal secretory products and drugs. In addition, this mucosal barrier can be disturbed in the course of various intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. Fortunately, the integrity of the gastrointestinal surface epithelium is rapidly reestablished even after extensive destruction. Rapid resealing of the epithelial barrier following injuries is accomplished by a process termed epithelial restitution, followed by more delayed mechanisms of epithelial wound healing including increased epithelial cell proliferation and epithelial cell differentiation. Restitution of the intestinal surface epithelium is modulated by a range of highly divergent factors among them a broad spectrum of structurally distinct regulatory peptides, variously described as growth factors or cytokines. Several regulatory peptide factors act from the basolateral site of the epithelial surface and enhance epithelial cell restitution through TGF-β-dependent pathways. In contrast, members of the trefoil factor family (TFF peptides) appear to stimulate epithelial restitution in conjunction with mucin glycoproteins through a TGF-β-independent mechanism from the apical site of the intestinal epithelium. In addition,a number of other peptide molecules like extracellular matrix factors and blood clotting factors and also nonpeptide molecules including phospholipids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), adenine nucleotides, trace elements and pharmacological agents modulate intestinal epithelial repair mechanisms. Repeated damage and injury of the intestinal surface are key features of various intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases

  8. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  9. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  10. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  11. Microscopic Examination of Oral Sinus Tracts and Their Associated Periapical Lesions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    the more proper term sinus tract should be used." In 1961, Bender and Seltzer (3) reported that they found sinus tracts to be lined with granulation...42: 511-517. 2. An annotated glossary of terms used in endodontics. 3rd ed. Chicago, 1981, 7:G4-G23. 3. Bender IB, Seltzer S. The oral fistula: its...and cysts: an evaluation of histopathological and radiographic findings. JADA 1970; 80: 1056-1059. 18. Seltzer S, Soltanoff W, Bender IB. Epithelial

  12. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...

  13. The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaee B

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

  14. METHOXYCHLOR ACCELERATES EMBRYO TRANSPORT THROUGH THE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estrogenic pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is known to reduce implantation, and, in our previous work, this reduction has been attributed to a direct effect on uterine function. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of MXC on embryo transport rate, another phe...

  15. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

    2007-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

  16. Agalactiae in uncomplicated urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jermakow

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . Urinary tract infections (UTIs represent 10-20% of all community-acquired infections. Escherichia coli remains the most commonly isolated microorganism. Because of the dominance of these bacteria, routine laboratory tests are not recommended in making the first UTI diagnosis. However, careful monitoring of all etiological agents of ncomplicated UTIs should be an important strategy for empirical therapy. Objectives . A determination of the incidence of UTI bacterial etiological agents in outpatients. Material and methods. The results of urine cultures were analyzed. The samples were obtained in the period from 01.2011 to 03.2013 from outpatients of all age groups. Results . The rods of Escherichia coli were the most frequently identified microorganisms responsible for uncomplicated UTIs. They were isolated from 52% of infected patients. Every fourth case of UTI indicated the participation of Enterococcus spp. And Streptococcus agalactiae . The next 21% of infections were caused by Gram-negative bacteria other than E. coli . The role of coagulase-negative staphylococci was insignificant and equaled less than 2%. Conclusions . Despite the dominant role of E. coli in urinary tract infections, there has been a decrease in the frequency of its isolation. However, the natural resistance of Enterococcus spp. to antibiotics increases the number of urinary tract infections caused by these bacteria. Streptococcus agalactiae is a UTI cause with similar frequency in women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. Monitoring of the incidence of uncomplicated infections facilitates empirical treatment and prevents UTI recurrence.

  17. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  18. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  19. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  20. My Reproductive Life Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to achieve those goals is called a reproductive life plan . There are many kinds of reproductive life plans. ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  2. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT i...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  4. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT i...

  5. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  6. Reproductive toxicological study on epristeride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunZY; ZhuY

    2002-01-01

    Benign protate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in older men.Epristeride is an uncompetitive inhibitor of steroid 5α-reductase,the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT),and has been shown to retard the growth of hyperplastic prostates.The study included the toxicological effects of epristeride on prostate,vas deferens and sperm.The results were listed below.(1)The 180 days toxicity of epristeride (100mg·kg-1) on interstitial cells of Beagle dog tests and DNA in prostatic epithelial cells couldn't reverse during 60 days vonvalescence,and that the DHT and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level in the gland,the volume of the grland,glandular epithelial cell height and acinar luminal area could reverse to normal during the same convalescence.(2)It was demonstrated that an apoptosis of vas deferens epithelial cell of SD rat was observed at the concentration of 0.3 and 1.0nmol·L-1 epristeride in vitro.The results of PCR showed the exkpression of bcl-2 on vas deferens epithelial cells treated or untreated with epristeride,but the sequence of bcl-2 did not altered.(3)Motility and motile rate of sperm of rat,dog and human in vitro were videotaped and analyzed with computer-assisted sperm anaysis(CASA) system after 1h and 2h incubation.MOT(the percentage of motile sperm) of Beagle dog sperm were significantly reduced after treated with 0.6,6 and 60μmol·L-1 epristeride,respectively,but no significant change occurred in SD rat and human at the same concertations of epristeride.Is a word,epristeride is a better drug against BPH though there are much reproductive toxicity.

  7. Morphostructural investigation of the female reproductive system and molecular evidence for Wolbachia in Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, A M; D'Urso, V; Viscuso, R; Ferrito, V; Giunta, M C; Cupani, S; Vitale, D G M

    2016-02-01

    Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Homoptera, Cicadellidae) is an allochthonous species that is rapidly spreading in Sicily and in mainland Europe due to the wide spread of its host plant and therefore could also compete with populations of native species. Considering these ecological implications, based on the lacking ultrastructural data about the reproductive systems of the Auchenorrhyncha and since previous investigations on the male reproductive system of B. brevis have shown some interesting features, we carried out morphostructural investigations on the female reproductive system of this alien leafhopper. Moreover, given the high interest in literature on Wolbachia entomoparasite and based on our previous studies, we provided a contribution to further investigations in applied sciences. For this aim we performed a molecular analysis on males and females of B. brevis to detect the possible presence of strains of the bacterium known to alter host reproductive biology. The female reproductive system has a morphological organization comparable to the general anatomical features of most of the Auchenorrhyncha species; however, comparing our data with the literature, some considerations are discussed. As for the histological and ultrastructural investigations, our results show a secretory activity of the various examined structures. In the spermatheca of B. brevis, in particular, the secretory activity is more marked in the sac-shaped tract, where histochemical investigations showed a lipid component of the secretion; possible origin of this component is discussed. Moreover, mainly free spermatozoa are found in the sac-shaped tract of the spermatheca and in the common oviduct. As for the latter, an interesting findings is the lack of cuticular intima on the epithelial surface of the common oviduct; furthermore, the observed features and the literature in this regards led us to review the significance of the structure called as spermatheca. The molecular screening

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  9. Study current situation of reproductive tract infection among bearing age married women in countryside and influence factors%农村育龄妇女生殖道感染的流行状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许坤镇; 江少曼; 舒楚龙; 曾妙娟; 蓝晓燕; 郭迎子; 林锦浩; 方城; 吴奕栋

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨农村育龄妇女生殖道感染(RTI)流行状况及影响因素.方法 对4 916例农村已婚育龄妇女进行调查问卷、妇科检查、病原体检查、B超检查明确诊断.结果 RTI的检出率为53.93%,盆腔炎检出率为3.97%,慢性宫颈炎的检出率为51.12%,细菌性阴道炎、滴虫性阴道炎、念珠菌阴道炎检出率分别为12.51%、3.60%和7.71%,其中患一种病症占33.08%,两种病症占19.73%,三种病症占1.08%.RTI的影响因素有年龄、文化程度、家庭经济状况、卫生习惯、孕次、性生活频次、人工流产数和RTI知识.结论 农村已婚育龄妇女RTI患病率处于较高水平,存在多种影响因素.%Objective To study the current situation of reproductive tract infection among bearing age mar-fled women in countryside and influence factors. Methods We had examined 4916 women. Questionnaire investiga-tion,gynecologic examination,the inspection of pathogen and the B-ultrasound were collected by face to face in the clinic. Results The general prevalence rate of RTI was 53.93%. The prevalence rates of pelvic infection and cervici-tis were 3.97% and 51.12%. The prevalence rates of germs, trichomonal and candiclal vaginitis were 12.51%, 3.60% and 7.71% respectively. The infection rate for only one,two or three kind of RTI were 33.08% ,19.73% and 1.08% respectively. The influence factors were : age, education, family economy, sanitary habits, graviclity, frequent in-tercourse,induced abortion and knowledge towards RTI. Conclusion Among bearing age married women in country-side province the prevalence rate of RTI was higher and also showed evidence of some influence factors.

  10. Physician-patient communication in the prevention of female reproductive tract infections: some limitations Comunicação entre médicos e mulheres na prevenção das infecções do trato reprodutivo: algumas limitações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Y. Makuch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the information that women with tubal infertility recalled having received from physicians when they consulted for a reproductive tract infection (RTI and the information physicians reported having provided to women consulting for RTIs. Interviews were conducted with 16 women presenting primary tubal infertility selected on the basis of purposeful sampling criteria. Also, 15 physicians working in the public health network in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were selected at random and interviewed. Analysis of the women's statements concerning previous RTI-related medical consultations showed that they did not recall having received any information on either prevention or the impact of RTI on their reproductive future. Analysis of interviews with physicians showed that the information they provided to women consulting for RTIs was incomplete and unclear. The information women recalled having received and that which physicians remembered having provided at the time of treating a patient with RTI was similar. In conclusion, these women lacked adequate or complete information and that it was probably not possible for them to adopt measures to avoid repetition of RTI and minimize risk of tubal infertility.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a informação que mulheres com esterilidade tubária lembravam haver recebido dos médicos quando elas compareceram à consulta em virtude de infeções do trato reprodutivo (ITR, assim como a informação que os médicos referiram dar-lhes no momento da consulta. Foram entrevistadas 16 mulheres com esterilidade primária de causa tubária, selecionadas seguindo o critério de amostra proposital. Foram selecionados ao acaso e entrevistados 15 médicos da rede pública de Campinas, SP, Brasil. A análise das respostas das mulheres mostrou que elas não lembravam de ter recebido informação a respeito de meios de prevenção ou sobre o impacto das ITRs em seu futuro

  11. Continuous cytokine exposure of colonic epithelial cells induces DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2005-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestinal tract are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. As an example ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including nitrogen monoxide (NO), which is produced in high amounts by inducibl...... nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS). NO as well as other ROS are potential DNA damaging agents. The aim was to determine the effect of long-term cytokine exposure on NO formation and DNA damage in epithelial cells....

  12. Intestinal epithelial cells and their role in innate mucosal immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Contreras, A. L.; McCormick, Beth A

    2010-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts are covered by a layer of epithelial cells that are responsible for sensing and promoting a host immune response in order to establish the limits not only for commensal microorganisms but also for foreign organisms or particles. This is a remarkable task as the human body represents a composite of about 10 trillion human-self cells plus non-self cells from autochthonous or indigenous microbes that outnumber human ...

  13. Introduction: Microbiome in human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has been termed the "second human genome" and data that has come about of late certainly makes it appear every bit as complex. The human body contains 10-fold more microbial cells than the human cells and accounts for 1%-3% of our total body mass. As we learn more about this symbiotic relationship, it appears this complex interaction occurs in nearly every part of the body, even those areas at one time considered to be sterile. Indeed, the microbiome in human reproduction has been investigated in terms of both the lower and upper reproductive tract and includes interactions even at the point of gametogenesis. What is all the more fascinating is that we have known about the importance of microbes for over 150 years, even before they existed in name. And now, with the assistance of an exciting technologic revolution which has pushed forward our understanding of the microbiome, we appear to stand on the precipice of a higher level of understanding of microbes, the biofilms they create, and their impact of health and disease in human reproduction.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main ... to the bladder. When it's empty, your bladder is about the same size as an empty balloon. ...

  15. Trefoil peptides promote restitution of wounded corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göke, M N; Cook, J R; Kunert, K S; Fini, M E; Gipson, I K; Podolsky, D K

    2001-04-01

    The ocular surface shares many characteristics with mucosal surfaces. In both, healing is regulated by peptide growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. However, these factors are not sufficient to ensure most rapid healing. Trefoil peptides are abundantly expressed epithelial cell products which exert protective effects and are key regulators of gastrointestinal epithelial restitution, the critical early phase of cell migration after mucosal injury. To assess the role of trefoil peptides in corneal epithelial wound healing, the effects of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF/TFF3) and spasmolytic polypeptide (SP/TFF2) on migration and proliferation of corneal epithelial cells were analyzed. Both ITF and SP enhanced restitution of primary rabbit corneal epithelial cells in vitro. While the restitution-enhancing effects of TGF-alpha and TGF-beta were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TGF-beta-antibodies, trefoil peptide stimulation of restitution was not. Neither trefoil peptide significantly affected proliferation of primary corneal epithelial cells. ITF but not SP or pS2 mRNA was present in rabbit corneal and conjunctival tissues. In summary, the data indicate an unanticipated role of trefoil peptides in healing of ocular surface and demand rating their functional actions beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Reproductive and hormonal factors in association with ovarian cancer in the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braem, M.G.M.; Onland-Moret, N.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Schouten, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Parity, oral contraceptive use, and hysterectomy are known to protect against ovarian cancer, whereas the effect of other reproductive factors remains unclear. The authors investigated the association between several reproductive and hormonal factors and the risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cance

  17. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  19. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthje, Petra; Brauner, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:26828523

  20. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Lüthje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections.

  1. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  2. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph U Igietseme

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1, but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43, Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1. T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of

  3. Mannheimia haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, Ismail; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2016-12-25

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the most important bacterial agent associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which causes worldwide economic losses to the cattle industry. M. haemolytica cells initially colonize the tonsillar crypts in the upper respiratory tract of cattle, from where they can subsequently descend into the lungs to cause disease. Many bacteria exist as biofilms inside their hosts. We hypothesize that M. haemolytica colonization of cattle during its commensal state may include biofilm formation. To begin to assess this possibility, we developed an in vitro system to study biofilm formation directly on bovine respiratory epithelial cells. Using fixed primary bovine bronchial epithelial cells, we observed M. haemolytica biofilm formation after a 48h incubation period at 37°C. Addition of mucin, the main component of mucus present in the upper respiratory tract, decreased M. haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine epithelial cells. We investigated the effects of prior viral infection of the epithelial cells on subsequent biofilm formation by M. haemolytica and found negligible effects. Utilization of this model system will provide new insights into the potential role of biofilm formation by M. haemolytica in the pathogenesis of BRDC.

  4. Expression of the innate defense receptor S5D-SRCRB in the urogenital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miro-Julia, C.; Escoda-Ferran, C.; Carrasco, E.;

    2014-01-01

    proteins, and presents a restricted tissue expression pattern. This study further analyzes the expression of S5D-SRCRB along the mouse urogenital tract. Immunohistochemical staining for S5D-SRCRB was observed in spermatocytes from seminiferous tubules and in the epithelial surface from urethra and bladder...

  5. [Recurrent urinary tract infection in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevenito S, Juan Pablo

    2008-08-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (R-UTI) are common among women even though they generally have a normal urinary tract. Women with R-UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens due to a greater propensity for them to adhere to their epithelial cells. Risk factors include frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide use, first UTI at an early age and maternal history of UTI. Prevention of recurrences can be done with low-dose continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis or with post-coital antimicrobial prophylaxis, a method that may be more efficient and acceptable. Estrogen replacement therapy using a vaginal administration in postmenopausal women is also effective in preventing R-UTI. The vaginal vaccine only diminishes percentage of women with Escherichia coli UTI. The oral vaccine reduces R-UTI with inferior results than antimicrobial prophylaxis; Cranberry intake shows some evidence in favor, although further trials are needed. Finally R-UTI can also be effectively managed with self-start antimicrobial therapy.

  6. Effect of Reproductive History on Mammary Epithelial Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Anhydrase III M27796 Hydratase 1.4 Y Genes Up-Regulated Sequence Identity Accession Number Function Avg. Fold Change Northern Whey Acidic Protein J00544...included those that are specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells such as B-lymphocytes (kappa light chain and the IgG, IgM, and IgA heavy chains), T...casein, B- casein, y-casein, ic-casein, whey acidic protein, lactoferrin and c-lactalbumin (Table 1). Cluster analysis of microarray data obtained for 6

  7. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed.

  8. Quantitative analysis of promoter methylation in exfoliated epithelial cells isolated from breast milk of healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chung M; Anderton, Douglas L.; Smith-Schneider, Sallie; Wing, Megan A; Greven, Melissa C; Arcaro, Kathleen F.

    2010-01-01

    Promoter methylation analysis of genes frequently silenced in breast cancer is a promising indicator of breast cancer risk, as these methylation events are thought to occur long before presentation of disease. The numerous exfoliated epithelial cells present in breast milk may provide the breast epithelial DNA needed for detailed methylation analysis and assessment of breast cancer risk. Fresh breast milk samples and health, lifestyle and reproductive history questionnaires were collected fro...

  9. A case of urinary tract infection caused by Raoultella planticola after a urodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğcu, Murat; Ruhi, Caglar; Gokce, Ali M; Kara, Melih; Aksaray, Sebahat

    Here we report the case of a patient who developed urinary tract infection after a urodynamic study. The causative agent was Raoultella planticola, a rare opportunistic pathogen that usually invades immunocompromised patients. While a urinary tract infection with R. planticola has been previously described, this is the first report in which an R. planticola infection developed after a urodynamic study. We postulate that the mechanism of infection was direct invasion of the urinary tract from contaminated urodynamic study equipment. Here, we discuss the role played by isotonic solutions in facilitating bacterial reproduction.

  10. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneaki Kenzaka; Ken Kato; Akihito Kitao; Koki Kosami; Kensuke Minami; Shinsuke Yahata; Miho Fukui; Masanobu Okayama

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection ...

  11. Coronaviruses in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Bekker, C P; Voorhout, W F; Horzinek, M C; Van der Ende, A; Strous, G J; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Coronaviruses have a marked tropism for epithelial cells. In this paper the interactions of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) with epithelial cells are compared. Porcine (LLC-PK1) and murine (mTAL) epithelial cells were grown on permeable supp

  12. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  13. Normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and progression of epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted.

  14. CDBG Activity Funding by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.

  15. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  16. Mycoplasma genitalium Infection Activates Cellular Host Defense and Inflammation Pathways in a 3-Dimensional Human Endocervical Epithelial Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowin, Chris L.; Radtke, Andrea L.; Abraham, Kyle; Martin, David H.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background. Because Mycoplasma genitalium is a prevalent and emerging cause of sexually transmitted infections, understanding the mechanisms by which M. genitalium elicits mucosal inflammation is an essential component to managing lower and upper reproductive tract disease syndromes in women. Methods. We used a rotating wall vessel bioreactor system to create 3-dimensional (3-D) epithelial cell aggregates to model and assess endocervical infection by M. genitalium. Results. Attachment of M. genitalium to the host cell's apical surface was observed directly and confirmed using immunoelectron microscopy. Bacterial replication was observed from 0 to 72 hours after inoculation, during which time host cells underwent ultrastructural changes, including reduction of microvilli, and marked increases in secretory vesicle formation. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling, we identified a host defense and inflammation signature activated by M. genitalium during acute infection (48 hours after inoculation) that included cytokine and chemokine activity and secretion of factors for antimicrobial defense. Multiplex bead-based protein assays confirmed secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, several of which are involved in leukocyte recruitment and hypothesized to enhance susceptibility to human immunodeficiency type 1 infection. Conclusions. These findings provide insight into key molecules and pathways involved in innate recognition of M. genitalium and the response to acute infection in the human endocervix. PMID:23493725

  17. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  18. 30 CFR 256.28 - Tract size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tract size. 256.28 Section 256.28 Mineral... IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Area Identification and Tract Size § 256.28 Tract size. (a) A tract.... (b) The tract size for the leasing of other minerals shall be specified in the notice of sale. ...

  19. Managing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  20. Mammary epithelial cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kass, Laura; Erler, Janine Terra; Dembo, Micah

    2007-01-01

    a repertoire of transmembrane receptors, of which integrins are the best characterized. Integrins modulate cell fate by reciprocally transducing biochemical and biophysical cues between the cell and the extracellular matrix, facilitating processes such as embryonic branching morphogenesis and lactation...... in the mammary gland. During breast development and cancer progression, the extracellular matrix is dynamically altered such that its composition, turnover, processing and orientation change dramatically. These modifications influence mammary epithelial cell shape, and modulate growth factor and hormonal...

  1. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide contributes to the epithelial cell death induced by the oral mitis group of streptococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Okahashi

    Full Text Available Members of the mitis group of streptococci are normal inhabitants of the commensal flora of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract of humans. Some mitis group species, such as Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus sanguinis, are primary colonizers of the human oral cavity. Recently, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 produced by S. oralis is cytotoxic to human macrophages, suggesting that streptococcus-derived H2O2 may act as a cytotoxin. Since epithelial cells provide a physical barrier against pathogenic microbes, we investigated their susceptibility to infection by H2O2-producing streptococci in this study. Infection by S. oralis and S. sanguinis was found to stimulate cell death of Detroit 562, Calu-3 and HeLa epithelial cell lines at a multiplicity of infection greater than 100. Catalase, an enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2, inhibited S. oralis cytotoxicity, and H2O2 alone was capable of eliciting epithelial cell death. Moreover, S. oralis mutants lacking the spxB gene encoding pyruvate oxidase, which are deficient in H2O2 production, exhibited reduced cytotoxicity toward Detroit 562 epithelial cells. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that both S. oralis and H2O2 induced interleukin-6 production in Detroit 562 epithelial cells. These results suggest that streptococcal H2O2 is cytotoxic to epithelial cells, and promotes bacterial evasion of the host defense systems in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tracts.

  3. Dual infections of PRRSV / influenza or PRRSV / Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the respiratory tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, J.M.A.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Kok, G.; Wensvoort, G.

    1997-01-01

    To study the effect of a previous porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome-infection (PRRS) of the respiratory tract on influenza virus and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infections, 3-week-old specific-pathogen-free (spf) piglets were intranasally infected with PRRS virus. One week

  4. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  5. Inflammation and the Intestinal Barrier: Leukocyte–Epithelial Cell Interactions, Cell Junction Remodeling, and Mucosal Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luissint, Anny-Claude; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal tract is lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells that forms a dynamic, permeable barrier allowing for selective absorption of nutrients, while restricting access to pathogens and food-borne antigens. Precise regulation of epithelial barrier function is therefore required for maintaining mucosal homeostasis and depends, in part, on barrier-forming elements within the epithelium and a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the mucosa. Pathologic states, such as inflammatory bowel disease, are associated with a leaky epithelial barrier, resulting in excessive exposure to microbial antigens, recruitment of leukocytes, release of soluble mediators, and ultimately mucosal damage. An inflammatory microenvironment affects epithelial barrier properties and mucosal homeostasis by altering the structure and function of epithelial intercellular junctions through direct and indirect mechanisms. We review our current understanding of complex interactions between the intestinal epithelium and immune cells, with a focus on pathologic mucosal inflammation and mechanisms of epithelial repair. We discuss leukocyte–epithelial interactions, as well as inflammatory mediators that affect the epithelial barrier and mucosal repair. Increased knowledge of communication networks between the epithelium and immune system will lead to tissue-specific strategies for treating pathologic intestinal inflammation. PMID:27436072

  6. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  7. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  8. The role of nitric oxide in reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays a crucial role in reproduction at every level in the organism. In the brain, it activates the release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH. The axons of the LHRH neurons project to the mating centers in the brain stem and by afferent pathways evoke the lordosis reflex in female rats. In males, there is activation of NOergic terminals that release NO in the corpora cavernosa penis to induce erection by generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. NO also activates the release of LHRH which reaches the pituitary and activates the release of gonadotropins by activating neural NO synthase (nNOS in the pituitary gland. In the gonad, NO plays an important role in inducing ovulation and in causing luteolysis, whereas in the reproductive tract, it relaxes uterine muscle via cGMP and constricts it via prostaglandins (PG.

  9. [Occupational respiratory tract allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebohle, E; Wallenstein, G

    1979-04-01

    Professionally conditioned allergoses of the respiratory tract (BK 41) can occur in all industrial regions. The allergoses conditioned by organic dusts of vegetable or animal origin (regions food production, plant production and animal keeping) predominate. Since 1976 the BK 41 has been on the 10th rank of alases, 1977), above all conditioned by an improved establishment. Among the diagnoses bronchial asthma is in the first place. The high proportion of allergoses by cereal constituents is to be led back to the, as a rule, unproblematic allergologic clarification diagnostics. One may conclude that difficulties of the recognition in other allergens condition a considerable dark number, particularly in chemical working materials. The allergoses by cereal constituents are followed by the constituents of the animal epidermis (above all hair of laboratory animals). The remainder -- without any importance of the succession -- belongs to moulds, mites, plant pollen, parasubstituted aromates, chrome and rare allergens. Apart from the slight number of alveolitis diseases the allergoses conditioned by organic dusts belong to the type of early reaction (characteristic representatives: baker's asthma). Problematical are the allergoses of the type of the late reaction. Chemical substances of the hapten type are above all in question (characteristic representative: chrome asthma). Here is most cases expressed irritation effects are present so that this pathogenetic factor is frequently determining without proving any immune-specific effects. The report is based on forgiven criteria of decision.

  10. Sexual and reproductive health status and related knowledge among female migrant workers in Guangzhou, China: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, C.; Xu, L.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Zhang, W.-H.; Cheng, Y.; Moyer, E.; Wu, S.; Minkauskiene, M.; van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the current sexual and reproductive health (SRH) status including SRH-related knowledge and associated factors, self-reported symptoms of reproductive tract infection (RTI), medical assistance seeking behavior, sexual experience and contraceptive use, r

  11. Sexual and reproductive health status and related knowledge among female migrant workers in Guangzhou, China: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, C.; Xu, L.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Zhang, W.-H.; Cheng, Y.; Moyer, E.; Wu, S.; Minkauskiene, M.; van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the current sexual and reproductive health (SRH) status including SRH-related knowledge and associated factors, self-reported symptoms of reproductive tract infection (RTI), medical assistance seeking behavior, sexual experience and contraceptive use,

  12. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  13. Epithelial NEMO links innate immunity to chronic intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenci, Arianna; Becker, Christoph; Wullaert, Andy; Gareus, Ralph; van Loo, Geert; Danese, Silvio; Huth, Marion; Nikolaev, Alexei; Neufert, Clemens; Madison, Blair; Gumucio, Deborah; Neurath, Markus F; Pasparakis, Manolis

    2007-03-29

    Deregulation of intestinal immune responses seems to have a principal function in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The gut epithelium is critically involved in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis-acting as a physical barrier separating luminal bacteria and immune cells, and also expressing antimicrobial peptides. However, the molecular mechanisms that control this function of gut epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcription factor NF-kappaB, a master regulator of pro-inflammatory responses, functions in gut epithelial cells to control epithelial integrity and the interaction between the mucosal immune system and gut microflora. Intestinal epithelial-cell-specific inhibition of NF-kappaB through conditional ablation of NEMO (also called IkappaB kinase-gamma (IKKgamma)) or both IKK1 (IKKalpha) and IKK2 (IKKbeta)-IKK subunits essential for NF-kappaB activation-spontaneously caused severe chronic intestinal inflammation in mice. NF-kappaB deficiency led to apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells, impaired expression of antimicrobial peptides and translocation of bacteria into the mucosa. Concurrently, this epithelial defect triggered a chronic inflammatory response in the colon, initially dominated by innate immune cells but later also involving T lymphocytes. Deficiency of the gene encoding the adaptor protein MyD88 prevented the development of intestinal inflammation, demonstrating that Toll-like receptor activation by intestinal bacteria is essential for disease pathogenesis in this mouse model. Furthermore, NEMO deficiency sensitized epithelial cells to tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis, whereas TNF receptor-1 inactivation inhibited intestinal inflammation, demonstrating that TNF receptor-1 signalling is crucial for disease induction. These findings demonstrate that a primary NF-kappaB signalling defect in intestinal epithelial cells disrupts immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis perturbs the junctional complex in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a protist parasite of the urogenital tract in humans, is the causative agent of trichomonosis,which in recent years have been associated with the cervical cancer development. In the present study we analyzed the modifications at the junctional complex level of Caco-2 cells after interaction with two isolates of T. vaginalis and the influence of the iron concentration present in the parasite's culture medium on the interaction effects. Our results show that T. vaginalis adheres to the epithelial cell causing alterations in the junctional complex, such as: (a) a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance; (b) alteration in the pattern of junctional complex proteins distribution as obseryed for E-cadherin, occludin and ZO-1; and (c) enlargement of the spaces between epithelial cells. These effects were dependent on (a) the degree of the parasite virulence isolate, (b) the iron concentration in the culture medium, and (c) the expression of adhesin proteins on the parasite surface.

  15. Activation of epithelial STAT3 regulates intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufert, Clemens; Pickert, Geethanjali; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Nikolaev, Alexei; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2010-02-15

    The intestinal epithelium that lines the mucosal surface along the GI-tract is a key player for the intestinal homeostasis of the healthy individual. In case of a mucosal damage or a barrier defect as seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the balance is disturbed, and translocation of intestinal microbes to the submucosa is facilitated. We recently demonstrated a pivotal role of STAT3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) for the restoration of the balance at the mucosal surface of the gut in an experimental colitis model. STAT3 was rapidly induced in intestinal epithelial cells upon challenge of mice in both experimental colitis and intestinal wound healing models. STAT3 activation was found to be dispensable in the steady-state conditions but was important for efficient regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury. Here, we extend our previous findings by showing epithelial STAT3 activation in human patients suffering from IBD and provide additional insights how the activation of epithelial STAT3 by IL-22 regulates intestinal homeostasis and mucosal wound healing. We also demonstrate that antibody-mediated neutralization of IL-22 has little impact on the development of experimental colitis in mice, but significantly delays recovery from colitis. Thus, our data suggest that targeting the STAT3 signaling pathway in IEC is a promising therapeutic approach in situations when the intestinal homeostasis is disturbed, e.g., as seen in Crohn's disease or Ulcerative colitis.

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids for Teens Kids Home How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Recipes & Cooking ... that leads from your bladder out of your body. Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  18. Candida Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John F. Fisher; Kevin Kavanagh; Jack D. Sobel; Carol A. Kauffman; Cheryl A. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system...

  19. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN ADULTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Uncomplicated UTI describes infection where the urinary tract is entirely nor- mal. ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers from urine in ..... which can lead to preterm labour, pre- maturity and ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, et al. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science. 2003; ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888- ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  2. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    -free EpiLife medium, using a range of physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations (2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). Using immunocytochemistry and advanced fluorescence microscopy, cells were characterized regarding growth, cell cycle distribution, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), phenotypes...... and cytomorphometry. Limbal epithelial cells expanded in 2% O2 exhibited slow growth, low fraction of cells in S/G2 , high CFE, high expression of stem cell markers ABCG2 and p63α, and low fraction of differentiation marker CK3 resembling a LESC phenotype. The effect of hypoxia to maintain LESCs in culture...

  3. Uterine epithelial cell proliferation and endometrial hyperplasia: evidence from a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Li, Shu; Li, Qinglei

    2014-08-01

    In the uterus, epithelial cell proliferation changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation results in implantation failure and/or cancer development. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a fundamental regulator of diverse biological processes and is indispensable for multiple reproductive functions. However, the in vivo role of TGF-β signaling in uterine epithelial cells remains poorly defined. We have shown that in the uterus, conditional deletion of the Type 1 receptor for TGF-β (Tgfbr1) using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 (Amhr2) Cre leads to myometrial defects. Here, we describe enhanced epithelial cell proliferation by immunostaining of Ki67 in the uteri of these mice. The aberration culminated in endometrial hyperplasia in aged females. To exclude the potential influence of ovarian steroid hormones, the proliferative status of uterine epithelial cells was assessed following ovariectomy. Increased uterine epithelial cell proliferation was also revealed in ovariectomized Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout mice. We further demonstrated that transcript levels for fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) were markedly up-regulated in Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout uteri. Consistently, treatment of primary uterine stromal cells with TGF-β1 significantly reduced Fgf10 mRNA expression. Thus, our findings suggest a potential involvement of TGFBR1-mediated signaling in the regulation of uterine epithelial cell proliferation, and provide genetic evidence supporting the role of uterine epithelial cell proliferation in the pathogenesis of endometrial hyperplasia.

  4. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Yu. Dolmatov

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holot...

  5. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  6. Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.

  7. Simple Epithelial Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Pavel; Guldiken, Nurdan; Helenius, Terhi O; Misiorek, Julia O; Nyström, Joel H; Lähdeniemi, Iris A K; Silvander, Jonas S G; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are the cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins of single-layered and glandular epithelial cells as found in the liver, pancreas, intestine, and lung. SEKs have broad cytoprotective functions, which are facilitated by dynamic posttranslational modifications and interaction with associated proteins. SEK filaments are composed of obligate heteropolymers of type II (K7, K8) and type I (K18-K20, K23) keratins. The multifaceted roles of SEKs are increasingly appreciated due to findings obtained from transgenic mouse models and human studies that identified SEK variants in several digestive diseases. Reorganization of the SEK network into aggregates called Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) is characteristic for specific liver disorders such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To spur further research on SEKs, we here review the methods and potential caveats of their isolation as well as possibilities to study them in cell culture. The existing transgenic SEK mouse models, their advantages and potential drawbacks are discussed. The tools to induce MDBs, ways of their visualization and quantification, as well as the possibilities to detect SEK variants in humans are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabinoids and Reproduction: A Lasting and Intriguing History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Cobellis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from an historical overview of lasting Cannabis use over the centuries, we will focus on a description of the cannabinergic system, with a comprehensive analysis of chemical and pharmacological properties of endogenous and synthetic cannabimimetic analogues. The metabolic pathways and the signal transduction mechanisms, activated by cannabinoid receptors stimulation, will also be discussed. In particular, we will point out the action of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids on the different neuronal networks involved in reproductive axis, and locally, on male and female reproductive tracts, by emphasizing the pivotal role played by this system in the control of fertility.

  9. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function....... The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell...

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or upper GI ... GI) Tract X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called ...

  11. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  12. GATA Transcription Factors in Tissue Homeostasis and Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Haveri, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian gastrointestinal tract and liver are self-renewing organs that are able to sustain themselves due to stem cells present in their tissues. In constant, inflammation-related epithelial damage, vigorous activation of stem cells may lead to their uncontrolled proliferation, and further, to cancer. GATA-4, GATA-5, and GATA-6 regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in many mammalian organs. Lack of GATA-4 or GATA-6 leads to defective endodermal development and cell differentiation...

  13. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...

  14. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Shoryabi, Ali; Adhami, Shahrzad; Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32. It occurs with low frequency in the Iranian population. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple, small papules or nodules in the oral cavity, especially on the labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. In some populations, up to 39% of children are affected. Conservative surgical excision of lesions may be performed for diagnostic or aesthetic purposes. The risk of recurrence after this therapy is minimal, and there seems to be no malignant transformation potential. In the present work, we presented the clinical case of a 12-year-old Iranian girl with oral lesions that clinically and histologically correspond to Heck's disease.

  15. Seasonal and Ageing-Depending Changes of Aquaporins 1 and 9 Expression in the Genital Tract of Buffalo Bulls (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, S; Bosi, G; Accogli, G; Desantis, S

    2016-08-01

    The presence of Aquaporins 1 (AQP1) and 9 (AQP9), integral membrane water channels that facilitate rapid passive movement of water and solutes, was immunohistochemically detected in the excurrent ducts collected from sexually mature buffalo bulls of proven fertility during the mating (late autumn-winter) and non-mating (late spring to the beginning of autumn) seasons. Furthermore, the research was performed also on the epididymal cauda of a senile buffalo bull with inactive testis. Aquaporins 1 and 9 were immunolocalized at distinct levels. In the efferent ducts, AQP1 immunoreactivity was strongly evidenced at the apical surface of the non-ciliated cells and weakly along the basal membrane of the epithelial cells. The latter reactivity disappeared during the non-mating season. No AQP1 immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium of epididymis and vas deferens, whereas AQP1 was expressed in the smooth muscle layer of the vas deferens. Aquaporin 1 was present in the blood vessels and in small nerve bundles all along the genital tract. The supranuclear zone of the epididymal principal cells was AQP9 immunoreactive, limited to the corpus and cauda regions, and vas deferens. The samples collected in the two reproductive seasons showed a weaker AQP9 immunoreactivity during the non-mating season. A typical AQP9 immunoreactivity was noticed in the old buffalo examined. The tested AQP molecules showed a different expression pattern in comparison with laboratory mammals, primates, equine, dog and cat. In addition, seasonal differences were noticed which are possibly useful in regard to the comprehension of the morphophysiology of reproduction in the bubaline species, which are still a matter of debate.

  16. Reproductive health/family planning and the health of infants, girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, N

    1997-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and

  17. The future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  18. Syntactic processing depends on dorsal language tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Rising, Kindle; Patterson, Dianne K; Henry, Maya L; Ogar, Jennifer M; DeLeon, Jessica; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2011-10-20

    Frontal and temporal language areas involved in syntactic processing are connected by several dorsal and ventral tracts, but the functional roles of the different tracts are not well understood. To identify which white matter tract(s) are important for syntactic processing, we examined the relationship between white matter damage and syntactic deficits in patients with primary progressive aphasia, using multimodal neuroimaging and neurolinguistic assessment. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that microstructural damage to left hemisphere dorsal tracts--the superior longitudinal fasciculus including its arcuate component--was strongly associated with deficits in comprehension and production of syntax. Damage to these dorsal tracts predicted syntactic deficits after gray matter atrophy was taken into account, and fMRI confirmed that these tracts connect regions modulated by syntactic processing. In contrast, damage to ventral tracts--the extreme capsule fiber system or the uncinate fasciculus--was not associated with syntactic deficits. Our findings show that syntactic processing depends primarily on dorsal language tracts.

  19. Malakoplakia of the Urogenital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is a rare, granulomatous condition most commonly found in the genitourinary tract. It can present in a myriad of ways depending on the organ involved, thus presenting a huge diagnostic challenge. We present 4 patients with genitourinary malakoplakia, who manifested with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI and hematuria in all except one, who presented with hydronephrosis secondary to a large pelvic mass. We discuss the need for a high index of suspicion and careful scrutiny of histology to order to avoid misdiagnosis as simple long term antibiotics are an effective treatment in all but those with large pelvic masses.

  20. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan B. Cohn

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  2. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, L C; Ramin, S M

    2001-09-01

    Urinary tract infections are relatively common in pregnancy and may result in significant morbidity for the pregnant woman and fetus. The authors recommend that all pregnant women be screened for the presence of bacteriuria at their first prenatal visit. Failure to treat bacteriuria during pregnancy may result in as many as 25% of women experiencing acute pyelonephritis. Women with acute pyelonephritis may sustain significant complications, such as preterm labor, transient renal failure, ARDS, sepsis and shock, and hematologic abnormalities. Pregnant women with urinary tract infections should be followed up closely after treatment because as many as one third will experience a recurrence.

  3. Spectrum of bacterial colonization associated with urothelial cells from patients with chronic lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasriya, Rajvinder; Sathiananthamoorthy, Sanchutha; Ismail, Salim; Kelsey, Michael; Wilson, Mike; Rohn, Jennifer L; Malone-Lee, James

    2013-07-01

    Chronic lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), such as urgency and incontinence, are common, especially among the elderly, but their etiology is often obscure. Recent studies of acute urinary tract infections implicated invasion by Escherichia coli into the cytoplasm of urothelial cells, with persistence of long-term bacterial reservoirs, but the role of infection in chronic LUTS is unknown. We conducted a large prospective study with eligible patients with LUTS and controls over a 3-year period, comparing routine urine cultures of planktonic bacteria with cultures of shed urothelial cells concentrated in centrifuged urinary sediments. This comparison revealed large numbers of bacteria undetected by routine cultures. Next, we typed the bacterial species cultured from patient and control sediments under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and we found that the two groups had complex but significantly distinct profiles of bacteria associated with their shed bladder epithelial cells. Strikingly, E. coli, the organism most responsible for acute urinary tract infections, was not the only or even the main offending pathogen in this more-chronic condition. Antibiotic protection assays with shed patient cells and in vitro infection studies using patient-derived strains in cell culture suggested that LUTS-associated bacteria are within or extremely closely associated with shed epithelial cells, which explains how routine cultures might fail to detect them. These data have strong implications for the need to rethink our common diagnoses and treatments of chronic urinary tract symptoms.

  4. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  5. Selenium in human male reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldereid, N B; Thomassen, Y; Purvis, K

    1998-08-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain information on the concentration and distribution of selenium throughout the human male reproductive tract. Material was removed at autopsy from 41 men who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. Semen samples were also provided from 184 men attending an andrology clinic for fertility investigation and from 32 healthy volunteers. Significant positive correlations in the selenium concentration were demonstrated between the different reproductive organs, the testis having the highest concentrations. No correlation was found between the concentration of selenium in the genital organs and liver, kidney or blood, suggesting that its uptake and/or biochemical activity in the reproductive organs may be controlled by similar mechanisms not shared by the other organs. No significant age-dependent changes could be detected in tissue selenium concentrations. In a group of men under fertility investigation, a significant positive correlation was obtained between seminal plasma concentrations of selenium and concentrations of spermatozoa in the same ejaculate. A significant positive correlation between concentrations of zinc and selenium in the same ejaculates indicated that selenium may arise largely from the prostate gland.

  6. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  7. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  8. Extrapituitary growth hormone in the chicken reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Maricela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ahumada-Solórzano, Marisela S; Harvey, Steve; Carranza, Martha; Arámburo, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that growth hormone (GH) expression is not limited to the pituitary, as it can be produced in many other tissues. It is known that growth hormone (GH) plays a role in the control of reproductive tract development. Acting as an endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine regulator, GH influences proliferation, differentiation and function of reproductive tissues. In this review we substantiate the local expression of GH mRNA and GH protein, as well as the GH receptor (GHR) in both male and female reproductive tract, mainly in the chicken. Locally expressed GH was found to be heterogeneous, with a 17 kDa variant being predominant. GH secretagogues, such as GHRH and TRH co-localize with GH expression in the chicken testis and induce GH release. In the ovarian follicular granulosa cells, GH and GHR are co-expressed and stimulate progesterone production, which was neutralized by a specific GH antibody. Both testicular and follicular cells in primary cultures were able to synthesize and release GH to the culture medium. We also characterized GH and GH mRNA expression in the hen's oviduct and showed that it had 99.6% sequence identity with pituitary GH. Data suggest local reproductive GH may have important autocrine/paracrine effects.

  9. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity.

  10. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  11. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, A; Levancini, M

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.

  12. Treatment ofurinary tract infection inchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection in children. Its prevalence in the population younger than 14 years of age has been estimated at 5–10%. Its high recurrence, especially in patients with risk factors, poses a significant problem. The risk factors most common in the group of children ≤3 years are congenital defects blocking the flow of urine to the bladder, whereas in older children they most typically include a tendency for constipation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the child’s age, immunity status, pathogen virulence and localisation of infection. The mildest form of urinary tract infection is asymptomatic bacteriuria, whereas more severe presentations include acute pyelonephritis, acute focal bacterial nephritis and urosepsis. Prognosis is usually good, but under certain circumstances hypertension, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease may develop. Therefore, early introduced appropriate treatment is essential. According to the Polish Society for Paediatric Nephrology guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria does not warrant treatment, whereas febrile patients (>38°C under 24 months old with a suspicion for urinary tract infection must be promptly administered antibiotic therapy, after a urine specimen has been obtained for culture. For many years, urinary tract infection has remained a topic of controversy in terms of therapy duration and administration route. Inpatient treatment of children under 3 months of age is an accepted rule. Acute pyelonephritis necessitates a longer therapy, lasting from 7 to 10 days, whereas the duration of treatment of lower urinary tract infection has been cut down to 3 up to 5 days. Routine prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is not recommended following the initial urinary tract infection episode, yet should be considered in special circumstances. Alternative

  13. Physiologie de la reproduction = Physiology of reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Legendre, Marc; JALABERT, B.

    1988-01-01

    Apart from a few species on which specific studies have been conducted (e.g. on the sexual cycle), most research on the physiology of reproduction in African inland waters fishes deals with four families : Cichlidae, Mugilidae, Clariidae and Anguillidae, due to their economic importance in fisheries and fishiculture. A detailed review of date on these four families is given after a brief summary of general knowledge concerning Teleostean fishes

  14. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies. Latest Additions: Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility Robotic surgery The Intrauterine Device (IUD): A Long-acting ...

  15. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis......, but this was restricted to pregnancies from assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: Women with endometriosis have slightly fewer children, but this lessened over time due to artificially conceived pregnancies. The risk for miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies was increased compared with women without the disease....

  16. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  17. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  18. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  19. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...

  20. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  1. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  2. Tract profiles of white matter properties: automating fiber-tract quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Yeatman

    Full Text Available Tractography based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI data is a method for identifying the major white matter fascicles (tracts in the living human brain. The health of these tracts is an important factor underlying many cognitive and neurological disorders. In vivo, tissue properties may vary systematically along each tract for several reasons: different populations of axons enter and exit the tract, and disease can strike at local positions within the tract. Hence quantifying and understanding diffusion measures along each fiber tract (Tract Profile may reveal new insights into white matter development, function, and disease that are not obvious from mean measures of that tract. We demonstrate several novel findings related to Tract Profiles in the brains of typically developing children and children at risk for white matter injury secondary to preterm birth. First, fractional anisotropy (FA values vary substantially within a tract but the Tract FA Profile is consistent across subjects. Thus, Tract Profiles contain far more information than mean diffusion measures. Second, developmental changes in FA occur at specific positions within the Tract Profile, rather than along the entire tract. Third, Tract Profiles can be used to compare white matter properties of individual patients to standardized Tract Profiles of a healthy population to elucidate unique features of that patient's clinical condition. Fourth, Tract Profiles can be used to evaluate the association between white matter properties and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, in the preterm group reading ability is positively correlated with FA measured at specific locations on the left arcuate and left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the magnitude of the correlation varies significantly along the Tract Profiles. We introduce open source software for automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ that measures Tract Profiles of MRI parameters for 18 white matter tracts. With further

  3. Asexual reproduction in holothurians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed.

  4. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  5. Theodore Roosevelt Island Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Colorado National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Piscataway Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Fort Donelson National Battlefield Tract & Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Pinnacles National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Cabrillo National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Chiricahua National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Saguaro National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Hovenweep National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Navajo National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Wupatki National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Coronado National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Noatak National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Badlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Alagnak Wild River Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Buffalo National River Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Boundaries, Tracts (Published 2006), Petrified Forest, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ESRI shapefile of National Park Service tract data. Tracts are numbered and created by the regional cartographic staff at the Land Resources Program...

  2. Mojave National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Chamizal National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  5. Petersburg National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Sequoia National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Vietnam Vetrans Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Pipestone National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

  10. Antietam National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Canyonlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Zion National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Catoctin Mountain Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Haleakala National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Reproduction in the zebra mare Equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Smuts

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive characteristics of Burchell's zebra mares are described using data collected from captive and free ranging animals and the reproductive tracts of 310 mares shot during a game cropping campaign. The pubertal interval in zebra mares ranges from age 16 to 22 months, succesful mating occurring for the first time at 23 months of age. Full reproductive capacity is attained at three years. Zebra mares are seasonally polyoestrous, with an average of 85 of all mating and foaling occurring during the wet summer months (October to March.

  16. 30 CFR 281.15 - Tract size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tract size. 281.15 Section 281.15 Mineral... OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Leasing Procedures § 281.15 Tract size. The size... prospecting is needed to discover and delineate OCS minerals, the size of tracts specified in the leasing...

  17. The Pediatric Urinary Tract and Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    The pediatric urinary tract often is assessed with medical imaging. Consequently, it is essential for medical imaging professionals to have a fundamental understanding of pediatric anatomy, physiology, and common pathology of the urinary tract to provide optimal patient care. This article provides an overview of fetal development, pediatric urinary anatomy and physiology, and common diseases and conditions of the pediatric urinary tract.

  18. The value of the Lugol's iodine staining technique for the identification of vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, R; Pregler, C; Schellmann, B

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the specificity of the Lugol's iodine staining technique for the detection of vaginal epithelial cells on penile swabs. Air-dried swabs taken from the glans of the penis of 153 hospital patients and from 50 healthy volunteers, whose last sexual intercourse had taken place at least 5 days previously, were stained with Lugol's solution. Glycogenated cells were found in more than 50% of the cases studied, even in healthy volunteers without urethritis. In almost all of these cases the smear contained at least a few polygonal nucleated epithelial cells showing an unequivocal positive Lugol reaction. These cells cannot be distinguished from superficial or intermediate vaginal cells, by cytomorphology or staining. Urinary tract infections had no influence on the glycogen content of male squamous epithelial cells. On the basis of these results the Lugol's method can no longer be assumed to prove the presence of vaginal cells in penile swabs.

  19. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells. PMID:23440124

  20. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells.

  1. Microbiome Composition and Function Drives Wound-Healing Impairment in the Female Genital Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S Zevin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism(s by which bacterial communities impact susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and maintain female genital tract (FGT health are poorly understood. Evaluation of FGT bacteria has predominantly been limited to studies of species abundance, but not bacterial function. We therefore sought to examine the relationship of bacterial community composition and function with mucosal epithelial barrier health in the context of bacterial vaginosis (BV using metaproteomic, metagenomic, and in vitro approaches. We found highly diverse bacterial communities dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis associated with host epithelial barrier disruption and enhanced immune activation, and low diversity communities dominated by Lactobacillus species that associated with lower Nugent scores, reduced pH, and expression of host mucosal proteins important for maintaining epithelial integrity. Importantly, proteomic signatures of disrupted epithelial integrity associated with G. vaginalis-dominated communities in the absence of clinical BV diagnosis. Because traditional clinical assessments did not capture this, it likely represents a larger underrepresented phenomenon in populations with high prevalence of G. vaginalis. We finally demonstrated that soluble products derived from G. vaginalis inhibited wound healing, while those derived from L. iners did not, providing insight into functional mechanisms by which FGT bacterial communities affect epithelial barrier integrity.

  2. Microbiome Composition and Function Drives Wound-Healing Impairment in the Female Genital Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kelly; Romas, Laura; Westmacott, Garrett; McCorrister, Stuart; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Cohen, Craig R.; Mackelprang, Romel; Lingappa, Jairam; Lauffenburger, Doug A.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Burgener, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which bacterial communities impact susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and maintain female genital tract (FGT) health are poorly understood. Evaluation of FGT bacteria has predominantly been limited to studies of species abundance, but not bacterial function. We therefore sought to examine the relationship of bacterial community composition and function with mucosal epithelial barrier health in the context of bacterial vaginosis (BV) using metaproteomic, metagenomic, and in vitro approaches. We found highly diverse bacterial communities dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis associated with host epithelial barrier disruption and enhanced immune activation, and low diversity communities dominated by Lactobacillus species that associated with lower Nugent scores, reduced pH, and expression of host mucosal proteins important for maintaining epithelial integrity. Importantly, proteomic signatures of disrupted epithelial integrity associated with G. vaginalis-dominated communities in the absence of clinical BV diagnosis. Because traditional clinical assessments did not capture this, it likely represents a larger underrepresented phenomenon in populations with high prevalence of G. vaginalis. We finally demonstrated that soluble products derived from G. vaginalis inhibited wound healing, while those derived from L. iners did not, providing insight into functional mechanisms by which FGT bacterial communities affect epithelial barrier integrity. PMID:27656899

  3. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Anna C; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that stress, measured by increased glucocorticoid secretion, leads to profound reproductive dysfunction. In times of stress, glucocorticoids activate many parts of the fight or flight response, mobilizing energy and enhancing survival, while inhibiting metabolic processes that are not necessary for survival in the moment. This includes reproduction, an energetically costly procedure that is very finely regulated. In the short term, this is meant to be beneficial, so that the organism does not waste precious energy needed for survival. However, long-term inhibition can lead to persistent reproductive dysfunction, even if no longer stressed. This response is mediated by the increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which orchestrate complex inhibition of the entire reproductive axis. Stress and glucocorticoids exhibits both central and peripheral inhibition of the reproductive hormonal axis. While this has long been recognized as an issue, understanding the complex signaling mechanism behind this inhibition remains somewhat of a mystery. What makes this especially difficult is attempting to differentiate the many parts of both of these hormonal axes, and new neuropeptide discoveries in the last decade in the reproductive field have added even more complexity to an already complicated system. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and other hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as well as contributors in the sympathetic system) can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at all levels-GCs can inhibit release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release in the pituitary, and inhibit testosterone synthesis and release from the gonads, while also influencing gametogenesis and sexual behavior. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of all the known literature, however is aimed at giving a brief look at both the central and peripheral effects of glucocorticoids on the reproductive function.

  4. Co-expression and interaction of cubilin and megalin in the adult male rat reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praet, Oliver; Argraves, W Scott; Morales, Carlos R

    2003-02-01

    Cubilin is a peripheral membrane protein that cooperates with the endocytic receptor megalin to mediate endocytosis of ligands in various polarized epithelia. Megalin is expressed in the male reproductive tract where it has been implicated in the process of sperm membrane remodeling. A potential role for cubilin in the male reproductive tract has not been explored. Using RT-PCR, we found that cubilin and megalin mRNAs are expressed in the efferent ducts, corpus and cauda epididymis, and proximal and distal vas deferens. Immunohistological analysis revealed that cubilin was expressed in nonciliated cells of the efferent ducts, principal cells of the corpus and cauda epididymis and vas deferens. Immunogold EM showed cubilin in endocytic pits, endocytic vesicles, and endosomes of these cells. The expression profile of cubilin in the male reproductive tract was coincident with that of megalin except in principal cells of the caput epididymis. Double immunogold labeling showed that cubilin and megalin co-localized within the endocytic apparatus and recycling vesicles of efferent duct cells. Neither protein was found in lysosomes. Injection of RAP, an antagonist of megalin interaction with cubilin, reduced the level of intracellular cubilin in cells of the efferent ducts and vas deferens. In conclusion, cubilin and megalin are co-expressed in cells of the epididymis and vas deferens and the endocytosis of cubilin in these tissues is dependent on megalin. Together, these findings highlight the potential for a joint endocytic role for cubilin and megalin in the male reproductive tract.

  5. Critical Role of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulation(CFTR)in Female Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsiao Chang CHAN

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated Cl- channel, mutations of which are responsible for defective Cl- and/or HCO-3 secretions seen in cystic fibrosis (CF), a common lethal genetic disease affecting most exocrine glands/organs, including the lungs, intestine, pancreas and reproductive tracts of both sexes.

  6. Sub-chronic exposure to EOMABRS leachate induces germinal epithelial cell lesions, sperm abnormalities and oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Akintunde

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The study concluded that possible mechanisms by which EOMABRSL at the investigated doses elicits spermatotoxicity could be linked to the testicular oxidative stress and damage to germinal epithelial cells by mixed-metal exposure. However, this may suggest possible reproductive health hazards in subjects with environmental or industrial exposure.

  7. Expression of B-nerve growth factor in rabbit male tract and seminal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    García García, R. M.; Masdeu, M.; A. Sánchez Rodríguez; Bautista, J. M.; Arias Álvarez, María; LORENZO, P. L.; Garcia Rebollar, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been recently identified as an ovulation inductor factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma (SP) (Ratto et al. PNAS 2012; 109:15042-7). The presence of OIF in rabbit has been suggested but this protein has not yet been identified. Our aim was to study the mRNA expression in the rabbit male reproductive tract and to identify the protein β-NGF in the SP.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium amycolatum Strain ICIS 53 Isolated from a Female Urogenital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysheva, Irina V; Cherkasov, Sergey V; Khlopko, Yuriy A; Plotnikov, Andrey O; Gogoleva, Natalya E

    2016-11-10

    This report describes the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium amycolatum strain ICIS 53, isolated from the reproductive tract of a healthy woman. The size of the genome was 2,460,257 bp (58.98% G+C content). Annotation revealed 2,173 coding sequences, including 2,076 proteins, 7 rRNA genes, and 53 tRNA genes.

  9. Integrating reproductive health services into family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    A recent Population Council publication, Reproductive Health Approach to Family Planning, discusses integration of reproductive health into family planning programs in a series of edited presentations that Council staff and colleagues gave at a 1994 meeting of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) cooperating agencies. The presentations reflect the Council's view that family planning programs ought to help individuals achieve their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner. The report discusses four areas of reproductive health: reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including sexually transmitted diseases; prevention and treatment of unsafe abortion; pregnancy, labor, and delivery care; and postpartum care. Christopher Elias (Senior Associate, Programs Division) argued that family planning programs ought to provide services that target RTIs, given that these illnesses afflict a significant proportion of reproductive-age women. The family planning community has an ethical responsibility to provide services to women who experience an unwanted pregnancy. They must have access to high-quality postabortion care, including family planning services. Professional midwives are ideally suited to serve as integrated reproductive health workers trained to combat the five major maternal killers: hemorrhage, sepsis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion. This was demonstrated in a highly successful Life-Saving Skills for Midwives program undertaken in Ghana, Nigeria, and Uganda, and soon to start in Vietnam in conjunction with the Council's Safe Motherhood research program. Family planning services should be viewed as part of a comprehensive set of health services needed by postpartum women, which include appropriate contraception, maternal health checks, well-baby care, and information about breastfeeding, infant care, and nutrition. Family planning programs should incorporate breastfeeding counseling into their services. When

  10. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or lower GI ... of Lower GI Tract Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal ( ...

  11. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  12. Diet-Derived Short Chain Fatty Acids Stimulate Intestinal Epithelial Cells To Induce Mucosal Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, Gera; Molenaar, Rosalie; Macia, Laurence; Tan, Jian; Erkelens, Martje N; Konijn, Tanja; Knippenberg, Marlene; Cook, Emma C L; Hanekamp, Diana; Veldhoen, Marc; Hartog, Anita; Roeselers, Guus; Mackay, Charles R; Mebius, Reina E

    2017-03-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to many environmental factors that influence intestinal epithelial cells and the underlying mucosal immune system. In this article, we demonstrate that dietary fiber and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) induced the expression of the vitamin A-converting enzyme RALDH1 in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed that the expression levels of RALDH1 in small intestinal epithelial cells correlated with the activity of vitamin A-converting enzymes in mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells, along with increased numbers of intestinal regulatory T cells and a higher production of luminal IgA. Moreover, we show that the consumption of dietary fiber can alter the composition of SCFA-producing microbiota and SCFA production in the small intestines. In conclusion, our data illustrate that dietary adjustments affect small intestinal epithelial cells and can be used to modulate the mucosal immune system.

  13. Primary epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of lung, reporting of a rare entity, its molecular histogenesis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Farzana; Wu, Susan; Andaz, Shahriyour; Fox, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Primary epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of lung is a rare entity and is thought to arise from the submucosal bronchial glands distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract. Because of the rarity of this tumor, we describe one case of epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the bronchus intermedius and presenting as an endobronchial mass. A 57-year-old male patient presented with an incidental finding of an endobronchial mass located in the lumen of the right lower lobe bronchus and caused near total luminal occlusion of the bronchus. An endobronchial carcinoid tumor was entertained clinically. Subsequently the patient underwent an uneventful videothoracoscopic lobectomy of lower and middle lobes of the right lung. Morphologically and immunohistochemically the tumor was characterized by two cell populations with epithelial and myoepithelial cells forming duct-like structure. The final diagnosis of epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of lung was rendered.

  14. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  15. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, A B

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequently seen 'medical' complications in pregnancy. The pioneering work of Edward Kass discovered that 6% of pregnant women had asymptomatic bacteriuria associated with increased prematurity and perinatal mortality compared to women with sterile urine. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy has become routine. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria as well as the associated complications described by Kass in 1962 are higher compared to most data collected in the 1980s and late 1990s in different populations in various parts of the world. Other factors such as vaginal colonization have been recognized as important contributors to preterm labour. The value of screening for bacteriuria has to be re-addressed considering methods, significance and costs. Treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is critically reviewed.

  16. Cell-mediated infection of cervix derived epithelial cells with primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X; Phillips, D M

    1996-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that HIV-infected transformed T-cells or monocytes adhere to monolayers of CD4-negative epithelial cells. Adhesion is soon followed by budding of HIV from infected mononuclear cells onto the surface of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells subsequently take up virus and become productively infected. Based on these findings, we proposed that sexual transmission of HIV may involve cell-mediated infection of intact mucosal epithelia of the urogenital tract. However, it has become increasingly clear that primary cells and HIV strains isolated from patients are more appropriate models for HIV infection than established cell lines and lab strains of virus. In the studies described here, we infected cervix-derived epithelial monolayers with primary monocytes infected with patient isolates of non-syncytial inducing (NSI) macrophage-tropic strains of HIV. Under the culture conditions employed, HIV-infected primary monocytes do not remain adherent to the apical surface of the epithelium, as did HIV-infected transformed cells. Instead, following adherence, the primary cells migrate between epithelial cells. Virus is secreted from a pseudopod as HIV-infected primary monocytes pass between cells of the epithelium. Productive infection of the epithelium was detected by p24 ELISA and PCR Southern blot analysis. Infection can be blocked by sera from HIV-seropositive individuals or by certain sulfated polysaccharides. These findings support the supposition that transmission of HIV may occur via cell-mediated infection of intact epithelia. The observations also hint at the possibility that-HIV-infected monocyte/macrophages in semen or cervical-vaginal secretions could cross intact epithelia by passing between epithelial cells. Blocking studies suggest that it may be possible to inhibit sexual transmission of HIV either by antibodies in genital tract secretions or by a topical formulation containing certain sulfated polysaccharides.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Evan B.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1). Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance req...

  18. Musculature of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, J E

    2000-04-01

    Leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas are derived from smooth muscle tissues. Smooth muscle cells also surround the blood vessels that supply the alimentary tract. These cells have at times been said to contribute to the formation of smooth muscle tumors in the alimentary canal. With such an abundance of smooth muscle, there is little reason at present to implicate the smooth muscle elements of blood vessel walls.

  19. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  20. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  1. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  2. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection. 

  3. MicroRNA and gynecological reproductive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Xavier; Taylor, Hugh

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs estimated to regulate the translation of mRNAs in 30% of all genes in animals by inhibiting translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is associated with many human diseases, including gynecological diseases, cancer, inflammatory diseases, and cardiovascular disorders. Abnormal expression of miRNAs has been observed in multiple human reproductive tract diseases including preeclampsia, endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma, uterine leiomyomata, ovarian carcinoma, endometriosis, and recurrent pregnancy loss. In the following review, an update of the role of microRNA and gynecological diseases is performed covering, not only impact of microRNA dysregulation in the origin of each disease, but also showing the potential useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool that miRNA may play in these gynecological pathologies.

  4. [Peculiarities of growth and development of cultured mucosal cells from the upper respiratory tract stimulated by growth factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekan, V L; Kvacheva, Z B; Petrova, L G

    2009-01-01

    Specific features of growth and development of cultured mucosal cells from the upper respiratory tract were studied during their in vitro stimulation by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Phenotypic composition and quantitative characteristics of cultured epithelial cells was investigated with the use of monoclonal CD49F antibodies and flow cytofluorometry. The culture technique makes it possible to obtain a large amount of cells for the evaluation of their pathological changes. Moreover, cell cultures can be used to restore lesioned mucosa of the upper respiratory tract both in experiment and under clinical conditions.

  5. [Sarcoidosis of the female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M

    To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.

  6. Cigarette Smoke Extract Inhibits the Proliferation of Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Augments the Expression of P21WAF1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongxian JIAO; Qilin AO; Xiaona GE; Mi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is intimately related with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and alveolar epithelium is a major target for the exposure of cigarette smoke ex- tract. In order to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke extract on the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type Ⅱand its relationship with P21WAF1, the alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cell line (A549) cells were chosen as surrogate cells to represent alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cells. MTT assay was used to detect cell viability after interfered with different concentrations of cigarette smoke ex-tract. It was observed cigarette smoke extract inhibited the growth of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The morphological changes, involving the condensation and margination of nuclear chromatin, even karyorrhexis, were observed by both Hoechst staining and electronic mi-croscopy. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated the increased cell percentages in G1 and subG1phases after the cells were incubated with cigarette smoke extract. The expression of p21WAF1 protein and mRNA was also significantly increased as detected by the methods of Western blot or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively. In conclusion, cigarette smoke extract inhibits the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type Ⅱ and blocks them in G1/S phase. The intracellular accumulation of P21WAF1 may be one of the mechanisms which contribute to cigarette smoke ex-tract-induced inhibition of cell proliferation.

  7. The impact of asthma on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Antonio Vieira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Warren Antonio Vieira, Etheresia PretoriusDepartment of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaAbstract: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT of vertebrates is composed of several distinct ­compartments and glands as well as an extensive mucosal surface. Its primary function is that of chemical and physical digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients; however, due to its continual antigen exposure, the GIT also has an important defensive immunological function. The GIT’s immunological participation is facilitated by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, thought to share the mucosal immunological system with the respiratory mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. As a result of this shared mucosal immunity, it has been hypothesized that bronchial asthma may be able to affect the body’s GIT in the same pathophysiological manner as the airways and lungs. Here we discuss the link between bronchial asthma and ­pathophysiological features in the GIT – including leukocyte influx, goblet cell alterations, fibrosis, and epithelial and villous atrophy.Keywords: fundus, pylorus, common mucosal system, asthma, gastrointestinal tract

  8. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  9. CHEMICALS AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk TEKBAS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available However a lot of chemicals had been used in our daily life, we have enough knowledge about the effects of only for a small portion of them on reproductive health. Our knowledge had been arisen from epidemiologic and experimental studies. In order to protect ourselves from chemicals in the environment it should be concentrate on experimental studies and the results of them should be carefully studied during epidemiological researches. It would be tried to tell about the main chemicals which had been known as effective on reproductive health on the following review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 50-59

  10. Robotics in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroga, Julie; Patel, Sejal Dharia; Falcone, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, robotic technology has been increasingly incorporated into various industries, including surgery and medicine. This chapter will review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology in reproductive medicine. A literature search was performed for all publications regarding robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, and its role in both surgical education and telepresence surgery. As robotic assisted surgery has emerged, this technology provides a feasible option for minimally invasive surgery, impacts surgical education, and plays a role in telepresence surgery.

  11. Aging of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: a complex organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffrey, M Jill

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly population. The gastrointestinal tract is the most complex organ system; its diverse cells perform a range of functions essential to life, not only secretion, digestion, absorption and excretion, but also, very importantly, defence. The gastrointestinal tract acts not only as a barrier to harmful materials and pathogens but also contains the vast number of beneficial bacterial populations that make up the microbiota. Communication between the cells of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous and endocrine systems modifies behaviour; the organisms of the microbiota also contribute to this brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. Age-related physiological changes in the gut are not only common, but also variable, and likely to be influenced by external factors as well as intrinsic aging of the cells involved. The cellular and molecular changes exhibited by the aging gut cells also vary. Aging intestinal smooth muscle cells exhibit a number of changes in the signalling pathways that regulate contraction. There is some evidence for age-associated degeneration of neurons and glia of the enteric nervous system, although enteric neuronal losses are likely not to be nearly as extensive as previously believed. Aging enteric neurons have been shown to exhibit a senescence-associated phenotype. Epithelial stem cells exhibit increased mitochondrial mutation in aging that affects their progeny in the mucosal epithelium. Changes to the microbiota and intestinal immune system during aging are likely to contribute to wider aging of the organism and are increasingly important areas of analysis. How changes of the different cell types of the gut during aging affect the numerous cellular interactions that are essential for normal gut functions will be important areas for future aging research.

  12. Gastrointestinal Tract As Entry Route for Hantavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Witkowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hantaviruses are zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fevers and are thought to be transmitted to humans by exposure to aerosolized excreta of infected rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV is the predominant endemic hantavirus in Europe. A large proportion of PUUV-infected patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin. In this study we demonstrate that PUUV infection can occur via the alimentary tract.Methods: We investigated susceptibility of the human small intestinal epithelium for PUUV infection and analyzed the resistance of virions to gastric juice. As model for intestinal virus translocation we performed infection experiments with human intestinal Caco-2 monolayers. In animal experiments we infected Syrian hamsters with PUUV via the intragastric route and tested seroconversion and protective immunity against subsequent Andes virus challenge.Results: PUUV retained infectivity in gastric juice at pH >3. The virus invaded Caco-2 monolayers in association with endosomal antigen EEA1, followed by virus replication and loss of epithelial barrier function with basolateral virus occurrence. Cellular disturbance and depletion of the tight junction protein ZO-1 appeared after prolonged infection, leading to paracellular leakage (leak flux diarrhea. Moreover, animal experiments led to dose-dependent seroconversion and protection against lethal Andes virus challenge.Conclusions: We provide evidence that hantavirus can infect the organism via the alimentary tract and suggest a novel aspect of hantavirus infection and pathogenesis.Significance: Hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens causing severe hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. They are transmitted to humans by small mammals. To date, these viruses were thought to infect exclusively through the airborne route by inhalation of aerosols from infectious animal droppings or by rodent bites. In our work we could show that the alimentary tract is an alternative path of infection for

  13. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puriene, Alina; Rimkevicius, Arunas; Gaigalas, Mindaugas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present a 15 year-old patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia and to review the references on the subject-related etiological, pathological, diagnostic and treatment aspects. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare human papilloma virus (HPV) related to oral lesion with very low frequency within our population. Surgical treatment with a biopsy was performed, acanthosis and parakeratosis are consistent histopathological features, since the patient had no history of sexual contact and HIV infection, the virus was probably acquired from environmental sources.

  14. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2005-07-14

    In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species) and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS) occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause). OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species) and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants). ROS are a double-edged sword - they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathophysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal embryopathies, preterm

  15. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  16. Immunoreactivity of thymosin beta 4 in human foetal and adult genitourinary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemolato, S.; Cabras, T.; Fanari, M.U.; Cau, F.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Manconi, B.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a member of the beta-thymosins family, a family of peptides playing essential roles in many cellular functions. Our recent studies suggested Tβ4 plays a key role in the development of human salivary glands and the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to analyse the presence of Tβ4 in the human adult and foetal genitourinary tract. Immunolocalization of Tβ4 was studied in autoptic samples of kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, testicle and prostate obtained from four human foetuses and four adults. Presence of the peptide was observed in cells of different origin: in surface epithelium, in gland epithelial cells and in the interstitial cells. Tβ4 was mainly found in adult and foetal bladder in the transitional epithelial cells; in the adult endometrium, glands and stromal cells were immunoreactive for the peptide; Tβ4 was mainly localized in the glands of foetal prostate while, in the adults a weak Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the stroma. In adult and foetal kidney, Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to ducts and tubules with completely spared glomeruli; a weak positivity was observed in adult and foetal oocytes; immunoreactivity was mainly localized in the interstitial cells of foetal and adult testis. In this study, we confirm that Tβ4 could play a relevant role during human development, even in the genitourinary tract, and reveal that immunoreactivity for this peptide may change during postnatal and adult life. PMID:21263742

  17. UT-B Urea Transporter Localization in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, J; McDaid, S; Walpole, C; Stewart, Gavin S

    2016-04-01

    Facilitative UT-B urea transporters play an important role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, particularly ruminants. Gastrointestinal UT-B transporters have previously been reported in various ruminant species-including cow, sheep and goat. In this present study, UT-B transporter localization was investigated in tissues throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR analysis showed that UT-B2 was the predominant UT-B mRNA transcript expressed in dorsal, ventral and cranial ruminal sacs, while alternative UT-B transcripts were present in other gastrointestinal tissues. Immunoblotting analysis detected a strong, glycosylated ~50 kDa UT-B2 protein in all three ruminal sacs. Immunolocalization studies showed that UT-B2 protein was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of cells in the stratum basale layer of all ruminal sac papillae. In contrast, other UT-B protein staining was detected in the basolateral membranes of the surface epithelial cells lining the abomasum, colon and rectum. Overall, these findings confirm that UT-B2 cellular localization is similar in all ruminal sacs and that other UT-B proteins are located in epithelial cells lining various tissues in the bovine gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  19. Sound reproduction system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.M.; De Vries, D.; Horbach, U.

    2002-01-01

    Arrangement of a sound reproduction system (1), including at least one input (2), a sound field generator (4), a loudspeaker panel (10); the at least one input (2) connected to the sound filed generator (4), and the sound filed (4) connected to the loudspeaker panel (10); the at least one input (2)

  20. Normal morphology and hormone receptor expression in the male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    Histomorphology and estrogen alpha (ER alpha), and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were evaluated in free-ranging stranded male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. Estrogen and PRs were identified in the efferent ductules, prostate gland, corpus cavernosa, corpus spongiosium, penile urethra, and in the epithelium and stroma of both the penis and prepuce. In some tissues, ER alpha expression was more intense in the stroma, emphasizing the importance of the stroma in hormone-mediated growth and differentiation of reproductive organs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to localize ER alpha and PR to the epithelium of the glans penis. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of male California sea lion reproduction and suggest that estrogens could have a role in the function of the male reproductive tract.

  1. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  2. Case Report Duplication Of Gastrointestinal Tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOURNAL OF ERITREAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JEMA. 59 ... the split notochord, embryonic diverticula, external compression, epithelial ... Methodologically sound primary research ... and that the relevant institutional or national ethical.

  3. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Thomas Berkemeier; Haijie Tong; Arangio, Andrea M.; Kurt Lucas; Ulrich Pöschl; Manabu Shiraiwa

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) con...

  4. [Leiomyoma of the urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, H; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the urinary tract are benign and uncommon forms of tumor. In the present study, two cases have been described of leiomyomas situated in the bladder. Following this description, the pathological characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these lesions have been examined. The clinical symptomatology depends on the tumor site, and this type of lesion is more frequently found in women.. Treatment mainly consists of endoscopic resection, but may involve cystectomy. The prognosis for patients with this type of tumor is invariably favorable.

  5. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  6. Ectopic Epithelial Deaminase in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    guide a better understanding of host-commensal microbiota interactions in intestinal inflammation. Mucosal Immunol. 2011;4:127-32. PMID: 21248723...Chitinase 3-like-1 exacerbates intestinal inflammation by enhancing bacterial adhesion and invasion in colonic epithelial cells. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:398-411. PMID: 16472595 APPENDICES: None

  7. Epithelial histogenesis during tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesot, H; Brook, A H

    2009-12-01

    This paper reviews the current understanding of the progressive changes mediating dental epithelial histogenesis as a basis for future collaborative studies. Tooth development involves morphogenesis, epithelial histogenesis and cell differentiation. The consecutive morphological stages of lamina, bud, cap and bell are also characterized by changes in epithelial histogenesis. Differential cell proliferation rates, apoptosis, and alterations in adhesion and shape lead to the positioning of groups of cells with different functions. During tooth histo-morphogenesis changes occur in basement membrane composition, expression of signalling molecules and the localization of cell surface components. Cell positional identity may be related to cell history. Another important parameter is cell plasticity. Independently of signalling molecules, which play a major role in inducing or modulating specific steps, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions regulate the plasticity/rigidity of particular domains of the enamel organ. This involves specifying in space the differential growth and influences the progressive tooth morphogenesis by shaping the epithelial-mesenchymal junction. Deposition of a mineralized matrix determines the final shape of the crown. All data reviewed in this paper were investigated in the mouse.

  8. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    ) and was of the view that reducing the number of choices from 3 to 2 may increase the likelihood of agreement between pathologists. The utility of this need to be tested in future studies. The variables that are likely to affect oral epithelial dysplasia scoring were discussed and are outlined here; these need...

  9. Computational modeling of epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Rod

    2009-01-01

    There is an extensive literature on the computational modeling of epithelial tissues at all levels from subcellular to whole tissue. This review concentrates on behavior at the individual cell to whole tissue level, and particularly on organizational aspects, and provides an indication of where information from other areas, such as the modeling of angiogenesis, is relevant. The skin, and the lining of all of the body cavities (lung, gut, cervix, bladder etc) are epithelial tissues, which in a topological sense are the boundary between inside and outside the body. They are thin sheets of cells (usually of the order of 0.5 mm thick) without extracellular matrix, have a relatively simple structure, and contain few types of cells. They have important barrier, secretory and transport functions, which are essential for the maintenance of life, so homeostasis and wound healing are important aspects of the behavior of epithelial tissues. Carcinomas originate in epithelial tissues.There are essentially two approaches to modeling tissues--to start at the level of the tissue (i.e., a length scale of the order of 1 mm) and develop generalized equations for behavior (a continuum approach); or to start at the level of the cell (i.e., a length scale of the order of 10 µm) and develop tissue behavior as an emergent property of cellular behavior (an individual-based approach). As will be seen, these are not mutually exclusive approaches, and they come in a variety of flavors.

  10. Etiology of epithelial barrier dysfunction in patients with type 2 inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleimer, Robert P; Berdnikovs, Sergejs

    2017-06-01

    Epithelial barriers of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway serve common critical functions, such as maintaining a physical barrier against environmental insults and allergens and providing a tissue interface balancing the communication between the internal and external environments. We now understand that in patients with allergic disease, regardless of tissue location, the homeostatic balance of the epithelial barrier is skewed toward loss of differentiation, reduced junctional integrity, and impaired innate defense. Importantly, epithelial dysfunction characterized by these traits appears to pre-date atopy and development of allergic disease. Despite our growing appreciation of the centrality of barrier dysfunction in initiation of allergic disease, many important questions remain to be answered regarding mechanisms disrupting normal barrier function. Although our external environment (proteases, allergens, and injury) is classically thought of as a principal contributor to barrier disruption associated with allergic sensitization, there is a need to better understand contributions of the internal environment (hormones, diet, and circadian clock). Systemic drivers of disease, such as alterations of the endocrine system, metabolism, and aberrant control of developmental signaling, are emerging as new players in driving epithelial dysfunction and allergic predisposition at various barrier sites. Identifying such central mediators of epithelial dysfunction using both systems biology tools and causality-driven laboratory experimentation will be essential in building new strategic interventions to prevent or reverse the process of barrier loss in allergic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Wagtmann, Valery R; Hansen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    Background: Airway epithelial cells (AECs) form a polarized barrier along the respiratory tract. They are the first point of contact with airborne antigens and are able to instruct resident immune cells to mount appropriate immune responses by either soluble or contact-dependent mechanisms. Objec...

  12. Coevolution between the Human Microbiota and the Epithelial Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Michael; Meyer, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of our gut microbiota is tightly controlled by the host to prevent bacterial invasion and systemic infection. The gastrointestinal epithelium is predominantly made up of a cellular monolayer equipped with a number of sophisticated autonomous defense mechanisms, which are strikingly efficient in maintaining homeostasis between the luminal microbes and the host. This short review highlights aspects of this finetuned interplay. We also address how deficiencies in mucosal defense can promote disease. First, genetic defects of sensors or effectors of epithelial defense can result in the disruption of the mucosal barrier and lead to chronic inflammatory conditions. Second, chronic colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract can actively manipulate mucosal defense to escape immune surveillance. As shown for Helicobacter pylori in the stomach, sustained manipulation of the epithelium through specialized virulence determinants can increase the risk for genetic lesions and malignant transformation.

  13. NUT midline carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Westra, William H

    2012-08-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a highly lethal tumor defined by translocations involving the NUT gene on chromosome 15q14. NMC involves midline structures including the sinonasal tract, but its overall incidence at this midline site and its full morphologic profile are largely unknown because sinonasal tumors are not routinely tested for the NUT gene translocation. The recent availability of an immunohistochemical probe for the NUT protein now permits a more complete characterization of sinonasal NMCs. The archival files of The Johns Hopkins Hospital Surgical Pathology were searched for all cases of primary sinonasal carcinomas diagnosed from 1995 to 2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and NUT immunohistochemical analysis was performed. All NUT-positive cases underwent a more detailed microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis. Among 151 primary sinonasal carcinomas, only 3 (2%) were NUT positive. NUT positivity was detected in 2 of 13 (15%) carcinomas diagnosed as sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and in 1 of 87 (1%) carcinomas diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. All occurred in men (26, 33, and 48 y of age). The NMCs grew as nests and sheets of cells with a high mitotic rate and extensive necrosis. Two were entirely undifferentiated, and 1 tumor showed abrupt areas of squamous differentiation. Each case had areas of cell spindling, and 2 were heavily infiltrated by neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining was observed for cytokeratins (3 of 3), epithelial membrane antigen (3 of 3), p63 (2 of 3), CD34 (1 of 3), and synaptophysin (1 of 3). All patients died of the disease (survival time range, 8 to 16 mo; mean, 12 mo) despite combined surgery and chemoradiation. NMC represents a rare form of primary sinonasal carcinoma, but its incidence is significantly increased in those carcinomas that exhibit an undifferentiated component. Indiscriminant analysis for evidence of the NUT translocation is unwarranted. Instead, NUT analysis can be restricted to

  14. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  15. Vangl2-regulated polarisation of second heart field-derived cells is required for outflow tract lengthening during cardiac development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A Ramsbottom

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis.

  16. Vangl2-regulated polarisation of second heart field-derived cells is required for outflow tract lengthening during cardiac development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, Simon A; Sharma, Vipul; Rhee, Hong Jun; Eley, Lorraine; Phillips, Helen M; Rigby, Hannah F; Dean, Charlotte; Chaudhry, Bill; Henderson, Deborah J

    2014-12-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF) to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis.

  17. Anatomy and embryology of the biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keplinger, Kara M; Bloomston, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Working knowledge of extrahepatic biliary anatomy is of paramount importance to the general surgeon. The embryologic development of the extrahepatic biliary tract is discussed in this article as is the highly variable anatomy of the biliary tract and its associated vasculature. The salient conditions related to the embryology and anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract, including biliary atresia, choledochal cysts, gallbladder agenesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and ducts of Luschka, are addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based ap...

  19. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wei; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-09-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors. Simple uncomplicated cystitis responds very well to oral antibiotics, but complicated UTIs may require early imaging, and referral to the emergency department or hospitalisation to prevent urosepsis may be warranted. Escherichia coli remains the predominant uropathogen in acute community-acquired uncomplicated UTIs and amoxicillin-clavulanate is useful as a first-line antibiotic. Family physicians are capable of managing most UTIs if guided by appropriate history, investigations and appropriate antibiotics to achieve good outcomes and minimise antibiotic resistance. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  20. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Ryan D; Hsu, Alan C-Y; Nichol, Kristy S; Jones, Bernadette; Knight, Darryl A; Wark, Peter A B; Hansbro, Philip M; Hirota, Jeremy A

    2017-01-01

    The airway epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier that protects the pulmonary system from inhaled environmental insults. Uric acid has been detected in the respiratory tract and can function as an antioxidant or damage associated molecular pattern. We have demonstrated that human airway epithelial cells are a source of uric acid. Our hypothesis is that uric acid production by airway epithelial cells is induced by environmental stimuli associated with chronic respiratory diseases. We therefore examined how airway epithelial cells regulate uric acid production. Allergen and cigarette smoke mouse models were performed using house dust mite (HDM) and cigarette smoke exposure, respectively, with outcome measurements of lung uric acid levels. Primary human airway epithelial cells isolated from clinically diagnosed patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were grown in submerged cultures and compared to age-matched healthy controls for uric acid release. HBEC-6KT cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, were grown under submerged monolayer conditions for mechanistic and gene expression studies. HDM, but not cigarette smoke exposure, stimulated uric acid production in vivo and in vitro. Primary human airway epithelial cells from asthma, but not COPD patients, displayed elevated levels of extracellular uric acid in culture. In HBEC-6KT, production of uric acid was sensitive to the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) inhibitor, allopurinol, and the ATP Binding Cassette C4 (ABCC4) inhibitor, MK-571. Lastly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ elevated extracellular uric acid levels and XDH gene expression in HBEC-6KT cells. Our results suggest that the active production of uric acid from human airway epithelial cells may be intrinsically altered in asthma and be further induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  1. Ciliary beating recovery in deficient human airway epithelial cells after lentivirus ex vivo gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Chhin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia is a heterogeneous genetic disease that is characterized by cilia dysfunction of the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tracts, resulting in recurrent respiratory tract infections. Despite lifelong physiological therapy and antibiotics, the lungs of affected patients are progressively destroyed, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Recessive mutations in Dynein Axonemal Intermediate chain type 1 (DNAI1 gene have been described in 10% of cases of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. Our goal was to restore normal ciliary beating in DNAI1-deficient human airway epithelial cells. A lentiviral vector based on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus pseudotyped with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein was used to transduce cultured human airway epithelial cells with a cDNA of DNAI1 driven by the Elongation Factor 1 promoter. Transcription and translation of the transduced gene were tested by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Human airway epithelial cells that were DNAI1-deficient due to compound heterozygous mutations, and consequently had immotile cilia and no outer dynein arm, were transduced by the lentivirus. Cilia beating was recorded and electron microscopy of the cilia was performed. Transcription and translation of the transduced DNAI1 gene were detected in human cells treated with the lentivirus. In addition, immotile cilia recovered a normal beat and outer dynein arms reappeared. We demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a normalization of ciliary beat frequency of deficient human airway epithelial cells by using a lentivirus to transduce cells with the therapeutic gene. This preliminary step constitutes a conceptual proof that is indispensable in the perspective of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia's in vivo gene therapy. This is the first time that recovery of cilia beating is demonstrated in this disease.

  2. Reproduction and love: strategies of the organism's cellular defense system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, A; Huybrechts, R; Kotanen, S

    1998-08-01

    A novel view is presented which states that primordial germ cells and their descendants can be regarded as 'cancerous cells' which emit signals that activate a whole array of cellular defensive mechanisms by the somatoplasm. These cells have become unrestrained in response to the lack of typical cell adhesion properties of epithelial cells. From this point of view: (1) the encapsulation of oocytes by follicle cells, vitelline membrane and egg shell; (2) the suppression of gonadal development in larval life; (3) the production of sex steroid hormones and of vitellogenin; and (4) the expulsion of the gametes from the body fit into a general framework for a defense strategy of the somatoplasm against germ line cells. Accordingly, the origin of sexual reproduction appears to be a story of failure and intercellular hostility rather than a 'romantic' and altruistic event. Yet, it has resulted in evolutionary success for the system in which it has evolved; probably through realizing feelings of 'pleasure' associated with reproduction.

  3. Histology of the digestive tract of the freshwater stingray Himantura signifer Compagno and Roberts, 1982 (Elasmobranchii, Dasyatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatchavalvanich, Kannika; Marcos, Ricardo; Poonpirom, Jintana; Thongpan, Amara; Rocha, Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the histology and histochemistry (of carbohydrates and proteins) of the digestive tract of the freshwater stingray Himantura signifier. The alimentary tract consists of a mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach (with a descending cardiac and ascending pyloric part), anterior intestine (with an initial portion and a spiral intestine) and posterior intestine, ending in a cloaca. Histologically, three layers--mucosa, muscularis and adventitia/serosa--were defined from the mouth to esophagus and in the posterior intestine, whereas in the stomach and anterior intestine four layers were present, including a submucosa. The epithelial lining of mouth, pharynx and cloaca was of the stratified cuboidal type, whereas that of the esophagus and posterior intestine was stratified columnar. The stomach and anterior intestine were lined by a simple columnar epithelium with microvilli. Goblet cells were observed along the alimentary tract, except in the stomach. In the descending cardiac portion of this organ, gastric glands composed of oxyntic, oxyntic-peptic and peptic cells were observed. The anterior intestine presented a spiral valve with 11 folds, formed by mucosa and submucosa. The posterior intestine was particular in displaying a three-layered muscularis. Mucosubstances secreted along the alimentary tract contained both neutral and acid mucins, but in the stomach only neutral mucins were detected. The stomach presented intense protein content in the epithelial lining of the gastric pits. Enteroendocrine cells were identified in the stomach and intestine. Overall, our data offer a baseline for comparative purposes and future detailed ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies.

  4. Immunocytochemical studies on the distribution pattern of daunomycin in rat gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohara, Koji; Shin, Masashi; Nakamuta, Hiromichi

    2007-01-01

    . Two hours after injection, DM was diffusely distributed in nuclei and most parts of the cytoplasm of intestinal epithelial cells. The cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for DM was most pronounced in small granules of the apical cytoplasm. Sixteen hours after injection, DM immunostaining was by and large......The cancer drug daunomycin is used in treatment of leukemia but possesses severe side effects that involve the gastrointestinal tract. We therefore used a newly developed immunocytochemical procedure to determine the distribution of DM in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats after i.v. injection...... absent in the villous epithelium but persisted in the intestinal crypts. In addition, staining was also detected in endothelial cells, scattered cells of the lamina propria and in smooth muscle cells. After 5 days, only little staining for DM remained. Similar findings were made in the colon...

  5. Convective Water Vapor Energy for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Kenneth Jackson; McVary, Kevin T

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) refers to proliferation of smooth muscle and epithelial cells within the transition zone of the prostate. Half of men over 40 develop histologic BPH. About half of men with BPH develop an enlarged prostate gland, called benign prostatic enlargement; among these, about half develop some degree of bladder outlet obstruction. Bladder outlet obstruction and changes in smooth muscle tone and resistance may result in lower urinary tract symptoms, including storage disturbances (such as daytime urinary urgency, frequency, and nocturia) and voiding disturbances (such as urinary hesitancy, weak urinary stream, straining to void, and prolonged voiding).

  6. Analysis of the human intestinal epithelial cell transcriptional response to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium lactis and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putaala, H; Barrangou, R; Leyer, G J

    2010-01-01

    The complex microbial population residing in the human gastrointestinal tract consists of commensal, potential pathogenic and beneficial species, which are probably perceived differently by the host and consequently could be expected to trigger specific transcriptional responses. Here, we provide...... insights into the relationship between probiotics and human intestinal epithelial cells, notably with regard to strain-specific responses, and highlight the differences between transcriptional responses to pathogenic and probiotic bacteria.......The complex microbial population residing in the human gastrointestinal tract consists of commensal, potential pathogenic and beneficial species, which are probably perceived differently by the host and consequently could be expected to trigger specific transcriptional responses. Here, we provide...... a comparative analysis of the global in vitro transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells to Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 420, and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Interestingly, L. salivarius Ls-33...

  7. Minireview: The Roles of Small RNA Pathways in Reproductive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchold, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of small noncoding RNA, including P-element-induced wimpy testis-interacting RNA, small interfering RNA, and microRNA, has energized research in reproductive medicine. In the two decades since the identification of small RNA, first in Caenorhabditis elegans and then in other animals, scientists in many disciplines have made significant progress in elucidating their biology. A powerful battery of tools, including knockout mice and small RNA mimics and antagonists, has facilitated investigation into the functional roles and therapeutic potential of these small RNA pathways. Current data indicate that small RNA play significant roles in normal development and physiology and pathological conditions of the reproductive tracts of females and males. Biologically plausible mRNA targets for these microRNA are aggressively being discovered. The next phase of research will focus on elucidating the clinical utility of small RNA-selective agonists and antagonists. PMID:21546411

  8. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Baki ÇİFTCİ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-α due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  9. Possible influence of vitamin D on male reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Ida Marie; Bøllehuus Hansen, Lasse; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile signaling molecule with an established role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone health. In recent years the spectrum of vitamin D target organs has expanded and a reproductive role is supported by the presence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D...... metabolizing enzymes in the gonads, reproductive tract, and human spermatozoa. Interestingly, expression levels of VDR and the vitamin D inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 in human spermatozoa serve as positive predictive markers of semen quality and are higher expressed in spermatozoa from normal than infertile men....... VDR mediates a non-genomic increase in intracellular calcium concentration, sperm motility, and induces the acrosome reaction. Furthermore, functional animal model studies have shown that vitamin D is important for sex steroid production, estrogen signaling, and semen quality. Cross-sectional clinical...

  10. Ferritinophagy drives uropathogenic Escherichia coli persistence in bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauckman, Kyle A; Mysorekar, Indira U

    2016-05-01

    Autophagy is a cellular recycling pathway, which in many cases, protects host cells from infections by degrading pathogens. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the predominant cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs), persist within the urinary tract epithelium (urothelium) by forming reservoirs within autophagosomes. Iron is a critical nutrient for both host and pathogen, and regulation of iron availability is a key host defense against pathogens. Iron homeostasis depends on the shuttling of iron-bound ferritin to the lysosome for recycling, a process termed ferritinophagy (a form of selective autophagy). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that UPEC shuttles with ferritin-bound iron into the autophagosomal and lysosomal compartments within the urothelium. Iron overload in urothelial cells induces ferritinophagy in an NCOA4-dependent manner causing increased iron availability for UPEC, triggering bacterial overproliferation and host cell death. Addition of even moderate levels of iron is sufficient to increase and prolong bacterial burden. Furthermore, we show that lysosomal damage due to iron overload is the specific mechanism causing host cell death. Significantly, we demonstrate that host cell death and bacterial burden can be reversed by inhibition of autophagy or inhibition of iron-regulatory proteins, or chelation of iron. Together, our findings suggest that UPEC persist in host cells by taking advantage of ferritinophagy. Thus, modulation of iron levels in the bladder may provide a therapeutic avenue to controlling UPEC persistence, epithelial cell death, and recurrent UTIs.

  11. TBX1 regulates epithelial polarity and dynamic basal filopodia in the second heart field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francou, Alexandre; Saint-Michel, Edouard; Mesbah, Karim; Kelly, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Elongation of the vertebrate heart occurs by progressive addition of second heart field (SHF) cardiac progenitor cells from pharyngeal mesoderm to the poles of the heart tube. The importance of these cells in the etiology of congenital heart defects has led to extensive research into the regulation of SHF deployment by signaling pathways and transcription factors. However, the basic cellular features of these progenitor cells, including epithelial polarity, cell shape and cell dynamics, remain poorly characterized. Here, using immunofluorescence, live imaging and embryo culture, we demonstrate that SHF cells constitute an atypical, apicobasally polarized epithelium in the dorsal pericardial wall, characterized by apical monocilia and dynamic actin-rich basal filopodia. We identify the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome gene Tbx1, required in the SHF for outflow tract development, as a regulator of the epithelial properties of SHF cells. Cell shape changes in mutant embryos include increased circularity, a reduced basolateral membrane domain and impaired filopodial activity, and are associated with elevated aPKCζ levels. Activation of aPKCζ in embryo culture similarly impairs filopodia activity and phenocopies proliferative defects and ectopic differentiation observed in the SHF of Tbx1 null embryos. Our results reveal that epithelial and progenitor cell status are coupled in the SHF, identifying control of cell shape as a regulatory step in heart tube elongation and outflow tract morphogenesis.

  12. Cellular systems for epithelial invagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial invagination is a fundamental module of morphogenesis that iteratively occurs to generate the architecture of many parts of a developing organism. By changing the physical properties such as the shape and/or position of a population of cells, invagination drives processes ranging from reconfiguring the entire body axis during gastrulation, to forming the primordia of the eyes, ears and multiple ducts and glands, during organogenesis. The epithelial bending required for invagination is achieved through a variety of mechanisms involving systems of cells. Here we provide an overview of the different mechanisms, some of which can work in combination, and outline the circumstances in which they apply. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware’. PMID:28348256

  13. [Urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).

  14. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Justyna; Sokolova, Olga; Bozko, Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggered leading to cytokine production, neutrophil influx, and the exfoliation of infected bladder epithelial cells. Several signaling pathways activated during UPEC infection, including the pathways known to activate the innate immune response, interact with calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Some UPEC isolates, however, might possess strategies to delay or suppress the activation of components of the innate host response in the urinary tract. Studies published in the recent past provide new information regarding how virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli are involved in activation of the innate host response. Despite numerous host defense mechanisms, UPEC can persist within the urinary tract and may serve as a reservoir for recurrent infections and serious complications. Presentation of the molecular details of these events is essential for development of successful strategies for prevention of human UTIs and urological complications associated with UTIs. PMID:22506110

  15. Effects of chronic exposure to crack cocaine on the respiratory tract of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculiani, Percyleine P; Pires-Neto, Ruy C; Bueno, Heloisa M S; Zorzetto, Júlio C; Silva, Luiz C; Santos, Angela B G; Garcia, Raphael C T; Yonamine, Mauricio; Detregiachi, Cláudia R P; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Mauad, Thais

    2009-04-01

    Smoked cocaine (crack cocaine) causes several forms of injury to the respiratory tract, including asthma exacerbations, lung edema and hemorrhage, and nasal mucosal alterations. Few studies, however, have assessed respiratory tract pathology in habitual users of crack cocaine. Here, we describe the histological alterations in the respiratory tract of mice caused by chronic inhalation of crack cocaine. Twenty 2-month-old BALB/c mice were exposed to the smoke of 5 g crack cocaine in an inhalation chamber once a day for two months and compared to controls (n = 10). We then morphometrically analyzed nose and bronchiolar epithelial alterations, bronchiolar and alveolar macrophage cell density, alveolar hemosiderin content, and in addition determined the vasoconstriction index and the wall thickness of pulmonary arteries. The serum cocaine level was 212.5 ng/mL after a single inhalation. The mucus content of the nasal epithelium increased in crack-exposed animals, and the nasal and bronchial epithelium thickness decreased significantly. The alveolar hemosiderin content and the alveolar and bronchiolar macrophage cell density increased in animals exposed to crack. The vasoconstriction index increased in the pulmonary arteries of the exposed group. Chronic crack cocaine inhalation causes extensive histological changes along the entire respiratory tract.

  16. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Bien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggered leading to cytokine production, neutrophil influx, and the exfoliation of infected bladder epithelial cells. Several signaling pathways activated during UPEC infection, including the pathways known to activate the innate immune response, interact with calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Some UPEC isolates, however, might possess strategies to delay or suppress the activation of components of the innate host response in the urinary tract. Studies published in the recent past provide new information regarding how virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli are involved in activation of the innate host response. Despite numerous host defense mechanisms, UPEC can persist within the urinary tract and may serve as a reservoir for recurrent infections and serious complications. Presentation of the molecular details of these events is essential for development of successful strategies for prevention of human UTIs and urological complications associated with UTIs.

  17. Epithelial abnormalities of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofi, F K; Davis, C J

    1984-01-01

    We have called attention to certain epithelial lesions of the bladder characterized as proliferative, metaplastic, and neoplastic. In the first group are included hyperplasia, von Brunn's nests, papillary cystitis, papilloma and inverted papilloma. The second category includes squamous metaplasia, mucous metaplasia, and tubular metaplasia. These two categories, while benign, are indicative of agitated sick mucosa and may progress to neoplasia. The neoplastic changes consist of carcinoma involving the surface epithelium, von Brunn's nests, papillary cystitis, and/or cystitis cystica.

  18. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  19. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  20. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children can have many faces. It can present with incontinenece for urine, urinary tract infections or even constipation or loosing stools. All kinds of factors influencing the function of the pelvic floor muscle tension can have an impact on the lower urinary trac