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Sample records for reproductive onset findings

  1. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    , at the same time as or later than their peers. Their semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) and serum concentrations of sex hormones (LH, FSH, total testosterone, SHBG, inhibin B) and testicular size were determined......Study Question Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? Summary Answer Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. What...... is Known Already The long-term effects of variations in the onset of male puberty on subsequent reproduction remain largely unstudied. Study Design, Size, Duration In a cross-sectional study, young healthy Danish men were approached when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine...

  3. Unusual radiological findings of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Sue Hyun

    1987-01-01

    Usual chest radiographic findings in pulmonary tuberculosis are well described in radiologic literatures for both primary and postprimary phases of disease. During the last decade, many authors have enumerated the unusual manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult population. These unusual findings usually have been involved in the frequent failure of both radiologist and clinician to recognize that tuberculosis could be the cause of a abnormal chest radiograph in patients who are finally and surprisingly proven to have tuberculosis. Authors have evaluated 249 patients who were admitted and newly proven to have adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January, 1985 to December, 1986. Unusual findings were noted in 76 (30.5%) of the 249 patients with adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis. These unusual findings most frequently could be seen in 3rd decades and showed no sex difference in incidence. A broad spectrum of abnormal findings including usual and unusual abnormalities were procedure by adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis. The unusual radiographic findings were arbitrarily classified. Pleural effusion without parenchymal disease (10.0%), unusual location of infiltrate (5.6%) and atelectasis (3.2%) were relatively common. Hilar and / or mediastinal lymphnode enlargement (1.6%), cavity without parenchymal infiltrates (1.6%), septic lung-like infiltrates (1.6%), completely clear lungs (1.2%), miliary infiltrates (1.2%), fibrocalcific scar-like infiltrates (1.2%), masslike density (1.2%) and rheumatoid lung-like infiltrates (1.2%) were occasionally noted. Pneumothorax without parenchymal disease (0.4%) and bron chocutaneous fistula (0.4%) are. The recognition of these unusual findings could further improve the detection and diagnosis of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis

  4. Polymorphisms in JMJD1C are associated with pubertal onset in boys and reproductive function in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Nina; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nearby JMJD1C are associated with pubertal onset in boys and with male reproduction. 671 peri-pubertal boys, 1,027 young men, 315 fertile men, and 252 infertile men were genotyped for two JMJD1C SNPs (rs7910927 and rs10822184). rs7910927 and rs10822184 showed high...... linkage. Boys with the rs7910927 TT genotype entered puberty 3.6 months earlier than their peers (p = 2.5 × 10-2). In young men, the number of T alleles was associated with decreased levels of SHBG, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and testosterone x luteinizing hormone, as well...... on the age at pubertal onset in boys as well as levels of reproductive hormones and testis size in men, emphasizing the relationship between JMJD1C and reproductive functions....

  5. Radiologic findings in late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Weissman, B.N.; Sosman, J.L.; Schur, P.H.

    1983-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus in the elderly has a different clinical and serologic course from that in young patients. Radiographic findings in patients in whom the diagnosis was made after age 50 were compared with findings in younger patients to see if the radiologic patterns are also different. The only significant radiographic difference between the two groups was that the older group had a greater incidence of soft-tissue swelling of the hands and wrists (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in osteopenia, erosion, soft-tissue calcification, alignment abnormalities, or intrathoracic findings. Of 24 patients over age 50, two developed lymphoma and another developed multiple myeloma. The data agree with clinical observations that there is a higher incidence of arthritis in late-onset lupus, but clinical findings of increased incidence of pleuropericardial disease are not confirmed radiographically. The coincidence of hematologic malignancy with late-onset lupus in this series is noteworthy

  6. Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) promotes the transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset reproductive dysfunctions through the female germline in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocar, Paola; Fiandanese, Nadia; Berrini, Anna; Secchi, Camillo; Borromeo, Vitaliano

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds known to promote transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations after maternal exposure during fetal gonadal development. This study was designed to establish whether gestational and lactational exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) at environmental doses promotes transgenerational effects on reproductive health in female offspring, as adults, over three generations in the mouse. Gestating F0 mouse dams were exposed to 0, 0.05, 5 mg/kg/day DEHP in the diet from gestational day 0.5 until the end of lactation. The incidence of adult-onset disease in reproductive function was recorded in F1, F2 and F3 female offspring. In adult F1 females, DEHP exposure induced reproductive adverse effects with: i) altered ovarian follicular dynamics with reduced primordial follicular reserve and a larger growing pre-antral follicle population, suggesting accelerated follicular recruitment; ii) reduced oocyte quality and embryonic developmental competence; iii) dysregulation of the expression profile of a panel of selected ovarian and pre-implantation embryonic genes. F2 and F3 female offspring displayed the same altered reproductive morphological phenotype and gene expression profiles as F1, thus showing transgenerational transmission of reproductive adverse effects along the female lineage. These findings indicate that in mice exposure to DEHP at doses relevant to human exposure during gonadal sex determination significantly perturbs the reproductive indices of female adult offspring and subsequent generations. Evidence of transgenerational transmission has important implications for the reproductive health and fertility of animals and humans, significantly increasing the potential biohazards of this toxicant. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to DEHP transgenerationally affects female reproductive health. • DEHP reduced ovarian follicular reserve up to the third generation. • DEHP

  7. Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) promotes the transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset reproductive dysfunctions through the female germline in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocar, Paola, E-mail: paola.pocar@unimi.it; Fiandanese, Nadia; Berrini, Anna; Secchi, Camillo; Borromeo, Vitaliano

    2017-05-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds known to promote transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations after maternal exposure during fetal gonadal development. This study was designed to establish whether gestational and lactational exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) at environmental doses promotes transgenerational effects on reproductive health in female offspring, as adults, over three generations in the mouse. Gestating F0 mouse dams were exposed to 0, 0.05, 5 mg/kg/day DEHP in the diet from gestational day 0.5 until the end of lactation. The incidence of adult-onset disease in reproductive function was recorded in F1, F2 and F3 female offspring. In adult F1 females, DEHP exposure induced reproductive adverse effects with: i) altered ovarian follicular dynamics with reduced primordial follicular reserve and a larger growing pre-antral follicle population, suggesting accelerated follicular recruitment; ii) reduced oocyte quality and embryonic developmental competence; iii) dysregulation of the expression profile of a panel of selected ovarian and pre-implantation embryonic genes. F2 and F3 female offspring displayed the same altered reproductive morphological phenotype and gene expression profiles as F1, thus showing transgenerational transmission of reproductive adverse effects along the female lineage. These findings indicate that in mice exposure to DEHP at doses relevant to human exposure during gonadal sex determination significantly perturbs the reproductive indices of female adult offspring and subsequent generations. Evidence of transgenerational transmission has important implications for the reproductive health and fertility of animals and humans, significantly increasing the potential biohazards of this toxicant. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to DEHP transgenerationally affects female reproductive health. • DEHP reduced ovarian follicular reserve up to the third generation. • DEHP

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia: reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; van Rijn, Bas B; Westerveld, H Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W; Fauser, Bart C J M; Goverde, Angelique J

    2010-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable metabolic constitution in women may present itself early in life as a reproductive complication, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and preeclampsia. We evaluated the cardiovascular risk of women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and women with PCOS and assessed their need for implementation of early risk factor-reduction strategies. We performed a standardized evaluation of 240 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 456 women diagnosed with PCOS for established major CVD risk factors. Metabolic syndrome characteristics were analyzed per body mass index category. Mean age was 30.6 and 29.0 years for women with preeclampsia and PCOS, respectively. High percentages of metabolic syndrome were found in both groups (preeclampsia group, 14.6%; and PCOS group, 18.4%), with an incidence of greater than 50% in both groups of women if body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m. Overall, more than 90% of the women qualified for either lifestyle or medical intervention according to the American Heart Association guideline for CVD prevention in women. Women with PCOS and early-onset preeclampsia already show an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile with high need for lifestyle or medical intervention at a young age. We therefore recommend an active role of the gynecologist in routine screening and follow-up of women with reproductive conditions linked to future cardiovascular risk.

  9. Age-related changes in somatic condition and reproduction in the Eurasian beaver: Resource history influences onset of reproductive senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruairidh D Campbell

    Full Text Available Using 15 years of data from a stable population of wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, we examine how annual and lifetime access to food resources affect individual age-related changes in reproduction and somatic condition. We found an age-related decline in annual maternal reproductive output, after a peak at age 5-6. Rainfall, an established negative proxy of annual resource availability for beavers, was consistently associated with lower reproductive output for females of all ages. In contrast, breeding territory quality, as a measure of local resource history over reproductive lifetimes, caused differences in individual patterns of reproductive senescence; animals from lower quality territories senesced when younger. Litter size was unrelated to maternal age, although adult body weight increased with age. In terms of resource effects, in poorer years but not in better years, older mothers produced larger offspring than did younger mothers, giving support to the constraint theory. Overall, our findings exemplify state-dependent life-history strategies, supporting an effect of resources on reproductive senescence, where cumulative differences in resource access, and not just reproductive strategy, mediate long-term reproductive trade-offs, consistent with the disposable soma and reproductive restraint theories. We propose that flexible life-history schedules could play a role in the dynamics of populations exhibiting reproductive skew, with earlier breeding opportunities leading to an earlier senescence schedule through resource dependent mechanisms.

  10. Duration reproduction with sensory feedback delay: Differential involvement of perception and action time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eGanzenmüller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that voluntary action can attract subsequent, delayed feedback events towards the action, and adaptation to the sensorimotor delay can even reverse motor-sensory temporal-order judgments. However, whether and how sensorimotor delay affects duration reproduction is still unclear. To investigate this, we injected an onset- or offset-delay to the sensory feedback signal from a duration reproduction task. We compared duration reproductions within (visual, auditory modality and across audiovisual modalities with feedback signal onset- and offset-delay manipulations. We found that the reproduced duration was lengthened in both visual and auditory feedback signal onset-delay conditions. The lengthening effect was evident immediately, on the first trial with the onset delay. However, when the onset of the feedback signal was prior to the action, the lengthening effect was diminished. In contrast, a shortening effect was found with feedback signal offset-delay, though the effect was weaker and manifested only in the auditory offset-delay condition. These findings indicate that participants tend to mix the onset of action and the feedback signal more when the feedback is delayed, and they heavily rely on motor-stop signals for the duration reproduction. Furthermore, auditory duration was overestimated compared to visual duration in crossmodal feedback conditions, and the overestimation of auditory duration (or the underestimation of visual duration was independent of the delay manipulation.

  11. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko Nagy

    Full Text Available Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC, using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 ("T/I" mice. Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 ("T/I-het" dams that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and

  12. Thoracic CT findings of adult-onset still's disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Ki Jun; Lee, Jung Whee; Lee, Sung Yong; Hong, Yeon Sik

    2006-01-01

    Adult-onset of Still's disease is a rare systemic rheumatic disorder. It involves various organs including the lungs and pleura. We report here the CT findings of a patient with the thoracic manifestations of Still's disease, including axillary and mediastinal lymphadenopathies, pleural and pericardial effusions and infiltrations in both lung bases

  13. Cerebellar ataxia of early onset. Clinical symptoms and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko (Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)); Yamada, Kazuhiko

    1989-07-01

    Eight cases of childhood cerebellar ataxia were reported. All these cases showed chronic cerebellar ataxia with early onset, and the other diseases of cerebellum such as infections, neoplasms and storage diseases were excluded by clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including blood counts, blood chemistry, lactate, pyruvate, ceruloplasmine, urinalysis, serum immunoglobulins, amino acid analysis in blood and urine, CSF analysis, leukocyte lysosomal enzymes, MCV, EMG, EEG and brain X-CT. Two pairs of siblings were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis were cerebellar type (5), spinocerebellar type (1), one Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome and undetermined type (1). The age of onset was 1 to 5 years. The chief complaint was motor developmental delay in 6 cases; among them 5 patients could walk alone at the ages of 2 to 3 years'. Mental retardation was observed in 7 cases and epilepsy in 2. TRH was effective in 5 cases. The MRI study revealed that the area of medial sagittal slice of the cerebellum was reduced significantly in all cases and also that of pons was reduced in 5 cases. Different from typical adult onset spinocerebellar degenerations, most of the present cases have achieved slow developmental milestones and the clinical course was not progressive. Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of this disease in some cases. (author).

  14. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD in reproductive cycle events, and to investigate the likelihood of repeat exacerbation in subsequent pregnancies and postpartum periods. Five hundred forty-two women (United States, n = 352; Dutch, n = 190) who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD, completed self-report questionnaires designed to assess OCD onset and symptom exacerbation associated with reproductive events. OCD onset occurred within 12 months after menarche in 13.0%, during pregnancy in 5.1%, at postpartum in 4.7%, and at menopause in 3.7%. Worsening of pre-existing OCD was reported by 37.6% of women at premenstruum, 33.0% during pregnancy, 46.6% postpartum, and 32.7% at menopause. Exacerbation in first pregnancy was significantly associated with exacerbation in second pregnancy (OR = 10.82, 95% CI 4.48-26.16), as was exacerbation in first postpartum with exacerbation in second postpartum (OR = 6.86, 95% CI 3.27-14.36). Results were replicated in both samples. Reproductive cycle events are periods of increased risk for onset and exacerbation of OCD in women. The present study is the first to provide significant evidence that exacerbation in or after first pregnancy is a substantial risk factor for exacerbation in or after a subsequent pregnancy. Further research is needed to identify factors related to exacerbation, so that physicians may provide appropriate recommendations to women regarding clinical issues involving OCD and reproductive cycle events. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Is late-onset OCD a distinct phenotype? Findings from a comparative analysis of "age at onset" groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Eesha; Sundar, A Shyam; Thennarasu, Kandavel; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2015-10-01

    Significant differences in clinical profile and comorbidity patterns have been observed between "juvenile-onset" and "adult-onset" obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There is little systematic research on onset of OCD after the fourth decade. The current study aims to compare the demographic, clinical, and comorbidity patterns of patients with "juvenile-onset" (OCD. Eight hundred two consecutive patients who consulted a specialty OCD clinic at a tertiary care hospital in India were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. 37.4%, 57.4%, and 5.2% of patients had juvenile-, adult-, and late-onset OCD, respectively. Late-onset OCD was associated with female gender (χ2=42, pOCD in first-degree relatives (χ2=20.4, pOCD was significantly associated with female gender, collecting compulsions, and less aggressive obsessions, in comparison with adult-onset OCD. In comparison with juvenile-onset, late-onset OCD was significantly associated with female gender, presence of precipitating factors, and less aggressive obsessions, sexual obsessions, and repeating compulsions. Late-onset OCD is characterized by female gender, lesser familial loading for OCD, and presence of precipitating factors, suggesting that it may have a distinct pathophysiology compared to juvenile- and adult-onset OCD. Systematic research is required to understand the family-genetic, neuropsychological, and neurobiological correlates of late-onset OCD.

  16. Reproductive history and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: findings from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Erin S; Kapphahn, Kristopher; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Parikh, Nisha I; Liu, Simin; Parker, Donna R; Anderson, Matthew; Aroda, Vanita; Sullivan, Shannon; Woods, Nancy F; Waring, Molly E; Lewis, Cora E; Stefanick, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the association between women's reproductive history and their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that characteristics signifying lower cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure would be associated with increased risk. Prospective cohort analysis of 124,379 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We determined age of menarche and final menstrual period, and history of irregular menses from questionnaires at baseline, and calculated reproductive length from age of menarche and final menstrual period. Presence of new onset type 2 diabetes was from self-report. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed associations between reproductive variables and incidence of type 2 diabetes. In age-adjusted models, women with the shortest (<30 y) reproductive periods had a 37% (95% CI, 30-45) greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than women with medium-length reproductive periods (36-40 y). Women with the longest (45+ y) reproductive periods had a 23% (95% CI, 12-37) higher risk than women with medium-length periods. These associations were attenuated after full adjustment (HR 1.07 [1.01, 1.14] for shortest and HR 1.09 [0.99, 1.22] for longest, compared with medium duration). Those with a final menstrual period before age 45 and after age 55 had an increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.99-1.09 and HR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14, respectively) compared to those with age of final menstrual period between 46 and 55 years. Timing of menarche and cycle regularity was not associated with risk after full adjustment. Reproductive history may be associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Women with shorter and longer reproductive periods may benefit from lifestyle counseling to prevent type 2 diabetes.

  17. When the bell tolls on Bell's palsy: finding occult malignancy in acute-onset facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Lindsay, Robin W; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2010-01-01

    This study reports 4 cases of occult parotid malignancy presenting with sudden-onset facial paralysis to demonstrate that failure to regain tone 6 months after onset distinguishes these patients from Bell's palsy patients with delayed recovery and to propose a diagnostic algorithm for this subset of patients. A case series of 4 patients with occult parotid malignancies presenting with acute-onset unilateral facial paralysis is reported. Initial imaging on all 4 patients did not demonstrate a parotid mass. Diagnostic delays ranged from 7 to 36 months from time of onset of facial paralysis to time of diagnosis of parotid malignancy. Additional physical examination findings, especially failure to regain tone, as well as properly protocolled radiologic studies reviewed with dedicated head and neck radiologists, were helpful in arriving at the diagnosis. An algorithm to minimize diagnostic delays in this subset of acute facial paralysis patients is presented. Careful attention to facial tone, in addition to movement, is important in the diagnostic evaluation of acute-onset facial paralysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.

  19. Preliminary findings demonstrating latent effects of early adolescent marijuana use onset on cortical architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Filbey

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Divergent patterns between current MJ use and elements of cortical architecture were associated with early MJ use onset. Considering brain development in early adolescence, findings are consistent with disruptions in pruning. However, divergence with continued use for many years thereafter suggests altered trajectories of brain maturation during late adolescence and beyond.

  20. A novel quantitative approach to women's reproductive strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritha H Milne

    Full Text Available The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented 'short-term mating strategy', 'early onset of sexual activity', 'reproductive output', 'timing of childbearing', 'breastfeeding', and 'child spacing'. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these strategic

  1. Does Late-onset Anorexia Nervosa Exist? Findings From a Comparative Study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shian Ming; Kwok, Kah Foo Victor; Zainal, Kelly A; Lee, Huei Yen

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of cases of older onset anorexia nervosa (AN) has increased in recent years. However, the literature on late-onset AN has been inconclusive. The goal of this study was to compare late-onset with early-onset cases of AN. Cases of AN presenting to an eating disorders treatment service were identified and the associated medical records were studied retrospectively. Of the 577 cases of AN that were studied, 7.1% were late-onset. Unlike the early-onset cases of AN, the late-onset cases reported less teasing and more relationship problems as a trigger for the illness. They were also less likely to join the eating disorders treatment program. Otherwise, the late-onset AN cases were largely similar to the early-onset cases. Although differences exist between early-onset and late-onset cases of AN, these are few. Until stronger evidence emerges over time, there currently seems to be minimal justification to accord late-onset AN a unique position in psychiatric nosology.

  2. Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

    2012-08-01

    Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Substance p regulates puberty onset and fertility in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simavli, Serap; Thompson, Iain R; Maguire, Caroline A; Gill, John C; Carroll, Rona S; Wolfe, Andrew; Kaiser, Ursula B; Navarro, Víctor M

    2015-06-01

    Puberty is a tightly regulated process that leads to reproductive capacity. Kiss1 neurons are crucial in this process by stimulating GnRH, yet how Kiss1 neurons are regulated remains unknown. Substance P (SP), an important neuropeptide in pain perception, induces gonadotropin release in adult mice in a kisspeptin-dependent manner. Here, we assessed whether SP, through binding to its receptor NK1R (neurokinin 1 receptor), participates in the timing of puberty onset and fertility in the mouse. We observed that 1) selective NK1R agonists induce gonadotropin release in prepubertal females; 2) the expression of Tac1 (encoding SP) and Tacr1 (NK1R) in the arcuate nucleus is maximal before puberty, suggesting increased SP tone; 3) repeated exposure to NK1R agonists prepubertally advances puberty onset; and 4) female Tac1(-/-) mice display delayed puberty; moreover, 5) SP deficiency leads to subfertility in females, showing fewer corpora lutea and antral follicles and leading to decreased litter size. Thus, our findings support a role for SP in the stimulation of gonadotropins before puberty, acting via Kiss1 neurons to stimulate GnRH release, and its involvement in the attainment of full reproductive capabilities in female mice.

  4. A Novel Quantitative Approach to Women’s Reproductive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Fritha H.; Judge, Debra S.

    2012-01-01

    The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment) is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented ‘short-term mating strategy’, ‘early onset of sexual activity’, ‘reproductive output’, ‘timing of childbearing’, ‘breastfeeding’, and ‘child spacing’. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child) similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births) for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these

  5. Characteristics of late-onset epilepsy and EEG findings in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneul Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of late-onset epilepsy combined with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and the relationship between certain types of electroencephalography (EEG abnormalities in ASD and associated neuropsychological problems. Methods: Thirty patients diagnosed with ASD in early childhood and later developed clinical seizures were reviewed retrospectively. First, the clinical characteristics, language and behavioral regression, and EEG findings of these late-onset epilepsy patients with ASD were investigated. The patients were then classified into 2 groups according to the severity of the EEG abnormalities in the background rhythm and paroxysmal discharges. In the severe group, EEG showed persistent asymmetry, slow and disorganized background rhythms, and continuous sharp and slow waves during slow sleep (CSWS. Results: Between the two groups, there was no statistically significant difference in mean age (P=0.259, age of epilepsy diagnosis (P=0.237, associated family history (P=0.074, and positive abnormal magnetic resonance image (MRI findings (P=0.084. The severe EEG group tended to have more neuropsychological problems (P=0.074. The severe group statistically showed more electrographic seizures in EEG (P =0.000. Rett syndrome was correlated with more severe EEG abnormalities (P=0.002. Although formal cognitive function tests were not performed, the parents reported an improvement in neuropsychological function on the follow up checkup according to a parent’s questionnaire. Conclusion: Although some ASD patients with late-onset epilepsy showed severe EEG abnormalities, including CSWS, they generally showed an improvement in EEG and clinical symptoms in the longterm follow up. In addition, severe EEG abnormalities tended to be related to the neuropsychological function.

  6. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C. C.; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F.; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD

  7. Dose finding of melatonin for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia: an RCT

    OpenAIRE

    van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M.; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Egberts, A. C. G.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Smits, Marcel G.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in children might differ from that in adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to establish a dose-response relationship for melatonin in advancing dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), sleep onset (SO), and reducing sleep onset latency (SOL) in children between 6 and 12 years with chronic sleep onset insomnia (CSOI). METHODS: The method used for this study is the randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Children with CSOI (n = 72) received either mel...

  8. Dose finding of melatonin for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia: an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijlswijk, I.M. van; Heijden, K.B. van der; Egberts, A.C.G.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Smits, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in children might differ from that in adults. Objectives This study aims to establish a dose–response relationship for melatonin in advancing dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), sleep onset (SO), and reducing sleep onset latency (SOL) in children between 6 and

  9. Dose finding of melatonin for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia: an RCT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geijlswijk, I.M.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Korzilius, H.P.; Smits, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in children might differ from that in adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to establish a dose-response relationship for melatonin in advancing dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), sleep onset (SO), and reducing sleep onset latency (SOL) in children between 6 and

  10. Differences in MRI findings between subgroups of recent-onset childhood arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkhus, Eva; Flatoe, Berit; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Riise, Oeystein; Reiseter, Tor

    2011-01-01

    MRI is sensitive for joint inflammation, but its ability to separate subgroups of arthritis in children has been questioned. Infectious arthritis (IA), postinfectious arthritis (PA), transient arthritis (TA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are subgroups that may need early, different treatment. To determine whether MRI findings differ in IA, PA/TA and JIA in recent-onset childhood arthritis. Fifty-nine children from a prospective study of incidence of arthritis (n = 216) were, based on clinical and biochemical criteria, examined by MRI. Joint fluid, synovium, bone marrow, soft tissue and cartilage were scored retrospectively and analysed by Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Fifty-nine children had MRI of one station. IA was suggested by bone marrow oedema (OR 7.46, P = 0.011) and absence of T1-weighted and T2-weighted low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 0.06, P = 0.015). Furthermore, soft-tissue oedema and reduced contrast enhancement in the epiphyses were more frequent in children with IA. JIA correlated positively with low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 13.30, P < 0.001) and negatively with soft-tissue oedema (OR 0.20, P = 0.018). No significant positive determinants were found for PA/TA, but bone marrow oedema, soft-tissue oedema, irregular thickened synovium and low signal intensity synovial tissue was less frequent than in IA/JIA. In children with high clinical suspicion of recent onset arthritis, there was a significant difference in the distribution of specific MRI features among the diagnostic groups. (orig.)

  11. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia, comparing early-onset and late-onset forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Skarp, Sini; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ryynänen, Markku; Järvenpää, Jouko

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia. Pathways related to immunity, complement and coagulation cascade were overrepresented in the hypergeometric test for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Ten genes (ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G, IL2RB, KRBOX1, LRRC15, METTL7B, MPP5, RFLNB and SLC20A) had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to early controls. There were 362 genes that had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to late-onset preeclampsia group including ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB. There are significant differences in placental gene expression between severe early- and late-onset preeclampsia when both are associated with intrauterine growth restriction. ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB might contribute to the development of early form of severe preeclampsia.

  12. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  13. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vijayan K; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  14. Switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a zebra shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, Christine L; Coulton, Laura; Bone, Ren; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Thomas, Severine

    2017-01-16

    Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which embryos develop in the absence of fertilisation. Most commonly found in plants and invertebrate organisms, an increasing number of vertebrate species have recently been reported employing this reproductive strategy. Here we use DNA genotyping to report the first demonstration of an intra-individual switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a shark species, the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. A co-housed, sexually produced daughter zebra shark also commenced parthenogenetic reproduction at the onset of maturity without any prior mating. The demonstration of parthenogenesis in these two conspecific individuals with different sexual histories provides further support that elasmobranch fishes may flexibly adapt their reproductive strategy to environmental circumstances.

  15. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  16. Estimating reproduction numbers for adults and children from case data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, K.; Mercer, G. N.; Nishiura, H.; McBryde, E. S.; Becker, N. G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for estimating reproduction numbers for adults and children from daily onset data, using pandemic influenza A(H1N1) data as a case study. We investigate the impact of different underlying transmission assumptions on our estimates, and identify that asymmetric reproduction matrices are often appropriate. Under-reporting of cases can bias estimates of the reproduction numbers if reporting rates are not equal across the two age groups. However, we demonstrate that the estimate of the higher reproduction number is robust to disproportionate data-thinning. Applying the method to 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 data from Japan, we demonstrate that the reproduction number for children was considerably higher than that of adults, and that our estimates are insensitive to our choice of reproduction matrix. PMID:21345858

  17. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The ventral premammillary nucleus links leptin action and reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose eDonato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of body fat and the energy balance are important factors that influence the timing of puberty and the normal reproductive function. Leptin is a key hormone that conveys to the central nervous system information about the individual energy reserve and modulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Recent findings suggest that the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV mediates the effects of leptin as a permissive factor for the onset of puberty and the coordinated secretion of luteinizing hormone during conditions of negative energy balance. Thus, in this review we will summarize the existing literature about the potential role played by PMV neurons in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis.

  19. Marriage characteristics and reproductive health of adolescents in Turkey: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Sabahat; Adali, Tuğba

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent marriage is an important issue given its social and medical consequences. This study focuses on the recent trends in adolescent marriage and reproductive health in Turkey to provide insights for action. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1998 and 2008 were used. Adolescent marriage and reproductive health indicators were assessed for urban-rural residences, demographic regions and educational levels. Logistic regression was used to predict marriage and birth in adolescence. Despite the decrease in the proportion of married adolescents from 1998 to 2008, the findings suggest no improvement in some marriage characteristics. In both surveys, over 60% of ever-married adolescents had been pregnant at least once. There is an increase in contraceptive use and antenatal care. Our findings showed that in Turkey, women living in rural areas, from poor households, with more traditional parental families, with less education, and who are not working are more likely to get married in their adolescent ages.

  20. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: reproductive experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cohort of singleton black human females exposed to diagnostic x-ray in utero and controls matched by parity, hospital of birth and birthdate have been followed to ages 25 to 30 years in Baltimore, Maryland. The search for possible effects of prenatal irradiation has focused on health, growth, development, and reproductive experience of exposed and control women. This paper reports findings related to reproductive experience. From an original data set of 1458 matched exposed-control pairs of women, questionnaire responses were received from 1109 exposed and 1124 control women including 852 each from pairs in which both the exposed and control woman responded. After careful search for alternative explanations of the findings, the authors concluded that females exposed in utero to low doses of x-ray (probably 1 to 5 rads) had significant increases in their rates of early onset of menses, births at age 15 years or less, numbers of living children, stillbirths, and sterilizing operations by their mid-twenties. These findings are compatible with animal studies in which prenatal irradiation kills many oocytes, but accelerates the development of remaining cells to stages more closely correlated with fertility. Although these animals subsequently became sterile, this cannot be tested in the current study because significantly more of the irradiated women have had surgical sterilizations

  1. Reproductive profiles and risk of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouckaert, Olivier; Rudolph, Anja; Laenen, Annouschka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis. Methods: We used...... pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer...... the risk for TNBC (OR = 0.78, CI 0.70-0.88, p diagnosis, whereas the association with luminal HER2-like BC was present only for early onset BC....

  2. Cancer susceptibility and reproductive trade-offs: a model of the evolution of cancer defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Amy M; Kokko, Hanna; Breden, Felix; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Aktipis, C Athena

    2015-07-19

    The factors influencing cancer susceptibility and why it varies across species are major open questions in the field of cancer biology. One underexplored source of variation in cancer susceptibility may arise from trade-offs between reproductive competitiveness (e.g. sexually selected traits, earlier reproduction and higher fertility) and cancer defence. We build a model that contrasts the probabilistic onset of cancer with other, extrinsic causes of mortality and use it to predict that intense reproductive competition will lower cancer defences and increase cancer incidence. We explore the trade-off between cancer defences and intraspecific competition across different extrinsic mortality conditions and different levels of trade-off intensity, and find the largest effect of competition on cancer in species where low extrinsic mortality combines with strong trade-offs. In such species, selection to delay cancer and selection to outcompete conspecifics are both strong, and the latter conflicts with the former. We discuss evidence for the assumed trade-off between reproductive competitiveness and cancer susceptibility. Sexually selected traits such as ornaments or large body size require high levels of cell proliferation and appear to be associated with greater cancer susceptibility. Similar associations exist for female traits such as continuous egg-laying in domestic hens and earlier reproductive maturity. Trade-offs between reproduction and cancer defences may be instantiated by a variety of mechanisms, including higher levels of growth factors and hormones, less efficient cell-cycle control and less DNA repair, or simply a larger number of cell divisions (relevant when reproductive success requires large body size or rapid reproductive cycles). These mechanisms can affect intra- and interspecific variation in cancer susceptibility arising from rapid cell proliferation during reproductive maturation, intrasexual competition and reproduction. © 2015 The Author

  3. Genetic and epigenetic risks of assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ziru; Wang, Yinyu; Lin, Jing; Xu, Jingjing; Ding, Guolian; Huang, Hefeng

    2017-10-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used primarily for infertility treatments to achieve pregnancy and involves procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and cryopreservation. Moreover, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of ART is used in couples for genetic reasons. In ART treatments, gametes and zygotes are exposed to a series of non-physiological processes and culture media. Although the majority of children born with this treatment are healthy, some concerns remain regarding the safety of this technology. Animal studies and follow-up studies of ART-borne children suggested that ART was associated with an increased incidence of genetic, physical, or developmental abnormalities, although there are also observations that contradict these findings. As IVF, ICSI, frozen-thawed embryo transfer, and PGD manipulate gametes and embryo at a time that is important for reprogramming, they may affect epigenetic stability, leading to gamete/embryo origins of adult diseases. In fact, ART offspring have been reported to have an increased risk of gamete/embryo origins of adult diseases, such as early-onset diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and so on. In this review, we will discuss evidence related to genetic, especially epigenetic, risks of assisted reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared to those with late-onset dysthymia, early-onset patients are more likely to harbor psychiatric comorbidity both on Axis I and II, exhibit less psychological resilience, and have more prominent family loadings for mood disorders. These findings suggest that this distinction is meaningful and that the early-onset subtype of dysthymia is more difficult to effectively treat. PMID:20049145

  5. Vaginal microbiota of adolescent girls prior to the onset of menarche resemble those of reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Roxana J; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A; Shew, Marcia L; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Forney, Larry J

    2015-03-24

    Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. This study addresses longitudinal changes in vaginal and vulvar microbial communities prior to and immediately following menarche. The research is significant because microbial ecology of the vagina is an integral aspect of health, including resistance to infections. The physiologic changes of puberty and initiation of cyclic menstruation are likely to have profound effects on vaginal microbiota, but almost nothing is known about changes that normally occur during this time. Our understanding has been especially hampered by the lack of thorough characterization of microbial communities using techniques

  6. Optimising reproductive performance of beef cows and replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2014-05-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd is fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognisant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires significant technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval for each successive calving, conception and pregnancy rate and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals and number of calves weaned over her lifetime. Puberty in heifers is a consequence of the interactive effects of genetics and both pre- and post-weaning nutrition. Early onset of puberty is essential to achieving the first main reproductive target for beef cow herds; first calving at 2 years of age. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. Following the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through artificial insemination. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. While, increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively

  7. Putting the brakes on reproduction: Implications for conservation, global climate change and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, John C; Perfito, Nicole; Calisi, Rebecca; Bentley, George; Ubuka, T; Mukai, M; O'Brien, Sara; Tsutsui, K

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal breeding is widespread in vertebrates and involves sequential development of the gonads, onset of breeding activities (e.g. cycling in females) and then termination resulting in regression of the reproductive system. Whereas males generally show complete spermatogenesis prior to and after onset of breeding, females of many vertebrate species show only partial ovarian development and may delay onset of cycling (e.g. estrous), yolk deposition or germinal vesicle breakdown until conditions conducive for ovulation and onset of breeding are favorable. Regulation of this "brake" on the onset of breeding remains relatively unknown, but could have profound implications for conservation efforts and for "mismatches" of breeding in relation to global climate change. Using avian models it is proposed that a brain peptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), may be the brake to prevent onset of breeding in females. Evidence to date suggests that although GnIH may be involved in the regulation of gonadal development and regression, it plays more regulatory roles in the process of final ovarian development leading to ovulation, transitions from sexual to parental behavior and suppression of reproductive function by environmental stress. Accumulating experimental evidence strongly suggests that GnIH inhibits actions of gonadotropin-releasing hormones on behavior (central effects), gonadotropin secretion (central and hypophysiotropic effects), and has direct actions in the gonad to inhibit steroidogenesis. Thus, actual onset of breeding activities leading to ovulation may involve environmental cues releasing an inhibition (brake) on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonad axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  9. Segregation by onset asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P J B; Walton, L; Mitchell, G; Plenderleith, Y; Phillips, W A

    2008-08-05

    We describe a simple psychophysical paradigm for studying figure-ground segregation by onset asynchrony. Two pseudorandom arrays of Gabor patches are displayed, to left and right of fixation. Within one array, a subset of elements form a figure, such as a randomly curving path, that can only be reliably detected when their onset is not synchronized with that of the background elements. Several findings are reported. First, for most participants, segregation required an onset asynchrony of 20-40 ms. Second, detection was no better when the figure was presented first, and thus by itself, than when the background elements were presented first, even though in the latter case the figure could not be detected in either of the two successive displays alone. Third, asynchrony segregated subsets of randomly oriented elements equally well. Fourth, asynchronous onsets aligned with the path could be discriminated from those lying on the path but not aligned with it. Fifth, both transient and sustained neural activity contribute to detection. We argue that these findings are compatible with neural signaling by synchronized rate codes. Finally, schizophrenic disorganization is associated with reduced sensitivity. Thus, in addition to bearing upon basic theoretical issues, this paradigm may have clinical utility.

  10. Discovery of a secular trend in Cayo Santiago macaque reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Kessler, Matthew J; Delgado, Diana L; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Sabat, Alberto M

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive synchrony and the consequent clustering of births are hypothesized to be regulated by seasonal changes in rainfall and food availability. Such climate-related seasonality is, however, questionable in tropical populations occupying temporally invariant habitats year round. Using the long-term data of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques from 1973 to 2013, this study distinguishes synchrony (a greater than chance clustering of births) from seasonality (a cluster of births during a period of the year when abiotic conditions are favorable) and shows that females are highly synchronized (>72% of births in a 3-month period) but the effects of environmental zeitgebers on reproduction are overridden by biological factors. Specifically, biotic and abiotic factors including (i) loss of immature offspring; (ii) population density; (iii) age at delivery; (iv) rainfall; and (v) changes in colony management were modeled in relation to the annual onset of births and the median birth date. Females experiencing loss of immature offspring had an interbirth interval of trend in both the onset of births and the median date of birth is documented and the model predicts that the median birth date will advance across all calendar-based seasons by 2050. The secular trend in reproduction appears to be triggered by changes in the age at delivery of females, the absence of physiological constraints from maternal investment due to offspring loss, shorter interbirth interval, and a higher degree of coordination due to increasing population density. This study challenges the reproductive phenology previously described for rhesus macaques highlighting the importance of long-term studies in addressing the ultimate causes of reproductive synchrony. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. An empirical test of evolutionary theories for reproductive senescence and reproductive effort in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Arnold, Stevan J; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2007-04-07

    Evolutionary theory predicts that differential reproductive effort and rate of reproductive senescence will evolve under different rates of external mortality. We examine the evolutionary divergence of age-specific reproduction in two life-history ecotypes of the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. We test for the signature of reproductive senescence (decreasing fecundity with age) and increasing reproductive effort with age (increasing reproductive productivity per gram female) in replicate populations of two life-history ecotypes: snakes that grow fast, mature young and have shorter lifespans, and snakes that grow slow, mature late and have long lives. The difference between life-history ecotypes is due to genetic divergence in growth rate. We find (i) reproductive success (live litter mass) increases with age in both ecotypes, but does so more rapidly in the fast-growth ecotype, (ii) reproductive failure increases with age in both ecotypes, but the proportion of reproductive failure to total reproductive output remains invariant, and (iii) reproductive effort remains constant in fast-growth individuals with age, but declines in slow-growth individuals. This illustration of increasing fecundity with age, even at the latest ages, deviates from standard expectations for reproductive senescence, as does the lack of increases in reproductive effort. We discuss our findings in light of recent theories regarding the phenomenon of increased reproduction throughout life in organisms with indeterminate growth and its potential to offset theoretical expectations for the ubiquity of senescence.

  12. Maturity onset diabetes of the young : Seek and you will find

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel-Borsboom, H; de Valk, H W; Losekoot, M; Westerink, J

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a monogenic, autosomal dominant form of diabetes characterised by mutations in genes resulting in dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells and subsequent insulin production. We present a family with HNF1A-MODY due to a likely pathogenic mutation in HNF1A

  13. Novel syndrome of cataracts, retinitis pigmentosa, late onset deafness and sperm abnormalities: a new Usher syndrome subtype with X-linked inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Shahidi, Arash; Khorsandi Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud

    2007-07-15

    Tissues of the auditory, ocular and reproductive systems have some similarities in their protein families and structures. Consequently, syndromes comprising these systems are described. Hearing loss alone is a component of more than 400 known syndromes and is a common nonsyndromic congenital disorder. Here we describe a syndrome in five brothers with the distinctive presentation of late-onset progressive hearing loss, cataracts, retinitis pigmentosa, sperm motility and shape problems in a family from the Kurdish population in Iran. The clinical findings of these patients are presented in detail and compared to the classical Usher syndromes. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  14. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  15. Computed tomography of late-onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik; Im, Jae Yung; Joo, Yang Goo; Park, Sam Kyoon

    1982-01-01

    Epilepsy can be divided into idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy according to the existence of underlying organic brain disease. It has been said that the incidence of the symptomatic epilepsy caused by underlying organic brain disease is higher in late-onset epilepsy after the age of 20 than in childhood-onset epilepsy. CT is very sensitive and non-invasive method for detection of organic brain disease. 168 cases of late-onset epilepsy after the age of of 20 were studied by CT in recent 2 years were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The 3rd decade was the most frequent age group, and the ratio of male to female was 2.5 : 1. 2. Structural abnormality on brain CT was demonstrated in 51.8% of the patient. 3. The older onset of age was, the higher the ratio of abnormal CT findings, except 5th decade which showed less CT abnormality than 4th decade. 4. The most frequent history related to epilepsy was trauma. 63.1% of patients had no relevant history: and they showed CT findings of brain tumor, atrophy and infraction in decreasing order of frequency. 5. Abnormal CT findings was demonstrated in 49.2% of normal neurologic examination and in 46.4% of normal EEG study. 6. The most frequent lesion of abnormal CT scan in late-onset epilepsy was 30 cases (18.4%) of brain atrophy. The next frequent lesion was 18 cases (10.7%) of brain tumor. Infarction, parasites and calcification were other frequent lesions

  16. Agenesis of the internal carotid artery with a trans-sellar anastomosis: CT and MRI findings in late-onset congenital hypopituitarism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, J.M.; Merino, X.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Sauri, A.

    2001-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman with a history of hypothyroidism since early childhood developed hypopituitarism. CT and MRI revealed anterior pituitary hypoplasia, an ectopic posterior lobe, a Chiari I malformation and agenesis of the right internal carotid artery with a trans-sellar anastomosis. This constellation of findings constitutes a previously unreported association in congenital hypopituitarism of late onset. The usefulness of imaging modalities and the pathogenic implications are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMAS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Babkina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are extremely rare among all tumors of female reproductive system. Diagnostic mistakes and inadequate therapeu- tic tactics in these diseases are results of usual absence of alertness of gynecologists. The aims are to analyze reasons of diagnostic mistakes in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of female reproductive system and to discover definitive clinical and morphological characteristics of female reproductive system lymphoid tumors. During the period between 1989 and 2006, 305 cases of primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lym- phomas were detected; female reproductive system was affected in 7% of patients (totally 40 patients, which were included in investigated group. In the whole analyzed group of women (n=40, median age 43 yrs, range 17-84 yrs, patients with primary lesion of female reproductive system had median age of 40 yrs and with secondary involvement - 46 yrs. Most of patients were fertile (60%, n=24. Such tumors was localized in breast in 40% of cases (n=16, in ovaries - 20% (n=8, in uterine corpus - 12,5% (n=5, in uterine cervix - 15% (n=6, and in vagina - remaining 12,5% (n=5. Average time from diagnosis to beginning of the treatment was 7,5 months. As a result, the onset of specific therapy was delayed in 65% cases (n=26 and 50% (n=20 underwent unneeded surgery. Diagnostic mistakes lead to inadequate treatment. Extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of female reproductive system, both primary and secondary, are rare pathology. Primary lesion is more typical for older women, sec- ondary is mainly affecting younger women (in reproductive period. Chemotherapy response and prognosis are better in primary cases.

  18. Identification of risk factors for new-onset sciatica in Japanese workers: findings from the Japan epidemiological research of Occupation-related Back pain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Isomura, Tatsuya; Arisaka, Mayumi; Fujii, Tomoko; Takeshita, Katsushi; Kitagawa, Tomoaki; Miyoshi, Kota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2013-12-15

    Two-year, prospective cohort data collected for the Japan epidemiological research of Occupation-related Back pain study were used for the analysis. To identify potential risk factors for the development of new-onset sciatica in initially symptom-free Japanese workers with no history of sciatica. Although the associations between individual and occupational factors and cases of new-onset sciatica are established, the effect of psychosocial factors on the development of sciatica has still not been adequately clarified. In total, 5310 participants responded to a self-administered baseline questionnaire (response rate: 86.5%). Furthermore, 3194 (60.2%) completed both 1- and 2-year follow-up questionnaires. The baseline questionnaire assessed individual characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. The outcome of interest was new-onset sciatica with or without low back pain during the 2-year follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for participants who reported no low back pain in the preceding year and no history of lumbar radicular pain (sciatica) at baseline. Logistical regression assessed risk factors associated with new-onset sciatica. Of 765 eligible participants, 141 (18.4%) reported a new episode of sciatica during the 2-year follow-up. In crude analysis, significant associations were found between new-onset sciatica and age and obesity. In adjusted analysis, significant associations were found for obesity and mental workload in a qualitative aspect after controlling for age and sex. Consequently, in multivariate analysis with all the potential risk factors, age and obesity remained statistically significant (odds ratios: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.52; odds ratios: 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.68, respectively). In previously asymptomatic Japanese workers, the risk of developing new-onset sciatica is mediated by individual factors. Our findings suggest that the management of obesity may prevent new-onset

  19. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bisphenol A and Reproductive Health: Update of Experimental and Human Evidence, 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Jackye; Vrooman, Lisa; Ricke, William A.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Hauser, Russ; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Taylor, Hugh S.; Swan, Shanna H.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2007, an expert panel reviewed associations between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and reproductive health outcomes. Since then, new studies have been conducted on the impact of BPA on reproduction. Objective: In this review, we summarize data obtained since 2007, focusing on a) findings from human and animal studies, b) the effects of BPA on a variety of reproductive end points, and c) mechanisms of BPA action. Methods: We reviewed the literature published from 2007 to 2013 using a PubMed search based on keywords related to BPA and male and female reproduction. Discussion: Because BPA has been reported to affect the onset of meiosis in both animal and in vitro models, interfere with germ cell nest breakdown in animal models, accelerate follicle transition in several animal species, alter steroidogenesis in multiple animal models and women, and reduce oocyte quality in animal models and women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we consider it an ovarian toxicant. In addition, strong evidence suggests that BPA is a uterine toxicant because it impaired uterine endometrial proliferation, decreased uterine receptivity, and increased implantation failure in animal models. BPA exposure may be associated with adverse birth outcomes, hyperandrogenism, sexual dysfunction, and impaired implantation in humans, but additional studies are required to confirm these associations. Studies also suggest that BPA may be a testicular toxicant in animal models, but the data in humans are equivocal. Finally, insufficient evidence exists regarding effects of BPA on the oviduct, the placenta, and pubertal development. Conclusion: Based on reports that BPA impacts female reproduction and has the potential to affect male reproductive systems in humans and animals, we conclude that BPA is a reproductive toxicant. Citation: Peretz J, Vrooman L, Ricke WA, Hunt PA, Ehrlich S, Hauser R, Padmanabhan V, Taylor HS, Swan SH, VandeVoort CA, Flaws JA. 2014. Bisphenol A and reproductive

  1. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su Mi; Chai, Jee Won [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD) due to adrenal insufficiency (AI) in preterm infants. Among the 257 preterm infants born at <33 weeks of gestation between December 2009 and February 2014 at our institution, 35 preterm infants were diagnosed with AI. Brain ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed before and after LCD in 14 preterm infants, after exclusion of the other 21 infants with AI due to the following causes: death (n=2), early AI (n=5), sepsis (n=1), and patent ductus arteriosus (n=13). Fourteen of 257 infants (5.4%) were diagnosed with LCD due to AI. The age at LCD was a median of 18.5 days (range, 9 to 32 days). The last ultrasonographic findings before LCD occurred showed grade 1 periventricular echogenicity (PVE) in all 14 patients and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) with focal cystic change in one patient. Ultrasonographic findings after LCD demonstrated no significant change in grade 1 PVE and no new lesions in eight (57%), grade 1 PVE with newly appearing GMH in three (21%), and increased PVE in three (21%) infants. Five infants (36%) showed new development (n=4) or increased size (n=1) of GMH. Two of three infants (14%) with increased PVE developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia. LCD due to AI may be associated with the late development of GMH, increased PVE after LCD, and cystic PVL with rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia.

  2. Theory of Mind differences in older patients with early-onset and late-onset paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets-Janssen, M M J; Meesters, P D; Comijs, H C; Eikelenboom, P; Smit, J H; de Haan, L; Beekman, A T F; Stek, M L

    2013-11-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is considered an essential element of social cognition. In younger schizophrenia patients, ToM impairments have extensively been demonstrated. It is not clear whether similar impairments can be found in older schizophrenia patients and if these impairments differ between older patients with early-onset and late-onset schizophrenia. Theory of Mind abilities were assessed using the Hinting Task in 15 older patients (age 60 years and older) with early-onset paranoid schizophrenia, 15 older patients with late-onset paranoid schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. ANCOVA was performed to test differences between groups. Analyses were adjusted for level of education. Effect sizes, partial eta squared (ε(2) ), were computed as an indication of the clinical relevance of the findings. Patients with early-onset schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the Hinting Task (mean 16.1; SD 4.3) compared with patients with late-onset schizophrenia (mean 18.6; SD 1.5) and with healthy controls (mean 19.0; SD 1.4). The effect size of this difference was large (ε(2)  = 0.2). These results suggest that ToM functioning may be a protective factor modulating the age at onset of psychosis. Further studies into the relationship between social cognition and onset age of psychosis are warranted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: phenotypic characterization and genotypic correlations in 21 affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudorfer, Orit; Pastores, Gregory M; Zeng, Bai J; Gianutsos, John; Zaroff, Charles M; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the phenotype (and corresponding genotype) of adult patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, a clinical variant of the GM2-gangliosidoses. A comprehensive physical examination, including neurological assessments, was performed to establish the current disease pattern and severity. In addition, the patients' past medical histories were reviewed. The patients' alpha-subunit mutations (beta-Hexosaminidase A genotype) were determined and correlated with their corresponding clinical findings and disease course. Twenty-one patients (current mean age: 27.0 years; range: 14-47 years) were identified. The pedigree revealed a relative with the "classic" infantile or late-onset form of Tay-Sachs disease in four (out of 18) unrelated families. The patients were predominantly male (15/21 individuals) and of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry (15/18 families). Mean age at onset was 18.1 years; balance problems and difficulty climbing stairs were the most frequent presenting complaints. In several cases, the diagnosis was delayed (mean age at diagnosis: 27.0 years). Analysis of the beta-hex A gene revealed the G269S mutation as the most common disease allele; found in homozygosity (N = 1) or heterozygosity (N = 18; including 2 sib pairs). Disease onset (age 36 years) was delayed and progression relatively slower in the homozygous G269S patient. Two siblings (ages 28 and 31 years), of non-Jewish ancestry, were compound heterozygotes (TATC1278/W474C); their clinical course is dominated by psychiatric problems. Brain imaging studies revealed marked cerebellar atrophy in all patients (N = 18) tested, regardless of disease stage. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease is an infrequent disorder and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed (by approximately 8 years). Early on, the majority of patients develop signs of either cerebellar or anterior motor neuron involvement. Affected individuals may also develop psychotic episodes. In most cases, the later-onset

  4. The ethics of assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzinikolaou, Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    Issues concerning the beginning of life and medical intervention in the onset of human existence are very delicate in their nature; they involve multi-dimensional knowledge, they are difficult to comprehend and sensitive to handle. When pure scientific elements are combined with profound emotions, when the genius of technological discoveries touches upon human dignity and sanctity, when passion for the technological achievement intervenes in basic human rights, then the sense of inadequacy and ignorance becomes intense and critical. Silence seems more sought-after than words, and willingness to learn more prudent than the desire to speak. Fear of the inconceivable consequences and even more so the inability to assess them, experiments with the unknown, the likelihood that basic historical, ethical and social values may change forever, but mainly the replacement of God in His wondrous work of creation--the onset of human life--places the ethics of reproductive technologies on the frontline of contemporary bioethics. This opinion paper does not deal with dangers, insults, fears, threats, "speed limits" or ethical controversies, but rather with the very mystery of life. Although there are no generally accepted replies to the various questions being posed, some thoughts and reservations, which can shed some light upon complicated dilemmas are presented. Firstly, the content of reproductive technologies, the problem of infertility today, the methods of fertility treatment, and of prenatal and pre-implantation testing are described, and then the social impact of IVF, complicated cases, deontological dilemmas and some ethical concerns are discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nest wax triggers worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In this study, we have examined the influence of chemical cues from the nest wax on the onset of worker reproduction. Chemical analyses of wax extracts have revealed that the patterns and amounts of cuticular lipids change considerably during colony development. These changes in wax scent mirror worker abundance and the presence of fertile workers. In bioassays with queen-right worker groups, wax affects the dominance behaviour and ovarian development of workers. When exposed to wax from a colony in competition phase, workers start to compete for reproduction. We suggest that wax scent enables workers to time their reproduction by providing essential information concerning the social condition of the colony.

  6. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina K; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to tobacco smoking prenatally is a risk factor for reduced semen quality, but whether the exposure has adverse effects on reproductive hormones, pubertal development or adult BMI remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between...... these factors while controlling for the effects of current smoking in young adulthood. METHODS This cross-sectional study (1996-2006) included 3486 Danish men (median age: 19 years), participating in a semen-quality study. Data were obtained from questionnaires, physical examinations, semen analyses...... and assessments of reproductive hormones. The main outcome measures were markers of pubertal onset, BMI, reproductive hormones and semen variables. RESULTS Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with earlier onset of puberty (e.g. early pubic hair development in 25.2 versus 18.9% of unexposed subjects...

  8. Determinants of reproductive costs in the long-lived Black-legged Kittiwake: A multiyear experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Gregory H.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Irons, David B.; Estes, James A.

    2004-01-01

    We studied reproductive costs of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) by removing entire clutches from randomly selected nests over four successive years, and then contrasting survival and fecundity of adults from manipulated and unmanipulated nests in each subsequent year. To elucidate mechanisms that lead to the expression of reproductive costs, we simultaneously characterized several behavioral and physiological parameters among adults in the two treatment groups. We also examined naturally nonbreeding adults that previously bred to determine their survival and future nonbreeding probabilities.Food availability varied during the study, being generally poor at the onset, and improving in later years. Adult nest attendance and body condition (assessed late in the chick- rearing period) varied accordingly among years, and between adults raising chicks and adults that had their eggs removed. Adults from unmanipulated nests incurred significant survival costs in all years, although fecundity costs were strongly expressed in only one of four years. Neither survival nor fecundity costs were strongly influenced by body condition or food availability, and no difference in reproductive costs was detected between the sexes. Although unmanipulated breeders survived at lower rates than manipulated breeders due to costs of reproduction, their survival rates were elevated compared to those of natural nonbreeders, presumably due to differences in individual ability. These findings indicate that models of adult survival must consider not only an organism's reproductive state, but also the factors that lead to that state.Although body condition appeared to be weakly related to survival, it was insufficient to explain the full magnitude of survival costs observed. We suggest that other parameters that were found to differ between treatment groups (e.g., rates of energy turnover, baseline levels of stress, and patterns of allocating body

  9. Vitamin D (soltriol), light, and reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.E.; Denny, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence from autoradiographic studies with 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (vitamin D, soltriol) labeled with tritium and from the literature indicates that the steroid hormone soltriol regulates and modulates reproductive processes in the female, as it does in the male. Nuclear receptors for soltriol have been discovered in the uterus, oviduct, ovary, mammary gland, placenta, and fetal membranes, as well as in the pituitary and hypothalamus. Soltriol is recognized as a transducer and hormonal messenger of sunlight, acting as a somatotropic activator and modulator of vital processes for the seasonal and estival adaptation of growth, development, and procreation. Its influence on calcium equilibrium is just one of its many functions to serve this goal. This article reviews experimental, clinical, and epidemiologic evidence that suggests the involvement of soltriol in the control of reproductive processes, noting its importance for the onset of puberty, fertility, pregnancy, lactation, and probably sexual behavior. Cooperative actions between soltriol and other steroid hormones, especially estradiol, are pointed out.107 references

  10. Attention capture by abrupt onsets: re-visiting the priority tag model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Mary Sunny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abrupt onsets have been shown to strongly attract attention in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up manner. However, the precise mechanism that drives capture by onsets is still debated. According to the new object account, abrupt onsets capture attention because they signal the appearance of a new object. Yantis and Johnson (1990 used a visual search task and showed that up to four onsets can be automatically prioritized. However, in their study the number of onsets co-varied with the total number of items in the display, allowing for a possible confound between these two variables. In the present study, display size was fixed at eight items while the number of onsets was systematically varied between zero and eight. Experiment 1 showed a systematic increase in reactions times with increasing number of onsets. This increase was stronger when the target was an onset than when it was a no-onset item, a result that is best explained by a model according to which only one onset is automatically prioritized. Even when the onsets were marked in red (Experiment 2, nearly half of the participants continued to prioritize only one onset item. Only when onset and no-onset targets were blocked (Experiment 3, participants started to search selectively through the set of only the relevant target type. These results further support the finding that only one onset captures attention. Many bottom-up models of attention capture, like masking or saliency accounts, can efficiently explain this finding.

  11. Attention capture by abrupt onsets: re-visiting the priority tag model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Meera M; von Mühlenen, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Abrupt onsets have been shown to strongly attract attention in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up manner. However, the precise mechanism that drives capture by onsets is still debated. According to the new object account, abrupt onsets capture attention because they signal the appearance of a new object. Yantis and Johnson (1990) used a visual search task and showed that up to four onsets can be automatically prioritized. However, in their study the number of onsets co-varied with the total number of items in the display, allowing for a possible confound between these two variables. In the present study, display size was fixed at eight items while the number of onsets was systematically varied between zero and eight. Experiment 1 showed a systematic increase in reactions times with increasing number of onsets. This increase was stronger when the target was an onset than when it was a no-onset item, a result that is best explained by a model according to which only one onset is automatically prioritized. Even when the onsets were marked in red (Experiment 2), nearly half of the participants continued to prioritize only one onset item. Only when onset and no-onset targets were blocked (Experiment 3), participants started to search selectively through the set of only the relevant target type. These results further support the finding that only one onset captures attention. Many bottom-up models of attention capture, like masking or saliency accounts, can efficiently explain this finding.

  12. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Sezgin; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to discuss the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. A systematic review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2014. Aging is a natural process comprising of irreversible changes due to a myriad of endogenous and environmental factors at the level of all organs and systems. In modern life, as more couples choose to postpone having a child due to various socioeconomic reasons, research for understanding the effects of aging on the reproductive system has gained an increased importance. Paternal aging also causes genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa, which impair male reproductive functions through their adverse effects on sperm quality and count as, well as, on sexual organs and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hormone production, spermatogenesis, and testes undergo changes as a man ages. These small changes lead to decrease in both the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. The offspring of older fathers show high prevalence of genetic abnormalities, childhood cancers, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the latest advances in assisted reproductive techniques give older men a chance to have a child even with poor semen parameters. Further studies should investigate the onset of gonadal senesce and its effects on aging men.

  13. A bulletin on survey findings of China's national population and reproductive health in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1998-08-01

    This article presents findings from the 1997 State Family Planning Commission's KAP survey in China. The aim was to assess reproductive health and contraception and the future needs for family planning management. The national sample included 1041 sampling points in 337 counties among 186,089 registered persons in the first demographic stage and 15,213 persons in the second in-depth KAP stage of the survey. The average age at first marriage of women was 1.5 years higher in 1997 than in 1990. The birthrate declined, and fertility remained stable at below replacement levels. Contraceptive usage among women of childbearing ages was 83.4%. 9.2% relied on male sterilization, 40% relied on female sterilization, 43.4% used IUDs, and 4.1% used condoms. 25.5% of married reproductive age women had an unwanted pregnancy due to contraceptive failure. 62.5% of women of childbearing age received contraceptives free of charge. 28.6% received contraceptive supplies from retail shops. 39.1% who had a contraceptive operation had access to pre-operative counseling, and 50.9% received post-operative counseling. 23.5% had follow-up visits. The average age of menarche was 15.2 years. The average age of menopause was 44.8 years. Gynecological discomfort increased with age. 63% consulted doctors. 58.5% fully breast-fed for over 6 months. 57.3% had knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, and 63.5% had heard of AIDS. 75% were happy with their sexual lives. 7.8% nationally had received at least one kind of economic assistance or skill training, of whom 50.6% had access to loans or poverty alleviation funds.

  14. Public and private regulation of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1995-01-01

    Human reproduction is interrelated with privacy. However, in most countries where new reproductive technologies are used public regulations have been passed to provide a legal framework for such technologies. This interference in private life can be justified by the need to control medical intervention in the human reproductive process. But in order to find a balance between public regulations and other social regulations, this article analyses the impact private regulation may have on issues raised by reproductive technologies. It also addresses the issue of the influence of private bodies on the drafting of public regulations.

  15. Nervous control of reproduction in Octopus vulgaris: a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristo, Carlo

    2013-06-01

    The classic study of Wells and Wells on the control of reproduction in Octopus demonstrated that the activity of the subpedunculate lobe of the brain and environmental illumination both inhibit the release of an unknown gonadotropin from the optic gland. This inhibitory control may be exerted by the neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH₂ (FMRFamide). It was later demonstrated that the olfactory lobe is also likely to be involved in the control of optic gland activity. The presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the olfactory lobe suggested that it might exert an excitatory action on optic gland activity. Other neuropeptides have now been localised in the olfactory lobe: neuropeptide Y, galanin, corticotropin-releasing factor, Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH₂ (APGWamide), as well as steroidogenic enzymes and an oestrogen receptor orthologue. This supports the hypothesis that this lobe may also play a part in the control of reproduction in Octopus. The olfactory lobe receives distant chemical stimuli and also appears to be an integrative centre containing a variety of neuropeptides involved in controlling the onset of sexual maturation of Octopus, via the optic gland hormone. This review attempts to summarise current knowledge about the role of the olfactory lobe and optic gland in the control of sexual maturation in Octopus, in the light of new findings and in the context of molluscan comparative physiology.

  16. Safety assessment of Hibiscus sabdariffa after maternal exposure on male reproductive parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea L; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) is a species widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of some disorders. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa (HS) on the development of the male reproductive tract in rats following in utero exposure. Pregnant rats received 250 or 500 mg/kg of HS extract or vehicle from gestational day 12 until day 21 of lactation. Both doses of HS increased the body weight of male offspring at weaning, without compromising the puberty onset parameters. At puberty, there was a significant increase in the vas deferens absolute weight and a significant reduction in the relative weight of kidney at higher dose. These animals also presented a significant reduction in the sperm number in the caput/corpus of epididymis after exposure to both doses and a reduction in the sperm number in the cauda epididymis for the lower dose. At adulthood, the highest dose significantly reduced the sperm production in relation to controls and both doses provoked a reduction in the relative sperm number in the epididymis without affecting the sperm morphology. These findings demonstrated that maternal exposure to H. sabdariffa can adversely influence the male reproductive system in rats.

  17. Is bigger better? The relationship between size and reproduction in female Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, J A H; Mumby, H S; Chapman, S N; Lahdenperä, M; Mar, K U; Htut, W; Thura Soe, A; Aung, H H; Lummaa, V

    2017-10-01

    The limited availability of resources is predicted to impose trade-offs between growth, reproduction and self-maintenance in animals. However, although some studies have shown that early reproduction suppresses growth, reproduction positively correlates with size in others. We use detailed records from a large population of semi-captive elephants in Myanmar to assess the relationships between size (height and weight), reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants, a species characterized by slow, costly life history. Although female height gain during the growth period overlapped little with reproductive onset in the population, there was large variation in age at first reproduction and only 81% of final weight had been reached by peak age of reproduction at the population level (19 years). Those females beginning reproduction early tended to be taller and lighter later in life, although these trends were not significant. We found that taller females were more likely to have reproduced by a given age, but such effects diminished with age, suggesting there may be a size threshold to reproduction which is especially important in young females. Because size was not linked with female survival during reproductive ages, the diminishing effect of height on reproduction with age is unlikely to be due to biased survival of larger females. We conclude that although reproduction may not always impose significant costs on growth, height may be a limiting factor to reproduction in young female Asian elephants, which could have important implications considering their birth rates are low and peak reproduction is young - 19 years in this population. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Expression of MicroRNA-146a and MicroRNA-155 in Placental Villi in Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizyaeva, N V; Kulikova, G V; Nagovitsyna, M N; Kan, N E; Prozorovskaya, K N; Shchegolev, A I; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-07-01

    We studied the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 in placental villi from 18 women (26-39 weeks of gestation) of reproductive age with early- or late-onset preeclampsia. The reference group consisted of women with physiological pregnancy and full-term gestation and with preterm birth after caesarian section on gestation week 26-31. MicroRNA-146a and microRNA-155 were detected by in situ hybridization with digoxigenin on paraffin sections. It was found that the expression of microRNA-146a in both syncytiotrophoblast of the intermediate villi and syncytial knots was lower at late-onset preeclampsia than at physiologic pregnancy of full-term period (p=0.037 and p=0.001 respectively). The expression of microRNA-155 in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate placental villi in early-onset preeclampsia was higher than in group with preterm delivery (p=0.003). However, in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate villi and in syncytial knots, the expression of microRNA-155 was lower at late-onset preeclampsia in comparison with full-term physiological pregnancy (p=0.005). In addition, the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 did not increase in the later terms in preeclampsia, while in the reference groups demonstrating gradual increase in the expression of these markers with increasing gestational age. Expression microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 little differed in early- and late-onset preeclampsia. These findings suggest that different variants of preeclampsia are probably characterized by common pathogenetic pathways. Damaged trophoblast cannot maintain of microRNAs synthesis at the required level, which determines the formation of a vicious circle in preeclampsia and further progression of the disease.

  19. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  20. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. X-linked adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy: Psychiatric and neurological manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Daniah; Alleyne, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare x-linked inborn error of metabolism occurring predominantly in males with onset in early 30s. Here, we report a 34-year-old male with first signs of disease in early 20s manifesting as a pure psychiatric disorder. Prior to onset of neurological symptoms, this patient demonstrated a schizophrenia and bipolar-like presentation. The disease progressed over the next 10-13 years and his memory and motor problems became evident around the age of 33 years. Subsequently, diagnostic testing showed the typical magnetic resonance imaging and lab findings for adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy. This case highlights adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy which may present as a pure psychiatric disturbance in early adulthood and briefly discusses the prolonged time between the onset of psychiatric symptoms and the onset of neurological disease.

  2. Relationship between pre-weaning gain, age at puberty, and reproductive tract development in Angus heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef heifers should initiate reproductive cycles by 12 mo of age to insure multiple estrous cycles before the start of the breeding season to maximize fertility. Previous research indicated that pre-weaning gain positively influenced the onset of puberty and antral follicle numbers. Therefore, the...

  3. Early-onset baldness and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Nathan P; MacInnis, Robert J; English, Dallas R; Bolton, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Millar, Jeremy L; Severi, Gianluca; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the associations between androgenetic alopecia at a young age and subsequent development of aggressive prostate cancer (PC). Using a case-control design with self-administered questionnaire, we evaluated the association between aggressive PC and very early-onset balding at age 20, and early-onset balding at age 40 years in 1,941 men. Cases were men with high-grade and/or advanced stage cancer and controls were clinic based men who had undergone biopsy and were found to be histologically cancer negative. Additionally, for cases we assessed whether early-onset balding was associated with earlier onset of disease. Men with very early-onset balding at age 20 years were at increased risk for subsequent aggressive PC [odds ratio (OR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.12] after adjustment for age at baseline, family history of PC, smoking status, alcohol intake, body shape, timing of growth spurt and ejaculatory frequency. Additionally, these men were diagnosed with PC approximately 16 months earlier than cases without the exposure. The effect was present particularly for men with advanced stage pT3+ disease (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.47) while men with organ-confined high-grade (8-10) PC did not exhibit the same relationship. No significant associations were observed for men who were balding at age 40 years, given no balding at age 20. Men with androgenetic alopecia at age 20 years are at increased risk of advanced stage PC. This small subset of men are potentially candidates for earlier screening and urological follow-up.

  4. Stress and fish reproduction: The roles of allostasis and hormesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a review of the effects of stress on reproduction in fishes. I hope to further the development of the concepts of allostasis and hormesis as relevant to understanding reproduction in general and in fish in particular. The main contentions I derive in this review are the following: Stressors affect fish reproduction in a variety of ways depending on the nature and severity of the stressor. The effects are transduced through a hormonal cascade initiated by perception of the stressor and involving the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis, the catecholamines, and also cytokines. Mounting a stress response and resisting a stressor is an energetically costly process, including costs associated with allostasis, attempting to reset homeostatic norms. Responses in emergency situations (e.g., being chased by a predator or a net) can be different from those where fish can cope (e.g., being in a more crowded environment) with a stressor, but both situations involve energy re-budgeting. Emergency responses happen in concert with the onset of energy limitations (e.g., the fish may not eat), while coping with allostatic overload can happen in a more energy-rich environment (e.g., the fish can continue to eat). Low levels of stress may have a positive effect on reproductive processes while greater stress has negative effects on fish reproduction. The concept of hormesis is a useful way to think about the effect of stressors on fish reproduction since responses can be nonmonotonal, often biphasic.

  5. New insights into the factors mediating the onset of puberty in sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, F; Rocha, A; Molés, G; Gómez, A; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2015-12-01

    In populations of 1-year-old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), only large males are able to acquire for the first time a functional competence of their reproductive axis; in other words, to attain puberty. To examine the causes and mechanisms involved in the onset of puberty in this species, a size sorting sampling was carried out to obtain two experimental groups of small and large male fish exhibiting different growth rates. As expected, only large fish reached full spermiogenesis (stage V of testicular development) by the end of the experiment. Our study suggests that fish size is a permissive condition to ensure full effectiveness of the hormonal (Gnrh1, gonadotropins and sexual steroids) actions. Thus, though small fish had endocrine profiles similar to those of large fish, their amplitude was much lower, and was most likely the reason why functional competence of the reproductive axis was not achieved. Moreover, this work provides evidence of the involvement of kisspeptin and Gnrh1 systems in the onset of puberty in a marine teleost fish. It also indicates that very likely kisspeptin and Gnrh1 may regulate gonadotropins and sex steroids at specific stages of testicular development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Late onset depression: A recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset depression has recently emerged as a serious mental health issue in the geriatric population with significant public health implications. It is often challenging to diagnose and treat this entity. Various theories have been postulated to elucidate the etiology of late onset depression, but a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Although the vascular hypothesis is most researched; a complex interaction of multiple vulnerability factors is the current focus of attention. Numerous psychosocial variables have been implicated to play a significant role in predicting the onset and severity of late-life depression. Phenomenological differences have been delineated from depression occurring at a younger age, but the findings are equivocal. A better understanding of the natural trajectory of depression in the elderly is required for early diagnosis and effective treatment. This review attempts to summarize the current status of evidence regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and treatment options available for late-onset depression.

  7. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Student Support for Reproductive Health Education in Middle Schools: Findings from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhanna, Farah; DeJong, Jocelyn; Afifi, Rima; Asmar, Khalil; Nazha, Bassel; Zurayk, Huda

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive health education (RHE) programmes in schools are a well-recognised means of helping young people make informed decisions relating to their sexual health and well-being. Very little research however has investigated attitudes towards such programmes among students in the Arab world. A national HIV education curriculum was developed in…

  9. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  10. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.

  11. Efficacy of brain scanning in epilepsy of late onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.N.; Ramanathan, P.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Brain scans of 513 patients with epilepsy of late onset were analysed with reference to the patient's age and sex and to the nature of convulsion. Only 17 of them showed an abnormal concentration of radionuclide indicating a space-occupying lesion in the brain. The findings of those patients who had positive brain scans were correlated with EEG findings. It was found that the incidence of epilepsy of late onset is almost 3 times higher in males than in females and that the age cannot be considered as a criterion for screening the patients for brain scan investigation as far as epilepsy of late onset is concerned. In the authors' opinion, the incidence of 3.3% is not too low. A positive brain scan finding calls for further investigation and helps in deciding the management and further line of treatment of the patients. Moreover, a normal scan rules out the presence of a space-occupying lesion and helps as a screening procedure. (orig.) 891 MG [de

  12. Influence of Biblotherapy on Men's Participation in Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings showed that bibliotherapy will not significantly influence men's participatory role in family planning and also that bibliotherpay will have significant influence on men's patronage of reproductive health (RH) services and effective communication of couples on sexuality and reproductive health matters.

  13. Morphea in Adults and Children Cohort VI: A cross-sectional comparison of outcomes between adults with pediatric-onset and adult-onset morphea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Daniel; Grabell, Daniel; Jacobe, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies have looked at outcomes of adults with pediatric-onset morphea. The objective of the present study was to compare clinical outcomes and health-related quality of life in adults with pediatric-onset morphea to those of patients with adult-onset morphea. Methods Participants in the study were drawn from the Morphea in Adults and Children Cohort and included 68 adults with pediatric-onset morphea and 234 patients with adult-onset morphea. Outcome measures included the Localized Scleroderma Cutaneous Assessment Tool (LoSCAT), physical exam findings, and quality of life questionnaires. Results Adults with pediatric-onset morphea were younger, had longer disease duration, and were more likely to have the linear subtype of morphea. Patients with pediatric-onset disease were less likely to have active disease. Among patients with active disease, those with pediatric-onset morphea had less disease activity as measured by the LoSCAT. Patients with pediatric-onset disease had higher disease damage as measured by the Physician Global Assessment of Damage, but similar disease damage as measured by the Localized Scleroderma Skin Damage Index. Patients with pediatric-onset disease had more favorable quality of life scores for all measures that reached statistical significance. Conclusion Adults with pediatric-onset morphea differ from patients with adult-onset disease with respect to subtype, disease activity, disease damage, and health-related quality of life. PMID:25156342

  14. Does early-onset multiple sclerosis differ from adult-onset form in Iranian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ashtari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have attempted to delineate the clinical profile of multiple Sclerosis (MS among people of Asia. This study sought to identify the characteristics of early-onset Multiple Sclerosis (EOMS comparison to adult-onset form (AOMS in Isfahan, IRAN. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 104 youths with multiple sclerosis beginning before the age of 16 years and 123 patients with adult-onset multiple sclerosis. Patients were observed for a mean period of 5 years. The common presenting symptoms, MRI finding, course of disease and disability score were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean onset age of disease in youths and adults were 14 ± 1.9 and 27.7 ± 8.06 years, respectively. Female/male ratio was 4.47:1 in EOMS and 3.92:1 in AOMS, this ratio was 7:1 in early childhood MS (≤ 10 year. The most common presenting symptom was optic neuritis in the EOMS group and paresthesia in AOMS. Optic neuritis was common in AOMS too, but brainstem/cerebellar signs were more common in EOMS than AOMS. Seizure occurred more frequently in EOMS than in the AOMS group (12.6% vs. 1.6%, respectively, p < 0.001. MRI showed that brainstem plaques were more prevalent in the EOMS compared with the AOMS group. Conclusions: It was concluded that early-onset MS does not significantly differ from adult form in terms of major clinical manifestation and course of disease, however Seizure is more common in EOMS, and brainstem and cerebellar symptoms as presenting symptom are more common.

  15. Nursing Staff Distress Associated With Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Young-Onset Dementia and Late-Onset Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen-van den IJssel, Jeannette C L; Mulders, Ans J M J; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zwijsen, Sandra A; Appelhof, Britt; Zuidema, Sytse U; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Verhey, Frans R J; Bakker, Christian; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the relationship between different neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and the level of distress experienced by nurses caring for residents with young-onset dementia (YOD) and (2) to compare these findings with those for nurses caring for

  16. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  17. Early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorders in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Giuseppe; Albert, Umberto; Salvi, Virginio; Pessina, Enrico; Bogetto, Filippo

    2008-03-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often emerges in childhood or adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adult patients with prepuberal onset differ from subjects with later onset in terms of personality disorder comorbidity. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders was used to assess 148 patients with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The following two subgroups of subjects were selected according to the age at onset of symptomatology: patients with an early-onset ( or =17 years). Of the 148 patients screened for the present study, 33 (22.3%) had an early onset and 1369 (46.6%) had a later onset. With regard to personality disorders, early-onset patients showed more OC personality disorders (OCPD) than later onset patients. Our finding suggests that OCD in childhood increases the risk for developing OCPD in adulthood, or that early-onset OCD and OCPD share a common pathogenesis.

  18. Rat two-generation reproductive toxicity study of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, M; Fujii, S; Furukawa, M; Kiguchi, M; Ikka, T; Harazono, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the low-dose effects of bisphenol A (BPA) in a rat two-generation reproduction study. Groups of 25 male and 25 female Crj: CD (SD) IGS rats were given BPA at 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 microg/kg/day by gastric intubation throughout the study beginning at the onset of a 10- and 2-week premating period, in F0 males and females, respectively, and continuing through the mating, gestation, and lactation periods, for two generations. There were adult (F0, F1, F2) and postnatal day (PND) 22 (F1, F2) necropsies: the oldest F2 males and females being killed at postnatal weeks 7 and 14, respectively. No compound-related clinical signs or effects on body weight or food consumption were observed in any generation. There were no compound-related changes in surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis reflex, mid-air righting reflex, pinna detachment, incisor eruption, eye opening, testes descent, preputial separation, or vaginal opening in F1 and F2 generations, or behavior in the open field or water filled multiple T-maze in the F1 generation. No test compound-related changes in estrous cyclicity, copulation index, fertility index, number of implantations, gestation length, litter size, pup weight, pup sex ratio, pup viability, or other functional reproductive measures were noted in any generation. A few significant changes in the anogenital distance (AGD) per cube root of body weight ratio were found at 0.2 and 20 microg/kg in F1 males, at 2, 20, and 200 microg/kg in F1 females, and at 20 and 200 microg/kg in F2 females. However, the changes in the AGD were consistently small (within 5% of control values), and no continuous changes in the AGD or AGD/cube root of body weight ratio were detected. There were no compound-related changes in epididymal sperm counts or motility in F0 and F1 males. No compound-related necropsy findings or effects on organ weight including the reproductive organs were found in any generation. Histopathologic examinations

  19. The global landscape of cross-border reproductive care: twenty key findings for the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2012-06-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC), also known as procreative tourism, fertility tourism, or reproductive tourism, is an increasing global phenomenon. This article reviews the expanding scholarly literature on CBRC, with 2010-2011 representing watershed years for CBRC scholarship and activism. Terminological debates, missing data, and lack of international monitoring plague the study of CBRC. Nonetheless, it is widely acknowledged that CBRC is a growing industry, with new global hubs, new intermediaries, new media, and new spaces of interaction. Religious bans and legal restrictions have created a patchwork of 'restrictive' and 'permissive' countries, with law evasion being a primary driver of CBRC. Yet, patient motivations for CBRC are diverse and patients' levels of satisfaction with CBRC and its outcomes are generally high. Thus, scholarly concern with CBRC as law evasion must be tempered with qualitative studies of positive patient experiences. CBRC can be considered a form of 'global gynecology' in which reproductive medicine, tourism, and commerce are converging in the second decade of the new millennium.

  20. Growth, chamber building rate and reproduction time of Palaeonummulites venosus (Foraminifera) under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Wöger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifer Palaeonummulites venosus to determine the chamber building rate (CBR), test diameter increase rate (DIR), reproduction time and longevity using the `natural laboratory' approach. This is based on the decomposition of monthly obtained frequency distributions of chamber number and test diameter into normally distributed components. Test measurements were taken using MicroCT. The shift of the mean and standard deviation of component parameters during the 15-month investigation period was used to calculate Michaelis-Menten functions applied to estimate the averaged CBR and DIR under natural conditions. The individual dates of birth were estimated using the inverse averaged CBR and the inverse DIR fitted by the individual chamber number or the individual test diameter at the sampling date. Distributions of frequencies and densities (i.e., frequency divided by sediment weight) based on both CBR and DIR revealed continuous reproduction throughout the year with two peaks, a stronger one in June determined as the onset of the summer generation (generation 1) and a weaker one in November determined as the onset of the winter generation (generation 2). This reproduction scheme explains the presence of small and large specimens in the same sample. Longevity, calculated as the maximum difference in days between the individual's birth date and the sampling date, is approximately 1.5 yr, an estimation obtained by using both CBR and DIR.

  1. Factors relating to age of onset in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, A B; Schopler, E

    1988-06-01

    We examined the distribution of ages of onset of autism and related communication handicaps and assessed factors related to age of onset. Subjects were approximately 1,800 children seen at Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped CHildren) since 1970. Exact numbers of subjects varied with different analyses due to missing data. Data were gathered through direct assessment, interview, and questionnaire. Seventy-six percent of autistic children were identified by parents by 24 months of age, and 94% by 36 months. Families reporting early onset tended to seek help sooner and to be seen by TEACCH sooner. Early onset was most clearly related to severity as measured by IQ and ratings on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (Schopler, Reichler, & Renner, 1986). The findings support the treatment of age of onset of autism by DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987).

  2. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY AND ITS CONTROL IN SPANISH SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Gómez Brunet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat breeds from subtropical, middle and high latitudes show seasonal changes in reproductive activity. In general, the breeding season starts in autumn and ends in winter, with anoestrus in spring/summer. An endogenous circannual rhythm driven and synchronised by the annual photoperiod cycle regulates the onset and offset of the breeding season. However, the timing and duration of the breeding season can be affected by interactions between the photoperiod and factors such as breed, geographical origin, nutritional and lactational status, social interactions, and the season of parturition. Seasonality in reproduction is naturally accompanied by variation in the availability and price of meat, milk and cheese over the year, affecting the economy of farmers, consumers and the food industry alike. The control of reproduction outside the normal breeding season by inducing and synchronizing oestrus and ovulation plus the use of artificial insemination and/or natural mating would help ensure the year-round availability of products. This review describes the seasonal variation in the sexual activity of ovine and caprine species with special regard to local Spanish sheep and goats breeds, examines how the photoperiod regulates their annual reproductive cycle, and discusses a number of strategies that can be used to induce and synchronise ovulation outside the natural breeding season.

  3. Effect of a postnatal high-fat diet exposure on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Maria Elena Klibo; Overgaard, Agnete; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, plays a key role in pubertal maturation and reproduction as a positive upstream regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To examine the role of high-fat diet (HFD) on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression, female rats...... were exposed to HFD in distinct postnatal periods. Three groups of rats were exposed to HFD containing 60% energy from fat during the pre-weaning period (postnatal day (PND) 1-16, HFD PND 1-16), post-weaning period (HFD PND 21-34), or during both periods (HFD PND 1-34). Puberty onset, evaluated...... that postnatal HFD exposure induced irregular estrous cycles, but had no effect on puberty onset or kisspeptin....

  4. Effects of Reproductive Health Education on Knowledge and Attitudes Among Female Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Hanan Mohamed Mohamed; Al Hosis, Khalid Fahad

    2015-09-01

    For many girls, the onset of puberty that occurs during adolescence marks a time of heightened vulnerability to early pregnancy, with its attendant complications and heightened risk of maternal mortality. National and international forums have recognized the need to address these problems through reproductive health education. This article assesses the reproductive-health-related knowledge and attitudes of female adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years. In addition, the authors assess the effectiveness of a reproductive health education program in improving the related knowledge of female adolescents. The study was conducted on female students in three secondary schools and in the preparatory year at Qassim University (N = 309). A 59-item structured questionnaire was used to test the knowledge and attitudes of all participants regarding reproductive health before and after the intervention program. Data collection was carried out between September and November 2012. A significant increase for the total sample in knowledge regarding puberty and menstruation was observed (p education program improves knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.

  5. Sensory response system of social behavior tied to female reproductive traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Tsuruda

    Full Text Available Honey bees display a complex set of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits that correlate with the colony storage of surplus pollen (pollen hoarding. We hypothesize that the association of these traits is a result of pleiotropy in a gene signaling network that was co-opted by natural selection to function in worker division of labor and foraging specialization. By acting on the gene network, selection can change a suite of traits, including stimulus/response relationships that affect individual foraging behavior and alter the colony level trait of pollen hoarding. The 'pollen-hoarding syndrome' of honey bees is the best documented syndrome of insect social organization. It can be exemplified as a link between reproductive anatomy (ovary size, physiology (yolk protein level, and foraging behavior in honey bee strains selected for pollen hoarding, a colony level trait. The syndrome gave rise to the forager-Reproductive Ground Plan Hypothesis (RGPH, which proposes that the regulatory control of foraging onset and foraging preference toward nectar or pollen was derived from a reproductive signaling network. This view was recently challenged. To resolve the controversy, we tested the associations between reproductive anatomy, physiology, and stimulus/response relationships of behavior in wild-type honey bees.Central to the stimulus/response relationships of honey bee foraging behavior and pollen hoarding is the behavioral trait of sensory sensitivity to sucrose (an important sugar in nectar. To test the linkage of reproductive traits and sensory response systems of social behavior, we measured sucrose responsiveness with the proboscis extension response (PER assay and quantified ovary size and vitellogenin (yolk precursor gene expression in 6-7-day-old bees by counting ovarioles (ovary filaments and by using semiquantitative real time RT-PCR. We show that bees with larger ovaries (more ovarioles are characterized by higher levels of

  6. Effects of environment on buffalo reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Vale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been long recognized that the environment has an important role to play in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive function. Environmental cues, such as changing day-light or increase temperature, are know to trigger off growth or regression of the reproductive organs in a whole variety of species and nutrition and stress can influence the onset of breeding and affect the fertility. Although the domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis has been since long time considered as a short-day-breeder polyestral seasonal animal, indeed in the tropical areas near of equator line they are polyestral continuous. It would seem that photoperiod has a marked influence in buffalo reproduction in determinate areas of the world, however in some tropical areas like in Brazil, mainly in the Amazon valley and areas nearest of the equator the light seems to have a minimal effect or no effect on the reproductive cues however the nutrition and heat stress measured throughout temperature/ humidity indexes (THI play an important role in the reproductive functions of buffaloes and it is suggested that THI >75 has a negative effect on reproductive performances of buffaloes. The calving season is regulated by the availability of native pasture in the floodplain or in areas of artificial pasture On the other hand when buffaloes are raised in the southwest and southern regions (parallels 14 to 33 South they show a typical seasonal pattern when the calving season are concentrated between de February to July. The body condition score (BCS seems to affect directly the fertility of female buffaloes since females that calve with a BCS < 2.5 show delayed postpartum ovulation, weak estrus symptoms and more service per conception rate. Seasonal anestrus is a normal phenomenon in the out breeding season that occur in areas near, upon or down of the Cancer and Capricorn lines, respectively, however the anoestrus can be overcame by the use of hormone to synchronize heat and

  7. Measurement and reproduction accuracy of computer-controlled grand pianos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto

    2003-10-01

    The recording and reproducing capabilities of a Yamaha Disklavier grand piano and a Bösendorfer SE290 computer-controlled grand piano were tested, with the goal of examining their reliability for performance research. An experimental setup consisting of accelerometers and a calibrated microphone was used to capture key and hammer movements, as well as the acoustic signal. Five selected keys were played by pianists with two types of touch (``staccato'' and ``legato''). Timing and dynamic differences between the original performance, the corresponding MIDI file recorded by the computer-controlled pianos, and its reproduction were analyzed. The two devices performed quite differently with respect to timing and dynamic accuracy. The Disklavier's onset capturing was slightly more precise (+/-10 ms) than its reproduction (-20 to +30 ms); the Bösendorfer performed generally better, but its timing accuracy was slightly less precise for recording (-10 to 3 ms) than for reproduction (+/-2 ms). Both devices exhibited a systematic (linear) error in recording over time. In the dynamic dimension, the Bösendorfer showed higher consistency over the whole dynamic range, while the Disklavier performed well only in a wide middle range. Neither device was able to capture or reproduce different types of touch.

  8. Reproductive Investment and Health Costs in Roma Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Čvorović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine whether variation in reproductive investment affects the health of Roma women using a dataset collected through original anthropological fieldwork among Roma women in Serbia. Data were collected in 2014–2016 in several Roma semi-urban settlements in central Serbia. The sample consisted of 468 Roma women, averaging 44 years of age. We collected demographic data (age, school levels, socioeconomic status, risk behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption, marital status, and reproductive history variables (the timing of reproduction, the intensity of reproduction, reproductive effort and investment after birth, in addition to self-reported health, height, and weight. Data analyses showed that somatic, short-term costs of reproduction were revealed in this population, while evolutionary, long-term costs were unobservable—contrariwise, Roma women in poor health contributed more to the gene pool of the next generation than their healthy counterparts. Our findings appear to be consistent with simple trade-off models that suggest inverse relationships between reproductive effort and health. Thus, personal sacrifice—poor health as an outcome—seems crucial for greater reproductive success.

  9. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. The association between prolonged sleep onset latency and heart rate dynamics among young sleep-onset insomniacs and good sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Jung; Kuo, Terry B J; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2015-12-30

    A blunting of heart rate (HR) reduction during sleep has been reported to be associated with increased all-cause mortality. An increased incident of cardiovascular events has been observed in patients with insomnia but the relationship between nighttime HR and insomnia remains unclear. Here we investigated the HR patterns during the sleep onset period and its association with the length of sleep onset latency (SOL). Nineteen sleep-onset insomniacs (SOI) and 14 good sleepers had their sleep analyzed. Linear regression and nonlinear Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of the HR slope were performed in order to analyze HR dynamics during the sleep onset period. A significant depression in HR fluctuation was identified among the SOI group during the sleep onset period when linear regression and HHT analysis were applied. The magnitude of the HR reduction was associated with both polysomnography-defined and subjective SOL; moreover, we found that the linear regression and HHT slopes of the HR showed great sensitivity with respect to sleep quality. Our findings indicate that HR dynamics during the sleep onset period are sensitive to sleep initiation difficulty and respond to the SOL, which indicates that the presence of autonomic dysfunction would seem to affect the progress of falling asleep. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  12. Age at first reproduction in philopatric female muriquis ( Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waldney P; Strier, Karen B

    2004-01-01

    Female northern muriquis ( Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus or B. hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/RPPN-FMA, Minas Gerais, Brazil typically disperse from their natal groups at an average age of 6.1+/-0.6 years (median =6.0 years, range =5.3-7.8 years, n =22), prior to the onset of puberty and sexual activity. Immigrants do not conceive until at least their second mating season, and the minimum interval from immigration to first reproduction has been 2.0 years. Age at first reproduction in dispersing females, previously estimated at 8.9 years, has now been documented at 9.0 and 9.25 years for two females whose birth dates are known. This is older than the 7.5 years at which the only female previously known to have reproduced in her natal group gave birth. Here, we present new data from a second female that reproduced in her natal group. This female (BA) was first observed to copulate at 5.5 years, and gave birth to her first infant at 7.25 years of age. Her 1.75-year cycling-to-first conception delay was only slightly shorter than the minimum recorded for immigrant females, and thus was not responsible for her young age at first reproduction compared to dispersing females. Although our sample size is small, our findings suggest that early puberty may permit females to reproduce in their natal group, implying a possible link between life history trade-offs and dispersal patterns. Because the only two females that have reproduced in their natal group were maternal sisters, it is also possible that maternal effects on age at puberty can impact dispersal patterns, particularly in small populations of primates.

  13. Metal exposure and reproductive disorders in indigenous communities living along the Pilcomayo River, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, Marinke J.M.; Preeker, N. Louise; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Ven, Max W.P.M. van de; Smolders, Alfons J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Pilcomayo River is polluted by tailings and effluents from upstream mining activities, which contain high levels of metals. The Weenhayek live along this river and are likely to have elevated exposure. Objectives: To assess whether the Weenhayek have increased risk of reproductive and developmental disorders related to elevated metal exposure in comparison with a reference population. Methods: We assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes, i.e. fertility, fetal loss, congenital anomalies, and walking onset by means of structured interviews. We sampled hair, water and fish to assess the relative exposure of the Weenhayek. Samples were analyzed for Pb and Cd with ICP-MS techniques. Results: The Weenhayek communities studied had a higher prevalence of small families (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–6.0) and delayed walking onset (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.1) than the reference population. Median Pb levels in Weenhayek hair were 2–5 times higher than in the reference population, while Cd levels were not elevated. In water and fish, both Pb and Cd levels were increased in the Weenhayek area. Conclusions: We found indications for increased risks of small families and delayed walking onset among the Weenhayek living along the Pilcomayo River. Lactants form a high risk group for lead exposure. - Highlights: ► We assessed selected disorders and metal exposure in two comparable populations. ► Risks of small families and delayed walking onset were increased in the population with elevated lead levels in hair. ► The population with increased risks lives along a river with increased lead and cadmium levels in water and fish.

  14. Metal exposure and reproductive disorders in indigenous communities living along the Pilcomayo River, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stassen, Marinke J.M., E-mail: m.stassen@science.ru.nl [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Foundation ' Los Amigos del Pilcomayo' , P.O. Box 47, Avenida Ayacucho entre Cap. Manchego y Avaroa, Villamontes - Departemento Tarija (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Preeker, N. Louise, E-mail: info@pilcomayo.info [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Foundation ' Los Amigos del Pilcomayo' , P.O. Box 47, Avenida Ayacucho entre Cap. Manchego y Avaroa, Villamontes - Departemento Tarija (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and HTA, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ragas, Ad M.J., E-mail: a.ragas@science.ru.nl [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); School of Science, Open University, Heerlen (Netherlands); Ven, Max W.P.M. van de, E-mail: info@pilcomayo.info [Foundation ' Los Amigos del Pilcomayo' , P.O. Box 47, Avenida Ayacucho entre Cap. Manchego y Avaroa, Villamontes - Departemento Tarija (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Smolders, Alfons J.P., E-mail: a.smolders@science.ru.nl [Foundation ' Los Amigos del Pilcomayo' , P.O. Box 47, Avenida Ayacucho entre Cap. Manchego y Avaroa, Villamontes - Departemento Tarija (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); and others

    2012-06-15

    Background: The Pilcomayo River is polluted by tailings and effluents from upstream mining activities, which contain high levels of metals. The Weenhayek live along this river and are likely to have elevated exposure. Objectives: To assess whether the Weenhayek have increased risk of reproductive and developmental disorders related to elevated metal exposure in comparison with a reference population. Methods: We assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes, i.e. fertility, fetal loss, congenital anomalies, and walking onset by means of structured interviews. We sampled hair, water and fish to assess the relative exposure of the Weenhayek. Samples were analyzed for Pb and Cd with ICP-MS techniques. Results: The Weenhayek communities studied had a higher prevalence of small families (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-6.0) and delayed walking onset (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.1) than the reference population. Median Pb levels in Weenhayek hair were 2-5 times higher than in the reference population, while Cd levels were not elevated. In water and fish, both Pb and Cd levels were increased in the Weenhayek area. Conclusions: We found indications for increased risks of small families and delayed walking onset among the Weenhayek living along the Pilcomayo River. Lactants form a high risk group for lead exposure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed selected disorders and metal exposure in two comparable populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Risks of small families and delayed walking onset were increased in the population with elevated lead levels in hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population with increased risks lives along a river with increased lead and cadmium levels in water and fish.

  15. Reproductive strategy of common dentex Dentex dentex: management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GRAU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Common dentex Dentex dentex is an iconic endangered species in the Mediterranean where is a sought after target species for small-scale, recreational and spearfishing fisheries. The reproductive biology of D. dentex in the natural environment is poorly known; therefore the reproductive strategy of the species was assessed by combining reproductive traits with the growth characteristics (estimated from length-at-age data, the size/age of sexual maturity and the energetic dynamics. A total of 358 wild fish were sampled on Mallorca Island (W Mediterranean from March 1996 to June 1999 with a 19 to 84.7 cm total length (LT range. The sex ratio was skewed towards females (1.361 albeit the length composition was not different between sexes (p = 0.551. Three young immature individuals (< 28 cm LT, 0.8% individuals were rudimentary hermaphrodites supporting the late gonochoristic species classification. The age composition determined from sagitta otolith interpretation ranged from 0 to 26 years (yr. Concerning growth, between sex differences in von Bertalanffy parameters were not relevant, even after accounting for potential between-year differences. The most noticeable difference was found for L∞ (64.7 cm for females versus 61.6 for males but even in this case, the bayesian credibility interval of between-sex differences included zero.  Maturity ogives at size and age showed that females achieved 50% maturity at 34.9 cm LT and 3.3 years, while males did at 33.8 cm LT and 2.5 years. The onset of gonad developing phase took place in December, while it progresses until April. The spawning peak was in April and May for both sexes. A generalized linear model showed that female size didn’t affect significantly the spawning season, whilst there was a strong seasonality in the spawning. Most of the evidences showed that fecundity is likely determinate, with an asynchronous oocyte development before spawning and a clear ovarian bimodal organization after

  16. Very early-onset schizophrenia with secondary onset tic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa A Telgote; Shreyas Shrikant Pendharkar; Amol D Kelkar; Sachin Bhojane

    2017-01-01

    Very early-onset schizophrenia (defined as an onset of psychosis before 13 years of age) is a rare and severe form of the disorder which is clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult-onset disorder. It is rarely reported

  17. Adverse Housing Conditions and Early-Onset Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Newsome, Jamie; Lynch, Kellie R

    2017-09-01

    Housing constitutes an important health resource for children. Research has revealed that, when housing conditions are unfavorable, they can interfere with child health, academic performance, and cognition. Little to no research, however, has considered whether adverse housing conditions and early-onset delinquency are significantly associated with one another. This study explores the associations between structural and non-structural housing conditions and delinquent involvement during childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) were employed in this study. Each adverse housing condition was significantly associated with early-onset delinquency. Even so, disarray and deterioration were only significantly linked to early delinquent involvement in the presence of health/safety hazards. The predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to housing risks in the presence of health/safety hazards was nearly three times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed only to disarray and/or deterioration, and nearly four times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to none of the adverse housing conditions. The findings suggest that minimizing housing-related health/safety hazards among at-risk subsets of the population may help to alleviate other important public health concerns-particularly early-onset delinquency. Addressing household health/safety hazards may represent a fruitful avenue for public health programs aimed at the prevention of early-onset delinquency. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  18. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M

    2014-08-01

    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Very Early-onset Schizophrenia with Secondary Onset Tic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgote, Shilpa A; Pendharkar, Shreyas Shrikant; Kelkar, Amol D; Bhojane, Sachin

    2017-01-01

    Very early-onset schizophrenia (defined as an onset of psychosis before 13 years of age) is a rare and severe form of the disorder which is clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult-onset disorder. It is rarely reported tic disorder.

  20. Women view key sexual behaviours as the trigger for the onset and recurrence of bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade E Bilardi

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV affects a third of women of reproductive age in the US and there is increasing evidence to suggest it may be sexually transmitted. This study aimed to extend and validate the findings of our earlier smaller qualitative study by exploring in detail women's views and experiences of the triggering factors associated with BV onset and recurrence.Women aged 20-49, who had experienced one or more symptomatic episode of BV within 6 months, were opportunistically recruited to complete a 38-item questionnaire on their experience of BV.103 women completed the questionnaire. Women were significantly more likely to report sexual than lifestyle factors triggered BV onset and recurrence (p<0.001. The top 3 factors women attributed to both BV onset and recurrence were identical-and all sexual. They included, in order: 1 unprotected sex; 2 sex with a new male partner; and 3 sex in general. The main lifestyle factors nominated included stress, diet, menstruation and the use of feminine hygiene products. While many women felt their BV had been transmitted through sexual contact (54% and developed as a result of sexual activity (59%, few considered BV a sexually transmitted infection (STI (10%. Despite this 57% felt partners should also be treated for BV.These data concur with our earlier qualitative findings that women believe BV is triggered by sexual activity. While many women felt BV was sexually transmitted and supported partner treatment, they did not consider BV an STI. This contradiction is likely due to information conveyed to women based on current guidelines. In the absence of highly effective BV treatments, this study highlights the need for guidelines to indicate there is scientific uncertainty around the pathogenesis of BV and to contain clear health messages regarding the evidence for practices shown to be associated with a reduced risk of BV (i.e. consistent condom use.

  1. Differences in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings between elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Kazuo; Miyata, Yoko; Okasaki, Momoko; Morooka, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuko; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kano, Toshikazu; Mimori, Akio

    2015-07-01

    To compare the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) findings in patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) with those in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), two conditions with similar clinical presentations. We retrospectively analyzed the FDG-PET/CT findings in 10 patients with EORA and 27 patients with PMR admitted to our department between 2006 and 2012. No significant difference was observed in the median patient ages at the time of FDG-PET/CT scans in the EORA and PMR groups (73.5 vs. 78.0 years, respectively). Significant differences in both FDG uptake scores and standardized uptake values were observed between the two groups in the ischial tuberosities, spinous processes, and wrists. No significant differences were detected in the shoulders and hips. However, specific uptake patterns were observed in each group: circular and linear uptake patterns were observed around the humeral head in the EORA group, whereas focal and non-linear uptake patterns were observed in the PMR group. Moreover, focal uptake in front of the hip joint, indicating iliopectineal bursitis, tended to be limited to the PMR group. High sensitivity (92.6%) and specificity (90%) were observed for PMR diagnoses when at least three of the following five items were satisfied: characteristic findings of shoulder and iliopectineal bursitis, FDG uptake in ischial tuberosities and spinal spinous processes, and lack of FDG uptake in the wrists. The differences in the degree of uptake at each lesion and in uptake patterns at the shoulders and hips are potentially useful for obtaining a definitive diagnosis.

  2. Socioeconomic status, education, and reproduction in modern women: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Susanne; Bookstein, Fred L; Fieder, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Although associations between status or resources and reproduction are positive in premodern societies and also in men in modern societies, in modern women the associations are typically negative. We investigated how the association between socioeconomic status and reproductive output varies with the source of status and resources, the woman's education, and her age at reproductive onset (proxied by age at marriage). By using a large sample of US women, we examined the association between a woman's reproductive output and her own and her husband's income and education. Education, income, and age at marriage are negatively associated with a woman's number of children and increase her chances of childlessness. Among the most highly educated two-thirds of the sample of women, husband's income predicts the number of children. The association between a woman's number of children and her husband's income turns from positive to negative when her education and age at marriage is low (even though her mean offspring number rises at the same time). The association between a woman's own income and her number of children is negative, regardless of education. Rather than maximizing the offspring number, these modern women seem to adjust investment in children based on their family size and resource availability. Striving for resources seems to be part of a modern female reproductive strategy--but, owing to costs of resource acquisition, especially higher education, it may lead to lower birthrates: a possible evolutionary explanation of the demographic transition, and a complement to the human capital theory of net reproductive output. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isling, Louise Krag; Boberg, Julie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold

    2014-01-01

    ). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age were assessed. Few female offspring showed significantly regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared with controls. In 19-month-old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than...... controls, and in ventral prostate an overrepresentation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared with controls, particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450...... group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human-relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life, manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia, and higher incidence...

  4. Trends in advanced reproductive management using hormonal radioimmunoassay in swamp buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamonpatana, M.; Pansin, C.; Sophon, S.; Parnpai, R.; Sravasi, S.; Srisakwattana, K.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the experiments reported on here was to study methods of improving reproduction in cattle and buffaloes. These included clinical and behavioural observations, recording of body weights and measurement of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, progesterone and oestrone sulphate) by radioimmunoassay. The results indicated that puberty in both males and females can be identified accurately by concurrent measurement of body weight and hormones. The postpartum reproductive functions of village buffaloes can be monitored by serial measurement of progesterone; such measurements, used in conjunction with artificial insemination or natural mating, can be applied for reducing the calving interval. Oestrus induction and synchronization were used in a programme for introducing superior genetic stock to village buffaloes, and proved to be of benefit to small farmers. The conception rate can be improved when animals with an active corpus luteum are correctly identified with the progesterone test for use in synchronization programmes, and when breeding is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the onset of oestrus. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  5. Comparison between Flail Arm Syndrome and Upper Limb Onset Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Clinical Features and Electromyographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Nam; Choi, Seong Hye; Rha, Joung-Ho; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Sung, Jung-Joon

    2014-09-01

    Flail arm syndrome (FAS), an atypical presentation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is characterized by progressive, predominantly proximal, weakness of upper limbs, without involvement of the lower limb, bulbar, or respiratory muscles. When encountering a patient who presents with this symptomatic profile, possible diagnoses include upper limb onset ALS (UL-ALS), and FAS. The lack of information regarding FAS may make differential diagnosis between FAS and UL-ALS difficult in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to compare clinical and electromyographic findings from patients diagnosed with FAS with those from patients diagnosed with UL-ALS. To accomplish this, 18 patients with FAS and 56 patients with UL-ALS were examined. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups pertaining to the rate of fasciculation, patterns of predominantly affected muscles, and the Medical Research Council scale of the weakest muscle. The presence of upper motor neuron signs and lower motor neuron involvement evidenced through electromyography showed no significant between-group differences.

  6. Deficits in Facial Expression Recognition in Male Adolescents with Early-Onset or Adolescence-Onset Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Calder, Andrew J.; Stollery, Sarah J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined whether conduct disorder (CD) is associated with deficits in facial expression recognition and, if so, whether these deficits are specific to the early-onset form of CD, which emerges in childhood. The findings could potentially inform the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour, which suggests that…

  7. Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Nanette; Sierra, Sony

    2014-01-01

    prognosis (with subsequent use of cryopreserved embryos as necessary), and may reassure women who are considering in vitro fertilization. (II-2A) 8. Women and couples considering assisted human reproduction and concerned about perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies should be advised that (1) intracytoplasmic sperm injection does not appear to confer increased adverse perinatal or maternal risk over standard in vitro fertilization, and (2) the use of donor oocytes increases successful pregnancy rates in selected women, but even when accounting for maternal age, can increase the risks of low birth weight and preeclampsia. (II-2B) 9. Any assisted reproductive technology procedure should be prefaced by a discussion of fetal outcomes and the slight increase in the risk of congenital structural abnormalities, with emphasis on known confounding factors such as infertility and body mass index. (II-2B) 10. In pregnancies achieved by artificial reproductive technology, routine anatomic ultrasound for congenital structural abnormalities is recommended between 18 and 22 weeks. (II-2A) 11. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be at increased risk of chromosomal aberrations, including sex chromosome abnormalities. Diagnostic testing should be offered after appropriate counselling. (II-2A) 12. The possible increased risk for late onset cancer due to gene dysregulation for tumour suppression requires more long-term follow-up before the true risk can be determined. (III-A) 13. The clinical application of preimplantation genetic testing in fertile couples must balance the benefits of avoiding disease transmission with the medical risks and financial burden of in vitro fertilization. (III-B) 14. Preimplantation screening for aneuploidy is associated with inconsistent findings for improving pregnancy outcomes. Any discussion of preimplantation genetic screening with patients should clarify that there is no adequate information on the long-term effect of embryo

  8. Is xenodontine snake reproduction shaped by ancestry, more than by ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Gisela P; Arzamendia, Vanesa; Giraudo, Alejandro R

    2017-01-01

    One of the current challenges of evolutionary ecology is to understand the effects of phylogenetic history (PH) and/or ecological factors (EF) on the life-history traits of the species. Here, the effects of environment and phylogeny are tested for the first time on the reproductive biology of South American xenodontine snakes. We studied 60% of the tribes of this endemic and most representative clade in a temperate region of South America. A comparative method (canonical phylogenetic ordination-CPO) was used to find the relative contributions of EF and PH upon life-history aspects of snakes, comparing the reproductive mode, mean fecundity, reproductive potential, and frequency of nearly 1,000 specimens. CPO analysis showed that PH or ancestry explained most of the variation in reproduction, whereas EF explained little of this variation. The reproductive traits under study are suggested to have a strong phylogenetic signal in this clade, the ancestry playing a big role in reproduction. The EF also influenced the reproduction of South American xenodontines, although to a lesser extent. Our finding provides new evidence of how the evolutionary history is embodied in the traits of living species.

  9. Factor analysis of symptom profile in early onset and late onset OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Gourav; Kate, Natasha; Ghosh, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the factor structure of early and late onset OCD. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted in the same sample to assess the applicability of the factors. 345 participants were assessed with Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Patients were classified as early onset (onset of symptoms at age ≤ 18 years) and late onset (onset at age > 18 years) OCD depending upon the age of onset of the symptoms. Factor analysis and cluster analysis of early-onset and late-onset OCD was conducted. The study sample comprised of 91 early onset and 245 late onset OCD subjects. Males were more common in the early onset group. Differences in the frequency of phenomenology related to contamination related, checking, repeating, counting and ordering/arranging compulsions were present across the early and late onset groups. Factor analysis of YBOCS revealed a 3 factor solution for both the groups, which largely concurred with each other. These factors were named as hoarding and symmetry (factor-1), contamination (factor-2) and aggressive, sexual and religious factor (factor-3). To conclude this study shows that factor structure of symptoms of OCD seems to be similar between early-onset and late-onset OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of phenological data to calculate chilling units in Olea europaea L. in relation to the onset of reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, F.; Fornaciari, M.; Romano, B.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a practical method to evaluate the effective relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the response expressed as the spring reproductive re-starting dates in the olive ( Olea europaea L.). Two olive cultivars growing in a special olive orchard in Umbria (central Italy) were studied over a 3-year period (1998-2000): the cultivar Ascolana, typical of central Italy, and the cultivar Giarraffa, typical of southern Italy. The spring reproductive re-starts were assessed using data from detailed phenological observations made on 60 trees of each cultivar in an effort to establish the exact date of reproductive bud swelling. The chilling phenomenon was evaluated by using 341 functions derived from a formula developed by researchers at Utah State University to calculate chilling units. The mathematical functions are defined, and show the very close relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the spring reproductive response in the two cultivars in the orchard studied. The results can be used to define the relationship between local climate and plant development, and the mathematical approach can be used to draw maps that can show the suitability of different cultivars on the basis of local climatic conditions.

  11. Effects of Thyroid Dysfunction on Reproductive Hormones in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Guo, Meng; Hu, Xusong; Weng, Xuechun; Tian, Ye; Xu, Kaili; Heng, Dai; Liu, Wenbo; Ding, Yu; Yang, Yanzhou; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-05-10

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian histology was evaluated with H&E staining, and gene protein level or mRNA content was analyzed by western blotting or RT-PCR. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in both rat models were significantly decreased on day 21, although there were no significant changes at earlier time points. There were no significant differences in luteinizing hormone (LH) or progesterone levels between the treatment and the control groups. Both PTU and L-thyroxine treatments downregulated estradiol concentrations; however, the serum testosterone level was increased only in hypothyroid rats at day 21. In addition, the expression levels of FSH receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were decreased in both rat models. Moreover, the onset of puberty was significantly delayed in the hypothyroid group. These results provide evidence that TH dysregulation alters reproductive hormone profiles, and that the initiation of the estrous cycle is postponed in hypothyroidism.

  12. Associations between onset of effort-reward imbalance at work and onset of musculoskeletal pain: analyzing observational longitudinal data as pseudo-trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Virtanen, Marianna; Leineweber, Constanze; Rod, Naja H; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L

    2018-03-27

    Existing evidence of an association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and musculoskeletal pain is limited, preventing reliable conclusions about the magnitude and direction of the relation. In a large longitudinal study, we examined whether the onset of ERI is associated with subsequent onset of musculoskeletal pain among those free of pain at baseline, and vice versa, whether onset of pain leads to onset of ERI. Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study. We used responses from 3 consecutive study phases to examine whether exposure onset between the first and second phases predicts onset of the outcome in the third phase (N = 4079). Effort-reward imbalance was assessed with a short form of the ERI model. Having neck-shoulder and low back pain affecting life to some degree in the past 3 months was also assessed in all study phases. As covariates, we included age, sex, marital status, occupational status, and physically strenuous work. In the adjusted models, onset of ERI was associated with onset of neck-shoulder pain (relative risk [RR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-1.89) and low back pain (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.97-1.50). The opposite was also observed, as onset of neck-shoulder pain increased the risk of subsequent onset of ERI (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.74). Our findings suggest that when accounting for the temporal order, the associations between ERI and musculoskeletal pain that affects life are bidirectional, implying that interventions to both ERI and pain may be worthwhile to prevent a vicious cycle.

  13. Serum uric acid in relation to endogenous reproductive hormones during the menstrual cycle: findings from the BioCycle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Dasharathy, Sonya S.; Pollack, Anna Z.; Perkins, Neil J.; Mattison, Donald R.; Cole, Stephen R.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2013-01-01

    (8.3%). Higher uric acid levels were associated with increased odds of anovulation (odds ratio 2.39, 95% CI: 1.25, 4.56). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The change in uric acid levels among this cohort of healthy women was modest, and analysis was limited to two menstrual cycles. The women in this study were healthy and regularly menstruating, and as such there were few women with high uric acid levels and anovulatory cycles. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These findings demonstrate the importance of taking menstrual cycle phase into account when measuring uric acid in premenopausal women, and confirm the hypothesized beneficial lowering effects of endogenous E2 on uric acid levels. These findings suggest that there could be an underlying association affecting both sporadic anovulation and high uric acid levels among young, regularly menstruating women. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate the connection between uric acid and reproductive and later cardiovascular health. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (contract # HHSN275200403394C). No competing interests declared. PMID:23562957

  14. Cerebellar pathology in childhood-onset vs. adult-onset essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Tate, William J; Kelly, Geoffrey C; Faust, Phyllis L

    2017-10-17

    Although the incidence of ET increases with advancing age, the disease may begin at any age, including childhood. The question arises as to whether childhood-onset ET cases manifest the same sets of pathological changes in the cerebellum as those whose onset is during adult life. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell [PC] counts, PC axonal torpedoes, a host of associated axonal changes [PC axonal recurrent collateral count, PC thickened axonal profile count, PC axonal branching count], heterotopic PCs, and basket cell rating) in 60 ET cases (11 childhood-onset and 49 adult-onset) and 30 controls. Compared to controls, childhood-onset ET cases had lower PC counts, higher torpedo counts, higher heterotopic PC counts, higher basket cell plexus rating, and marginally higher PC axonal recurrent collateral counts. The median PC thickened axonal profile count and median PC axonal branching count were two to five times higher in childhood-onset ET than controls, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Childhood-onset and adult-onset ET had similar PC counts, torpedo counts, heterotopic PC counts, basket cell plexus rating, PC axonal recurrent collateral counts, PC thickened axonal profile count and PC axonal branching count. In conclusion, we found that childhood-onset and adult-onset ET shared similar pathological changes in the cerebellum. The data suggest that pathological changes we have observed in the cerebellum in ET are a part of the pathophysiological cascade of events in both forms of the disease and that both groups seem to reach the same pathological endpoints at a similar age of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Age of onset and the subclassification of conduct/dissocial disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Judy; Moore, Ashlee A; Rutter, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Conduct Disorder (CD) is a markedly heterogeneous psychiatric condition. Moffitt (1993) proposed that subclassification of CD should be according to age of onset. Our goals were to compare childhood-onset and adolescent-onset CD in terms of differences in phenotypic risk factors, genetic analyses, and factors associated with the persistence of antisocial behavior into young adulthood. The data are from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young Adult Follow-Up (YAFU). Childhood-onset CD was defined as CD beginning at or before age 11. Adolescent-onset CD was defined as having CD onset between ages 14 and 17. These subgroups were compared on ADHD, young adult antisocial behavior (ASB), family dysfunction, and parental depression. Genetic analyses compare childhood-onset and adolescent-onset CD, as well as their cooccurrence with ADHD and ASB. Finally, predictors of persistence were examined. Childhood-onset CD was significantly associated with ADHD, ASB, family dysfunction, and parental depression. Adolescent-onset CD was marginally associated with parental depression (p = .05) but not with any of the other risk factors. Univariate genetic models showed that both childhood-onset and adolescent-onset CD involve a large genetic liability accounting for 62% and 65% of the variance, respectively. A common genetic factor (as well as an ADHD-specific factor) accounted for the cooccurrence of childhood-onset CD and ADHD. The cooccurrence of childhood-onset CD and ASB are reflected by a common genetic factor with genetic specific effects on ASB. There was no etiological link between adolescent-onset CD and either ADHD or ASB. Both ADHD and family dysfunction were significantly associated with the persistence of antisocial behavior into young adulthood. Phenotypic findings differentiated between childhood-onset and adolescent-onset CD. ADHD and family dysfunction predicted persistence of antisocial behavior into young adulthood. © 2014

  16. Attention capture by contour onsets and offsets: no special role for onsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D G; Humphreys, G W

    1995-07-01

    In five experiments, we investigated the power of targets defined by the onset or offset of one of an object's parts (contour onsets and offsets) either to guide or to capture visual attention. In Experiment 1, search for a single contour onset target was compared with search for a single contour offset target against a static background of distractors; no difference was found between the efficiency with which each could be detected. In Experiment 2, onsets and offsets were compared for automatic attention capture, when both occurred simultaneously. Unlike in previous studies, the effects of overall luminance change, new-object creation, and number of onset and offset items were controlled. It was found that contour onset and offset items captured attention equally well. However, display size effects on both target types were also apparent. Such effects may have been due to competition for selection between multiple onset and offset stimuli. In Experiments 3 and 4, single onset and offset stimuli were presented simultaneously and pitted directly against one another among a background of static distractors. In Experiment 3, we examined "guided search," for a target that was formed either from an onset or from an offset among static items. In Experiment 4, the onsets and offsets were uncorrelated with the target location. Similar results occurred in both experiments: target onsets and offsets were detected more efficiently than static stimuli which needed serial search; there remained effects of display size on performance; but there was still no advantage for onsets. In Experiment 5, we examined automatic attention capture by single onset and offset stimuli presented individually among static distractors. Again, there was no advantage for onset over offset targets and a display size effect was also present. These results suggest that, both in isolation and in competition, onsets that do not form new objects neither guide nor gain automatic attention more efficiently

  17. Features of Puberty Onset in Children Born to Fathers with Burdened Radiation Anamnesis. Neurohormonal Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Plekhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the neurohormonal mechanisms that underlie the clinical features of puberty onset in children born to parents exposed to low-dose irradiation. Hormonal homeostasis is assessed according to the data of immune-enzyme, radioimmune, and fluorometric methods. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by means of the application package Excel and Statgrafics-5, SPSS 17.0. It has been established that the earlier puberty onset is caused by accelerated stimulation of pituitary-gonadal system due to activation of central mechanisms of pituitary gonadotrophic function regulation and eary reversal of melatonin blockage of this system. Reasonable basis has been suggested for careful clinical supervision over development of the reproductive system of the children from families with burdened radiation history.

  18. Assessment of female reproductive endpoints in Sprague-Dawley rats developmentally exposed to Diuron: potential ovary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Tony Fernando; Guerra, Marina Trevisan; Perobelli, Juliana Elaine; de Toledo, Fabíola Choqueta; da Silva, Denise Salioni; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma; Barbisan, Luís Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Diuron is widely used in agriculture but its deleterious effects on the reproductive system and mammary gland are still poorly understood. This study evaluated whether early-life-stage exposure to Diuron alters puberty onset or susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats received basal diet or diet containing Diuron at 500, 750, and 1,250 ppm, from gestational day 12 to the end of lactation (postnatal day 21 [PND21]). After weaning, female offspring continued receiving basal diet or diet containing Diuron until PND 51. At PND 51, female Sprague-Dawley offspring received a single dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) for initiation of mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were sacrificed on PND 51, 75, and 226 to 233 (week 25) for mammary gland morphology, reproductive organs and tumor analysis, respectively. There were no significant differences among groups on vaginal opening, estrous cycle, mammary morphology, or carcinogenesis. However, reductions in ovary weight and corpora lutea were observed at PND 75 in the group treated with Diuron at 1,250 ppm. The findings suggesting that Diuron exposure (1,250 ppm) may have been potentially toxic to the ovaries. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US $20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US $509.3 million (2.4% was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US $1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict.

  20. Fisheries-induced evolution in growth, maturation and reproductive investment of the sexually dimorphic North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walraven, L.; Mollet, F. M.; van Damme, C. J. G.; Rijnsdorp, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the onset of sexual maturation, reproductive investment and growth of North Sea plaice are studied between three periods: 1900s, 1980s and 2000s. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms of both males and females, describing the probability of becoming mature conditional on age and size,

  1. Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

    2008-06-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

  2. Childhood-Onset Essential Hypertension and the Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Barratt, Michelle S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Shete, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence and effect of single-parent families in childhood-onset essential hypertension (EH) is unknown. Children with EH and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were enrolled. Family structure data were obtained by in-person interview. A total of 148 families (76 hypertension probands, 72 control probands; median 14 years) were prospective-ly enrolled in the study. Single-parent status was seen in 42% of the families--with and without EH (38% vs 46%, P=.41; odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.4). After multivariable analysis, a statistically significant sociofamilial contributor to the development of childhood-onset EH was not identified. A significant number of single-parent families (42%), the majority with single mothers, were found in our pedigree study. Sociofamilial factors are known to contribute to the expression of adult-onset EH, but findings in our study suggest that they appear to contribute less in the expression of childhood-onset EH. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. DEP and AFO regulate reproductive habit in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction is essential for the life cycle of most angiosperms. However, pseudovivipary is an important reproductive strategy in some grasses. In this mode of reproduction, asexual propagules are produced in place of sexual reproductive structures. However, the molecular mechanism of pseudovivipary still remains a mystery. In this work, we found three naturally occurring mutants in rice, namely, phoenix (pho, degenerative palea (dep, and abnormal floral organs (afo. Genetic analysis of them indicated that the stable pseudovivipary mutant pho was a double mutant containing both a Mendelian mutation in DEP and a non-Mendelian mutation in AFO. Further map-based cloning and microarray analysis revealed that dep mutant was caused by a genetic alteration in OsMADS15 while afo was caused by an epigenetic mutation in OsMADS1. Thus, OsMADS1 and OsMADS15 are both required to ensure sexual reproduction in rice and mutations of them lead to the switch of reproductive habit from sexual to asexual in rice. For the first time, our results reveal two regulators for sexual and asexual reproduction modes in flowering plants. In addition, our findings also make it possible to manipulate the reproductive strategy of plants, at least in rice.

  4. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  5. Serum progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) for evaluation of reproductive performance of dairy herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, F.; Stefanllari, K.; Lamce, Th.

    1996-01-01

    This publication summarizes the principal application of P 4-RIA of blood which helped to determine the time for onset of sexual functions after parturition, the incidence of silent oestrus, and the correct timing of service. Progesterone profiles showed that cows in this herd ovulated considerably later than 35+/-7 days after calving, which is the value reported for many other herds of dairy cows. The percentage of cows in oestrus was found 66% within 60 days post-partum while the incidence of silent oestrus was 20%. The correct timing of service is 85%. According to this study, the major causes for the lowered reproductive efficiency in this herd were found to be the delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and the incidence of silent oestrus. 9 refs. 3 tabs

  6. Endocrine evaluation of reproductive function in girls during infancy, childhood and adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Hagen, Casper P; Aksglaede, Lise

    2012-01-01

    a spectrum of disorders such as premature thelarche, premature adrenarche, central and peripheral precocious puberty, adolescent polycystic ovarian syndrome, functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia, primary and secondary amenorrhea, and premature ovarian insufficiency...... detailed knowledge on the normal maturational changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes. Changes in basal reproductive hormone levels in infancy, childhood and adolescence as well as the GnRH and ACTH test procedures in girls and adolescents are described...

  7. Humans Optimize Decision-Making by Delaying Decision Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Tobias; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Grinband, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Why do humans make errors on seemingly trivial perceptual decisions? It has been shown that such errors occur in part because the decision process (evidence accumulation) is initiated before selective attention has isolated the relevant sensory information from salient distractors. Nevertheless, it is typically assumed that subjects increase accuracy by prolonging the decision process rather than delaying decision onset. To date it has not been tested whether humans can strategically delay decision onset to increase response accuracy. To address this question we measured the time course of selective attention in a motion interference task using a novel variant of the response signal paradigm. Based on these measurements we estimated time-dependent drift rate and showed that subjects should in principle be able trade speed for accuracy very effectively by delaying decision onset. Using the time-dependent estimate of drift rate we show that subjects indeed delay decision onset in addition to raising response threshold when asked to stress accuracy over speed in a free reaction version of the same motion-interference task. These findings show that decision onset is a critical aspect of the decision process that can be adjusted to effectively improve decision accuracy. PMID:24599295

  8. Correlates of anemia among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, 41.8% of pregnant women and 30.2% of non-pregnant women are anemic. Previous studies which attempted to identify determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age reported conflicting findings. Objective: To assess the correlates of anemia among women of reproductive age in ...

  9. Apospory appears to accelerate onset of meiosis and sexual embryo sac formation in sorghum ovules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Estella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically unreduced (2n embryo sacs (ES form in ovules of gametophytic apomicts, the 2n eggs of which develop into embryos parthenogenetically. In many apomicts, 2n ES form precociously during ovule development. Whether meiosis and sexual ES formation also occur precociously in facultative apomicts (capable of apomictic and sexual reproduction has not been studied. We determined onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation for 569 Sorghum bicolor genotypes, many of which produced 2n ES facultatively. Results Genotype differences for onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation, relative to ovule development, were highly significant. A major source of variation in timing of sexual germline development was presence or absence of apomictic ES, which formed from nucellar cells (apospory in some genotypes. Genotypes that produced these aposporous ES underwent meiosis and sexual ES formation precociously. Aposporous ES formation was most prevalent in subsp. verticilliflorum and in breeding lines of subsp. bicolor. It was uncommon in land races. Conclusions The present study adds meiosis and sexual ES formation to floral induction, apomictic ES formation, and parthenogenesis as processes observed to occur precociously in apomictic plants. The temporally diverse nature of these events suggests that an epigenetic memory of the plants' apomixis status exists throughout its life cycle, which triggers, during multiple life cycle phases, temporally distinct processes that accelerate reproduction.

  10. Natural variation in cross-talk between glucosinolates and onset of flowering in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Møller Jensen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Naturally variable regulatory networks control different biological processes including reproduction and defense. This variation within regulatory networks enables plants to optimize defense and reproduction in different environments. In this study we investigate the ability of two enzyme-encoding genes in the glucosinolate pathway, AOP2 and AOP3¸ to affect glucosinolate accumulation and flowering time. We have introduced the two highly similar enzymes into two different AOPnull accessions, Col-0 and Cph-0, and found that the genes differ in their ability to affect glucosinolate levels and flowering time across the accessions. This indicated that the different glucosinolates produced by AOP2 and AOP3 serve specific regulatory roles in controlling these phenotypes. While the changes in glucosinolate levels were similar in both accessions, the effect on flowering time was dependent on the genetic background pointing to natural variation in cross-talk between defense chemistry and onset of flowering. This variation likely reflects an adaptation to survival in different environments.

  11. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Vijayan Kumara; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...

  12. Reproductive effort accelerates actuarial senescence in wild birds : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Salomons, Martijn; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Verhulst, Simon

    Optimality theories of ageing predict that the balance between reproductive effort and somatic maintenance determines the rate of ageing. Laboratory studies find that increased reproductive effort shortens lifespan, but through increased short-term mortality rather than ageing. In contrast, high

  13. Hypothyroidism in late-onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joseph; Burmeister, Lynn A; Rudser, Kyle; Whitley, Chester B; Jarnes Utz, Jeanine

    2016-09-01

    In Pompe disease, a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase enzyme activity leads to pathologic accumulation of glycogen in tissues. Phenotype heterogeneity in Pompe includes an infantile form and late-onset forms (juvenile- and adult-onset forms). Symptoms common to all phenotypes include progressive muscle weakness and worsening respiratory function. Patients with late-onset forms of Pompe disease commonly complain of chronic fatigue and generalized muscle weakness prior to being diagnosed with Pompe disease, and this may lead to consideration of hypothyroidism in the differential diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypothyroidism in the adult-onset form of Pompe disease. Electronic chart review was performed at the Advanced Therapies Clinic at the University of Minnesota Medical Center (UMMC) to identify patients with late-onset Pompe disease. The identified charts were reviewed for a co-diagnosis of hypothyroidism. A query was made to the clinical data repository at UMMC searching diagnosis ICD9 code 244.9 (hypothyroidism not otherwise specified) and/or presence of levothyroxine from 2011 to 2014 in patients 18 years of age and older. The clinical data repository found a prevalence of hypothyroidism of 3.15% (56,072 of 1,782,720 patients) in the adult patient population at UMMC. Ten adult patients with Pompe disease were identified, five with the diagnosis of hypothyroidism (50%, 95% CI: 23.7, 76.3, p Hypothyroidism was found at a higher prevalence in patients with late-onset Pompe disease compared to the general adult population at UMMC. Studies in larger populations of patients with Pompe disease would be needed to confirm an association of Pompe disease and hypothyroidism. Challenges include finding an adequate sample size, due the rarity of Pompe disease.

  14. Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L; Sit, Dorothy K Y; McShea, Mary C; Rizzo, David M; Zoretich, Rebecca A; Hughes, Carolyn L; Eng, Heather F; Luther, James F; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Costantino, Michelle L; Confer, Andrea L; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Famy, Christopher S; Hanusa, Barbara H

    2013-05-01

    The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Urban academic women's hospital. During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post partum by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: "The thought of harming myself has occurred to me" (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had comorbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. The most common diagnosis in screen-positive women was major depressive disorder with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Strategies to differentiate

  15. Onset Timing, Thoughts of Self-harm, and Diagnoses in Postpartum Women With Screen-Positive Depression Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L.; Sit, Dorothy K. Y.; McShea, Mary C.; Rizzo, David M.; Zoretich, Rebecca A.; Hughes, Carolyn L.; Eng, Heather F.; Luther, James F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Costantino, Michelle L.; Confer, Andrea L.; Moses-Kolko, Eyclie L.; Famy, Christopher S.; Hanusa, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. Objectives To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Design Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Setting Urban academic women’s hospital. Participants During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post parturn by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. Main Outcomes and Measures A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: “The thought of harming myself has occurred to me” (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Results Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had co-morbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. Conclusions and Relevance The most common diagnosis in screen

  16. Comparison of outcomes in adults with pediatric-onset morphea and those with adult-onset morphea: a cross-sectional study from the morphea in adults and children cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Daniel; Grabell, Daniel; Jacobe, Heidi

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined outcomes in adults with pediatric-onset morphea. The objective of the present study was to compare clinical outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults with onset of morphea in childhood to those in patients with adult onset of morphea. Participants in the study were drawn from the Morphea in Adults and Children cohort and included 68 adults with pediatric-onset morphea and 234 patients with adult-onset morphea. Outcome measures included the Localized Scleroderma Cutaneous Assessment Tool (LoSCAT), physical examination findings, and HRQOL questionnaires. Adults with pediatric-onset morphea were younger, had longer disease duration, and were more likely to have the linear subtype of morphea. Patients with pediatric-onset disease were less likely to have active disease. Among patients with active disease, those with pediatric-onset morphea had less disease activity as measured by the LoSCAT. Patients with pediatric-onset disease had higher severity of disease damage when measured by the physician's global assessment of damage, but had similar levels of disease damage when measured by the Localized Scleroderma Skin Damage Index. Patients with pediatric-onset disease had more favorable HRQOL scores for all measures, all of which were statistically significantly different from those in patients with adult-onset morphea. Adults with pediatric-onset morphea differ from patients with adult-onset disease with respect to disease subtype, severity of disease activity and damage, and levels of HRQOL. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Ungulate Reproductive Parameters Track Satellite Observations of Plant Phenology across Latitude and Climatological Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Stoner

    Full Text Available The effect of climatically-driven plant phenology on mammalian reproduction is one key to predicting species-specific demographic responses to climate change. Large ungulates face their greatest energetic demands from the later stages of pregnancy through weaning, and so in seasonal environments parturition dates should match periods of high primary productivity. Interannual variation in weather influences the quality and timing of forage availability, which can influence neonatal survival. Here, we evaluated macro-scale patterns in reproductive performance of a widely distributed ungulate (mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus across contrasting climatological regimes using satellite-derived indices of primary productivity and plant phenology over eight degrees of latitude (890 km in the American Southwest. The dataset comprised > 180,000 animal observations taken from 54 populations over eight years (2004-2011. Regionally, both the start and peak of growing season ("Start" and "Peak", respectively are negatively and significantly correlated with latitude, an unusual pattern stemming from a change in the dominance of spring snowmelt in the north to the influence of the North American Monsoon in the south. Corresponding to the timing and variation in both the Start and Peak, mule deer reproduction was latest, lowest, and most variable at lower latitudes where plant phenology is timed to the onset of monsoonal moisture. Parturition dates closely tracked the growing season across space, lagging behind the Start and preceding the Peak by 27 and 23 days, respectively. Mean juvenile production increased, and variation decreased, with increasing latitude. Temporally, juvenile production was best predicted by primary productivity during summer, which encompassed late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation. Our findings offer a parsimonious explanation of two key reproductive parameters in ungulate demography, timing of parturition and mean annual

  18. Factors Predictive of Seizure Outcome in New-Onset Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A community-based cohort of 77 children with new-onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE were followed prospectively and reviewed at 7 and 14 years after seizure onset, and clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging findings and seizure outcome are reported from the Royal Children's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Australia, and Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

  19. The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that Web has become a major art medium. Investigates ways artists and appreciators of art are using the Web. Discusses the reproduction of art: from hand to mechanical to digital reproduction, focusing on the work of Walter Benjamin. Lists other sites where one can find art on the Web. (SR)

  20. A proposed management algorithm for late-onset efavirenz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is metabolised in the liver via the cytochrome p450 system, predominantly via ... described late-onset ataxia and encephalopathy in adult patients treated with EFV for a .... not elicited. The findings on cranial nerve examination were normal.

  1. Hypothyroidism in late-onset Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Schneider

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Hypothyroidism was found at a higher prevalence in patients with late-onset Pompe disease compared to the general adult population at UMMC. Studies in larger populations of patients with Pompe disease would be needed to confirm an association of Pompe disease and hypothyroidism. Challenges include finding an adequate sample size, due the rarity of Pompe disease.

  2. Possible selves in patients with right- versus left-onset Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Erica; McNamara, Patrick; Durso, Raymon

    2017-03-01

    Possible selves can be used to self-regulate and guide behavior towards what is desired to be achieved or avoided in life. Previous work suggests laterality effects exist within the brain regarding approach and avoidance systems to achieve self-regulation. A modified version of the possible selves task was administered to 45 patients with PD (22 right-onset and 23 left-onset) and 25 community dwelling control subjects (CS). Only 11.1% of patients exhibited balance among their hoped-for and feared possible selves versus 28% of CS. More right-onset patients used a promotion strategy whereas more left-onset patients used a prevention strategy. Patients with left-onset PD thought more about their feared selves, exhibiting reduced goal-directed behavior. Findings among the left-onset group indicate relative dependence of self-regulation on right-sided avoidance brain systems. This may point to an inability to move away from negative outcomes and to work towards rewarding outcomes, which could affect psychological health.

  3. Superior oblique tendon (Brown’s syndrome as the presenting finding in childhood onset HLA-B27-related enthesitis and juvenile idiopathic oligoarticular arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pham

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two patients who presented with Brown’s syndrome. The first is a 7-year-old boy who at the time of his diagnosis was also found to have enthesitis and HLA-B27 positivity. The second patient was diagnosed with bilateral Brown’s syndrome at 13 months of age. At age 7 she developed a persistent oligoarticular arthritis and unilateral anterior iritis consistent with the oligoarticular Juvenile Idiopatic Arthritis (JIA phenotype. These cases highlight ophthalmologic findings and diagnostic considerations with respect to Brown’s syndrome and associated childhood onset rheumatologic disease.

  4. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain : Findings From 19 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of

  5. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  6. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p score interaction (p scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of pediatric onset isolated dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Giovanna; Carecchio, Miryam; Zibordi, Federica; Garavaglia, Barbara; Nardocci, Nardo

    2018-03-01

    Isolated dystonia refers to a genetic heterogeneous group of progressive conditions with onset of symptoms during childhood or adolescence, progressive course with frequent generalization and marked functional impairment. There are well-known monogenic forms of isolated dystonia with pediatric onset such as DYT1 and DYT6 transmitted with autosomal dominant inheritance and low penetrance. Genetic findings of the past years have widened the etiological spectrum and the phenotype. The recently discovered genes (GNAL, ANO-3, KTM2B) or variant of already known diseases, such as Ataxia-Teleangectasia, are emerging as another causes of pediatric onset dystonia, sometimes with a more complex phenotype, but their incidence is unknown and still a considerable number of cases remains genetically undetermined. Due to the severe disability of pediatric onset dystonia treatment remains unsatisfactory and still mainly based upon oral pharmacological agents. However, deep brain stimulation is now extensively applied with good to excellent results especially when patients are treated early during the course of the disease. Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  9. Evaluation of a reproductive index to estimate grasshopper sparrow and eastern meadowlark reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Donald P.; Gipson, P.S.; Pontius, J.S.; Japuntich, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We compared an index of reproductive success based on breeding behavior to actual nest fates of grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) on 12 plots (4-ha). Concordance of results between the two methods was 58% for grasshopper sparrows and 42% for eastern meadowlarks on a plot-by-plot basis. The indirect method yielded higher estimates of reproductive activity than nest monitoring for the balance of the plots,. There was little evidence that brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism influenced the estimates of reproductive success using the indirect method. We concluded that nests and about-to-fledge nestlings were missed during searches on some plots. It may be appropriate to use an indirect method to more efficiently survey territories and/or plots for species with hard-to-find nests or when monitoring large areas. Use of a reproductive index may be appropriate and more time-efficient than nest searching and monitoring for comparing management effects such as burning, grazing, haying, military training, and other localized disturbances that are likely to affect reproductive success of grasshopper sparrows and eastern meadowlarks. However, nest monitoring may be necessary for more precise estimates of productivity necessary for long-term monitoring. Nest monitoring results are also likely to allow for direct comparisons to results from other studies because the index method requires intimate knowledge of the species being evaluated - a factor that could lead to reduced precision because the experience level of technicians relying only on behavioral cues from study-to-study is likely to vary considerably.

  10. Association of Smoking Onset With R-Rated Movie Restrictions and Adolescent Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Tanski, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined how often US youths reported having complete parental restrictions on watching R-rated movies. In addition, we assessed the relationship between parental R-rated movie restrictions and adolescents' sensation seeking and how this interplay is related to smoking onset. METHODS: Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study of 6522 adolescents (10–14 years of age) who were recruited through a random-digit-dial telephone survey were used. At baseline, subjects were nationally representative of the US population. Subjects were monitored for 2 years and queried about their smoking status, their sensation-seeking propensity, and how often they were allowed to watch R-rated movies. A cross-lagged model combined with survival analysis was used to assess the relationships between parental R-rated movie restrictions, sensation-seeking propensity, and risk for smoking onset. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that 32% of the US adolescents reported being completely restricted from watching R-rated movies by their parents. Model findings revealed that adolescents' sensation seeking was related to greater risk for smoking onset not only directly but also indirectly through their parents becoming more permissive of R-rated movie viewing. Parental R-rated movie restrictions were found to decrease the risk of smoking onset directly and indirectly by changing children's sensation seeking. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that, beyond direct influences, the relationship between adolescents' sensation seeking and parental R-rated movie restrictions in explaining smoking onset is bidirectional in nature. Finally, these findings highlight the relevance of motivating and supporting parents in limiting access to R-rated movies. PMID:21135004

  11. Emotional Modulation of Cognition in Recent Onset Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dieleman (Sieds)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The current thesis describes a number of important findings on the interaction between emotion and cognition in male recent onset schizophrenia patients. In healthy controls a general effect of emotional expressions on sustained attention is that it

  12. Cerebellar ataxia of early onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko; Yamada, Kazuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of childhood cerebellar ataxia were reported. All these cases showed chronic cerebellar ataxia with early onset, and the other diseases of cerebellum such as infections, neoplasms and storage diseases were excluded by clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including blood counts, blood chemistry, lactate, pyruvate, ceruloplasmine, urinalysis, serum immunoglobulins, amino acid analysis in blood and urine, CSF analysis, leukocyte lysosomal enzymes, MCV, EMG, EEG and brain X-CT. Two pairs of siblings were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis were cerebellar type (5), spinocerebellar type (1), one Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome and undetermined type (1). The age of onset was 1 to 5 years. The chief complaint was motor developmental delay in 6 cases; among them 5 patients could walk alone at the ages of 2 to 3 years'. Mental retardation was observed in 7 cases and epilepsy in 2. TRH was effective in 5 cases. The MRI study revealed that the area of medial sagittal slice of the cerebellum was reduced significantly in all cases and also that of pons was reduced in 5 cases. Different from typical adult onset spinocerebellar degenerations, most of the present cases have achieved slow developmental milestones and the clinical course was not progressive. Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of this disease in some cases. (author)

  13. Genomes of early onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence...... supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. Recent findings Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options. Summary Identifying the earliest...... receptor pathway....

  14. Bilingualism as a strategy to delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka; Valis, Martin; Kuca, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore original studies which provide evidence about the effects of bilingualism on the delay of the onset of dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). A literature review was conducted in the world's acknowledged databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE. Altogether, 14 original studies focusing on the research topic were detected. These included six prospective cohort studies and eight retrospective studies. Both types of studies suggest different conclusions. The findings from the prospective cohort studies state that there is no association between bilingualism and the delay of the onset of AD, while the retrospective studies claim the opposite. Despite the negative results of the prospective cohort studies, more research should be conducted on bilingualism and its impact on the delay of the onset of AD, since the brain studies have brought positive findings as far as the enhancement of cognitive reserve is concerned.

  15. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of male alternative reproductive tactics in ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mank, Judith E; Avise, John C

    2006-06-01

    Using comparative phylogenetic analysis, we analyzed the evolution of male alternative reproductive tactics (MARTs) in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Numerous independent origins for each type of MART (involving sneaker males, female mimics, pirates, and satellite males) indicate that these behaviors have been highly labile across actinopterygiian evolution, consistent with a previous notion that convergent selection in fishes can readily mold the underlying suites of reproductive hormones into similar behaviors. The evolutionary appearance of MARTs was significantly correlated with the presence of sexually selected traits in bourgeois males (P = 0.001) but not with the presence of male parental care. This suggests that MARTs often arise from selection on some males to circumvent bourgeois male investment in mate monopolization, rather than to avoid male brood care per se. We found parsimony evidence for an evolutionary progression of MARTs wherein sneaking is usually the evolutionary precursor to the presumably more complex MARTs of female mimicry and cooperative satellite behavior. Nest piracy appears not to be part of this evolutionary progression, possibly because its late onset in the life cycle of most ray-finned fishes reduces the effects of selection on this reproductive tactic.

  16. Causes for Late onset Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    the studies. The results of this review are generally inconclusive. In spite of the low quality scores, we did find that chronic stress, role/identity loss and friends approval of drinking, was associated with an increased risk for late-onset AUD whereas retirement, death of spouse or close relative does...

  17. Reproductive ecology of a neotropical cichlid fish, Cichla monoculus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chellappa

    Full Text Available The reproductive ecology of the freshwater fish Cichla monoculus Spix, 1831 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae was investigated in the Campo Grande Reservoir, Northeast Brazil. Rainfall, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity of the water were recorded monthly. Fish collected on a monthly basis were measured, weighed, dissected, sexed and the stage of maturation of the gonads were assessed by macro and microscopic means. The semi-arid study region has short spells of rain of 2-3 months duration interspersed with dry seasons. A positive correlation was observed between rainfall and air and water temperatures and conductivity of the water. The study population had an extended spawning season, with peak reproductive activity coinciding with low water temperatures. Males were longer and heavier than females on average and were larger at onset of sexual maturity. The size frequency distributions of the oocytes indicate that C. monoculus is a multiple spawner with an estimated batch fecundity of 3100. Condition factor showed an inverse relationship in relation to gonad size during maturation in both sexes and spent fish were in poor condition. In mature males, lipid stores in the post-occipital cephalic protuberance, a secondary sexual characteristic developed during the reproductive phase, which depleted in spent individuals. The success of this fish is attributed to its reproductive capacity and to the phenotypic plasticity that allows it to adapt to the harsh ecological conditions that prevail in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil.

  18. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations are associated with reproductive parameters in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adoamnei, Evdochia; Mendiola, Jaime; Vela-Soria, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a pervasive environmental toxicant with known reproductive effects on sperm parameters and hormone levels. Several observational studies have investigated the associations between BPA exposure and male reproductive function, but findings are inconsistent. The objective of thi...

  19. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-06-11

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. Copyright 2015 Morgan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  20. Leptin signaling in GABA neurons, but not glutamate neurons, is required for reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuure, Wieteke A; Roberts, Amy L; Quennell, Janette H; Anderson, Greg M

    2013-11-06

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to modulate the central driver of fertility: the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. This effect is indirect, as GnRH neurons do not express leptin receptors (LEPRs). Here we test whether GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons provide the intermediate pathway between the site of leptin action and the GnRH neurons. Leptin receptors were deleted from GABA and glutamate neurons using Cre-Lox transgenics, and the downstream effects on puberty onset and reproduction were examined. Both mouse lines displayed the expected increase in body weight and region-specific loss of leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. The GABA neuron-specific LEPR knock-out females and males showed significantly delayed puberty onset. Adult fertility observations revealed that these knock-out animals have decreased fecundity. In contrast, glutamate neuron-specific LEPR knock-out mice displayed normal fertility. Assessment of the estrogenic hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation in females showed that leptin action on GABA neurons is not necessary for estradiol-mediated suppression of tonic luteinizing hormone secretion (an indirect measure of GnRH neuron activity) but is required for regulation of a full preovulatory-like luteinizing hormone surge. In conclusion, leptin signaling in GABAergic (but not glutamatergic neurons) plays a critical role in the timing of puberty onset and is involved in fertility regulation throughout adulthood in both sexes. These results form an important step in explaining the role of central leptin signaling in the reproductive system. Limiting the leptin-to-GnRH mediators to GABAergic cells will enable future research to focus on a few specific types of neurons.

  1. Premature reproductive aging in female rats after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    of 13 estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals, including phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, butylparaben and paracetamol, and the mixture ratio was chosen to reflect high-end human intakes. Groups received combined exposures of 0,100, 150, 200 or 450 times high-end human intake levels......Long-lasting and delayed reproductive effects of developmental exposure to mixtures of environmental chemicals were investigated in female rats. Wistar rats were dosed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of endocrine disrupters, and effects in offspring were studied. The mixtures consisted....... Additionally, groups received mixtures including only the anti-androgens or estrogens at 200 or 450 times human intake. Female offspring exposed to the high dose mixture of all 13 chemicals showed earlier reproductive aging measured as early onset of irregular estrous cycle as compared to controls...

  2. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Drifting behaviour as an alternative reproductive strategy for social insect workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Pierre; Yagound, Boris; Lecoutey, Emmanuel; Devienne, Paul; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Restricted reproduction is traditionally posited as the defining feature of eusocial insect workers. The discovery of worker reproduction in foreign colonies challenges this view and suggests that workers’ potential to pursue selfish interests may be higher than previously believed. However, whether such reproductive behaviour truly relies on a reproductive decision is still unknown. Workers’ reproductive decisions thus need to be investigated to assess the extent of workers’ reproductive options. Here, we show in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris that drifting is a distinct strategy by which fertile workers circumvent competition in their nest and reproduce in foreign colonies. By monitoring workers’ movements between colonies, we show that drifting is a remarkably dynamic behaviour, widely expressed by both fertile and infertile workers. We demonstrate that a high fertility is, however, central in determining the propensity of workers to enter foreign colonies as well as their subsequent reproduction in host colonies. Moreover, our study shows that the drifting of fertile workers reflects complex decision-making processes associated with in-nest reproductive competition. This novel finding therefore adds to our modern conception of cooperation by showing the previously overlooked importance of alternative strategies which enable workers to assert their reproductive interests. PMID:24068358

  4. The Reproduction of Privilege: Young Women, the Family and Private Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines processes of cultural production and reproduction among members of the elite and upper-middle classes. Drawing on findings from a study of private education in England, it explores the utility of a conceptual framework to examine how practices in and across different sites may be reproductive of various forms of…

  5. Love Influences Reproductive Success in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Butovskaya, Marina; Karwowski, Maciej; Groyecka, Agata; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2017-01-01

    As love seems to be universal, researchers have attempted to find its biological basis. However, no studies till date have shown its direct association with reproductive success, which is broadly known to be a good measure of fitness. Here, we show links between love, as defined by the Sternberg Triangular Theory of Love, and reproductive success among the Hadza—traditional hunter-gatherer population. We found that commitment and reproductive success were positively and consistently related in both sexes, with number of children showing negative and positive associations with intimacy and passion, respectively, only among women. Our study may shed new light on the meaning of love in humans' evolutionary past, especially in traditional hunter-gatherer societies in which individuals, not their parents, were responsible for partner choice. We suggest that passion and commitment may be the key factors that increase fitness, and therefore, that selection promoted love in human evolution. However, further studies in this area are recommended. PMID:29209243

  6. [Importance of reproductive biotechnology in cattle in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenzycki, C; Stinshoff, H

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive biotechnology has manifold applications and includes a great innovation potential in livestock. Due to the global changes the new findings and techniques can aid to meet the future challenges. The use of biotechnology in animal production can guarantee enough high quality food for the whole population. Genetic resources of animals can be preserved via sperm and embryo banking. Early diagnosis of hereditary defects, generation of offspring with predetermined sex and the avoidance of animal transports for breeding employing shipment of frozen embryos will improve animal welfare. A special application is the use of animal models for human assisted reproductive technologies. Therefore, not only in Germany research related to the methodologies in reproductive biotechnology and their improvement need to be supported.

  7. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  8. Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Stefan M; Smith, Carolynn L; Denzel, Andrea J; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2006-04-01

    Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis. However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals. In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) on Barro Colorado Island in Panama during dry and wet seasons. We present strong evidence that stress sensitivity is primarily modulated by reproductive condition. In reproductively active females, corticosterone increases were more rapid and reached higher levels, but also decreased significantly faster than in inactive females. The corticosterone response was weaker in reproducing males than in females and delayed compared to non-reproductive males. Testes volume in reproductively active males was negatively correlated with corticosterone concentrations. Our findings suggest differentiated dynamics in the corticosterone stress response between sexes, potentially reflecting conflicting ecological demands. In females, a strong acute corticosterone response may represent high stress- and risk-sensitivity that facilitates escape and thus helps to protect reproduction. In males, suppression during reproductive activity could reflect lowered stress sensitivity to avoid chronically elevated corticosterone levels in times of frequent aggressive and therefore costly inter-male encounters.

  9. Dysthymic disorder: clinical characteristics in relation to age at onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzega, G; Maina, G; Venturello, S; Bogetto, F

    2001-09-01

    The variability in the clinical presentation of dysthymia has given rise to a rich debate in literature, and various hypotheses have been proposed. One is that the clinical presentation differs in relation to age at onset. The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in a sample of patients with dysthymia (DSM-IV), in relation to age at onset. 84 consecutive outpatients with a diagnosis of dysthymia (DSM-IV) were studied. All subjects were evaluated by a semistructured clinical interview and the following rating scales: HAM-A, HAM-D, MADRS, Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events. 23.8% of the sample had early-onset (dysthymia. Patients with early-onset disorder were significantly younger at the observation, more frequently female and single. They had a significantly longer duration of illness and in a significantly higher percentage had already received a specialist treatment before admission in the present trial. No differences in the frequency of symptoms were observed. A significantly higher percentage of patients with late-onset disease reported at least one stressful event in the year preceding the onset of dysthymia. A positive history of major depression was significantly more common among the early-onset group; social phobia, panic disorder and conversive disorder were also more frequent in this group. The late-onset patients frequently presented generalized anxiety disorder, substance abuse and somatization disorder. The study is retrospective and enrolls a limited number of cases. The present study agrees with other reports on the differences in clinical presentation of dysthymia according to age at onset. Although they are not actually related to age at onset, some interesting findings emerged in the symptomatological characterization of the disorder, referring to the diagnostic criteria proposed in DSM-IV.

  10. Investigating Climate Change and Reproduction: Experimental Tools from Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Y. Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally acknowledged that climate change has wide-ranging biological consequences, potentially leading to impacts on biodiversity. Environmental factors can have diverse and often strong effects on reproduction, with obvious ramifications for population fitness. Nevertheless, reproductive traits are often neglected in conservation considerations. Focusing on animals, recent progress in sexual selection and sexual conflict research suggests that reproductive costs may pose an underestimated hurdle during rapid climate change, potentially lowering adaptive potential and increasing extinction risk of certain populations. Nevertheless, regime shifts may have both negative and positive effects on reproduction, so it is important to acquire detailed experimental data. We hence present an overview of the literature reporting short-term reproductive consequences of exposure to different environmental factors. From the enormous diversity of findings, we conclude that climate change research could benefit greatly from more coordinated efforts incorporating evolutionary approaches in order to obtain cross-comparable data on how individual and population reproductive fitness respond in the long term. Therefore, we propose ideas and methods concerning future efforts dealing with reproductive consequences of climate change, in particular by highlighting the advantages of multi-generational experimental evolution experiments.

  11. Associations between vaginal pathogenic community and bacterial vaginosis in Chinese reproductive-age women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxin Ling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is one of the most common urogenital infections among women of reproductive age that represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. The aim of our study was to evalute the diagnostic values of Gardnerella, Atopobium, Eggerthella, Megasphaera typeI, Leptotrichia/Sneathia and Prevotella, defined as a vaginal pathogenic community for BV and their associations with vaginal pH and Nugent scores. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the vaginal pathogenic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. with species-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR in 50 BV-positive and 50 BV-negative Chinese women of reproductive age. Relative to BV-negative subjects, a siginificant decline in Lactobacillus and an obvious increase in bacteria in the vaginal pathogenic community were observed in BV-postive subjects (P<0.05. With the exception of Megasphaera typeI, other vaginal pathogenic bacteria were highly predictable for BV with a better sensitivity and specificity. The vaginal pathogenic community was positively associated with vaginal pH and Nugent scores, while Lactobacillus spp., such as L. iners and L. crispatus was negatively associated with them (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our data implied that the prevalance of vaginal pathogenic bacteria as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Vaginal microbiota shifts, especially the overgrowth of the vaginal pathogenic community, showed well diagnostic values in predicting BV. Postive correlations between those vaginal pathogenic bacteria and vaginal pH, Nugent score indicated the vaginal pathogenic community rather than a single vaginal microorganism, was participated in the onset of BV directly.

  12. A comparison of adolescent- and adult-onset first-episode, non-affective psychosis: 2-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Langeveld, Johannes; Joa, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare 2-year outcome among individuals with early-onset (EO; clinical and treatment characteristics of 43 EO and 189 AO patients 2 years after their inclusion in a clinical epidemiologic...... no longer significant at the 2-year follow-up. This study challenges the findings of a larger and older literature base consisting primarily of non-comparative studies concluding that teenage onset indicates a poor outcome. Our results indicate that adolescent-onset and adult-onset psychosis have similar...... prognostic trajectories, although both may predict a qualitatively different course from childhood-onset psychosis....

  13. Adult onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease with psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-López, Pilar; Pérez-García, Rosa; Sanguino-Andrés, Rosa; González-Pablos, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare neurological disorder characterized by pyramidal and extrapyramidal manifestations, dysarthria and dementia. Its onset is usually in childhood and most patients have a fatal outcome in few years. A high percentage of cases are hereditary with a recessive autosomal pattern. In the majority of the patients reported, a mutation of the gene that encodes the pantothenate kinase (PANK2) located in the 20p13-p12.3 chromosome that causes iron storage in the basal ganglia of the brain has been found. Its diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms as well as specific MRI imaging findings. The most common psychiatric features are cognitive impairment as well as depressive symptoms. There are few documented cases with psychotic disorders. We present the case of a patient with late onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease and psychotic symptoms that preceded the development of neurological manifestations. The pathophysiology and the treatment of psychotic symptomatology are presented and discussed. Key words: Psicosis, Hallervorden-Spatz, late onset, Basal ganglia.

  14. Reproductive Patterns in the Non-Breeding Season in Asinina de Miranda Jennies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, M; Silva, S R; Payan-Carreira, R

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to characterize the reproductive patterns in Asinina de Miranda jennies during the non-breeding season. Reproductive activity was surveyed in 12 females, aged between 3 and 18 years old, using ultrasound and teasing with a jack. The animals were monitored from September to April, six in each consecutive year. Of these 12 females, nine showed disruption to the normal pattern of ovarian activity during the non-breeding season. Loss of normal cyclicity included anoestrus (41.7%), silent ovulatory oestrus (25%), and persistence of corpus luteum (8.3%). Only three females maintained a regular cyclic pattern with oestrous behaviour during the non-breeding season. Anoestrus began in early November and lasted for an average of 147 ± 28 days (113-191 days), ending near to the spring equinox. Onset of silent oestrous cycles began more erratically, between October and February. In both groups the first behavioural ovulation of the year occurred around the time of the spring equinox. Disrupted reproductive activity was preceded by a shorter oestrous cycle only in females entering anoestrus. The mean follicle size in the first ovulation of the year was larger than in the reproductive season (44.7 ± 2.45 mm vs 39.2 ± 3.60 mm) in anoestrous jennies with protracted oestrus. Though age and body condition score (BCS) were associated, changes in BCS below a threshold of four points (for anoestrus) and five points (for silent oestrus) contributed greatly to disruption of reproductive cycles. BCS in females with regular oestrous cycles during the winter season remained unchanged or exceeded five points prior to the winter solstice. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The delayed reproduction of long time intervals defined by innocuous thermal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnejad, Mina; Martinu, Kristina; Grondin, Simon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The presence of discrete events during an interval to be estimated generally causes a dilation of perceived duration (event-filling effect). Here, we investigated this phenomenon in the thermal modality using multi-seconds (19 s) innocuous cool stimuli that were either constant (continuous interval) or fluctuating to create three discrete sensory events (segmented interval). Moreover, we introduced a delay following stimulus offset, before the reproduction phase, to allow for a direct comparison with our recent study showing an underestimation of duration in a delayed reproduction task of heat pain sensations (Khoshnejad et al. in Pain 155:581-590, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.12.015 ). The event-filling effect was tested by comparing the delayed reproduction of the segmented and the continuous stimuli in experimental conditions asking participants to (1) reproduce the dynamics of the sensation (i.e., changes in sensory intensity over time) or (2) reproduce only the interval duration (i.e., sensation onset-to-offset). A perceptual (control) condition required participants to report changes in sensation concurrently with the stimulus. Results of the dynamic task confirmed the underestimation of duration in the delayed reproduction task, but this effect was only found with the continuous and not with the segmented stimulus. This implies that the dilation of duration produced by segmentation might compensate for the underestimation of duration in this delayed reproduction task. However, this temporal dilation effect was only observed when participants were required to attend and reproduce the dynamics of sensation. These results suggest that the event-filling effect can be observed in the thermal sensory modality and that attention directed toward changes in sensory intensity might contribute to this effect.

  16. Reproduction Symposium: developmental programming of reproductive and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, V; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2014-08-01

    Inappropriate programming of the reproductive system by developmental exposure to excess steroid hormones is of concern. Sheep are well suited for investigating developmental origin of reproductive and metabolic disorders. The developmental time line of female sheep (approximately 5 mo gestation and approximately 7 mo to puberty) is ideal for conducting sequential studies of the progression of metabolic and/or reproductive disruption from the developmental insult to manifestation of adult consequences. Major benefits of using sheep include knowledge of established critical periods to target adult defects, a rich understanding of reproductive neuroendocrine regulation, availability of noninvasive approaches to monitor follicular dynamics, established surgical approaches to obtain hypophyseal portal blood for measurement of hypothalamic hormones, and the ability to perform studies in natural setting thereby keeping behavioral interactions intact. Of importance is the ability to chronically instrument fetus and mother for determining early endocrine perturbations. Prenatal exposure of the female to excess testosterone (T) leads to an array of adult reproductive disorders that include LH excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction culminating in early reproductive failure. At the neuroendocrine level, all 3 feedback systems are compromised. At the pituitary level, gonadotrope (LH secretion) sensitivity to GnRH is increased. Multifollicular ovarian morphology stems from persistence of follicles as well as enhanced follicular recruitment. These defects culminate in progressive loss of cyclicity and reduced fecundity. Prenatal T excess also leads to fetal growth retardation, an early marker of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases, insulin resistance, hypertension, and behavioral deficits. Collectively, the reproductive and metabolic deficits of prenatal T-treated sheep provide proof of

  17. Definition of onset in the development of onset-based alcoholism typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrella, D P; Filstead, W J

    1988-01-01

    Age of onset of alcoholism is gaining prominence as an explanatory construct in the development of models of alcoholism. Recently, at least one investigator has cited its potential as a simple means for deriving a typological classification scheme that could have great impact, both in terms of future research and in devising treatment strategies. Various investigators, however, operationalize alcoholism onset in different ways. By comparing five definitions of the concept, we show that the proportion of individuals classified as early or late onset can vary dramatically, depending on the interpretation given to phrases such as "subjective problems." Gender differences in early-late proportions are demonstrated, and the statistical relationship of the five items used as onset indicators is described. We suggest that collecting multiple convergent definitions of onset constitutes a structured recall aid that may ameliorate some of the problems to which self-report data are subject, while additionally providing the data necessary to create an aggregate measure that will increase reliability in comparison with the items individually. Finally, we encourage description of alcoholism onset as a developmental process rather than a single event, and urge investigators to increased precision in the operationalization of this construct as research in this area progresses.

  18. How Should Clinicians Counsel a Woman with a Strong Family History of Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease about Her Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Marianna V; O'Brien, Barbara M; King, Louise P

    2017-07-01

    Counseling patients regarding the benefits, harms, and dilemmas of genetic testing is one of the greatest ethical challenges facing reproductive medicine today. With or without test results, clinicians grapple with how to communicate potential genetic risks as patients weigh their reproductive options. Here, we consider a case of a woman with a strong family history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). She is early in her pregnancy and unsure about learning her own genetic status. We address the ethical ramifications of each of her options, which include genetic testing, genetic counseling, and termination versus continuation of the pregnancy. Our analysis foregrounds clinicians' role in helping to ensure autonomous decision making as the patient reflects on these clinical options in light of her goals and values. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Effects of task complexity on rhythmic reproduction performance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannarilli, Flora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Iosa, Marco; Pesce, Caterina; Capranica, Laura

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of task complexity on the capability to reproduce rhythmic patterns. Sedentary musically illiterate individuals (age: 34.8±4.2 yrs; M±SD) were administered a rhythmic test including three rhythmic patterns to be reproduced by means of finger-tapping, foot-tapping and walking. For the quantification of subjects' ability in the reproduction of rhythmic patterns, qualitative and quantitative parameters were submitted to analysis. A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct and evaluate individual performances. The findings indicated a good internal stability of the rhythmic reproduction, suggesting that the present experimental design is suitable to discriminate the participants' rhythmic ability. Qualitative aspects of rhythmic reproduction (i.e., speed of execution and temporal ratios between events) varied as a function of the perceptual-motor requirements of the rhythmic reproduction task, with larger reproduction deviations in the walking task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. REPRODUCTION IN THE ROCK HYRAX (PROCA VIA CAPENSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of corpora lutea and foetuses in the females, the reproductive organs and glands of all animals ... However, the approximate time of conception was calculated from the ... These findings were further confirmed by estimating the percentage.

  1. Learning from Cross-Border Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni; Karpin, Isabel; Stuhmcke, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called ‘altruistic’ and ‘commercial’ gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR. Secondly, the status of the law in CBR is profoundly equivocal; for participants it is often there and not there at the same time. Thirdly, self-sourced information, from the internet and more specifically social media such as Facebook, is now the principal source of information and peer support for reproductive travellers. Fourthly, and relatedly, domestic reproductive services providers are often sidestepped. If one of the goals of regulation is to minimise the risk of harm to participants, it is not clear that it is currently achieving this aim, and this article argues that any reforms will only work if they are more responsive to the reality of CBR. PMID:28073821

  2. Learning from Cross-Border Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emily; Millbank, Jenni; Karpin, Isabel; Stuhmcke, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called 'altruistic' and 'commercial' gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR. Secondly, the status of the law in CBR is profoundly equivocal; for participants it is often there and not there at the same time. Thirdly, self-sourced information, from the internet and more specifically social media such as Facebook, is now the principal source of information and peer support for reproductive travellers. Fourthly, and relatedly, domestic reproductive services providers are often sidestepped. If one of the goals of regulation is to minimise the risk of harm to participants, it is not clear that it is currently achieving this aim, and this article argues that any reforms will only work if they are more responsive to the reality of CBR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Adult-onset tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, [No Value; Lees, AJ; Lakke, JPWF; Trimble, MR; Robertson, MM

    We report on 8 patients with adult-onset motor tics and vocalisations. Three had compulsive tendencies in childhood and 3 had a family history of tics or obsessive-compulsive behaviour. In comparison with DSM-classified, younger-onset Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, adult-onset tic disorders are

  4. Heparin for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-08-17

    heterogeneity). There was also a significant improvement in the clinical pregnancy rate with use of LMWH (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.53, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 29%, very low quality evidence with low heterogeneity).However these findings should be interpreted with extreme caution as they were dependent upon the choice of statistical method: they were no longer statistically significant when a random-effects model was used.Adverse events were poorly reported in all included studies, with no comparative data available. However, LMWH did cause adverse effects including bruising, ecchymosis, bleeding, thrombocytopenia and allergic reactions. It appeared that these adverse effects were increased if heparin therapy was used over a longer duration. The results of this Cochrane review of three randomised controlled trials with a total of 386 women suggested that peri-implantation LMWH in assisted reproduction treatment (ART) cycles may improve the live birth rate in women undergoing assisted reproduction. However, these results were dependent on small low quality studies with substantial heterogeneity, and were sensitive to the choice of statistical model. There were side effects reported with use of heparin, including bruising and bleeding, and no reliable data on long-term effects. The results do not justify this use of heparin outside well-conducted research trials.These findings need to be further investigated with well-designed, adequately powered, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials. Further investigations could also focus on the effects of the local (uterine) and not systemic application of heparin during ART.

  5. Bilingualism as a strategy to delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka; Valis, Martin; Kuca, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore original studies which provide evidence about the effects of bilingualism on the delay of the onset of dementia, specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A literature review was conducted in the world’s acknowledged databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE. Altogether, 14 original studies focusing on the research topic were detected. These included six prospective cohort studies and eight retrospective studies. Both types of studies suggest different conclusions. The findings from the prospective cohort studies state that there is no association between bilingualism and the delay of the onset of AD, while the retrospective studies claim the opposite. Despite the negative results of the prospective cohort studies, more research should be conducted on bilingualism and its impact on the delay of the onset of AD, since the brain studies have brought positive findings as far as the enhancement of cognitive reserve is concerned. PMID:29089747

  6. Adult-Onset Metachromatic Leukodystrophy: Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaye Eryaşar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metachromatic Leukodystrophy(MLD is a lisosomal storage disorder which is characterized with arylsulphatase A deficiency. Enzyme deficiency results with demiyelination and storage of sulphatides in central nervous system.According to onset age;the disease has three major clinical forms as late infantile,juvenile and adult form. It is a rare disorder. For the patients who did not develop neurological findings bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be effective as treatment.

  7. Early onset facioscapulohumeral dystrophy - a systematic review using individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goselink, Rianne J M; Voermans, Nicol C; Okkersen, Kees; Brouwer, Oebele F; Padberg, George W; Nikolic, Ana; Tupler, Rossella; Dorobek, Malgorzata; Mah, Jean K; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Schreuder, Tim H A; Erasmus, Corrie E

    2017-12-01

    Infantile or early onset is estimated to occur in around 10% of all facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) patients. Although small series of early onset FSHD patients have been reported, comprehensive data on the clinical phenotype is missing. We performed a systematic literature search on the clinical features of early onset FSHD comprising a total of 43 articles with individual data on 227 patients. Additional data from four cohorts was provided by the authors. Mean age at reporting was 18.8 years, and 40% of patients were wheelchair-dependent at that age. Half of the patients had systemic features, including hearing loss (40%), retinal abnormalities (37%) and developmental delay (8%). We found an inverse correlation between repeat size and disease severity, similar to adult-onset FSHD. De novo FSHD1 mutations were more prevalent than in adult-onset FSHD. Compared to adult FSHD, our findings indicate that early onset FSHD is overall characterized by a more severe muscle phenotype and a higher prevalence of systemic features. However, similar as in adults, a significant clinical heterogeneity was observed. Based on this, we consider early onset FSHD to be on the severe end of the FSHD disease spectrum. We found natural history studies and treatment studies to be very scarce in early onset FSHD, therefore longitudinal studies are needed to improve prognostication, clinical management and trial-readiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    , and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation...... of medication for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was derived from electronic medical records within 8 years of follow-up. Data on 45,647 participants was structured as two data-cycles to examine the effect of change in sleep (between two waves) on incident CVD events. We applied strict inclusion...... and exclusion criteria to determine temporality between changes in sleep and the outcomes. RESULTS: While we did not find consistent effects of onset of short or long sleep, we found onset of disturbed sleep to predict subsequent risk of hypertension (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44) and dyslipidemia (HR...

  9. Is Adolescent-Onset First-Episode Psychosis Different from Adult Onset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballageer, Trevor; Malla, Ashok; Manchanda, Rahul; Takhar, Jatinder; Haricharan, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether first-episode psychosis patients with onset during adolescence (ages 15-18) differ significantly from those with young-adult onset (ages 19-30). Method: Consecutive patients presenting with first-episode psychosis (N = 242) were assessed for demographic and illness characteristics such as duration of untreated…

  10. Growth Hormone Overexpression Disrupts Reproductive Status Through Actions on Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction are closely related. Growth hormone (GH-transgenic common carp exhibit accelerated growth and delayed reproductive development, which provides an amenable model to study hormone cross talk between the growth and reproductive axes. We analyzed the energy status and reproductive development in GH-transgenic common carp by using multi-tissue RNA sequencing, real-time-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and in vitro incubation. The expression of gys (glycogen synthase and igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein as well as blood glucose concentrations are lower in GH-transgenic carp. Agrp1 (agouti-related protein 1 and sla (somatolactin a, which are related to appetite and lipid catabolism, are significantly higher in GH-transgenic carp. Low glucose content and increased appetite indicate disrupted metabolic and energy deprivation status in GH-transgenic carp. Meanwhile, the expression of genes, such as gnrhr2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, gthα (gonadotropin hormone, alpha polypeptide, fshβ (follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide, lhβ [luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide] in the pituitary, cyp19a1a (aromatase A in the gonad, and cyp19a1b (aromatase B in the hypothalamus, are decreased in GH-transgenic carp. In contrast, pituitary gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone, drd1 (dopamine receptor D1, drd3 (dopamine receptor D3, and drd4 (dopamine receptor D4 exhibit increased expression, which were associated with the retarded reproductive development. Leptin receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the pituitary including the pars intermedia and proximal pars distalis, suggesting a direct effect of leptin on LH. Recombinant carp Leptin protein was shown to stimulate pituitary gthα, fshβ, lhβ expression, and ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro. In addition to neuroendocrine factors, we suggest that reduced hepatic leptin signaling to the

  11. Managing patients with concerns about workplace reproductive hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, L M; Jones, T L

    2000-01-01

    To find out who uses an occupational reproductive consultation service, what proportion of patients have different types of workplace exposures, and what hypotheses can be generated about barriers to implementing medically necessary job modifications to promote reproductive health. A case series study was conducted by reviewing medical records at two occupational health clinics. 51 patients (1 man and 50 women) were seen, 10 of whom wished to discuss a future pregnancy and 41 of whom were pregnant. Pregnant women worked with a mean of 15.5 different chemicals, and patients were also concerned about ionizing radiation, biological hazards, electromagnetic fields, and ultraviolet light. Pregnant women made clinic visits at a mean gestational age of 10.9 weeks. Only one man used the service, suggesting a lack of knowledge about possible paternal contributions to adverse reproductive outcomes. Many pregnant women visited the clinic too late to prevent harm from exposure to some teratogens, so preconception counseling may be of benefit. Cases are presented that illustrate ways in which the primary care provider can assist the patient who may be exposed to reproductive hazards.

  12. Early and phasic cortical metabolic changes in vestibular neuritis onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alessandrini

    Full Text Available Functional brain activation studies described the presence of separate cortical areas responsible for central processing of peripheral vestibular information and reported their activation and interactions with other sensory modalities and the changes of this network associated to strategic peripheral or central vestibular lesions. It is already known that cortical changes induced by acute unilateral vestibular failure (UVF are various and undergo variations over time, revealing different cortical involved areas at the onset and recovery from symptoms. The present study aimed at reporting the earliest change in cortical metabolic activity during a paradigmatic form of UVF such as vestibular neuritis (VN, that is, a purely peripheral lesion of the vestibular system, that offers the opportunity to study the cortical response to altered vestibular processing. This research reports [(18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain scan data concerning the early cortical metabolic activity associated to symptoms onset in a group of eight patients suffering from VN. VN patients' cortical metabolic activity during the first two days from symptoms onset was compared to that recorded one month later and to a control healthy group. Beside the known cortical response in the sensorimotor network associated to vestibular deafferentation, we show for the first time the involvement of Entorhinal (BAs 28, 34 and Temporal (BA 38 cortices in early phases of symptomatology onset. We interpret these findings as the cortical counterparts of the attempt to reorient oneself in space counteracting the vertigo symptom (Bas 28, 34 and of the emotional response to the new pathologic condition (BA 38 respectively. These interpretations were further supported by changes in patients' subjective ratings in balance, anxiety, and depersonalization/derealization scores when tested at illness onset and one month later. The present findings contribute in expanding

  13. Voice and Handgrip Strength Predict Reproductive Success in a Group of Indigenous African Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Mberira, Mara; Bartels, Astrid; Gallup, Gordon G.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness). Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of Darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of Darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis. PMID:22870251

  14. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  15. Reproductive endocrine issues in men with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A W; Muneyyirci-Delale, O

    2017-07-01

    In patients with sickle cell anemia, the sickling of red blood cells is known to cause end-organ damage by infarction. In some men who are affected by sickle cell anemia, the obstruction of venous outflow of the penis causes priapism, which could lead to erectile dysfunction. There is also evidence that the disease is linked to other reproductive issues in men-specifically delayed puberty, low testosterone, and sperm abnormalities-although the causes of these problems are less clear. Treatment of sickle cell anemia can have effects on the reproductive system as well. This review summarizes the findings from various publications pertaining to reproductive endocrinology, along with their conclusions and discrepancies. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  17. [Analysis of factors associated with multiple pregnancies in assisted reproduction treatment complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Nieto, C A; Méndez-Lozano, D H; Fraustro-Ávila, M E; García-Martínez, M R; Soto-Cossio, L E; Basurto-Díaz, D; Flores-Mendoza, H

    2016-01-01

    Today, advances in technology provide the best success rates in the reproductive medicine field. One of the biggest concerns about it, is the high risk of achieving multiple pregnancies, which may carry greater health risks for both; the mother and fetuses. Besides that, multiple pregnancies are considered a complication or an adverse effect of assisted reproduction treatments. To compare the factors associated with multiple pregnancy in patients who underwent complex assisted reproduction techniques. A retrospective and transversal case control study was rolled to compare the factors associated with multiple pregnancy rates, these results were correlated using a logistic regression model. a total of 1063 cases were reviewed, we obtained a pregnancy rate of 35.9%, and a multiple pregnancy rate of 31.5%. We found positive statistical association between patient age, total number of oocytes obtained, total embryos transferred, total vitrified embryos per cycle, total serum cuantitative B-GCH level, endometrial thickness in milimeters, and the Honest of a multiple pregnancy. In the logistic regression model, we found statistical association between the number of embryos transferred, number of embryos obtained, embryo quality, total vitrified embryos and the risk for multiple pregnancies. The total number of embryos transferred in a cycle of a complex assisted reproduction, is the most important factor for the onset of multiple pregnancies. The age of patients, the number of oocytes, total number of embryos obtained, the number of embryos transferred, the quality of embryos transferred and the number of frozen embryos per cycle, correlate significantly with more risk for multiple pregnancies.

  18. Systematic Onset of Periodic Patterns in Random Disk Packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Nikola; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2018-04-01

    We report evidence of a surprising systematic onset of periodic patterns in very tall piles of disks deposited randomly between rigid walls. Independently of the pile width, periodic structures are always observed in monodisperse deposits containing up to 1 07 disks. The probability density function of the lengths of disordered transient phases that precede the onset of periodicity displays an approximately exponential tail. These disordered transients may become very large when the channel width grows without bound. For narrow channels, the probability density of finding periodic patterns of a given period displays a series of discrete peaks, which, however, are washed out completely when the channel width grows.

  19. Dominance, reproduction and survival in banded mongooses: towards an egalitarian social system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, D. W.; Ginsberg, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    The banded mongoose, Mungos mungo, is a social species that forms multimale and multifemale family groups. Earlier studies suggest these family groups are relatively egalitarian with small differences in reproductive opportunities among individuals of different rank. In contrast, previous studies of other social mongooses have focused on species with more despotic control of reproduction (meerkats, Suricata suricatta, dwarf mongooses, Helogale parvula). In these species, the distribution of reproductive opportunities amongst individuals of different rank has met the predictions of reproductive skew theory: dominant individuals accrue greater reproductive benefits than subordinates, with subordinates breeding less often than dominants. In this paper we test how well two predictions of reproductive skew theory explain variance in measures of reproductive effort, and its correlates, in a wild population of banded mongooses in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. We measure dominance rank in males and females, and we investigate whether individuals of higher social rank accrue greater benefits than subordinates in terms of survival and reproduction. Banded mongoose dominance hierarchies showed linearity, but low reproductive skew. Rank was not significantly correlated with age. Furthermore, there were only small effects of dominance rank on nutritional levels, and no effects on reproduction and survival, suggesting that banded mongoose societies are indeed relatively egalitarian. No evidence of reproductive suppression was found and other forms of reproductive control were not observed. However, we do not exclude the possibility of increased reproductive competition in circumstances of higher ecological constraints. These findings show that reproductive skew theory is equally useful in explaining variation in reproduction in societies with low reproductive skew, as it is in explaining the allocation of reproductive effort in despotic social systems. Copyright 2001

  20. Reproductive health education and sexual risk among high-risk female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.

  1. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  2. Environmental smoking and smoking onset in adolescence: the role of dopamine-related genes. Findings from two longitudinal studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Hiemstra

    Full Text Available Although environmental smoking (i.e., paternal and maternal smoking, sibling smoking, and peer smoking is one of the most important factors for explaining adolescent smoking behavior, not all adolescents are similarly affected. The extent to which individuals are vulnerable to smoking in their environment might depend on genetic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the interplay between environmental smoking and genes encoding components of the dopaminergic system (i.e., dopamine receptor D2, D4, and dopamine transporter DAT1 in adolescent smoking onset. Data from two longitudinal studies were used. Study 1 consisted of 991 non-smoking early adolescents (mean age = 12.52, SD = .57 whereas study 2 consisted of 365 non-smoking middle to late adolescents (mean age = 14.16, SD = 1.07 who were followed for 16 and 48 months, respectively. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using Mplus. In study 1, we found positive associations between parents' and friends' smoking at the first measurement and smoking status 16 months later. In study 2 we found a positive association between friends' smoking and smoking onset 48 months later. Neither study demonstrated any interaction effects of the DRD2, DRD4, or DAT1 genotypes. In conclusion, the effects of environmental smoking on smoking onset are similar for adolescent carriers and non-carriers of these specific genes related to the dopaminergic system.

  3. Double-Blind Maintenance Safety and Effectiveness Findings from the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum (TEOSS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; McClellan, Jon; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Ritz, Louise; McNamara, Nora K.; Lingler, Jacqui; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Kaufman, Emily Michael; Noyes, Nancy; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of three antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: Patients (8 to 19 years old) who had improved during an 8-week, randomized, double-blind acute trial of olanzapine, risperidone, or molindone (plus benztropine) were eligible to continue on the same medication…

  4. Juvenile-onset Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with a Frameshift FUS Gene Mutation Presenting Unique Neuroradiological Findings and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayanagi, Kimitoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Furuta, Natsumi; Makioka, Kouki; Ikeda, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old Japanese woman developed anterocollis, weakness of the proximal arms, and subsequent cognitive impairment. A neurological examination revealed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) without a family history. Systemic muscle atrophy progressed rapidly. Cerebral MRI clearly exhibited high signal intensities along the bilateral pyramidal tracts. An analysis of the FUS gene revealed a heterozygous two-base pair deletion, c.1507-1508delAG (p.G504WfsX515). A subset of juvenile-onset familial/sporadic ALS cases with FUS gene mutations reportedly demonstrates mental retardation or learning difficulty. Our study emphasizes the importance of conducting a FUS gene analysis in juvenile-onset ALS cases, even when no family occurrence is confirmed.

  5. Aromatase in the brain: not just for reproduction anymore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Segura, L M

    2008-06-01

    Aromatase, the enzyme that synthesises oestrogens from androgen precursors, is expressed in the brain, where it has been classically associated with the regulation of neuroendocrine events and behaviours linked with reproduction. Recent findings, however, have revealed new unexpected roles for brain aromatase, indicating that the enzyme regulates synaptic activity, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and the response of neural tissue to injury, and may contribute to control nonreproductive behaviours, mood and cognition. Therefore, the function of brain aromatase is not restricted to the regulation of reproduction as previously thought.

  6. Reproductive Endocrinology: Pregnancy and fertility after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2009-05-01

    Increases in rates of bariatric surgery are staggering, and many obese individuals who undergo such procedures are women of reproductive age. So, how does the surgery affect women's fertility and pregnancy outcomes thereafter? A new systemic review aimed to find out.

  7. Assisted Reproduction versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison of the Developmental Outcomes in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Anthis, Kristine S.; Needelman, Howard

    2004-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technology is increasing rapidly. Research, although sparse, has resulted in inconsistent findings as to the developmental prognosis for infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and the use of fertility drugs. In the present study, the authors compared twins who were…

  8. Economic Empowerment and Reproductive Behaviour of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to provide reproductive health information and training in basic business skills and micro-credit facilities to enable beneficiaries to establish private businesses. Findings from the study highlight the importance of the relationship between female education, access to economic resources as a means of furthering ...

  9. Low-Frequency Waves in the Near-Earth Magnetotail before Substorm Expansion Onsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Y.; Saito, M. H.; Hiraki, Y.; Machida, S.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection and dipolarization, which occur in the near-Earth magnetotail just before substorm expansion onsets, are important processes for the substorm triggering. To understand the triggering of these processes, we have investigated low-frequency waves that were observed in the near-Earth magnetotail before onsets, by performing statistical analysis based on Geotail observations and case studies based on multi-point THEMIS and Geotail observations. Here we focused our examination on ~10 min interval before onsets. We find that small-amplitude Alfven and slow-mode magnetosonic waves with a period of ~1 to 2 min continuously exist for more than 10 min before onsets. Such waves are seen not only in the initial dipolarization region but also midway between the magnetic reconnection and initial dipolarization regions. It seems that the amplitudes of the waves are larger in the off-equator plasma sheet and the plasma sheet boundary layer than at the magnetic equator and in the lobe. After onsets the waves considerably amplify in the plasma sheet. These results may imply that instabilities already begin to grow gradually in a wide region during the substorm growth phase, while their explosive growth begins in localized regions just before onsets.

  10. [Mexican National Consensus on Assisted Reproduction Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; López Ortiz, Carlos Salazar; Serviere Zaragoza, Claudio; Velázquez Cornejo, Gerardo; Pérez Peña, Efrain; Santos Haliscack, Roberto; Luna Rojas, Martha; Valerio, Emilio; Santana, Héctor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that 15% of couples living in industrialized countries are infertile, ie have failed to conceive, reproductive age, after 12 months ormore of regular intercourse without contraception. During the past decade has increased the demand for fertility treatments because they believe are moreeffective now. To unify the therapeutic approach and service to patients and set a precedent for a Mexican Official Standard respect and support for the legislation of these procedures. Consensus by technical experts group panel with the participation of 34 national centers accredited for use in assisted reproduction. He organized seven workshops with the following themes: 1) selection of patients for assisted reproduction treatment, 2) schemes controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction techniques of high complexity, 3) preparation and egg retrieval technique, 4) transferembryo; 5) luteal phase supplementation; 6) indications and techniques of cryopreservation and 7) informed consent. Each table had a coordinator who wrote and presented the findings to the full, it made a number of observations until they reached unanimity of criteria, which are reflected in this document. Patient selection for assisted reproduction techniques is the first step of the process. Proper selection lead to success, in the same way that a bad pick up for failure. In the case of egg donation the most important recommendation is that only one to two embryos transferred in order to reduce multiple pregnancy rates and maintaining high pregnancy rates.

  11. Reproductive responses of male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) to 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) under short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xin; Jiang, Lian Yu; Han, Mei; Ye, Man Hong; Wang, Ai Qin; Wei, Wan Hong; Yang, Sheng Mei

    2016-04-01

    The plant secondary metabolite 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) can stimulate and enhance animal reproduction. This compound has been successfully detected in Leymus chinensis, which is the main diet of Brandt's voles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different 6-MBOA doses on the reproductive physiology of male Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. The results showed that 6-MBOA administration increased relative testis weight, regardless of the dose, but it had little effect on the body mass. Low and middle doses of 6-MBOA increased the concentrations of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in the serum and the mRNA levels of StAR and CYP11a1 in the testes. However, 6-MBOA did not cause any significant increase in the mRNA levels of KiSS-1, GPR54, and GnRH compared to those in the control group. The mRNA level of KiSS-1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was higher than that in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Collectively, our results demonstrated that the number of KiSS-1-expressing neurons located in the ARC was the highest, and that 6-MBOA, which might modulate the reproductive activity along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, had a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on the reproductive activity of Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. Our study provided insights into the mechanism of 6-MBOA action and the factors influencing the onset of reproduction in Brandt's voles.

  12. Responsiveness of pituitary to galanin throughout the reproductive cycle of male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, P; Velez, Z; Sousa, C; Santos, S; Andrade, A; Alvarado, M V; Felip, A; Zanuy, S; Canário, A V M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is a putative factor regulating puberty onset and reproduction through its actions on the pituitary. The present study investigated the pituitary responsiveness to galanin and the patterns of galanin receptors (Galrs) expression throughout the reproductive cycle of two years old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an important aquaculture species. Quantitative analysis of pituitary and hypothalamus transcript expression of four galr subtypes revealed differential regulation according to the testicular developmental stage, with an overall decrease in expression from the immature stage to the mid-recrudescence stage. Incubation of pituitary cells with mammalian 1-29Gal peptide induced significant changes in cAMP concentration, with sensitivities that varied according to the testicular development stages. Furthermore 1-29Gal was able to stimulate both follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) release from pituitary cell suspensions. The magnitude of the effects and effective concentrations varied according to reproductive stage, with generalized induction of Fsh and Lh release in animals sampled in January (full spermiation). The differential expression of galrs in pituitary and hypothalamus across the reproductive season, together with the differential effects of Gal on gonadotropins release in vitro strongly suggests the involvement of the galaninergic system in the regulation the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis of male sea bass. This is to our knowledge the first clear evidence for the involvement of galanin in the regulation of reproduction in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Onset of autumn shapes the timing of birth in Pyrenean chamois more than onset of spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkgy, Charlotte; Garel, Mathieu; Appolinaire, Joël; Loison, Anne; Toïgo, Carole

    2016-03-01

    In seasonal environments, birth dates are a central component for a species' life history, with potential long-term fitness consequences. Yet our understanding of selective pressures of environmental changes on birth dates is limited in wild mammals due to the difficulty of data collection. In a context of rapid climate change, the question of a possible mismatch between plant phenology and birth phenology also remains unanswered for most species. We assessed whether and how the timing of birth in a mountain mammal (isard, also named Pyrenean chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) tracked changes in plant growing season, accounting for maternal traits, individual heterogeneity and population density. We not only focused on spring conditions but also assessed to what extent onset of autumn can be a driver of phenological biological events and compared the magnitude of the response to the magnitude of the environmental changes. We relied on a 22-year study based on intensively monitored marked individuals of known age. Births were highly synchronized (80% of kids born within 25 days) and highly repeatable (84%; between-female variation of 9.6 days, within-female variation of 4.2 days). Individual phenotypic plasticity allows females to respond rapidly to interannual changes in plant phenology but did not prevent the existence of a mismatch: a 10-day advance in the autumn or spring plant phenology led to 3.9 and 1.3 days advance in birth dates, respectively. Our findings suggest that plant phenology may act as a cue to induce important stages of the reproductive cycle (e.g. conception and gestation length), subsequently affecting parturition dates, and stressed the importance of focusing on long-term changes during spring for which females may show much lower adaptive potential than during autumn. These results also question the extent to which individual plasticity along with high heterogeneity among individuals will allow species to cope with demographic

  14. How ants find each other; temporal and spatial patterns in nuptial flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Morssinkhof, R.; Boer, P.; Schaffers, A.P.; Heijerman, Th.; Sykora, K.V.

    2008-01-01

    Reproduction is a key factor in understanding population ecology and therefore species occurrence. However, patterns in reproductive behaviour for distinct ant species remain insufficiently known. In this paper strategies in mate finding are studied for six ant species (Lasius niger, Lasius

  15. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Mercedes; Martins, Cecilia; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Gómez-López, Lilian; Murgui, Empar; Fons, Carmen; García-Cazorla, Angels; Artuch, Rafael; Jara, Fernando; Arranz, José A; Häberle, Johannes; Briones, Paz; Campistol, Jaume; Pineda, Mercedes; Vilaseca, Maria A

    2010-03-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late-onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late-onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], language disorder, and delirium). Generally, these clinical pictures did not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Conversely, dietary treatment improved the symptoms. Regarding biochemical data, 2 patients showed normal ammonium but high glutamine levels. This study highlights the fact that neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental findings are common among the initial symptomatology of late-onset urea cycle disorders. The authors recommend that unexplained or nonresponsive neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms appearing during childhood or adolescence be followed by a study of ammonia and amino acid plasmatic levels to rule out a urea cycle disorder.

  16. Medicinal plants used in Lesotho for treatment of reproductive and post reproductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteetee, A; Seleteng Kose, L

    2016-12-24

    Reproductive healthcare has been highlighted as a major challenge in Lesotho mainly due to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. As a result other reproductive ailments have not received much attention, particularly because healthcare facilities are already limited and many of them are inaccessible. For these reasons, medicinal plants play a major role in primary healthcare system in the country, in addition the plants are easily accessible, more affordable, and their use forms part of the cultural heritage. However, documentation of medicinal plants used for reproductive ailments is scattered, more importantly the biological and pharmacological properties, as well as toxicity of many of these plants are not yet known. To document the plants used by both male and female Basotho (residing in Lesotho) for the treatment of reproductive ailments, to explore their recorded biological and pharmacological effects as well as their toxicity, and to establish if these plants are used for similar purposes in other southern African cultures. The results stem from published findings of recent interviews of traditional medicinal practitioners in the Maseru District of Lesotho, first author's own experiences and observations from the Qacha's Nek District as well as comprehensive literature survey including numerous books and unpublished data. Electronic databases such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were also used to search for the chemical compounds, pharmacological activity, and toxicity of the plants. A total of 87 plant species are reported to be used for the treatment of several reproductive problems such as infertility, complications associated with pregnancy (twelve plants are used to treat conditions such as colic, heartburn, nausea, and constipation), cleansing and/ or toning of the uterus (with a purpose either to induce pregnancy or to get rid of the placenta, for example Withania somnifera and Zantedeschia

  17. Reproductive Rights and Women’s Freedom. Remarks on the Feminist Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fanlo Cortés

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to contribute to the issue of reproductive rights, assuming for the analysis the perspective of the contemporary Western feminist debate. Notwithstanding the variety of approaches and positions that find expression in the scope of such a debate, emphasis is given to the convergent interest of the most recent feminist bioethical discussion in the subject of legal regulation that the States predict, both in relation to the use of certain Reproductive technologies, and the exercise of other reproductive rights, as well as the value premises that underpin these policies and their effects on the lives of women. Finally, in the light of the recent transformations of the modalities of public control over reproductive choices, some challenges will be identified that fall on contemporary feminisms.

  18. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Within the Male Reproductive System: Implications for Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly by "priming" the woman's immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast cells in the placenta during pregnancy has been well described. Highly variable amounts of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in seminal plasma from different men have been reported, and the concentration of sHLA-G is associated with HLA-G genotype. A first pilot study indicates that the level of sHLA-G in seminal plasma may even be associated with the chance of pregnancy in couples, where the male partner has reduced semen quality. More studies are needed to verify these preliminary findings.

  19. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  20. Improving reproductive health in rural China through participatory planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joan; Liu, Yunguo; Fang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    China's new health reform initiative aims to provide quality accessible health care to all, including remote rural populations, by 2020. Public health insurance coverage for the rural poor has increased, but rural women have fared worse because of lower status and lack of voice in shaping the services they need. Use of prenatal care, safe delivery and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) services is inadequate and service seeking for health problems remains lower for men. We present findings from a study of gender and health equity in rural China from 2002 to 2008 and offer recommendations from over a decade of applied research on reproductive health in rural China. Three studies, conducted in poor counties between 1994 and 2008, identified problems in access and pilot tested interventions and mechanisms to increase women's participation in health planning. They were done in conjunction with a World Bank programme and the global Gender and Health Equity Network (GHEN). Reproductive health service-seeking improved and the study interventions increased local government commitment to providing such services through new health insurance mechanisms. Findings from the studies were summarised into recommendations on gender and health for inclusion in new health reform efforts.

  1. Early- versus Late-Onset Systemic Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A.; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ≤30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ≥60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients. PMID:24646463

  2. Exploiting rRNA operon copy number to investigate bacterial reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Benjamin R K; Stoddard, Steven F; Schmidt, Thomas M

    2016-09-12

    The potential for rapid reproduction is a hallmark of microbial life, but microbes in nature must also survive and compete when growth is constrained by resource availability. Successful reproduction requires different strategies when resources are scarce and when they are abundant 1,2 , but a systematic framework for predicting these reproductive strategies in bacteria has not been available. Here, we show that the number of ribosomal RNA operons (rrn) in bacterial genomes predicts two important components of reproduction-growth rate and growth efficiency-which are favoured under contrasting regimes of resource availability 3,4 . We find that the maximum reproductive rate of bacteria doubles with a doubling of rrn copy number, and the efficiency of carbon use is inversely related to maximal growth rate and rrn copy number. We also identify a feasible explanation for these patterns: the rate and yield of protein synthesis mirror the overall pattern in maximum growth rate and growth efficiency. Furthermore, comparative analysis of genomes from 1,167 bacterial species reveals that rrn copy number predicts traits associated with resource availability, including chemotaxis and genome streamlining. Genome-wide patterns of orthologous gene content covary with rrn copy number, suggesting convergent evolution in response to resource availability. Our findings imply that basic cellular processes adapt in contrasting ways to long-term differences in resource availability. They also establish a basis for predicting changes in bacterial community composition in response to resource perturbations using rrn copy number measurements 5 or inferences 6,7 .

  3. Early- and late-onset Alzheimer disease: Are they the same entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, P; Pujol, N; Esteve-Belloch, P; Echeveste, B; García-Eulate, M R; Arbizu, J; Riverol, M

    2018-05-01

    Early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD), which presents in patients younger than 65 years, has frequently been described as having different features from those of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). This review analyses the most recent studies comparing the clinical presentation and neuropsychological, neuropathological, genetic, and neuroimaging findings of both types in order to determine whether EOAD and LOAD are different entities or distinct forms of the same entity. We observed consistent differences between clinical findings in EOAD and in LOAD. Fundamentally, the onset of EOAD is more likely to be marked by atypical symptoms, and cognitive assessments point to poorer executive and visuospatial functioning and praxis with less marked memory impairment. Alzheimer-type features will be more dense and widespread in neuropathology studies, with structural and functional neuroimaging showing greater and more diffuse atrophy extending to neocortical areas (especially the precuneus). In conclusion, available evidence suggests that EOAD and LOAD are 2 different forms of a single entity. LOAD is likely to be influenced by ageing-related processes. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  5. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-06-09

    Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US $20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US $509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US $1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict.

  6. Tonic-clonic activity at subarachnoid hemorrhage onset: impact on complications and outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco De Marchis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Tonic-clonic activity (TCA at onset complicates 3% to 21% of cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. The impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, including seizures, remains unclear. One study associated onset TCA with poor clinical outcome at 6 weeks after SAH, but to our knowledge no other studies have confirmed this relationship. This study aims to assess the impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months. METHODS: Analysis of a prospective study cohort of 1479 SAH patients admitted to Columbia University Medical Center between 1996 and 2012. TCA within 6 hours of hemorrhage onset was identified based on accounts of emergency care providers or family witnesses. RESULTS: TCA at onset was described in 170 patients (11%. Patients with onset TCA were younger (P = 0.002, presented more often with poor clinical grade (55% vs. 26%, P<0.001 and had larger amounts of cisternal, intraventricular, and intracerebral blood than those without onset TCA (all, P<0.001. After adjusting for known confounders, onset TCA was significantly associated with in-hospital seizures (OR 3.80, 95%-CI: 2.43-5.96, P<0.001, in-hospital pneumonia (OR 1.56, 95%-CI: 1.06-2.31, p = 0.02, and delayed cerebral ischemia (OR 1.77, 95%-CI: 1.21-2.58, P = 0.003. At 3 months, however, onset TCA was not associated with poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy after adjusting for age, admission clinical grade, and cisternal blood volume. CONCLUSIONS: Onset TCA is not a rare event as it complicates 11% of cases of SAH. New and clinically relevant findings are the association of onset TCA with in-hospital seizures, pneumonia and delayed cerebral ischemia. Despite the increased risk of in-hospital complications, onset TCA is not associated with disability, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months.

  7. Universal dynamics in the onset of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Bruus, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics in the onset of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow of an incompressible liquid in a channel of circular cross section is well-studied theoretically. We use an eigenfunction expansion in a Hilbert space formalism to generalize the results to channels of an arbitrary cross section. We find that t...... that the steady state is reached after a characteristic time scale tau=(A/P)(2)(1/nu), where A and P are the cross-sectional area and perimeter, respectively, and nu is the kinematic viscosity of the liquid. For the initial dynamics of the flow rate Q for t......The dynamics in the onset of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow of an incompressible liquid in a channel of circular cross section is well-studied theoretically. We use an eigenfunction expansion in a Hilbert space formalism to generalize the results to channels of an arbitrary cross section. We find...

  8. Prenatal Testing for Adult-Onset Conditions: the Position of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercher, Laura; Uhlmann, Wendy R; Hoffman, Erin P; Gustafson, Shanna; Chen, Kelly M

    2016-12-01

    Advances in genetic testing and the availability of such testing in pregnancy allows prospective parents to test their future child for adult-onset conditions. This ability raises several complex ethical issues. Prospective parents have reproductive rights to obtain information about their fetus. This information may or may not alter pregnancy management. These rights can be in conflict with the rights of the future individual, who will be denied the right to elect or decline testing. This paper highlights the complexity of these issues, details discussions that went into the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Public Policy Task Force's development of the Prenatal testing for Adult-Onset Conditions position statement adopted in November 2014, and cites relevant literature on this topic through December 2015. Issues addressed include parental rights and autonomy, rights of the future child, the right not to know, possible adverse effects on childhood and the need for genetic counseling. This paper will serve as a reference to genetic counselors and healthcare professionals when faced with this situation in clinical practice.

  9. The reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAM Gomes

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar (= C. brasiliana in the field and the laboratory. The reproductive cycle of the animals was evaluated in the field at Sambaqui Beach, Florianópolis, SC (27° 29′18″ S and 48° 32′12″ W from May 2008 through November 2009. In July, the animals were in the resting stage. The early growth stage began in August and was followed by the late growth stage in October. In November and December, the oysters began to enter the mature stage. Females in spawning condition were predominant during these months. The stages of the reproductive cycle were positively associated with temperature (r=0.77, P<0.01 and negatively associated with salinity (r=−0.56, P=0.042. These findings demonstrated that increased temperature and reduced salinity influence the reproductive development of Crassostrea gasar. The condition index (CI of the animals was also associated with the seawater temperature. The highest values of the condition index were observed during the months when the temperature of the seawater was gradually increasing. A laboratory experiment was performed to test the effect of salinity on the reproductive cycle of the oysters. The experiment was conducted in standardized tanks. The animals were conditioned using two salinities (24‰ and 34‰. The salinity regime influenced the development of the gonadal tissue of the oysters. A salinity of 24‰ produced greater reproductive development.

  10. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder...... that schizophrenia patients (n = 15) had significantly larger lateral ventricles as compared to controls. Duration and dose of antipsychotics correlated negatively with global gray matter volume in minimally medicated patients (n = 18). CONCLUSION: Findings of white matter changes and enlarged lateral ventricles...... already at illness onset in young schizophrenia spectrum patients, suggests aberrant neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Gray matter volume changes, however, appear not to be a key feature in early onset first-episode psychosis....

  11. Age onset of offending and serious mental illness among forensic psychiatric patients: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R; Prosser, Aaron; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2018-01-16

    Developmental typologies regarding age of onset of violence and offending have not routinely taken account of the role of serious mental illness (SMI), and whether age of onset of offending in relation to onset of illness impacts on the manifestation of offending over the life course. To test whether forensic psychiatric patients can be classified according to age of onset of SMI and offending, and, if so, whether subtypes differ by sex. Details of all 511 patients enrolled into a large forensic mental health service in Ontario, Canada, in 2011 or 2012 were collected from records. A latent profile analysis supported a 2-class solution in both men and women. External validation of the classes demonstrated that those with a younger age onset of serious mental illness and offending were characterised by higher levels of static risk factors and criminogenic need than those whose involvement in both mental health and criminal justice systems was delayed to later life. Our findings present a new perspective on life course trajectories of offenders with SMI. While analyses identified just two distinct age-of-onset groups, in both the illness preceded the offending. The fact that our sample was entirely drawn from those hospitalised may have introduced a selection bias for those whose illness precedes offending, but findings underscore the complexity and level of need among those with a younger age of onset. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Analytic calculation of finite-population reproductive numbers for direct- and vector-transmitted diseases with homogeneous mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Lindsay; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The basic reproductive number, R0, provides a foundation for evaluating how various factors affect the incidence of infectious diseases. Recently, it has been suggested that, particularly for vector-transmitted diseases, R0 should be modified to account for the effects of finite host population within a single disease transmission generation. Here, we use a transmission factor approach to calculate such "finite-population reproductive numbers," under the assumption of homogeneous mixing, for both vector-borne and directly transmitted diseases. In the case of vector-borne diseases, we estimate finite-population reproductive numbers for both host-to-host and vector-to-vector generations, assuming that the vector population is effectively infinite. We find simple, interpretable formulas for all three of these quantities. In the direct case, we find that finite-population reproductive numbers diverge from R0 before R0 reaches half of the population size. In the vector-transmitted case, we find that the host-to-host number diverges at even lower values of R0, while the vector-to-vector number diverges very little over realistic parameter ranges.

  13. Investigation into Korean EFL Learners’ Acquisition of English /s/ + Consonant Onset Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyoun Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the phonological acquisition of English /s/ + consonant onset clusters by Korean learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL who varied in their levels of proficiency. The data were collected from twenty eighth-graders in a Korean secondary school, who were divided into two groups according to their proficiency: low- and high-achievement. The major findings were: 1 the high-achievement group did not use a vowel epenthesis strategy in the articulation of the /s/ + consonant onset cluster, unlike the low-achievement group; 2 the duration of /s/ pronunciation was longer in the high-achievement group, as follows: /s/ + stop + liquid, /s/ + stop, /s/ + liquid; 3 the low-achievement group’s duration of oral closure was longer than was that of the high-achievement group, as follows: /s/ + stop + liquid, s/ + stop, and 4 with regard to how /s/ + consonant onset clusters are perceived by native English speakers, /s/ + stop + liquid was related more significantly to the learners’ level of proficiency than were the biliteral consonant onset clusters. Among biliteral onsets, /s/ + stop and /s/ + liquid clusters differed significantly between the groups, while the /s/ + nasal cluster did not. Keywords: English /s/ + consonant onset clusters, L1 transfer, the sonority sequencing principle, syllable structure, L2 phonological acquisition

  14. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2012-01-01

    Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity. Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies.

  15. Reproduction in female yaks (Bos grunniens) and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xiang-Dong

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews seasonal breeding, puberty, postpartum anestrus, embryonic loss and calf survival and their constraints in female yaks. Methods for improving fertility in postpartum yak cows are also considered. Yaks are seasonal breeders with mating and conception restricted in the warm season. Puberty generally occurs in the 2nd to the 4th warm season following birth, i.e. between 13 and 36 months of age. The cows usually have a long postpartum anestrus period; only a small proportion of the cows return to estrus in the 1st breeding season after calving, most come into estrus in the 2nd and 3rd years. Nutritional status is the most important determinant of reproduction in female yaks. Reproductive success is a direct result of the availability of pasture determined by climate, season, and management practices. Milking delays puberty by reducing milk intake (restricted suckling) and growth rate for the calf. Milking interferes with grazing and prolongs the duration of postpartum acyclicity in cows. Calves born early in the season have a longer suckling season than those born later in the season before the onset of winter. Thus, they can have their first cycle in the breeding season of the following year, while those born late in the season may not have their first estrus until 25 or 26 months of age. Cows calving early in the season are more likely to return to estrus in the year of calving because they have a longer period to recover from the demand on body reserves before the onset of winter. Inbreeding in smallholder yak farms is also discussed and minimizing inbreeding by exchanging bulls among different herds is suggested. Reproductive efficiency can be improved by nutritional supplementation during the winter, however, the most cost-effective and practical strategy for this needs to be determined. Early weaning or restricted suckling may shorten the duration of postpartum acyclicity, however, it is impractical due to reduced growth rates and increased

  16. Differences between asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and adult-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommola, Minna; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Haanpää, Jussi; Niemelä, Onni; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2017-05-01

    Differences between asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) and adult-onset asthma are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate these differences in a clinical cohort of patients with adult-onset asthma, as a part of the Seinäjoki Adult Asthma Study (SAAS).188 patients were diagnosed with adult-onset asthma and re-evaluated 12 years after diagnosis. They were divided into three groups based on smoking history and post bronchodilator spirometry values: 1) never- and ex-smokers with obstructive (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥0.7) patients with ≥10 pack-years; and 3) ACOS patients with ≥10 pack-years and FEV 1 /FVC obstructive patients with ≥10 pack-years smoking history, respectively. ACOS patients also showed reduced lung function, higher remaining bronchial reversibility and a higher number of comorbidities.This study shows distinct differences in diffusing capacity, blood neutrophil and IL-6 levels, bronchial reversibility, lung function and comorbidities between ACOS and adult-onset asthma. The present findings should be considered in the comprehensive assessment of adult asthma patients. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  17. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  18. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Annelise V; Kavazis, Andreas N; Sirman, Aubrey E; Potts, Wayne K; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage.

  19. Control of the onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadas, Sarantis; Chrousos, George P

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of puberty initiation remains an enigma, despite extensive research in the field. Pulsatile pituitary gonadotropin secretion under the guidance of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) constitutes a sine qua non for pubertal onset. In turn, the secretion of GnRH in the human hypothalamus is regulated by kisspeptin and its receptor as well as by permissive or opposing signals mediated by neurokinin B and dynorphin acting on their respective receptors. These three supra-GnRH regulators compose the Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B and Dynorhin neurons (KNDy) system, a key player in pubertal onset and progression. The recent discovery that makorin ring finger protein 3 is also involved in puberty initiation provided further insights into the regulation of the KNDy pathway. In fact, the inhibitory (γ-amino butyric acid, neuropeptide Y, and RFamide-related peptide-3) and stimulatory signals (glutamate) acting upstream of KNDy called into question the role of makorin ring finger protein 3 as the gatekeeper of puberty. Meanwhile, the findings that 'neuroestradiol' produced locally and endocrine disruptors from the environment may influence GnRH secretion is intriguing. Finally, epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in pubertal onset through recently discovered mechanisms. The exact molecular machinery underlying puberty initiation in humans is under intensive investigation. In this review, we summarize research evidence in the field, while emphasizing the areas of uncertainty and underlining the impact of current information on the evolving theory regarding this fascinating phenomenon.

  20. Delaying Onset of Dementia: Are Two Languages Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Freedman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging literature suggesting that speaking two or more languages may significantly delay the onset of dementia. Although the mechanisms are unknown, it has been suggested that these may involve cognitive reserve, a concept that has been associated with factors such as higher levels of education, occupational status, social networks, and physical exercise. In the case of bilingualism, cognitive reserve may involve reorganization and strengthening of neural networks that enhance executive control. We review evidence for protective effects of bilingualism from a multicultural perspective involving studies in Toronto and Montreal, Canada, and Hyderabad, India. Reports from Toronto and Hyderabad showed a significant effect of speaking two or more languages in delaying onset of Alzheimer’s disease by up to 5 years, whereas the Montreal study showed a significant protective effect of speaking at least four languages and a protective effect of speaking at least two languages in immigrants. Although there were differences in results across studies, a common theme was the significant effect of language use history as one of the factors in determining the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, the Hyderabad study extended the findings to frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia.

  1. Delaying onset of dementia: are two languages enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Morris; Alladi, Suvarna; Chertkow, Howard; Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Phillips, Natalie A; Duggirala, Vasanta; Raju, Surampudi Bapi; Bak, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging literature suggesting that speaking two or more languages may significantly delay the onset of dementia. Although the mechanisms are unknown, it has been suggested that these may involve cognitive reserve, a concept that has been associated with factors such as higher levels of education, occupational status, social networks, and physical exercise. In the case of bilingualism, cognitive reserve may involve reorganization and strengthening of neural networks that enhance executive control. We review evidence for protective effects of bilingualism from a multicultural perspective involving studies in Toronto and Montreal, Canada, and Hyderabad, India. Reports from Toronto and Hyderabad showed a significant effect of speaking two or more languages in delaying onset of Alzheimer's disease by up to 5 years, whereas the Montreal study showed a significant protective effect of speaking at least four languages and a protective effect of speaking at least two languages in immigrants. Although there were differences in results across studies, a common theme was the significant effect of language use history as one of the factors in determining the onset of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the Hyderabad study extended the findings to frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia.

  2. Fellowship training and board certification in reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Joseph C; Segars, James H; Cedars, Marcelle; Schlaff, William D

    2015-07-01

    Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is one of the original officially recognized subspecialties in obstetrics and gynecology and among the earlier subspecialties in medicine. Recognized by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1972, fellowship programs are now 3 years in length following an obstetrics and gynecology residency. Originally focused on endocrine problems related to reproductive function, the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have recently become the larger part of training during REI fellowships. It is likely that the subspecialty of REI strengthens the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology and enhances the educational experience of residents in the field. The value of training and certification in REI is most evident in the remarkable and consistent improvement in the success of ART procedures, particularly in vitro fertilization. The requirement for documented research activity during REI fellowships is likely to stimulate a more rapid adoption (translation) of newer research findings into clinical care after training. Although mandatory reporting of outcomes has been proposed as a reason for this improvement the rapid translation of reproductive research into clinical practice is likely to be a major cause. Looking forward, REI training should emphasize and strengthen education and research into the endocrine, environmental, and genetic aspects of female and male reproduction to improve the reproductive health and fertility of all women. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Post-Reproductive Lifespan on the Fixation Probability of Beneficial Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giaimo, Stefano; Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Post-reproductive lifespan is a common trait among mammals and is usually considered to be neutral; i.e. with no influence on population dynamics. Here, we explore the role of post-reproductive lifespan in the fixation probability of beneficial genetic variation. We compare two separate, stationary...... populations living in a constant environment that are equivalent except for the average time their respective members spend in the post-reproductive stage of life. Using a recently derived approximation, we show that fixation of a beneficial mutation is more likely in the population with greater post......-reproductive longevity. This finding is surprising, as the population with more prolonged post-reproductive lifespan has smaller effective size and the classic population-genetic model would suggest that decreasing effective size reduces fixation chances of beneficial mutations. Yet, as we explain, in the age...

  4. Observations on the Reproductive Biology of Gerbillus dasyurus (Wagner, 1842) (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; SÖZEN, Mustafa; YİĞİT, Nuri

    1999-01-01

    The reproductive data along with some ecological observations of Gerbillus dasyurus are reported based on field studies and investigations in captivity. The findings indicate that the favorable habitat of G. dasyurus is rocky areas with sparse vegetated soil and that the reproduction period extends from January to September. According to the reproductive data, the average weight at birth is 2.22 g., litter size ranges from 3 to 9, with an average of 5.66, a female gives three litters during a...

  5. CDKL5 and ARX mutations in males with early-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Marsh, Eric D; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Medne, Livija; Alkhateeb, Asem; Grix, Art; Wirrell, Elaine C; Powell, Berkley R; Nickels, Katherine C; Burton, Barbara; Paras, Andrea; Kim, Katherine; Chung, Wendy; Dobyns, William B; Das, Soma

    2013-05-01

    Mutations in CDKL5 and ARX are known causes of early-onset epilepsy and severe developmental delay in males and females. Although numerous males with ARX mutations associated with various phenotypes have been reported in the literature, the majority of CDKL5 mutations have been identified in females with a phenotype characterized by early-onset epilepsy, severe global developmental delay, absent speech, and stereotypic hand movements. To date, only 10 males with CDKL5 mutations have been reported. Our retrospective study reports on the clinical, neuroimaging, and molecular findings of 18 males with early-onset epilepsy caused by either CDKL5 or ARX mutations. These 18 patients include eight new males with CDKL5 mutations and 10 with ARX mutations identified through sequence analysis of 266 and 346 males, respectively, at our molecular diagnostic laboratory. Our large dataset therefore expands on the number of reported males with CDKL5 mutations and highlights that aberrations of CDKL5 and ARX combined are an important consideration in the genetic forms of early-onset epilepsy in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing risk of psychiatric morbidity after childhood onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, Daniel; Tolstrup, Janne S; Sildorf, Stine M

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate psychiatric morbidity following childhood onset of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a matched, population-based cohort study based on Danish national registers, we identified children and adolescents who had been diagnosed as an in- or outpati......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate psychiatric morbidity following childhood onset of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a matched, population-based cohort study based on Danish national registers, we identified children and adolescents who had been diagnosed as an in...... of psychiatric disorders as well as the effects of age at onset and duration of type 1 diabetes on the risk of subsequently developing psychiatric morbidities. RESULTS: An increased risk of being diagnosed with mood disorders and anxiety, dissociative, eating, stress-related and somatoform disorders was observed....... CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In the years following type 1 diabetes onset, an increased risk of eating disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, substance misuse, and personality disorders was found. These findings highlight a clinical need to monitor the mental health of children and adolescents in the years...

  7. MHD from a Microscopic Concept and Onset of Turbulence in Hartmann Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirkovsky, L.; Bo-ot, L. Ma.; Chiang, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    We derive higher order magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations from a microscopic picture using projection and perturbation formalism. In an application to Hartmann flow we find velocity profiles flattening towards the center at the onset of turbulence in hydrodynamic limit. Comparison with the system under the effect of a uniform magnetic field yields difference in the onset of turbulence consistent with observations, showing that the presence of magnetic field inhibits onset of instability or turbulence. The laminar-turbulent transition is demonstrated in a phase transition plot of the development in time of the relative average velocities vs. Reynolds number showing a sharp increase of the relative average velocity at the transition point as determined by the critical Reynolds number. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  8. Onset of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrell, Tobias G; Salmon, Phil; Melin, Lisa; Norén, Jörgen G

    2013-01-01

    The etiological factors and timing of the onset of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) are still not clear. The aim of this study was to examine ground radial and sagittal sections from teeth diagnosed with MIH using light microscopy, polarized light microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (XMCT) and to estimate the onset and timing of the MIH and to relate the hypomineralized enamel to the incremental lines. Thirteen extracted permanent first molars diagnosed MIH, were analyzed with light microscopy and XMCT. The hypomineralized areas were mainly located in the mesio-buccal cusps, starting at the enamel-dentin-junction and continuing towards the enamel surface. In a relative gray scale analysis the values decreased from the EDJ towards the enamel surface. The findings indicate that the ameloblasts in the hypomineralized enamel are capable of forming an enamel of normal thickness, but with a substantial reduction of their capacity for maturation of enamel. Chronologically, it is estimated that the timing of the disturbance is at a period during the first 6-7 months of age.

  9. Onset Symptoms, Tobacco Smoking, and Progressive-Onset Phenotype Are Associated With a Delayed Onset of Multiple Sclerosis, and Marijuana Use With an Earlier Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Tao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age at symptom onset (ASO is a prognostic factor that could affect the accrual of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Some factors are known to influence the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS, but their influence on the ASO is less well-investigated.Objective: Examine the associations between known or emerging MS risk factors and ASO.Methods: This was a multicenter study, incident cases (n = 279 with first clinical diagnosis of demyelinating event aged 18–59 years recruited at four Australian centres (latitudes 27°-43°S, from 1 November 2003 to 31 December 2006. Environmental/behavioral variables and initial symptoms were recorded at baseline interview. Linear regression was used to assess the association between risk factors and ASO.Results: Five factors were significantly associated with ASO: a history of tobacco smoking was associated with 3.05-years later ASO (p = 0.002; a history of marijuana use was associated with 6.03-years earlier ASO (p < 0.001; progressive-onset cases had 5.61-years later ASO (p = 0.001; an initial presentation of bowel & bladder and cerebral dysfunctional were associated with 3.39 (p = 0.017 and 4.37-years (p = 0.006 later ASO, respectively. Other factors, including sex, offspring number, latitude of study site, history of infectious mononucleosis, HLA-DR15 & HLA-A2 genotype, 25(OHD levels, and ultraviolet radiation exposure were not associated with ASO. Including all five significant variables into one model explained 12% of the total variance in ASO.Conclusion: We found a novel association between a history of tobacco smoking and later onset, whereas marijuana use was associated with earlier onset. Behavioral factors seem important drivers of MS onset timing although much of the variance remains unexplained.

  10. Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and age of onset in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vares, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Deng, Hong

    2010-01-01

    analysis. In an attempt to replicate the findings from the Scandinavian sample, the association between rs1801133 and age at onset was also analyzed in Chinese high-risk families, with two or more affected siblings (n = 243). Among the Scandinavian patients the functional MTHFR SNP rs1801133 (C677T...... 677T allele showed earlier age at onset than siblings being homozygous for the wild-type allele (P = 0.008). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play a role as a modifying factor for age of onset in schizophrenia....

  11. Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

  12. Age at migration, family instability, and timing of sexual onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel E; Tienda, Marta; Adserà, Alícia

    2017-03-01

    This study builds on and extends previous research on nativity variations in adolescent health and risk behavior by addressing three questions: (1) whether and how generational status and age at migration are associated with timing of sexual onset among U.S. adolescents; (2) whether and how family instability mediates associations between nativity and sexual debut; and (3) whether and how these associations vary by gender. We find that first- and second-generation immigrant youth initiate sexual activity later than native youth. Foreign-born youth who migrate after the start of adolescence exhibit the latest sexual onset; boys' sexual behavior is particularly sensitive to age at migration. Parental union stability is protective for first- and second-generation youth, especially boys; however, instability in co-residence with parents accelerates sexual debut for foreign-born girls, and dilutes protections from parental marital stability. Use of a non-English language at home delays sexual onset for immigrant girls, but not boys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Women's perceptions of reproductive health in three communities around Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddour, Afamia; Hafez, Raghda; Zurayk, Huda

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elicit definitions of the concept of reproductive health among women in three communities around Beirut, Lebanon, as part of the reproductive health component of a larger Urban Health Study. The communities were characterised by poverty, rural-urban mobility and heterogeneous refugee and migrant populations. A random sample of 1,869 women of reproductive age completed a questionnaire, of whom a sub-sample of 201 women were randomly selected. The women's understanding of good reproductive health included three major themes, which were expressed differently in the three communities. Their understanding included good physical and mental health, and underscored the need for activities promoting health. Their ability to reproduce and raise children, practise family planning and birth spacing, and go through pregnancy and motherhood safely were central to their reproductive duties and their social status. Finally, they saw reproductive health within the context of economic status, good marital relations and strength to cope with their lives. These findings point to the need to situate interventions in the life course of women, their health and that of their husbands and families; the importance of reproduction not only from a health services point of view, but also as regards women's roles and responsibilities within marriage and their families; and taking account of the harsh socio-economic conditions in their communities.

  14. Genome-wide association scan for variants associated with early-onset prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan M Lange

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related mortality for men in the United States. There is strong empirical and epidemiological evidence supporting a stronger role of genetics in early-onset prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association scan for early-onset prostate cancer. Novel aspects of this study include the focus on early-onset disease (defined as men with prostate cancer diagnosed before age 56 years and use of publically available control genotype data from previous genome-wide association studies. We found genome-wide significant (p<5×10(-8 evidence for variants at 8q24 and 11p15 and strong supportive evidence for a number of previously reported loci. We found little evidence for individual or systematic inflated association findings resulting from using public controls, demonstrating the utility of using public control data in large-scale genetic association studies of common variants. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of established common genetic variants for early-onset prostate cancer and the power of including early-onset prostate cancer cases in genetic association studies.

  15. Infanticide and within-clutch competition select for reproductive synchrony in a cooperative bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Reproduction among members of social animal groups is often highly synchronized, but neither the selective advantages nor the proximate causes of synchrony are fully understood. Here I investigate the evolution of hatching synchrony in the Greater Ani (Crotophaga major), a communally nesting bird in which several unrelated females contribute eggs to a large, shared clutch. Hatching synchrony is variable, ranging from complete synchrony to moderate asynchrony, and is determined by the onset of incubation of the communal clutch. Data from a 10-year field study indicate that individual reproductive success is highest in synchronous groups, and that nestlings that hatch in the middle of the hatching sequence are most likely to survive. Nestling mortality is high in asynchronous clutches because early-hatching nestlings are more likely to be killed by adult group members, whereas late-hatching nestlings are more likely to starve due competition with their older nest-mates. Therefore, the timing of hatching appears to be under stabilizing selection from infanticide and resource competition acting in concert. These results provide empirical support for models predicting that synchrony may evolve as an adaptive counter-strategy to infanticide, and they highlight the importance of competition in shaping the timing of reproduction in social groups. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Differences of neuroimaging between early-onset and late-onset alzheimer-type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Nakano, Seigo; Abe, Shin'e; Arai, Hisayuki; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    1995-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the symptomatology and the neuropathological and neurochemical changes of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EAD) differ from those of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LAD). The aim of the present study is to examine differences in SPECT and MRI findings between EAD and LAD. Cerebral blood flow and patterns on SPECT, and deep white matter lesions and cerebral atrophy on MRI in 17 patients with EAD were compared with 30 patients with LAD without cerebrovascular risk factors. Temporoparietal activity ratio, divided by cerebellum, on SPECT imaging in patients with EAD was significantly lower than in patients with LAD. In a qualitative assessment of perfusion patterns, bilateral temporoparietal hypoperfusion, which is typical in AD, was seen more frequently in patients with EAD than in those with LAD. Among white matter changes in MRI, the score of white matter hyperintensity was significantly higher in LAD than in EAD patients. However, there was no significant difference between periventricular hyperintensity scores. Though ventricular enlargement did not differ significantly in EAD and LAD, cortical atrophy scores in LAD were significantly higher than in EAD. Cortical atrophy scores were significantly higher in patients with atypical perfusion patterns on SPECT (e.g. global hypoperfusion in addition to temporoparietal change) than in patients with typical perfusion pattern. These results indicate that functional and morphological imagings in LAD differ with those in EAD, probably due to less-prominent neuropathological degeneration combined with age-related alterations. (author)

  17. Differences of neuroimaging between early-onset and late-onset alzheimer-type dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Nakano, Seigo; Abe, Shin` e; Arai, Hisayuki; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Several studies have shown that the symptomatology and the neuropathological and neurochemical changes of early-onset Alzheimer`s disease (EAD) differ from those of late-onset Alzheimer`s disease (LAD). The aim of the present study is to examine differences in SPECT and MRI findings between EAD and LAD. Cerebral blood flow and patterns on SPECT, and deep white matter lesions and cerebral atrophy on MRI in 17 patients with EAD were compared with 30 patients with LAD without cerebrovascular risk factors. Temporoparietal activity ratio, divided by cerebellum, on SPECT imaging in patients with EAD was significantly lower than in patients with LAD. In a qualitative assessment of perfusion patterns, bilateral temporoparietal hypoperfusion, which is typical in AD, was seen more frequently in patients with EAD than in those with LAD. Among white matter changes in MRI, the score of white matter hyperintensity was significantly higher in LAD than in EAD patients. However, there was no significant difference between periventricular hyperintensity scores. Though ventricular enlargement did not differ significantly in EAD and LAD, cortical atrophy scores in LAD were significantly higher than in EAD. Cortical atrophy scores were significantly higher in patients with atypical perfusion patterns on SPECT (e.g. global hypoperfusion in addition to temporoparietal change) than in patients with typical perfusion pattern. These results indicate that functional and morphological imagings in LAD differ with those in EAD, probably due to less-prominent neuropathological degeneration combined with age-related alterations. (author).

  18. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  19. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  20. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  1. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  2. [Reproductive disorders in women with celiac disease. Effect of the etiotropic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, S V; Sabel'nikova, E A; Parfenov, A I; Gudkova, R B; Krums, L M; Chikunova, B Z

    2011-01-01

    Violation of reproductive function in patients with celiac disease can manifest as delayed puberty, infertility, amenorrhea, premature menopause, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency and nature of reproductive function violation in patients with CD in the Russian Federation. The study included 132 women (average age 38,5 +/- 1,17 years) with CD observed in CSRIG in the period from 2000 to 2010. Comparison group consisted 105 women (average age 38,7 +/- 1,6 years) with predominantly functional bowel disorders (irritable bowel syndrome, functional constipation, functional bloating, inert colon). Were took into account information regarding obstetric history, physical and laboratory signs of malabsorption syndrome (MS) study of antibodies to alpha-gliadin immunoglobulin (IG) A class (AGA) and tissue transglutaminase (AtTG). The average age of onset of menses was 14,3 +/- 1,4 years, and in the control group - 13,0 +/- 1,3 years (p > 0.05), half of patients with C (43.9%) had menstruation begun at age 15 years and older, while 7.6% of the women--aged 17 and older. In the comparison group menses beginning after 15 years was only at 13.3% of women. In 61.3% of patients with CD was irregular menstrual cycle while in the comparison group such violations were noted in 13.3% (p 0.05). The frequency of reproductive disorders increased with the growth of the severity of MS. In 43% of women after 6-8 months of strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) had disappeared amenorrhea and there were regular menses. Three women of childbearing age, strictly abided the GFD and had a history of repeated spontaneous abortion during the year managed to get pregnant and give birth to healthy full-term baby. Reproductive disorders in women with celiac disease are significantly more likely than at women with functional bowel disease. One of the reasons of reproductive disorders in patients with CD can be malabsorption of necessary

  3. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  4. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-01-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  5. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-11-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  6. Health costs of reproduction are minimal despite high fertility, mortality and subsistence lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Costa, Megan; Ben Trumble; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret; Eid Rodriguez, Daniel; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2016-07-20

    Women exhibit greater morbidity than men despite higher life expectancy. An evolutionary life history framework predicts that energy invested in reproduction trades-off against investments in maintenance and survival. Direct costs of reproduction may therefore contribute to higher morbidity, especially for women given their greater direct energetic contributions to reproduction. We explore multiple indicators of somatic condition among Tsimane forager-horticulturalist women (Total Fertility Rate = 9.1; n =  592 aged 15-44 years, n = 277 aged 45+). We test whether cumulative live births and the pace of reproduction are associated with nutritional status and immune function using longitudinal data spanning 10 years. Higher parity and faster reproductive pace are associated with lower nutritional status (indicated by weight, body mass index, body fat) in a cross-section, but longitudinal analyses show improvements in women's nutritional status with age. Biomarkers of immune function and anemia vary little with parity or pace of reproduction. Our findings demonstrate that even under energy-limited and infectious conditions, women are buffered from the potential depleting effects of rapid reproduction and compound offspring dependency characteristic of human life histories.

  7. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  8. A conserved non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro G Kusakabe

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a neuroendocrine peptide that plays a central role in the vertebrate hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The roles of GnRH in the control of vertebrate reproductive functions have been established, while its non-reproductive function has been suggested but less well understood. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has in its non-reproductive larval stage a prominent GnRH system spanning the entire length of the nervous system. Tunicate GnRH receptors are phylogenetically closest to vertebrate GnRH receptors, yet functional analysis of the receptors revealed that these simple chordates have evolved a unique GnRH system with multiple ligands and receptor heterodimerization enabling complex regulation. One of the gnrh genes is conspicuously expressed in the motor ganglion and nerve cord, which are homologous structures to the hindbrain and spinal cord of vertebrates. Correspondingly, GnRH receptor genes were found to be expressed in the tail muscle and notochord of embryos, both of which are phylotypic axial structures along the nerve cord. Our findings suggest a novel non-reproductive role of GnRH in tunicates. Furthermore, we present evidence that GnRH-producing cells are present in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, thereby suggesting the deep evolutionary origin of a non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

  9. Multiple births associated with assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jocelynn L; Geran, Leslie; Rotermann, Michelle

    2011-06-01

    Assisted human reproduction has been associated with increased rates of multiple births. Data suggest that twins and higher order multiple pregnancies are at risk for pre- and postnatal health complications that contribute to stress on both the family and the Canadian health care system. No published Canadian data estimate the contribution of assisted human reproduction to multiple birth rates. This study was designed to determine the contributions of age and assisted human reproduction to multiple birth rates in Canada. We performed analyses of existing Canadian databases, using a mathematical model from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More specifically, data from the Canadian Vital Statistics: Births and Stillbirths database were combined with data from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technologies Register collected by the Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society. Datasets were standardized to age distributions of mothers in 1978. RESULTS suggest that in vitro fertilization, ovulation induction, and age each contribute more to the rates of triplets than to twins. As expected, the contribution of natural factors was higher to twins than to triplets. These are the first Canadian data analyzed to separate and measure the contributions of age and assisted reproductive technologies to multiple birth rates. Our findings are important for guiding physician and patient education and informing the development of treatment protocols that will result in lower-risk pregnancies and improved long-term health for women and their offspring.

  10. The Relationship Between Age of Gambling Onset and Adolescent Problematic Gambling Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the association between problem gambling severity and multiple health, functioning and gambling variables in adolescents aged 13–18 stratified by age of gambling onset. Survey data in 1624 Connecticut high school students stratified by age of gambling onset (≤11 years vs. ≥ 12 years) were analyzed in descriptive analyses and in logistic regression models. Earlier age of onset was associated with problem gambling severity as indexed by a higher frequency of at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG). Most health, functioning and gambling measures were similarly associated with problem gambling severity in the earlier- and later-age-of-gambling-onset groups with the exception of participation in non-strategic forms of gambling, which was more strongly associated with ARPG in the earlier-onset (OR=1.74, 95%CI=[1.26, 2.39]) as compared to later-onset (OR=0.94, 95%CI=[0.60, 1.48]) group (Interaction OR=1.91, 95%CI=[1.18, 3.26]). Post-hoc analysis revealed that earlier-onset ARPG was more strongly associated with multiple forms of non-strategic gambling including lottery (instant, traditional) and slot-machine gambling. The finding that problem gambling severity is more closely associated with multiple non-strategic forms of gambling amongst youth with earlier onset of gambling highlights the relevance of these types of youth gambling. The extent to which non-strategic forms of gambling may serve as a gateway to other forms of gambling or risk behaviors warrants additional study, and efforts targeting youth gambling should consider how best to address non-strategic gambling through education, prevention, treatment and policy efforts. PMID:22410208

  11. Mars is close to venus--female reproductive proteins are expressed in the fat body and reproductive tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello-Frattini, Nínive Aguiar; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and lipophorin (Lp) are lipoproteins which play important roles in female reproductive physiology of insects. Both are actively taken up by growing oocytes and especially Vg and its receptor are considered as female-specifically expressed. The finding that the fat body of in honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones synthesizes Vg and is present in hemolymph has long been viewed as a curiosity. The recent paradigm change concerning the role played by Vg in honey bee life history, especially social division of labor, has now led us to investigate whether a physiological constellation similar to that seen in female reproduction may also be represented in the male sex. By means of Western blot analysis we could show that both Vg and Lp are present in the reproductive tract of adult drones, including the accessory (mucus) glands, but apparently are not secreted. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcript levels of the genes encoding these proteins (vg and lp), as well as their putative receptors (Amvgr and Amlpr) in fat body and accessory glands. Whereas lp, vg and Amlpr transcript levels decreased with age in both tissues, Amvgr mRNA levels increased with age in fat body. To our knowledge this is the first report that vitellogenin and its receptor are co-expressed in the reproductive system of a male insect. We interpret these findings as a cross-sexual transfer of a social physiological trait, associated with the rewiring of the juvenile hormone/vitellogenin circuitry that occurred in the female sex of honey bees. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Dorado

    2016-07-01

    diversity-stability relationship, given that elevation had a positive effect on flower diversity but a negative effect on bee reproduction. Although high temporal stability in flower production is expected to enhance pollinator reproduction, in our study it had a weakly negative—instead of positive—effect on the average number of brood cells per nest. Other environmental factors that vary with elevation could influence bee reproduction. Our study focused on a small group of closely-related bee species, which cautions against generalization of our findings to other groups of pollinators. More studies are clearly needed to assess the extent to which pollinator demography is influenced by the diversity of floral resources.

  13. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Jimena; Vázquez, Diego P

    2016-01-01

    flower diversity but a negative effect on bee reproduction. Although high temporal stability in flower production is expected to enhance pollinator reproduction, in our study it had a weakly negative-instead of positive-effect on the average number of brood cells per nest. Other environmental factors that vary with elevation could influence bee reproduction. Our study focused on a small group of closely-related bee species, which cautions against generalization of our findings to other groups of pollinators. More studies are clearly needed to assess the extent to which pollinator demography is influenced by the diversity of floral resources.

  14. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method The sample included 38,993 adults in 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess a range of DSM-IV disorders that included an expanded definition of separation anxiety disorder allowing onsets in adulthood. Analyses focused on prevalence, age at onset, comorbidity, predictors of onset and persistence, and separation anxiety-related role impairment. Results Lifetime separation anxiety disorder prevalence averaged 4.8% across countries (interquartile range [25th–75th percentiles]=1.4%–6.4%), with 43.1% of lifetime onsets occurring after age 18. Significant time-lagged associations were found between earlier separation anxiety disorder and subsequent onset of internalizing and externalizing DSM-IV disorders and conversely between these disorders and subsequent onset of separation anxiety disorder. Other consistently significant predictors of lifetime separation anxiety disorder included female gender, retrospectively reported childhood adversities, and lifetime traumatic events. These predictors were largely comparable for separation anxiety disorder onsets in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and across country income groups. Twelve-month separation anxiety disorder prevalence was considerably lower than lifetime prevalence (1.0% of the total sample; interquartile range=0.2%–1.2%). Severe separation anxiety-related 12-month role impairment was significantly more common in the presence (42.4%) than absence (18.3%) of 12-month comorbidity. Conclusions Separation anxiety disorder is a common and highly comorbid disorder that can have onset across the lifespan. Childhood adversity and lifetime trauma are

  15. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  16. The role of adiponectin in reproduction: from polycystic ovary syndrome to assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos G; Segars, James H

    2010-11-01

    To summarize the effects of the adipokine adiponectin on the reproductive endocrine system, from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to the gonads and target tissues of the reproductive system. A Medline computer search was performed to identify relevant articles. Research institution. None. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that acts to reduce insulin resistance and atherogenic damage, but it also exerts actions in other tissues. Adiponectin mediates its actions in the periphery mainly via two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Adiponectin receptors are present in many reproductive tissues, including the central nervous system, ovaries, oviduct, endometrium, and testes. Adiponectin influences gonadotropin release, normal pregnancy, and assisted reproduction outcomes. Adiponectin, a beneficial adipokine, represents a major link between obesity and reproduction. Higher levels of adiponectin are associated with improved menstrual function and better outcomes in assisted reproductive cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yagound

    Full Text Available Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps, the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation

  18. The sexual and reproductive rights and benefit derived from sexual and reproductive health services of people with physical disabilities in South Africa: beliefs of non-disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Xanthe; Carew, Mark T; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Swartz, Leslie; Chiwaula, Mussa; Rohleder, Poul

    2017-05-01

    There is a body of theoretical work, and some empirical research, which suggests that non-disabled people assume people with physical disabilities are not suitable romantic partners, do not have sexual drives or desires, or are not sexually active. It has also been proposed that people with physical disabilities face barriers to sexual healthcare access which are structural as well as social. The present paper explores non-disabled South Africans' beliefs concerning the degree to which non-disabled respondents enjoy sexual and reproductive rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare, compared to people without disability. Using a survey, we asked 1989 South Africans to estimate the degree to which people with physical disabilities and people without disability have sexual rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare services, respectively. Respondents were more likely to support the idea that the population without disability were deserving of sexual rights compared to people with physical disabilities. Respondents were more likely to rate the degree to which people with physical disability benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare as less than that for people without physical disabilities. These findings provide some of the first empirical support that non-disabled people perceive people with physical disabilities as having fewer sexual and reproductive rights, and deriving less benefit from sexual and reproductive health services, than the population without disability. To have diminished sexual rights, and benefit less from sexual and reproductive healthcare, we suggest, evinces a negation of the sexual and reproductive needs and capacity of people with physical disabilities.

  19. Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure during in utero windows of susceptibility in relation to reproductive hormones and pubertal development in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Deborah J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Lee, Joyce M; Mercado-García, Adriana; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E; Meeker, John D

    2017-11-01

    Over the past several decades, the age of pubertal onset in girls has shifted downward worldwide. As early pubertal onset is associated with increased risky behavior and psychological issues during adolescence and cardiometabolic disease and cancer in adulthood, this is an important public health concern. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critical windows of in utero development may play a role in this trend. Our objective was to investigate trimester-specific phthalate and BPA exposure in relation to pubertal development among girls in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort. We measured maternal urinary phthalate metabolites and BPA in samples collected during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. To assess reproductive development among their female children, we measured serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and assessed sexual maturation, including Tanner staging for breast and pubic hair development and menarche status, at age 8-13 years (n = 120). We used linear and logistic regression to examine measures of trimester-specific in utero exposure as predictors of peripubertal hormone levels and pubertal onset, respectively. In secondary analyses, we evaluated estimated exposure at the midpoint of the first trimester and rates of change in exposure across pregnancy in relation to outcomes. Several phthalate metabolites measured throughout in utero development were associated with higher serum testosterone concentrations, while a number of metabolites measured in the third trimester were associated with higher DHEA-S. For example, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in mean monoethyl phthalate (MEP) levels across pregnancy was associated with 44% higher peripubertal testosterone (95% CI: 13-83%), while an IQR increase in di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) specifically in the third trimester

  20. Temporal relationship between onset of Graves' ophthalmopathy and onset of thyroidal Graves' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.; Smit, T.; van der Gaag, R.; Koornneef, L.

    1988-01-01

    The temporal relationship between the onset of Graves' ophthalmopathy and the onset of thyroidal Graves' disease was evaluated in 125 consecutive patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Thyroidal Graves' disease--past or present--was clinically evident in 99 patients (79%): hyperthyroidism in 3 cases.

  1. Symptom dimensions and subgroups in childhood-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Kirsten E S; Zhou, Xueping; Liu, Siyuan; Gochman, Peter; Dickinson, Dwight; Rapoport, Judith L

    2017-11-13

    This study investigated symptom dimensions and subgroups in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) cohort and their similarities to adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) literature. Scores from the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS & SANS) from 125 COS patients were assessed for fit with previously established symptom dimensions from AOS literature using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). K-means cluster analysis of each individual's scores on the best fitting set of dimensions was used to form patient clusters, which were then compared using demographic and clinical data. CFA showed the SAPS & SANS data was well suited to a 2-dimension solution, including positive and negative dimensions, out of five well established models. Cluster analysis identified three patient groups characterized by different dimension scores: (1) low scores on both dimensions, (2) high negative, low positive scores, and (3) high scores on both dimensions. These groups had different Full scale IQ, Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores, ages of onset, and prevalence of some co-morbid behavior disorders (all psymptom-based subgroups within the NIMH COS cohort using an established AOS symptom structure. These findings confirm the heterogeneity of COS and were generally consistent with AOS literature. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Late-onset Huntington's disease: diagnostic and prognostic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Kladi, Athina; Panas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    To address diagnostic and prognostic issues in patients with late-onset Huntington's disease (HD). We analyzed a cohort of 41 late-onset (≥60 years) HD patients and compared them to 39 late-onset patients referred for HD testing that were negative for the HD-expansion and to 290 usual-onset (20-59 years) HD patients. Disease severity was assessed by the Total Functional Capacity Scale. Late-onset HD comprised 11.5% of our HD cohort. In total, 70.7% of late-onset HD patients had positive family history compared to 15.4% of late-onset expansion-negative patients (p < 0.001). Clinical features at onset or presentation could not usefully distinguish between late-onset expansion-positive and negative patients, excepting hemichorea, which was absent from the HD group (p = 0.024). Chorea was the first clinical feature in 53.7% and a presenting feature in 90.2% of late-onset HD. The mutation hit rate for late-onset patients was 51.3%, lower than in usual-onset patients (p = 0.04). Frequencies of chorea, cognitive impairment and psychiatric manifestations at onset or presentation were not significantly different between late-onset and usual-onset HD patients. Gait unsteadiness however was more common at presentation in late-onset HD (p = 0.007). Late-onset HD patients reached a severe stage of illness on average 2.8 years earlier than usual-onset HD patients (p = 0.046). A positive family history suggestive of HD, although absent in a third of patients, remains a helpful clue in diagnosing late-onset HD. Prognosis of late-onset HD in terms of Total Functional Capacity appears no better and shows a trend of being somewhat less favorable compared to usual-onset HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reproductive effects on skeletal health in Shuar women of Amazonian Ecuador: a life history perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon, Tara J; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological research suggest that bone mineral density (BMD) in women is shaped by various reproductive factors such as parity and lactation patterns. However, the extent of these effects on BMD remains unclear because of contradictory findings and a focus on industrialized populations. Because fertility patterns in these groups are vastly different than those of women from non-Western, subsistence populations, our current understanding of the reproductive effects on skeletal health is incomplete. Using a life history perspective, this study examines the relationship between reproductive factors and bone density among women from the Indigenous Shuar population, an Amazonian Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist group. This preliminary, cross-sectional study included 130 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (14-86 years old) from the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador. Anthropometrics were recorded, as was estimated BMD using a calcaneal ultrasonometer. A reproductive history questionnaire was administered that included questions regarding menarche, parity, lactation patterns, and menopause. Among postmenopausal women, early menarche and greater stature were significantly associated with higher bone density values. Among premenopausal women, few significant relationships between bone values and reproductive variables were documented; effects of lactation appeared to be transient and restored following weaning. Although preliminary and not based on longitudinal data, these findings suggest that the effects of reproduction are transient as the system of calcium homeostasis in premenopausal women efficiently restores the bone loss that results from metabolically active reproductive states. Further, this research suggests that the timing of early life history events may canalize bone density phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Influence of dose, age at the onset of disease and ultrasonographic findings of the thyroid gland on the early outcome of the radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugrinska, A.; Pop Gjorceva, D.; Muratovska, L.; Crcareva, B.; Stojanovski, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim of the study: Estimation of the early effects of the treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine in correlation with the radioiodine dose, the age at the onset of disease and ultrasonographic (US) findings of the thyroid. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of the files of 80 patients that underwent a radioactive iodine treatment from the period of 1987 till 2006 because of a diffuse hyperthyroid goiter was performed. The patients were divided in two groups. Group C consisted of patients who were treated with calculated doses from 60-100μC/ml gland volume and group NC who received higher, non-calculated doses. According to age at the onset of disease patients were divided in two groups- group A younger than 40 years and group B older than 40 years. According to the US findings of the thyroid prior to radioiodine therapy patients were divided in two groups group N with predominantly normal US findings and group H with predominantly hypoechoic structure. Results: One year after the application of radioactive iodine 58% of the patients from the group C still remained hyperthyroid, 29% became euthyroid and only 13% developed early hypothyroidism. In the NC group only 7% remained hyperthyroid, 40% were euthyroid, while 54% of the patients developed early hypothyroidism. The occurrence of early hypothyroidism was significantly more frequent in NC than in C group (58% vs. 32%, p<0.05). The age was predictor for the probability of development of early hypothyroidism in C group: only 13% younger in group A, but 46% older patients from group B developed an early hypothyroidism. In the NC group the age was not a predictive factor. In 44 patients there were available records on the US findings prior to radioiodine therapy. In the N group patients that received calculated dose of radioiodine therapy remained euthyroid in 86%, while the patients that received non-calculated dose achieved euthyroidism only in 30%.In the H group there was no

  5. World Fertility Survey: Major Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Fertility Survey, London (England).

    A survey was conducted in 42 developing countries and in 20 developed countries to determine fertility practices and trends. Both individual and household questionnaires were used by interviewers to gather data. Findings concerning marriage patterns, contraception, reproductive motivation, childspacing, breastfeeding, maternal and child health,…

  6. Low participation rates amongst Asian women: implications for research in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaulikar, V S; Hussain, S; Perera, A; Manyonda, I T

    2014-03-01

    The last two decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the field of reproductive medicine, especially assisted reproductive technology and stem cell research. As research continues in future, it is vital to ensure that individuals from all ethnic backgrounds are represented in the study populations so that the findings of the research can be generalised for the benefit of all. Many studies, however, have noted a trend of low participation rates amongst Asian women in reproductive research. Inequalities in the ethnicity of research participants can be a source of substantial bias, and have major ethical and scientific ramifications. Several factors such as educational status, fear of wrong-doing, communication barriers, and socio-cultural beliefs have been suggested to play a role. There is a need for further exploration of the factors influencing Asian women's decision to accept or decline participation in reproductive research and for development of effective targeted strategies for research recruitment with the aim of encouraging research participation as well as donation of cryopreserved embryos or other reproductive tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake on Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Julia Andrea; Weitzman, Abigail

    2016-03-01

    This article explores the effects of the 2010 Haiti earthquake on women's reproductive health, using geocoded data from the 2005 and 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Surveys. We use geographic variation in the destructiveness of the earthquake to conduct a difference-in-difference analysis. Results indicate that heightened earthquake intensity reduced use of injectables-the most widely used modern contraceptive method in Haiti-and increased current pregnancy and current unwanted pregnancy. Analysis of impact pathways suggests that severe earthquake intensity significantly increased women's unmet need for family planning and reduced their access to condoms. The earthquake also affected other factors that influence reproductive health, including women's ability to negotiate condom use in their partnerships. Our findings highlight how disruptions to health care services following a natural disaster can have negative consequences for women's reproductive health. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  8. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P.; Manning, David A.; Liptzin, Deborah R.; Krausert, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  9. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Manning, David A. [Children' s Hospital of New Orleans, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Liptzin, Deborah R. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Aurora, CO (United States); Krausert, Amanda J. [New Orleans Forensic Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  10. Micro-educational reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the persistence of educational inequality in advanced industrialized societies with expanding and differentiated education systems. Using Denmark as a case, we investigate changes in immobility patterns for cohorts born 1960–1981 and develop a new micro-educational classificat...... forms of reproduction. In addition, the micro-educational approach far better explains the immobility of sons than it explains that of daughters, revealing important gender differences in the immobility patterns for sons and daughters......., in particular for sons. We also find great variation in immobility for specific micro-educations within the university level. Studies of educational immobility would therefore benefit from paying attention to micro-educational classifications, because they capture patterns of multidimensional, disaggregated...

  11. Reward enhances tic suppression in children within months of tic disorder onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna J. Greene

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tic disorders are childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by motor and/or vocal tics. Research has demonstrated that children with chronic tics (including Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: TS/CTD can suppress tics, particularly when an immediate, contingent reward is given for successful tic suppression. As a diagnosis of TS/CTD requires tics to be present for at least one year, children in these tic suppression studies had been living with tics for quite some time. Thus, it is unclear whether the ability to inhibit tics is learned over time or present at tic onset. Resolving that issue would inform theories of how tics develop and how behavior therapy for tics works. We investigated tic suppression in school-age children as close to the time of tic onset as possible, and no later than six months after onset. Children were asked to suppress their tics both in the presence and absence of a contingent reward. Results demonstrated that these children, like children with TS/CTD, have some capacity to suppress tics, and that immediate reward enhances that capacity. These findings demonstrate that the modulating effect of reward on inhibitory control of tics is present within months of tic onset, before tics have become chronic.

  12. REWARD ENHANCES TIC SUPPRESSION IN CHILDREN WITHIN MONTHS OF TIC DISORDER ONSET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Deanna J.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Bihun, Emily C.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Black, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Tic disorders are childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by motor and/or vocal tics. Research has demonstrated that children with chronic tics (including Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: TS/CTD) can suppress tics, particularly when an immediate, contingent reward is given for successful tic suppression. As a diagnosis of TS/CTD requires tics to be present for at least one year, children in these tic suppression studies had been living with tics for quite some time. Thus, it is unclear whether the ability to inhibit tics is learned over time or present at tic onset. Resolving that issue would inform theories of how tics develop and how behavior therapy for tics works. We investigated tic suppression in school-age children as close to the time of tic onset as possible, and no later than six months after onset. Children were asked to suppress their tics both in the presence and absence of a contingent reward. Results demonstrated that these children, like children with TS/CTD, have some capacity to suppress tics, and that immediate reward enhances that capacity. These findings demonstrate that the modulating effect of reward on inhibitory control of tics is present within months of tic onset, before tics have become chronic. PMID:25220075

  13. Sex-specific impact of prenatal stress on growth and reproductive parameters of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpper, Hanna; Klaus, Teresa; Palme, Rupert; Ruf, Thomas; Huber, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Body condition and reproductive maturation are parameters of reproductive success that are influenced by sexual hormones rising in the circulation during the time of puberty. Various endocrine systems can be programmed by conditions experienced during early life. Stress for instance is supposed to be capable of influencing fetal development, leading to adjustments of offspring's later physiology. We examined whether prenatal stress (induced by exposure to strobe light) during early- to mid-gestation was capable of affecting later reproductive parameters in guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). Therefore, we measured the levels of testosterone and progesterone from the age of day 12-124 in prenatally stressed (PS, n = 20) and unaffected control animals (n = 24). Furthermore, we determined the timing of puberty and growth. Body weight development revealed significantly faster growth in PS females compared to control animals. The onset of first estrus was slightly earlier in PS females, however not significantly so. Cycle lengths and levels of progesterone differed between groups over the course of time with higher progesterone levels and more constant cycles among PS females compared to control females who displayed marked differences between first and subsequent cycles. Levels of testosterone did not differ between groups. We conclude that prenatal stress accelerates growth and maturity in females, but not in males.

  14. Functional study of Cordyceps sinensis and cordycepin in male reproduction: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chia Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis has various biological and pharmacological functions, and it has been claimed as a tonic supplement for sexual and reproductive dysfunctions for a long time in oriental society. In this article, the in vitro and in vivo effects of C. sinensis and cordycepin on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis are briefly described, the stimulatory mechanisms are summarized, and the recent findings related to the alternative substances regulating male reproductive functions are also discussed.

  15. [Current issues of assisted reproduction in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventruba, P; Žáková, J; Trávník, P; Crha, I; Mrázek, M; Rumpík, D; Štěpán, J; Režábek, K; Mardešić, T; Malenovská, A; Veselá, K; Brandejská, M

    2013-08-01

    Participants of the lunch table discussion held during the 22nd symposium of assisted reproduction in Brno discussed some current topics of assisted reproduction. DISCUSSED TOPICS: More than 150 participants at round tables discussed 10 topics: 1. IVF in native AR cycle,2. observation of the embryo development dynamics, 3. evaluation and support of endometrial receptivity,4. increased number of elective single embryo transfers (eSET), 5. transport of gametes and embryos in the Czech Republic and between the Czech Republic and abroad, 6. National registry of assisted reproduction,7. new view on sperm pathology, 8. problems with the SAR membership records, 9. surogacy motherhood and 10. preimplantation genetic diagnosis and preimplantation genetic screening. All findings were presented in the afternoon session. Some of the topics brought concrete results. Some topics could not be clearly concluded and will be the subject of further discussions. A brief summary of those discussion conclusions presents this paper.

  16. [Early-onset and late-onset male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Shin, Takeshi; Kobori, Yoshitomo

    2016-07-01

    Hypogonadism is classified into two major clinical entities, namely early-onset hypogonadism and late-onset hypogonadism. The former is characterized by the malfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal(testicular)axis or by the primary hypofunction of testes(e.g. Klinefelter's syndrome). The latter is summarized as LOH syndrome which is attributed to the dropped level of bioavailable testosterone. In these diseases testosterone is the key molecule which may cause various symptoms relating not only to physical health but also to mental or psychologic health. In this review issues concerning bone health in these disease are described.

  17. Reproductive ambition predicts partnered, but not unpartnered, women's preferences for masculine men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Christopher D

    2012-08-01

    Changing circumstances alter the costs and benefits of choosing different mates and are thought to be reflected in women's mate preferences. Indeed, several lines of reasoning, and some prior studies, suggest that individual differences in women's preferences for cues of men's underlying health will be more apparent among partnered women than among unpartnered women. The current study shows that preferences for male faces with masculine shape cues, characteristics that are thought to signal men's underlying health, are positively correlated with partnered, but not unpartnered, women's reported reproductive ambition (i.e., their desire to become pregnant). These findings (1) present new evidence for systematic variation in women's mating strategies, (2) suggest that partnership status may be important for potentially adaptive variation in women's mate preferences, and (3) suggest that reproductive ambition may influence women's mate preferences. Alternative explanations for these findings, focusing on the possible effects of a range of variables that may be correlated with reproductive ambition in partnered women and influence their masculinity preferences, are also discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Predicting Heavy Alcohol Use in College Students: Interactions Among Socialization of Coping, Alcohol Use Onset, and Physiological Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Sarah; Abaied, Jamie; Wagner, Caitlin

    2016-05-01

    Early age at onset of alcohol use is a risk factor for later heavy alcohol use, but some individuals are buffered from this risk. To better understand this process, this study investigated the interactive contributions of parental coping suggestions, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR), and age at onset of alcohol use on heavy alcohol use in college students. College students (N = 146, 77% female) reported their age at onset of alcohol use, frequency of recent heavy alcohol use, and their parents' coping suggestions; SCLR was monitored as participants completed a laboratory challenge task. In addition, students' parents (N = 73, 77% mothers) reported on their coping suggestions. Results indicated that in the presence of physiological risk only (blunted SCLR, late age at onset of alcohol use), higher frequencies of engagement and disengagement parental coping suggestions were protective against heavy alcohol use in college students. However, if both risk factors were present (blunted SCLR, early age at onset of alcohol use), more engagement suggestions predicted more heavy alcohol use among college students. These findings extend previous findings on the impact of parenting on heavy alcohol use among college students and provide novel evidence for the moderating role of sympathetic stress reactivity.

  19. Soldiers' Preferences Regarding Sperm Preservation, Posthumous Reproduction, and Attributes of a Potential "Posthumous Mother".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2017-01-01

    We present study results regarding soldiers' willingness to conduct posthumous reproduction. Two hundred twelve Israeli soldiers filled in a questionnaire designed to examine their willingness to cryopreserve sperm and evaluate in which familial circumstances they would consent to posthumous reproduction. They ranked the desirability of 46 attributes of a potential mother and a life partner. Findings indicate a relatively high predisposition in favor of posthumous-assisted reproduction; the wishes of soldiers' parents had much more influence on soldiers' willingness to pursue this technology than those of a partner. Soldiers preferred "feminine" jobs for a potential mother that would allow her to dedicate herself to child-rearing. The desired traits of such a mother were rated similarly to partner preferences; however, significant differences were found in attributes that are most related to the potential mother's devotion to maternity. Interpretations of these findings are contextualized in relation to ethical and bereavement considerations.

  20. Quantifying the influence of CO2 seasonality on future aragonite undersaturation onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, T. P.; McNeil, B. I.; Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification is a predictable consequence of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), and is highly likely to impact the entire marine ecosystem - from plankton at the base of the food chain to fish at the top. Factors which are expected to be impacted include reproductive health, organism growth and species composition and distribution. Predicting when critical threshold values will be reached is crucial for projecting the future health of marine ecosystems and for marine resources planning and management. The impacts of ocean acidification will be first felt at the seasonal scale, however our understanding how seasonal variability will influence rates of future ocean acidification remains poorly constrained due to current model and data limitations. To address this issue, we first quantified the seasonal cycle of aragonite saturation state utilizing new data-based estimates of global ocean-surface dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity. This seasonality was then combined with earth system model projections under different emissions scenarios (representative concentration pathways; RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to provide new insights into future aragonite undersaturation onset. Under a high emissions scenario (RCP 8.5), our results suggest accounting for seasonality will bring forward the initial onset of month-long undersaturation by 17 ± 10 years compared to annual-mean estimates, with differences extending up to 35 ± 16 years in the North Pacific due to strong regional seasonality. This earlier onset will result in large-scale undersaturation once atmospheric CO2 reaches 496 ppm in the North Pacific and 511 ppm in the Southern Ocean, independent of emission scenario. This work suggests accounting for seasonality is critical to projecting the future impacts of ocean acidification on the marine environment.

  1. Assessment in rats of the reproductive toxicity of gasoline from a gasoline vapor recovery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Trimmer, G W; Whitman, F T; Nessel, C S; Mackerer, C R; Hagemann, R; Priston, R A; Riley, A J; Cruzan, G; Simpson, B J; Urbanus, J H

    2000-01-01

    Gasoline (CAS 86290-81-5) is one of the world's largest volume commercial products. Although numerous toxicology studies have been conducted, the potential for reproductive toxicity has not been directly assessed. Accordingly, a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats was conducted to provide base data for hazard assessment and risk characterization. The test material, vapor recovery unit gasoline (68514-15-8), is the volatile fraction of formulated gasoline and the material with which humans are most likely to come in contact. The study was of standard design. Exposures were by inhalation at target concentrations of 5000, 10 000, and 20 000 mg/m(3). The highest exposure concentration was approximately 50% of the lower explosive limit and several orders of magnitude above anticipated exposure during refueling. There were no treatment-related clinical or systemic effects in the parental animals, and no microscopic changes other than hyaline droplet nephropathy in the kidneys of the male rats. None of the reproductive parameters were affected, and there were no deleterious effects on offspring survival and growth. The potential for endocrine modulation was also assessed by analysis of sperm count and quality as well as time to onset of developmental landmarks. No toxicologically important differences were found. Therefore, the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity in this study was > or =20 000 mg/m(3). The only systemic effects, in the kidneys of the male rats, were consistent with an alpha-2 u-globulin-mediated process. This is a male rat-specific effect and not relevant to human health risk assessment.

  2. Psychosocial predictors of the onset of anxiety disorders in women: Results from a prospective 3-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Amanda W.; Otto, Michael W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Soares, Claudio N.; Vitonis, Alison F.; Hearon, Bridget A.; Harlow, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    In a prospective, longitudinal, population-based study of 643 women participating in the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles we examined whether psychosocial variables predicted a new or recurrent onset of an anxiety disorder. Presence of anxiety disorders was assessed every six months over three years via structured clinical interviews. Among individuals who had a new episode of anxiety, we confirmed previous findings that history of anxiety, increased anxiety sensitivity (the fear of anxiety related sensations), and increased neuroticism were significant predictors. We also found trend level support for assertiveness as a predictor of anxiety onset. However, of these variables, only history of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity provided unique prediction. We did not find evidence for negative life events as a predictor of onset of anxiety either alone or in interaction with other variables in a diathesis-stress model. These findings from a prospective longitudinal study are discussed in relation to the potential role of such predictors in primary or relapse prevention efforts. PMID:19699609

  3. Bilingualism as a strategy to delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova B

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Blanka Klimova,1,2 Martin Valis,2 Kamil Kuca3,4 1Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, 2Department of Neurology, 3Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore original studies which provide evidence about the effects of bilingualism on the delay of the onset of dementia, specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A literature review was conducted in the world’s acknowledged databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE. Altogether, 14 original studies focusing on the research topic were detected. These included six prospective cohort studies and eight retrospective studies. Both types of studies suggest different conclusions. The findings from the prospective cohort studies state that there is no association between bilingualism and the delay of the onset of AD, while the retrospective studies claim the opposite. Despite the negative results of the prospective cohort studies, more research should be conducted on bilingualism and its impact on the delay of the onset of AD, since the brain studies have brought positive findings as far as the enhancement of cognitive reserve is concerned. Keywords: older people, evidence, effectiveness, review, cognition

  4. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  5. Reproduction and adaptation characteristics in D’man sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lahlou-Kassi

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available D’man breed (D is found in the oasis of the subsaharian regions of Morocco and reared usually in sedentary type of management with small flocks (< 10 ewes. Preliminary field surveys showed that D is early maturing, prolific and aseasonal. Hence, a multidisciplinary research programme on D was started in 1974. This paper reports the findings of these studies and describes the approach used to (1 characterize and evaluate the performances of D in field and station, (2 study the physiological mechanism involved in its peculiar reproduction and production, (3 study the genetic basis of reproduction parameters, and (4 evaluate use of D in crossbreeding schemes to improve the productivity of other Moroccoan breeds. Results show that D is one of the rare breeds that is simultaneously early maturing, highly prolific and completely aseasonal. However, studies on water turnover and nitrogen recycling show that D is not well adapted to hot climate and poor nutrition. Its reproduction parameters are relatively independent of photoperiod and related to a low sensitivity to negative oestrogen feedback. D male is characterized by high libido and can be used for synchronizing oestruses through the »ram effect». Crossbreeding experiments with non-prolific sheep confirm the heritability of reproductive parameters. However, the genetic basis for these is not yet well known.

  6. Is an Early Age at Illness Onset in Schizophrenia Associated With Increased Genetic Susceptibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilker, Rikke; Helenius, Dorte; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    with schizophrenia spectrum) and a subsample of N = 448 (affected with schizophrenia). Survival analysis was applied to investigate the effect of age at illness onset. Findings We found that early age at illness onset compared to later onset in the first diagnosed twin can be considered a major risk factor......Background Early age at illness onset has been viewed as an important liability marker for schizophrenia, which may be associated with an increased genetic vulnerability. A twin approach can be valuable, because it allows for the investigation of specific illness markers in individuals...... with a shared genetic background. Methods We linked nationwide registers to identify a cohort of twin pairs born in Denmark from 1951 to 2000 (N = 31,524 pairs), where one or both twins had a diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum. We defined two groups consisting of; N = 788 twin pairs (affected...

  7. Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR): An Assessment of Success1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Mario; Mebane, Dorianne; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.

    2016-01-01

    The Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR) course has been held annually since 1998 at the Marine Biological Laboratories in Woods Hole, MA. The primary purpose of the course is to train young reproductive biologists in cutting-edge techniques that would strengthen their career opportunities. An initial evaluation of the FIR course was conducted by surveying the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2002. The findings of this survey were published in Biology of Reproduction in 2006, which highlighted the overall positive impact the course had on the training and upward career trajectory of the participants during the first 5 yr. The current study was designed to access the continued impact of FIR at the 10-yr mark by evaluating the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2008 using two different survey mechanisms. Based on these evaluations and feedback from the participants, it was evident that 1) FIR continues to have a significant positive impact on the careers of the participants, 2) the majority of the participants continue to be involved in research or administration related to the reproductive sciences, 3) nearly 90% of the attendees have been successful in obtaining funding for their research, and 4) most alumni have published at least five manuscripts in higher impact journals since they took the course. Therefore, it is evident that FIR participants are highly successful and continue to significantly impact the advances in the reproductive sciences worldwide. PMID:27335071

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E. [Dept. of Radiology, GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E.

    2007-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I

  10. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  11. Age at Onset of Puberty and Adolescent Depression: "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-06-01

    Timing of onset of puberty has fallen, with profound and detrimental consequences for health. We examined the associations of earlier onset of puberty with the presence of depression in early to middle adolescence. The study examined prospective adjusted associations of age at onset of puberty, based on clinically assessed Tanner stage for breast/genitalia and pubic hair development, and self-reported presence of depression, assessed from the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire on average at 13.6 years (n = 5795 [73%]). These factors were examined by using multivariable logistic regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort (ie, the "Children of 1997"). We also assessed whether associations varied according to gender. Association of age at onset of breast/genitalia development with the presence of depression varied according to gender. Earlier onset of breast development was associated with higher risk of the presence of depression (odds ratio, 0.83 per 1 year increase in age of onset [95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98]) adjusted for age, socioeconomic position, mother's place of birth, birth order, secondhand smoke exposure, parental age, survey mode, gender-specific birth weight z score, BMI z score at 7 years, and parental marital status. In boys, similarly adjusted, age at onset of genitalia development was unrelated to the presence of depression. Earlier age at onset of pubic hair development was unrelated to the presence of depression in girls and boys. Early onset of breast development was associated with high risk of the presence of depression. Whether these findings are indicators of the effects of hormones or transient effects of social pressures remain to be determined. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia

    2017-01-01

    Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within...... the female reproductive tract in 110 women of reproductive age, and examine the nature of colonisation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and cultivation. We find distinct microbial communities in cervical canal, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal fluid, differing from that of the vagina. The results...

  13. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki A; Kemp, Andrew H; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model. Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  14. ONSET OF SEXUAL ACTIVITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN HIV/AIDS-AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Monica A; Uchudi, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the effect of orphanhood and HIV status of adults in a household on onset of sexual activity among adolescent girls and boys aged 15-17 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from nineteen countries of sub-Saharan Africa where HIV test data were collected during 2003-2008 from nationally representative samples of men and women of reproductive age. The results highlight increased vulnerability among adolescent boys and girls living in households where an adult is infected with HIV, and adolescent boys who are paternal orphans. On average, adolescent boys and girls living in households where at least one adult is HIV-positive have about 25% higher odds of having initiated sexual activity compared with their counterparts of similar characteristics in households where no adult is HIV-positive. Furthermore, adolescent boys who are paternal orphans have about 25% higher odds of having initiated sexual activity than their non-orphan counterparts of similar individual characteristics. Further analysis reveals that household circumstances relating to living arrangements and poverty are important pathways through which household HIV/AIDS status is linked to adolescent sexual debut. The findings underscore the importance of international efforts in the sub-Saharan Africa region to address the plight of other children in HIV/AIDS-affected households, beyond orphans.

  15. Enlarged cavum septum pellucidum as a neurodevelopmental marker in adolescent-onset opiate dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeuk Hwang

    Full Text Available Adolescent-onset exposure to highly addictive substances such as opiates may induce far-reaching deleterious effects on later mental and physical health. However, little is known about the neurodevelopmental basis for adolescent-onset opiate dependence. Here we examined whether having an abnormally large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP, a putative marker of limbic structural maldevelopment, is associated with opiate dependence particularly beginning in adolescence.The overall length of the CSP and the prevalence of abnormal enlargement of the CSP were assessed and compared in 65 opiate-dependent subjects (41 adolescent-onset opiate users and 24 adult-onset opiate users and 67 healthy subjects.Opiate-dependent subjects showed a greater prevalence of abnormal CSP enlargement relative to healthy subjects (odds ratio [OR]=3.64, p=0.034. The overall CSP length of adolescent-onset opiate-dependent subjects was greater, as compared not only with healthy subjects (F₁,₁₀₄=11.03, p=0.001 but also with those who began opiate use during adulthood (F₁,₆₁=4.43, p=0.039.The current findings provide the first evidence that abnormal CSP enlargement, which reflects limbic system dysgenesis of neurodevelopmental origin, may be linked to later development of opiate dependence. In addition, a greater CSP length, which indicates more severe limbic abnormalities, appears to confer higher risk for earlier onset of opiate use.

  16. Reproductive Psychiatry Residency Training: A Survey of Psychiatric Residency Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lauren M; MacLean, Joanna V; Barzilay, Erin Murphy; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Miller, Laura; Yang, Sarah Nagle

    2018-04-01

    The reproductive life cycle has unique influences on the phenotypic expression of mental illness in women. Didactic and clinical training focused on these sex-specific influences should be a vital component of the education of future psychiatrists. The authors sought to determine the current state of and attitudes toward reproductive psychiatry in resident education. The authors administered a web-based survey to psychiatry residency training directors. They assessed the availability of both mandated and optional didactic and clinical training experiences in reproductive psychiatry. Fifty residency program directors answered the survey, for a response rate of 28%. More than half of residency program directors (59%) reported requiring some training in reproductive psychiatry. Both the breadth and depth of topics covered varied greatly among programs. Lack of time (48%) and lack of qualified faculty (26%) were the most frequently cited barriers to more training. Only 40% of residency directors surveyed agreed that all residents should be competent in reproductive psychiatry. These findings suggest that specific training in reproductive psychiatry is inconsistent in US residency programs, and that training that does exist varies considerably in clinical time and content. Given that women comprise more than 50% of all psychiatric patients and most women will menstruate, give birth, and undergo menopause, future psychiatrists would benefit from more systematic instruction in this area. The authors propose the development of a national, standardized reproductive psychiatry curriculum to address this gap and aid in producing psychiatrists competent to treat women at all stages of life.

  17. The problem of latent attentional capture: Easy visual search conceals capture by task-irrelevant abrupt onsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2016-08-01

    Researchers are sharply divided regarding whether irrelevant abrupt onsets capture spatial attention. Numerous studies report that they do and a roughly equal number report that they do not. This puzzle has inspired numerous attempts at reconciliation, none gaining general acceptance. The authors propose that abrupt onsets routinely capture attention, but the size of observed capture effects depends critically on how long attention dwells on distractor items which, in turn, depends critically on search difficulty. In a series of spatial cuing experiments, the authors show that irrelevant abrupt onsets produce robust capture effects when visual search is difficult, but not when search is easy. Critically, this effect occurs even when search difficulty varies randomly across trials, preventing any strategic adjustments of the attentional set that could modulate probability of capture by the onset cue. The authors argue that easy visual search provides an insensitive test for stimulus-driven capture by abrupt onsets: even though onsets truly capture attention, the effects of capture can be latent. This observation helps to explain previous failures to find capture by onsets, nearly all of which used an easy visual search. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Onset of density-driven instabilities in fractured aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Raad, Seyed Mostafa; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Linear stability analysis is conducted to study the onset of density-driven convection involved in solubility trapping of C O2 in fractured aquifers. The effect of physical properties of a fracture network on the stability of a diffusive boundary layer in a saturated fractured porous media is investigated using the dual porosity concept. Linear stability analysis results show that both fracture interporosity flow and fracture storativity play an important role in the stability behavior of the system. It is shown that a diffusive boundary layer under the gravity field in fractured porous media with lower fracture storativity and/or higher fracture interporosity flow coefficient is more stable. We present scaling relations for the onset of convective instability in fractured aquifers with single and variable matrix block size distribution. These findings improve our understanding of density-driven flow in fractured aquifers and are important in the estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage site characterization and screening.

  19. Adult onset Niemann-Pick type C disease: A clinical, neuroimaging and molecular genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Carla; Tarugi, Patrizla; Dotti, Maria Teresa; De Stefano, Nicola; Vattimo, Angelo; Chierichetti, Francesea; Calandra, Sebastiano; Federico, Antonio

    2003-11-01

    We report on a patient with adult-onset Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, carrying the mutations P1007 and I1061T in the NPC1 gene, presenting with marked psychiatric changes followed by dystonia and cognitive impairment. Filipin staining, single photon emission computed tomography perfusional, positron emission tomography metabolic, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings suggested a pathophysiological correlation with phenotype expression. This case expands the clinical and genetic spectrum of the rare adult-onset NPC disease phenotype.

  20. Comparison of major depressive disorder onset among foreign-born Asian Americans: Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Choi, Sunha; Matejkowski, Jason

    2013-11-30

    Using a nationally representative sample of 1280 Asian Americans, we examined the extent to which major depressive disorder (MDD) onset differs by ethnicity and its associated factors for each of the three ethnic groups: Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese. We employed the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the survival and hazard functions for MDD onset by ethnicity, and cox proportional hazards models to identify socio-demographic and immigration-related factors associated with MDD onset. Approximately 7% of the entire sample had experienced MDD onset in their lifetime. Filipino immigrants showed the highest survival function, followed by Vietnamese immigrants over time. Those who were never-married or divorced were more likely to experience MDD onset when compared to their married or cohabiting counterparts. Those who immigrated at a younger age were more likely to experience MDD onset than were those who immigrated at an older age. However, there were ethnic variations in terms of the risk factors that were associated with MDD onset across these three ethnic groups. Findings from this study signal the importance of understanding the differing experiences of MDD onset by ethnicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Force Reproduction Error Depends on Force Level, whereas the Position Reproduction Error Does Not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onneweer, B.; Mugge, W.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    When reproducing a previously perceived force or position humans make systematic errors. This study determined the effect of force level on force and position reproduction, when both target and reproduction force are self-generated with the same hand. Subjects performed force reproduction tasks at

  2. Interannual variability of growth and reproduction in Bursera simaruba: the role of allometry and resource variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Stegen, James C; Swenson, Nathan G; Enquist, Carolyn A F; Enquist, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    Plants are expected to differentially allocate resources to reproduction, growth, and survival in order to maximize overall fitness. Life history theory predicts that the allocation of resources to reproduction should occur at the expense of vegetative growth. Although it is known that both organism size and resource availability can influence life history traits, few studies have addressed how size dependencies of growth and reproduction and variation in resource supply jointly affect the coupling between growth and reproduction. In order to understand the relationship between growth and reproduction in the context of resource variability, we utilize a long-term observational data set consisting of 670 individual trees over a 10-year period within a local population of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. We (1) quantify the functional form and variability in the growth-reproduction relationship at the population and individual-tree level and (2) develop a theoretical framework to understand the allometric dependence of growth and reproduction. Our findings suggest that the differential responses of allometric growth and reproduction to resource availability, both between years and between microsites, underlie the apparent relationship between growth and reproduction. Finally, we offer an alternative approach for quantifying the relationship between growth and reproduction that accounts for variation in allometries.

  3. Association between age at onset of psychosis and age at onset of cannabis use in non-affective psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Buccollini, Juan A; Proal, Ashley C; Tomaselli, Veronica; Trachtenberg, Melissa; Coconcea, Cristinel; Chun, Jinsoo; Manschreck, Theo; Fleming, Jerry; Delisi, Lynn E

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have associated cannabis use with the development of schizophrenia. However, it has been difficult to disentangle the effects of cannabis from that of other illicit drugs, as previous studies have not evaluated pure cannabis users. To test whether the onset of cannabis use had an effect on the initiation of psychosis, we examined the time relationship between onset of use and onset of psychosis, restricting our analysis to a cohort of individuals who only used cannabis and no other street drugs. Fifty-seven subjects with non-affective psychoses who used cannabis prior to developing a psychosis were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). The Family Interview for Genetic Studies (FIGS) was also used to interview a family informant about psychiatric illness in the patient and the entire family. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to estimate the association between variables. After adjusting for potential confounding factors such as sex, age, lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence, and family history of schizophrenia, the age at onset of cannabis was significantly associated with age at onset of psychosis (β=0.4, 95% CI=0.1-0.7, p=0.004) and age at first hospitalization (β=0.4, 95% CI=0.1-0.8, p=0.008). The mean time between beginning to use cannabis and onset of psychosis was 7.0±4.3. Age at onset of alcohol use was not associated with age at onset of psychosis or age at first hospitalization. Age at onset of cannabis is directly associated with age at onset of psychosis and age at first hospitalization. These associations remain significant after adjusting for potential confounding factors and are consistent with the hypothesis that cannabis could cause or precipitate the onset of psychosis after a prolonged period of time. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (pmenopause, those with early menopause (agemenopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  5. Thyroid hormone actions on male reproductive system of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo-Neto, Aldo; da Silva Rodrigues, Maira; Habibi, Hamid R; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique

    2018-04-17

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in the regulation of many biological processes of vertebrates, such as growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and reproduction. An increasing number of studies have been focused on the involvement of THs in the male reproductive system of vertebrates, in particular of fish. Therefore, this mini-review aims to summarize the main findings on THs role in male reproductive system of fish, focusing on sex differentiation, testicular development and spermatogenesis. The existing data in the literature have demonstrated that THs exert their roles at the different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In general a positive correlation has been shown between THs and fish reproductive status; where THs are associated with testicular development, growth and maturation. Recently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of THs in spermatogenesis have been unraveled in zebrafish testis. THs promote germ cell proliferation and differentiation by increasing a stimulatory growth factor of spermatogenesis produced by Sertoli cells. In addition, THs enhanced the gonadotropin-induced androgen release in zebrafish testis. Next to their functions in the adult testis, THs are involved in the gonadal sex differentiation through modulating sex-related gene expression, and testicular development via regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation. In conclusion, this mini-review showed that THs modulate the male reproductive system during the different life stages of fish. The physiological and molecular mechanisms showed a link between the thyroid and reproduction, suggesting a possibly co-evolution and interdependence of these two systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Body height and weight of patients with childhood onset and adult onset thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, J; Kobe, N; Ito, M; Ohsawa, N

    1999-03-01

    The present study has compared body height and weight of thyrotoxic female patients of childhood onset and adult onset. The body height of 141 out of 143 (99%) adult-onset thyrotoxic patients was within the range of mean +/- 2SD for the age-matched general Japanese female population. On the other hand, in 42 patients with childhood-onset thyrotoxicosis, 6 (14%) had their height being greater than the mean + 2SD of general population, and 34 (81%) were taller than the mean value. In 86 patients with siblings, 42 (49%) were at least 2 cm taller than their sisters, and 26 (30%) were more than 2 cm shorter than their sisters. The body weight of 27 out of 42 (68%) patients younger than 20 years was not decreased but was even greater than the mean value for the age-matched general population. The results indicate that excessive thyroid hormone in vivo enhances body height in humans. The increased body weight in some young patients suggests that enhanced dietary intake due to increased appetite in hyperthyroidism has overcome the energy loss with increased metabolism.

  7. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon P; Hodgson, David J; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Zuidema, Pieter A; de Kroon, Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2016-01-05

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast-slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast-slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments.

  8. Circadian Variation Of Stroke Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath vasantha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in various physiological and biochemical functions and certain pathological events like myocardial infarction and stroke have been documented. We studied prospectively one hundred and seven patients of acute onset stroke confirmed by computed tomography for the exact time of onset, risk factors and type of stroke. Patients who were unclear of time of onset and with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis or sub-arachnoid hemorrhage were excluded. Infarction was detected in 71 patients and hemorrhage in 33 patients. Men out numbered women (1:6:1. Hypertension was more frequent in hemorrhage in the morning time (5 AM-12 noon and more infarction between 12-6 pm. However there was no relation between the time of onset of stroke and various risk-factors of stroke.

  9. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year [es

  10. IKs Gain- and Loss-of-Function In Early-Onset Lone Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Annette Buur; Refsgaard, Lena; Andersen, Martin Nybo

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. The potassium current IKs is essential for cardiac repolarization. Gain-of-function mutation in KCNQ1, the gene encoding the pore-forming α-subunit of the IKs channel (KV 7.1), was the first ion channel dysfunction...... to be associated with familial AF. We hypothesized that early-onset lone AF is associated with a high prevalence of mutations in KCNQ1. METHODS AND RESULTS: We bidirectionally sequenced the entire coding sequence of KCNQ1 in 209 unrelated patients with early-onset lone AF (...-of-function phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in the IKs channel leading to gain-of-function have previously been described in familial AF, yet this is the first time a loss-of-function mutation in KCNQ1 is associated with early-onset lone AF. These findings suggest that both gain-of function and loss...

  11. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoreg...

  12. Is sensitivity to daily stress predictive of onset or persistence of psychopathology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, T.; van Nierop, M.; Decoster, J.; Delespaul, P.; Derom, C.; de Hert, M.; Jacobs, N.; Menne-Lothmann, C.; Rutten, B.; Thiery, E.; van Os, J.; van Winkel, R.; Wichers, M.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    Purpose: The aim of the current study was to replicate findings in adults indicating that higher sensitivity to stressful events is predictive of both onset and persistence of psychopathological symptoms in a sample of adolescents and young adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that

  13. Cryptococcus neoformans sexual reproduction is controlled by a quorum sensing peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuyun; He, Guang-Jun; Hu, Pengjie; Chen, Lei; Tao, Changyu; Cui, Ying-Lu; Shen, Lan; Ke, Weixin; Xu, Haijiao; Zhao, Youbao; Xu, Qijiang; Bai, Fengyan; Wu, Bian; Yang, Ence; Lin, Xiaorong; Wang, Linqi

    2018-06-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing is a well-characterized communication system that governs a large variety of collective behaviours. By comparison, quorum sensing regulation in eukaryotic microbes remains poorly understood, especially its functional role in eukaryote-specific behaviours, such as sexual reproduction. Cryptococcus neoformans is a prevalent fungal pathogen that has two defined sexual cycles (bisexual and unisexual) and is a model organism for studying sexual reproduction in fungi. Here, we show that the quorum sensing peptide Qsp1 serves as an important signalling molecule for both forms of sexual reproduction. Qsp1 orchestrates various differentiation and molecular processes, including meiosis, the hallmark of sexual reproduction. It activates bisexual mating, at least in part through the control of pheromone, a signal necessary for bisexual activation. Notably, Qsp1 also plays a major role in the intercellular regulation of unisexual initiation and coordination, in which pheromone is not strictly required. Through a multi-layered genetic screening approach, we identified the atypical zinc finger regulator Cqs2 as an important component of the Qsp1 signalling cascade during both bisexual and unisexual reproduction. The absence of Cqs2 eliminates the Qsp1-stimulated mating response. Together, these findings extend the range of behaviours governed by quorum sensing to sexual development and meiosis.

  14. Family Caregivers' Experiences of Caring for a Relative With Younger Onset Dementia: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabote, Christy Joy; Bramble, Marguerite; McCann, Damhnat

    2015-08-01

    Family caregiving for people with younger onset dementia affects everyone in the family unit. This article presents findings of a qualitative systematic review exploring the experiences of family caregivers of persons with younger onset dementia. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of five relevant articles, and two groups within the family unit were identified-child caregivers and adult and spousal caregivers. Using the thematic synthesis approach, five themes emerged: dementia damage, grief for loss of relationship, changes in family roles, positive and negative impacts of family caregiving, and transition to formal care. The review findings support increasing evidence that despite the stress of caring for a person with dementia damage, family members have the capacity to cope, adapt, and grow through their experiences. Nurses can assist families to identify their unique strengths and enhance family resiliency so they can navigate the "lonely road" of younger onset dementia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Reward enhances tic suppression in children within months of tic disorder onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Deanna J; Koller, Jonathan M; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Bihun, Emily C; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Black, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Tic disorders are childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by motor and/or vocal tics. Research has demonstrated that children with chronic tics (including Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: TS/CTD) can suppress tics, particularly when an immediate, contingent reward is given for successful tic suppression. As a diagnosis of TS/CTD requires tics to be present for at least one year, children in these tic suppression studies had been living with tics for quite some time. Thus, it is unclear whether the ability to inhibit tics is learned over time or present at tic onset. Resolving that issue would inform theories of how tics develop and how behavior therapy for tics works. We investigated tic suppression in school-age children as close to the time of tic onset as possible, and no later than six months after onset. Children were asked to suppress their tics both in the presence and absence of a contingent reward. Results demonstrated that these children, like children with TS/CTD, have some capacity to suppress tics, and that immediate reward enhances that capacity. These findings demonstrate that the modulating effect of reward on inhibitory control of tics is present within months of tic onset, before tics have become chronic. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Progeny reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on clarification of importance of different harmful factors of radiation and chemical nature on the function of progeny reproduction, growth and development are presented. Intake of radionuclides to organism, of white mices and rats in concentrations corresponding to 10 6 PCsub(s) ( 90 Sr, 210 Po, 210 Pb and other) is shown to result in 100% sterility of females, 10 5 -10 4 PCsub(s) concentrations cause damaging effect of different degrees of expression at later stages of effect. Smaller contents of radionuclides (10 3 -10 2 PCsub(s)) did not result in noticeable changes in reproductivity of animals. Similar regularities were observed under effect of different concentrations of chemical agent. Some peculiarities of animal physiology should be taken into account to obtain data of estimation of damaging effect of harmful factors on reproduction function

  17. Understanding Tobacco Use Onset Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2016-04-01

    Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results

  18. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  19. Adult lifetime reproductive value in fish depends on size and fecundity type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Olsson, Karin H.; Visser, André W.

    2016-01-01

    In a stable population, the adult lifetime reproductive value must be balanced against early life survival. Although delaying maturity may increase fecundity, it also reduces survival. Larger size at maturity therefore not only allows for higher fecundity, but requires it. Using simple arguments......, the expected proportionality falls off if mortality increases to include fishing. Furthermore, we find that the fecundity type (determinate or indeterminate) affects the predicted adult reproductive value, which is significantly (10-fold) higher for an indeterminate spawner than for a determinate spawner...

  20. Precuneus atrophy in early-onset Alzheimer's disease: a morphometric structural MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, Giorgos; Scheltens, Philip; Jones, Bethany; Rombouts, Serge; Schijndel, Ronald van; Klein, Martin; Flier, Wiesje van der; Vrenken, Hugo; Barkhof, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) usually first presents in elderly patients, but may also develop at an earlier age. Patients with an early age at onset tend to present with complaints other than memory impairment, such as visuospatial problems or apraxia, which may reflect a different distribution of cortical involvement. In this study we set out to investigate whether age at onset in patients with AD determines the pattern of atrophy on cerebral MRI scans. We examined 55 patients with AD over a wide age range and analyzed their 3-D T1-weighted structural MRI scans in standard space using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Regression analysis was performed to estimate loss of grey matter as a function of age, corrected for mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and sex. The VBM analyses identified multiple areas (including the temporal and parietal lobes), showing more atrophy with advancing age. By contrast, a younger age at onset was found to be associated with lower grey matter density in the precuneus. Regionalized volumetric analysis of this region confirmed the existence of disproportionate atrophy in the precuneus in patients with early-onset AD. Application of a multivariate model with precuneus grey matter density as input, showed that precuneal and hippocampal atrophy are independent from each other. Additionally, we found that a smaller precuneus is associated with impaired visuospatial functioning. Our findings support the notion that age at onset modulates the distribution of cortical involvement, and that disproportionate precuneus atrophy is more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. (orig.)

  1. Use of radioimmunoassay to measure progesterone levels during different reproductive stages in female Damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-masri, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone concentrations were measured in female Damascus goats using radioimmunoassay (RIA) during prepubertal, puberty, pregnancy and parturition stages, to monitor the reproductive performance. Age at puberty ranged between 266 - 653 days with an average of 475 days, while average weight at puberty was 35.6 kg. Progesterone level rose from around zero ng/ml at prepubertal stage to 2.14 ng/ml at the onset of puberty ranging from 1.12 to 5.38 ng/ml. Average maximum progesterone concentration during pregnancy was 13.84 ng/ml, occurring on day 115 post-mating, and dropped sharply to 0.29 ng/ml soon after kidding. Average overall duration of pregnancy was 149 days. The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis on day 21 post-mating using RIA was 100%. The results also indicate that the breeding season of the experimental Damascus goats started in September. It could be concluded that the assessment of progesterone levels in serum is considered to be a vital tool in monitoring the reproductive performance in the indigenous Damascus goat breed. (author)

  2. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  3. Franchising reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-12-01

    Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and reproductive hormones in North American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice; Webster, Thomas F

    2016-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals that are persistent organic pollutants. Animal experiments and some human studies indicate that PBDEs may adversely affect male reproductive function. To assess the association between PBDE exposure and reproductive hormones (RHs) in a North American male adult cohort. From 2010-11, we collected three serum samples from 27 healthy adult men. We assessed associations between PBDEs and RHs using mixed effect regression models. PBDEs were inversely associated with inhibin-B. In older men, increased concentrations of BDE-47 and BDE-100 were significantly associated with a decrease in inhibin-B, and an increase in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). These findings suggest PBDE exposure may affect RHs in older men. We did not measure other parameters of male reproductive function and therefore these results are preliminary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Educational homogamy lowers the odds of reproductive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Assortative mating based on education is a common phenomenon. We investigated whether it affected parameters of reproductive performance such as childlessness, offspring number and age at first marriage. On the basis of the US census from 1980 (n = 670,631 married US couples), we find that the proportion of childless individuals is usually minimal in women married to a husband of the same educational level. This holds particularly true in the highest and the lowest educated women. Educational homogamy is also associated with a lower average age at first marriage. No obvious effect of educational homogamy on a woman's average offspring number is found, where mean offspring number generally increases both with decreasing woman's and decreasing husband's educational attainment. We conclude that educational homogamy reduces the likelihood of reproductive failure.

  6. The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Dominic L; Blount, Jonathan D; Young, Andrew J

    2015-11-22

    Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating senescence. However, experimental evidence of oxidative costs of reproduction in the wild remains scarce. Here, we use a clutch-removal experiment to investigate the oxidative costs of reproduction in a wild cooperatively breeding bird, the white-browed sparrow weaver, Plocepasser mahali. Our results reveal costs of reproduction that are dependent on group size: relative to individuals in groups whose eggs were experimentally removed, individuals in groups that raised offspring experienced an associated cost (elevated oxidative damage and reduced body mass), but only if they were in small groups containing fewer or no helpers. Furthermore, during nestling provisioning, individuals that provisioned at higher rates showed greater within-individual declines in body mass and antioxidant protection. Our results provide rare experimental evidence that reproduction can negatively impact both oxidative status and body mass in the wild, and suggest that these costs can be mitigated in cooperative societies by the presence of additional helpers. These findings have implications for our understanding of the energetic and oxidative costs of reproduction, and the benefits of cooperation in animal societies. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS GLUTAMATE SUPPLY ON THE ONSET OF PUBERTY IN GOATS. II. SERUM LEVELS OF TRIIODOTHYRONINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Lopez-Medrano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones and their receptors in the ovaries are active regulators of reproductive function; both hyper- and hypo-thyroidism may result in estrous cycle disturbances. In addition, thyroid hormones elicit an extraordinary multiplicity of biochemical, cellular, and physiological responses, both in the simplest and the most complex organisms. On the other hand, glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid of the central nervous system has a marked stimulatory effect on the reproductive axis in mammals. In fact, occurrence of precocious puberty in response to administration of glutamate agonists has been reported in several species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of administration of glutamate on the onset of puberty in goats, and the association with serum triiodothyronine levels (T3, as a possible metabolic signal for the onset of ovarian activity in juvenile goats. The study was carried out in northern Mexico (26Ëš N from June to October. Goats (n=18 were offered alfalfa hay (14% PC; 1.14 Mkal Kg-1 ENm, corn silage (8.1% PC, 1.62 ENm Mcal kg-1, and ground corn grain (11.2% PC, 2.38 ENm Mcal kg-1 under natural photoperiod. Location, animals, treatment design, preparation of the glutamate buffer solution, blood sampling scheme and quantification of serum P4 were described in the first part of this study. Serum samples were also evaluated for their content of T3 by RIA. Final averages for live weight (LW and body condition score (BCS did not differ (P>0.05 between the Glutamate-supplemented and control groups (23.7±0.72 vs. 22.7±0.72 kg and (3.69±0.10 vs. 3.38±0.10 units, respectively. The overall average for T3 during the study was 1.47 ng mL-1, with higher levels (P

  8. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  9. The 3rd international conference on reproductive immunology in Shanghai: September 27-29, 2013. Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, MeiRong; Piao, HaiLan; Li, DaJin

    2014-03-01

    After the first and second international conferences on reproductive immunology held by Dr. DaJin Li in Shanghai, the related investigators all over the world hope to get together to share their latest findings with each other. Drs. DaJin Li and MeiRong Du sponsored and organized the third international conference on reproductive immunology at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital affiliated with Fudan University, Shanghai, China, in the autumn of 2013. This congress brought together more than 100 International and National investigators representing a wide range of scientific disciplines. All the investigators actively work on reproductive immunology using human or large and small animal models. A range of reproductive immunological topics including the maternal-fetal immune regulation, reproductive tract mucosal immunology, immunocontraception, and pregnancy complications were highlighted and discussed in this conference. This conference supplied a good platform for the international reproductive immunologists to exchange their latest study progression and discuss the development direction of reproductive immunology in the near future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Screening and Treatment for Early-Onset Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, Jincy; Simmons, David

    2017-10-02

    We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the current evidence for screening and treatment for early-onset gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the women with early GDM in the first trimester do not have evidence of hyperglycemia at 24-28 weeks' gestation. A high proportion (15-70%) of women with GDM can be detected early in pregnancy depending on the setting, criteria used and screening strategy. However, there remains no good evidence for any of the diagnostic criteria for early-onset GDM. In a meta-analysis of 13 cohort studies, perinatal mortality (relative risk (RR) 3.58 [1.91, 6.71]), neonatal hypoglycemia (RR 1.61 [1.02, 2.55]), and insulin use (RR 1.71 [1.45, 2.03]) were greater among early-onset GDM women compared to late-onset GDM women, despite treatment. Considering the high likelihood of benefit from treatment, there is an urgent need for randomized controlled trials that investigate any benefits and possible harms of treatment of early-onset GDM.

  11. A case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) with characteristic CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Shigehiro; Nakayama, Toshio; Yamanaga, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Ryoji; Ideta, Tooru.

    1984-01-01

    CT scans of a 59-year-old woman, with serologically comfirmed herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were studied sequentially from 9 days after onset. The initial findings in CT scan were low density areas in insular cortex, claustrum and hippocampus. The low density areas, then, spread to the temporal lobe, rectal and cingulate gyri and occipital lobe, according to clinical progression of the disease. However, these low density areas disappeared and changed into isodensity areas in 25-35 days after oneset, which then returned to low density areas again in 51 days after onset. Thes characteristic phenomenon resembled a ''fogging effect,'' which is frequently seen during the second or third week after onset of ischemic cerebral infarction. HSE is characterized pathologically by acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis. Though cerebral angiography was not performed in this case, these characteristic CT findings suggested that HSE may have been associated with vascular involvement. (author)

  12. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  13. Substorm onset location and dipole tilt angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wanliss

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From an initial data set of over 200 substorms we have studied a subset of 30 magnetospheric substorms close to magnetic midnight to investigate, in a statistical fashion, the source region of the auroral arc that brightens at the onset of expansive phase. This arc is usually identified as the ionospheric signature of the expansive phase onset that occurs in the magnetotail. All the substorm onsets were identified via ground-based magnetometer and photometer data from the CANOPUS array. Various Tsyganenko global magnetic field models were used to map magnetic field lines from the location of the onset arc out to its greatest radial distance in the magnetotail. The results appear to favour the current disruption model of substorms since the average onset location has an average of 14.1 Earth radii (RE and is therefore more consistent with theories that place the onset location in the inner magnetotail. For the narrow range of tilts available our modeling indicates the parameter that appears to strongly influence the location of the substorm onset is the dipole tilt angle; as tilt becomes less negative onsets occur further downtail.

  14. Adult onset tic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, S.; Ford, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders.
OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare cl...

  15. Decomposing variation in male reproductive success: age-specific variances and covariances through extra-pair and within-pair reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebigre, Christophe; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2013-07-01

    Age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success shape the total variance in lifetime reproductive success (LRS), age-specific opportunities for selection, and population demographic variance and effective size. Age-specific (co)variances in reproductive success achieved through different reproductive routes must therefore be quantified to predict population, phenotypic and evolutionary dynamics in age-structured populations. While numerous studies have quantified age-specific variation in mean reproductive success, age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success, and the contributions of different reproductive routes to these (co)variances, have not been comprehensively quantified in natural populations. We applied 'additive' and 'independent' methods of variance decomposition to complete data describing apparent (social) and realised (genetic) age-specific reproductive success across 11 cohorts of socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We thereby quantified age-specific (co)variances in male within-pair and extra-pair reproductive success (WPRS and EPRS) and the contributions of these (co)variances to the total variances in age-specific reproductive success and LRS. 'Additive' decomposition showed that within-age and among-age (co)variances in WPRS across males aged 2-4 years contributed most to the total variance in LRS. Age-specific (co)variances in EPRS contributed relatively little. However, extra-pair reproduction altered age-specific variances in reproductive success relative to the social mating system, and hence altered the relative contributions of age-specific reproductive success to the total variance in LRS. 'Independent' decomposition showed that the (co)variances in age-specific WPRS, EPRS and total reproductive success, and the resulting opportunities for selection, varied substantially across males that survived to each age. Furthermore, extra-pair reproduction increased

  16. Strong evidence for changing fish reproductive phenology under climate warming on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Juan; He, Dekui; Kennard, Mark J; Ding, Chengzhi; Bunn, Stuart E; Liu, Chunlong; Jia, Yintao; Che, Rongxiao; Chen, Yifeng

    2018-05-01

    Phenological responses to climate change have been widely observed and have profound and lasting effects on ecosystems and biodiversity. However, compared to terrestrial ecosystems, the long-term effects of climate change on species' phenology are poorly understood in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the long-term changes in fish reproductive phenology is essential for predicting population dynamics and for informing management strategies, but is currently hampered by the requirement for intensive field observations and larval identification. In this study, a very low-frequency sampling of juveniles and adults combined with otolith measurements (long axis length of the first annulus; LAFA) of an endemic Tibetan Plateau fish (Gymnocypris selincuoensis) was used to examine changes in reproductive phenology associated with climate changes from the 1970s to 2000s. Assigning individual fish to their appropriate calendar year class was assisted by dendrochronological methods (crossdating). The results demonstrated that LAFA was significantly and positively associated with temperature and growing season length. To separate the effects of temperature and the growing season length on LAFA growth, measurements of larval otoliths from different sites were conducted and revealed that daily increment additions were the main contributor (46.3%), while temperature contributed less (12.0%). Using constructed water-air temperature relationships and historical air temperature records, we found that the reproductive phenology of G. selincuoensis was strongly advanced in the spring during the 1970s and 1990s, while the increased growing season length in the 2000s was mainly due to a delayed onset of winter. The reproductive phenology of G. selincuoensis advanced 2.9 days per decade on average from the 1970s to 2000s, and may have effects on recruitment success and population dynamics of this species and other biota in the ecosystem via the food web. The methods used in this study

  17. Reproductive success and failure: the role of winter body mass in reproductive allocation in Norwegian moose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jos M; van Beest, Floris M; Solberg, Erling J; Storaas, Torstein

    2013-08-01

    A life history strategy that favours somatic growth over reproduction is well known for long-lived iteroparous species, especially in unpredictable environments. Risk-sensitive female reproductive allocation can be achieved by a reduced reproductive effort at conception, or the subsequent adjustment of investment during gestation or lactation in response to unexpected environmental conditions or resource availability. We investigated the relative importance of reduced investment at conception compared with later in the reproductive cycle (i.e. prenatal, perinatal or neonatal mortality) in explaining reproductive failure in two high-density moose (Alces alces) populations in southern Norway. We followed 65 multiparous, global positioning system (GPS)-collared females throughout the reproductive cycle and focused on the role of maternal nutrition during gestation in determining reproductive success using a quasi-experimental approach to manipulate winter forage availability. Pregnancy rates in early winter were normal (≥0.8) in all years while spring calving rates ranged from 0.4 to 0.83, with prenatal mortality accounting for most of the difference. Further losses over summer reduced autumn recruitment rates to 0.23-0.69, despite negligible predation. Over-winter mass loss explained variation in both spring calving and autumn recruitment success better than absolute body mass in early or late winter. Although pregnancy was related to body mass in early winter, overall reproductive success was unrelated to pre-winter body condition. We therefore concluded that reproductive success was limited by winter nutritional conditions. However, we could not determine whether the observed reproductive allocation adjustment was a bet-hedging strategy to maximise reproduction without compromising survival or whether females were simply unable to invest more resources in their offspring.

  18. Community-based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the reproductive age group in the urban health training centre area in Hubli, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha S Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs is a global health problem including both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and non-sexually transmitted infections (non-STIs of the reproductive tract. RTI/STI is an important concern, as it possess risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Hence a community study was done in Hubli, in terms of active search of the cases based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and feasible laboratory tests along with providing treatment, counseling, and follow-up. Objectives: The objective was to know the prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women and the socio-demographic factors influencing the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a simple random sampling technique to select households. A pretested structured pro forma was used to collect data on RTIs from 656 women of 15-45 years, residing in the field practice area. This was followed by clinical examination and collection of samples for laboratory tests in Urban Health Training Centre, attached to Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 40.4% based on their symptoms, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. The prevalence of RTIs based on clinical finding was 37.4% with majority having vaginitis. The laboratory test revealed a prevalence of 34.3% with majority having Candidiasis. The influence of socio-demographic factors like increased parity, poor socio-economic conditions, poor menstrual hygiene, illiteracy has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in the community. Conclusion: This depicts that whereever possible, clinical and laboratory findings should support self-reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.

  19. Neuropsychological dysfunction in adults with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: the search for a cognitive endophenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Evidence suggests that early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is an etiologically distinct subtype of OCD. The objective of the present work was to search for neurocognitive endophenotypes of early-onset OCD based on assessments of attention, memory, and executive function in patients with the disorder and their unaffected siblings.Methods:We compared the performance of 40 adult patients with early-onset OCD, 40 of their unaffected siblings, and 40 unrelated healthy controls on a neuropsychological battery designed for this study. We searched for associations among test performance, demographic variables (age, sex and years of education and clinical symptoms of early-onset OCD.Results:Patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls on the Tower of Hanoi, and the Stroop and Wisconsin tests, indicating impairments in planning, mental flexibility and inhibitory control. The performance of the unaffected first-degree siblings of patients with early-onset OCD on the Stroop and Wisconsin tests also differed from that of healthy controls. Symptom severity in early-onset OCD was strongly correlated with performance on the Tower of Hanoi.Conclusions:Our findings support the existence of specific executive function deficits in patients with early-onset OCD. Relatives presented an intermediate phenotype between patients and controls, suggesting that executive functions such as mental flexibility and response inhibition may be considered candidate endophenotypes of early-onset OCD.

  20. Onset of oscillatory binary fluid convection in three-dimensional cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Arantxa; Batiste, Oriol [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of the transverse walls on the onset of convection in a horizontal rectangular cavity of infinite length filled with a binary mixture when heated from below. For the first time we take into account the effect of the third dimension without making any approximation and considering realistic boundary conditions. In previous numerical works the width of the cell was either taken to be infinity (bulk mixtures) or different approximations usually valid in the narrow cell limit were assumed (i.e., Hele-Shaw and non-ideal Hele-Shaw approximations). The results we find show that the presence of the walls has a considerable effect on the onset of convection even for intermediate transverse aspect ratio cells. They also show that the approximations generally assumed fail to reproduce the correct behaviour of the critical parameters in an important range of aspect ratio values when the primary bifurcation is oscillatory. We have compared the critical values of the Rayleigh number and the frequency with those reported in the literature (Ohlsen et al. [1]) and we find a quantitative agreement within the experimental error. (orig.)

  1. Educational Needs of Adult Men regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hajizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years, selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health, a questionnaire consisting of three major sections (i.e., demographic data, sexual and reproductive health needs, and men’s attitudes was designed. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content and face validity. Its reliability was assessed by internal consistency (α=85% and test-retest. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were performed, using SPSS version 19. Results: The majority of men (75.1% had poor knowledge and a moderate attitude (67.3% towards sexual and reproductive health. The three most important educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health were cancers of male reproductive system (83.8%, sexually transmitted diseases (STD/HIV (77.4% and religious attitudes toward sex (77%, respectively. Friends were the most important source of information in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health, while men preferred to receive information from a male physician or counselor. According to the results, men were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Based on the findings, men felt the need for sexual and reproductive health education; these needs were influenced by social and demographic factors, except marital status. If health policymakers pay attention to these educational needs, it is possible to implement suitable programs for improving men's sexual health and

  2. Time perception and reproduction in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, R A; Murphy, K R; Bush, T

    2001-07-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 104) were compared with a control group (n = 64) on time estimation and reproduction tasks. Results were unaffected by ADHD subtype or gender. The ADHD group provided larger time estimations than the control group, particularly at long intervals. This became nonsignificant after controlling for IQ. The ADHD group made shorter reproductions than did the control group (15- and 60-s intervals) and greater reproduction errors (12-, 45-, 60-s durations). These differences remained after controlling for IQ and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, depression, and anxiety. Only the level of anxiety contributed to errors (at 12-s duration) beyond the level of ADHD. Results extended findings on time perception in ADHD children to adults and ruled out comorbidity as the basis of the errors.

  3. 36 CFR 705.4 - Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction. 705.4 Section 705.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS REPRODUCTION, COMPILATION, AND....4 Reproduction. (a) Library of Congress staff acting under the general authority of the Librarian of...

  4. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  5. Late-onset progressive visual loss in a man with unusual MRI findings: MS, Harding's, Leber's or Leber's Plus?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cawley, N

    2012-02-01

    Leber\\'s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disorder, typically presenting in the second and third decade. We report the case of an elderly gentleman with significant vascular risk factors, presenting with slowly progressive, bilateral, visual loss with high signal lesions in the pericallosal and periventricular deep white matter on MRI brain studies. Possible diagnoses included late-onset MS, ischaemic optic neuropathies, a mitochondrial disorder or an overlap syndrome such as Harding\\'s disease.

  6. 32 CFR 310.20 - Reproduction fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction fees. 310.20 Section 310.20... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Access by Individuals § 310.20 Reproduction fees. (a) Assessing fees. (1) Charge the individual only the direct cost of reproduction. (2) Do not charge reproduction fees if...

  7. Clinical phenotypes of perinatal depression and time of symptom onset: analysis of data from an international consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Wilcox, Marsha; Robertson-Blackmore, Emma; Sharkey, Katherine; Bergink, Veerle; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Payne, Jennifer; Altemus, Margaret; Newport, Jeffrey; Apter, Gisele; Devouche, Emmanuel; Viktorin, Alexander; Magnusson, Patrik; Penninx, Brenda; Buist, Anne; Bilszta, Justin; O’Hara, Michael; Stuart, Scott; Brock, Rebecca; Roza, Sabine; Tiemeier, Henning; Guille, Constance; Epperson, C Neill; Kim, Deborah; Schmidt, Peter; Martinez, Pedro; Di Florio, Arianna; Wisner, Katherine L; Stowe, Zachary; Jones, Ian; Sullivan, Patrick F; Rubinow, David; Wildenhaus, Kevin; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background The perinatal period is a time of high risk for onset of depressive disorders and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, including maternal suicide. Perinatal depression comprises a heterogeneous group of clinical subtypes, and further refinement is needed to improve treatment outcomes. We sought to empirically identify and describe clinically relevant phenotypic subtypes of perinatal depression, and further characterise subtypes by time of symptom onset within pregnancy and three post-partum periods. Methods Data were assembled from a subset of seven of 19 international sites in the Postpartum Depression: Action Towards Causes and Treatment (PACT) Consortium. In this analysis, the cohort was restricted to women aged 19–40 years with information about onset of depressive symptoms in the perinatal period and complete prospective data for the ten-item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Principal components and common factor analysis were used to identify symptom dimensions in the EPDS. The National Institute of Mental Health research domain criteria functional constructs of negative valence and arousal were applied to the EPDS dimensions that reflect states of depressed mood, anhedonia, and anxiety. We used k-means clustering to identify subtypes of women sharing symptom patterns. Univariate and bivariate statistics were used to describe the subtypes. Findings Data for 663 women were included in these analyses. We found evidence for three underlying dimensions measured by the EPDS: depressed mood, anxiety, and anhedonia. On the basis of these dimensions, we identified five distinct subtypes of perinatal depression: severe anxious depression, moderate anxious depression, anxious anhedonia, pure anhedonia, and resolved depression. These subtypes have clear differences in symptom quality and time of onset. Anxiety and anhedonia emerged as prominent symptom dimensions with post-partum onset and were notably severe

  8. Corticosterone-mediated reproductive decisions: sex allocation, the cost of reproduction and maternal fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Oliver P.

    2007-01-01

    Managing reproductive investment within the scope of an individual’s energetic condition is required to maximize fitness. To be successful, individuals must make the correct decisions about when to reproduce, when to abandon an attempt, how many resources to invest in current and future attempts and where those resources should be allocated. These reproductive decisions therefore involve complex life-history trade-offs between an individual’s condition and current reproduction, future reprodu...

  9. Human leukocyte antigen-G within the male reproductive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    by “priming” the woman’s immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast......In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly...... plasma may even be associated with the chance of pregnancy in couples, where the male partner has reduced semen quality. More studies are needed to verify these preliminary findings....

  10. 42 CFR 9.7 - Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reproduction. 9.7 Section 9.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.7 Reproduction. Chimpanzee reproduction is...

  11. From esterilología to reproductive biology: The story of the Mexican assisted reproduction business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santos, Sandra P

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the first overview of how assisted reproduction emerged and developed in Mexico. In doing so it addresses two broad points: when and how treatments using assisted reproductive technology became common practice within reproductive medicine; and how the Mexican assisted reproduction industry emerged. The paper begins in 1949, when the first medical association dedicated to esterilología - the biomedical area focused on the study of infertility - was established, thus providing the epistemic and professional ground upon which assisted reproductive technology would later thrive. The paper then traces the way in which this biomedical industry developed, from individual doctors in their practices to networks of clinics and from a clinical practice to a reproductive industry. It also describes the different ways in which the professional community and the government have worked towards developing a regulatory frame for the practice of assisted reproduction. The paper is informed by ethnographic work conducted at clinics, conferences, online forums and websites, as well as by analysis of the contemporary national media, government documents and national medical journals from the early mid-twentieth century to the those published today.

  12. Allocation to reproduction and relative reproductive costs in two species of dioecious Anacardiaceae with contrasting phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shuhei; Sakimoto, Michinori

    2008-06-01

    The cost of reproduction in dioecious plants is often female-biased. However, several studies have reported no difference in costs of reproduction between the sexes. In this study, the relative reproductive allocation and costs at the shoot and whole-plant levels were examined in woody dioecious Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa, in order to examine differences between types of phenophase (i.e. physiological stage of development). Male and female Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa were sampled and the reproductive and vegetative allocation of the shoot were estimated by harvesting reproductive current-year shoots during flowering and fruiting. Measurements were made of the number of reproductive and total current-year shoots per whole plant, and of the basal area increment (BAI). The numbers of reproductive and total current-year shoots per 1-year-old shoot were counted in order to examine the costs in the following year at the shoot level. A female-biased annual reproductive allocation was found; however, the ratio of reproductive current-year shoots per tree and the BAI did not differ between sexes in Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa. The percentage of 1-year-old shoots with at least one reproductive current-year shoot was significantly male-biased in R. trichocarpa, but not in R. javanica, indicating that there was a relative cost at the shoot level only in R. trichocarpa. The female-biased leaf mass per shoot, an indicator of compensation for costs, was only found in R. javanica. Relative reproductive costs at the shoot level were detected in Rhus trichocarpa, which has simultaneous leafing and flowering, but not in R. javanica, which has leafing followed by flowering. However, the costs for the whole-plant level were diminished in both species. The results suggest that the phenophase type may produce the different costs for R. javanica and R. trichocarpa through the development of a compensation mechanism.

  13. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  14. Voice Onset Time in Azerbaijani Consonants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jahan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Voice onset time is known to be cue for the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops and it can be used to describe or categorize a range of developmental, neuromotor and linguistic disorders. The aim of this study is determination of standard values of voice onset time for Azerbaijani language (Tabriz dialect. Materials & Methods: In this description-analytical study, 30 Azeris persons whom were selected conveniently by simple selection, uttered 46 monosyllabic words initiating with 6 Azerbaijani stops twice. Using Praat software, the voice onset time values were analyzed by waveform and wideband spectrogram in milliseconds. Vowel effect, sex differences and the effect of place of articulation on VOT, were evaluated and data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: There was no significant difference in voice onset time between male and female Azeris speakers (P<0.05. Vowel and place of articulation had significant correlation with voice onset time (P<0.001. Voice onset time values for /b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /g/, /k/, and [c], [ɟ] allophones were 10.64, 86.88, 13.35, 87.09, 26.25, 100.62, 131.19, 63.18 mili second, respectively. Conclusion: Voice onset time values are the same for Azerbaijani men and women. However, like many other languages, back and high vowels and back place of articulation lengthen VOT. Also, voiceless stops are aspirated in this language and voiced stops have positive VOT values.

  15. Children's Concepts of Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E.; Kendall, Diane G.

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study provide little support for either Freudian or Piagetian theorizing about what the young child thinks of reproduction. Implications for sex education and reproduction information are presented. (Author/CJ)

  16. A meta-analysis of potential relationship between Epstein-Barr-Encoded-RNA (EBER and onset time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khedmat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encodes two non-polyadenylated RNAs termed EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs. In this study, we tried to find series in which data of EBER and onset time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD for patients have been documented to conduct a meta-analysis. A comprehensive search of the literature was performed by Pubmed and Google scholar to find reports indicating test results for EBER and PTLD onset in transplant patients. PTLD was considered "early onset" when it develops within the first post-transplant year. Finally, 265 patients from 15 studies have been included in the meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis also showed a significant relation between EBER test positivity and early-onset PTLD development [relative risk (RR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.16-1.59; P <0.001]. The i2 index was 49.8%. Our study suggests that PTLD lesions with positive EBER test are more likely to develop within the early post-transplant period. Since early-onset PTLD is supposed to have better prognosis, having a positive EBER test might not be a bad news. However, for having a precise conclusion, prospective studies are needed to be conducted.

  17. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades select......, discussing how selective reproduction engages with issues of long-standing theoretical concern in anthropology, such as politics, kinship, gender, religion, globalization, and inequality....... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  19. Age-related prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps and their relationships with asthma onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ha-Kyeong; Kim, Young-Chan; Kang, Min-Gyu; Park, Han-Ki; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Song, Woo-Jung

    2018-04-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major disease condition with high morbidity and can influence lower airway disease status in adults. However, its associations with adult asthma onset and activity have not been examined in detail in a general adult population. To investigate relationships between CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and asthma characteristics. A cross-sectional data set of 17,506 adult participants (≥18 years old) in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 through 2012 was analyzed. CRS was defined using structured questionnaires according to the international guideline, and presence of nasal polyps was objectively assessed using nasal endoscopy. Presence of asthma and its onset and current activity were assessed using structured questionnaires. CRS was significantly related to asthma, but the relationships were distinct by CRS and asthma status. CRSwNP was significantly associated with adult-onset asthma (onset after 18 years of age) or late-onset asthma (onset after 40 years of age), whereas CRS without nasal polyps was related to childhood-onset asthma (onset before 18 years) or early-onset asthma (onset before 40 years) in adults. The 2 CRS subgroups showed significant associations with current asthma but not with past asthma. However, the comorbid asthma rate was lower than 10% among subjects with CRS. This study found distinct age-related patterns of CRSwNP and asthma and demonstrated their significant associations in a general population. However, the low prevalence of asthma in CRSwNP is in sharp contrast to findings in Western populations, which warrants further investigation for ethnic or regional differences in relationships between CRSwNP and asthma. Copyright © 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lawful Sinners: Reproductive Governance and Moral Agency Around Abortion in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Elyse Ona

    2018-03-01

    The Catholic Hierarchy unequivocally bans abortion, defining it as a mortal sin. In Mexico City, where the Catholic Church wields considerable political and popular power, abortion was recently decriminalized in a historic vote. Of the roughly 170,000 abortions that have been carried out in Mexico City's new public sector abortion program to date, more than 60% were among self-reported Catholic women. Drawing on eighteen months of fieldwork, including interviews with 34 Catholic patients, this article examines how Catholic women in Mexico City grapple with abortion decisions that contravene Church teachings in the context of recent abortion reform. Catholic women consistently leveraged the local cultural, economic, and legal context to morally justify their abortion decisions against church condemnation. I argue that Catholic women seeking abortion resist religious injunctions on their reproductive behavior by articulating and asserting their own moral agency grounded in the contextual dimensions of their lives. My analysis informs conversations in medical anthropology on moral decision-making around reproduction and on local dynamics of resistance to reproductive governance. Moreover, my findings speak to the deficiencies of a feminist vision focused narrowly on fertility limitation, versus an expanded framework of reproductive justice that considers as well the need for conditions of income equality and structural supports to facilitate reproduction and parenting among women who desire to keep their pregnancies.

  1. Dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: prevalence and clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoppolo, G; Schettino, I; Frasca, V; Giacomelli, E; Prosperini, L; Cambieri, C; Roma, R; Greco, A; Mancini, P; De Vincentiis, M; Silani, V; Inghilleri, M

    2013-12-01

    To characterize swallowing deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); investigate the delay in dysphagia onset; estimate correlations between dysphagia severity and patients' functional status; identify the symptom(s) most likely to predict dysphagia. A group of 49 consecutive patients with ALS, 14 with bulbar onset and 35 with spinal onset, underwent swallowing evaluation including bedside and fiberoptic endoscopic examination to detect dysphagia. Patients with dysphagia were more likely than those without to have bulbar onset ALS (P = 0.02); more severely impaired chewing (P = 0.01); and tongue muscle deficits (P = 0.001). The only variable measured at first examination significantly associated with dysphagia was a more than mild tongue muscle deficit. The only variable useful in predicting dysphagia was a chewing deficit. In 10 of the 49 patients studied, swallowing evaluation disclosed an impaired cough reflex. Dysphagia in patients with ALS correlates significantly with bulbar onset and with oral swallowing impairment. Fiberoptic swallowing evaluation is a useful tool for detecting swallowing deficits and laryngeal sensitivity in patients with ALS. An impaired cough reflex is an unexpected finding in many patients with ALS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Case Report on Septate Uterus: An Incidental Finding in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report on Septate Uterus: An Incidental Finding in a Multiparous Woman who Had an Emergency Cesarean Section. ... Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  3. Ameliorative effects of exogenous gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty in a farm in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Am-In, Nutthee; Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn

    2017-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty. Totally, 136 Landrace × Yorkshire crossbred gilts, were categorized into control (n = 58) and treatment (n = 78) groups. Gonadotropins (400 U eCG plus 200 IU hCG) were administered in treatment group only. The results revealed that gilts in treatment group had higher number of gilts with estrus (92.3 vs 25.9%, P < 0.001), shorter onset to estrus (4.7 ± 0.3 vs 9.0 ± 0.8...

  4. Drone exposure to the systemic insecticide Fipronil indirectly impairs queen reproductive potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairo, Guillaume; Provost, Bertille; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Ben Abdelkader, Faten; Bonnet, Marc; Cousin, Marianne; Sénéchal, Jacques; Benet, Pauline; Kretzschmar, André; Belzunces, Luc P.; Brunet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    A species that requires sexual reproduction but cannot reproduce is doomed to extinction. The important increasing loss of species emphasizes the ecological significance of elucidating the effects of environmental stressors, such as pesticides, on reproduction. Despite its special reproductive behavior, the honey bee was selected as a relevant and integrative environmental model because of its constant and diverse exposure to many stressors due to foraging activity. The widely used insecticide Fipronil, the use of which is controversial because of its adverse effects on honey bees, was chosen to expose captive drones in hives via syrup contaminated at 0.1 μg/L and gathered by foragers. Such environmental exposure led to decreased spermatozoa concentration and sperm viability coupled with an increased sperm metabolic rate, resulting in drone fertility impairment. Subsequently, unexposed queens inseminated with such sperm exhibited fewer spermatozoa with lower viability in their spermatheca, leaving no doubt about the detrimental consequences for the reproductive potential of queens, which are key for colony sustainability. These findings suggest that pesticides could contribute to declining honey bee populations through fertility impairment, as exemplified by Fipronil. More broadly, reproductive disorders should be taken into consideration when investigating the decline of other species.

  5. Drone exposure to the systemic insecticide Fipronil indirectly impairs queen reproductive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairo, Guillaume; Provost, Bertille; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Ben Abdelkader, Faten; Bonnet, Marc; Cousin, Marianne; Sénéchal, Jacques; Benet, Pauline; Kretzschmar, André; Belzunces, Luc P; Brunet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-23

    A species that requires sexual reproduction but cannot reproduce is doomed to extinction. The important increasing loss of species emphasizes the ecological significance of elucidating the effects of environmental stressors, such as pesticides, on reproduction. Despite its special reproductive behavior, the honey bee was selected as a relevant and integrative environmental model because of its constant and diverse exposure to many stressors due to foraging activity. The widely used insecticide Fipronil, the use of which is controversial because of its adverse effects on honey bees, was chosen to expose captive drones in hives via syrup contaminated at 0.1 μg/L and gathered by foragers. Such environmental exposure led to decreased spermatozoa concentration and sperm viability coupled with an increased sperm metabolic rate, resulting in drone fertility impairment. Subsequently, unexposed queens inseminated with such sperm exhibited fewer spermatozoa with lower viability in their spermatheca, leaving no doubt about the detrimental consequences for the reproductive potential of queens, which are key for colony sustainability. These findings suggest that pesticides could contribute to declining honey bee populations through fertility impairment, as exemplified by Fipronil. More broadly, reproductive disorders should be taken into consideration when investigating the decline of other species.

  6. Drone exposure to the systemic insecticide Fipronil indirectly impairs queen reproductive potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairo, Guillaume; Provost, Bertille; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Ben Abdelkader, Faten; Bonnet, Marc; Cousin, Marianne; Sénéchal, Jacques; Benet, Pauline; Kretzschmar, André; Belzunces, Luc P.; Brunet, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    A species that requires sexual reproduction but cannot reproduce is doomed to extinction. The important increasing loss of species emphasizes the ecological significance of elucidating the effects of environmental stressors, such as pesticides, on reproduction. Despite its special reproductive behavior, the honey bee was selected as a relevant and integrative environmental model because of its constant and diverse exposure to many stressors due to foraging activity. The widely used insecticide Fipronil, the use of which is controversial because of its adverse effects on honey bees, was chosen to expose captive drones in hives via syrup contaminated at 0.1 μg/L and gathered by foragers. Such environmental exposure led to decreased spermatozoa concentration and sperm viability coupled with an increased sperm metabolic rate, resulting in drone fertility impairment. Subsequently, unexposed queens inseminated with such sperm exhibited fewer spermatozoa with lower viability in their spermatheca, leaving no doubt about the detrimental consequences for the reproductive potential of queens, which are key for colony sustainability. These findings suggest that pesticides could contribute to declining honey bee populations through fertility impairment, as exemplified by Fipronil. More broadly, reproductive disorders should be taken into consideration when investigating the decline of other species. PMID:27549030

  7. Early-Onset Thrombocytopenia in Small-For-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fustolo-Gunnink, S. F.; Vlug, R. D.; Smits-Wintjens, V. E. H. J.; Heckman, E. J.; te Pas, A. B.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Lopriore, E.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and is thought to result from a unique pathophysiologic mechanism related to chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and severity of early-onset thrombocytopenia in SGA neonates, and to

  8. 46 CFR 380.21 - Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reproduction. 380.21 Section 380.21 Shipping MARITIME... Reproduction. (a) The records described in § 380.24 may be microfilmed or otherwise reproduced in lieu of their retention in original form: Provided, That such reproductions shall not be made prior to completion of the...

  9. Heritability of young- and old-onset ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluher, A; Devan, W J; Holliday, E G; Nalls, M; Parolo, S; Bione, S; Giese, A K; Boncoraglio, G B; Maguire, J M; Müller-Nurasyid, M; Gieger, C; Meschia, J F; Rosand, J; Rolfs, A; Kittner, S J; Mitchell, B D; O'Connell, J R; Cheng, Y C

    2015-11-01

    Although the genetic contribution to stroke risk is well known, it remains unclear if young-onset stroke has a stronger genetic contribution than old-onset stroke. This study aims to compare the heritability of ischaemic stroke risk between young and old, using common genetic variants from whole-genome array data in population-based samples. This analysis included 4050 ischaemic stroke cases and 5765 controls from six study populations of European ancestry; 47% of cases were young-onset stroke (age stroke risk in these unrelated individuals, the pairwise genetic relatedness was estimated between individuals based on their whole-genome array data using a mixed linear model. Heritability was estimated separately for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke (age ≥ 55 years). Heritabilities for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke were estimated at 42% (±8%, P genetic contribution to the risk of stroke may be higher in young-onset ischaemic stroke, although the difference was not statistically significant. © 2015 EAN.

  10. Zika virus and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Christina N; Bano, Rashda; Washington Cross, Chantel I; Segars, James H

    2017-06-01

    Due to the fact that the Zika virus can be sexually transmitted, there is a potential risk for disease transmission at several stages of assisted reproduction. Such a possibility poses a serious challenge to couples pursing fertility with reproductive technologies. Here, we discuss what is known regarding Zika virus infection with respect to sexual transmission and correlate this knowledge with recent recommendations in the realm of infertility treatment. Zika virus can be transmitted from infected men and women through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse. Zika virus RNA has been detected in blood, semen, cervical mucus and vaginal fluid. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control recommends that infected men wait 6 months, and infected women 8 weeks, prior to attempting pregnancy. Reproductive tissue donors should wait 6 months before giving a specimen. Further study of Zika virus transmission in different reproductive tissues and establishment of validated testing methods for viral disease transmissibility are urgently needed. Reproductive technologists need to establish screening, testing and laboratory protocols aimed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission during assisted reproduction.

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ43 Is Reduced in Early-Onset Compared to Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease, But Has Similar Diagnostic Accuracy to Aβ42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Lauridsen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyloid beta 1–43 (Aβ43 may be a useful additional biomarker for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We have investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of Aβ43 in patients with early-onset AD in contrast to levels in late-onset AD. For comparison, in addition to the ‘core’ biomarkers, several other analytes were also determined [YKL-40, neurofilament light (NF-L, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and progranulin].Material and Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from patients with early-onset AD (age ≤ 62, n = 66, late-onset AD (age ≥ 68, n = 25, and groups of cognitively intact individuals (age ≤ 62, n = 41, age ≥ 68, n = 39. Core CSF AD biomarkers [amyloid beta 1–42 (Aβ42, total tau, phosphorylated tau] were analyzed, as well as levels of Aβ43 and other analytes, using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.Results: Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ43 was significantly reduced in early-onset AD compared to late-onset AD (14.8 ± 7.3 vs. 21.8 ± 9.4 pg/ml, respectively, whereas the levels of Aβ42 in the two AD groups were not significantly different (474.9 ± 142.0 vs. 539.6 ± 159.9 pg/ml, respectively. Aβ43 and all core biomarkers were significantly altered in patients with AD compared to corresponding controls. NF-L was significantly increased in early-onset AD compared to younger controls, an effect not found between the older groups. Relationships between the Aβ peptides and tau proteins, YKL-40, NF-L, GFAP and progranulin were also investigated without finding marked associations. However, age-associated increases in levels of tau proteins, YKL-40, NF-L and GFAP were found with respect to age in healthy controls. Results for these other analytes were similar to previously published data. Aβ43 did not improve diagnostic accuracy in either AD group compared to Aβ42. Discussion: Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ43, but not Aβ42 levels, varied significantly with age in patients with

  12. Suicide in later life : A comparison between cases with early-onset and late-onset depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Kapur, Nay; Bickley, Harriet; Williams, Alyson; Purandare, Nitin

    Background: Suicide rates are high in elderly people with depressive disorder. We compared behavioural, clinical and care characteristics of depressed elderly patients, aged 60 years and over at the time of death by suicide, with an early-onset depression (EOD, onset before 60 years) with those

  13. The experience of living with adult-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Stephanie; van Wersch, Anna; Campbell, Carol; Guy, Alison

    2017-08-01

    The incidence and prevalence of adults diagnosed with epilepsy is higher compared to those diagnosed in childhood, yet the experience of living with adult-onset epilepsy has rarely been examined. Hence, the current study took a phenomenological approach to examining the experience of living with epilepsy following diagnosis in adulthood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 people from across the UK, diagnosed with epilepsy between the ages of eighteen and sixty, at two points in time, six months apart. Phenomenological analysis identified three central themes: the unpredictability of seizure occurrence; the ripple effect; and re-evaluating the future. Despite the accepted consensus in the epilepsy literature that living and coping with epilepsy becomes more difficult the older a person is diagnosed, the current findings indicated that this is inadequate. Rather, it is more suitable to consider that those living with adult-onset epilepsy have a specific experience of the condition and particular support needs, given that they once lived their lives as people without epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladi, Suvarna; Bak, Thomas H; Duggirala, Vasanta; Surampudi, Bapiraju; Shailaja, Mekala; Shukla, Anuj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Kaul, Subhash

    2013-11-26

    The purpose of the study was to determine the association between bilingualism and age at onset of dementia and its subtypes, taking into account potential confounding factors. Case records of 648 patients with dementia (391 of them bilingual) diagnosed in a specialist clinic were reviewed. The age at onset of first symptoms was compared between monolingual and bilingual groups. The influence of number of languages spoken, education, occupation, and other potentially interacting variables was examined. Overall, bilingual patients developed dementia 4.5 years later than the monolingual ones. A significant difference in age at onset was found across Alzheimer disease dementia as well as frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia, and was also observed in illiterate patients. There was no additional benefit to speaking more than 2 languages. The bilingual effect on age at dementia onset was shown independently of other potential confounding factors such as education, sex, occupation, and urban vs rural dwelling of subjects. This is the largest study so far documenting a delayed onset of dementia in bilingual patients and the first one to show it separately in different dementia subtypes. It is the first study reporting a bilingual advantage in those who are illiterate, suggesting that education is not a sufficient explanation for the observed difference. The findings are interpreted in the context of the bilingual advantages in attention and executive functions.

  15. Age matters: The effect of onset age of video game play on task-switching abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Andree; Toh, Wei Xing; Yang, Hwajin

    2016-05-01

    Although prior research suggests that playing video games can improve cognitive abilities, recent empirical studies cast doubt on such findings (Unsworth et al., 2015). To reconcile these inconsistent findings, we focused on the link between video games and task switching. Furthermore, we conceptualized video-game expertise as the onset age of active video-game play rather than the frequency of recent gameplay, as it captures both how long a person has played video games and whether the individual began playing during periods of high cognitive plasticity. We found that the age of active onset better predicted switch and mixing costs than did frequency of recent gameplay; specifically, players who commenced playing video games at an earlier age reaped greater benefits in terms of task switching than did those who started at a later age. Moreover, improving switch costs required a more extensive period of video-game experience than did mixing costs; this finding suggests that certain cognitive abilities benefit from different amounts of video game experience.

  16. Reproductive history of cane rat: a review of the reproduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates in a review the reproduction and reproductive performance of cane rat. Breeding time in cane rat depends on which part of Africa the Animal is found and the weather. In the wild, cane rat lives in groups of males and females during the breeding season. The wet season of the year is the usual breeding ...

  17. Metabolic cues for puberty onset in free grazing Holstein heifers naturally infected with nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Torga, G S; Mejia, M E; González-Iglesias, A; Formia, N; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2001-07-01

    Leptin is a new plausible candidate for the molecular link between nutritional status and the reproductive axis. In previous studies we described that continuous natural nematode infections in heifers retarded growth and delayed the onset of puberty, and that the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was involved. In the present study we monitored the leptin levels during development in heifers naturally parasitized versus those chronically treated with ivermectin and we investigated whether growth hormone (GH) accounted for the differences in IGF-I previously noted. Insulin levels were also measured. Prolactin hormone was recorded as an indicator of immune system activation. We found a direct correlation between leptin and body weight during development and a prepubertal surge of the hormone 2 weeks before the first progesterone peak that indicates the onset of puberty. This suggests that leptin may act as a signal for this event. Insulin did not vary during growth and prepuberty. On the other hand, GH as not responsible for diminished IGF-I levels in parasitized animals as levels were similar in both groups. The GH levels were high at birth and then diminished rapidly and remained constant during development and puberty. The last hormone studied, prolactin, followed seasonal changes of sunlight duration and presented sporadic bursts in infected animals. These were related to high nematode infection and are probably involved in the immune response of the host.

  18. Early-Onset Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Mimicking Immune-Mediated Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietse A. Wiels

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesThe objective of this study is to explore the clinical, radiological, and pathological manifestations of a rare subtype of prion disease and their implication for differential diagnosis in case of an early onset neuropsychiatric deterioration.MethodsWe discuss a patients’ clinical history, as well as the string of investigations and symptomatological evolution that finally led to a pathological diagnosis.ResultsOur patient had the extremely rare VV1 type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD. We explain the differential diagnosis of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus and its implications for treatment.ConclusionsCJD, especially the VV1 subtype, can present at an early age with an insidious psychiatric onset. Classical findings of prion disease—14-3-3 protein, PSWC on electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging patterns—are not always present. The presence of neural autoantibodies does not always implicate pathogenicity in the presence of other neurological/neurodegenerative conditions.

  19. Measurement of voice onset time in maxillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon's signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z = -2.232, P = 0.026 and Z = -2.401, P = 0.016, resp.) than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  20. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Hattori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z=−2.232, P=0.026 and Z=−2.401, P=0.016, resp. than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  1. The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia; Zhong, Huanzi; Dai, Juanjuan; Lan, Zhou; Li, Fei; Yu, Xinlei; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Zirong; Xie, Hailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Zeng, Chunwei; Wen, Bo; Zeng, Liping; Du, Hui; Tang, Huiru; Xu, Changlu; Xia, Yan; Xia, Huihua; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Brix, Susanne; Kristiansen, Karsten; Xu, Xun; Li, Junhua; Wu, Ruifang; Jia, Huijue

    2017-10-17

    Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within the female reproductive tract in 110 women of reproductive age, and examine the nature of colonisation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and cultivation. We find distinct microbial communities in cervical canal, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal fluid, differing from that of the vagina. The results reflect a microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract, indicative of a non-sterile environment. We also identify microbial taxa and potential functions that correlate with the menstrual cycle or are over-represented in subjects with adenomyosis or infertility due to endometriosis. The study provides insight into the nature of the vagino-uterine microbiome, and suggests that surveying the vaginal or cervical microbiota might be useful for detection of common diseases in the upper reproductive tract.Whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbiomes beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here, the authors show a subject-specific continuity in microbial communities at six sites along the female reproductive tract, indicative of a non-sterile environment.

  2. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  3. Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Amber L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate M.; Mcgee, Tara Renae; Morgan, Nick; Schroeder, Felix; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. Methods We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Results Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders’ histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. Conclusions A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders. PMID:27134318

  4. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vinicius

    Full Text Available Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause.

  5. Late onset arginase deficiency presenting with encephalopathy and midbrain hyperintensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby Varkey Maramattom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urea cycle disorders (UCD are very rare metabolic disorders that present with encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. Of the UCDs, Arginase deficiency (ARD is the rarest and presents in childhood with a progressive spastic diplegia or seizures. Acute presentation in adulthood is extremely unusual. [1] We present the first case of adult onset ARD presenting with encephalopathy and diffusion weighted MRI findings that resembled a moustache in the midbrain.

  6. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  7. The clinical features of late onset anorexia nervosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Joughin, N. A.; Crisp, A. H.; Gowers, S. G.; Bhat, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines clinical features of late onset anorexia nervosa. This involved the scrutiny of a large database of patients with anorexia nervosa comprising data gathered at standardized initial assessments over the period 1960-1990. Patients with a late onset were compared to other selected patient samples. The population comprised 12 patients with a first onset of anorexia nervosa at or after the age of 30, 415 patients with an onset after 15 but before 20 and 9 patients with an onset ...

  8. The Somatic Reproductive Tissues of C. elegans Promote Longevity through Steroid Hormone Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Tracy M.; Berman, Jennifer R.; Suchanek-Kavipurapu, Monika; McCormick, Mark; Gaglia, Marta Maria; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12. PMID:20824162

  9. The somatic reproductive tissues of C. elegans promote longevity through steroid hormone signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy M Yamawaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12.

  10. Bilingualism delays the onset of behavioral but not aphasic forms of frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladi, Suvarna; Bak, Thomas H; Shailaja, Mekala; Gollahalli, Divyaraj; Rajan, Amulya; Surampudi, Bapiraju; Hornberger, Michael; Duggirala, Vasanta; Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Kaul, Subhash

    2017-05-01

    Bilingualism has been found to delay onset of dementia and this has been attributed to an advantage in executive control in bilinguals. However, the relationship between bilingualism and cognition is complex, with costs as well as benefits to language functions. To further explore the cognitive consequences of bilingualism, the study used Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes, to examine whether bilingualism modifies the age at onset of behavioral and language variants of Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) differently. Case records of 193 patients presenting with FTD (121 of them bilingual) were examined and the age at onset of the first symptoms were compared between monolinguals and bilinguals. A significant effect of bilingualism delaying the age at onset of dementia was found in behavioral variant FTD (5.7 years) but not in progressive nonfluent aphasia (0.7 years), semantic dementia (0.5 years), corticobasal syndrome (0.4 years), progressive supranuclear palsy (4.3 years) and FTD-motor neuron disease (3 years). On dividing all patients predominantly behavioral and predominantly aphasic groups, age at onset in the bilingual behavioral group (62.6) was over 6 years higher than in the monolingual patients (56.5, p=0.006), while there was no difference in the aphasic FTD group (60.9 vs. 60.6 years, p=0.851). The bilingual effect on age of bvFTD onset was shown independently of other potential confounding factors such as education, gender, occupation, and urban vs rural dwelling of subjects. To conclude, bilingualism delays the age at onset in the behavioral but not in the aphasic variants of FTD. The results are in line with similar findings based on research in stroke and with the current views of the interaction between bilingualism and cognition, pointing to advantages in executive functions and disadvantages in lexical tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Amenorative effects of exogenous gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty in a farm in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am-In, Nutthee; Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn

    2017-02-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty. Totally, 136 Landrace X Yorkshire crossbred gilts, were categorized into control (n = 58) and treatment (n = 78) groups. Gonadotropins (400 U eCG plus 200 IU hCG) were administered in treatment group only. The results revealed that gilts in treatment group had higher number of gilts with estrus (92.3 vs 25.9%, P < 0.001), shorter onset to estrus (4.7 ± 0.3 vs 9.0 ± 0.8 d, P < 0.001), higher number of dominant follicles (18.0 ± 0.2 vs 13.2 ± 0.3 follicles, P < 0.001), and higher farrowing rate (87.5 vs 53.3%, P = 0.002) than those in control group. In conclusion, gonadotropins containing 400 IU eCG plus 200 IU hCG could improve reproductive profiles in replacement gilts with delayed puberty.

  12. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitch D. Weegman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch years (i.e., between cohorts. In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8% of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young only once in their lifetime and 15 (2% reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4 when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7 if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to

  13. Bacteriological, cytological and histopathological evaluation of the reproductive tract of slaughtered cows

    OpenAIRE

    Casarin, Julia B.S.; Martini, Ana P.; Trentin, Janislene M.; Fiorenza, Mariani F.; Pessoa, Gilson A.; Barros, Severo S.; Rubin, Mara I.B.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Reproductive diseases, mainly endometritis, are important hurdles in cattle raising, In the current study we evaluated gross, bacteriological, cytological, and histological findings from selected sites of the genital from 23 slaughtered cows and tested whether there is an association between these findings and the probability of reaching a reliable diagnosis. The results from the examinations of macroscopic aspects of uterine secretions, the cytological, bacteriological, and histopa...

  14. Trends in reproductive health knowledge following a health education intervention among adolescents in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakaniko, S; Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbushu, W; Sebina-Zziwa, J; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J

    1997-01-01

    Unwanted teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and the attendant morbidity and mortality necessitate the need for understanding factors influencing adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, reproductive behaviour, sexual and reproductive health. To determine the impact of an intervention package on knowledge levels of various reproductive health issues through trend analysis. Randomized controlled trial of a health education intervention in schools stratified for representativeness. Rural and urban secondary schools in Zimbabwe. 1,689 students recruited from 11 secondary schools in Mashonaland Central. Knowledge level before and after intervention. The demographic characteristics of the pupils at baseline, five months and nine months were comparable between the two groups. There was an overall increase in knowledge on menstruation. Students from the intervention schools were more likely to have correct knowledge over time on aspects of reproductive biology. A significant linear trend (p = 0.017) was observed in the area of family planning and contraception. A linear decreasing trend (p = 0.001) was observed on pregnancy risk. Though not significantly linear, the general trend of knowledge levels in all the areas of reproductive health, pregnancy risk, STDs and HIV/AIDS showed an upward trend, from 20% to 96%. Worth noting was that in all the areas the intervention group had knowledge above that in the control group. The reproductive health education intervention had an impact on aspects of reproductive biology and contraception as measured by the increased scoring at follow up when comparing intervention and control schools. The overall findings point to the need for early school based reproductive health education programmes incooperating correct information on reproductive biology and the prevention of subsequent reproductive morbidity by imparting information on non-risk behaviour during the early

  15. Network-level reproduction number and extinction threshold for vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Scoglio, Caterina

    2015-06-01

    The basic reproduction number of deterministic models is an essential quantity to predict whether an epidemic will spread or not. Thresholds for disease extinction contribute crucial knowledge of disease control, elimination, and mitigation of infectious diseases. Relationships between basic reproduction numbers of two deterministic network-based ordinary differential equation vector-host models, and extinction thresholds of corresponding stochastic continuous-time Markov chain models are derived under some assumptions. Numerical simulation results for malaria and Rift Valley fever transmission on heterogeneous networks are in agreement with analytical results without any assumptions, reinforcing that the relationships may always exist and proposing a mathematical problem for proving existence of the relationships in general. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the basic reproduction number does not monotonically increase or decrease with the extinction threshold. Consistent trends of extinction probability observed through numerical simulations provide novel insights into mitigation strategies to increase the disease extinction probability. Research findings may improve understandings of thresholds for disease persistence in order to control vector-borne diseases.

  16. Antibodies in juvenile-onset myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansley, Sarah L

    2016-11-01

    Juvenile-onset myositis is a highly heterogeneous disease. Myositis-specific and associated autoantibodies provide a potential means of subdividing patients into clinically homogenous subgroups. Given the increasing availability of autoantibody testing, this review explores the phenotypes associated with different autoantibodies in juvenile-onset myositis and the potential clinical utility of autoantibody testing. Autoantibodies can be identified in 60-70% of children with myositis and the recent discovery of novel myositis-associated autoantibodies in adult patients suggests this may increase in the near future. Detailed phenotype descriptions are now known for several autoantibodies commonly identified in juvenile-onset disease. Whilst there is insufficient evidence to recommend a differential treatment approach based on autoantibody status, it is becoming increasingly clear that some autoantibody subgroups are often treatment resistant and may benefit from a more aggressive approach. The validation of nonspecialised methods for myositis-specific autoantibody detection should lead to more widely available testing. In juvenile-onset disease, this will provide detailed prognostic information and in the future may also influence approach.

  17. The epigenetic effects of assisted reproductive technologies: ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M-C; Dupras, C; Ravitsky, V

    2017-08-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has increased significantly, allowing many coping with infertility to conceive. However, an emerging body of evidence suggests that ART could carry epigenetic risks for those conceived through the use of these technologies. In accordance with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis, ART could increase the risk of developing late-onset diseases through epigenetic mechanisms, as superovulation, fertilization methods and embryo culture could impair the embryo's epigenetic reprogramming. Such epigenetic risks raise ethical issues for all stakeholders: prospective parents and children, health professionals and society. This paper focuses on ethical issues raised by the consideration of these risks when using ART. We apply two key ethical principles of North American bioethics (respect for autonomy and non-maleficence) and suggest that an ethical tension may emerge from conflicting duties to promote the reproductive autonomy of prospective parents on one hand, and to minimize risks to prospective children on the other. We argue that this tension is inherent to the entire enterprise of ART and thus cannot be addressed by individual clinicians in individual cases. We also consider the implications of the 'non-identity problem' in this context. We call for additional research that would allow a more robust evidence base for policy. We also call upon professional societies to provide clinicians with guidelines and educational resources to facilitate the communication of epigenetic risks associated with ART to patients, taking into consideration the challenges of communicating risk information whose validity is still uncertain.

  18. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horup Larsen, Margit; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B.

    2011-01-01

    -eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system.Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining...... was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA–G in hyperplastic prostatic...... tissue. In summary, several of the findings reported in this study suggest an immunoregulatory role of HLA-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma....

  19. High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation in early onset epileptic encephalopathy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Oded; Gale, Rena; Namestnic, Julia; Bennet-Back, Odeya; David, Jonathan; Gebodh, Nigel; Adair, Devin; Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Bikson, Marom

    2018-01-01

    Early onset epileptic encephalopathy is characterized by high daily seizure-frequency, multifocal epileptic discharges, severe psychomotor retardation, and death at infancy. Currently, there are no effective treatments to alleviate seizure frequency and high-voltage epileptic discharges in these catastrophic epilepsy cases. The current study examined the safety and feasibility of High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in reducing epileptiform activity in a 30-month-old child suffering from early onset epileptic encephalopathy. HD-tDCS was administered over 10 intervention days spanning two weeks including pre- and post-intervention video-EEG monitoring. There were no serious adverse events or side effects related to the HD-tDCS intervention. Frequency of clinical seizures was not significantly reduced. However, interictal sharp wave amplitudes were significantly lower during the post-intervention period versus baseline. Vital signs and blood biochemistry remained stable throughout the entire study. These exploratory findings support the safety and feasibility of 4 × 1 HD-tDCS in early onset epileptic encephalopathy and provide the first evidence of HD-tDCS effects on paroxysmal EEG features in electroclinical cases under the age of 36 months. Extending HD-tDCS treatment may enhance electrographic findings and clinical effects.

  20. MRI in a case of adult-onset citrullinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.F.; Huang, Y.C.; Liu, H.M. [Dept. of Radiology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Hwu, W.L. [Dept. of Medical Genetics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2001-10-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a history of repeated episodes of consciousness disturbance for 5 years. The MRI showed abnormally high signal intensities on T2-weighted images at bilateral cingulate gyri, temporal lobes and insular regions, mimicking the finding of herpes simplex encephalitis. Hyperammonemia was disclosed. Serial work-up led to the diagnosis of adult-onset citrullinemia, deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase. The clinical symptoms improved after diet control and medication. Follow-up MRI showed resolution of the abnormal signal intensities. The MRI findings of citrullinemia and other urea-cycle defects might be attributed to hyperammonemic encephalopathy, but the manifestations were varied. Similar distribution of the abnormalities in the MRI could be found in some reported cases and indicates probably vulnerable sites of hyperammonemic brain injury. (orig.)

  1. MRI in a case of adult-onset citrullinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.F.; Huang, Y.C.; Liu, H.M.; Hwu, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a history of repeated episodes of consciousness disturbance for 5 years. The MRI showed abnormally high signal intensities on T2-weighted images at bilateral cingulate gyri, temporal lobes and insular regions, mimicking the finding of herpes simplex encephalitis. Hyperammonemia was disclosed. Serial work-up led to the diagnosis of adult-onset citrullinemia, deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase. The clinical symptoms improved after diet control and medication. Follow-up MRI showed resolution of the abnormal signal intensities. The MRI findings of citrullinemia and other urea-cycle defects might be attributed to hyperammonemic encephalopathy, but the manifestations were varied. Similar distribution of the abnormalities in the MRI could be found in some reported cases and indicates probably vulnerable sites of hyperammonemic brain injury. (orig.)

  2. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-12-29

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  3. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, R. Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-01-01

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  4. Association between the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele and late onset of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Timm, Sally; Wang, August G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 32-bp deletion allele in chemokine receptor CCR5 has been associated with several immune-mediated diseases and might be implicated in schizophrenia as well. METHOD: The authors genotyped DNA samples from 268 schizophrenia patients and 323 healthy subjects. Age at first admission...... of the deletion allele in the latter subgroup of patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele is a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia with late onset. Alternatively, the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele may act as a modifier by delaying the onset of schizophrenia without...

  5. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  6. Promise(s of using mesenchymal stem cells in reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Venkatesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, infertility among both man and woman has become a major concern affecting about 20 per cent of the population worldwide and has been attributed in part to several aetiological factors such as changes in lifestyle, which includes sedentary life, dietary habits, sleep anomalies, environmental pollution, etc. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have come to the rescue of many such couples, but presence of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes with insulin resistance (IR and its secondary complications (micro- and macro-vascular complications, become confounders to the outcome of ART. Cell therapies are arising as a new hope in the management of reproductive disorders and currently, the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs harvested from the adult sources finds wide application in the management of diseases like stroke, neuropathy, nephropathy, myopathy, wounds in diabetes, etc. Given the capacity of MSCs to preferentially home to damaged tissue and modulate the cellular niche/microenvironment to augment tissue repairs and regeneration, the present review outlines the applications of MSCs in the management of infertility/reproductive disorders.

  7. Growth and reproduction of the mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Carla R G; Taddei, Fabiano G; Cobo, Valter J

    2015-01-01

    Goniopsis cruentata is a common semi-terrestrial crab in Brazilian mangroves and an important fishery resource for traditional communities in the northeastern Brazilian coast. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge about the species, this study evaluated the carapace width and weight growth curves, the relative growth of weight versus carapace width, and the temporal variation of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices for the species. A total of 524 crabs were collected in a mangrove area of Ubatuba municipality, state of São Paulo. The growth-curves parameters and longevity (tmax) were estimated for males (CW∞=50.6 mm, WE=56.4 g, k=2.24, t0=0.003631502 year-1, tmax=1.3 years) and females (CW∞=50.7 mm, WE∞=58.8 g, k=2.50, t0=0.003247209 year-1, tmax=1.2 years). The age at onset of sexual maturity was 0.23 years for both genders. The weight-growth model was isometric for the immature developmental stages and allometric negative for adults. The species exhibited a continuous reproduction, with breeding peaks in spring and summer months. The weight dynamics of gonads and hepatopancreas were not clearly related. The growth and reproductive patterns indicated that Goniopsis cruentata has a life-history that prioritizes reproduction instead of survival. The species exhibited some of the highest growth rates and lowest longevity estimates reported for brachyuran species in Brazil.

  8. Reproductive Life Planning: Raising the Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jessica E; Moos, Merry-K

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Unintended pregnancy has been a concerning public health problem for decades. As we begin to understand the complexities of pregnancy intention and how women experience these pregnancies, reproductive life planning offers a paradigm shift. Methods Reproductive life planning is a patient-centered approach that places a patient's reproductive preferences-whether concrete or ambivalent-at the forefront of her clinical care. Results This process grants women and men the opportunity to consider how reproduction fits within the context of their broader lives. Within a clinical encounter, reproductive life planning allows counseling and care to be tailored to patient preferences. Discussion Although there is great potential for positive public health impacts in unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use and improved preconception health, the true benefit lies within reinforcing reproductive empowerment. Despite recommendations for universal adoption, many questions remain regarding implementation, equity and outcomes.

  9. 21 CFR 884.6130 - Assisted reproduction microtools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction microtools. 884.6130 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6130 Assisted reproduction microtools. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microtools are pipettes or...

  10. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P.; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. W...

  11. 32 CFR 2103.41 - Reproduction controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2103.41 Section 2103.41... Safeguarding § 2103.41 Reproduction controls. The Staff Secretary shall maintain records to show the number and... dissemination or reproduction limitations. ...

  12. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: Clinical Features, Course and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mamta; Kattimani, Shivanand

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia in children is diagnosed by using adult criteria. Based on the age of onset, patients with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) are subdivided into those with very early onset (before age 12-14 years) and those with early onset (between 14-17 years). The prevalence of COS is reported to be 1 in 10,000 before the age of 12 years;…

  13. The perfume of reproduction in birds: chemosignaling in avian social life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Samuel P; Balthazart, Jacques; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Chemical cues were probably the first cues ever used to communicate and are still ubiquitous among living organisms. Birds have long been considered an exception: it was believed that birds were anosmic and relied on their acute visual and acoustic capabilities. Birds are however excellent smellers and use odors in various contexts including food searching, orientation, and also breeding. Successful reproduction in most vertebrates involves the exchange of complex social signals between partners. The first evidence for a role of olfaction in reproductive contexts in birds only dates back to the seventies, when ducks were shown to require a functional sense of smell to express normal sexual behaviors. Nowadays, even if the interest for olfaction in birds has largely increased, the role that bodily odors play in reproduction still remains largely understudied. The few available studies suggest that olfaction is involved in many reproductive stages. Odors have been shown to influence the choice and synchronization of partners, the choice of nest-building material or the care for the eggs and offspring. How this chemical information is translated at the physiological level mostly remains to be described, although available evidence suggests that, as in mammals, key reproductive brain areas like the medial preoptic nucleus are activated by relevant olfactory signals. Olfaction in birds receives increasing attention and novel findings are continuously published, but many exciting discoveries are still ahead of us, and could make birds one of the animal classes with the largest panel of developed senses ever described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E. [Dept. of Radiology, GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I.

  15. Negative self-schemas and the onset of depression in women: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo; Wolke, Dieter

    2005-04-01

    Beck's cognitive theory of depression has received little empirical support. To test whether those with negative self-schemas were at risk of onset of depression. Data were collected by postal questionnaire from 12,003 women recruited during early pregnancy; questionnaires included measures of depressive symptoms and negative self-schemas. Regular questionnaires were sent during pregnancy and following childbirth. Of 8540 women not depressed when recruited, 8.6% (95% CI 8.0-9.2) became depressed 14 weeks later. Those in the highest tertile for negative self-schema score were more likely to become depressed than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio 3.04, 95% CI 2.48-3.73). The association remained after adjustment for baseline depressive symptoms and previous depression (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.27-2.02) and was of similar magnitude for onset 3 years later. Holding a negative self-schema is an independent risk factor for the onset of depression in women. This finding supports a key element of Beck's cognitive theory. Understanding more about how negative self-schemas arise should help inform preventive policies.

  16. The Future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  17. The future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  18. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: reproductive toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Thomas M; Steup, David; Roberts, Linda G; O'Callaghan, James P; Hoffman, Gary; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Vapor condensates of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline-blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA) were evaluated for reproductive toxicity in rats at target concentrations of 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3), 6h/day, 7days/week. BGVC and G/MTBE were assessed over two generations, the others for one generation. BGVC and G/MTBE F1 offspring were evaluated for neuropathology and changes in regional brain glial fibrillary acidic protein content. No neurotoxicity was observed. Male kidney weight was increased consistent with light hydrocarbon nephropathy. In adult rats, decreased body weight gain and increased liver weight were seen. Spleen weight decreased in adults and pups exposed to G/TBA. No pathological changes to reproductive organs occurred in any study. Decreased food consumption was seen in G/TAME lactating females. Transient decreases in G/TAME offspring weights were observed during lactation. Except for a minor increase in time to mating in G/TBA which did not affect other reproductive parameters, there were no adverse reproductive findings. The NOAEL for reproductive and offspring parameters was 20,000mg/m(3) for all vapor condensates except for lower offspring NOAELs of 10,000mg/m(3) for G/TBA and 2000mg/m(3) for G/TAME. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive rights and options available to women infected with HIV in Ghana: perspectives of service providers from three Ghanaian health facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos Kankponang

    2013-03-15

    Owing to improved management of HIV and its associated opportunistic infections, many HIV-positive persons of reproductive age are choosing to exercise their right of parenthood. This study explored the knowledge of health workers from two Ghanaian districts on the reproductive rights and options available to HIV-positive women who wish to conceive. Facility-based cross-sectional in design, the study involved the entire population of nurse counselors (32) and medical officers (3) who provide counseling and testing services to clients infected with HIV. Both structured and in-depth interviews were conducted after informed consent. Two main perspectives were revealed. There was an overwhelmingly high level of approbation by the providers on HIV-positive women's right to reproduction (94.3%). At the same time, the providers demonstrated a lack of knowledge regarding the various reproductive options available to women infected with HIV. Site of facility, and being younger were associated with practices that violated client's right to contraceptive counseling (p women on the various reproductive options. Taken together, these findings suggest that many HIV-positive clients do not receive comprehensive information about their reproductive options. These findings highlight some of the problems that service providers face as HIV counselors. Both service providers and policy makers need to recognize these realities and incorporate reproductive health issues of HIV-persons into the existing guidelines.

  20. The need for interaction between assisted reproduction technology and genetics: recommendations of the European Societies of Human Genetics and Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Infertility and reproductive genetic risk are both increasing in our societies because of lifestyle changes and possibly environmental factors. Owing to the magnitude of the problem, they have implications not only at the individual and family levels but also at the community level. This leads to an increasing demand for access to assisted reproduction technology (ART) and genetic services, especially when the cause of infertility may be genetic in origin. The increasing application of genetics in reproductive medicine and vice versa requires closer collaboration between the two disciplines. ART and genetics are rapidly evolving fields where new technologies are currently introduced without sufficient knowledge of their potential long-term effects. As for any medical procedures, there are possible unexpected effects which need to be envisaged to make sure that the balance between benefits and risks is clearly on the benefit side. The development of ART and genetics as scientific activities is creating an opportunity to understand the early stages of human development, which is leading to new and challenging findings/knowledge. However, there are opinions against investigating the early stages of development in humans who deserve respect and attention. For all these reasons, these two societies, European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), have joined efforts to explore the issues at stake and to set up recommendations to maximize the benefit for the couples in need and for the community.

  1. Typical versus delayed speech onset influences verbal reporting of autistic interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Liliane; Majerus, Steve; Mottron, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The distinction between autism and Asperger syndrome has been abandoned in the DSM-5. However, this clinical categorization largely overlaps with the presence or absence of a speech onset delay which is associated with clinical, cognitive, and neural differences. It is unknown whether these different speech development pathways and associated cognitive differences are involved in the heterogeneity of the restricted interests that characterize autistic adults. This study tested the hypothesis that speech onset delay, or conversely, early mastery of speech, orients the nature and verbal reporting of adult autistic interests. The occurrence of a priori defined descriptors for perceptual and thematic dimensions were determined, as well as the perceived function and benefits, in the response of autistic people to a semi-structured interview on their intense interests. The number of words, grammatical categories, and proportion of perceptual / thematic descriptors were computed and compared between groups by variance analyses. The participants comprised 40 autistic adults grouped according to the presence ( N  = 20) or absence ( N  = 20) of speech onset delay, as well as 20 non-autistic adults, also with intense interests, matched for non-verbal intelligence using Raven's Progressive Matrices. The overall nature, function, and benefit of intense interests were similar across autistic subgroups, and between autistic and non-autistic groups. However, autistic participants with a history of speech onset delay used more perceptual than thematic descriptors when talking about their interests, whereas the opposite was true for autistic individuals without speech onset delay. This finding remained significant after controlling for linguistic differences observed between the two groups. Verbal reporting, but not the nature or positive function, of intense interests differed between adult autistic individuals depending on their speech acquisition history: oral reporting of

  2. Inherited leukoencephalopathies with clinical onset in middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannucci, Serena; Donnini, Ida; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2014-12-15

    The currently widespread use of neuroimaging has led neurologists to often face the problem of the differential diagnosis of white matter diseases. There are various forms of leukoencephalopathies (vascular, inflammatory and immunomediated, infectious, metabolic, neoplastic) and sometimes white matter lesions are expression of a genetic disease. While many inherited leukoencephalopathies fall in the child neurologist's interest, others may have a delayed or even a typical onset in the middle or old age. This field is rapidly growing and, in the last few years, many new inherited white matter diseases have been described and genetically defined. A non-delayed recognition of middle and old age inherited leukoencephalopathies appears important to avoid unnecessary tests and therapies in the patient and to possibly anticipate the diagnosis in relatives. The aim of this review is to provide a guide to direct the diagnostic process when facing a patient with a suspicion of an inherited form of leukoencephalopathy and with clinical onset in middle or old age. Based on a MEDLINE search from 1990 to 2013, we identified 24 middle and old age onset inherited leukoencephalopathies and reviewed in this relation the most recent findings focusing on their differential diagnosis. We provide summary tables to use as a check list of clinical and neuroimaging findings that are most commonly associated with these forms of leukoencephalopathies. When present, we reported specific characteristics of single diseases. Several genetic diseases may be suspected in patients with middle or old age and white matter abnormalities. In only few instances, pathognomonic clinical or associated neuroimaging features help identifying a specific disease. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the characteristics of these inherited white matter diseases appears important to improve the diagnostic work-up, optimize the choice of genetic tests, increase the number of diagnosed patients, and stimulate

  3. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  4. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender and social reproduction: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, B; Brenner, J

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that

  6. Late-onset pathological gambling: clinical correlates and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-01-01

    Age at illness onset has significant clinical implications for psychiatric disorders. Prior research has not systematically examined age at illness onset and its relationship to the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling (PG). Among a sample of 322 consecutive subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with late-onset (at or after age 55 years) PG were compared to those with earlier onsets (at or prior to age 25, 26-54 years old) on measures of PG severity, co-occurring disorders, social and legal problems, and family history. Forty-two (13.4%) subjects reported onset of PG at or after age 55 years, 63 (19.6%) reported onset prior to age 25 years, and the majority (n=217; 67.4%) reported onset between the ages of 26 and 54 years. The late-onset group were less likely to declare bankruptcy (p=.029) or have credit card debt attributable to gambling (p=.006). Late-onset PG subjects were significantly more likely to have an anxiety disorder (pgambling problem. Exploratory analyses identified an age-by-gender interaction with respect to treatment-seeking, with more pronounced age-related shortening in the duration between problem onset and treatment seeking observed in men. Age at onset of PG is associated with multiple important clinical features. Long durations of PG prior to treatment-seeking indicate the need for improved prevention efforts among individuals with early PG onset. Late-onset PG is relatively common and has distinct clinical characteristics suggesting that this population might benefit from unique prevention and treatment strategies.

  7. Computed tomography findings in cases of Minamata disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Kenichi; Hirota, Koichi; Tsubaki, Tadao; Tanimura, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Tsuneo.

    1979-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate 57 patients with Minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning); it was proved to be an objective and practical screening procedure. A typical patient who presented an acute onset of concentric constriction of visual fields and cerebellar ataxia showed a low-density area in both occipital regions; cerebellar atrophy and enlarged cerebral cortical sulci. On the other hand, the majority of patients who presented a chronic onset, with only a mild concentric constriction of visual fields, dysdiadochokinesis, and sensory disturbance showed only a questionable or a mild cerebellar atrophy. An enlarged paracerebellar space in mild cerebellar atrophy was easily identified at the pontine angle cistern, the paravermian cistern, and the triangular space of the rectal sinus in the coronal section on an enhanced CT scan. These findings were compatible with pathological findings of mild cases of Minamata disease. The correlation of dysdiadochokinesis with the degree of cerebellar atrophy was demonstrated. (author)

  8. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproduct...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance....

  9. ICU-Onset Clostridium difficile infection in a university hospital in China: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence, clinical profiles and outcome of ICU-onset CDI in a 50-bed medical ICU at a university hospital in China. Stools were collected from patients who developed ICU-onset diarrhea and was screened for tcdA (toxin A gene and tcdB (toxin B gene by PCR. CDI cases were compared with the ICU-onset non-CDI diarrhea cases for demographics, comorbidities, potential risk factors, major laboratory findings and outcomes. Stool samples from CDI cases were subjected to C. difficile culture and C. difficile isolates were screened for tcdA, tcdB and the binary toxin genes (cdtA and cdtB using multiplex PCR. Strain typing of toxigenic C. difficile isolates was performed using multilocus sequence typing. There were 1,277 patients in the ICU during the study period and 124 (9.7% developed ICU-onset diarrhea, of which 31 patients had CDI. The incidence of ICU-onset CDI was 25.2 cases per 10,000 ICU days. ICU-onset CDI cases had similar features with ICU-onset non-CDI diarrhea cases including the use of proton pump inhibitors and antibacterial agents. The crude mortality rate of ICU-onset CDI was 22.6%, but the attributable mortality rate of ICU-onset CDI was only 3.2% here. Toxigenic C. difficile isolates were recovered from 28 out of the 31 patients with CDI. cdtA and cdtB were found in two strains. Seventeen STs including 11 new STs were identified. All of the 11 new STs were single-locus variants of known STs and the 17 STs identified here could be clustered into 3 clades. The incidence of ICU-onset CDI here is similar to those in Europe and North America, suggesting that CDI is likely to be a common problem in China. Toxigenic C. difficile here belonged to a variety of STs, which may represent a significant clonal expansion rather than the true clonal diversity.

  10. Late-Onset Nephrotic Syndrome in Galloway-Mowat Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazza Issa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Galloway-Mowat Syndrome (GMS has a wide variety of clinical manifestations and histologic findings. All reported cases had developed nephrotic syndrome in the first two years of life. We report a case of 12 years old boy with microcephaly, mental retardation, and typical dysmorphic features of GMS with a late onset of minimal change nephritic syndrome which first manifested at seven years of age.

  11. Early onset depression: the relevance of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Asghari, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors that may differentiate early onset from late onset depression. A non-clinical cohort that had been assessed from 1978 to 1993 at 5 yearly intervals and that had a high prevalence rate of lifetime depression took part in the study. We established an appropriate age cut-off to distinguish early onset (i.e. before 26 years) of major and of minor depression, and examined the relevance of a number of possible determinants of early onset depression assessed over the life of the study. Despite several dimensional measures of depression, self-esteem and personality being considered, they generally failed (when assessed early in the study) to discriminate subsequent early onset depression, with the exception of low masculinity scores being a weak predictor of major and/or minor depression. Early onset depression was strongly predicted, however, by a lifetime episode of a major anxiety disorder, with generalised anxiety being a somewhat stronger and more consistent predictor than panic disorder, agoraphobia and minor anxiety disorders (ie social phobia, simple phobia). The possibility that anxiety may act as a key predispositional factor to early onset depression and to a greater number of depressive episodes is important in that clinical assessment and treatment of any existing anxiety disorder may be a more efficient and useful strategy than focussing primarily on the depressive disorder.

  12. Reproductive health decision-making in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Cynthia; Wiener, Lori; Zadeh, Sima; Albright, Jamie; Mellins, Claude Ann; Mancilla, Michael; Tepper, Vicki; Trexler, Connie; Purdy, Julia; Osherow, Janet; Lovelace, Susan; Kapetanovic, Suad

    2013-07-01

    With widespread access to antiretroviral therapy in the United States, many perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, becoming sexually active and making decisions about their reproductive health. The literature focusing on the reproductive decisions of individuals behaviorally infected with HIV can serve as a springboard for understanding the decision-making process of PHIV+ youth. Yet, there are many differences that critically distinguish reproductive health and related decision-making of PHIV+ youth. Given the potential public health implications of their reproductive decisions, better understanding of factors influencing the decision-making process is needed to help inform the development of salient treatment and prevention interventions. To begin addressing this understudied area, a "think tank" session, comprised of clinicians, medical providers, and researchers with expertise in the area of adolescent HIV, was held in Bethesda, MD, on September 21, 2011. The focus was to explore what is known about factors that influence the reproductive decision-making of PHIV+ adolescents and young adults, determine what important data are needed in order to develop appropriate intervention for PHIV+ youth having children, and to recommend future directions for the field in terms of designing and carrying out collaborative studies. In this report, we summarize the findings from this meeting. The paper is organized around the key themes that emerged, including utilizing a developmental perspective to create an operational definition of reproductive decision-making, integration of psychosocial services with medical management, and how to design future research studies. Case examples are presented and model program components proposed.

  13. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and age of onset of childhood sexual abuse in patients with recurrent suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Catherine; Duggan, Danielle S

    2009-03-01

    To explore the association between age of onset of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and overgeneral memory (OGM) in a clinical sample. Presence and age of onset of CSA and levels of OGM were assessed in 49 patients attending hospital following a recurrence of suicidal behaviour. Twenty six participants reported CSA. Earlier age of onset of CSA was associated with greater OGM, indexed by fewer specific and more categoric memories. The association was not accounted for either by elevated levels of depression in those reporting earlier abuse, nor by levels of general verbal fluency. The findings are consistent with previous work and support the hypothesis that abuse occurring earlier in development results in more pronounced OGM.

  14. How great white sharks nourish their embryos to a large size: evidence of lipid histotrophy in lamnoid shark reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Sato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias exhibits viviparous and oophagous reproduction. A 4950 mm total length (TL gravid female accidentally caught by fishermen in the Okinawa Prefecture, Southern Japan carried six embryos (543-624 mm TL, three in each uterus. Both uteri contained copious amounts of yellowish viscous uterine fluid (over 79.2 litres in the left uterus, nutrient eggs and broken egg cases. The embryos had yolk stomachs that had ruptured, the mean volume of which was approximately 197.9 ml. Embryos had about 20 rows of potentially functional teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS-positive substances were observed on the surface and in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells, and large, secretory, OsO4-oxidized lipid droplets of various sizes were distributed on the surface of the villous string epithelium on the uterine wall. Histological examination of the uterine wall showed it to consist of villi, similar to the trophonemata of Dasyatidae rays, suggesting that the large amount of fluid found in the uterus of the white shark was likely required for embryo nutrition. We conclude that: (1 the lipid-rich fluid is secreted from the uterine epithelium only in early gestation before the onset of oophagy, (2 the embryos probably use the abundant uterine fluid and encased nutrient eggs for nutrition at this stage of their development, and (3 the uterine fluid is the major source of embryonic nutrition before oophagy onset. This is the first record of the lipid histotrophy of reproduction among all shark species.

  15. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I.; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients ...

  16. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  17. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Objective: The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method: The sample included 38,993 adults in 18

  18. 32 CFR 2700.43 - Reproduction controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2700.43 Section 2700.43... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.43 Reproduction controls. OMSN and SLNO shall maintain records to show the number and distribution of all OMSN originated classified documents. Reproduction of...

  19. Assisted Reproductive Technologies : Implications for Women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assisted Reproductive Technologies : Implications for Women's Reproductive Rights and Social Citizenship. There is a general perception that assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) affect only a small number of affluent women in India. However, the ART industry - tied as it is to the vigorously pushed medical tourism ...

  20. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species.

  1. False-negative diffusion-weighted imaging findings in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Yuasa, Naoki; Otomo, Takashi; Shiramizu, Hideki; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Yasuhisa; Takagi, Shigeharu

    2006-01-01

    The utility of DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) has been established in acute ischemic stroke. However, some patients with acute stroke show no abnormal signals on DWI, despite the presence of infarction (false-negative DWI). We analyzed the relationship between false-negative DWI and the clinical manifestations of acute ischemic stroke in 151 DWI-positive (89%) and 19 false-negative DWI (11%) patients. We performed MRI within 24 hours after onset at our hospital. Non-specific clinical manifestations, including vertigo and nausea, were frequently observed in false-negative DWI patients. As regards the vascular territory, false-negative DWI was noted in 15.3% of 59 patients with infarctions within the territory of the vertebrobasilar artery. Concerning the duration from onset to initial imaging, 73.7% of the patients with false-negative DWI findings underwent MRI examination within 6 hours after onset. Of the patients with false-negative DWI, 84.2% had lacunar infarction (χ 2 =16.4, P<0.001). In conclusion, false negative DWI is more frequently observed in lacunar infarction than in atherothrombotic infarction or cardiogenic embolism. It is important to examine carefully the neurological changes occurring in patients who present with acute stroke, but have negative DWI findings. (author)

  2. ROLE OF SEROTONIN IN FISH REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy ePrasad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviours, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction.

  3. Asymmetric reproductive isolation between two sympatric annual killifish with extremely short lifespans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Polačik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interspecific reproductive isolation is typically achieved by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic barriers. Behavioural isolating barriers between sympatric, closely related species are often of primary importance and frequently aided by extrinsic factors causing spatial and temporal interspecific separation. Study systems with a severely limited role of extrinsic factors on reproductive isolation may provide valuable insights into how reproductive isolation between sympatric species is maintained. We used no-choice experimental set-up to study reproductive barriers between two closely related sympatric African killifish species, Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius orthonotus. These fish live in small temporary savannah pools and have complete spatial and temporal overlap in reproductive activities and share a similar ecology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that the two species display largely incomplete and asymmetric reproductive isolation. Mating between N. furzeri males and N. orthonotus females was absent under standard experimental conditions and eggs were not viable when fish were forced to mate in a modified experimental setup. In contrast, male N. orthonotus indiscriminately mated with N. furzeri females, the eggs were viable, and offspring successfully hatched. Most spawnings, however, were achieved by male coercion and egg production and embryo survival were low. Behavioural asymmetry was likely facilitated by mating coercion from larger males of N. orthonotus and at relatively low cost to females. Interestingly, the direction of asymmetry was positively associated with asymmetry in post-mating reproductive barriers. SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that, in fish species with a promiscuous mating system and multiple matings each day, selection for strong mate preferences was relaxed. This effect was likely due to the small proportion of resources allocated to each single mating and the high potential cost to females from

  4. Relationships among body composition, circulating concentrations of leptin and follistatin, and the onset of puberty and fertility in young female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Thompson, A N; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Hedger, M P; Ferguson, M B; Martin, G B

    2014-12-30

    The onset of puberty depends on the attainment of critical body mass, so should also be affected by increases in the rate of accumulation of muscle and adipose tissue. Adipose tissue and reproduction are linked by leptin. For muscle, a link has not yet been identified, although one possibility is follistatin. We assessed the relationships among circulating concentrations of follistatin and leptin and the rates of growth and accumulation of muscle and fat during pubertal development in female sheep. We used 326 animals with known phenotypic values for live weight (LW), depths of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known breeding values at post-weaning age for body mass (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). Leptin concentration was positively correlated with values for EMD, PEMD, FAT, PFAT, LW and PWT (Preproductive rate (Preproductive rate (Preproductive performance. We conclude that leptin and follistatin are probably both involved in effects of accelerated accumulation of muscle and adipose tissues on the onset of puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Leptin and reproduction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, Stergios; Chan, Jean L; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2002-03-01

    To review recent advances in understanding the role of leptin in the physiology and pathophysiology of reproduction, with a focus on relevant clinical situations. A MEDLINE computer search was performed to identify relevant articles. Leptin, an adipocyte hormone important in regulating energy homeostasis, interacts with the reproductive axis at multiple sites, with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and inhibitory actions at the gonads. More recently, leptin has been shown to play a role in other target reproductive organs, such as the endometrium, placenta, and mammary gland, with corresponding influences on important physiologic processes such as menstruation, pregnancy, and lactation. As a marker of whether nutritional stores are adequate, leptin may act in concert with gonadotropins and the growth hormone axis to initiate the complex process of puberty. Conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise-induced amenorrhea, and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, are associated with low serum leptin levels; and conditions with excess energy stores or metabolic disturbances, such as obesity and polycystic ovarian syndrome, often have elevated serum or follicular fluid leptin levels, raising the possibility that relative leptin deficiency or resistance may be at least partly responsible for the reproductive abnormalities that occur with these conditions. Leptin may act as the critical link between adipose tissue and the reproductive system, indicating whether adequate energy reserves are present for normal reproductive function. Future interventional studies involving leptin administration are expected to further clarify this role of leptin and may provide new therapeutic options for the reproductive dysfunction associated with states of relative leptin deficiency or resistance.

  6. Sexual Dating Aggression Across Grades 8 Through 12: Timing and Predictors of Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.