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Sample records for reproductive fitness traits

  1. Perspectives on the behavior of entomopathogenic nematodes from dispersal to reproduction: traits contributing to nematode fitness and biocontrol efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Christine T

    2012-06-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are widely used for the biological control of insect pests and are gaining importance as model organisms for studying parasitism and symbiosis. In this paper recent advances in the understanding of EPN behavior are reviewed. The "foraging strategy" paradigm (distinction between species with ambush and cruise strategies) as applied to EPN is being challenged and alternative paradigms proposed. Infection decisions are based on condition of the potential host, and it is becoming clear that already-infected and even long-dead hosts may be invaded, as well as healthy live hosts. The state of the infective juvenile (IJ) also influences infection, and evidence for a phased increase in infectivity of EPN species is mounting. The possibility of social behavior - adaptive interactions between IJs outside the host - is discussed. EPNs' symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) are important for killing the host and rendering it suitable for nematode reproduction, but may reduce survival of IJs, resulting in a trade-off between survival and reproduction. The symbiont also contributes to defence of the cadaver by affecting food-choice decisions of insect and avian scavengers. I review EPN reproductive behavior (including sperm competition, copulation and evidence for attractive and organizational effects of pheromones), and consider the role of endotokia matricida as parental behavior exploited by the symbiont for transmission.

  2. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Keywords: beef cattle, breeding, genetics, heritability, reproduction .... nature of the female reproductive traits or to the large influence of unidentified environmental effects on ..... Factors affecting some performance traits in Friesian cattle.

  4. Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction

    Reproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations

  5. Differential fitness costs of reproduction between the sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Dustin J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2006-01-01

    Natural selection does not necessarily favor maximal reproduction because reproduction imposes fitness costs, reducing parental survival, and offspring quality. Here, we show that parents in a preindustrial population in North America incurred fitness costs from reproduction, and women incurred greater costs than men. We examined the survivorship and reproductive success (Darwinian fitness) of 21,684 couples married between 1860 and 1895 identified in the Utah Population Database. We found th...

  6. Genetic and phenotypic variation of some reproductive traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 195. Genetic and phenotypic variation of some reproductive traits in Egyptian buffalo ..... Mourad, Kawthar A., Khattab, A.S. & Ibrahim, M.A.R., 1989. Effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on reproductive traits in Egyptian ...

  7. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproductive Behavior and Personality Traits of the Five Factor Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, Markus; Alvergne, Alexandra; Pollet, Thomas V.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between Five Factor Model personality traits and various outcomes of reproductive behavior in a sample of 15 729 women and men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Personality and reproductive history was

  9. Sex recombination, and reproductive fitness: an experimental study using Paramecium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, D.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of sex and recombination on reproductive fitness are measured using five wild stocks of Paramecium primaurelia. Among the wild stocks there were highly significant differences in growth rates. No hybrid had as low a fitness as the least fit parental stock. Recombination produced genotypes of higher fitness than those of either parent only in the cross between the two stocks of lowest fitness. The increase in variance of fitness as a result of recombination was almost exclusively attributable to the generation lines with low fitness. The fitness consequences of sexuality and mate choice were stock specific; some individuals leaving the most descendants by inbreeding, others by outcrossing. For most crosses the short-term advantage of sex, if any, accrue from the fusion of different gametes (hybrid vigor) and not from recombination. Since the homozygous genotype with the highest fitnes left the most progeny by inbreeding (no recombination), the persistence of conjugation in P. primaurelia is paradoxical. (JMT)

  10. Corticosterone-mediated reproductive decisions: sex allocation, the cost of reproduction and maternal fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Oliver P.

    2007-01-01

    Managing reproductive investment within the scope of an individual’s energetic condition is required to maximize fitness. To be successful, individuals must make the correct decisions about when to reproduce, when to abandon an attempt, how many resources to invest in current and future attempts and where those resources should be allocated. These reproductive decisions therefore involve complex life-history trade-offs between an individual’s condition and current reproduction, future reprodu...

  11. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  12. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  13. Toxoplasma gondii decreases the reproductive fitness in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Šídlová, A.; Děd, Lukáš; Hladovcová, D.; Vieweg, M.; Weidner, W.; Steger, K.; Stopka, P.; Paradowska-Dogan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), s. 1-11 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Toxoplasma gondii * reproductive fitness * DNA methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  14. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  15. Genomic prediction of reproduction traits for Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Brown, D J; Swan, A A; van der Werf, J H J; Hayes, B J; Daetwyler, H D

    2017-06-01

    Economically important reproduction traits in sheep, such as number of lambs weaned and litter size, are expressed only in females and later in life after most selection decisions are made, which makes them ideal candidates for genomic selection. Accurate genomic predictions would lead to greater genetic gain for these traits by enabling accurate selection of young rams with high genetic merit. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the accuracy of a genomic prediction method for female reproduction in sheep using daughter trait deviations (DTD) for sires and ewe phenotypes (when individual ewes were genotyped) for three reproduction traits: number of lambs born (NLB), litter size (LSIZE) and number of lambs weaned. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), BayesR and pedigree BLUP analyses of the three reproduction traits measured on 5340 sheep (4503 ewes and 837 sires) with real and imputed genotypes for 510 174 SNPs were performed. The prediction of breeding values using both sire and ewe trait records was validated in Merino sheep. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by across sire family and random cross-validations. Accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) were assessed as the mean Pearson correlation adjusted by the accuracy of the input phenotypes. The addition of sire DTD into the prediction analysis resulted in higher accuracies compared with using only ewe records in genomic predictions or pedigree BLUP. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy based on the combined records (ewes and sire DTD) was 0.43 across traits, but the accuracies varied by trait and type of cross-validations. The accuracies of GEBVs from random cross-validations (range 0.17-0.61) were higher than were those from sire family cross-validations (range 0.00-0.51). The GEBV accuracies of 0.41-0.54 for NLB and LSIZE based on the combined records were amongst the highest in the study. Although BayesR was not significantly different from GBLUP in prediction accuracy

  16. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Shall sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amou Posht-e-Masari, Hesam; Shadparvar, Abdol Ahad; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid; Hadi Tavatori, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Shall sheep. Data included 1,316 records on reproductive performances of 395 Shall ewes from 41 sires and 136 dams which were collected from 2001 to 2007 in Shall breeding station in Qazvin province at the Northwest of Iran. Studied traits were litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter mean weight per lamb born (LMWLB), litter mean weight per lamb weaned (LMWLW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW). Test of significance to include fixed effects in the statistical model was performed using the general linear model procedure of SAS. The effects of lambing year and ewe age at lambing were significant (Psheep.

  17. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  18. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  19. Differences among four meat goat breeds for doe fitness indicator traits in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Nguluma, A; Leite-Browning, M L; Browning, R

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable meat goat production begins with the identification and use of maternal breeds that demonstrate relatively enhanced levels of fitness under less-than-optimal conditions. The Myotonic goat is a heritage breed that is lacking in comparative assessment for female fitness. In this study, Boer ( = 73), Kiko ( = 115), Myotonic ( = 80), and Spanish ( = 114) meat goat does were compared for traits associated with health and reproduction. The herd was semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture for 6 yr. The study included 838 doe-year matings and over 2,000 records for BW, fecal egg count (FEC), and packed cell volume (PCV). Body weights of Boer and Kiko does were heavier ( meat goat doe performance under limited-input management conditions. Myotonic does maintained the lowest FEC among all doe breeds and warrant further evaluation as a genetic resource for controlling gastrointestinal parasitism.

  20. Genetic parameters of reproductive traits in pigs: a contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pagnacco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally pig breeding efficiency is defined as the number of piglets weaned per sow per year, so in every pig breeding programmes, great emphasis is placed on improving reproductive traits in sow lines and generally, the evaluation of litter size is carried out in most selection planes. Usually, the reproduction breeding goal is to increase the number of piglets born, but this trait, as reported by Hanenberg et al. (2001 gives an undesirable correlation with the number of stillborn piglets. Litter size is the result of a large number of traits as number of total piglets born, number of born alive, stillbirth, weaned survival; as reported by Tummaruk et al. (2000 the variation in these parameters is influenced by genetic value of the sow and by environmental factors, such as management and season. Regarding the genetic influence on the litter size, we know that the breed can influence the number of born, but its interaction with stillbirth is not significant, although Leenhouwers et al. (1999 found an higher stillbirth incidence in purebred than in crossbred litters........

  1. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): II. Fecundity and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Harvest weight is the main trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) breeding programmes. The effects of selection for harvest weight on female reproductive traits are unknown. In this paper we estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits and their correlation with harvest weight using

  2. Cross-Generational Reproductive Fitness Enforced by Microchimeric Maternal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Jeremy M; Jiang, Tony T; Ertelt, James M; Xin, Lijun; Strong, Beverly S; Shaaban, Aimen F; Way, Sing Sing

    2015-07-30

    Exposure to maternal tissue during in utero development imprints tolerance to immunologically foreign non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA) that persists into adulthood. The biological advantage of this tolerance, conserved across mammalian species, remains unclear. Here, we show maternal cells that establish microchimerism in female offspring during development promote systemic accumulation of immune suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) with NIMA specificity. NIMA-specific Tregs expand during pregnancies sired by males expressing alloantigens with overlapping NIMA specificity, thereby averting fetal wastage triggered by prenatal infection and non-infectious disruptions of fetal tolerance. Therefore, exposure to NIMA selectively enhances reproductive success in second-generation females carrying embryos with overlapping paternally inherited antigens. These findings demonstrate that genetic fitness, canonically thought to be restricted to Mendelian inheritance, is enhanced in female placental mammals through vertically transferred maternal cells that promote conservation of NIMA and enforce cross-generational reproductive benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Kin selection and the evolution of plant reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2016-11-16

    Competition among developing seeds and sibling rivalry within multiovulated ovaries can be deleterious for both the maternal parent and the siblings. Increased genetic relatedness of seeds within the ovary may foster kin selection and reduce the deleterious consequences of sibling competition. The pollen parent may also be selected for siring all progeny within a fruit. I propose a series of hypotheses to explain the evolution of a number of reproductive traits in angiosperms in the context of kin selection and sibling rivalry within the ovaries of angiosperms. I present evidence to show that a single-pollen parent, indeed, often sires seeds within multiovulated ovaries. Various types of pollen aggregations and transfer of such pollen masses to the stigmas of flowers by specialized pollinators make this increased genetic relatedness possible. An alternative mode to reduce sibling rivalry may be the reduction of ovule number to one, an evolutionary trend that has independently occurred many times in flowering plants. Finally, I build on previously established correlations to predict two sets of correlations among reproductive traits. In the first case, large showy flowers, transfer of pollen en masse by specialized pollinators, and multiovulated ovaries and multisided fruits seem to be correlated. In the second case, the previously established correlations among small and inconspicuous flowers, pollination by wind, water or generalist insects, flowers and fruits with few or single ovules and seeds, respectively, may also include monoecy or dioecy. Although correlations among many of these traits have been established in the past, I invoke kin selection and sibling competition to explain the evolution of correlated traits as two distinct evolutionary pathways in angiosperms. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. A role for sexual conflict in the evolution of reproductive traits in Nasonia wasps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Pannebakker, Bart A.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual conflict theory predicts that female and male reproductive traits coevolve resulting in disruption of reproductive behaviour upon mating of individuals from diverged populations. We used interfertile species of haplodiploid Nasonia wasps to compare re-mating frequency, longevity, oviposition

  5. Genetic associations between reproductive and linear-type traits of Holstein cows in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Tatiana Prestes; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Daltro, Darlene dos Santos; Braccini Neto, José; McManus, Concepta; Thaler Neto, André; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate heritability, genetic, and residual correlations between reproductive traits such as age at first calving, calving interval, dry period, and first service period and linear type traits measured in Holstein cows born between the years 1990 and 2008 in Brazil. The (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, using the MTDFREML software. The heritability for reproductive traits and linear-type traits ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 and f...

  6. Pheromone modulates two phenotypically plastic traits - adult reproduction and larval diapause - in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharam, Barney; Weldon, Laura; Viney, Mark

    2017-08-22

    Animals use information from their environment to make decisions, ultimately to maximize their fitness. The nematode C. elegans has a pheromone signalling system, which hitherto has principally been thought to be used by worms in deciding whether or not to arrest their development as larvae. Recent studies have suggested that this pheromone can have other roles in the C. elegans life cycle. Here we demonstrate a new role for the C. elegans pheromone, showing that it accelerates hermaphrodites' reproductive rate, a phenomenon which we call pheromone-dependent reproductive plasticity (PDRP). We also find that pheromone accelerates larval growth rates, but this depends on a live bacterial food source, while PDRP does not. Different C. elegans strains all show PDRP, though the magnitude of these effects differ among the strains, which is analogous to the diversity of arrested larval phenotypes that this pheromone also induces. Using a selection experiment we also show that selection for PDRP or for larval arrest affects both the target and the non-target trait, suggesting that there is cross-talk between these two pheromone-dependent traits. Together, these results show that C. elegans' pheromone is a signal that acts at two key life cycle points, controlling alternative larval fates and affecting adult hermaphrodites' reproduction. More broadly, these results suggest that to properly understand and interpret the biology of pheromone signalling in C. elegans and other nematodes, the life-history biology of these organisms in their natural environment needs to be considered.

  7. Repeatability and genotypic correlations of reproductive and productive traits of crossbred beef cattle dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L N; Gasparino, E; Torres Júnior, R A A; Euclides Filho, K; Silva, L O C; Alencar, M M; Souza Júnior, M D; Battistelli, J V F; Silva, S C C

    2015-05-22

    Beef cattle production requires reproductive efficiency. However, measures of reproductive traits are not usually collected; consequently, correlated traits that could be used as indicators would be useful. We examined associations between measures of reproductive and productive efficiency that could be used as selection indicators. Data from 194 dams of the genetic groups Angus x Nelore, Caracu x Nelore, and Valdostana x Nelore collected over 4 years were used. The reproductive traits analyzed were days to heat (DH), calving interval (CI), days to calving (DC), and pregnancy rate (PR). The productive traits were dam weight (DW), body condition score (BCS), calf weight (CW), and weaning rate (WR). The effects on the model were: year, genetic group, reproductive status (RS), age, reproductive rest, and breed of bull (CW and WR). Multivariate analyses were performed, using the Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling. We conclude that the reproductive measures are ineffective as selection indicators, whereas using dam weight may be a good alternative.

  8. Genome-wide association study on reproductive traits in Jinghai Yellow Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G X; Fan, Q C; Wang, J Y; Zhang, T; Xue, Q; Shi, H Q

    2015-12-01

    To identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with reproductive traits, a genome-wide analysis was performed in Jinghai Yellow Chickens to analyze body weight at first oviposition (BWF), age at first oviposition (AFE), weight of the egg at first oviposition (FEW), egg weight at the age of 300 days (EW300), number of eggs produced by 300 days of age (EN300), egg hatchability (HA) and multiple selection index for egg production (MSI). The results showed that seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with reproductive traits (Preproductive traits were identified (Preproductive traits will greatly advance the understanding of the genetic basis and molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive traits and may have practical significance in breeding programs for the improvements of reproductive traits in the Jinghai Yellow Chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic parameter estimation of reproductive traits of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; Kong, Jie; Cao, Baoxiang; Luo, Kun; Liu, Ning; Meng, Xianhong; Xu, Shengyu; Guo, Zhaojia; Chen, Guoliang; Luan, Sheng

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the heritability, repeatability, phenotypic correlation, and genetic correlation of the reproductive and growth traits of L. vannamei were investigated and estimated. Eight traits of 385 shrimps from forty-two families, including the number of eggs (EN), number of nauplii (NN), egg diameter (ED), spawning frequency (SF), spawning success (SS), female body weight (BW) and body length (BL) at insemination, and condition factor (K), were measured,. A total of 519 spawning records including multiple spawning and 91 no spawning records were collected. The genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model, a multinomial logit model (for SF), and a sire-dam and probit model (for SS). Because there were repeated records, permanent environmental effects were included in the models. The heritability estimates for BW, BL, EN, NN, ED, SF, SS, and K were 0.49 ± 0.14, 0.51 ± 0.14, 0.12 ± 0.08, 0, 0.01 ± 0.04, 0.06 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.07, and 0.10 ± 0.06, respectively. The genetic correlation was 0.99 ± 0.01 between BW and BL, 0.90 ± 0.19 between BW and EN, 0.22 ± 0.97 between BW and ED, -0.77 ± 1.14 between EN and ED, and -0.27 ± 0.36 between BW and K. The heritability of EN estimated without a covariate was 0.12 ± 0.08, and the genetic correlation was 0.90 ± 0.19 between BW and EN, indicating that improving BW may be used in selection programs to genetically improve the reproductive output of L. vannamei during the breeding. For EN, the data were also analyzed using body weight as a covariate (EN-2). The heritability of EN-2 was 0.03 ± 0.05, indicating that it is difficult to improve the reproductive output by genetic improvement. Furthermore, excessive pursuit of this selection is often at the expense of growth speed. Therefore, the selection of high-performance spawners using BW and SS may be an important strategy to improve nauplii production.

  10. Genetic correlations between ewe reproduction and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Greeff, J C; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; Taylor, P J; van der Werf, J H J

    2008-12-01

    Genetic correlations between reproduction traits in ewes and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino rams were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The carcass data were from 5870 Merino rams slaughtered at approximately 18 months of age that were the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks over 7 years. The carcass traits included ultrasound scan fat and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) measured on live animals, dressing percentage and carcass tissue depth (at the GR site FATGR and C site FATC), eye muscle depth, width and area and the meat quality indicator traits of muscle final pH and colour (L*, a*, b*). The reproduction data consisted of 13 464 ewe joining records for number of lambs born and weaned and 9015 records for LS. The genetic correlations between reproduction and fat measurements were negative (range -0.06 +/- 0.12 to -0.37 +/- 0.12), with smaller correlations for live measurement than carcass traits. There were small favourable genetic correlations between reproduction traits and muscle depth in live rams (EMDUS, 0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.20 +/- 0.12), although those with carcass muscle traits were close to zero. The reproduction traits were independent of meat colour L* (relative brightness), but tended to be favourably correlated with meat colour a* (relative redness, 0.12 +/- 0.17 to 0.19 +/- 0.16). There was a tendency for meat final pH to have small negative favourable genetic correlations with reproduction traits (0.05 +/- 0.11 to -0.17 +/- 0.12). This study indicates that there is no antagonism between reproduction traits and carcass and meat quality indicator traits, with scope for joint improvement of reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

  11. Genetic parameters for fitness and neonatal behavior traits in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, S M; Bünger, L; Dwyer, C M

    2012-11-01

    Poor neonatal survival constrains productivity and good welfare. The heritability of survival in sheep is very low, suggesting that genetic progress will be slow. Previously we have shown that a difficult birth and low neonatal lamb vigor are important predictors of future survival. In this study we investigated the heritability of these traits, and their relationship to production traits, as an alternative indirect route to improve lamb survival. Neonatal lamb data from 11,092 animals were collected over 2 years from 290 commercial sheep flocks, using previously developed methods to rapidly assess three traits (birth assistance, lamb vigor, sucking ability) on farm. Heritabilities for neonatal traits were moderate: birth assistance (mean ± standard error; 0.26 ± 0.03), lamb vigor (0.40 ± 0.04) and sucking ability (0.32 ± 0.03). Genetic correlations between neonatal traits were moderate to high, and positive. Heritabilities for production traits were also moderate: 8-week weight (0.27 ± 0.06), 20-week weight (0.39 ± 0.07), ultrasound muscle depth (0.37 ± 0.06). Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the neonatal traits and production traits were not significantly different from zero. However, lambs that were scored as of poor vigor at birth were less likely to be recorded at 8 or 20 weeks, indicating that they may have died. The data demonstrate that the neonatal survival traits of birth assistance, lamb vigor and sucking assistance are moderately heritable when treated as a lamb trait, indicating that selection to target these lamb traits would successfully, and efficiently, improve survival without influencing productivity.

  12. Genetic variation of inbreeding depression among floral and fitness traits in Silene nutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Hansen, Thomas Møller; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude and variation of inbreeding depression (ID) within populations is important for the evolution and maintenance of mixed mating systems. We studied ID and its genetic variation in a range of floral and fitness traits in a small and large population of the perennial herb Silene nutans......, using controlled pollinations in a fully factorial North Carolina II design. Floral traits and early fitness traits, that is seed mass and germination rate, were not much affected by inbreeding (delta0.4). Lack of genetic correlations indicated that ID in floral, early and late traits is genetically...... was statistically significant in most floral and all seed traits, but not in late fitness traits. However, some paternal families had delta...

  13. The forms and fitness cost of senescence : Age-specific recapture, survival, reproduction, and reproductive value in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Choquet, Remi; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon

    Longitudinal studies of senescence accumulate rapidly from natural populations. However, it is largely unknown whether different fitness components senesce in parallel, how reproductive and survival senescence contribute to declines in reproductive value, and how large the fitness cost of senescence

  14. Floral function: effects of traits on pollinators, male and female pollination success, and female fitness across three species of milkweeds (Asclepias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Raffica J; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2017-01-01

    Central questions in plant reproductive ecology are whether the functions of floral traits in hermaphrodites create conflict between sexes that could slow evolution, and whether individual floral traits function in pollinator attraction, efficiency, or both. We studied how floral traits affect pollinator visitation and efficiency, and how they affect male and female function and female fitness within and across three Asclepias species that differ in floral morphology. Using separate multiple regressions, we regressed pollen removal, deposition, and fruit number onto six floral traits. We also used path analyses integrating these variables with pollinator visitation data for two of the species to further explore floral function and its effects on fruit production. Most traits affected male pollination success only, and these effects often differed between species. The exception was increased slit length, which increased pollinia insertion in two of the species. There were no interspecific differences in the effects of the traits on female pollination success. All traits except horn reach affected pollination efficiency in at least one species, and horn reach and two hood dimensions were the only traits to affect pollinator attraction, but in just one species. Traits tended to function in only one sex, and more traits affected function through pollinator efficiency than through attraction. There was no significant link between female pollination success and female fitness in any of the three species; this pattern is consistent with fruit production not being limited by pollen deposition. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Temperature-dependent development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Haque, Md. Ahsanul; Nachman, Gösta

    2012-01-01

    Development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated on kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., at eleven constant temperatures. Tetranychus macfarlanei was able to develop and complete its life cycle at temperatures ranging from 17...

  16. Environmental effects on growth, reproduction, and life-history traits of loggerhead turtles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marn, Nina; Jusup, Marko; Legović, Tarzan; Kooijman, S. A.L.M.; Klanjšček, Tin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between the environmental conditions and life-history traits (such as growth, reproduction, and size at specific life stages) is important for understanding the population dynamics of a species and for constructing adaptable, relevant, and efficient conservation

  17. [Fitness of sexual reproduction of Toona ciliata var. pubescens natural populations and their sexual reproduction and regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong Lan; Zhang, Lu; Jia, Li Ming; Liang, Yue-Long; Cai, Jun Huo

    2018-04-01

    To examine the reproduction fitness coefficients and individual-level fitness of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, their sexual reproduction and natural regeneration were investigated during 2006-2016, with four natural populations in Jiulianshan National Reserve as test objects. The results showed that there were only 2-10 trees for the natural populations of T. ciliata var. pubescens with a small initial number of fruiting plants (3-9 trees), which were from the initial fruiting plants or their first/second generation. The sexual reproduction of these isolated populations were significantly different, and their seed production capacities tended to decline over time. With the maturing of communities, soil seed banks and seed germinations were extremely poor, and the number of trees that could be growing to mature stage was nearly zero. The optimum maturity age of T. ciliata var. pubescens was about 40 a, and the fitness coefficients (2.0-2.8) rapidly increased in early development stage, but then was sharply reduced (0.3-0.5), and then gradually dropped to almost 0. There were significant differences in the fitness at individual level (0-14 tree·cm -2 ) among different populations, but their values were low (close to zero). Based on the existing reproduction rate, the actual values of sexual reproduction and regeneration fitness were much lower than the predicted ones. Due to the low level of genetic fitness, the sexual reproductive ability of different populations all showed decreasing trends. The natural sexual regeneration ability tended to decline, while the fitness of T. ciliata var. pubescens further decreased. All those factors suggested higher investment risks. Therefore, the systems of sexual reproduction became unbalanced and deteriorating. We proposed that more studies, including breeding mating, pollination, seed setting, and genetic diversity evaluation, are needed. Moreover, we should provide suitable forest environment through cleaning up litter in the

  18. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 9...

  19. Additive and non-additive effects on fitness traits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    2014-11-09

    Nov 9, 2014 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must ... Fitness is of paramount importance to efficient and profitable beef production. ..... Statistical analysis system User's Guide: Statistics.

  20. Parasite fitness traits under environmental variation: disentangling the roles of a chytrid's immediate host and external environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Wyngaert, Silke; Vanholsbeeck, Olivier; Spaak, Piet; Ibelings, Bas W

    2014-10-01

    Parasite environments are heterogeneous at different levels. The first level of variability is the host itself. The second level represents the external environment for the hosts, to which parasites may be exposed during part of their life cycle. Both levels are expected to affect parasite fitness traits. We disentangle the main and interaction effects of variation in the immediate host environment, here the diatom Asterionella formosa (variables host cell volume and host condition through herbicide pre-exposure) and variation in the external environment (variables host density and acute herbicide exposure) on three fitness traits (infection success, development time and reproductive output) of a chytrid parasite. Herbicide exposure only decreased infection success in a low host density environment. This result reinforces the hypothesis that chytrid zoospores use photosynthesis-dependent chemical cues to locate its host. At high host densities, chemotaxis becomes less relevant due to increasing chance contact rates between host and parasite, thereby following the mass-action principle in epidemiology. Theoretical support for this finding is provided by an agent-based simulation model. The immediate host environment (cell volume) substantially affected parasite reproductive output and also interacted with the external herbicide exposed environment. On the contrary, changes in the immediate host environment through herbicide pre-exposure did not increase infection success, though it had subtle effects on zoospore development time and reproductive output. This study shows that both immediate host and external environment as well as their interaction have significant effects on parasite fitness. Disentangling these effects improves our understanding of the processes underlying parasite spread and disease dynamics.

  1. Reproduction traits, growth traits and age at first calving in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silva Marestone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the reproductive efficiency expressed by traits, interval from first to second calving (IDP, number of services per conception to the first calving (NSC1, number of services per conception for the second calving (NSC2, service period from the first to the second calving (PS and gestation lenght (PG of Holstein heifers. Data from 377 heifers from two herds, one in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo and another in Rolândia, Paraná were analysed. The statistical model to analyze IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG included the fixed effect of Contemporary Group (CG. To analyze PG, it was also considered the effect of calf sex. To evaluate the growth performance and age at first calving (AFC, data from 360 Holstein heifers belonging to property in Rolândia were analysed. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (CG and average daily gain from birth to 15 months (ADG. A similar model was used to analyze weigth at 458 dias (W458 and ADG, therefore considering only CG. The overall means of IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG, were 14.96 ± 3.94 months; 1.35 ± 0.71 services, 2.86 ± 2.37 services, 178.83 ± 118.73 days; 276.67± 5.65 days, respectively. Correlations were observed between the traits IDP and NSC2 of 72% (P<0.0001, between IDP and PS of 98% (P<0.0001 and between NCS2 and PS of 72% (P<0.0001. The gestation length of males and females showed estimated average of 277.53 ± 0.46 days and 276.33 ± 0.40 days, respectively, and the calf sex was source of variation on PG (P<0.05. Average daily gain was a significant source of variation on AFC and CG affected all traits studied. The estimated average for AFC was 24.18 ± 1.59 months, for W458 was 362.33 ± 36.24 kg and ADG was 0.704 ± 0.08 kg.

  2. Body condition score of Nellore beef cows: a heritable measure to improve the selection of reproductive and maternal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A F A; Neves, H H R; Carvalheiro, R; Oliveira, J A; Queiroz, S A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the economic importance of beef cattle production in Brazil, female reproductive performance, which is strongly associated with production efficiency, is not included in the selection index of most breeding programmes due to low heritability and difficulty in measure. The body condition score (BCS) could be used as an indicator of these traits. However, so far little is known about the feasibility of using BCS as a selection tool for reproductive performance in beef cattle. In this study, we investigated the sources of variation in the BCS of Nellore beef cows, quantified its association with reproductive and maternal traits and estimated its heritability. BCS was analysed using a logistic model that included the following effects: contemporary group at weaning, cow weight and hip height, calving order, reconception together with the weight and scores of conformation and early finishing assigned to calves at weaning. In the genetic analysis, variance components of BCS were estimated through Bayesian inference by fitting an animal model that also included the aforementioned effects. The results showed that BCS was significantly associated with all of the reproductive and maternal variables analysed. The estimated posterior mean of heritability of BCS was 0.24 (highest posterior density interval at 95%: 0.093 to 0.385), indicating an involvement of additive gene action in its determination. The present findings show that BCS can be used as a selection criterion for Nellore females.

  3. Genetic Parameters of Reproductive and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Berkshire Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters of Berkshire pigs for reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using the records from a breeding farm in Korea. For reproduction traits, 2,457 records of the total number of piglets born (TNB and the number of piglets born alive (NBA from 781 sows and 53 sires were used. For two carcass traits which are carcass weight (CW and backfat thickness (BF and for 10 meat quality traits which are pH value after 45 minutes (pH45m, pH value after 24 hours (pH24h, lightness in meat color (LMC, redness in meat color (RMC, yellowness in meat color (YMC, moisture holding capacity (MHC, drip loss (DL, cooking loss (CL, fat content (FC, and shear force value (SH, 1,942 pig records were used to estimate genetic parameters. The genetic parameters for each trait were estimated using VCE program with animal model. Heritability estimates for reproduction traits TNB and NBA were 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, for carcass traits CW and BF were 0.37 and 0.57, respectively and for meat traits pH45m, pH24h, LMC, RMC, YMC, MHC, DL, CL, FC, and SH were 0.48, 0.15, 0.19, 0.36, 0.28, 0.21, 0.33, 0.45, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively. The estimate for genetic correlation coefficient between CW and BF was 0.27. The Genetic correlation between pH24h and meat color traits were in the range of −0.51 to −0.33 and between pH24h and DL and SH were −0.41 and −0.32, respectively. The estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive and meat quality traits were very low or zero. However, the estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive traits and drip and cooking loss were in the range of 0.12 to 0.17 and −0.14 to −0.12, respectively. As the estimated heritability of meat quality traits showed medium to high heritability, these traits may be applicable for the genetic improvement by continuous measurement. However, since some of the meat quality traits showed negative genetic correlations with

  4. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jicai; Shen, Botong; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; Ma, Li

    2017-05-30

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and whether QTL acting in a non-additive manner can be detected in genetic association studies remain controversial. To empirically answer these questions, we analyzed a large cattle dataset that consisted of 42,701 genotyped Holstein cows with genotyped parents and phenotypic records for eight production and reproduction traits. SNP genotypes were phased in pedigree to determine the parent-of-origin of alleles, and a three-component GREML was applied to obtain variance decomposition for additive, dominance, and imprinting effects. The results showed a significant non-zero contribution from dominance to production traits but not to reproduction traits. Imprinting effects significantly contributed to both production and reproduction traits. Interestingly, imprinting effects contributed more to reproduction traits than to production traits. Using GWAS and imputation-based fine-mapping analyses, we identified and validated a dominance association signal with milk yield near RUNX2, a candidate gene that has been associated with milk production in mice. When adding non-additive effects into the prediction models, however, we observed little or no increase in prediction accuracy for the eight traits analyzed. Collectively, our results suggested that non-additive effects contributed a non-negligible amount (more for reproduction traits) to the total genetic variance of complex traits in cattle, and detection of QTLs with non-additive effect is possible in GWAS using a large dataset.

  5. The rate and effects of spontaneous mutation on fitness traits in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W; Fox, Sara; Kuzdzal-Fick, Jennie J; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2013-07-08

    We performed a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to estimate the rate and distribution of effects of spontaneous mutations affecting eight putative fitness traits. We found that the per-generation mutation rate for most fitness components is 0.0019 mutations per haploid genome per generation or larger. This rate is an order of magnitude higher than estimates for fitness components in the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even though the base-pair substitution rate is two orders of magnitude lower. The high rate of fitness-altering mutations observed in this species may be partially explained by a large mutational target relative to S. cerevisiae. Fitness-altering mutations also may occur primarily at simple sequence repeats, which are common throughout the genome, including in coding regions, and may represent a target that is particularly likely to give fitness effects upon mutation. The majority of mutations had deleterious effects on fitness, but there was evidence for a substantial fraction, up to 40%, being beneficial for some of the putative fitness traits. Competitive ability within the multicellular slug appears to be under weak directional selection, perhaps reflecting the fact that slugs are sometimes, but not often, comprised of multiple clones in nature. Evidence for pleiotropy among fitness components across MA lines was absent, suggesting that mutations tend to act on single fitness components.

  6. Genetic parameters of ovarian and uterine reproductive traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate genetic parameters of detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract as well as their genetic correlations with traditional reproductive traits. A total of 226,141 calving and insemination records as well as 74,134 ultrasound records from Irish dairy cows were used. Traditional reproductive traits included postpartum interval to first service, conception, and next calving, as well as the interval from first to last service; number of inseminations, pregnancy rate to first service, pregnant within 42 d of the herd breeding season, and submission in the first 21 d of the herd breeding season were also available. Detailed reproductive traits included resumed cyclicity at the time of ultrasound examination, incidence of multiple ovulations, incidence of early postpartum ovulation, heat detection, ovarian cystic structures, embryo loss, and uterine score; the latter was a subjectively assessed on a scale of 1 (little fluid with normal uterine tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid uterine tone). Variance (and covariance) components were estimated using repeatability animal linear mixed models. Heritability for all reproductive traits were generally low (0.001-0.05), with the exception of traits related to cyclicity postpartum, regardless if defined traditionally (0.07; calving to first service) or from ultrasound examination [resumed cyclicity at the time of examination (0.07) or early postpartum ovulation (0.10)]. The genetic correlations among the detailed reproductive traits were generally favorable. The exception was the genetic correlation (0.29) between resumed cyclicity and uterine score; superior genetic merit for cyclicity postpartum was associated with inferior uterine score. Superior genetic merit for most traditional reproductive traits was associated with superior genetic merit for resumed cyclicity (genetic correlations ranged from -0.59 to -0.36 and from 0

  7. Temperamental Traits Versus Individual Physical Fitness Components and a Physical Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernatowicz Dominik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine whether relationships exist between particular temperamental traits within the concept of Regulative Theory of Temperament and components of physical fitness, that are most crucial for success in sport. The research involved 108 individuals including 63 men (age 21.1 ± 1.6 yrs and 45 women (age 20.7 ± 1.3 yrs. None of the respondents were professionally engaged in sport. Components of physical fitness included: aerobic capacity, strength, agility, static-dynamic balance and reaction time. The respondents also completed two questionnaires: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The results indicate that the temperamental traits had average to poor correlations with the components of physical fitness, whereas more statistically significant correlations were observed in women. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional reactivity and agility, which was a result confirmed by previous research. All temperamental traits related with the energetic aspects of behaviour correlated with simple reaction time in women. Physical activity and aerobic capacity did not correlate with any of the studied traits. The results do not allow for any general conclusions to be drawn, but can serve as a reference point for future research on temperamental traits as delineated by Regulative Theory of Temperament and their relationship with the components of physical fitness.

  8. Genetic correlations among and between wool, growth and reproduction traits in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Gilmour, A R; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; Swan, A A; Brien, F D; Greeff, J C; van der Werf, J H J

    2007-04-01

    Data from seven research resource flocks across Australia were combined to provide accurate estimates of genetic correlations among production traits in Merino sheep. The flocks represented contemporary Australian Merino fine, medium and broad wool strains over the past 30 years. Over 110,000 records were available for analysis for each of the major wool traits, and 50,000 records for reproduction and growth traits with over 2700 sires and 25,000 dams. Individual models developed from the single trait analyses were extended to the various combinations of two-trait models to obtain genetic correlations among six wool traits [clean fleece weight (CFW), greasy fleece weight, fibre diameter (FD), yield, coefficient of variation of fibre diameter and standard deviation of fibre diameter], four growth traits [birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight (YWT), and hogget weight] and four reproduction traits [fertility, litter size, lambs born per ewe joined, lambs weaned per ewe joined (LW/EJ)]. This study has provided for the first time a comprehensive matrix of genetic correlations among these 14 wool, growth and reproduction traits. The large size of the data set has also provided estimates with very low standard errors. A moderate positive genetic correlation was observed between CFW and FD (0.29 +/- 0.02). YWT was positively correlated with CFW (0.23 +/- 0.04), FD (0.17 +/- 0.04) and LWEJ (0.58 +/- 0.06), while LW/EJ was negatively correlated with CFW (-0.26 +/- 0.05) and positively correlated with FD (0.06 +/- 0.04) and LS (0.68 +/- 0.04). These genetic correlations, together with the estimates of heritability and other parameters provide the basis for more accurate prediction of outcomes in complex sheep-breeding programmes designed to improve several traits.

  9. Pluck or Luck: Does Trait Variation or Chance Drive Variation in Lifetime Reproductive Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin E; Ellner, Stephen P

    2018-04-01

    While there has been extensive interest in how intraspecific trait variation affects ecological processes, outcomes are highly variable even when individuals are identical: some are lucky, while others are not. Trait variation is therefore important only if it adds substantially to the variability produced by luck. We ask when trait variation has a substantial effect on variability in lifetime reproductive success (LRS), using two approaches: (1) we partition the variation in LRS into contributions from luck and trait variation and (2) we ask what can be inferred about an individual's traits and with what certainty, given their observed LRS. In theoretical stage- and size-structured models and two empirical case studies, we find that luck usually dominates the variance of LRS. Even when individuals differ substantially in ways that affect expected LRS, unless the effects of luck are substantially reduced (e.g., low variability in reproductive life span or annual fecundity), most variance in lifetime outcomes is due to luck, implying that departures from "null" models omitting trait variation will be hard to detect. Luck also obscures the relationship between realized LRS and individual traits. While trait variation may influence the fate of populations, luck often governs the lives of individuals.

  10. The Slavic NBN Founder Mutation: A Role for Reproductive Fitness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Seemanova

    Full Text Available The vast majority of patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS are of Slavic origin and carry a deleterious deletion (c.657del5; rs587776650 in the NBN gene on chromosome 8q21. This mutation is essentially confined to Slavic populations and may thus be considered a Slavic founder mutation. Notably, not a single parenthood of a homozygous c.657del5 carrier has been reported to date, while heterozygous carriers do reproduce but have an increased cancer risk. These observations seem to conflict with the considerable carrier frequency of c.657del5 of 0.5% to 1% as observed in different Slavic populations because deleterious mutations would be eliminated quite rapidly by purifying selection. Therefore, we propose that heterozygous c.657del5 carriers have increased reproductive success, i.e., that the mutation confers heterozygote advantage. In fact, in our cohort study of the reproductive history of 24 NBS pedigrees from the Czech Republic, we observed that female carriers gave birth to more children on average than female non-carriers, while no such reproductive differences were observed for males. We also estimate that c.657del5 likely occurred less than 300 generations ago, thus supporting the view that the original mutation predated the historic split and subsequent spread of the 'Slavic people'. We surmise that the higher fertility of female c.657del5 carriers reflects a lower miscarriage rate in these women, thereby reflecting the role of the NBN gene product, nibrin, in the repair of DNA double strand breaks and their processing in immune gene rearrangements, telomere maintenance, and meiotic recombination, akin to the previously described role of the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2.

  11. Sensory response system of social behavior tied to female reproductive traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Tsuruda

    Full Text Available Honey bees display a complex set of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits that correlate with the colony storage of surplus pollen (pollen hoarding. We hypothesize that the association of these traits is a result of pleiotropy in a gene signaling network that was co-opted by natural selection to function in worker division of labor and foraging specialization. By acting on the gene network, selection can change a suite of traits, including stimulus/response relationships that affect individual foraging behavior and alter the colony level trait of pollen hoarding. The 'pollen-hoarding syndrome' of honey bees is the best documented syndrome of insect social organization. It can be exemplified as a link between reproductive anatomy (ovary size, physiology (yolk protein level, and foraging behavior in honey bee strains selected for pollen hoarding, a colony level trait. The syndrome gave rise to the forager-Reproductive Ground Plan Hypothesis (RGPH, which proposes that the regulatory control of foraging onset and foraging preference toward nectar or pollen was derived from a reproductive signaling network. This view was recently challenged. To resolve the controversy, we tested the associations between reproductive anatomy, physiology, and stimulus/response relationships of behavior in wild-type honey bees.Central to the stimulus/response relationships of honey bee foraging behavior and pollen hoarding is the behavioral trait of sensory sensitivity to sucrose (an important sugar in nectar. To test the linkage of reproductive traits and sensory response systems of social behavior, we measured sucrose responsiveness with the proboscis extension response (PER assay and quantified ovary size and vitellogenin (yolk precursor gene expression in 6-7-day-old bees by counting ovarioles (ovary filaments and by using semiquantitative real time RT-PCR. We show that bees with larger ovaries (more ovarioles are characterized by higher levels of

  12. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Asgarini; Fariba Yazdkhasti; Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traits -including sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness - among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART) or surrogacy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who v...

  13. Segregation of vegetative and reproductive traits associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an F1 mapping population (AM1) of D. alata, exhibited segregation for both tuber yield- and quality- related traits when evaluated in the field for 12 agronomic characters: days to shoot emergence, number of primary vines per plant, days to flowering, flower sex, flowering intensity, days to tuber initiation, number ...

  14. Reproductive traits of marine terns (Sternidae): evidence for food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both tree- and K-means clustering, based on four traits excluding chick provisioning mode, identified two groups of terns — those that breed on tropical oceanic islands and those that breed along mainland coasts and at temperate islands (>40° from the Equator). Among mainland terns, there is a tendency for reduced clutch ...

  15. Genetic variability and heritability studies of some reproductive traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The success of most crop improvement programs largely depends upon the genetic variability and the heritability of desirable traits. The magnitude and type of genetic variability help the breeder to determine the selection criteria and breeding schemes to be used for improvement purposes. A screen.

  16. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Coe Girão

    Full Text Available Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots. As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated. The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores for pollination systems (-30.3%, floral types (-23.6%, and floral sizes (-20.8% in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and

  17. Prioritization of candidate genes for cattle reproductive traits, based on protein-protein interactions, gene expression, and text-mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulsegge, Ina; Woelders, Henri; Smits, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is of significant economic importance in dairy cattle. Improved understanding of mechanisms that control estrous behavior and other reproduction traits could help in developing strategies to improve and/or monitor these traits. The objective of this study was to predict and rank gene...

  18. Reproductive traits of the small Patagonian octopus Octopus tehuelchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storero, Lorena P.; Narvarte, Maite A.; González, Raúl A.

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the reproductive features of Octopus tehuelchus in three coastal environments of San Matías Gulf (Patagonia). Monthly samples of O. tehuelchus were used to estimate size at maturity, compare seasonal changes in oocyte size frequency distributions between sites as well as oocyte number and size between female maturity stage and sites. Females in Islote Lobos had a smaller size at maturity than females in San Antonio Bay and El Fuerte, probably as a consequence of a generally smaller body size. Males in San Antonio Bay were smaller at maturity than females. O. tehuelchus is a simultaneous terminal spawner. Fecundity (expressed as number of vitellogenic oocytes in ovary) was lower in Islote Lobos, and an increase in oocyte number in relation to female total weight was found. Females in San Antonio Bay had the largest oocytes, which may indicate higher energy reserves for the embryo and therefore higher juvenile survival. There was a close relationship between reproduction, growth and condition, represented as size at maturity, number and size of vitellogenic oocytes and period of maturity and spawning. Given the local variation in some reproductive features of O. tehuelchus, studies should focus on the environmental factors, which bring about this variation, and on how it affects the dynamics of local populations.

  19. Analysis of Non-Genetic Factors Influencing Reproductive Traits of Japanese Black Heifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiaji, A.; Oikawa, T.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed was to identify non-genetic factors strongly associated with reproductive traits on Japanese Black heifer. Artificial insemination and calving records were analyzed to investigate non-genetic effect on reproductive performances. A total of 2220 records of heifer raised between 2005 and 2016 were utilized in this study. Studied traits were first service non return rate to 56 days (NRR), first service pregnancy rate (FPR), days from first to successful insemination (FSI), number of services per conception (NSC), age at first calving (AFC), and gestation length (GL). Test of significance for effects in the statistical model was performed using GLM procedure of SAS 9.3. The yearling trend was plotted on the adjusted mean of parameters, by the least square mean procedure. Means of NRR, FPR, FSI, NSC, AFC and GL were 72%, 53%, 52.71 days, 1.76, 760.71 days and 288.26 days, respectively. The effect of farm was significant (Page of heifer at first insemination was significant (P<0.001) for AFC. Month of insemination and sex of calf were significant (P<0.001) for GL. Compared with average value of reproductive traits, NSC and GL were generally within standard values for Japanese Black cattle, while AFC was slightly earlier. The result indicated that different management of farms strongly influenced reproductive traits of Japanese Black heifer.

  20. Subspecific differentiation in male reproductive traits and virgin queen preferences, in Bombus terrestris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lecocq, T.; Coppée, A.; Mathy, T.; Lhomme, P.; Cammaerts-Tricot, M. C.; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Rasmont, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2015), s. 595-605 ISSN 0044-8435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04291S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mate preference * reproductive traits * cephalic labial gland secretions * male marking pheromone * subspecies * olfactometer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.655, year: 2015

  1. Chemical reproductive traits of diploid Bombus terrestris males: Consequences on bumblebee conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lecocq, T.; Gérard, M.; Maebe, K.; Brasero, N.; Dehon, L.; Smagghe, G.; Valterová, Irena; De Meulemeester, T.; Rasmont, P.; Michez, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2017), s. 623-630 ISSN 1672-9609 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bee decline * bumblebees * conservation * diploid male s * premating recognition * reproductive traits Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Entomology Impact factor: 2.026, year: 2016

  2. Sow line differences in heat stress tolerance expressed in reproductive performance traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, S.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Merks, J.W.M.; Knol, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate if there were differences in the relation between temperature and reproductive performance traits in 2 different sow lines, a Yorkshire line producing mainly in temperate climates and a Large White line producing mainly in warm climates, and 2) to

  3. Genetic parameter estimates among scale activity score and farrowing disposition with reproductive traits in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J F; Rempel, L A; Rohrer, G A; Brown-Brandl, T M

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if certain behavior traits were genetically correlated with reproduction. If 1 or both of the behavior traits were found to be correlated, a secondary objective was to determine if the behavior traits could be useful in selecting for more productive females. A scale activity score taken at 5 mo of age and a farrowing disposition score taken at farrowing were selected as the behavioral traits. Scale activity score ranged from 1 to 5 and farrowing disposition ranged from 1 to 3. Reproductive traits included age at puberty, number born alive, number born dead, litter birth weight, average piglet birth weight, number weaned, litter weaning weight, average weaning weight, wean-to-estrus interval, ovulation rate including gilts, and postweaning ovulation rate. Genetic correlations between scale activity score and reproduction ranged from -0.79 to 0.61. Three of the correlations, number born alive (P < 0.01), average piglet birth weight (P < 0.001), and wean-to-estrus interval (P = 0.014), were statistically significant but included both favorable and antagonistic correlations. In contrast, all but 1 of the farrowing disposition correlations was favorable and ranged from -0.66 to 0.67. Although only the correlation with litter birth weight was significant (P = 0.018), the consistent favorable direction of all farrowing disposition correlations, except average weaning weight, shows a potential for inclusion of farrowing disposition into a selection program.

  4. Relationships of Reproductive Traits with the Phylogeny of the African Noctuid Stem Borers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B . sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M . sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis , and S. nonagrioides . For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA, Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA, showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed.

  5. Trait-fitness relationships determine how trade-off shapes affect species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Elias; Becks, Lutz; Gaedke, Ursula

    2017-12-01

    Trade-offs between functional traits are ubiquitous in nature and can promote species coexistence depending on their shape. Classic theory predicts that convex trade-offs facilitate coexistence of specialized species with extreme trait values (extreme species) while concave trade-offs promote species with intermediate trait values (intermediate species). We show here that this prediction becomes insufficient when the traits translate non-linearly into fitness which frequently occurs in nature, e.g., an increasing length of spines reduces grazing losses only up to a certain threshold resulting in a saturating or sigmoid trait-fitness function. We present a novel, general approach to evaluate the effect of different trade-off shapes on species coexistence. We compare the trade-off curve to the invasion boundary of an intermediate species invading the two extreme species. At this boundary, the invasion fitness is zero. Thus, it separates trait combinations where invasion is or is not possible. The invasion boundary is calculated based on measurable trait-fitness relationships. If at least one of these relationships is not linear, the invasion boundary becomes non-linear, implying that convex and concave trade-offs not necessarily lead to different coexistence patterns. Therefore, we suggest a new ecological classification of trade-offs into extreme-favoring and intermediate-favoring which differs from a purely mathematical description of their shape. We apply our approach to a well-established model of an empirical predator-prey system with competing prey types facing a trade-off between edibility and half-saturation constant for nutrient uptake. We show that the survival of the intermediate prey depends on the convexity of the trade-off. Overall, our approach provides a general tool to make a priori predictions on the outcome of competition among species facing a common trade-off in dependence of the shape of the trade-off and the shape of the trait-fitness

  6. Low dose TBT exposure decreases amphipod immunocompetence and reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Therese; Sundelin, Brita; Yang, Gongda; Ford, Alex T

    2011-01-17

    The antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic pollutant present in many aquatic ecosystems. Despite of regulations on the usage of TBT, it remains in high concentrations in sediments both in harbors and in off-shore sites. The toxicity of TBT in mollusks is well documented. However, adverse effects in other aquatic organisms, such as crustaceans, are less well known. This study is an effort to assess the effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of TBT on an ecologically important species in Swedish fresh and brackish water ecosystems, the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis. Field collected animals were exposed during gonad maturation to TBT (70 and 170 ng/g sediment d wt) for five weeks in static microcosms with natural sediment. Exposure concentrations were chosen to reflect effects at concentrations found in Swedish coastal sediment, but below expected effects on survival. TBT exposure resulted in a statistically significant adverse effect on oocyte viability and a doubling of the prevalence of microsporidian parasites in females, from 17% in the control to 34% in the 170 ng TBT/g sediment d wt exposure. No effects on survival were observed. Borderline significant effects were observed on male sexual maturation in the 70 ng TBT/g d wt exposure and on ecdysteroid levels in the 170 ng/g sediment d wt exposure. Both reproduction and parasite infection effects are of ecological importance since they have the potential to affect population viability in the field. This study gives further evidence to the connection between low dose contaminant exposure and increases in microsporidian parasite infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproductive traits and evolutionary divergence between Mediterranean crops and their wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo, J M; Milla, R; Volis, S; Rubio de Casas, R

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reproductive traits associated with domestication critically determine the evolutionary divergence between crops and their wild relatives, as well as the potential of crop plants to become feral. In this review, we examine the genetic mechanisms of plant domestication and the different types of selection involved, and describe the particularities of domestication of Mediterranean field crops with regard to their reproductive traits, showing illustrative examples. We also explore gene flow patterns between Mediterranean field crops and their wild relatives, along with their ecological, evolutionary and economic implications. Domestication entails multiple selective processes, including direct selection, environmental adaptation and developmental constraints. In contrast to clonal propagation in perennials, sexual reproduction and seed propagation in annuals and biennials have led to a distinct pathway of evolution of reproductive traits. Thus, the initial domestication and further breeding of Mediterranean field crops has brought about changes in reproductive traits, such as higher mean values and variance of seed and fruit sizes, reduced fruit and seed toxicity, non-shattering seeds and loss of seed dormancy. Evolution under domestication is not a linear process, and bi-directional gene flow between wild and crop taxa is a frequent phenomenon. Thus, hybridisation and introgression have played a very important role in determining the genetics of current cultivars. In turn, gene flow from crops to wild relatives can lead to introgression of crop genes into wild populations and potentially alter the characteristics of natural communities. In conclusion, plant evolution under domestication has not only changed the reproductive biology of cultivated taxa, its effects are multifaceted and have implications beyond agriculture. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Differential effects of male nutrient balance on pre- and post-copulatory traits, and consequences for female reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Juliano; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Male fitness depends on the expression of costly traits involved in obtaining mates (pre-copulatory) and fertilization (post-copulatory). However, very little is known about the nutrient requirements for these traits and whether males compromise their diet to maximize one trait at the expense of another. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to investigate macronutrient requirements for pre- and post-copulatory traits in Drosophila, when males were the first or second to mate with females. We found no significant effects of male diet on sperm competitiveness. However, although males self-regulate their macronutrient intake at a protein-to-carbohydrate ratio (“P:C ratio”) of 1:1.5, this ratio does not coincide with their optima for several key reproductive traits: both the short-term (~24 hr) rate of offspring production after a female’s first mating, as well as the total offspring number sired when males were second to mate were maximized at a P:C ratio of 1:9, whereas male attractiveness (latency to mate), were maximised at a P:C ratio of 1:1. These results suggest a compromised optimum diet, and no single diet that simultaneously maximizes all male reproductive traits. The protein intake of first males also negatively affected female offspring production following remating, suggesting a long-term intersexual effect of male nutrition. PMID:27270223

  9. No intra-locus sexual conflict over reproductive fitness or ageing in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Zajitschek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the ways in which males and females maximize evolutionary fitness can lead to intra-locus sexual conflict in which genes delivering fitness benefits to one sex are costly when expressed in the other. Trade-offs between current reproductive effort and future reproduction and survival are fundamental to the evolutionary biology of ageing. This leads to the prediction that sex differences in the optimization of age-dependent reproductive effort may generate intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing rates. Here we test for intra-locus sexual conflict over age-dependent reproductive effort and longevity in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Using a half-sib breeding design, we show that the most important components of male and female reproductive effort (male calling effort and the number of eggs laid by females were positively genetically correlated, especially in early adulthood. However, the genetic relationships between longevity and reproductive effort were different for males and females, leading to low genetic covariation between male and female longevity. The apparent absence of intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing suggests that male and female longevity can evolve largely independently of one another.

  10. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for aseasonal reproduction in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, R G; Thonney, M L

    2010-10-01

    The productivity and economic prosperity of sheep farming could benefit greatly from more effective methods of selection for year-round lambing. Identification of QTL for aseasonal reproduction in sheep could lead to more accurate selection and faster genetic improvement. One hundred and twenty microsatellite markers were genotyped on 159 backcross ewes from a Dorset × East Friesian crossbred pedigree. Interval mapping was undertaken to map the QTL underlying several traits describing aseasonal reproduction including the number of oestrous cycles, maximum level of progesterone prior to breeding, pregnancy status determined by progesterone level, pregnancy status determined by ultrasound, lambing status and number of lambs born. Seven chromosomes (1, 3, 12, 17, 19, 20 and 24) were identified to harbour putative QTL for one or more component traits used to describe aseasonal reproduction. Ovine chromosomes 12, 17, 19 and 24 harbour QTL significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, chromosomes 3 and 20 harbour QTL that exceeded the threshold at the 1% chromosome-wide level, while the QTL identified on chromosome 1 exceeded the 1% experiment-wide significance level. These results are a first step towards understanding the genetic mechanism of this complex trait and show that variation in aseasonal reproduction is associated with multiple chromosomal regions. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Accounting for genetic architecture improves sequence based genomic prediction for a Drosophila fitness trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Ulrike; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael; Schlather, Martin; Simianer, Henner; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict quantitative trait phenotypes from molecular polymorphism data will revolutionize evolutionary biology, medicine and human biology, and animal and plant breeding. Efforts to map quantitative trait loci have yielded novel insights into the biology of quantitative traits, but the combination of individually significant quantitative trait loci typically has low predictive ability. Utilizing all segregating variants can give good predictive ability in plant and animal breeding populations, but gives little insight into trait biology. Here, we used the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to perform both a genome wide association analysis and genomic prediction for the fitness-related trait chill coma recovery time. We found substantial total genetic variation for chill coma recovery time, with a genetic architecture that differs between males and females, a small number of molecular variants with large main effects, and evidence for epistasis. Although the top additive variants explained 36% (17%) of the genetic variance among lines in females (males), the predictive ability using genomic best linear unbiased prediction and a relationship matrix using all common segregating variants was very low for females and zero for males. We hypothesized that the low predictive ability was due to the mismatch between the infinitesimal genetic architecture assumed by the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and the true genetic architecture of chill coma recovery time. Indeed, we found that the predictive ability of the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model is markedly improved when we combine quantitative trait locus mapping with genomic prediction by only including the top variants associated with main and epistatic effects in the relationship matrix. This trait-associated prediction approach has the advantage that it yields biologically interpretable prediction models.

  12. Accounting for genetic architecture improves sequence based genomic prediction for a Drosophila fitness trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Ober

    Full Text Available The ability to predict quantitative trait phenotypes from molecular polymorphism data will revolutionize evolutionary biology, medicine and human biology, and animal and plant breeding. Efforts to map quantitative trait loci have yielded novel insights into the biology of quantitative traits, but the combination of individually significant quantitative trait loci typically has low predictive ability. Utilizing all segregating variants can give good predictive ability in plant and animal breeding populations, but gives little insight into trait biology. Here, we used the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to perform both a genome wide association analysis and genomic prediction for the fitness-related trait chill coma recovery time. We found substantial total genetic variation for chill coma recovery time, with a genetic architecture that differs between males and females, a small number of molecular variants with large main effects, and evidence for epistasis. Although the top additive variants explained 36% (17% of the genetic variance among lines in females (males, the predictive ability using genomic best linear unbiased prediction and a relationship matrix using all common segregating variants was very low for females and zero for males. We hypothesized that the low predictive ability was due to the mismatch between the infinitesimal genetic architecture assumed by the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and the true genetic architecture of chill coma recovery time. Indeed, we found that the predictive ability of the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model is markedly improved when we combine quantitative trait locus mapping with genomic prediction by only including the top variants associated with main and epistatic effects in the relationship matrix. This trait-associated prediction approach has the advantage that it yields biologically interpretable prediction models.

  13. Repeatability and heritability of reproductive traits in free-ranging snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G P; Shine, R

    2007-03-01

    The underlying genetic basis of life-history traits in free-ranging animals is critical to the effects of selection on such traits, but logistical constraints mean that such data are rarely available. Our long-term ecological studies on free-ranging oviparous snakes (keelbacks, Tropidonophis mairii (Gray, 1841), Colubridae) on an Australian floodplain provide the first such data for any tropical reptile. All size-corrected reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch size, clutch mass and post-partum maternal mass) were moderately repeatable between pairs of clutches produced by 69 female snakes after intervals of 49-1152 days, perhaps because maternal body condition was similar between clutches. Parent-offspring regression of reproductive traits of 59 pairs of mothers and daughters revealed high heritability for egg mass (h2= 0.73, SE=0.24), whereas heritability for the other three traits was low (snakes occurs because each female snake must allocate a finite amount of energy into eggs of a genetically determined size.

  14. 'It means everyone should know their status': exploring lay conceptions of sickle cell trait and sickle cell trait screening among African Americans within middle reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Gamble, Tilicia L; Barnes, Priscilla A; Cunningham Erves, Jennifer; Middlestadt, Susan E; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    2017-02-21

    This study examined the meaning of sickle cell trait and sickle cell trait screening from the lay perspective of African Americans. African Americans (N = 300), ages 18-35 and unaware of their sickle cell trait status, completed two open-ended questions from a larger survey. One question asked for their understanding of sickle cell trait; the other asked for their understanding of sickle cell trait screening. Content analysis occurred in two phases: (1) In vivo and holistic coding; and (2) focused coding. Four categories emerged illustrating lay conceptions of sickle cell trait; (1) Perceived as an illness; (2) Perceived recognition of the inheritance pattern of sickle cell trait; (3) Perceived lack of knowledge of sickle cell trait; and (4) Perceived importance of sickle cell trait. Five categories emerged illustrating lay conceptions for sickle cell trait screening: (1) Perceived recognition that screening means getting tested for sickle cell trait; (2) Perceived lack of knowledge of sickle cell trait screening; (3) Perceived health benefit of sickle cell trait screening; (4) Perceived importance of sickle cell trait screening; and (5) Perceived barriers to sickle cell trait screening. Sickle cell trait and sickle cell trait screening are concepts that are both regarded as important among this high-risk population. However, there is still misunderstanding concerning the hereditary nature and reproductive implications of sickle cell trait. Interventions seeking to improve communication on the need for sickle cell trait screening should begin by identifying what the population at large understands, knows and/or believes to improve their ability to make informed health decisions.

  15. Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Vendula; Zákravský, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), s. 365-390 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA ČR GA206/05/0323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * reproductive traits * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2010

  16. Effects of exposure to short-term heat stress on male reproductive fitness in a soil arthropod.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zizzari, Z.V.; Ellers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient temperature is a key environmental factor influencing a variety of aspects of the ecology and evolution of ectotherms. Reproductive traits have been suggested to be more sensitive to thermal stress than other life history traits. This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of

  17. Food and fitness: associations between crop yields and life-history traits in a longitudinally monitored pre-industrial human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Adam D; Holopainen, Jari; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-10-22

    Severe food shortage is associated with increased mortality and reduced reproductive success in contemporary and historical human populations. Studies of wild animal populations have shown that subtle variation in environmental conditions can influence patterns of mortality, fecundity and natural selection, but the fitness implications of such subtle variation on human populations are unclear. Here, we use longitudinal data on local grain production, births, marriages and mortality so as to assess the impact of crop yield variation on individual age-specific mortality and fecundity in two pre-industrial Finnish populations. Although crop yields and fitness traits showed profound year-to-year variation across the 70-year study period, associations between crop yields and mortality or fecundity were generally weak. However, post-reproductive individuals of both sexes, and individuals of lower socio-economic status experienced higher mortality when crop yields were low. This is the first longitudinal, individual-based study of the associations between environmental variation and fitness traits in pre-industrial humans, which emphasizes the importance of a portfolio of mechanisms for coping with low food availability in such populations. The results are consistent with evolutionary ecological predictions that natural selection for resilience to food shortage is likely to weaken with age and be most severe on those with the fewest resources.

  18. Polymorphisms of the myostatin gene and its relationship with reproduction traits in the Bian chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genxi; Zhang, Li; Wei, Yue; Wang, Jinyu; Ding, Fuxiang; Dai, Guojun; Xie, Kaizhou

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin, or growth and differentiation factor 8, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily; it functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5' regulatory region and exon 1 of the myostatin gene were detected by PCR-SSCP in the Bian, Jinghai, Youxi, and Arbor Acre chickens, and the associations of the polymorphisms with reproduction traits were analyzed. Seven SNPs (A326G, C334G, C1346T, G1375A, A1473G, G1491A, and G2283A) were found in the myostatin gene. Association analysis showed that the G2283A were significantly associated with reproduction traits. Bian chickens of the GG genotype had a greater age at first egg than those of the GA and AA genotypes (Pchickens of the GA and AA genotypes had larger egg number at 300 days than those of the GG genotype (Pchickens of the AA genotype had significantly higher body weight at 300 days than those of the GG genotype (P<0.05). These results suggested that the myostatin gene may have certain effects on reproduction traits other than merely as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals previously reported.

  19. Induced defences alter the strength and direction of natural selection on reproductive traits in common milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K A; Cory, K A; Johnson, M T J

    2017-06-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the ecological processes that generate plant reproductive diversity. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive antiherbivore defences can alter natural selection on reproductive traits, but it is unclear whether induced defences will have the same effect and whether reduced foliar damage in defended plants is the cause of this pattern. In a factorial field experiment using common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., we induced plant defences using jasmonic acid (JA) and imposed foliar damage using scissors. We found that JA-induced plants experienced selection for more inflorescences that were smaller in size (fewer flowers), whereas control plants only experienced a trend towards selection for larger inflorescences (more flowers); all effects were independent of foliar damage. Our results demonstrate that induced defences can alter both the strength and direction of selection on reproductive traits, and suggest that antiherbivore defences may promote the evolution of plant reproductive diversity. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Chasing a changing climate: Reproductive and dispersal traits predict how sessile species respond to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Jennifer M.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    AimStudies of species' range shifts have become increasingly relevant for understanding ecology and biogeography in the face of accelerated global change. The combination of limited mobility and imperilled status places some species at a potentially greater risk of range loss, extirpation or extinction due to climate change. To assess the ability of organisms with limited movement and dispersal capabilities to track shifts associated with climate change, we evaluated reproductive and dispersal traits of freshwater mussels (Unionida), sessile invertebrates that require species‐specific fish for larval dispersal.LocationNorth American Atlantic Slope rivers.MethodsTo understand how unionid mussels may cope with and adapt to current and future warming trends, we identified mechanisms that facilitated their colonization of the northern Atlantic Slope river basins in North America after the Last Glacial Maximum. We compiled species occurrence and life history trait information for each of 55 species, and then selected life history traits for which ample data were available (larval brooding duration, host fish specificity, host infection strategy, and body size) and analysed whether the trait state for each was related to mussel distribution in Atlantic Slope rivers.ResultsBrooding duration (p  .10).Main conclusionsOur results are potentially applicable to many species for which life history traits have not been well‐documented, because reproductive and dispersal traits in unionid mussels typically follow phylogenetic relationships. These findings may help resource managers prioritize species according to climate change vulnerability and predict which species might become further imperilled with climate warming. Finally, we suggest that similar trait‐based decision support frameworks may be applicable for other movement limited taxa.

  1. Genetic relationship of lactation persistency with milk yield, somatic cell score, reproductive traits, and longevity in Slovak Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Strapáková, Eva; Candrák, Juraj; Strapák, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the breeding values (BVs) of lactation persistency, the test day of milk yield, the somatic cell score, reproductive traits (calving interval, days open), longevity in Slovak Holstein dairy cattle. BVs were used for the detection of relationships among the persistency of lactation and other selected traits. Data for the estimation of BVs of milk production and somatic cell score were collected from 855 240 cows. BVs for reproductive t...

  2. The self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) theory of substance use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Newlin, David B.

    2002-01-01

    A new theory of substance use disorders is proposed—the SPFit theory—that is based on evolutionary biology and adaptive systems. Self‐perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) is proposed as a human psychobiological construct that prioritizes and organizes (i.e. motivates) behavior, but is highly vulnerable to temporary, artificial activation by drugs of abuse. Autoshaping/ sign‐tracking/feature positive phenomena are proposed to underlie the development of craving and expec...

  3. Phenotypic Plasticity in Reproductive Traits of the Perennial Shrub Ulex europaeus in Response to Shading: A Multi-Year Monitoring of Cultivated Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Atlan

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity may be advantageous for plants to be able to rapidly cope with new and changing environments associated with climate change or during biological invasions. This is especially true for perennial plants, as they may need a longer period to respond genetically to selective pressures than annuals, and also because they are more likely to experience environmental changes during their lifespan. However, few studies have explored the plasticity of the reproductive life history traits of woody perennial species. This study focuses on a woody shrub, Ulex europaeus (common gorse, and on the response of its reproductive traits to one important environmental factor, shading. The study was performed on clones originating from western France (within the native range of this invasive species and grown for seven years. We compared traits of plants grown in a shade treatment (with two successive shade levels vs. full natural light. The traits monitored included flowering onset, pod production and seed predation. All traits studied responded to shading, exhibiting various levels of plasticity. In particular, dense shade induced a radical but reversible decrease in flower and pod production, while moderate shade had little effect on reproductive traits. The magnitude of the response to dense shade depended on the genotype, showing a genetically based polymorphism of plasticity. The level of plasticity also showed substantial variations between years, and the effect of environmental variations was cumulative over time. This suggests that plasticity can influence the lifetime fitness of U. Europaeus and is involved in the capacity of the species to grow under contrasting environmental conditions.

  4. Phenotypic Plasticity in Reproductive Traits of the Perennial Shrub Ulex europaeus in Response to Shading: A Multi-Year Monitoring of Cultivated Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Anne; Hornoy, Benjamin; Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Tarayre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be advantageous for plants to be able to rapidly cope with new and changing environments associated with climate change or during biological invasions. This is especially true for perennial plants, as they may need a longer period to respond genetically to selective pressures than annuals, and also because they are more likely to experience environmental changes during their lifespan. However, few studies have explored the plasticity of the reproductive life history traits of woody perennial species. This study focuses on a woody shrub, Ulex europaeus (common gorse), and on the response of its reproductive traits to one important environmental factor, shading. The study was performed on clones originating from western France (within the native range of this invasive species) and grown for seven years. We compared traits of plants grown in a shade treatment (with two successive shade levels) vs. full natural light. The traits monitored included flowering onset, pod production and seed predation. All traits studied responded to shading, exhibiting various levels of plasticity. In particular, dense shade induced a radical but reversible decrease in flower and pod production, while moderate shade had little effect on reproductive traits. The magnitude of the response to dense shade depended on the genotype, showing a genetically based polymorphism of plasticity. The level of plasticity also showed substantial variations between years, and the effect of environmental variations was cumulative over time. This suggests that plasticity can influence the lifetime fitness of U. Europaeus and is involved in the capacity of the species to grow under contrasting environmental conditions.

  5. Evolution in response to social selection: the importance of interactive effects of traits on fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westneat, David F

    2012-03-01

    Social interactions have a powerful effect on the evolutionary process. Recent attempts to synthesize models of social selection with equations for indirect genetic effects (McGlothlin et al. 2010) provide a broad theoretical base from which to study selection and evolutionary response in the context of social interactions. However, this framework concludes that social selection will lead to evolution only if the traits carried by social partners are nonrandomly associated. I suggest this conclusion is incomplete, and that traits that do not covary between social partners can nevertheless lead to evolution via interactive effects on fitness. Such effects occur when there are functional interactions between traits, and as an example I use the interplay in water striders (Gerridae) between grasping appendages carried by males and spines by females. Functional interactive effects between traits can be incorporated into both the equations for social selection and the general model of social evolution proposed by McGlothlin et al. These expanded equations would accommodate adaptive coevolution in social interactions, integrate the quantitative genetic approach to social evolution with game theoretical approaches, and stimulate some new questions about the process of social evolution. © 2011 The Author. Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  7. Association among sickle cell trait, fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors in CARDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Robert I; Chan, Cheeling; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T; Fornage, Myriam; Thompson, Alexis A; Liu, Kiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2017-02-09

    The contribution of sickle cell trait (SCT) to racial disparities in cardiopulmonary fitness is not known, despite concerns that SCT is associated with exertion-related sudden death. We evaluated the association of SCT status with cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in fitness and risk for hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome over the course of 25 years among 1995 African Americans (56% women, 18-30 years old) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Overall, the prevalence of SCT was 6.8% (136/1995) in CARDIA, and over the course of 25 years, 46% (738/1590), 18% (288/1631), and 40% (645/1,611) of all participants developed hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Compared with participants without SCT, participants with SCT had similar baseline measures of fitness in cross-section, including exercise duration (535 vs 540 seconds; P = .62), estimated metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs; 11.6 vs 11.7; P = .80), maximum heart rate (174 vs 175 beats/min; P = .41), and heart rate at 2 minutes recovery (44 vs 43 beats/min; P = .28). In our secondary analysis, there was neither an association of SCT status with longitudinal changes in fitness nor an association with development of hypertension, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome after adjustment for sex, baseline age, body mass index, fitness, and physical activity. SCT is not associated with reduced fitness in this longitudinal study of young African American adults, suggesting the increased risk for exertion-related sudden death in SCT carriers is unlikely related to fitness. SCT status also is not an independent risk factor for developing hypertension, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. Physical activity, Cardio-Respiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Traits in Rural Mexican Tarahumara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Alcala-Sanchez, Imelda; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) with key metabolic traits and anthropometric measures in the Tarahumara of Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in five rural communities in Chihuahua...... suggests high levels of overweight and hypertension in the Tarahumara, and points to fitness and physical activity as potential intervention targets although findings should be confirmed in larger samples.......) to estimate CRF. Random blood glucose level and resting blood pressure (BP) were measured with standard anthropometrics. Results: Mean (SD) PAEE was 71.2 (30.3) kJ kg21 day21 and CRF was 36.6 (6.5) mlO2 min21 kg21. Mean (SD) glucose was 127.9 (32.4) mg/dl, with 3.3% having diabetes. Mean (SD) systolic...

  9. Fitting models of continuous trait evolution to incompletely sampled comparative data using approximate Bayesian computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Graham J; Harmon, Luke J; Wegmann, Daniel; Joyce, Paul; Revell, Liam J; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, a suite of methods has been developed to fit multiple rate models to phylogenetic comparative data. However, most methods have limited utility at broad phylogenetic scales because they typically require complete sampling of both the tree and the associated phenotypic data. Here, we develop and implement a new, tree-based method called MECCA (Modeling Evolution of Continuous Characters using ABC) that uses a hybrid likelihood/approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)-Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach to simultaneously infer rates of diversification and trait evolution from incompletely sampled phylogenies and trait data. We demonstrate via simulation that MECCA has considerable power to choose among single versus multiple evolutionary rate models, and thus can be used to test hypotheses about changes in the rate of trait evolution across an incomplete tree of life. We finally apply MECCA to an empirical example of body size evolution in carnivores, and show that there is no evidence for an elevated rate of body size evolution in the pinnipeds relative to terrestrial carnivores. ABC approaches can provide a useful alternative set of tools for future macroevolutionary studies where likelihood-dependent approaches are lacking. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Nest predation and reproductive traits in small passerines: a comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Miguel; Suárez, Francisco

    Nest predation can be a decisive factor in the evolution of bird reproduction strategies. This paper compares several reproductive traits in small passerines on the Iberian Peninsula (n=31) with the probability of daily nest survival from predation. We consider the phylogenetic relationships between species by means of an analysis according to three models of evolutionary change: Brownian, punctuational and GRAFEN'S arbitrary. In this comparative evolutionary scenario, clutch size, egg volume and incubation period appear not to change in relation to nest predation, while the nestling phase duration is a positively-related parameter to daily nest survival from predation. These results are consistent for all models of evolutionary change. Thus, from the perspective of nest predation, the nestling period is the most important evolutionary parameter in small passerines. A hypothetical influence of nest predation on passerine clutch and egg size should only be regarded as an indirect factor, linked to the relationship between these parameters and the duration of the nestling period.

  11. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-01-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  12. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  13. What shapes fitness costs of reproduction in long-lived iteroparous species? A case study on the Alpine ibex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Alexandre; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gauthier, Dominique; Besnard, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    The fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by individual differences, and may only become apparent during adverse environmental conditions. Individual differences, however, are usually assessed by reproductive success, so how fitness costs are influenced by the interplay between the environmental context and overall individual differences requires further investigation. Here, we evaluated fitness costs of reproduction based on 15 yr of monitoring of individual Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) during a period when the population was affected by a severe disease outbreak (pneumonia). We quantified fitness costs using a novel multi-event capture-mark-recapture (CMR) modeling approach that accounted for uncertainty in reproductive status to estimate the survival and reproductive success of female ibex while also accounting for overall individual heterogeneity using mixture models. Our results show that the ability of females to reproduce was highly heterogeneous. In particular, one group including 76% of females had a much higher probability of giving birth annually (between 0.66 and 0.77, depending on the previous reproductive status) than females of the second group (24% of females, between 0 and 0.05 probability of giving birth annually). Low reproductive costs in terms of future reproduction occurred and were independent of the pneumonia outbreak. There was no survival cost of reproduction either before or after the epizootic, but the cost was high during the epizootic. Our findings indicate that adverse environmental conditions, such as disease outbreaks, may lead to survival costs of reproduction in long-lived species and select against females that have a high reproductive effort. Thereby, the occurrence of adverse conditions increases the diversity of reproductive tactics within a population.

  14. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FSHR POLYMORPHISM WITH PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN ANTIOQUIA HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephania Madrid Gaviria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because FSH and its receptor play a fundamental role in reproduction, the objective of this research was determining the effect of the A-320T polymorphism in productive and reproductive traits in Antioquia Holstein cows. The PCR-RFLP was used to amplify a segment of 970 bp of the bovine follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene (FSHR which was digested with the restriction enzyme TaqI. The effect of the FSHR genotypes on productive and reproductive traits was determinate by a Mixed Linear Model and Tukey Test was used to establish significant differences between means for the three genotypes. The effect of allelic substitution was studied through a linear regression model where the genotypes AA, AT and TT were transformed into a quantitative scale of 0, 1 and 2, respectively according to the number of possessed T alleles. In Antioquia Holstein cattle the most common genotype was the AT (0.485 followed by TT (0.417 and AA (0.096 genotypes. Allele frequencies were 0.339 for A and 0.660 for T, respectively. The FSHR genotypes did not exert a significant effect on the principal productive parameters, except for fat percentage (P<0.01 where the TT individuals presented the highest percent. Results showed that T allele seems to improve the solids in milk while A allele improves dairy yield. The reproductive parameters were not affected by this SNP but AT animals showed a higher number of services per conception. Further studies are required to determine whether this SNP may be used as a molecular marker

  15. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies.

  16. Towards greater realism in inclusive fitness models: the case of worker reproduction in insect societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Helanterä, Heikki; Alves, Denise A.; Dueñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Pamilo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    The conflicts over sex allocation and male production in insect societies have long served as an important test bed for Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, but have for the most part been considered separately. Here, we develop new coevolutionary models to examine the interaction between these two conflicts and demonstrate that sex ratio and colony productivity costs of worker reproduction can lead to vastly different outcomes even in species that show no variation in their relatedness structure. Empirical data on worker-produced males in eight species of Melipona bees support the predictions from a model that takes into account the demographic details of colony growth and reproduction. Overall, these models contribute significantly to explaining behavioural variation that previous theories could not account for. PMID:24132088

  17. The self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) theory of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, David B

    2002-04-01

    A new theory of substance use disorders is proposed-the SPFit theory-that is based on evolutionary biology and adaptive systems. Self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) is proposed as a human psychobiological construct that prioritizes and organizes (i.e. motivates) behavior, but is highly vulnerable to temporary, artificial activation by drugs of abuse. Autoshaping/sign-tracking/feature positive phenomena are proposed to underlie the development of craving and expectations about drugs as the individual learns that abused drugs will easily and reliably inflate SPFit. The cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system and its modulating interconnections are viewed as the biological substrate of SPFit; it is proposed to be a survival and reproductive motivation system rather than a reward center or reward pathway. Finally, the concept of modularity of mind is applied to the SPFit construct. Although considerable empirical data are consistent with the theory, new research is needed to test specific hypotheses derived from SPFit theory.

  18. Effects of hybridization between nonnative Rainbow Trout and native Westslope Cutthroat Trout on fitness-related traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinan, Daniel P.; Webb, Molly A. H.; Naish, Kerry A.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Steed, Amber C.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between introduced and native fauna is a risk to native species and may threaten the long-term persistence of numerous taxa. Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has been one of the most widely introduced species around the globe and often hybridizes with native Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii in the Rocky Mountains. Previous work has shown that hybridization negatively affects reproductive success, but identification of the traits contributing to that reduction has been elusive. In this study, we used a combination of field and laboratory techniques to assess how hybridization with Rainbow Trout affects seven traits during several stages of Westslope Cutthroat Trout development: embryonic survival, ova size, ova energy concentration, sperm motility, juvenile weight, juvenile survival, and burst swimming endurance. Rainbow Trout admixture was correlated with an increase in embryonic survival and ova energy concentration but with a decrease in juvenile weight and burst swimming endurance. These correlations differed from previously observed patterns of reproductive success and likely do not explain the declines in reproductive success associated with admixture. Future investigation of additional, unstudied traits and the use of different environments may shed light on the traits responsible for reproductive success in admixed Cutthroat Trout.

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on reproductive traits in Apis mellifera (honey bee)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shameer, P.M.; Harini, B.P.; Shetty, N.J.; Chaubey, R.C.; Jha, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Apis mellifera (honey bee) is ecologically and economically important hymenopterous insect. They are important pollinators in agricultural, urban and natural landscapes. Hundreds of millions of dollars are generated through the sale of hive products such as honey, wax, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and venom. Radiation leakage can cause harmful effect on human and non human biota. Honey bee can be very sensitive to such hazards. FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental impacT) recommended A. melliferra as a model organism for the studies of effects of radiation. In order to study the effects of radiation, 1-2 month old mated queens were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation including 1Gy, 2Gy, 3Gy, 10Gy, 20Gy, 30Gy, 40Gy and 50Gy and its effects on reproductive traits such as fecundity, hatchability, sealed brood formation, adult emergence and fertility were studied. The data generated from such experiments were compared with non irradiated samples of the same age for two weeks before and after irradiation. Results showed that fecundity, hatchability and fertility were significantly reduced 3Gy dose onwards when compared to control. An inverse relation between reproductive traits and radiation doses were observed. Dose response curve were constructed with respect to reduction in hatchability and fertility. (author)

  20. Effect of Transient Treatment with Propylthiouracil on Some Reproduction Traits and Live Weight of Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sogut

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of transient treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU on some reproduction traits and live weight of quails. The trial lasted 8 weeks. To accomplish this goal, 700 1-day-old quail chicks were used, randomly divided into 8 groups. PTU was added to feed by 0.1% and 0.5% /wt. The first 4 groups had 0.5% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 2-8 wk., respectively. The 5 th, 6 th and 7 th groups had 0.1% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 wk., respectively, and the 8 th group was the control with no PTU. Quails were bled at 60 days of age. Then right and left testes were taken out and weighed. At the end of the trail, least square means of the live weight of the treatment groups were higher than the control (p<0.05. Similar results (p<0.05 were observed for testis weight, testis diameter and fertility rate. As a result, it can be said that the inclusion of PTU in quail rations positively affects the live weight and reproduction traits of quails.

  1. Short communication: Genetic parameters for post-weaning visual scores and reproductive traits in Suffolk sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana V. Portes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the coefficients of heritability and genetic correlations among visual scores (conformation, CPW; precocity, PPW; musculature, MPW and reproductive traits: age at first lambing (AFL and scrotal circumference (SC evaluated at 180 days of age in Suffolk lambs. In the statistical model only the additive genetic effect was considered as random effect. The heritability estimates by univariate analyses for CPW, PPW, MPW, AFL and SC were 0.08, 0.12, 0.09, 0.20 and 0.22, respectively. The genetic correlations among AFL and CPW, PPW, MPW were -0.26, 0.19, and 0.08, respectively. The genetic correlation among SC and CPW, PPW, MPW were, respectively, 0.54, 0.88 and 0.86, and between AFL and SC was 0.26. The direct selection for conformation, precocity and musculature at 180 days of age and age at first lambing will provide slow genetic progress due to low heritability estimates. It is possible to obtain genetic gain in sexual precocity through selection on scrotal circumference in Suffolk rams. The favorable genetic correlation among visual scores and SC and between CPW and AFL, indicated the possibility to gain in genetic progress for reproductive traits through indirect selection of the visual scores in Suffolk sheep.

  2. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nayak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01 in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH was significant (p<0.05 for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05 for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05 on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling

  3. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions to reproductive, maternal, and size-related traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Maurer, R R

    1991-03-01

    Brown Swiss-Hereford (BS-H) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to BS and H recipient cows and Red Poll-Angus (RP-A) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to RP and A recipient cows to estimate the relative contributions of ovum cytoplasm and uterine influences to prenatal maternal effects. Calves resulting from embryo transfers (ET) were weaned early (3 to 5 d). Reciprocal cross mating also were made by natural service (NS) between BS and H and between RP and A breeds; part of the offspring were weaned at 3 to 5 d, and the remainder nursed their dams to an age of 150 to 180 d. This was done to estimate breed differences in prenatal and postnatal effects combined and to separate the effects of prenatal maternal influences from postnatal maternal influences of these breeds. Females produced in both ET and NS parts of the experiment were retained to produce three calf crops to an age of about 4.5 yr. The following traits were analyzed: percentage of conception rate; percentage of calf survival; percentage of calves produced per cow exposed; birth and weaning weights of calves produced; and periodic weights, heights, and condition scores of females to an age of 4.5 yr. Neither breed of donor (cytoplasmic influence) nor breed of recipient (uterine influence) had consistently important effects on the traits evaluated. In NS matings, differences between reciprocal crosses were small for most of the traits evaluated. Method of rearing (nursed vs weaned at 3 to 5 d) had no effect on reproductive and maternal traits for RP-A reciprocal cross females, but females that nursed generally were heavier, were taller, and had higher condition scores at most ages than early-weaned females. For the BS-H reciprocal cross, early-weaned females were favored over females reared by their dams in percentage of calves produced per cow exposed, but the method of rearing did not affect other reproductive or maternal traits. BS-H reciprocal cross females that nursed their dams were

  4. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2012-06-01

    Genetic selection for body temperature during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Objectives of the study were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature (RT) in dairy cows in freestall barns under heat stress conditions and to determine the genetic and phenotypic correlations of rectal temperature with other traits. Afternoon RT were measured in a total of 1,695 lactating Holstein cows sired by 509 bulls during the summer in North Florida. Genetic parameters were estimated with Gibbs sampling, and best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values were predicted using an animal model. The heritability of RT was estimated to be 0.17 ± 0.13. Predicted transmitting abilities for rectal temperature changed 0.0068 ± 0.0020°C/yr from (birth year) 2002 to 2008. Approximate genetic correlations between RT and 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields, productive life, and net merit were significant and positive, whereas approximate genetic correlations between RT and somatic cell count score and daughter pregnancy rate were significant and negative. Rectal temperature during heat stress has moderate heritability, but genetic correlations with economically important traits mean that selection for RT could lead to lower productivity unless methods are used to identify genes affecting RT that do not adversely affect other traits of economic importance. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  6. Effects of range-wide variation in climate and isolation on floral traits and reproductive output of Clarkia pulchella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Megan; Angert, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Plant mating systems and geographic range limits are conceptually linked by shared underlying drivers, including landscape-level heterogeneity in climate and in species' abundance. Studies of how geography and climate interact to affect plant traits that influence mating system and population dynamics can lend insight to ecological and evolutionary processes shaping ranges. Here, we examined how spatiotemporal variation in climate affects reproductive output of a mixed-mating annual, Clarkia pulchella. We also tested the effects of population isolation and climate on mating-system-related floral traits across the range. We measured reproductive output and floral traits on herbarium specimens collected across the range of C. pulchella. We extracted climate data associated with specimens and derived a population isolation metric from a species distribution model. We then examined how predictors of reproductive output and floral traits vary among populations of increasing distance from the range center. Finally, we tested whether reproductive output and floral traits vary with increasing distance from the center of the range. Reproductive output decreased as summer precipitation decreased, and low precipitation may contribute to limiting the southern and western range edges of C. pulchella. High spring and summer temperatures are correlated with low herkogamy, but these climatic factors show contrasting spatial patterns in different quadrants of the range. Limiting factors differ among different parts of the range. Due to the partial decoupling of geography and environment, examining relationships between climate, reproductive output, and mating-system-related floral traits reveals spatial patterns that might be missed when focusing solely on geographic position. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Genetic parameters for lactose and its correlation with other milk production traits and fitness traits in pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2017-05-01

    Lactose is a major component of milk (typically around 5% of composition) that is not usually directly considered in national genetic improvement programs of dairy cattle. Daily test-day lactose yields and percentage data from pasture-based seasonal calving herds in Australia were analyzed to assess if lactose content can be used for predicting fitness traits and if an additional benefit is achieved by including lactose yield in selecting for milk yield traits. Data on lactose percentage collected from 2007 to 2014, from about 600 herds, were used to estimated genetic parameters for lactose percentage and lactose yield and correlations with other milk yield traits, somatic cell count (SCC), calving interval (CIV), and survival. Daily test-day data were analyzed using bivariate random regression models. In addition, multi-trait models were also performed mainly to assess the value of lactose to predict fitness traits. The heritability of lactose percentage (0.25 to 0.37) was higher than lactose yield (0.11 to 0.20) in the first parity. Genetically, the correlation of lactose percentage with protein percentage varied from 0.3 at the beginning of lactation to -0.24 at the end of the lactation in the first parity. Similar patterns in genetic correlations were also observed in the second and third parity. At all levels (i.e., genetic, permanent environmental, and residual), the correlation between milk yield and lactose yield was close to 1. The genetic and permanent environmental correlations between lactose percentage and SCC were stronger in the second and third parity and toward the end of the lactation (-0.35 to -0.50) when SCC levels are at their maximum. The genetic correlation between lactose percentage in the first 120 d and CIV (-0.23) was similar to correlation of CIV with protein percentage (-0.28), another component trait with the potential to predict fertility. Furthermore, the correlations of estimated breeding values of lactose percentage and estimated

  8. Effect of freezing extender composition and male line on semen traits and reproductive performance in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viudes-de-Castro, M P; Lavara, R; Safaa, H M; Marco-Jiménez, F; Mehaisen, G M K; Vicente, J S

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of different freezing extenders on two lines selected for hyperprolificacy and longevity (H and LP, respectively). In extender A, dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. In extenders B and C, the sucrose was replaced by 20% egg yolk, and in extender C the Me2SO was substituted by acetamide. Semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and cooled at 5°C for 45 min, and then was frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour for 10 min before being plunged into the liquid nitrogen. Thawing was carried out by immersing the straws in a water bath at 50°C for 10 s. Frozen-thawed semen characteristics and reproductive parameters were affected by freezing. Extender C showed significantly lower post-thawing quality traits than any of the three extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly improved when Me2SO was used as cryoprotectant. Sucrose replacement by 20% egg yolk had no effect on acrosome integrity but provided significantly lower sperm motility and viability. Freezing extender affected fertility rate, total born, number of implantation sites and gestational losses, obtaining better results when extender A was used. The acrosomal integrity after frozen-thawed process showed a significant correlation with fertility at 12th day and also at birth, indicating that an increase in acrosomal integrity leads to an increase in both fertilities (12th day and at birth). A positive correlation between motility of semen and implantation sites was found. The post-thawing quality traits of semen were not affected by the genetic line, although LP line showed higher total born and lower foetal and gestational losses. The findings of this study suggest that freezing extender composition has a significant effect on the success of rabbit sperm for preservation, and when Me2SO was used as permeable cryoprotectant sucrose provided better protection compared with egg yolk and improved reproductive traits, and, on the

  9. Seasonal variation in reproductive traits of the oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus (Crustacea: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in a non-native population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M. Guadalupe; Bas, Claudia C.; Spivak, Eduardo D.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude of variations in reproductive traits of Palaemon macrodactylus females throughout a breeding season was studied in a non-native population at Mar del Plata harbor, Argentina. Fecundity, egg size, reproductive output, weight and elemental composition of eggs, and larvae were analyzed in females collected at the beginning, in the mid point, and near the end of a reproductive season and designated as early, middle season, and late females. The highest reproductive output was observed in early females, while the highest fecundity and egg volume occurred in middle season females. Eggs and larvae showed larger body mass in early than in late females. Embryos from early females contained and consumed more carbon during development than embryos from late females, and they also used part of the available nitrogen. Differences in reproduction were observed among the three groups of females. On the one hand, late females matured early but had a poor first reproduction, with few embryos and high egg loss; however, they had longer reproductive life and an enhanced reproductive output in the following season when they became early females. On the other hand, females collected at the midpoint in the reproductive season matured later and had the highest fecundity and egg volume. In addition, larvae with different characteristics resulted from each type of female and were presumably well adapted to the conditions prevailing at the moment they hatched. The extended reproductive period and the diversity of embryos and larvae produced may favor the invading ability of the species.

  10. Genetic correlations between body weight change and reproduction traits in Merino ewes depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; van der Werf, J H J; Thompson, A N; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-08-01

    Merino sheep in Australia experience periods of variable feed supply. Merino sheep can be bred to be more resilient to this variation by losing less BW when grazing poor quality pasture and gaining more BW when grazing good quality pasture. Therefore, selection on BW change might be economically attractive but correlations with other traits in the breeding objective need to be known. The genetic correlations (rg) between BW, BW change, and reproduction were estimated using records from approximately 7,350 fully pedigreed Merino ewes managed at Katanning in Western Australia. Number of lambs and total weight of lambs born and weaned were measured on approximately 5,300 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 4,900 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 3,600 4-yr-old ewes. On a proportion of these ewes BW change was measured: approximately 1,950 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 1,500 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 1,100 4-yr-old ewes. The BW measurements were for 3 periods. The first period was during mating period over 42 d on poor pasture. The second period was during pregnancy over 90 d for ewes that got pregnant on poor and medium quality pasture. The third period was during lactation over 130 d for ewes that weaned a lamb on good quality pasture. Genetic correlations between weight change and reproduction were estimated within age classes. Genetic correlations were tested to be significantly greater magnitude than 0 using likelihood ratio tests. Nearly all BW had significant positive genetic correlations with all reproduction traits. In 2-yr-old ewes, BW change during the mating period had a positive genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = 0.58); BW change during pregnancy had a positive genetic correlation with total weight of lambs born (rg = 0.33) and a negative genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = -0.49). All other genetic correlations were not significantly greater magnitude than 0 but estimates of genetic correlations for 3-yr-old ewes were

  11. Interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding on reproductive traits in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, A B; Arcese, P; Hochachka, W M; Reid, J M; Keller, L F

    2006-11-01

    1. Conservation biologists are concerned about the interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding because such interactions could affect the dynamics and extinction risk of small and isolated populations, but few studies have tested for these interactions in nature. 2. We used data from the long-term population study of song sparrows Melospiza melodia on Mandarte Island to examine the joint effects of inbreeding and environmental stress on four fitness traits that are known to be affected by the inbreeding level of adult birds: hatching success, laying date, male mating success and fledgling survival. 3. We found that inbreeding depression interacted with environmental stress to reduce hatching success in the nests of inbred females during periods of rain. 4. For laying date, we found equivocal support for an interaction between parental inbreeding and environmental stress. In this case, however, inbred females experienced less inbreeding depression in more stressful, cooler years. 5. For two other traits, we found no evidence that the strength of inbreeding depression varied with environmental stress. First, mated males fathered fewer nests per season if inbred or if the ratio of males to females in the population was high, but inbreeding depression did not depend on sex ratio. Second, fledglings survived poorly during rainy periods and if their father was inbred, but the effects of paternal inbreeding and rain did not interact. 6. Thus, even for a single species, interactions between the inbreeding level and environmental stress may not occur in all traits affected by inbreeding depression, and interactions that do occur will not always act synergistically to further decrease fitness.

  12. Seasonal temperature variations influence tapetum mitosis patterns associated with reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Umesh C; Basu, Surochita; Kushwaha, Jyotsana Singh; Lavania, Seshu

    2014-09-01

    Environmental stress in plants impacts many biological processes, including male gametogenesis, and affects several cytological mechanisms that are strongly interrelated. To understand the likely impact of rising temperature on reproductive fitness in the climate change regime, a study of tapetal mitosis and its accompanying meiosis over seasons was made to elucidate the influence of temperature change on the cytological events occurring during microsporogenesis. For this we used two species of an environmentally sensitive plant system, i.e., genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Poaceae), namely Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. confertiflorus (Steud.) Bor (2n = 20) and Cymbopogon jwaruncusha (Jones) Schult. (2n = 20). Both species flower profusely during extreme summer (48 °C) and mild winter (15 °C) but support low and high seed fertility, respectively, in the two seasons. We have shown that tapetal mitotic patterns over seasons entail differential behavior for tapetal mitosis. During the process of tapetum development there are episodes of endomitosis that form either (i) an endopolyploid genomically imbalanced uninucleate and multinucleate tapetum, and (or) (ii) an acytokinetic multinucleate genomically balanced tapetum, with the progression of meiosis in the accompanying sporogenous tissue. The relative frequency of occurrence of the two types of tapetum mitosis patterns is significantly different in the two seasons, and it is found to be correlated with the temperature conditions. Whereas, the former (genomically imbalanced tapetum) are prevalent during the hot summer, the latter (genomically balanced tapetum) are frequent under optimal conditions. Such a differential behaviour in tapetal mitosis vis-à-vis temperature change is also correspondingly accompanied by substantial disturbances or regularity in meiotic anaphase disjunction. Both species show similar patterns. The study underpins that tapetal mitotic behaviour per se could be a reasonable indicator to

  13. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  14. Epistasis × environment interactions among Arabidopsis thaliana glucosinolate genes impact complex traits and fitness in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerwin, Rachel E.; Feusier, Julie; Muok, Alise

    2017-01-01

    (GSL) defense chemistry, leaf damage, and relative fitness using mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana varying at pairs of causal aliphatic GSL defense genes to test the impact of epistatic and epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait variation. We found that aliphatic GSL accumulation...

  15. Vitamin D status predicts reproductive fitness in a wild sheep population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Ian; Watt, Kathryn A; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M; Macrae, Alastair; Scott, Philip; McNeilly, Tom N; Berry, Jacqueline L; Clements, Dylan N; Nussey, Daniel H; Mellanby, Richard J

    2016-01-13

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the development of many human diseases, and with poor reproductive performance in laboratory rodents. We currently have no idea how natural selection directly acts on variation in vitamin D metabolism due to a total lack of studies in wild animals. Here, we measured serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in female Soay sheep that were part of a long-term field study on St Kilda. We found that total 25(OH)D was strongly influenced by age, and that light coloured sheep had higher 25(OH)D3 (but not 25(OH)D2) concentrations than dark sheep. The coat colour polymorphism in Soay sheep is controlled by a single locus, suggesting vitamin D status is heritable in this population. We also observed a very strong relationship between total 25(OH)D concentrations in summer and a ewe's fecundity the following spring. This resulted in a positive association between total 25(OH)D and the number of lambs produced that survived their first year of life, an important component of female reproductive fitness. Our study provides the first insight into naturally-occurring variation in vitamin D metabolites, and offers the first evidence that vitamin D status is both heritable and under natural selection in the wild.

  16. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  17. Scent of a break-up: phylogeography and reproductive trait divergences in the red-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lapidarius)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lecocq, T.; Dellicour, S.; Michez, D.; Lhomme, P.; Vanderplanck, M.; Valterová, Irena; Rasplus, J. Y.; Rasmont, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 263 (2013), 263/1-263/17 ISSN 1471-2148 Grant - others:Seventh Framework Programme(XE) FP7-244090 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phylogeography * reproductive traits * genetic differentiation * bumblebees Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2013 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/263

  18. The effects of selecting for the myostatin F94L polymorphism on reproductive traits in pubertal heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The myostatin F94L polymorphism influences carcass traits in steers; however, the influence of this polymorphism on female reproductive performance should be characterized as part of using it for marker assisted selection. Results from USMARC indicate that heifers that are homozygous for the L allel...

  19. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Najmeh; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traitsincluding sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART) or surrogacy. This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who visited Isfahan and Tehran Reproductive Medicine Center. These fertility clinics are located in Isfahan and Tehran, Iran. In this study, 201 infertile women who underwent treatment using ART and 50 infertile women who tended to have surrogacy were chosen by convenience sampling. Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V), Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (adapted from NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) were used as research instruments. All participants had to complete the research instruments in order to be included in this study. Data were analyzed by descriptive-analytical statistics and statistical tests including multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Z Fisher. Statistically significant effects were accepted for Psurrogacy (Psurrogacy (Psurrogacy (Psurrogacy. This study shows that demographic variables are effective in happiness of infertile women. Also, there is a significant relation among sensation seeking, flexibility and happiness in infertile women.

  20. EFFECT OF CULTURE CONDITIONS ON REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF BROWN TROUT SALMO TRUTTA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANDÁK T.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Progeny from artificial propagation of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L. of the Blanice river, Czech Republic, were farmed to maturity and spawned at ages three, four and five during 2002-2004. Reproductive parameters and biological quality of eggs in this farmed population were compared to those of the original wild population. ANCOVA showed no differences between wild and farmed fish in weight of eggs per female, total fecundity, or relative fecundity in any year. Significantly higher egg diameter (4.57 mm, P = 0.001 and weight (69.3 mg, P = 0.0375 were found in the wild population in 2002 and conversely in 2004, the mean egg weight was higher in the farmed population (94.7 mg, P = 0.0021. Differences in egg diameter in this year (4.64 ± 0.06 and 4.82 ± 0.06 in wild and farmed trout, respectively were close to the level of significance (P = 0.079. Mutual correlations between length or weight and studied reproductive traits were similar in both populations. Fertilization rate, duration of incubation period, egg losses during incubation and mortality of starving hatched fry were monitored in embryos and larvae of farmed population only (FxF, crosses between farmed females and wild males (FxW and wild population only (WxW. Altogether 6.3%, 5.8% and 5.4% of eggs died during incubation period in FxF, FxW and WxW, respectively. There were also no significant differences in duration of incubation period and mortality of starving fry. It can be concluded that farming conditions did not significantly affect the reproductive parameters and quality of eggs in the first generation of farmed broodstock.

  1. In Vivo fitness associated with high virulence in a vertebrate virus is a complex trait regulated by host entry, replication, and shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between pathogen fitness and virulence is typically examined by quantifying only one or two pathogen fitness traits. More specifically, it is regularly assumed that within-host replication, as a precursor to transmission, is the driving force behind virulence. In reality, many traits contribute to pathogen fitness, and each trait could drive the evolution of virulence in different ways. Here, we independently quantified four viral infection cycle traits, namely, host entry, within-host replication, within-host coinfection fitness, and shedding, in vivo, in the vertebrate virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). We examined how each of these stages of the viral infection cycle contributes to the fitness of IHNV genotypes that differ in virulence in rainbow trout. This enabled us to determine how infection cycle fitness traits are independently associated with virulence. We found that viral fitness was independently regulated by each of the traits examined, with the largest impact on fitness being provided by within-host replication. Furthermore, the more virulent of the two genotypes of IHNV we used had advantages in all of the traits quantified. Our results are thus congruent with the assumption that virulence and within-host replication are correlated but suggest that infection cycle fitness is complex and that replication is not the only trait associated with virulence.

  2. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Asgarini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traits -including sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness - among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART or surrogacy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who visited Isfahan and Tehran Reproductive Medicine Center. These fertility clinics are located in Isfahan and Tehran, Iran. In this study, 201 infertile women who underwent treatment using ART and 50 infertile women who tended to have surrogacy were chosen by convenience sampling. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V, Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (adapted from NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ were used as research instruments. All participants had to complete the research instruments in order to be included in this study. Data were analyzed by descriptive-analytical statistics and statistical tests including multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Z Fisher. Statistically significant effects were accepted for P<0.05. Results: In the sensation-seeking variable, there was a meaningful difference between under-study groups. However, the flexibility and happiness variables did not have a significant difference between under-study groups (P<0.001. Interaction between education, employment, and financial status was effective in happiness of infertile women underwent ART (P<0.05, while age, education and financial status were also effective in happiness of infertile women sought surrogacy (P<0.05. A positive meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and flexibility variables in both groups (P<0.05. And a negative meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and happiness in infertile

  3. Model for fitting longitudinal traits subject to threshold response applied to genetic evaluation for heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misztal Ignacy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A semi-parametric non-linear longitudinal hierarchical model is presented. The model assumes that individual variation exists both in the degree of the linear change of performance (slope beyond a particular threshold of the independent variable scale and in the magnitude of the threshold itself; these individual variations are attributed to genetic and environmental components. During implementation via a Bayesian MCMC approach, threshold levels were sampled using a Metropolis step because their fully conditional posterior distributions do not have a closed form. The model was tested by simulation following designs similar to previous studies on genetics of heat stress. Posterior means of parameters of interest, under all simulation scenarios, were close to their true values with the latter always being included in the uncertain regions, indicating an absence of bias. The proposed models provide flexible tools for studying genotype by environmental interaction as well as for fitting other longitudinal traits subject to abrupt changes in the performance at particular points on the independent variable scale.

  4. When stress predicts a shrinking gene pool, trading early reproduction for longevity can increase fitness, even with lower fecundity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Ratcliff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stresses like dietary restriction or various toxins increase lifespan in taxa as diverse as yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and rats, by triggering physiological responses that also tend to delay reproduction. Food odors can reverse the effects of dietary restriction, showing that key mechanisms respond to information, not just resources. Such environmental cues can predict population trends, not just individual prospects for survival and reproduction. When population size is increasing, each offspring produced earlier makes a larger proportional contribution to the gene pool, but the reverse is true when population size is declining.We show mathematically that natural selection can favor facultative delay in reproduction when environmental cues predict a decrease in total population size, even if lifetime fecundity decreases with delay. We also show that increased reproduction from waiting for better conditions does not increase fitness (proportional representation when the whole population benefits similarly.We conclude that the beneficial effects of stress on longevity (hormesis in diverse taxa are a side-effect of delaying reproduction in response to environmental cues that population size is likely to decrease. The reversal by food odors of the effects of dietary restriction can be explained as a response to information that population size is less likely to decrease, reducing the chance that delaying reproduction will increase fitness.

  5. Reproductive fitness and dietary choice behavior of the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans under semi-natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyth, Katharina; Janowitz, Tim; Nunes, Frank; Voss, Melanie; Heinick, Alexander; Bertaux, Joanne; Scheu, Stefan; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2010-10-01

    Laboratory breeding conditions of the model organism C. elegans do not correspond with the conditions in its natural soil habitat. To assess the consequences of the differences in environmental conditions, the effects of air composition, medium and bacterial food on reproductive fitness and/or dietary-choice behavior of C. elegans were investigated. The reproductive fitness of C. elegans was maximal under oxygen deficiency and not influenced by a high fractional share of carbon dioxide. In media approximating natural soil structure, reproductive fitness was much lower than in standard laboratory media. In seminatural media, the reproductive fitness of C. elegans was low with the standard laboratory food bacterium E. coli (γ-Proteobacteria), but significantly higher with C. arvensicola (Bacteroidetes) and B. tropica (β-Proteobacteria) as food. Dietary-choice experiments in semi-natural media revealed a low preference of C. elegans for E. coli but significantly higher preferences for C. arvensicola and B. tropica (among other bacteria). Dietary-choice experiments under quasi-natural conditions, which were feasible by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacteria, showed a high preference of C. elegans for Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and β-Proteobacteria, but a low preference for γ-Proteobacteria. The results show that data on C. elegans under standard laboratory conditions have to be carefully interpreted with respect to their biological significance.

  6. Comparative study on production, reproduction and functional traits between Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic-Toma Cziszter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Aim of the current comparative study was to evaluate production outputs, reproduction efficiency and functional traits in dual-purpose Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cows, reared under temperate European conditions. Methods A data-set from 414 Fleckvieh and 42 Braunvieh cows and 799 lactations was analysed. ID tag number, milk yield per milking session, number of steps/interval and milk conductivity were recorded and collected daily using AfiMilk 3.076 A-DU software (Afimilk Ltd., Kibbutz, Israel. Production and milk quality data were taken from the results of the official performance recordings and the reproductive outputs of cows were recorded by the research stations veterinarians. Comparisons between the two genotypes were carried out using the one way analysis of variance protocol, with categorical factor being considered the breed of cows. All the statistical inferences were carried out using Statistica software (StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA. Results Fleckvieh cows significantly outperformed (p≤0.05 the Braunvieh herd, with average milk yields of 5,252.1±35.79 kg and 4,897.6±128.94 kg, respectively. Age at first calving was significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by the breed, with Fleckvieh heifers being more precocious (32.8±0.29 mo compared to those of Braunvieh breed (35.7±0.84 mo. Reproduction efficiency as defined by the number of inseminations per gestation, calving interval, dystocia, days dry and days open, was not influenced by genotype (p>0.05. Incidences of sub-clinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, lameness and abortions were not influenced by the breed factor (p>0.05. Stayability of cows was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by genotype, with Braunvieh cows having an average age at culling of 117.88±11.78 months compared to 90.88±2.89 months in Fleckvieh. Conclusion Overall, results have shown that genotype significantly influenced milk yield, age at first calving and longevity.

  7. Epistasis × environment interactions among Arabidopsis thaliana glucosinolate genes impact complex traits and fitness in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Rachel E; Feusier, Julie; Muok, Alise; Lin, Catherine; Larson, Brandon; Copeland, Daniel; Corwin, Jason A; Rubin, Matthew J; Francisco, Marta; Li, Baohua; Joseph, Bindu; Weinig, Cynthia; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the growing number of studies showing that genotype × environment and epistatic interactions control fitness, the influences of epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait evolution remain largely uncharacterized. Across three field trials, we quantified aliphatic glucosinolate (GSL) defense chemistry, leaf damage, and relative fitness using mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana varying at pairs of causal aliphatic GSL defense genes to test the impact of epistatic and epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait variation. We found that aliphatic GSL accumulation was primarily influenced by additive and epistatic genetic variation, leaf damage was primarily influenced by environmental variation and relative fitness was primarily influenced by epistasis and epistasis × environment interactions. Epistasis × environment interactions accounted for up to 48% of the relative fitness variation in the field. At a single field site, the impact of epistasis on relative fitness varied significantly over 2 yr, showing that epistasis × environment interactions within a location can be temporally dynamic. These results suggest that the environmental dependency of epistasis can profoundly influence the response to selection, shaping the adaptive trajectories of natural populations in complex ways, and deserves further consideration in future evolutionary studies. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Estimation of additive and dominance variance for reproductive traits from different models in Duroc purebred

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    Talerngsak Angkuraseranee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The additive and dominance genetic variances of 5,801 Duroc reproductive and growth records were estimated usingBULPF90 PC-PACK. Estimates were obtained for number born alive (NBA, birth weight (BW, number weaned (NW, andweaning weight (WW. Data were analyzed using two mixed model equations. The first model included fixed effects andrandom effects identifying inbreeding depression, additive gene effect and permanent environments effects. The secondmodel was similar to the first model, but included the dominance genotypic effect. Heritability estimates of NBA, BW, NWand WW from the two models were 0.1558/0.1716, 0.1616/0.1737, 0.0372/0.0874 and 0.1584/0.1516 respectively. Proportionsof dominance effect to total phenotypic variance from the dominance model were 0.1024, 0.1625, 0.0470, and 0.1536 for NBA,BW, NW and WW respectively. Dominance effects were found to have sizable influence on the litter size traits analyzed.Therefore, genetic evaluation with the dominance model (Model 2 is found more appropriate than the animal model (Model 1.

  9. Chemical reproductive traits of diploid Bombus terrestris males: Consequences on bumblebee conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Thomas; Gérard, Maxence; Maebe, Kevin; Brasero, Nicolas; Dehon, Lauren; Smagghe, Guy; Valterová, Irena; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Rasmont, Pierre; Michez, Denis

    2017-08-01

    The current bumblebee decline leads to inbreeding in populations that fosters a loss of allelic diversity and diploid male production. As diploid males are viable and their offspring are sterile, bumblebee populations can quickly fall in a vortex of extinction. In this article, we investigate for the first time a potential premating mechanism through a major chemical reproductive trait (male cephalic labial gland secretions) that could prevent monandrous virgin queens from mating with diploid males. We focus our study on the cephalic labial gland secretions of diploid and haploid males of Bombus terrestris (L.). Contrary to initial expectations, our results do not show any significant differentiation of cephalic labial gland secretions between diploid and haploid specimens. Queens seem therefore to be unable to avoid mating with diploid males based on their compositions of cephalic labial gland secretions. This suggests that the vortex of extinction of diploid males could not be stopped through premating avoidance based on the cephalic labial gland secretions but other mechanisms could avoid mating between diploid males and queens. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Testing for biases in selection on avian reproductive traits and partitioning direct and indirect selection using quantitative genetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas E; Gienapp, Phillip; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-10-01

    Key life history traits such as breeding time and clutch size are frequently both heritable and under directional selection, yet many studies fail to document microevolutionary responses. One general explanation is that selection estimates are biased by the omission of correlated traits that have causal effects on fitness, but few valid tests of this exist. Here, we show, using a quantitative genetic framework and six decades of life-history data on two free-living populations of great tits Parus major, that selection estimates for egg-laying date and clutch size are relatively unbiased. Predicted responses to selection based on the Robertson-Price Identity were similar to those based on the multivariate breeder's equation (MVBE), indicating that unmeasured covarying traits were not missing from the analysis. Changing patterns of phenotypic selection on these traits (for laying date, linked to climate change) therefore reflect changing selection on breeding values, and genetic constraints appear not to limit their independent evolution. Quantitative genetic analysis of correlational data from pedigreed populations can be a valuable complement to experimental approaches to help identify whether apparent associations between traits and fitness are biased by missing traits, and to parse the roles of direct versus indirect selection across a range of environments. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Multi-Trait analysis of growth traits: fitting reduced rank models using principal components for Simmental beef cattle

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    Rodrigo Reis Mota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to evaluate the dimensional reduction of additive direct genetic covariance matrices in genetic evaluations of growth traits (range 100-730 days in Simmental cattle using principal components, as well as to estimate (covariance components and genetic parameters. Principal component analyses were conducted for five different models-one full and four reduced-rank models. Models were compared using Akaike information (AIC and Bayesian information (BIC criteria. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML. The AIC and BIC values were similar among models. This indicated that parsimonious models could be used in genetic evaluations in Simmental cattle. The first principal component explained more than 96% of total variance in both models. Heritability estimates were higher for advanced ages and varied from 0.05 (100 days to 0.30 (730 days. Genetic correlation estimates were similar in both models regardless of magnitude and number of principal components. The first principal component was sufficient to explain almost all genetic variance. Furthermore, genetic parameter similarities and lower computational requirements allowed for parsimonious models in genetic evaluations of growth traits in Simmental cattle.

  12. POLYMORPHISM OF PROLACTIN RECEPTOR GENE (PRLR IN THE POLISH LANDRACE AND POLISH LARGE WHITE SWINE POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS

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    AGATA ZIÓŁKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin receptor gene was found in pig chromosome 16, and it is one of the genes with a significant effect on reproduction traits in sows. The objective of the research was to determine polymorphism of the prolactin receptor gene in pigs of two maternal breeds: Polish Landrace and Polish Large White, as well as analyse relations between particular allelomorphic variants, and reproduction traits of examined sows. Two PRLR gene alleles, A and B, were isolated, they were obtained after AluI restriction gene digestion of the PCR product with the length of 163 bp; furthermore, three genotypes were identified: PRLRAA – 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRAB – 104, 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRBB – 104, 59 bp. We assessed 122 sows, in terms of their age at the first farrowing, as well as the sizes of the two subsequent litters. No statistically significant differences were found in the examined reproduction traits in sows with different allelomorphic relations, both within each breed and between breeds. Obtained results indicate that it is necessary to conduct further research on a larger animal group.

  13. Genetic correlations between mature cow weight and productive and reproductive traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regatieri, I C; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G

    2012-08-29

    We investigated genetic associations between mature cow weight (MW) and weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), weight gain from birth to weaning (GBW), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY), weaning hip height (WHH), yearling hip height (YHH), scrotal circumference (SC), and age at first calving (AFC). Data from 127,104 Nellore animals born between 1993 and 2006, belonging to Agropecuária Jacarezinho Ltda., were analyzed. (Co)variance components were obtained by the restricted maximum likelihood method, applying an animal model in a multi-traits analysis. The model included direct genetic and residual effects as random effects, the fixed effects of contemporary group, and the linear and quadratic effects of animal age at recording (except for AFC, GBW, and GWY) and age of cow at calving as covariates (except for MW). The numbers of days from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling were included as covariates for GBW and GWY, respectively. Estimated direct heritabilities were 0.43 ± 0.02 (MW), 0.33 ± 0.01 (WW), 0.36 ± 0.01 (YW), 0.28 ± 0.02 (GBW), 0.31 ± 0.01 (GWY), 0.44 ± 0.02 (WHH), 0.48 ± 0.02 (YHH), 0.44 ± 0.01 (SC), and 0.16 ± 0.03 (AFC). Genetic correlations between MW and productive traits were positive and of medium to high magnitude (ranging from 0.47 ± 0.03 to 0.71 ± 0.01). A positive and low genetic correlation was observed between MW and SC (0.24 ± 0.04). A negative genetic correlation (-0.19 ± 0.03) was estimated between MW and AFC. Selection to increase weight or weight gains at any age, as well as hip height, will change MW in the same direction. Selection for higher SC may lead to a long-term increase in MW. The AFC can be included in selection indices to improve the reproductive performance of beef cattle without significant changes in MW.

  14. Antagonistic pleiotropy and fitness trade-offs reveal specialist and generalist traits in strains of canine distemper virus.

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    Veljko M Nikolin

    Full Text Available Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV. The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150. Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F. We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by

  15. Antagonistic Pleiotropy and Fitness Trade-Offs Reveal Specialist and Generalist Traits in Strains of Canine Distemper Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolin, Veljko M.; Osterrieder, Klaus; von Messling, Veronika; Hofer, Heribert; Anderson, Danielle; Dubovi, Edward; Brunner, Edgar; East, Marion L.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150). Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H) to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F). We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H) in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by antagonistic

  16. Multiple transgene traits may create un-intended fitness effects in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple “stacked” traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and resistance to environmental factors. The release of crops that express mult...

  17. Evolution of sociality by natural selection on variances in reproductive fitness: evidence from a social bee

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    Stevens Mark I

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Central Limit Theorem (CLT is a statistical principle that states that as the number of repeated samples from any population increase, the variance among sample means will decrease and means will become more normally distributed. It has been conjectured that the CLT has the potential to provide benefits for group living in some animals via greater predictability in food acquisition, if the number of foraging bouts increases with group size. The potential existence of benefits for group living derived from a purely statistical principle is highly intriguing and it has implications for the origins of sociality. Results Here we show that in a social allodapine bee the relationship between cumulative food acquisition (measured as total brood weight and colony size accords with the CLT. We show that deviations from expected food income decrease with group size, and that brood weights become more normally distributed both over time and with increasing colony size, as predicted by the CLT. Larger colonies are better able to match egg production to expected food intake, and better able to avoid costs associated with producing more brood than can be reared while reducing the risk of under-exploiting the food resources that may be available. Conclusion These benefits to group living derive from a purely statistical principle, rather than from ecological, ergonomic or genetic factors, and could apply to a wide variety of species. This in turn suggests that the CLT may provide benefits at the early evolutionary stages of sociality and that evolution of group size could result from selection on variances in reproductive fitness. In addition, they may help explain why sociality has evolved in some groups and not others.

  18. Evolution of sociality by natural selection on variances in reproductive fitness: evidence from a social bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark I; Hogendoorn, Katja; Schwarz, Michael P

    2007-08-29

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is a statistical principle that states that as the number of repeated samples from any population increase, the variance among sample means will decrease and means will become more normally distributed. It has been conjectured that the CLT has the potential to provide benefits for group living in some animals via greater predictability in food acquisition, if the number of foraging bouts increases with group size. The potential existence of benefits for group living derived from a purely statistical principle is highly intriguing and it has implications for the origins of sociality. Here we show that in a social allodapine bee the relationship between cumulative food acquisition (measured as total brood weight) and colony size accords with the CLT. We show that deviations from expected food income decrease with group size, and that brood weights become more normally distributed both over time and with increasing colony size, as predicted by the CLT. Larger colonies are better able to match egg production to expected food intake, and better able to avoid costs associated with producing more brood than can be reared while reducing the risk of under-exploiting the food resources that may be available. These benefits to group living derive from a purely statistical principle, rather than from ecological, ergonomic or genetic factors, and could apply to a wide variety of species. This in turn suggests that the CLT may provide benefits at the early evolutionary stages of sociality and that evolution of group size could result from selection on variances in reproductive fitness. In addition, they may help explain why sociality has evolved in some groups and not others.

  19. Reproductive traits of tropical deep-water pandalid shrimps ( Heterocarpus ensifer) from the SW Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Barradas-Ortíz, Cecilia; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique

    2010-08-01

    Heterocarpus ensifer is a tropical deep-water pandalid shrimp whose reproductive features are poorly known. We examined reproductive traits of a population of H. ensifer inhabiting the continental slope (311-715 m in depth) off the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (SW Gulf of Mexico). Size range of the total sample ( n=816) was 10.4-38.9 mm carapace length. Females grow larger than males, but both sexes mature at 57% of their maximum theoretical size and at ˜30% of their total lifespan. Among adult females, the proportion of ovigerous females was high in all seasons, indicating year-round reproduction. Most females carrying embryos in advanced stages of development had ovaries in advanced stages of maturation, indicating production of successive spawns. In the autumn, however, the proportion of ovigerous females and the condition index of these females were lower compared to other seasons. This pattern potentially reflects a reduction in food resources following the summer minimum in particulate organic carbon flux to the deep benthos, as reported in previous studies. Spawns consisting of large numbers (16024±5644, mean±SD) of small eggs (0.045±0.009 mm 3) are consistent with extended planktotrophic larval development, an uncommon feature in deep-water carideans. Egg number increased as a power function of female size but with substantial variability, and egg size varied widely within and between females. There was no apparent trade-off between egg number and egg size and neither of these two variables was influenced by female condition. These results indicate iteroparity and a high and variable reproductive effort, reflecting a reproductive strategy developed to compensate for high larval mortality. The present study provides a baseline to compare reproductive traits between Atlantic populations of this tropical deep-water pandalid.

  20. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  1. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-01-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  2. Association analysis of polymorphism in KiSS1 gene with reproductive traits in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; Zaglool, Asmaa W; El-Tarabany, Akram A; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the genetic information of related genes is helpful for the selection and breeding course through marker assisted selection. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of the KiSS1 gene in 137 animals, including Baladi, Zaraibi and Damascus goat breeds by PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing and to investigate the association between these variants and reproductive traits. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence indicated the substitution of T with A at position 121 (T121A) in the intron 1 of the KiSS1 gene in all goat breeds. This substitution distorts the restriction site of the XmnI restriction enzyme and consequently two genotypes were detected (TA and TT). The T121A SNP is associated significantly with litter size in Damascus and Zaribi breeds (p=0.025 and 0.001, respectively). The animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had a significantly higher estradiol 17β level than that recorded in TA genotype at estrus phase (p=0.013 and 0.028, respectively) and late-luteal phase (p=0.067 and 0.041, respectively) of the estrus cycle. Furthermore, animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had significant higher progesterone level at mid-luteal (p=0.037 and 0.045, respectively) phase. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in progesterone level in late-luteal phase between both genotypes in Zaribi breed (p=0.267). The current trial indicated that the prolific TT genotype in both Damascus and Zaribi breeds had superior estradiol 17β level at estrus phase and an eminent progesterone level at both early and mid-luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal and genetic influences on production and reproduction traits in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der H.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The profitability of pig production may be expressed as a function of reproductivity and productivity. The optimal selection pressure on reproductivity relative to productivity depends on the response to selection and the economic value of the response. Reproductive performance is primarily a

  4. Genetic relationships between body condition score and reproduction traits in Canadian Holstein and Ayrshire first-parity cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Loker, S; Gengler, N; Sewalem, A; Miglior, F

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition scores were collected by field staff several times over the lactation in herds from Québec, and reproduction records (including both fertility and calving traits) were extracted from the official database used for the Canadian genetic evaluation of those herds. For each breed, six 2-trait animal models were run; they included random regressions that allowed the estimation of genetic correlations between BCS over the lactation and reproduction traits that are measured as a single lactation record. Analyses were undertaken on data from 108 Ayrshire herds and 342 Holstein herds. Average daily heritabilities of BCS were close to 0.13 for both breeds; these relatively low estimates might be explained by the high variability among herds and BCS evaluators. Genetic correlations between BCS and interval fertility traits (days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open) were negative and ranged between -0.77 and -0.58 for Ayrshire and between -0.31 and -0.03 for Holstein. Genetic correlations between BCS and 56-d nonreturn rate at first insemination were positive and moderate. The trends of these genetic correlations over the lactation suggest that a genetically low BCS in early lactation would increase the number of days that the primiparous cow was not pregnant and would decrease the chances of the primiparous cow to conceive at first service. Genetic correlations between BCS and calving traits were generally the strongest at calving and decreased with increasing days in milk. The correlation between BCS at calving and maternal calving ease was 0.21 for Holstein and 0.31 for Ayrshire and emphasized the relationship between fat cows around calving and dystocia. Genetic correlations between calving traits and BCS during the subsequent

  5. Quantitative variation in water-use efficiency across water regimes and its relationship with circadian, vegetative, reproductive, and leaf gas-exchange traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2012-05-01

    Drought limits light harvesting, resulting in lower plant growth and reproduction. One trait important for plant drought response is water-use efficiency (WUE). We investigated (1) how the joint genetic architecture of WUE, reproductive characters, and vegetative traits changed across drought and well-watered conditions, (2) whether traits with distinct developmental bases (e.g. leaf gas exchange versus reproduction) differed in the environmental sensitivity of their genetic architecture, and (3) whether quantitative variation in circadian period was related to drought response in Brassica rapa. Overall, WUE increased in drought, primarily because stomatal conductance, and thus water loss, declined more than carbon fixation. Genotypes with the highest WUE in drought expressed the lowest WUE in well-watered conditions, and had the largest vegetative and floral organs in both treatments. Thus, large changes in WUE enabled some genotypes to approach vegetative and reproductive trait optima across environments. The genetic architecture differed for gas-exchange and vegetative traits across drought and well-watered conditions, but not for floral traits. Correlations between circadian and leaf gas-exchange traits were significant but did not vary across treatments, indicating that circadian period affects physiological function regardless of water availability. These results suggest that WUE is important for drought tolerance in Brassica rapa and that artificial selection for increased WUE in drought will not result in maladaptive expression of other traits that are correlated with WUE.

  6. Limited fitness costs of herbicide-resistance traits in Amaranthus tuberculatus facilitate resistance evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fitness cost of herbicide resistance (HR) in the absence of herbicide selection plays a key role in HR evolution. Quantifying the fitness cost of resistance, however, is challenging, and there exists a knowledge gap in this area. A synthetic Amaranthus tuberculatus population segregating for fiv...

  7. Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. Long; R. T. Bowyer; Warren P. Porter; Paul Mathewson; Kevin L. Monteith; Scott L. Findholt; Brian L. Dick; John G. Kie

    2016-01-01

    Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North...

  8. Feather mass and winter moult extent are heritable but not associated with fitness-related traits in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Reed, T.; Pulido, F.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In birds, the allocation of resources to plumage production may have important fitness consequences. However, we have only a limited understanding of how plumage traits respond to natural selection, making it difficult to predict how variation in plumage traits may contribute to the adaptation of

  9. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex-specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly; Stark, Lloyd R; McLetchie, D Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    Expected life history trade-offs associated with sex differences in reproductive investment are often undetected in seed plants, with the difficulty arising from logistical issues of conducting controlled experiments. By controlling genotype, age and resource status of individuals, a bryophyte was assessed for sex-specific and location-specific patterns of vegetative, asexual and sexual growth/reproduction across a regional scale. Twelve genotypes (six male, six female) of the dioecious bryophyte Bryum argenteum were subcultured to remove environmental effects, regenerated asexually to replicate each genotype 16 times, and grown over a period of 92 d. Plants were assessed for growth rates, asexual and sexual reproductive traits, and allocation to above- and below-ground regenerative biomass. The degree of sexual versus asexual reproductive investment appears to be under genetic control, with three distinct ecotypes found in this study. Protonemal growth rate was positively correlated with asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, whereas asexual reproduction was negatively correlated (appeared to trade-off) with vegetative growth (shoot production). No sex-specific trade-offs were detected. Female sex-expressing shoots were longer than males, but the sexes did not differ in growth traits, asexual traits, sexual induction times, or above- and below-ground biomass. Males, however, had much higher rates of inflorescence production than females, which translated into a significantly higher (24x) prezygotic investment for males relative to females. Evidence for three distinct ecotypes is presented for a bryophyte based on regeneration traits. Prior to zygote production, the sexes of this bryophyte did not differ in vegetative growth traits but significantly differed in reproductive investment, with the latter differences potentially implicated in the strongly biased female sex ratio. The disparity between males and females for prezygotic reproductive investment is

  10. Effects of selfsuperparasitism and host age on fitness-correlated traits in the solitary endoparasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Baoping; Meng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The domed fitness functions are suggested to describe developmental patterns of progeny parasitoids in relation to host age at oviposition in solitary koinobint parasitoids that are engaged in single parasitism, but few studies have investigated the applicability of the functions as related to superparasitism. The present study was designed to compare fitness functions between single parasitism and superparasitism by examining developmental patterns of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymneoptera: Braconidae) progeny in relation to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), either singly parasitized or self-superparasitized as second–fifth instar larvae. Selfsuperparasitism caused deleterious effects on the fitness-related traits of parasitoid progeny, as demonstrated by a prolonged egg-to-adult emergence time, a smaller body size, and shorter longevity of the emerging adults, and decreased survival to adult emergence. While the domed fitness function was detected for development time, survival, adult body size, and longevity in relation to host larvae that were singly parasitized, the function was observed only for progeny survival in relation to host larvae that were self-superparasitized. This study suggests that developmental fitness functions with selfsuperparasitism can deviate from those with single parasitism in solitary koinobiont parasitoids. PMID:25201512

  11. Effects of self-superparasitism and host age on fitness-correlated traits in the solitary endoparasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Baoping; Meng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    The domed fitness functions are suggested to describe developmental patterns of progeny parasitoids in relation to host age at oviposition in solitary koinobint parasitoids that are engaged in single parasitism, but few studies have investigated the applicability of the functions as related to superparasitism. The present study was designed to compare fitness functions between single parasitism and superparasitism by examining developmental patterns of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymneoptera: Braconidae) progeny in relation to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), either singly parasitized or self-superparasitized as second-fifth instar larvae. Self-superparasitism caused deleterious effects on the fitness-related traits of parasitoid progeny, as demonstrated by a prolonged egg-to-adult emergence time, a smaller body size, and shorter longevity of the emerging adults, and decreased survival to adult emergence. While the domed fitness function was detected for development time, survival, adult body size, and longevity in relation to host larvae that were singly parasitized, the function was observed only for progeny survival in relation to host larvae that were self-superparasitized. This study suggests that developmental fitness functions with self-superparasitism can deviate from those with single parasitism in solitary koinobiont parasitoids.

  12. Effect of Roundup® (glyphosate formulation) in the energy metabolism and reproductive traits of Hyalella castroi (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Bibiana Kaiser; Fernandes, Felipe Amorim; Failace, Daniela Motta; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2011-01-01

    Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) is a nonselective and posts emergent herbicide used for controlling aquatic weeds and different concentrations are used in cultures around the world. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) on the biochemical composition, levels of lipoperoxidation, Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity and reproductive traits in the Hyalella castroi. Amphipods were collected in summer 2009, in the southern Brazilian highlands. In the laboratory, the animals were kept in aquariums under controlled conditions for 7 days, and after this period they were exposed to 0.36, 0.52, 1.08 and 2.16 mg/l of glyphosate for 7 days. After the period of exposure, the animals were immediately frozen for determination of glycogen, proteins, lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, levels of lipoperoxidation, and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity. During each day of the cultivation reproductive traits (number of reproductive pairs, ovigerous females and eggs in the marsupium) were observed. All concentrations of Roundup(®) induced significant decreases in all biochemical parameters and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity, and significant increase in lipoperoxidation levels. Showing this form a potentially toxic effect at very low concentrations, this pattern of results can lead to significant changes in trophic structure of limnic environments because these amphipods are important links in food chain in these habitats.

  13. Reproductive traits in captive and free-ranging males of the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán, Natalia; Sestelo, Adrián; Garde, J Julián; Martínez, Fernando; Vargas, Astrid; Sánchez, Iñigo; Pérez-Aspa, María José; López-Bao, José Vicente; Palomares, Francisco; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2010-01-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid in the world. Adequate genetic management of in situ and ex situ populations, and linkage between both, require knowledge on male reproductive biology and factors influencing it. We examined the influence of age, free-ranging versus captive conditions and seasonality on phenotypic, endocrine and semen traits, and links between reproductive traits and male fertility. Males had relatively small testes, produced low sperm numbers, a low proportion of normal sperm, and a high proportion of motile sperm. Young (2-year-old) males had lower testosterone levels, fewer sperm, and a lower proportion of motile and normal sperm than > or =4-year-old males. No major differences were found in semen traits before and after the mating season or between free-ranging and captive males, although the latter had better sperm motility. Males with larger relative testes weight and more sperm copulated more frequently, whereas males that produced more sperm with higher motility produced more cubs per female. In conclusion, small relative testes size and low sperm quality could indicate either low levels of sperm competition or high levels of inbreeding. Young males are probably subfertile; there is a slight trend for males in the captive breeding programme to have better semen quality than wild males, and males with higher sperm production are sexually more active and more fertile. These findings have major implications for decisions regarding which males should breed, provide samples for the genetic resource bank, or participate in programmes involving the use of assisted reproductive techniques.

  14. From sneaker to parental male: change of reproductive traits in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Simone; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Rasotto, Maria Berica

    2004-02-01

    This study focuses on the consequences of the switch of tactic from parasitic to parental male in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a species showing two alternative male mating tactics. Older and larger males defend nests, court, and perform parental care on eggs, while younger and smaller ones behave as parasites, sneaking into nests while spawning occurs. Males adopting different tactics are known to present differences in primary and secondary sex traits. The social context of sneaker males was manipulated to induce a tactic switch. Sneakers were kept under two different experimental treatments with or without a female, and under exclusion of male-male competition. Males changed tactics, courting females, spawning, and performing parental care. All males showed substantial changes in primary sexual traits, such as a reduction in gonadal development and an increase in the investment in accessory structures. The experimental groups differed in the functionality of gonads and accessory organs and in the development of the secondary sex traits. These results demonstrate that the moment of switching is not genetically fixed in the black goby. Sneaker males are able to quickly reallocate energy in primary and secondary sex traits, in accordance with the adopted tactic. Several aspects of this flexible reproductive pattern resemble the socially controlled sex change found in sequential hermaphrodites. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Application of integrative genomics and systems biology to conventional and in vitro reproductive traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne S.; de Oliveira Junior, Gerson A.

    2017-01-01

    by both conventional and ARTs such as OPU-IVP. The integration of systems biology information across different biological layers generates a complete view of the different molecular networks that control complex traits and can provide a strong contribution to the understanding of traits related to ARTs....

  16. Reproductive Health CHOICES for Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease or Trait: Randomized Controlled Trial Outcomes over Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Agatha M; Wilkie, Diana J; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Stahl, Christiane; Hershberger, Patricia E; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigoberto; Carrasco, Jesus; Angulo, Veronica; Thompson, Alexis A

    2016-04-01

    Interventions to assist reproductive health decision-making in populations affected by sickle cell disease (SCD) or trait (SCT) lack proven efficacy over time. Our aim was to compare effects of CHOICES, a Web-based multimedia education program on implementing informed reproductive plans, and usual care education (e-Book) on reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior over 24 months. We randomized 234 participants with SCD (n = 138) or SCT (n = 96) (age 18-35 years, 35 % male, 94 % African American) to CHOICES and e-Book groups. Participants completed a sickle cell-specific reproductive measure before and four times after the intervention (6, 12, 18 and 24 months). Compared to the e-Book group the CHOICES group had significantly more improvement in knowledge over time (p = .004) but not intention (p = .18) or behavior (p = .69). At baseline, 114 (48.7 %) participants reported having partners who would not put the couple at risk for their children inheriting SCD. Of the 116 (49.6 %) at-risk participants, a higher poroportion of those who were in the CHOICES group chose partners that reduced their risk by the last visit than the e-Book group (p = .04). Study findings provide important insights for designing a national trial of the CHOICES intervention focusing on subjects whose partner status puts them at risk for having a child with SCD.

  17. Environmental heterogeneity generates opposite gene-by-environment interactions for two fitness-related traits within a population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culumber, Zachary W; Schumer, Molly; Monks, Scott; Tobler, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity offers a potential solution to the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. The live-bearing fish Xiphophorus variatus exhibits polymorphism at a single locus, with different alleles resulting in up to five distinct melanistic "tailspot" patterns within populations. We investigated the effects of heterogeneity in two ubiquitous environmental variables (temperature and food availability) on two fitness-related traits (upper thermal limits and body condition) in two different tailspot types (wild-type and upper cut crescent). We found gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions between tailspot type and food level affecting upper thermal limits (UTL), as well as between tailspot type and thermal environment affecting body condition. Exploring mechanistic bases underlying these G × E patterns, we found no differences between tailspot types in hsp70 gene expression despite significant overall increases in expression under both thermal and food stress. Similarly, there was no difference in routine metabolic rates between the tailspot types. The reversal of relative performance of the two tailspot types under different environmental conditions revealed a mechanism by which environmental heterogeneity can balance polymorphism within populations through selection on different fitness-related traits. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Effects of sexual reproduction of the inferior competitor Brachionus calyciflorus on its fitness against Brachionus angularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Niu, Cuijuan

    2015-03-01

    Sexual reproduction adversely affects the population growth of cyclic parthenogenetic animals. The density-dependent sexual reproduction of a superior competitor could mediate the coexistence. However, the cost of sex may make the inferior competitor more vulnerable. To investigate the effect of sexual reproduction on the inferior competitor, we experimentally paired the competition of one Brachionus angularis clone against three Brachionus calyciflorus clones. One of the B. calyciflorus clones showed a low propensity for sexual reproduction, while the other two showed high propensities. The results show that all B. calyciflorus clones were excluded in the competition for resources at low food level. The increased food level promoted the competition persistence, but the clones did not show a clear pattern. Both the cumulative population density and resting egg production increased with the food level. The cumulative population density decreased with the mixis investment, while the resting egg production increased with the mixis investment. A trade-off between the population growth and sexual reproduction was observed in this research. The results indicate that although higher mixis investment resulted in a lower population density, it would not determinately accelerate the exclusion process of the inferior competitor. On the contrary, higher mixis investment promoted resting egg production before being excluded and thus promised a long-term benefit. In conclusion, our results suggest that mixis investment, to some extent, favored the excluded inferior competitor under fierce competition or some other adverse conditions.

  19. The Explanatory Value of Inclusive Fitness for Evolutionary Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of evolutionary theory is the concept of 'fitness', which is, standardly, an organism's reproductive success. Many evolutionary theorists argue, however, that to explain the evolution of social traits, such as altruism, we must use a different notion of fitness. This 'inclusive fitness', which includes the reproductive success of relatives, is seen as indispensable for studying social evolution. Recently, however, both biologists and philosophers have critically scrutinized its s...

  20. When the Seasons Don't Fit: Speedy Molt as a Routine Carry-Over Cost of Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, M.W.; Rogers, K.G.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica, between reproduction and wing feather molt carried out in the non-breeding period in the Dutch Wadden Sea. We compared primary molt duration between bi...

  1. Translocation of heavy metals from soils into floral organs and rewards of Cucurbita pepo: Implications for plant reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Erna; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jimin; Guo, Jixun

    2017-11-01

    Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction. The results showed that metals taken up by squash did translocate into its floral organs and rewards, although metal accumulation varied depending on different metal types and concentrations as well as floral organ/reward types. Mean foraging time of honey bees to each male and female flower of squash grown in metal-supplemented soils was shorter relative to that of plants grown in control soils, although the visitation rate of honeybees to both male and female flowers was not affected by metal treatments. Pollen viability, pollen removal and deposition as well as mean mass per seed produced by metal-treated squash that received pollen from plants grown in control soils decreased with elevated soil-supplemented metal concentrations. The fact that squash could translocate soil-supplemented heavy metals into floral organs and rewards indicated possible reproductive consequences caused either directly (i.e., decreasing pollen viability or seed mass) or indirectly (i.e., affecting pollinators' visitation behavior to flowers) to plant fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlated evolution of male and female reproductive traits drive a cascading effect of reinforcement in Drosophila yakuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeault, Aaron A.; Venkat, Aarti; Matute, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Selection against maladaptive hybridization can drive the evolution of reproductive isolation in a process called reinforcement. While the importance of reinforcement in evolution has been historically debated, many examples now exist. Despite these examples, we typically lack a detailed understanding of the mechanisms limiting the spread of reinforced phenotypes throughout a species' range. Here we address this issue in the fruit fly Drosophila yakuba, a species that hybridizes with its sister species D. santomea and is undergoing reinforcement in a well-defined hybrid zone on the island of São Tomé. Within this region, female D. yakuba show increased postmating-prezygotic (gametic) isolation towards D. santomea when compared with females from allopatric populations. We use a combination of natural collections, fertility assays, and experimental evolution to understand why reinforced gametic isolation in D. yakuba is confined to this hybrid zone. We show that, among other traits, D. yakuba males from sympatric populations sire fewer progeny than allopatric males when mated to allopatric D. yakuba females. Our results provide a novel example of reinforcement acting on a postmating-prezygotic trait in males, resulting in a cascade of reproductive isolation among conspecific populations. PMID:27440664

  3. Reproductive health choices for young adults with sickle cell disease or trait: randomized controlled trial immediate posttest effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Diana J; Gallo, Agatha M; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Stahl, Christine; Hershberger, Patricia E; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L; Labotka, Robert J; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigo; Angulo, Veronica; Carrasco, Jesus; Shuey, David; Pelligra, Stephanie; Wang, Edward; Rogers, Dennie T; Thompson, Alexis A

    2013-01-01

    People with sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell trait (SCT) may not have information about genetic inheritance needed for making informed reproductive health decisions. CHOICES is a Web-based, multimedia educational intervention that provides information about reproductive options and consequences to help those with SCD or SCT identify and implement an informed parenting plan. Efficacy of CHOICES compared with usual care must be evaluated. The purpose was to compare immediate posttest effects of CHOICES versus an attention-control usual care intervention (e-Book) on SCD-/SCT-related reproductive health knowledge, intention, and behavior. In a randomized controlled study, we recruited subjects with SCD/SCT from clinics, community settings, and online networks with data collected at sites convenient to the 234 subjects with SCD (n = 136) or SCT (n = 98). Their ages ranged from 18 to 35 years; 65% were women, and 94% were African American. Subjects completed a measure of sickle cell reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior before and immediately after the intervention. Compared with the e-Book group, the CHOICES group had significantly higher average knowledge scores and probability of reporting a parenting plan to avoid SCD or SCD and SCT when pretest scores were controlled. Effects on intention and planned behavior were not significant. The CHOICES group showed significant change in their intention and planned behavior, whereas the e-Book group did not show significant change in their intention, but their planned behavior differed significantly. Initial efficacy findings are encouraging but warrant planned booster sessions and outcome follow-ups to determine sustained intervention efficacy on reproductive health knowledge, intention, and actual behavior of persons with SCD/SCT.

  4. Reproductive Health CHOICES for Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease or Trait: Randomized Controlled Trial Immediate Posttest Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Diana J; Gallo, Agatha M.; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E.; Stahl, Christine; Hershberger, Patricia E.; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L.; Labotka, Robert J.; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigo; Angulo, Veronica; Carrasco, Jesus; Shuey, David; Pelligra, Stephanie; Wang, Edward; Rogers, Dennie T.; Thompson, Alexis A.

    2013-01-01

    Background People with sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell trait (SCT) may not have information about genetic inheritance needed for making informed reproductive health decisions. CHOICES is a web-based, multimedia educational intervention that provides information about reproductive options and consequences to help those with SCD or SCT identify and implement an informed parenting plan. Efficacy of CHOICES compared with usual care must be evaluated. Objective The purpose was to compare immediate posttest effects of CHOICES versus an attention control usual care intervention (e-Book) on SCD/SCT-related reproductive health knowledge, intention, and behavior. Methods In a randomized controlled study, we recruited subjects with SCD/SCT from clinics, community settings, and online networks with data collected at sites convenient to the 234 subjects with SCD (n = 136) or SCT (n = 98) (age ranged from18-35 years, 65% were female, and 94% were African American). Subjects completed a measure of sickle cell reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior before and immediately after the intervention. Results Compared to the e-Book group, the CHOICES group had significantly higher average knowledge scores and probability of reporting a parenting plan to avoid SCD or SCD and SCT when pretest scores were controlled. Effects on intention and planned behavior were not significant. The CHOICES group showed significant change in their intention and planned behavior; the e-Book group did not show significant change in their intention, but their planned behavior differed significantly. Discussion Initial efficacy findings are encouraging but warrant planned booster sessions and outcome follow-ups to determine sustained intervention efficacy on reproductive health knowledge, intention, and actual behavior of persons with SCD/SCT. PMID:23995469

  5. Genetic parameters and environmental effects on temperament score and reproductive traits of Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrozo, D; Buzanskas, M E; Oliveira, J A; Munari, D P; Neves, H H R; Queiroz, S A

    2012-01-01

    Animal temperament is a trait of economic relevance and its use as a selection criterion requires the identification of environmental factors that influence this trait, as well as the estimation of its genetic variability and interrelationship with other traits. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of the covariates dam age at calving (ADC), long yearling age (YA) and long yearling weight (YW) on temperament score (T) and to estimate genetic parameters for T, scrotal circumference (SC) at long YA and age at first calving (AFC) in Nellore cattle participating in a selection program. The traits were analyzed by the restricted maximum likelihood method under a multiple-trait animal model. For all traits, contemporary group was included as a fixed effect and additive genetic and residual as random effects. In addition to these effects, YA, YW and ADC were considered for analyzing T. In the case of SC and AFC, the effect of long YW was included as a covariate. Genetic parameters were estimated for and between traits. The three covariates significantly influenced T. The heritability estimates for T, SC and AFC were 0.18 ± 0.02, 0.53 ± 0.04 and 0.23 ± 0.08, respectively. The genetic correlations between T and SC, and T and AFC were -0.07 ± 0.17 and -0.06 ± 0.19, respectively. The genetic correlation estimated between SC and AFC was -0.57 ± 0.16. In conclusion, a response to selection for T, SC and AFC is expected and selection for T does not imply correlated responses with the other traits.

  6. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: I. Production characteristics and reproductive efficiency in a pasture-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, S B; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Butler, S T

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the phenotypic performance of cows with similar proportions of Holstein genetics, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that cows with a negative estimated breeding value for calving interval would have superior fertility performance and would have detectable differences in body reserve mobilization and circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites compared with cows that had a positive estimated breeding value for calving interval. For the duration of the study, cows were managed identically as a single herd in a typical grass-based, spring-calving production system. A total of 80 lactation records were available from 26 Fert+ and 26 Fert- cows over 2 consecutive years (2008 and 2009). During yr 1, cows were monitored during a 20-wk breeding season to evaluate reproductive performance. Milk production, body condition score (scale 1 to 5), body weight, grass dry matter intake, energy balance, and metabolic hormone and metabolite data were collected during both years. The Fert+ cows had greater daily milk yield (19.5 vs. 18.7 kg/d), shorter interval from calving to conception (85.6 vs. 113.8 d), and fewer services per cow (1.78 vs. 2.83). No difference between groups in grass dry matter intake, energy balance, or body weight was observed. The Fert+ cows maintained greater BCS during mid (2.84 vs. 2.74 units) and late lactation (2.82 vs. 2.73 units). Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I were greater throughout the gestation-lactation cycle in Fert+ cows (148.3 vs. 128.2 ng/mL). The Fert+ cows also had greater circulating concentrations of insulin during the first 4 wk of lactation (1.71 vs. 1.24 μIU/mL). Analysis of records from national herd data verified the association between genetic merit for fertility traits and phenotypic reproductive

  7. Better Together: Association With 'Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus' Increases the Reproductive Fitness of Its Insect Vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz-Stelinski, K S; Killiny, N

    2016-05-01

    The duration of the evolutionary association between a pathogen and vector can be inferred based on the strength of their mutualistic interactions. A well-adapted pathogen is likely to confer some benefit or, at a minimum, exhibit low pathogenicity toward its host vector. Coevolution of the two toward a mutually beneficial association appears to have occurred between the citrus greening disease pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama). To better understand the dynamics facilitating transmission, we evaluated the effects of Las infection on the fitness of its vector. Diaphorina citri harboring Las were more fecund than their uninfected counterparts; however, their nymphal development rate and adult survival were comparatively reduced. The finite rate of population increase and net reproductive rate were both greater among Las-infected D. citri as compared with uninfected counterparts, indicating that overall population fitness of infected psyllids was improved given the greater number of offspring produced. Previous reports of transovarial transmission, in conjunction with increased fecundity and population growth rates of Las-positive D. citri found in the current investigation, suggest a long evolutionary relationship between pathogen and vector. The survival of Las-infected adult D. citri was lower compared with uninfected D. citri , which suggests that there may be a fitness trade-off in response to Las infection. A beneficial effect of a plant pathogen on vector fitness may indicate that the pathogen developed a relationship with the insect before secondarily moving to plants.

  8. Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird

    OpenAIRE

    ?berg, Meit; Arlt, Debora; P?rt, Tomas; Laugen, Ane T; Eggers, S?nke; Low, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age,...

  9. GENETIC STUDIES ON REPRODUCTION TRAITS IN CROSSBRED JERSEY CATTLE IN WESTERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Dhal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 412 crossbred (Jersey X Deshi cows sired by 24 bulls, maintained over the period from 2005 to 2014. The economic traits studied were age at first calving (AFC; months, calving interval (CI; days, dry period (DP; days and service period (SP; days. The averages for AFC, CI, DP and SP were 34.46±0.22 months, 505.95±3.24, 224.20±3.31 and 228.26±3.21 days, respectively. Effect of management system was significant for all the economic traits (AFC, CI and DP except SP. It may be inferred that rearing crossbred Jersey cows under intensive system of management may be advocated to utilize the maximum genetic potential of crossbred cattle for all the traits. Semi-intensive system may help moderate exploration of the traits. But exclusively pasture dependent management should be avoided for rearing crossbred Jersey cows. Heritability estimates for AFC, CI and DP were found to be 0.462 ±0.179; 0.062 ±0.088; 0.270 ±0.138, respectively. Genetic correlations of AFC with CI and SP were high and positive. For maximum genetic improvement and their correlated response, it is necessary to include all the economic traits with differential weightage for achieving accuracy in selection programs.

  10. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  11. The Effects of Royal Jelly on Fitness Traits and Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Shorter

    Full Text Available Royal Jelly (RJ is a product made by honey bee workers and is required for queen differentiation and accompanying changes in queen body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output relative to workers. Previous studies have reported similar changes in Drosophila melanogaster in response to RJ. Here, we quantified viability, development time, body size, productivity, lifespan and genome wide transcript abundance of D. melanogaster reared on standard culture medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of RJ. We found that lower concentrations of RJ do induce significant differences in body size in both sexes; higher concentrations reduce size, increase mortality, shorten lifespan and reduce productivity. Increased concentrations of RJ also consistently lengthened development time in both sexes. RJ is associated with changes in expression of 1,581 probe sets assessed using Affymetrix Drosophila 2.0 microarrays, which were enriched for genes associated with metabolism and amino acid degradation. The transcriptional changes are consistent with alterations in cellular processes to cope with excess nutrients provided by RJ, including biosynthesis and detoxification, which might contribute to accelerated senescence and reduced lifespan.

  12. Indicators of Population Viabllity in Red Spruce, Picea rubens. I. Reproductive Traits and Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Mosseler; J.E. Major; J.D. Simpson; B. Daigle; K. Lange; Y.S. Park; K.H Johnsen; O.P. Rajora

    2000-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) has experienced a substantial decline across most of its range in eastern North America over the past centmy and probably also in the disjunct Ontario populations where it now occurs only in small isolated stands. Measurements of cone and seed traits from natural populations were used as indicators of the...

  13. Response of reproductive traits and longevity of beet webworm to temperature, and implications for migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a facultative long-distance migratory insect pest of crops in many regions between latitudes 36-55°N. Reproductive performance of L. sticticalis is very sensitive to thermal conditions, such that outbreaks of larvae are clos...

  14. Personality traits, reproductive behaviour and alternative mating tactics in male European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 5 (2012), s. 531-553 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative reproductive behaviour * animal personality * boldness * behavioural syndrome * mating system * sperm competition * territorial males Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.661, year: 2012

  15. Analysis of reproductive traits of broiler rabbits reared in sub-temperate climate of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajapandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out at Institute Rabbit Farm of Southern Regional Research Centre, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India having sub-temperate climate with winter temperature during night hours going below 0°C with an objective of finding the influence of different factors such as breed, year, season and parity on different reproductive traits of broiler rabbits in order to come out with the best strategies for improving the productivity. Materials and Methods: A total of 1793 records (946 White Giant and 847 Soviet Chinchilla for weight at mating (WM, weight at kindling (WK, gestation length (GL, litter size at birth (LSB and litter size at weaning (LSW, litter weight at birth (LWB, and litter weight at weaning (LWW were collected in the period between 2000 and 2009 and the data was analyzed using general linear model option of SAS 9.2. Results: The overall mean GL, WM, WK, LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW were 31.68±0.04 days, 3.65±0.01 kg, 3.84±0.01 kg, 6.91±0.08, 5.49±0.09, 387.62±4.07 g, and 4.66±0.07 kg, respectively. The breed has significantly influenced GL, WK, LSW, LWB, and LWW. The LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW were 7.05±0.11, 5.76±0.13, 399.55±5.88 g, and 4.87±0.10 kg, respectively in White Giant and corresponding values for Soviet Chinchilla were 6.78±0.11, 5.22±0.12, 375.91±5.64 g, and 4.46±0.09 kg, respectively. The year of kindling had significantly affected all the reproductive traits under study and is varying over different years. The parity significantly influenced the WM, WK, and LWW. The LWW increased from first (4.16±0.21 kg to second parity (4.86±0.19 kg and remained in the same range from third parity onward. WM was significantly higher in spring season (3.72±0.02 than the animals in rainy (3.59±0.02 and winter season (3.65±0.02. Better reproductive performance in terms of higher LSB, LSW, LWB, and LWW as observed in the present study might be due to conducive environmental conditions prevailing

  16. Heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  17. Phenotypic Variation in Fitness Traits of a Managed Solitary Bee, Osmia ribifloris (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, B J; Rinehart, T A; Kirker, G T; Stringer, S J; Werle, C T

    2015-12-01

    We investigated fitness in natural populations of a managed solitary bee Osmia ribifloris Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from sites separated from 400 to 2,700 km. Parental wild bees originated in central Texas (TX), central-northern Utah (UT), and central California (CA). They were then intercrossed and raised inside a mesh enclosure in southern Mississippi (MS). Females from all possible mated pairs of O. ribifloris produced F1 broods with 30-40% female cocoons and outcrossed progeny were 30% heavier. Mitochondrial (COI) genomes of the four populations revealed three distinct clades, a TX-CA clade, a UT clade, and an MS clade, the latter (MS) representing captive progeny of CA and UT bees. Although classified as separate subspecies, TX and CA populations from 30° N to 38° N latitude shared 98% similarity in COI genomes and the greatest brood biomass per nest straw (600- to 700-mg brood). Thus, TX and CA bees show greater adaptation for southern U.S. sites. In contrast, UT-sourced bees were more distantly related to TX and CA bees and also produced ∼50% fewer brood. These results, taken together, confirm that adult O. ribifloris from all trap-nest sites are genetically compatible, but some phenotypic variation exists that could affect this species performance as a commercial blueberry pollinator. Males, their sperm, or perhaps a substance in their sperm helped stabilize our captive bee population by promoting legitimate nesting over nest usurpation. Otherwise, without insemination, 50% fewer females nested (they nested 14 d late) and 20% usurped nests, killing 33-67% of brood in affected nests. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Getting the Right Traits: Reproductive and Dispersal Characteristics Predict the Invasiveness of Herbaceous Plant Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pergl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), s. 1-16,no.e0123634 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR GA206/05/0323 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species traits * prediction * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  19. Selection for reproductive traits in white egg stock using independent culling levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report the response to selection for fertility and hatchability in white egg layers strains, based on sire and dam performance, and the effects of inbreeding on these traits. Two selected white egg strains (CC and DD from Embrapa´s poultry program under multiple trait selection were compared to a control strain (CCc. The control strain was established by randomly mating one male from each sire family to a non-related female from each dam family and was used to monitor genetic change in the selected lines. CC and DD were selected using family and individual information on hen-day egg production up to 40 weeks of age, egg weight, sexual maturity and 16-week-old body weight over five generations. Independent culling levels (ICL were also used during population expansion to eliminate sires and dams with low fertility (FERT and hatchability (HATC. Initially, FERT and HATC were over 90.0% in both selected and control strains. FERT and HATC of the selected and the control strains were compared during the last generation. FERT averages were 93.8, 93.8 and 94.4%, and HATCH averages were 93.2, 91.6 and 93.1% for CC, DD and CCc respectively. FERT and HATCH means were not different among strains. Estimated inbreeding increased at a rate of 0.4% per generation in all strains. Selection using ICL was able to effectively maintain the high initial FERT and HATC levels, and provide potential for high selection intensity in other traits. Inbreeding depression was not observed for any trait, indicating that selection compensated for any negative effects of inbreeding.

  20. Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora; Pärt, Tomas; Laugen, Ane T; Eggers, Sönke; Low, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age, breeding time, habitat quality, and parental nest visitation rates. While accounting for effects of temperature, fledging success was negatively related to rainfall (days > 10 mm) in the second half of the nestling period, with the magnitude of this effect being greater for breeding attempts early in the season. Recruitment success was, however, more sensitive to the number of rain days in the first half of the nestling period. Rainfall effects on parental survival differed between the sexes; males were more sensitive to rain during the nestling period than females. We demonstrate a probable mechanism driving the rainfall effects on reproductive output: Parental nest visitation rates decline with increasing amounts of daily rainfall, with this effect becoming stronger after consecutive rain days. Our study shows that rain during the nestling stage not only relates to fledging success but also has longer-term effects on recruitment and subsequent parental survival. Thus, if we want to understand or predict population responses to future climate change, we need to consider the potential impacts of changing rainfall patterns in addition to temperature, and how these will affect target species' vital rates.

  1. Genetic Parameters for Reproduction Traits of Prolificacy and Conventional Purebred Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Vidović

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was performed on four farms were included in 1567 a highly fertile females Landrace and Yorkshire, and 24 boars of Danish origin, or 5294 consecutive parities, and in period 2009 - 2011 year. Studies of evaluations genetic parameters conventional breeds Landrace and Yorkshire were included in 2987 female mating with 46 male or 11 674 litters in the same period. Evaluated genetic parameters for litter size traits show the same tendency as the legality of the pure breed sows that produce 11-14 piglets weaned less per sow per year. Environmental factors, HYS, food technology and management showed no significant effect on the traits. Heritability and repeatability of live and still born piglets, litter size and the fifth days after birth and the number of piglets weaned in category of low hereditary traits whose values vary within the limits of 0.08 to 0.11 for the heritability and from 0.14 to 0.18 for the repeatability. There was tendency to lower values of genetic parameters in the conventional compared to highly fertile cows, which is considered the effect of selection on gene frequency for the observed properties.

  2. Floral traits driving reproductive isolation of two co-flowering taxa that share vertebrate pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Joel A.; Quirino, Zelma G. M.; Machado, Isabel C.

    2015-01-01

    Floral attributes evolve in response to frequent and efficient pollinators, which are potentially important drivers of floral diversification and reproductive isolation. In this context, we asked, how do flowers evolve in a bat–hummingbird pollination system? Hence, we investigated the pollination ecology of two co-flowering Ipomoea taxa (I. marcellia and I. aff. marcellia) pollinated by bats and hummingbirds, and factors favouring reproductive isolation and pollinator sharing in these plants. To identify the most important drivers of reproductive isolation, we compared the flowers of the two Ipomoea taxa in terms of morphometry, anthesis and nectar production. Pollinator services were assessed using frequency of visits, fruit set and the number of seeds per fruit after visits. The studied Ipomoea taxa differed in corolla size and width, beginning and duration of anthesis, and nectar attributes. However, they shared the same diurnal and nocturnal visitors. The hummingbird Heliomaster squamosus was more frequent in I. marcellia (1.90 visits h−1) than in I. aff. marcellia (0.57 visits h−1), whereas glossophagine bats showed similar visit rates in both taxa (I. marcellia: 0.57 visits h−1 and I. aff. marcellia: 0.64 visits h−1). Bat pollination was more efficient in I. aff. marcellia, whereas pollination by hummingbirds was more efficient in I. marcellia. Differences in floral attributes between Ipomoea taxa, especially related to the anthesis period, length of floral parts and floral arrangement in the inflorescence, favour reproductive isolation from congeners through differential pollen placement on pollinators. This bat–hummingbird pollination system seems to be advantageous in the study area, where the availability of pollinators and floral resources changes considerably throughout the year, mainly as a result of rainfall seasonality. This interaction is beneficial for both sides, as it maximizes the number of potential pollen vectors for plants and

  3. Exposure to a widespread non-pathogenic bacterium magnifies sublethal pesticide effects in the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum: From the suborganismal level to fitness-related traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-01-01

    While there is increasing concern that pesticide stress can interact with stress imposed by antagonistic species including pathogens, it is unknown whether this also holds for non-pathogenic bacteria. We exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos and a non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Both exposure to chlorpyrifos and E. coli reduced growth rate and fat storage, probably due to the observed energetically costly increases in physiological defence (glutathione-S-transferase and Hsp70) and, for E. coli, immune defence (phenoloxidase). Moreover, these stressors interacted for both fitness-related traits. Most importantly, another fitness-related trait, bacterial load, increased drastically with chlorpyrifos concentration. A possible explanation is that the upregulation of phenoloxidase in the presence of E. coli changed into a downregulation when combined with chlorpyrifos. We argue that the observed interactive, partly synergistic effects between pesticides and widespread non-pathogenic bacteria may be common and deserves further attention to improve ecological risk assessment of pesticides. -- Highlights: ► Non-pathogens such as the bacterium E. coli are ignored in ecotoxicology. ► Both E. coli and chlorpyrifos impaired fitness-related traits in damselfly larvae. ► E. coli modulated and magnified effects of chlorpyrifos on physiology and fitness. ► Bacterial load was magnified >10× in the presence of chlorpyrifos. ► Risk assessment of pesticides should consider synergisms with non-pathogens. -- Non-pathogenic bacteria reduce fitness-related traits and can synergistically interact with sublethal pesticide effects for physiological and fitness-related traits

  4. Phenotype and genetic parameters for body measurements, reproductive traits and gut lenght of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in low-input earthen ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Ponzoni, R.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for body size measurements, reproductive traits, and gut length for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in fertilized earthen ponds for two generations. Throughout the experiment, ponds were fertilized daily

  5. Novel genetic markers of the carbonic anhydrase II gene associated with egg production and reproduction traits in Tsaiya ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-T; Cheng, Y-S; Huang, M-C

    2013-02-01

    In our previous cDNA microarray study, we found that the carbonic anhydrase II (CA2) gene is one of the differentially expressed transcripts in the duck isthmus epithelium during egg formation period. The aim of this study was to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CA2 gene of Tsaiya ducks. The relationship of SNP genotype with egg production and reproduction traits was also investigated. A total of 317 ducks from two lines, a control line with no selection and a selected line, were employed for testing. Three SNPs (C37T, A62G and A65G) in the 3'-untranslated region of the CA2 gene were found. SNP-trait association analysis showed that SNP C37T and A62G were associated with duck egg weight besides fertility. The ducks with the CT and AG genotypes had a 1.46 and 1.62 g/egg lower egg weight as compared with ducks with the CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p ducks with CT and AG genotypes had 5.20% and 4.22% higher fertility than those with CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p duck fertility, and the diplotype H1H4 was dominant for duck fertility. These findings might provide the basis for balanced selection and may be used in marker-assisted selection to improve egg weight and fertility simultaneously in the Tsaiya ducks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effects of boldenone undecylenate on growth performance, maintenance behaviour, reproductive hormones and carcass traits of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H H; Badawi, M E; El-Tarabany, M S; Rania, M

    2016-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the effect of boldenone undecylenate (BOL) on growth performance, maintenance behaviour, reproductive hormones and carcass traits of male rabbits. Sixty apparently healthy New Zealand White male rabbits, 5 weeks of age, were allotted to 3 equal groups. Each group was subdivided into 5 replicates, where the first group is control. The second group (B1) comprised rabbits that received 2 intramuscular injections of BOL (5 mg/kg) with 3 week intervals (9 and 12 weeks of age), while the third group (B2) included rabbits that received 3 intramuscular injections of BOL (5 mg/kg) with 2 week intervals (8, 10 and 12 weeks of age). The end of the trial was after 4 weeks from the last injection (16 weeks of age). The results revealed that the treated groups had a significant increase in total body weight, daily gain and feed efficiency, with a significant decrease in feed conversion ratio (FCR). Ingestive, locomotion and grooming behaviors were significantly higher in treated groups. Lateral pasture and exploratory behaviors were significantly higher in the control group. Administration of BOL resulted in a significant increase in dressing % and a significant decrease in testes %. Groups treated with BOL had a significantly (P<0.05) decreased serum testosterone level, simultaneously with a significantly increased estradiol level. The results indicate that BOL improves performance and carcass traits. Furthermore, there are hormonal-behavioral correlations through enhancement of ingestive and locomotion behaviors of treated animals.

  7. Reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral, Porites astreoides, from shallow to mesophotic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Wong, Kevin H.; Becker, Danielle M.; Glennon, Keegan; de Putron, Samantha J.

    2018-06-01

    Early life history traits of brooding corals are often affected by the environmental conditions experienced by parental colonies. Such parental effects can impact offspring survival, which influences the overall success of a population as well as resilience to environmental challenges. This study examines the reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral Porites astreoides across a depth gradient in Bermuda. Fecundity, larval size, larval Symbiodinium density, and settlement success, as well as post-metamorphic juvenile survival, growth, and Symbiodinium density were compared across three reef sites representing an inshore patch reef (2-5 m), an offshore rim reef (8-10 m), and an upper-mesophotic reef (30-33 m). Although fecundity did not differ across sites, larvae produced by colonies on the patch reef site were smaller, had lower Symbiodinium densities, and had lower rates of settlement and juvenile survival compared to larvae from colonies on the rim and upper-mesophotic reef sites. Larvae produced by colonies from the rim and upper-mesophotic sites did not differ in size or Symbiodinium densities; however, rates of settlement, growth, and survival were higher for larvae from the upper-mesophotic site compared to those from the rim reef site. These results indicate that offspring quality and success vary among sites with differing environmental conditions and may imply higher recruitment potential and resilience for upper-mesophotic corals.

  8. When the seasons don't fit: speedy molt as a routine carry-over cost of reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurine W Dietz

    Full Text Available The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica, between reproduction and wing feather molt carried out in the non-breeding period in the Dutch Wadden Sea. We compared primary molt duration between birds undertaking the full migratory and breeding schedule with birds that forego breeding because they are young or are maintained in captivity. Molt duration was ca. 71 days in breeding adults, which was achieved by an accelerated feather replacement strategy. Second-year birds and captive adults took ca. 22% and 27% longer, respectively. Second-year birds start molt in late June, more than four weeks before captive adults, and almost seven weeks before adults that return from breeding in late July-August. Adults finish molt in October when steeply increasing thermostatic costs and reductions in food availability occur. Primary molt duration was longer in female than in male knots (all ages, which was accordance with the somewhat larger body size of females. Since fast growth leads to lower quality feathers, the speedy wing molt shown by Arctic-breeding birds may represent a time constraint that is an unavoidable and routine cost of reproduction. So far it was hypothesized that only birds over 1 kg would have difficulty fitting molt within a year. Here we show that in birds an order of magnitude smaller, temporal imperatives may impose the adoption of non-optimal life-cycle routines in the entire actively breeding population.

  9. When the seasons don't fit: speedy molt as a routine carry-over cost of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Maurine W; Rogers, Ken G; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica, between reproduction and wing feather molt carried out in the non-breeding period in the Dutch Wadden Sea. We compared primary molt duration between birds undertaking the full migratory and breeding schedule with birds that forego breeding because they are young or are maintained in captivity. Molt duration was ca. 71 days in breeding adults, which was achieved by an accelerated feather replacement strategy. Second-year birds and captive adults took ca. 22% and 27% longer, respectively. Second-year birds start molt in late June, more than four weeks before captive adults, and almost seven weeks before adults that return from breeding in late July-August. Adults finish molt in October when steeply increasing thermostatic costs and reductions in food availability occur. Primary molt duration was longer in female than in male knots (all ages), which was accordance with the somewhat larger body size of females. Since fast growth leads to lower quality feathers, the speedy wing molt shown by Arctic-breeding birds may represent a time constraint that is an unavoidable and routine cost of reproduction. So far it was hypothesized that only birds over 1 kg would have difficulty fitting molt within a year. Here we show that in birds an order of magnitude smaller, temporal imperatives may impose the adoption of non-optimal life-cycle routines in the entire actively breeding population.

  10. Impact of artificial rearing systems on the developmental and reproductive fitness of the predatory bug, Orius laevigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Maarten; De Clercq, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of several substrate types and moisture sources on the developmental and reproductive fitness of the zoophytophagous predator Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) when fed a factitious prey (i.e. unnatural prey) Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) eggs, or a meridic artificial diet based on hen's egg yolk. O. laevigatus is known to feed on plants as an alternative food source and to oviposit in plants. E. kuehniella eggs were superior to the artificial diet. Supplementary feeding on plant materials did not compensate for the nutritional shortcomings of the artificial diet. Survival rates showed that oviposition substrates such as bean pods or lipophilic surfaces such as wax paper and plastic were more suitable for rearing O. laevigatus than household paper. The use of green bean pods as a plant substrate did not have a beneficial effect on O. laevigatus. The results indicated that O. laevigatus can successfully complete its nymphal development and realize its full reproductive potential in the absence of plant material. However, plant materials would still be required for oviposition, unless a reliable and cost-effective artificial oviposition substrate were made available. The omission of plant materials from the rearing procedures may reduce production cost of this species and other heteropteran predators.

  11. Reproductive traits and number of matings in males and females of Cerambyx welensii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) an emergent pest of oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vila, L M; Mendiola-Diaz, F J; Conejo-Rodríguez, Y; Sánchez-González, Á

    2016-06-01

    The longhorn beetle Cerambyx welensii is an emerging pest involved in oak decline episodes, whose damage is increasingly reported in dehesa open woodlands. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of C. welensii is a crucial goal due to its new pest status. In this study, we assess the reproductive traits of both sexes in the laboratory (25°C and 60% relative humidity ). In females, body length was 44.9 ± 0.9 mm (mean ± SE), fecundity 132 ± 12 eggs, fertility 70 ± 1 %, longevity 70 ± 3 days, preoviposition period 2 ± 0.2 days, oviposition period 44 ± 3 days and postoviposition period 19 ± 3 days. Fecundity was positively correlated with female size, longevity and oviposition period. Daily fecundity was 3.0 ± 0.2 eggs/day and showed a fluctuating synovigenic pattern with a slight decreasing trend over time. Egg length was 4.24 ± 0.01 mm and egg volume 8.14 ± 0.04 mm3. Egg size was correlated with female size but the relative size of eggs was larger in smaller females. Incubation time was 13.9 ± 0.1 days and hatching did not depend on egg size. Neonate size was positively correlated with egg length. Females were polyandrous (more than 20 lifetime matings) but multiple mating did not increase fecundity, fertility or longevity. In males, body length was 43.7 ± 0.6 mm and longevity 52 ± 3 days. Unlike with females, longevity was positively correlated with male size. Males were polygynous (up to 30 lifetime matings) but mating history did not affect male longevity. Rather to the contrary, long-lived males mated more times because they had more mating chances. Lastly, C. welensii reproductive traits were compared with those other Cerambycidae species and discussed from an adaptive perspective. Our data will be useful to improve management of C. welensii in order to prevent or mitigate its impact in dehesa woodlands and other oak forests.

  12. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  13. Reproductive traits of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, M. J.; Rugg, M.L.; Pegg, M.A.; Patino, Reynaldo; Hammen, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed reproductive status, fecundity, egg size, and spawning dynamics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon were captured throughout each year during 2011 and 2012 using a multi-gear approach designed to collect a variety of fish of varying sizes and ages. Fish were collected monthly for a laboratory assessment of reproductive condition. Female shovelnose sturgeon reached fork length at 50% maturity (FL50) at 547 mm and at a minimum length of 449 mm. The average female spawning cycle was 3–5 years. Mean egg count for adult females was 16 098 ± 1103 (SE), and mean egg size was 2.401 ± 0.051 (SE) mm. Total fecundity was positively correlated with length (r2 = 0.728; P  0.05). Male shovelnose sturgeon reached FL50 at 579 mm and at a minimum length of 453 mm. The average male spawning cycle was 1–2 years. Reproductively viable male and female sturgeon occurred during the spring (March–May) and autumn (September–October) in both years, indicating spring and potential autumn spawning events. Shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Platte River are maturing at a shorter length and younger age compared to populations elsewhere. Although it is unknown if the change is plastic or evolutionary, unfavorable environmental conditions or over-harvest may lead to hastened declines compared to other systems.

  14. Antibiotic treatment of the tick vector Amblyomma americanum reduced reproductive fitness.

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    Jianmin Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lone star tick Amblyomma americanum is a common pest and vector of infectious diseases for humans and other mammals in the southern and eastern United States. A Coxiella sp. bacterial endosymbiont was highly prevalent in both laboratory-reared and field-collected A. americanum. The Coxiella sp. was demonstrated in all stages of tick and in greatest densities in nymphs and adult females, while a Rickettsia sp. was less prevalent and in lower densities when present. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated the numbers of both bacterial species in laboratory-reared A. americanum by injecting engorged nymphs or engorged, mated females with single doses of an antibiotic (rifampin or tetracycline or buffer alone. Burdens of the bacteria after molting or after oviposition were estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with primers and probes specific for each bacterial species or, as an internal standard, the host tick. Post-molt adult ticks that had been treated with rifampin or tetracycline had lower numbers of the Coxiella sp. and Rickettsia sp. and generally weighed less than ticks that received buffer alone. Similarly, after oviposition, females treated previously with either antibiotic had lower burdens of both bacterial species in comparison to controls. Treatment of engorged females with either antibiotic was associated with prolonged time to oviposition, lower proportions of ticks that hatched, lower proportions of viable larvae among total larvae, and lower numbers of viable larvae per tick. These fitness estimators were associated with reduced numbers of the Coxiella sp. but not the Rickettsia sp. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings indicate that the Coxiella sp. is a primary endosymbiont, perhaps provisioning the obligately hematophagous parasites with essential nutrients. The results also suggest that antibiotics could be incorporated into an integrated pest management plan for control of these and other

  15. German genes and Turkish traits: ethnicity, infertility, and reproductive politics in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Lisa K

    2009-07-01

    This ethnographic study uses the lens of ethnic difference to examine the experience of infertility and the cultural politics of belonging in modern Germany. The data are derived from participant observation and interviews conducted with forty-one ethnic Germans and thirty-three German Turks undergoing biomedical treatment for infertility at a fertility clinic in Berlin (1998-2000). Through their illness narratives, men and women symbolically link their loss of biological parenthood to losses in other life arenas, such as gender identity, social status and cultural acceptance. Results reveal that while both German Turks and ethnic Germans experience disruption and social suffering from their inability to conform to procreative norms, German Turkish sufferers exhibit higher levels of distress, which directly relates to their dual stigma as outsiders in both German Turkish culture and mainstream German culture. The findings suggest that the tensions surrounding individual reproductive practices are reflective of larger national tensions regarding the constitution of the body politic in an increasingly multicultural Germany.

  16. Effects of water deficit and mycorrhizae on grain yield, reproductive and physiological traits of corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail Nordokht

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing crop production to ensure future food security while reducing environmental pressure on agro-ecosystems requires improved water and nutrient use efficiency. the arid and semiarid regions of the world lack of sufficient water supply is the major problem for corn cultivation and is a restriction for its production, so studies on the growth limitation and germination of corn seeds under drought conditions seems very necessary. The effects of drought on plant growth depend on several factors such as plant genetic resistance, stage of growth and duration of plant expose to drought. The AMF are playing a vital role in sustainable agriculture because they enhance plant water relations, which improve the drought resistance of host plants. It is important to increase our understanding of AM fungal and maize genotype interactions and water condition on the symbiosis, and on the physiology and nutritional status of maize plants. Thus Mycorrhizae application and choosing suitable cultivar are of simple managements in decreasing drought effect. This investigation had done in order to investigate effect of irrigation regimes (irrigation after 70, 110 and 150 mm evaporaation from evaporate basin, Mycorrhizae (non application and application of Mycorrhizae and cultivar (704 and 640 on growth and yield of maize. A split factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted during growing season of 2015 at Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch, Plots were then furrow irrigated in the mornings every week. Each block was including 12 plots. The size of each plot was 3.5m×4m, and there was in each plot, 5 rows with a distance of 75 cm, and the length of 4 m. The distance between plots was selected 150 cm, and the distance between blocks was selected 3 m. By mid August an area of 2.5 m from 3 line of plot area was separately harvested and traits were evaluated. MSTAT-C and EXCEL were used to analyze data

  17. Reproductive life history of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel, 1848 (Poeciliinae: Poeciliidae in the Honduran interior highlands: trait variation along an elevational gradient

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    Charles T. Olinger

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined reproductive traits and growth rates of Heterandria bimaculata (Poeciliidae in Cusuco National Park (CNP, a cloud forest reserve in northern Honduras, Central America. In CNP, H. bimaculata occurs in the absence of other fish species and major invertebrate predators along an approximately 1000 m elevation gradient. This allowed for the examination of trait variation along the gradient without the confounding effects of interspecific interactions or habitat patchiness. Heterandria bimaculata exhibited traits characteristic of a low-predation environment: balanced sex ratio, slow growth, late maturity and large female size. Females produced more, smaller eggs from upstream to downstream, but overall reproductive allocation remained constant along the gradient. Maximum male length and annual growth rates increased from upstream to downstream, but female growth showed no trend. The patterns of growth and reproductive allocation tradeoff are consistent with predicted response to a longitudinally-increasing productivity gradient in which food resources become more abundant downstream. Macrobrachium and Bellastoma could have caused some predation, but were sparse and patchily distributed. Fish density remained fairly constant among elevations; if food resources were limiting in upstream habitats, per-capita resource availability would be lower and density-dependent competition would drive selection for larger but fewer, more competitive offspring. Future work should quantify longitudinal changes in productivity and conduct experiments to decouple the effects of stream order and fish density dependence.

  18. Genome-wide association analysis of thirty one production, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary U.S. Holstein cows

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    Van Tassell Curtis P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association analysis is a powerful tool for annotating phenotypic effects on the genome and knowledge of genes and chromosomal regions associated with dairy phenotypes is useful for genome and gene-based selection. Here, we report results of a genome-wide analysis of predicted transmitting ability (PTA of 31 production, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary Holstein cows. Results Genome-wide association analysis identified a number of candidate genes and chromosome regions associated with 31 dairy traits in contemporary U.S. Holstein cows. Highly significant genes and chromosome regions include: BTA13's GNAS region for milk, fat and protein yields; BTA7's INSR region and BTAX's LOC520057 and GRIA3 for daughter pregnancy rate, somatic cell score and productive life; BTA2's LRP1B for somatic cell score; BTA14's DGAT1-NIBP region for fat percentage; BTA1's FKBP2 for protein yields and percentage, BTA26's MGMT and BTA6's PDGFRA for protein percentage; BTA18's 53.9-58.7 Mb region for service-sire and daughter calving ease and service-sire stillbirth; BTA18's PGLYRP1-IGFL1 region for a large number of traits; BTA18's LOC787057 for service-sire stillbirth and daughter calving ease; BTA15's CD82, BTA23's DST and the MOCS1-LRFN2 region for daughter stillbirth; and BTAX's LOC520057 and GRIA3 for daughter pregnancy rate. For body conformation traits, BTA11, BTAX, BTA10, BTA5, and BTA26 had the largest concentrations of SNP effects, and PHKA2 of BTAX and REN of BTA16 had the most significant effects for body size traits. For body shape traits, BTAX, BTA19 and BTA3 were most significant. Udder traits were affected by BTA16, BTA22, BTAX, BTA2, BTA10, BTA11, BTA20, BTA22 and BTA25, teat traits were affected by BTA6, BTA7, BTA9, BTA16, BTA11, BTA26 and BTA17, and feet/legs traits were affected by BTA11, BTA13, BTA18, BTA20, and BTA26. Conclusions Genome-wide association analysis identified a number of

  19. Genetics of Pathogen Fitness: Correlations with Virulence and Effects of Host Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plant pathology, a large body of work has focused on changes in virulence, the traits allowing infection of otherwise resistant hosts, while relatively few studies have examined changes in quantitative fitness traits, those affecting the reproductive success of the pathogen after infection has oc...

  20. Effect of daily fluctuations in ambient temperature on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily ranges and maximum ambient temperatures, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. Daily ambient temperatures were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average daily temperature ranges (ADT) and the average daily maximum temperatures (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their temperature management strategies.

  1. On the Least-Squares Fitting of Slater-Type Orbitals with Gaussians: Reproduction of the STO-NG Fits Using Microsoft Excel and Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Cory C.; Mercer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    The symbolic algebra program Maple and the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel were used in an attempt to reproduce the Gaussian fits to a Slater-type orbital, required to construct the popular STO-NG basis sets. The successes and pitfalls encountered in such an approach are chronicled. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in BMPR-IB and STAT5B genes and their association with growth and reproductive traits in chicken

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    Shahram Niknafs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of G4533815A SNP in STAT5B and A287G SNP in BMPR-IB genes with growth and reproduction related traits in chicken. A sample of 205 individuals from breeding station of Mazandaran native chicken population was selected randomly. All of the individuals were genotyped for both SNPs using PCR-RFLP technique. Marker-trait association analyses were performed using estimated breeding value of the traits as dependent variable in GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Results suggested that breeding value least square means for genotypes of G4533815A SNP is significantly differed from each other for traits of body weight at 8 and 12 weeks (P<0.01. In the case of BMPR-IB gene, no significant difference was found. In conclusion, STAT5B gene may be associated with body growth in chicken and may be considered in Marker Assisted Selection program to improve chicken growth performance.

  3. Pervasive gene expression responses to a fluctuating diet in Drosophila melanogaster: The importance of measuring multiple traits to decouple potential mediators of life span and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandveld, Jelle; van den Heuvel, Joost; Mulder, Maarten; Brakefield, Paul M; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Shanley, Daryl P; Zwaan, Bas J

    2017-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important concept in life-history evolution, and most organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster, show a plastic life-history response to diet. However, little is known about how these life-history responses are mediated. In this study, we compared adult female flies fed an alternating diet (yoyo flies) with flies fed a constant low (CL) or high (CH) diet and tested how whole genome expression was affected by these diet regimes and how the transcriptional responses related to different life-history traits. We showed that flies were able to respond quickly to diet fluctuations throughout life span by drastically changing their transcription. Importantly, by measuring the response of multiple life-history traits we were able to decouple groups of genes associated with life span or reproduction, life-history traits that often covary with a diet change. A coexpression network analysis uncovered which genes underpin the separate and shared regulation of these life-history traits. Our study provides essential insights to help unravel the genetic architecture mediating life-history responses to diet, and it shows that the flies' whole genome transcription response is highly plastic. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong...... swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming...

  5. A Quantitative Genomic Approach for Analysis of Fitness and Stress Related Traits in a Drosophila melanogaster Model Population

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    Palle Duun Rohde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of natural populations to withstand environmental stresses relies partly on their adaptive ability. In this study, we used a subset of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, a population of inbred, genome-sequenced lines derived from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate whether this population harbors genetic variation for a set of stress resistance and life history traits. Using a genomic approach, we found substantial genetic variation for metabolic rate, heat stress resistance, expression of a major heat shock protein, and egg-to-adult viability investigated at a benign and a higher stressful temperature. This suggests that these traits will be able to evolve. In addition, we outline an approach to conduct pathway associations based on genomic linear models, which has potential to identify adaptive genes and pathways, and therefore can be a valuable tool in conservation genomics.

  6. A Quantitative Genomic Approach for Analysis of Fitness and Stress Related Traits in a Drosophila melanogaster Model Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Krag, Kristian; Loeschcke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    , to investigate whether this population harbors genetic variation for a set of stress resistance and life history traits. Using a genomic approach, we found substantial genetic variation for metabolic rate, heat stress resistance, expression of a major heat shock protein, and egg-to-adult viability investigated......The ability of natural populations to withstand environmental stresses relies partly on their adaptive ability. In this study, we used a subset of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, a population of inbred, genome-sequenced lines derived from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster...... at a benign and a higher stressful temperature. This suggests that these traits will be able to evolve. In addition, we outline an approach to conduct pathway associations based on genomic linear models, which has potential to identify adaptive genes and pathways, and therefore can be a valuable tool...

  7. Low fertility awareness in United States reproductive-aged women and medical trainees: creation and validation of the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Chernyak, Elizabeth; McAvey, Beth

    2017-10-01

    To create, validate, and use a fertility awareness survey based on current U.S. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. Phase 1 included U.S. women ages 18-45; phase 2 included female medical students and obstetrics and gynecology trainees at two urban academic programs. Survey including demographics, the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS) instrument, and General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire. Knowledge of natural fertility and infertility treatments. The FIT-KS was validated through detailed item and validity analyses. In phase 1, 127 women participated; their median age was 31 years, and 43.7% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 16.2 ± 3.5 (55.9% correct). In phase 2, 118 medical trainees participated; their median age was 25 years, and 12.4% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 18.8 ± 2.1 (64.9% correct), with year of training correlating to a higher score (r=0.40). Participant awareness regarding lifestyle factors varied, but it was particularly low regarding the effects of lubricants. The majority underestimated the spontaneous miscarriage rate and overestimated the fecundability of 40-year-old women. There was general overestimation of success rates for assisted reproductive technologies, particularly among medical trainees. The FIT-KS is validated to current U.S. data for use in both general and medical populations as a quick assessment of fertility knowledge. The knowledge gaps demonstrated in this study correlate with national trends in delayed childbearing and time to initiate treatment. For medical trainees, these results raise concerns about the quality of fertility counseling they may be able to offer patients. Greater educational outreach must be undertaken to enhance fertility awareness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Latitudinal patterns in phenotypic plasticity and fitness-related traits: assessing the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH with an invasive plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Molina-Montenegro

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested as the main mechanism for species persistence under a global change scenario, and also as one of the main mechanisms that alien species use to tolerate and invade broad geographic areas. However, contrasting with this central role of phenotypic plasticity, standard models aimed to predict the effect of climatic change on species distributions do not allow for the inclusion of differences in plastic responses among populations. In this context, the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH, which states that higher thermal variability at higher latitudes should determine an increase in phenotypic plasticity with latitude, could be considered a timely and promising hypothesis. Accordingly, in this study we evaluated, for the first time in a plant species (Taraxacum officinale, the prediction of the CVH. Specifically, we measured plastic responses at different environmental temperatures (5 and 20°C, in several ecophysiological and fitness-related traits for five populations distributed along a broad latitudinal gradient. Overall, phenotypic plasticity increased with latitude for all six traits analyzed, and mean trait values increased with latitude at both experimental temperatures, the change was noticeably greater at 20° than at 5°C. Our results suggest that the positive relationship found between phenotypic plasticity and geographic latitude could have very deep implications on future species persistence and invasion processes under a scenario of climate change.

  9. Latitudinal patterns in phenotypic plasticity and fitness-related traits: assessing the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) with an invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Naya, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested as the main mechanism for species persistence under a global change scenario, and also as one of the main mechanisms that alien species use to tolerate and invade broad geographic areas. However, contrasting with this central role of phenotypic plasticity, standard models aimed to predict the effect of climatic change on species distributions do not allow for the inclusion of differences in plastic responses among populations. In this context, the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH), which states that higher thermal variability at higher latitudes should determine an increase in phenotypic plasticity with latitude, could be considered a timely and promising hypothesis. Accordingly, in this study we evaluated, for the first time in a plant species (Taraxacum officinale), the prediction of the CVH. Specifically, we measured plastic responses at different environmental temperatures (5 and 20°C), in several ecophysiological and fitness-related traits for five populations distributed along a broad latitudinal gradient. Overall, phenotypic plasticity increased with latitude for all six traits analyzed, and mean trait values increased with latitude at both experimental temperatures, the change was noticeably greater at 20° than at 5°C. Our results suggest that the positive relationship found between phenotypic plasticity and geographic latitude could have very deep implications on future species persistence and invasion processes under a scenario of climate change.

  10. Impact of plant cover on fitness and behavioural traits of captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas.

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    Christopher J Michaels

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of ex situ conservation programmes as highlighted in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, there are few empirical studies that examine the influence of captive conditions on the fitness of amphibians, even for basic components of enclosure design such as cover provision. Maintaining the fitness of captive amphibian populations is essential to the success of ex situ conservation projects. Here we examined the impact of plant cover on measures of fitness and behaviour in captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas. We found significant effects of plant provision on body size, growth rates and cutaneous bacterial communities that together demonstrate a compelling fitness benefit from cover provision. We also demonstrate a strong behavioural preference for planted rather than non-planted areas. We also assessed the impact of plant provision on the abiotic environment in the enclosure as a potential driver of these behavioural and fitness effects. Together this data provides valuable information regarding enclosure design for a non-model amphibian species and has implications for amphibian populations maintained in captivity for conservation breeding programmes and research.

  11. Inbreeding and it is effects on some productive and reproductive traits in a herd of Egyptian buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kawthar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1551 normal lactation records of Egyptian buffaloes, Kept at Mehallet Mousa Farm, belonging to Ministry of Agriculture, during the period from 1960 to 2001 were used. Milk yield, lactation period and age at first calving were studied in order to determine the presence of inbreeding in the herd and to evaluate it is effects as well as the effects of some environmental factors on these traits. In addition, genetic parameters of these traits are also studied. Milk yield, lactation period and age at first calving averaged 1193 ± 522 kg, 282±125 and 39 ± 3 mo, respectively. Among all three traits, only age at first calving was affected by inbreeding. Month of calving and year of calving had a significant effect on all traits studied, while age at first calving had no significant effect on milk yield and lactation period.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the STAT5b gene is associated with body weight and reproductive traits of the Jinghai Yellow chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; Wang, J Y; Zhang, G X; Wei, Y; Gu, Y P; Yu, Y B

    2012-04-01

    In our research, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) gene was studied as candidate gene associated with body weight and reproductive traits of Jinghai Yellow chicken. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of STAT5b gene were examined in both Jinghai Yellow chicken and three reference chicken populations including the Bian, Youxi and Arbor Acre chickens. Two SNPs (C-1591T and G-250A) were detected in the 5' flanking region of STAT5b gene. Association indicated that the C-1591T mutation is significantly associated with age at fist egg, The G-250A mutation is significantly related with hatch weight and body weight at 300 days. Additionally four STAT5b haplotypes (H1, CG; H2, TG; H3, AC and H4, TA) and their frequency distributions were estimated using the phase program. Diplotype H3H4 is dominant for 8, 16 week-age-weight and body weight at first egg. Thus STAT5b gene may be served as a potential genetic marker for growth and reproduction traits evaluation of the Jinghai Yellow chicken. This study will provide valuable information for the protection and breeding of Jinghai Yellow chicken.

  13. Association Between Conformation Traits and Reproductive Traits in Holstein Cows in the Department of Antioquia - Colombia / Asociación entre Características de Conformación y Reproductivas en Vacas Holstein del Departamento de Antioquia - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephania Madrid Gaviria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Conformation traits have been related with reproductive parameters and can be used as their indicators. These traits appear earlier in life than reproductive traits and, thus, may allow for faster selection of prolific animals. In order to estimate the phenotypic association between conformation and reproductive traits, 8,037 records from 139 Holstein cow herds were analyzed. The analysis of association was done with a generalized linear model, regressionanalysis and Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed that the association between conformation traits tends to be low to medium (0.00 – 0.46; the highest association was for rear udder height and rear udder weight (0.46, while the lowest was for chest width and central ligament (-0.0024. Conformation traits that showed a significant effect on reproductive traits were body andudder compound, angularity, stature and rear udder width. The highest regression coefficient was for calving interval and body compound (-43.13 days; the lowest was for services per conception and rear udder width (-0.063 services. Phenotypic correlations with reproductive traits were low (0.00 to 0.04. The highest correlation was for services per conception and foot angle (0.04; the lowest was for calving interval and rear legs rear view (0.00. These results indicate that there are not phenotypic associations betweenconformation traits and reproductive parameters. It is important to estimate genetic correlation and determinate their importance and possibilities for use in genetic improvement programs. / Resumen. Las características de conformación han sido relacionadas con parámetros reproductivos y pueden usarse como indicadores de estos. Estas aparecen más rápido en la vida que las reproductivas, permitiendo una selección rápida de individuos prolíficos. Para estimar la asociación fenotípica entre características de conformación y reproductivas, se analizaron 8

  14. A novel synonymous SNP (A47A of the TMEM95 gene is significantly associated with the reproductive traits related to testis in male piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmembrane protein 95 (TMEM95 is located on the acrosomal membrane of the sperm head involved in the acrosome reaction; thus, it is regarded as affecting spermatogenesis and reproduction traits. The aim of this study was to explore the novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the pig TMEM95 gene as well as to evaluate their associations with the testicular sizes in male Landrace (LD and Large White (LW breeds. After pool sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, only one novel coding SNP was found in exon 1, namely NC_010454.3: g.341T > C, resulting in a synonymous mutation (A47A. This SNP could be genotyped using the StuI polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay. The minor allelic frequencies (MAFs were 0.259 and 0.480 in the LD and LW breeds. Their polymorphism information content (PIC values were 0.310 and 0.375. The LW population was at the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE (p > 0.05, whereas the LD population was not (p < 0.05. Association analyses demonstrated that a significant relationship was found between this A47A polymorphism and testis weight at 40 days of age in the LW population (p  =  0.047, and the heterozygote individuals showed lower testis weight than those with other genotypes. Moreover, this SNP was significantly associated with three testis measurement traits at 15 days of age in the LW population (p < 0.05; the individuals with genotypes TT and TC showed consistently superior testis measurement traits than those with genotype CC. These findings demonstrate that the A47A polymorphism had a significant effect on testis measurement traits, suggesting that the TMEM95 gene could be a candidate gene associated with reproductive traits. These results could contribute to breeding and genetics programs in the pig industry via DNA marker-assisted selection (MAS.

  15. Better Together: Association With ‘Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus’ Increases the Reproductive Fitness of Its Insect Vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz-Stelinski, K. S.; Killiny, N.

    2016-01-01

    The duration of the evolutionary association between a pathogen and vector can be inferred based on the strength of their mutualistic interactions. A well-adapted pathogen is likely to confer some benefit or, at a minimum, exhibit low pathogenicity toward its host vector. Coevolution of the two toward a mutually beneficial association appears to have occurred between the citrus greening disease pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama). To better understand the dynamics facilitating transmission, we evaluated the effects of Las infection on the fitness of its vector. Diaphorina citri harboring Las were more fecund than their uninfected counterparts; however, their nymphal development rate and adult survival were comparatively reduced. The finite rate of population increase and net reproductive rate were both greater among Las-infected D. citri as compared with uninfected counterparts, indicating that overall population fitness of infected psyllids was improved given the greater number of offspring produced. Previous reports of transovarial transmission, in conjunction with increased fecundity and population growth rates of Las-positive D. citri found in the current investigation, suggest a long evolutionary relationship between pathogen and vector. The survival of Las-infected adult D. citri was lower compared with uninfected D. citri, which suggests that there may be a fitness trade-off in response to Las infection. A beneficial effect of a plant pathogen on vector fitness may indicate that the pathogen developed a relationship with the insect before secondarily moving to plants. PMID:27418697

  16. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  17. Fragmentation of nest and foraging habitat affects time budgets of solitary bees, their fitness and pollination services, depending on traits: Results from an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settele, Josef; Dormann, Carsten F.

    2018-01-01

    Solitary bees are important but declining wild pollinators. During daily foraging in agricultural landscapes, they encounter a mosaic of patches with nest and foraging habitat and unsuitable matrix. It is insufficiently clear how spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources and foraging traits of bees affect their daily foraging performance. We investigated potential brood cell construction (as proxy of fitness), number of visited flowers, foraging habitat visitation and foraging distance (pollination proxies) with the model SOLBEE (simulating pollen transport by solitary bees, tested and validated in an earlier study), for landscapes varying in landscape fragmentation and spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources. Simulated bees varied in body size and nesting preference. We aimed to understand effects of landscape fragmentation and bee traits on bee fitness and the pollination services bees provide, as well as interactions between them, and the general consequences it has to our understanding of the system. This broad scope gives multiple key results. 1) Body size determines fitness more than landscape fragmentation, with large bees building fewer brood cells. High pollen requirements for large bees and the related high time budgets for visiting many flowers may not compensate for faster flight speeds and short handling times on flowers, giving them overall a disadvantage compared to small bees. 2) Nest preference does affect distribution of bees over the landscape, with cavity-nesting bees being restricted to nesting along field edges, which inevitably leads to performance reductions. Fragmentation mitigates this for cavity-nesting bees through increased edge habitat. 3) Landscape fragmentation alone had a relatively small effect on all responses. Instead, the local ratio of nest to foraging habitat affected bee fitness positively through reduced local competition. The spatial coverage of pollination increases steeply in response to this ratio

  18. Fragmentation of nest and foraging habitat affects time budgets of solitary bees, their fitness and pollination services, depending on traits: Results from an individual-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaars, Jeroen; Settele, Josef; Dormann, Carsten F

    2018-01-01

    Solitary bees are important but declining wild pollinators. During daily foraging in agricultural landscapes, they encounter a mosaic of patches with nest and foraging habitat and unsuitable matrix. It is insufficiently clear how spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources and foraging traits of bees affect their daily foraging performance. We investigated potential brood cell construction (as proxy of fitness), number of visited flowers, foraging habitat visitation and foraging distance (pollination proxies) with the model SOLBEE (simulating pollen transport by solitary bees, tested and validated in an earlier study), for landscapes varying in landscape fragmentation and spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources. Simulated bees varied in body size and nesting preference. We aimed to understand effects of landscape fragmentation and bee traits on bee fitness and the pollination services bees provide, as well as interactions between them, and the general consequences it has to our understanding of the system. This broad scope gives multiple key results. 1) Body size determines fitness more than landscape fragmentation, with large bees building fewer brood cells. High pollen requirements for large bees and the related high time budgets for visiting many flowers may not compensate for faster flight speeds and short handling times on flowers, giving them overall a disadvantage compared to small bees. 2) Nest preference does affect distribution of bees over the landscape, with cavity-nesting bees being restricted to nesting along field edges, which inevitably leads to performance reductions. Fragmentation mitigates this for cavity-nesting bees through increased edge habitat. 3) Landscape fragmentation alone had a relatively small effect on all responses. Instead, the local ratio of nest to foraging habitat affected bee fitness positively through reduced local competition. The spatial coverage of pollination increases steeply in response to this ratio

  19. Fragmentation of nest and foraging habitat affects time budgets of solitary bees, their fitness and pollination services, depending on traits: Results from an individual-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Everaars

    Full Text Available Solitary bees are important but declining wild pollinators. During daily foraging in agricultural landscapes, they encounter a mosaic of patches with nest and foraging habitat and unsuitable matrix. It is insufficiently clear how spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources and foraging traits of bees affect their daily foraging performance. We investigated potential brood cell construction (as proxy of fitness, number of visited flowers, foraging habitat visitation and foraging distance (pollination proxies with the model SOLBEE (simulating pollen transport by solitary bees, tested and validated in an earlier study, for landscapes varying in landscape fragmentation and spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources. Simulated bees varied in body size and nesting preference. We aimed to understand effects of landscape fragmentation and bee traits on bee fitness and the pollination services bees provide, as well as interactions between them, and the general consequences it has to our understanding of the system. This broad scope gives multiple key results. 1 Body size determines fitness more than landscape fragmentation, with large bees building fewer brood cells. High pollen requirements for large bees and the related high time budgets for visiting many flowers may not compensate for faster flight speeds and short handling times on flowers, giving them overall a disadvantage compared to small bees. 2 Nest preference does affect distribution of bees over the landscape, with cavity-nesting bees being restricted to nesting along field edges, which inevitably leads to performance reductions. Fragmentation mitigates this for cavity-nesting bees through increased edge habitat. 3 Landscape fragmentation alone had a relatively small effect on all responses. Instead, the local ratio of nest to foraging habitat affected bee fitness positively through reduced local competition. The spatial coverage of pollination increases steeply in response

  20. Fitness-related traits of entomopoxviruses isolated from Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at three localities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Jun; Okuno, Shohei; Ishii, Takayoshi; Nakai, Madoka; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2010-10-01

    Three entomopoxviruses (EPVs) isolated from diseased Adoxophyes honmai larvae at different localities (Tsukuba, Itsukaichi, and Miyazaki) in Japan were compared for biochemical identity and key parameters of virus fitness, fatal infection, speed of kill, and virus yield. When the structural peptides of occlusion bodies (OBs) and occlusion-derived viral particles were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, no difference in banding patterns was observed. However, DNA restriction endonuclease analysis showed that the three isolates were genotypically different, but many commonly sized DNA fragments were observed. Five tortricid species, A. honmai, Adoxophyes orana, Adoxophyesdubia, Homona magnanima, and Archips insulanus were susceptible to all isolates. No significant differences in the key viral fitness parameters were detected among the isolates in A. orana. However, the Miyazaki isolate had a different effect on H. magnanima; it allowed infected insects to survive longer and develop to a larger size, but had a lower yield of OBs per larva at any given time to death. OB yields per unit cadaver weight for the Miyazaki isolate, which indicate the conversion rate of the insect to virus, were lower over time compared to the other two isolates. The implications for selecting a candidate isolate to control tortricid pests are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Variation in male reproductive traits among three bitterling fishes (Acheilognathinae: Cyprinidae) in relation to the mating system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pateman-Jones, C.; Rasotto, M. B.; Reichard, Martin; Liao, C.; Liu, H.; Zieba, G.; Smith, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2011), s. 622-632 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : reproduction * sperm competition * sperm depletion * sperm economy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.193, year: 2011

  2. When the Seasons Don't Fit: Speedy Molt as a Routine Carry-Over Cost of Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, M.W.; Rogers, K.G.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant

  3. When the seasons don't fit : Speedy molt as a routine carry-over cost of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Rogers, Ken G.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant

  4. Correlated genetic effects on reproduction define a domestication syndrome in a forest tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Sampedro, Luis; Lario, Francisco; Climent, José

    2015-01-01

    Compared to natural selection, domestication implies a dramatic change in traits linked to fitness. A number of traits conferring fitness in the wild might be detrimental under domestication, and domesticated species typically differ from their ancestors in a set of traits known as the domestication syndrome. Specifically, trade-offs between growth and reproduction are well established across the tree of life. According to allocation theory, selection for growth rate is expected to indirectly alter life-history reproductive traits, diverting resources from reproduction to growth. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the genetic change and correlated responses of reproductive traits as a result of selection for timber yield in the tree Pinus pinaster. Phenotypic selection was carried out in a natural population, and progenies from selected trees were compared with those of control trees in a common garden experiment. According to expectations, we detected a genetic change in important life-history traits due to selection. Specifically, threshold sizes for reproduction were much higher and reproductive investment relative to size significantly lower in the selected progenies just after a single artificial selection event. Our study helps to define the domestication syndrome in exploited forest trees and shows that changes affecting developmental pathways are relevant in domestication processes of long-lived plants. PMID:25926884

  5. Effect of shadow availability at pasture on reproductive traits of Nelore bulls (Bos indicus raised in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Fabián Bao Tarragó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is responsible for bull body temperature elevation. An alternative to minimize heat stress is to use artificial shade. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal stress reduction, through shade availability, on reproductive characteristics of Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. For this, ten bulls were divided in: Available artificial shade (AS, n = 5 and Unavailable shade (US, n = 5. Each group was kept in two hectare paddocks, in which shade availability for group AS was artificially created. Animals were submitted to a clinical-reproductive evaluation and seminal analyses. No interaction was observed between treatments (AS and US and time (8 collections for all analyzed variables (P>0.05. No significant effect (P > 0.05 of treatment was observed for all parameters analyzed. So, it can be concluded that the absence of shaded areas during summer does not negatively affect reproductive characteristics such as: scrotal circumference, testicular consistency, progressive motility, percentage of rapidly moving cells (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis - CASA, morphology or sperm viability in Nellore bulls raised in southeastern Brazil, considering that results could be different in other regions of the country where average temperature is higher.

  6. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Migliaccio

    Full Text Available Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6 and 3.6 x 10(-5 M, respectively on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

  7. Comparison of reproductive traits of regular and irradiated male desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Evidence of last-male sperm precedence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin Dushimirimana

    2012-02-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk. males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria.

  8. Evolution of postmating reproductive isolation: measuring the fitness effects of chromosomal regions containing hybrid male sterility factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N A; Wu, C I

    1993-08-01

    At least six regions of the X chromosome can cause male sterility when introgressed from Drosophila mauritiana into Drosophila simulans. In this article, we present the results of the other fitness effects caused by two X-linked regions that contain hybrid male sterility factors. In both regions, females that are heterozygous for an introgression with such a sterility factor produce substantially-fewer offspring than females heterozygous for an introgression that lacks the sterility factor. Thus, the hybrid male sterility factors, or other genes nearby, have substantial effects on female productivity. In contrast, hybrid male sterility factors have little or no effect on the relative viabilities of either sex. The evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Green tea proanthocyanidins cause impairment of hormone-regulated larval development and reproductive fitness via repression of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, insulin-like peptide and cytochrome P450 genes in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson M Muema

    Full Text Available Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets. Based on the induced phenotypic effects, genes selected for study targeted juvenile hormone (JH biosynthesis, signal transduction, oxidative stress response and xenobiotic detoxification in addition to vitellogenesis in females. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure of larval stages (L3/L4 to sublethal dose of 5 ppm dramatically extended larval developmental period for up to 12 days, slowed down pupation rates, induced abnormal larval-pupal intermediates and caused 100% inhibition of adult emergence. Further, females exhibited significant interference of fecundity and egg hatchability relative to controls (p < 0.001. Using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, our findings show that PA-treated larvae exhibited significant repression of AgamJHAMT (p < 0.001, AgamILP1 (p < 0.001 and AgamCYP6M2 (p < 0.001 with up-regulation of Hsp70 (p < 0.001. Females exposed as larvae demonstrated down-regulation of AgamVg (p = 0.03, AgamILP1 (p = 0.009, AgamCYP6M2 (p = 0.05 and AgamJHAMT (p = 0.02. Our findings support that C. sinensis proanthocyanidins affect important vectorial capacity components such as mosquito survival rates and reproductive fitness thus could be potentially used for controlling populations of malaria vectors.

  10. Effect of the infection with the nematode Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida: Trichostrongylidae on the haematological, biochemical, clinical and reproductive traits in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Rouatbi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of Haemonchus contortus infection on rams’ haematological, biochemical and clinical parameters and reproductive performances. A total number of 12 Barbarine rams (control and infected were included in the experiment. The infected group received 30 000 H. contortus third-stage larvae orally. Each ram’s ejaculate was immediately evaluated for volume, sperm cell concentration and mortality rate. At the end of the experiment (day 82 post-infection, which lasted 89 days, serial blood samples were collected in order to assess plasma testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH concentrations. There was an effect of time, infection and their interaction on haematological parameters (p < 0.001. In infected rams, haematocrit, red blood cell count and haemoglobin started to decrease from 21 days post-infection. There was an effect of time and infection for albumin. For total protein, only infection had a statistically significant effect. For glucose, only time had a statistically significant effect. Concentrations were significantly lower in infected rams compared to control animals. A significant effect of infection and time on sperm concentrations and sperm mortality was observed. The effect of infection appears in time for sperm concentrations at days 69 and 76 post-infection. Sperm mortality rate was significantly higher in infected animals at day 46 post-infection when compared to control group (p < 0.05. Finally, plasma testosterone traits (average concentration, cumulated levels during the sampling period and pulse frequency were depressed in infected rams when compared to control counterparts; none of these endocrine traits were affected for plasma LH.

  11. Reproduction Efficiency and Health Traits in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai Sheep Breeds under Temperate European Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gavojdian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current pilot study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and health indicators in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai breed ewes managed semi-intensively under European temperate conditions. A total of 544 ewe-year units were observed, with ewes (ranging from 1.5 to 8 years of age managed under identical rearing conditions for a period of two consecutive production cycles (2012 through 2013 and 2013 through 2014. In general, significant (p≤0.001 genotype-related disparities were found in occurrence rates for all health parameters taken into study. Clinical mastitis incidence was significantly lower (p≤0.05 in Dorper (9.4% and White Dorper (10.8% breeds compared to that of Tsigai ewes (17.4%. Significant differences (p≤0.05 for lameness were found between Dorper and Tsigai breeds, with occurrence rates of 8.0% and 2.9%, respectively. Incidence for pneumonia and abortion was not influenced (p>0.05 by the ewes’ genotype. Litter size was significantly lower (p≤0.05 in White Dorper breed than for Dorper and Tsigai ewes, of 1.21, 1.40, and 1.45, respectively. Conception rates and lambs survival were not affected (p>0.05 by genotype. Results suggest that South African Dorper and White Dorper sheep breeds have adapted well to the specific rearing conditions.

  12. Reproductive traits of sandbird octopus, Amphioctopus aegina (Gray, 1849) from Mandapam coastal waters (Palk Bay), Southeast Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, Boby; Srinivasan, Muthukumarasamy; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2011-09-01

    The sandbird octopus Amphioctopus aegina (Gray, 1849) is one of the important octopod species in trawl catches in Mandapam waters (Palk Bay). The reproductive biology of this species from these waters was studied from October 2001 to September 2002. In the majority of months(Jan-June), the sex ratio was biased towards males. The ratios of males to females increased consistently with respect to weight Total weight at first maturity were 78.78g for females and 40.8 g for males. Four maturity stags were recognized for females and two for males. Maturation and spawning occur all year round, with a peak during October and another peak during January-February. In males, no definite seasonal changes were observed in gonadosomatic index (GSI) values. In females there were two peaks in GSI values during October and January-February. For individuals of a DML range of 67-85 mm fecundity varied between 2,962-8,820 oocytes. The average relative fecundity was estimated at 68 to 83 and the average number oocytes per gram of ovary were 488 to 539.

  13. Multiple growth-correlated life history traits estimated simultaneously in indivuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollet, F.M.; Ernande, B.; Brunel, T.P.A.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new methodology to estimate rates of energy acquisition, maintenance, reproductive investment and the onset of maturation (four-trait estimation) by fitting an energy allocation model to individual growth trajectories. The accuracy and precision of the method is evaluated on simulated

  14. Selection on a Subunit of the NURF Chromatin Remodeler Modifies Life History Traits in a Domesticated Strain of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E Large

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary life history theory seeks to explain how reproductive and survival traits are shaped by selection through allocations of an individual's resources to competing life functions. Although life-history traits evolve rapidly, little is known about the genetic and cellular mechanisms that control and couple these tradeoffs. Here, we find that two laboratory-adapted strains of C. elegans descended from a single common ancestor that lived in the 1950s have differences in a number of life-history traits, including reproductive timing, lifespan, dauer formation, growth rate, and offspring number. We identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL of large effect that controls 24%-75% of the total trait variance in reproductive timing at various timepoints. Using CRISPR/Cas9-induced genome editing, we show this QTL is due in part to a 60 bp deletion in the 3' end of the nurf-1 gene, which is orthologous to the human gene encoding the BPTF component of the NURF chromatin remodeling complex. Besides reproduction, nurf-1 also regulates growth rate, lifespan, and dauer formation. The fitness consequences of this deletion are environment specific-it increases fitness in the growth conditions where it was fixed but decreases fitness in alternative laboratory growth conditions. We propose that chromatin remodeling, acting through nurf-1, is a pleiotropic regulator of life history trade-offs underlying the evolution of multiple traits across different species.

  15. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness

  16. Genetic and environmental variance and covariance parameters for some reproductive traits of Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Zambrano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters for calving interval (CI, days open (DO, number of services per conception (NSC and conception rate (CR in Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia. Variance and covariance component estimates were obtained by an animal model that was solved using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. The means and standard deviations for CI, DO, NSC and CR were: 430.32±77.93 days, 127.15±76.96 days, 1.58±1.03 services per conception and 79.88±28.66% in Holstein cattle, and 409.33±86.48 days, 125.62±86.09 days, 1.48±0.98 services per conception and 84.08±27.23% in Jersey cattle, respectively. The heritability estimates (standard errors were: 0.088(0.037, 0.082(0.037, 0.040(0.025 and 0.030(0.026 in Holstein cattle and 0.072(0.098, 0.090(0.104, 0.093(0.097 and 0.147(0.117 in Jersey cattle, respectively. The results show that the genetic, phenotypic and permanent environmental correlations in the two evaluated breeds were favorable for CI × DO, CI × NSC and DO × NSC, but not for CI × CR, DO × CR and NSC × CR. Genetic and permanent environmental correlations were high in most cases in Holstein cattle, whereas in Jersey cattle they were moderate. In contrast, phenotypic correlations were very low in both breeds, except for CI × DO and NSC × CR, which were high. Overall, the genetic component found was very low (<8% in both evaluated breeds and this implies that their selection would take long time and that a good practical management of the herd will be essential in order to improve the reproductive performance.

  17. Phenology and reproductive traits of peaches and nectarines in Central-East Argentina Fenologia e comportamento reprodutivo de pêssego no centro-leste da Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Francisco Gariglio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Santa Fe, the central-east area of Argentina, the expansion of fruit tree crops requires the introduction and evaluation of low chilling varieties. The aims of this study was to characterize the phenological behaviour and the reproductive traits of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch and nectarine varieties with chilling requirements ranging from 150 to 650 chilling hours (CH. Low chilling varieties (500 CH. The phenology of high chilling requirement varieties had the advantage that blooming and fruit set happened after the period of late frost occurrence. However, they did not satisfy their chilling requirement, showing an inadequate vegetative and reproductive behaviour. Low chilling varieties began to sprout during July, and the period of full bloom occurred from July 14th to August 4th. Fruit harvest was initiated on October 19th with the cv. 'Flordastar' and it extended for 58 days. However, on low chilling varieties the harvest time was reduced in ten days. Flower density, fruit set and fruit yield showed a negative relationship with the chilling requirement of the variety.Na região centro-leste do estado de Santa Fé, Argentina, para a expansão dos frutais é preciso introduzir variedades de baixo requerimento de frio. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar o comportamento durante as fases de crescimento e frutificação de variedades de pêssego (Prunus persica L. Batsch e nectarina com requerimentos de frio que variam entre 150-650 horas de frio (CH. As variedades de pêssego de baixa necessidade de frio (500 CH. As variedades de maior necessidade de frio tiveram a vantagem da floração, e o estabelecimento dos frutos aconteceu depois do período de risco de geadas. Porém, essas variedades não têm satisfeita sua necessidade de frio, apresentando comportamento vegetativo e reprodutivo inadequado. As variedades de baixa necessidade de frio brotaram entre 4 a 31 de julho e o período de plena floração aconteceu entre 14 de julho a

  18. Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, David A H; Suski, Cory D; Philipp, David P; Klefoth, Thomas; Wahl, David H; Kersten, Petra; Cooke, Steven J; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-12-18

    Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait "vulnerability to angling" positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear.

  19. Outcrossing and crossbreeding recovers deteriorated traits in laboratory cultured Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, John M; Dillman, Adler R; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Bilgrami, Anwar L; Gaugler, Randy; Hopper, Keith R; Adams, Byron J

    2011-06-01

    The nematode Steinernema carpocapsae infects and kills many pest insects in agro-ecosystems and is commonly used in biocontrol of these pests. Growth of the nematodes prior to distribution for biocontrol commonly results in deterioration of traits that are essential for nematode persistence in field applications. To better understand the mechanisms underlying trait deterioration of the efficacy of natural parasitism in entomopathogenic nematodes, we explored the maintenance of fitness related traits including reproductive capacity, heat tolerance, virulence to insects and 'tail standing' (formerly called nictation) among laboratory-cultured lines derived from natural, randomly mating populations of S. carpocapsae. Laboratory cultured nematode lines with fitness-related trait values below wild-type levels regained wild-type levels of reproductive and heat tolerance traits when outcrossed with a non-deteriorated line, while virulence and 'tail standing' did not deteriorate in our experiments. Crossbreeding two trait-deteriorated lines with each other also resulted in restoration of trait means to wild-type levels in most crossbred lines. Our results implicate inbreeding depression as the primary cause of trait deterioration in the laboratory cultured S. carpocapsae. We further suggest the possibility of creating inbred lines purged of deleterious alleles as founders in commercial nematode growth. Copyright © 2011 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mating System Evolution under Strong Pollen Limitation: Evidence of Disruptive Selection through Male and Female Fitness in Clarkia xantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Geber, Monica A; Pickett-Leonard, Michael; Moeller, David A

    2017-05-01

    Selection on floral traits in hermaphroditic plants is determined by both male and female reproductive success. However, predictions regarding floral trait and mating system evolution are often based solely on female fitness. Selection via male fitness has the potential to affect the outcomes of floral evolution. In this study, we used paternity analysis to assess individual selfing rates and selection on floral traits via male and female fitness in an experimental population of Clarkia xantiana where pollen limitation of seed set was strong. We detected selection through both female and male fitness with reinforcing or noninterfering patterns of selection through the two sex functions. For female fitness, selection favored reduced herkogamy and protandry, traits that promote increased autonomous selfing. For male fitness, selection on petal area was disruptive, with higher trait values conferring greater pollinator attraction and outcross siring success and smaller trait values leading to higher selfed siring success. Combining both female and male fitness, selection on petal area and protandry was disruptive because intermediate phenotypes were less successful as both males and females. Finally, functional relationships among male and female fertility components indicated that selfing resulted in seed discounting and pollen discounting. Under these functional relationships, the evolutionarily stable selfing rate can be intermediate or predominantly selfing or outcrossing, depending on the segregating load of deleterious mutations.

  1. Importance of whole-plant biomass allocation and reproductive timing to habitat differentiation across the North American sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Davis, Kaleigh E; Bullock, Devon V; Donovan, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    Trait-based plant ecology attempts to use small numbers of functional traits to predict plant ecological strategies. However, a major gap exists between our understanding of organ-level ecophysiological traits and our understanding of whole-plant fitness and environmental adaptation. In this gap lie whole-plant organizational traits, including those that describe how plant biomass is allocated among organs and the timing of plant reproduction. This study explores the role of whole-plant organizational traits in adaptation to diverse environments in the context of life history, growth form and leaf economic strategy in a well-studied herbaceous system. A phylogenetic comparative approach was used in conjunction with common garden phenotyping to assess the evolution of biomass allocation and reproductive timing across 83 populations of 27 species of the diverse genus Helianthus (the sunflowers). Broad diversity exists among species in both relative biomass allocation and reproductive timing. Early reproduction is strongly associated with resource-acquisitive leaf economic strategy, while biomass allocation is less integrated with either reproductive timing or leaf economics. Both biomass allocation and reproductive timing are strongly related to source site environmental characteristics, including length of the growing season, temperature, precipitation and soil fertility. Herbaceous taxa can adapt to diverse environments in many ways, including modulation of phenology, plant architecture and organ-level ecophysiology. Although leaf economic strategy captures one key aspect of plant physiology, on their own leaf traits are not particularly predictive of ecological strategies in Helianthus outside of the context of growth form, life history and whole-plant organization. These results highlight the importance of including data on whole-plant organization alongside organ-level ecophysiological traits when attempting to bridge the gap between functional traits and plant

  2. Investigating Climate Change and Reproduction: Experimental Tools from Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Y. Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally acknowledged that climate change has wide-ranging biological consequences, potentially leading to impacts on biodiversity. Environmental factors can have diverse and often strong effects on reproduction, with obvious ramifications for population fitness. Nevertheless, reproductive traits are often neglected in conservation considerations. Focusing on animals, recent progress in sexual selection and sexual conflict research suggests that reproductive costs may pose an underestimated hurdle during rapid climate change, potentially lowering adaptive potential and increasing extinction risk of certain populations. Nevertheless, regime shifts may have both negative and positive effects on reproduction, so it is important to acquire detailed experimental data. We hence present an overview of the literature reporting short-term reproductive consequences of exposure to different environmental factors. From the enormous diversity of findings, we conclude that climate change research could benefit greatly from more coordinated efforts incorporating evolutionary approaches in order to obtain cross-comparable data on how individual and population reproductive fitness respond in the long term. Therefore, we propose ideas and methods concerning future efforts dealing with reproductive consequences of climate change, in particular by highlighting the advantages of multi-generational experimental evolution experiments.

  3. Voice and Handgrip Strength Predict Reproductive Success in a Group of Indigenous African Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Mberira, Mara; Bartels, Astrid; Gallup, Gordon G.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness). Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of Darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of Darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis. PMID:22870251

  4. Demographic consequences of greater clonal than sexual reproduction in Dicentra canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Miriti, Maria N; Goodell, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Clonality is a widespread life history trait in flowering plants that may be essential for population persistence, especially in environments where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. Frequent clonal reproduction, however, could hinder sexual reproduction by spatially aggregating ramets that compete with seedlings and reduce inter-genet pollination. Nevertheless, the role of clonality in relation to variable sexual reproduction in population dynamics is often overlooked. We combined population matrix models and pollination experiments to compare the demographic contributions of clonal and sexual reproduction in three Dicentra canadensis populations, one in a well-forested landscape and two in isolated forest remnants. We constructed stage-based transition matrices from 3 years of census data to evaluate annual population growth rates, λ. We used loop analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of different reproductive pathways to λ. Despite strong temporal and spatial variation in seed set, populations generally showed stable growth rates. Although we detected some pollen limitation of seed set, manipulative pollination treatments did not affect population growth rates. Clonal reproduction contributed significantly more than sexual reproduction to population growth in the forest remnants. Only at the well-forested site did sexual reproduction contribute as much as clonal reproduction to population growth. Flowering plants were more likely to transition to a smaller size class with reduced reproductive potential in the following year than similarly sized nonflowering plants, suggesting energy trade-offs between sexual and clonal reproduction at the individual level. Seed production had negligible effects on growth and tuber production of individual plants. Our results demonstrate that clonal reproduction is vital for population persistence in a system where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. The bias toward clonality may be driven by low fitness returns

  5. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  6. Socially selected ornaments and fitness: Signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Taylor; Vernier, Cassondra; Jinn, Judy; Madagame, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests, are more likely to survive harsh winters, and obtain higher dominance rank than wasps that signal lower fighting ability. In comparison, body weight was not associated with fitness. Larger wasps were dominant over smaller wasps, but showed no difference in nest size or survival. Overall, the positive relationship between wasp facial patterns and fitness indicates that receivers can obtain diverse information about a signaler's phenotypic quality by paying attention to socially selected ornaments. Therefore, there are surprisingly strong parallels between the information conveyed by socially and sexually selected signals. Similar fitness relationships in social and sexually selected signals may be one reason it can be difficult to distinguish the role of social versus sexual selection in ornament evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Genotype-specific interactions and the trade-off between host and parasite fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shykoff Jacqui A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of parasite traits is inextricably linked to their hosts. For instance one common definition of parasite virulence is the reduction in host fitness due to infection. Thus, traits of infection must be viewed in both protagonists and may be under shared genetic and physiological control. We investigated these questions on the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsis (= parasitica, a natural pathogen of the Brassicaceae Arabidopsis thaliana. Results We performed a controlled cross inoculation experiment confronting six lines of the host plant with seven strains of the parasite in order to evaluate genetic variation for phenotypic traits of infection among hosts, parasites, and distinct combinations. Parasite infection intensity and transmission were highly variable among parasite strains and host lines but depended also on the interaction between particular genotypes of the protagonists, and genetic variation for the infection phenotype of parasites from natural populations was found even at a small spatial scale within population. Furthermore, increased parasite fitness led to a significant decrease in host fitness only on a single host line (Gb, although a trade-off between these two traits was expected because host and parasite share the same resource pool for their respective reproduction. We propose that different levels of compatibility dependent on genotype by genotype interactions might lead to different amounts of resources available for host and parasite reproduction. This variation in compatibility could thus mask the expected negative relationship between host and parasite fitness, as the total resource pool would not be constant. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of host variation in the determination of parasite fitness traits. This kind of interaction may in turn decouple the relationship between parasite transmission and its negative effect on host fitness, altering theoretical predictions

  8. The effect of trait type and strength of selection on heritability and evolvability in an island bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Keller, Lukas F; Postma, Erik

    2014-11-01

    The heritability (h(2) ) of fitness traits is often low. Although this has been attributed to directional selection having eroded genetic variation in direct proportion to the strength of selection, heritability does not necessarily reflect a trait's additive genetic variance and evolutionary potential ("evolvability"). Recent studies suggest that the low h(2) of fitness traits in wild populations is caused not by a paucity of additive genetic variance (VA ) but by greater environmental or nonadditive genetic variance (VR ). We examined the relationship between h(2) and variance-standardized selection intensities (i or βσ ), and between evolvability (IA :VA divided by squared phenotypic trait mean) and mean-standardized selection gradients (βμ ). Using 24 years of data from an island population of Savannah sparrows, we show that, across diverse traits, h(2) declines with the strength of selection, whereas IA and IR (VR divided by squared trait mean) are independent of the strength of selection. Within trait types (morphological, reproductive, life-history), h(2) , IA , and IR are all independent of the strength of selection. This indicates that certain traits have low heritability because of increased residual variance due to the age at which they are expressed or the multiple factors influencing their expression, rather than their association with fitness. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. The influence of inherited plumage colour morph on morphometric traits and breeding investment in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata.

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    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Melanin-based plumage polymorphism occurs in many wild bird populations and has been linked to fitness variation in several species. These fitness differences often arise as a consequence of variation in traits such as behaviour, immune responsiveness, body size and reproductive investment. However, few studies have controlled for genetic differences between colour morphs that could potentially generate artefactual associations between plumage colouration and trait variation. Here, we used zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata as a model system in order to evaluate whether life-history traits such as adult body condition and reproductive investment could be influenced by plumage morph. To maximise any potential differences, we selected wild-type and white plumage morphs, which differ maximally in their extent of melanisation, while using a controlled three-generation breeding design to homogenise the genetic background. We found that F2 adults with white plumage colouration were on average lighter and had poorer body condition than wild-type F2 birds. However, they appeared to compensate for this by reproducing earlier and producing heavier eggs relative to their own body mass. Our study thus reveals differences in morphological and life history traits that could be relevant to fitness variation, although further studies will be required to evaluate fitness effects under natural conditions as well as to characterise any potential fitness costs of compensatory strategies in white zebra finches.

  10. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  11. Interannual variability of growth and reproduction in Bursera simaruba: the role of allometry and resource variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Stegen, James C; Swenson, Nathan G; Enquist, Carolyn A F; Enquist, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    Plants are expected to differentially allocate resources to reproduction, growth, and survival in order to maximize overall fitness. Life history theory predicts that the allocation of resources to reproduction should occur at the expense of vegetative growth. Although it is known that both organism size and resource availability can influence life history traits, few studies have addressed how size dependencies of growth and reproduction and variation in resource supply jointly affect the coupling between growth and reproduction. In order to understand the relationship between growth and reproduction in the context of resource variability, we utilize a long-term observational data set consisting of 670 individual trees over a 10-year period within a local population of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. We (1) quantify the functional form and variability in the growth-reproduction relationship at the population and individual-tree level and (2) develop a theoretical framework to understand the allometric dependence of growth and reproduction. Our findings suggest that the differential responses of allometric growth and reproduction to resource availability, both between years and between microsites, underlie the apparent relationship between growth and reproduction. Finally, we offer an alternative approach for quantifying the relationship between growth and reproduction that accounts for variation in allometries.

  12. The effects of quantitative fecundity in the haploid stage on reproductive success and diploid fitness in the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J

    2016-06-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how mating patterns affect the fitness of offspring. However, in animals and seed plants it is virtually impossible to investigate the effects of specific gamete genotypes. In bryophytes, haploid gametophytes grow via clonal propagation and produce millions of genetically identical gametes throughout a population. The main goal of this research was to test whether gamete identity has an effect on the fitness of their diploid offspring in a population of the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum. We observed a heavily male-biased sex ratio in gametophyte plants (ramets) and in multilocus microsatellite genotypes (genets). There was a steeper relationship between mating success (number of different haploid mates) and fecundity (number of diploid offspring) for male genets compared with female genets. At the sporophyte level, we observed a weak effect of inbreeding on offspring fitness, but no effect of brood size (number of sporophytes per maternal ramet). Instead, the identities of the haploid male and haploid female parents were significant contributors to variance in fitness of sporophyte offspring in the population. Our results suggest that intrasexual gametophyte/gamete competition may play a role in determining mating success in this population.

  13. Comparative Genomic Analyses of Multiple Pseudomonas Strains Infecting Corylus avellana Trees Reveal the Occurrence of Two Genetic Clusters with Both Common and Distinctive Virulence and Fitness Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) is threatened in Europe by several pseudomonads which cause symptoms ranging from twig dieback to tree death. A comparison of the draft genomes of nine Pseudomonas strains isolated from symptomatic C. avellana trees was performed to identify common and distinctive genomic traits. The thorough assessment of genetic relationships among the strains revealed two clearly distinct clusters: P. avellanae and P. syringae. The latter including the pathovars avellanae, coryli and syringae. Between these two clusters, no recombination event was found. A genomic island of approximately 20 kb, containing the hrp/hrc type III secretion system gene cluster, was found to be present without any genomic difference in all nine pseudomonads. The type III secretion system effector repertoires were remarkably different in the two groups, with P. avellanae showing a higher number of effectors. Homologue genes of the antimetabolite mangotoxin and ice nucleation activity clusters were found solely in all P. syringae pathovar strains, whereas the siderophore yersiniabactin was only present in P. avellanae. All nine strains have genes coding for pectic enzymes and sucrose metabolism. By contrast, they do not have genes coding for indolacetic acid and anti-insect toxin. Collectively, this study reveals that genomically different Pseudomonas can converge on the same host plant by suppressing the host defence mechanisms with the use of different virulence weapons. The integration into their genomes of a horizontally acquired genomic island could play a fundamental role in their evolution, perhaps giving them the ability to exploit new ecological niches. PMID:26147218

  14. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Ondračková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.; Bryja, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2009), s. 377-390 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : directional selection gradient * individual and population consequences of behavior * opportunity for selection * parentage analysis * sexual selection * reproductive effort Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  15. Effects of foliar herbivory by insects on the fitness of Raphanus raphanistrum: damage can increase male fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y; Conner, J K; Lehtilä, K P

    2001-11-01

    Generally, effects of herbivory on plant fitness have been measured in terms of female reproductive success (seed production). However, male plant fitness, defined as the number of seeds sired by pollen, contributes half of the genes to the next generation and is therefore crucial to the evolution of natural plant populations. This is the first study to examine effects of insect herbivory on both male and female plant reproductive success. Through controlled field and greenhouse experiments and genetic paternity analysis, we found that foliar damage by insects caused a range of responses by plants. In one environment, damaged plants had greater success as male parents than undamaged plants. Neither effects on pollen competitive ability nor pollinator visitation patterns could explain the greater siring success of these damaged plants. Success of damaged plants as male parents appeared to be due primarily to changes in allocation to flowers versus seeds after damage. Damaged plants produced more flowers early in the season, but not more seeds, than undamaged plants. Based on total seed production, male fitness measures from the first third of the season, and flower production, we estimated that damaged and undamaged plants had equal total reproductive success at the end of the season in this environment. In a second, richer environment, damaged and undamaged plants had equal male and female plant fitness, and no traits differed significantly between the treatments. Equal total reproductive success may not be ecologically or evolutionarily equivalent if it is achieved differentially through male versus female fitness. Genes from damaged plants dispersed through pollen may escape attack from herbivores, if such attack is correlated spatially from year to year.

  16. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos de características reprodutivas de touros Nelore, de dois e três anos de idade Genetic parameter estimates for reproductive traits in young Nelore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Dias

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimaram-se a herdabilidade e a correlação genética entre características ponderais e reprodutivas de 579 touros da raça Nelore, de 19 a 39 meses de idade. As características reprodutivas avaliadas foram: circunferência escrotal (CE; consistência, volume, forma, comprimento e largura dos testículos; motilidade e vigor dos espermatozóides; defeitos espermáticos maiores, menores e totais; e classificação andrológica por pontos (CAP. As características foram analisadas pelo método de máxima verossimilhança restrita, com algoritmos livres de derivadas, sob modelo animal, com inclusão da matriz de numeradores dos coeficientes de parentesco entre os animais e seus ascendentes, utilizando o programa MTDFREML. As estimativas de herdabilidade para consistência testicular, motilidade e vigor espermáticos e defeitos espermáticos maiores, menores e totais e CAP foram, respectivamente, 0,46; 0,10; 0,08; 0,16; 0,09; 0,11 e 0,10. As correlações genéticas entre CE e: peso, volume testicular, motilidade e vigor espermáticos, defeitos espermáticos menores, defeitos totais e CAP foram, respectivamente, 0,72; 0,99; 0,72; 0,60; -0,67; -0,12 e 0,64. As correlações genéticas entre CAP e: peso, volume testicular, defeitos espermáticos maiores e defeitos totais foram, respectivamente, 0,19; 0,71; -0,47 e -0,58. Os resultados sugerem compatibilidade de crescimento corporal e fertilidade nos programas de seleção de reprodutores Nelore.Heritabilities and genetic correlations between performance and reproductive traits were estimated using Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology in 579 pasture-raised Nelore bulls that were 19 to 39 months of age. Traits were breeding soundness evaluation (BSE, scrotal circumference (SC, testicular consistency (TC, testicular volume (TV, testicular shape (TS, length and width of right and left testicles, and semen traits including motility (Mot, vigor (Vig, major (MD sperm

  17. Comparative analysis of milk yield and reproductive traits of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkey or imported from Italy and kept on farms under the Turkish-ANAFI project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Akbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the milk yield, reproductive traits and productive life of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkeyor imported from Italy and raised on farms involved in the Turkish-ANAFI Project. A total of 2600 records for age at firstcalving, 4733 completed lactation records from 2080 cows, and 1130 productive life (from first calving to disposalrecords from 50 farms in the provinces of I•zmir, Manisa and Aydın under the Turkish-ANAFI Project were evaluated. Leastsquares means for age at first calving, 305-day milk yield, lactation milk yield, lactation duration, days open, days dry,and productive life were 28.2 months, 6232 kg, 6829 kg, 336.0 days, 138.0 days, 78.3 days, and 28.9 months, respectively.Corresponding least squares means for cows born in Turkey and imported from Italy were 28.8 and 27.6 months(P0.05, 6761 and 6897 kg (Pdays (P0.10, and 21.6 and 36.1 months (Pof Holstein-Friesian cows in herd-book herds under the project in the Aegean Region was satisfactory. However, therewere reproductive problems as shown by the length of days open. Shorter productive life of cows born in Turkey comparedto cows from Italy suggested that breeders tended to cull locally born cows at a younger age but that they tendedto keep imported cows in the herd for a longer period unless serious problems occurred.

  18. Hormone levels predict individual differences in reproductive success in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela

    2011-08-22

    Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection.

  19. New Insights into Non-Avian Dinosaur Reproduction and Their Evolutionary and Ecological Implications: Linking Fossil Evidence to Allometries of Extant Close Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a high reproductive output contributes to the unique gigantism in large dinosaur taxa. In order to infer more information on dinosaur reproduction, we established allometries between body mass and different reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch mass, annual clutch mass) for extant phylogenetic brackets (birds, crocodiles and tortoises) of extinct non-avian dinosaurs. Allometries were applied to nine non-avian dinosaur taxa (theropods, hadrosaurs, and sauropodomorphs) for which fossil estimates on relevant traits are currently available. We found that the reproductive traits of most dinosaurs conformed to similar-sized or scaled-up extant reptiles or birds. The reproductive traits of theropods, which are considered more bird-like, were indeed consistent with birds, while the traits of sauropodomorphs conformed better to reptiles. Reproductive traits of hadrosaurs corresponded to both reptiles and birds. Excluding Massospondylus carinatus , all dinosaurs studied had an intermediary egg to body mass relationship to reptiles and birds. In contrast, dinosaur clutch masses fitted with either the masses predicted from allometries of birds (theropods) or to the masses of reptiles (all other taxa). Theropods studied had probably one clutch per year. For sauropodomorphs and hadrosaurs, more than one clutch per year was predicted. Contrary to current hypotheses, large dinosaurs did not have exceptionally high annual egg numbers (AEN). Independent of the extant model, the estimated dinosaur AEN did not exceed 850 eggs (75,000 kg sauropod) for any of the taxa studied. This estimated maximum is probably an overestimation due to unrealistic assumptions. According to most AEN estimations, the dinosaurs studied laid less than 200 eggs per year. Only some AEN estimates obtained for medium to large sized sauropods were higher (200-400 eggs). Our results provide new (testable) hypotheses, especially for reproductive traits that are insufficiently

  20. New insights into non-avian dinosaur reproduction and their evolutionary and ecological implications: linking fossil evidence to allometries of extant close relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that a high reproductive output contributes to the unique gigantism in large dinosaur taxa. In order to infer more information on dinosaur reproduction, we established allometries between body mass and different reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch mass, annual clutch mass for extant phylogenetic brackets (birds, crocodiles and tortoises of extinct non-avian dinosaurs. Allometries were applied to nine non-avian dinosaur taxa (theropods, hadrosaurs, and sauropodomorphs for which fossil estimates on relevant traits are currently available. We found that the reproductive traits of most dinosaurs conformed to similar-sized or scaled-up extant reptiles or birds. The reproductive traits of theropods, which are considered more bird-like, were indeed consistent with birds, while the traits of sauropodomorphs conformed better to reptiles. Reproductive traits of hadrosaurs corresponded to both reptiles and birds. Excluding Massospondyluscarinatus, all dinosaurs studied had an intermediary egg to body mass relationship to reptiles and birds. In contrast, dinosaur clutch masses fitted with either the masses predicted from allometries of birds (theropods or to the masses of reptiles (all other taxa. Theropods studied had probably one clutch per year. For sauropodomorphs and hadrosaurs, more than one clutch per year was predicted. Contrary to current hypotheses, large dinosaurs did not have exceptionally high annual egg numbers (AEN. Independent of the extant model, the estimated dinosaur AEN did not exceed 850 eggs (75,000 kg sauropod for any of the taxa studied. This estimated maximum is probably an overestimation due to unrealistic assumptions. According to most AEN estimations, the dinosaurs studied laid less than 200 eggs per year. Only some AEN estimates obtained for medium to large sized sauropods were higher (200-400 eggs. Our results provide new (testable hypotheses, especially for reproductive traits that are insufficiently

  1. New insights into non-avian dinosaur reproduction and their evolutionary and ecological implications: linking fossil evidence to allometries of extant close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a high reproductive output contributes to the unique gigantism in large dinosaur taxa. In order to infer more information on dinosaur reproduction, we established allometries between body mass and different reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch mass, annual clutch mass) for extant phylogenetic brackets (birds, crocodiles and tortoises) of extinct non-avian dinosaurs. Allometries were applied to nine non-avian dinosaur taxa (theropods, hadrosaurs, and sauropodomorphs) for which fossil estimates on relevant traits are currently available. We found that the reproductive traits of most dinosaurs conformed to similar-sized or scaled-up extant reptiles or birds. The reproductive traits of theropods, which are considered more bird-like, were indeed consistent with birds, while the traits of sauropodomorphs conformed better to reptiles. Reproductive traits of hadrosaurs corresponded to both reptiles and birds. Excluding Massospondyluscarinatus, all dinosaurs studied had an intermediary egg to body mass relationship to reptiles and birds. In contrast, dinosaur clutch masses fitted with either the masses predicted from allometries of birds (theropods) or to the masses of reptiles (all other taxa). Theropods studied had probably one clutch per year. For sauropodomorphs and hadrosaurs, more than one clutch per year was predicted. Contrary to current hypotheses, large dinosaurs did not have exceptionally high annual egg numbers (AEN). Independent of the extant model, the estimated dinosaur AEN did not exceed 850 eggs (75,000 kg sauropod) for any of the taxa studied. This estimated maximum is probably an overestimation due to unrealistic assumptions. According to most AEN estimations, the dinosaurs studied laid less than 200 eggs per year. Only some AEN estimates obtained for medium to large sized sauropods were higher (200-400 eggs). Our results provide new (testable) hypotheses, especially for reproductive traits that are insufficiently documented

  2. Altura da garupa e sua associação com características reprodutivas e de crescimento na raça Nelore Hip height and its relationships with reproductive and growth traits in Nelore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cinachi Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os fatores que afetam a altura da garupa em diferentes idades, em bovinos Nelore, e estimar a herdabilidade e as correlações genéticas entre esse caractere e as características reprodutivas e de crescimento. Os caracteres avaliados foram: altura da garupa à desmama, altura da garupa ao sobreano, peso à desmama, peso ao sobreano, perímetro escrotal e idade ao primeiro parto. Os fatores considerados foram: ano e mês de nascimento, rebanho, sexo, idade da vaca ao parto e idade do bezerro. Os componentes de variância e covariância foram estimados pela metodologia de máxima verossimilhança restrita, tendo-se utilizado um modelo animal. Todos os efeitos foram significativos para altura de garupa nas diferentes idades. As estimativas de herdabilidade quanto ao efeito genético direto indicaram que as características de crescimento e reprodutivas respondem à seleção, exceto a idade ao primeiro parto. As correlações genéticas entre as características de crescimento foram todas positivas e elevadas, de 0,42 a 0,90, o que indica que são determinadas em grande parte pelos mesmos conjuntos de genes de ação aditiva. Em razão das baixas magnitudes das estimativas de correlação genética (entre -0,14 e 0,16, a eficiência reprodutiva é pouco influenciada pela seleção quanto à altura de garupa.The objective of this work was to determine factors that affect hip height at different ages, in Nelore cattle, and to estimate the heritability and the genetic correlation between this character and reproductive and growth traits. The analyzed traits were: hip height at weaning, hip height at post weaning, weight at weaning, weight at post weaning, scrotal circumference, and age at first calving. The analyzed factors were: year and month of birth, herd, sex, age of dam at calving, and calf age. The variance covariance components were estimate by the restrict maximum likelihood methodology using animal

  3. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  4. Reproductive traits in the european Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas: the typical or Brown and the Mountain haplotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Ragagli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Four hundred and two pairs of hares belonging to the mountain and brown haplotypes of the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 were raised in a farm located in central Italy over 4 years (from 2003 to 2006. The birth date, total number of young born, and number of surviving and weaned leverets were recorded for each pair. The start of reproduction, birth-interval, length of the reproductive season, number of birth per pair per year, number of leverets per pair, number of weaned leverets per pair and number of weaned leverets per birth were analysed in relation to the different haplotypes and years; the incidence of superfetation and pseudogestation was also considered. Results showed that the brown hare produced young at the beginning of February, whilst the mountain hare started reproduction significantly later. Brown hares showed a longer reproductive period than mountain hares (192 days vs 156 days and a higher productivity. The most frequent gestation length was 37-41 days. The distribution of delivery intervals did not differ between the two haplotypes. Riassunto Caratteristiche riproduttive di due aplotipi della lepre (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778. Lepri (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778 appartenenti all’aplotipo di montagna e a quello bruno sono state monitorate per 4 anni (dal 2003 al 2006 in uno stesso allevamento situato in una zona dell’Italia centrale. Per ciascuna coppia di riproduttori allevata (N = 402 sono stati raccolti i dati relativi a: data del parto, numero totale di nati, numero totale di nati vivi e di leprotti svezzati. L’inizio del periodo riproduttivo, l’intervallo interparto, la durata della gestazione, la durata della stagione riproduttiva, il numero di parti per coppia per anno, il numero di nati per coppia, il numero di svezzati per coppia, il numero di svezzati per parto sono stati analizzati in relazione ai

  5. Population density shapes patterns of survival and reproduction in Eleutheria dichotoma (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dańko, Aleksandra; Schaible, Ralf; Pijanowska, Joanna; Dańko, Maciej J

    2018-01-01

    Budding hydromedusae have high reproductive rates due to asexual reproduction and can occur in high population densities along the coasts, specifically in tidal pools. In laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of population density on the survival and reproductive strategies of a single clone of Eleutheria dichotoma . We found that sexual reproduction occurs with the highest rate at medium population densities. Increased sexual reproduction was associated with lower budding (asexual reproduction) and survival probability. Sexual reproduction results in the production of motile larvae that can, in contrast to medusae, seek to escape unfavorable conditions by actively looking for better environments. The successful settlement of a larva results in starting the polyp stage, which is probably more resistant to environmental conditions. This is the first study that has examined the life-history strategies of the budding hydromedusa E. dichotoma by conducting a long-term experiment with a relatively large sample size that allowed for the examination of age-specific mortality and reproductive rates. We found that most sexual and asexual reproduction occurred at the beginning of life following a very rapid process of maturation. The parametric models fitted to the mortality data showed that population density was associated with an increase in the rate of aging, an increase in the level of late-life mortality plateau, and a decrease in the hidden heterogeneity in individual mortality rates. The effects of population density on life-history traits are discussed in the context of resource allocation and the r/K-strategies' continuum concept.

  6. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two differ...... ameliorate depressions in plant reproductive fitness caused by higher temperatures in situations where both factors co-occur....

  7. Does a trade-off between current reproductive success and survival affect the honesty of male signalling in species with male parental care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, N B; Alonzo, S H

    2010-11-01

    Recent theory predicted that male advertisement will reliably signal investment in paternal care in species where offspring survival requires paternal care and males allocate resources between advertisement and care. However, the predicted relationship between care and advertisement depended on the marginal gains from investment in current reproductive traits. Life history theory suggests that these fitness gains are also subject to a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Here, we investigate whether male signalling remains a reliable indicator of parental care when males allocate resources between current advertisement, paternal care and survival to future reproduction. We find that advertisement is predicted to remain a reliable signal of male care but that advertisement may cease to reliably indicate male quality because low-quality males are predicted to invest in current reproduction, whereas higher-quality males are able to invest in both current reproduction and survival to future reproduction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  9. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  10. Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  11. Aphid reproductive investment in response to mortality risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Aphids are striking in their prodigious reproductive capacity and reliance on microbial endosymbionts, which provision their hosts with necessary amino acids and provide protection against parasites and heat stress. Perhaps as a result of this bacterial dependence, aphids have limited immune function that may leave them vulnerable to bacterial pathogens. An alternative, non-immunological response that may be available to infected aphids is to increase reproduction, thereby ameliorating fitness loss from infection. Such a response would reduce the need to mount a potentially energetically costly immune response, and would parallel that of other hosts that alter life-history traits when there is a risk of infection. Here we examined whether pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) respond to immunological challenges by increasing reproduction. As a comparison to the response to the internal cue of risk elicited by immunological challenge, we also exposed pea aphids to an external cue of risk - the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-β-farnesene (EBF), which is released in the presence of predators. For each challenge, we also examined whether the presence of symbionts modified the host response, as maintaining host fitness in the face of challenge would benefit both the host and its dependent bacteria. Results We found that aphids stabbed abdominally with a sterile needle had reduced fecundity relative to control aphids but that aphids stabbed with a needle bearing heat-killed bacteria had reproduction intermediate, and statistically indistinguishable, to the aphids stabbed with a sterile needle and the controls. Aphids with different species of facultative symbiotic bacteria had different reproductive patterns overall, but symbionts in general did not alter aphid reproduction in response to bacterial exposure. However, in response to exposure to alarm pheromone, aphids with Hamiltonella defensa or Serratia symbiotica symbiotic infections increased reproduction but those

  12. Genetic diversity and reproductive success in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, M; Setchell, J M; Prugnolle, F; Knapp, L A; Wickings, E J; Peignot, P; Hossaert-McKey, M

    2005-11-15

    Recent studies of wild animal populations have shown that estimators of neutral genetic diversity, such as mean heterozygosity, are often correlated with various fitness traits, such as survival, disease susceptibility, or reproductive success. We used two estimators of genetic diversity to explore the relationship between heterozygosity and reproductive success in male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semifree ranging setting in Gabon. Because social rank is known to influence reproductive success in both sexes, we also examined the correlation between genetic diversity and social rank in females, and acquisition of alpha status in males, as well as length of alpha male tenure. We found that heterozygous individuals showed greater reproductive success, with both females and males producing more offspring. However, heterozygosity influenced reproductive success only in dominant males, not in subordinates. Neither the acquisition of alpha status in males, nor social rank in females, was significantly correlated with heterozygosity, although more heterozygous alpha males showed longer tenure than homozygous ones. We also tested whether the benefits of greater genetic diversity were due mainly to a genome-wide effect of inbreeding depression or to heterosis at one or a few loci. Multilocus effects best explained the correlation between heterozygosity and reproductive success and tenure, indicating the occurrence of inbreeding depression in this mandrill colony.

  13. Meta-analysis for heritability estimates of vegetative and reproductive traits of Coffea arabica L.Meta-análise para estimativas de herdabilidade de caracteres vegetativos e reprodutivos de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Pereira Baliza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of informations resulting from independent studies has been difficulted in almost all scientific fields, mainly due to the great number of scientific papers published in recent years. As a result, summarizing information became a need. In this context, a meta-analysis was conducted with the objective of summarizing the estimates for the heritability for vegetative and reproductive traits of coffee (Coffea arabica L.. Heritability estimates were appraised regarding the following traits: average height of plant, average diameter of the canopy, vegetative vigor, production of processed coffee, yield and rust. The data regarding the heritability estimates are from scientific articles published in national and international journals, congress annals, PhD thesis and Master dissertations. The technique of meta-analysis summarized the estimates heritability from different studies and made possible to conclude that all of the appraised traits are highly inherited, reflecting the great genetic variety of coffee plants, and that is possible to reach satisfactory genetic gains in improvement programs in which those traits are evaluated. A compilação de informações advindas de estudos independentes tem sido dificultada em quase todos os campos da ciência, devido principalmente, ao grande número de trabalhos científicos publicados nos últimos anos. Assim, sumarizar informações tornou-se uma necessidade. Neste contexto, uma meta-análise foi conduzida com o objetivo de sistematizar as estimativas para a herdabilidade de caracteres vegetativos e reprodutivos de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L.. Foram avaliadas as estimativas de herdabilidade referentes aos seguintes caracteres: altura média da planta, diâmetro médio da copa, vigor vegetativo, produção de café beneficiado, rendimento e resistência a ferrugem. Os dados referentes às estimativas de herdabilidade são provenientes de artigos científicos publicados em revistas

  14. Female reproductive traits of a commercially exploited skate: Atlantoraja platana (Günther, 1880) (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae). Ovarian morphology, gametogenesis and microscopic verification of maturity criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A C; Wehitt, A; Díaz Andrade, M C; Di Giacomo, E E; Galíndez, E J

    2017-10-01

    Atlantoraja platana is an endemic species of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and is one of the most captured by the local bottom trawl industrial fisheries. In this work, the microscopic architecture of mature female's gonads and the dynamics of follicle development are studied as a contribution to raise awareness of reproductive biology of the species. Folliculogenesis depicts the same histologic pattern as in other Elasmobranchs. Follicles in different degrees of maturation coexist in mature animals. The oogonia were only found in immature individuals. Likewise, atretic follicles were recorded in ovaries of all sexual maturity stages. The microscopic size recorded from the beginning of yolk input is smallest than the detected with the necked eye. This study provides valuable information about female's gametogenesis that could be taken into account in the development of fisheries management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advances in reproductive science for wild carnivore conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comizzoli, P; Crosier, A E; Songsasen, N; Gunther, M Szykman; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge about reproduction is critical for predicting the viability of wildlife populations in nature and for managing breeding programmes in captivity. Intensive species-based studies are the priority, because reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse, even within the same taxonomic family. Carnivores deserve more attention as such species are highly vulnerable to environmental change and human persecution. The present review provides contemporary illustrations of how reproductive science is contributing to understand unique reproductive mechanisms that are both of fundamental and applied interest. In the case of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) free-living in South Africa, non-invasive faecal corticosteroid assessments have yielded new insights about the impact of animal relocation and reintroduction on adaptive responses, reproductive fitness and survival. For the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), advances have been made in characterizing and comparing reproductive traits in free-ranging vs captive individuals. For the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), recent studies have focused on the cryosensitivity of sperm and the ability to develop a field-friendly sperm cryo-method. The by-product has been a large-scale frozen repository of sperm from wild-caught cheetahs useful for infusing new genes into ex situ populations. Finally, rigorous, multi-disciplinary and cross-institutional reproductive studies of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), including the use of artificial insemination, have contributed to the remarkable recovery and restoration of this species, once on the brink of extinction. In summary, advances in reproductive science are not necessarily related to 'assisted breeding'. However, understanding the unique ways of carnivore reproduction greatly contributes to species management and conservation.

  16. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M

    2014-08-01

    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Species-area relationships are controlled by species traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Markus; Schweiger, Oliver; Betzholtz, Per-Eric

    2012-01-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly investigated empirical relationships in ecology. Two theories have been proposed to explain SARs: classical island biogeography theory and niche theory. Classical island biogeography theory considers the processes of persistence, extinction, and colonization, whereas niche theory focuses on species requirements, such as habitat and resource use. Recent studies have called for the unification of these two theories to better explain the underlying mechanisms that generates SARs. In this context, species traits that can be related to each theory seem promising. Here we analyzed the SARs of butterfly and moth assemblages on islands differing in size and isolation. We tested whether species traits modify the SAR and the response to isolation. In addition to the expected overall effects on the area, traits related to each of the two theories increased the model fit, from 69% up to 90%. Steeper slopes have been shown to have a particularly higher sensitivity to area, which was indicated by species with restricted range (slope = 0.82), narrow dietary niche (slope= 0.59), low abundance (slope= 0.52), and low reproductive potential (slope = 0.51). We concluded that considering species traits by analyzing SARs yields considerable potential for unifying island biogeography theory and niche theory, and that the systematic and predictable effects observed when considering traits can help to guide conservation and management actions.

  18. Constraints, Trade-offs and the Currency of Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerenza, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Understanding evolutionary trajectories remains a difficult task. This is because natural evolutionary processes are simultaneously affected by various types of constraints acting at the different levels of biological organization. Of particular importance are constraints where correlated changes occur in opposite directions, called trade-offs. Here we review and classify the main evolutionary constraints and trade-offs, operating at all levels of trait hierarchy. Special attention is given to life history trade-offs and the conflict between the survival and reproduction components of fitness. Cellular mechanisms underlying fitness trade-offs are described. At the metabolic level, a linear trade-off between growth and flux variability was found, employing bacterial genome-scale metabolic reconstructions. Its analysis indicates that flux variability can be considered as the currency of fitness. This currency is used for fitness transfer between fitness components during adaptations. Finally, a discussion is made regarding the constraints which limit the increase in the amount of fitness currency during evolution, suggesting that occupancy constraints are probably the main restrictions.

  19. Body size, performance and fitness in galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-07-01

    Complex organismal traits such as body size are influenced by innumerable selective pressures, making the prediction of evolutionary trajectories for those traits difficult. A potentially powerful way to predict fitness in natural systems is to study the composite response of individuals in terms of performance measures, such as foraging or reproductive performance. Once key performance measures are identified in this top-down approach, we can determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and gain predictive power over long-term evolutionary processes. Here we use marine iguanas as a model system where body size differs by more than one order of magnitude between island populations. We identified foraging efficiency as the main performance measure that constrains body size. Mechanistically, foraging performance is determined by food pasture height and the thermal environment, influencing intake and digestion. Stress hormones may be a flexible way of influencing an individual's response to low-food situations that may be caused by high population density, famines, or anthropogenic disturbances like oil spills. Reproductive performance, on the other hand, increases with body size and is mediated by higher survival of larger hatchlings from larger females and increased mating success of larger males. Reproductive performance of males may be adjusted via plastic hormonal feedback mechanisms that allow individuals to assess their social rank annually within the current population size structure. When integrated, these data suggest that reproductive performance favors increased body size (influenced by reproductive hormones), with an overall limit imposed by foraging performance (influenced by stress hormones). Based on our mechanistic understanding of individual performances we predicted an evolutionary increase in maximum body size caused by global warming trends. We support this prediction using specimens collected during 1905. We also show in a common

  20. Reproductive traits of the symbiotic pea crab Austinotheres angelicus (Crustacea, Pinnotheridae living in Saccostrea palmula (Bivalvia, Ostreidae, Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Salas-Moya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea crabs of the family Pinnotheridae exhibit a symbiotic life style and live associated with a variety of different marine organisms, especially bivalves. Despite the fact that pea crabs can cause serious problems in bivalve aquaculture, the available information about the ecology of these crabs from Central America is extremely limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe different reproductive features of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheres angelicus associated with the oyster Saccostrea palmula in the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Monthly sampling was conducted from April to December 2012. Average carapace width (CW of the 47 analyzed ovigerous females was 7.62 mm. The species produced on average 2677 ± 1754 recently -extruded embryos with an average volume of 0.020 ± 0.003 mm3; embryo volume increased during embryogenesis by 21%, but did not vary significantly between developmental stages. Brood mass volume varied greatly (between 11.7 and 236.7 mm3, and increased significantly with female CW. Females invested on average 76.7% (minimum: 21.7%; maximum: 162.8% of their body weight in brood production, which confirms a substantially higher energy allocation for embryo production in pinnotherid crabs compared to free-living decapods.

  1. Reproductive acclimation to increased water temperature in a tropical reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Donelson

    Full Text Available Understanding the capacity of organisms to cope with projected global warming through acclimation and adaptation is critical to predicting their likely future persistence. While recent research has shown that developmental acclimation of metabolic attributes to ocean warming is possible, our understanding of the plasticity of key fitness-associated traits, such as reproductive performance, is lacking. We show that while the reproductive ability of a tropical reef fish is highly sensitive to increases in water temperature, reproductive capacity at +1.5°C above present-day was improved to match fish maintained at present-day temperatures when fish complete their development at the higher temperature. However, reproductive acclimation was not observed in fish reared at +3.0°C warmer than present-day, suggesting limitations to the acclimation possible within one generation. Surprisingly, the improvements seen in reproduction were not predicted by the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis. Specifically, pairs reared at +1.5°C, which showed the greatest capacity for reproductive acclimation, exhibited no acclimation of metabolic attributes. Conversely, pairs reared at +3.0°C, which exhibited acclimation in resting metabolic rate, demonstrated little capacity for reproductive acclimation. Our study suggests that understanding the acclimation capacity of reproductive performance will be critically important to predicting the impacts of climate change on biological systems.

  2. Effect of Adding Selenium And Vitamin Eto the Diet on Reproductive Traits of Female Zebra Goats and Growth of their Kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Teama, F.E.I.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Forty female goats were divided into four equal groups. Animals in the four groups were fed on basal ration without additives, basal ration with additive 100 Hg inorganic selenium/kg CFM as sodium selenite, basal ration with additive 75 mg vitamin E/kg CFM as a-tocopherol acetate and basal ration with additive 100 jug inorganic Se plus 75 mg vitamin E/ kg CFM, respectively. Reproductive performance, body weight of does, blood components, blood picture, blood hormones, Se concentrations and growth performance of their kids were estimated. Number of kids born per doe was 1.8 in group fed basal diet and increased to 2.2, 2.4 and 2.5 as well as average litter weight of kids born was 38.16 kg in group fed basal diet and also increased significantly to 56.76. 57.12 and 67.25 kg in groups fed supplemental diets of does with either Se or vit. E or both, respectively. Days from weaning to estrous, duration of estrous and days of kidding interval were decreased, and conception rate, ovulation rate and viability of kids at birthing were increased significantly due to Se and/or vit. E supplements. LBW of does at 2 and 1 month pre-partum, pre-kidding, after birthing and after 1, 2 and 3 months from suckling were significantly increased in animals fed supplemental diets than group fed basal diet. Total proteins, globulin, glucose, P4, T3 and Se concentrations in blood plasma of goats as well as RBC, WBC count and hemoglobin values were significantly increased in groups fed supplemental diets than in group fed basal diet. Supplemental diets caused also significant increase in LBW of their kids at birth and consequently at weaning when compared to does fed basal diet and the better LBW at birth and at weaning were in goats fed supplemental diet with Se plus vit.E.

  3. Variation in the post-mating fitness landscape in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, C; Chapman, T

    2017-07-01

    Sperm competition is pervasive and fundamental to determining a male's overall fitness. Sperm traits and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are key factors. However, studies of sperm competition may often exclude females that fail to remate during a defined period. Hence, the resulting data sets contain fewer data from the potentially fittest males that have most success in preventing female remating. It is also important to consider a male's reproductive success before entering sperm competition, which is a major contributor to fitness. The exclusion of these data can both hinder our understanding of the complete fitness landscapes of competing males and lessen our ability to assess the contribution of different determinants of reproductive success to male fitness. We addressed this here, using the Drosophila melanogaster model system, by (i) capturing a comprehensive range of intermating intervals that define the fitness of interacting wild-type males and (ii) analysing outcomes of sperm competition using selection analyses. We conducted additional tests using males lacking the sex peptide (SP) ejaculate component vs. genetically matched (SP + ) controls. This allowed us to assess the comprehensive fitness effects of this important Sfp on sperm competition. The results showed a signature of positive, linear selection in wild-type and SP + control males on the length of the intermating interval and on male sperm competition defence. However, the fitness surface for males lacking SP was distinct, with local fitness peaks depending on contrasting combinations of remating intervals and offspring numbers. The results suggest that there are alternative routes to success in sperm competition and provide an explanation for the maintenance of variation in sperm competition traits. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  4. At the crossroads of physiology and ecology: food supply and the timing of avian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Deviche, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue “Energy Balance”. The decision of when to breed is crucial to the reproductive success and fitness of seasonally breeding birds. The availability of food for adults prior to breeding has long been thought to play a critical role in timing the initiation of seasonal reproductive events, in particular laying. However, unequivocal evidence for such a role remains limited and the physiological mechanisms by which an increase in food availability results in seasonal activation of the reproductive system are largely speculative. This lack of mechanistic information partly reflects a lack of integration of ecological and physiological approaches to study seasonal reproduction. Indeed, most work pertaining to the role of food availability for adults on the timing of avian reproduction has been ecological and has focused almost exclusively on female traits associated with reproductive timing (e.g., lay date and clutch size). By contrast, most work on the physiological bases of the relationship between food availability and the timing of reproduction has investigated male traits associated with reproductive development (e.g., reproductive hormones and gonadal development). To advance our understanding of these topics, we review the role of proximate factors including food availability, social factors, and ambient temperature in the control of breeding decisions, and discuss the role of three potential candidates (leptin, glucocorticoids, and GnIH-neuropeptide Y) that may mediate the effects of food availability on these decisions. We emphasize that future progress in this area is heavily contingent upon the use of physiology-based approaches and their integration into current ecological frameworks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Comparison of some Vegetative and Reproductive Traits of Dominant Weeds in Cultivated Tomato as Influence by Metribuzin and Non-living Mulches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zangoueinejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tomato production, similar to other important crops, is affected by weed competition in the early season. Weed infestation can affect tomato yield significantly. So weed control can be one of the most important factors in improving of crop production. Nowadays pre-plant, post-plant and post-emergence herbicides are widely used for controlling weeds in tomato fields, but it can lead to increasing environmental hazards, making weed resistant to herbicides and injuring tomato plants. Therefore, the use of non-living mulch (organic mulch and inorganic mulch could be a suitable substitutional way to weed control. Material and method: In this study, in order to investigating the time of emergence, flowering, seed shattering, length of vegetative and reproductive growth period of weeds under six types of non-living mulches (black plastic mulch, clear plastic mulch, wheat straw, sawdust, coco peat and peat moss and mtribuzin in tomato, research was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2012. The plots were fertilized with 20:20:20 (N, P2O5 and K2O with concentration of 166 kg ha-1. In this study, the appearance of plumule (for narrow leaf weeds and hypocotyl (for broad leaf weeds from weed seeds in soil medium was considered as the time of emergence. The weeds were visited once a week since transplanting tomato seedlings to the farm and the related date was recorded. Flowering time recording for each weed species was carried out after flowering. Plots without mulch (weedy and weed free were used as control. Statistical analysis of the collected data was performed by using SAS 9.1 software and comparing of the mean of characteristics was done by Tukey's test at 5 % significant level. Result and discussion: The longest and shortest time of weed emergence respectively belonged to the clear plastic mulch (28 days after transplanting and organic mulches and

  6. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  7. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  8. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Quantitative genetic analysis of life-history traits of Caenorhabditis elegans in stressful environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorto Alison

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organisms live in environments that vary. For life-history traits that vary across environments, fitness will be maximised when the phenotype is appropriately matched to the environmental conditions. For the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we have investigated how two major life-history traits, (i the development of environmentally resistant dauer larvae and (ii reproduction, respond to environmental stress (high population density and low food availability, and how these traits vary between lines and the genetic basis of this variation. Results We found that lines of C. elegans vary in their phenotypic plasticity of dauer larva development, i.e. there is variation in the likelihood of developing into a dauer larva for the same environmental change. There was also variation in how lifetime fecundity and the rate of reproduction changed under conditions of environmental stress. These traits were related, such that lines that are highly plastic for dauer larva development also maintain a high population growth rate when stressed. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL on two chromosomes that control the dauer larva development and population size phenotypes. The QTLs affecting the dauer larva development and population size phenotypes on chromosome II are closely linked, but are genetically separable. This chromosome II QTL controlling dauer larva development does not encompass any loci previously identified to control dauer larva development. This chromosome II region contains many predicted 7-transmembrane receptors. Such proteins are often involved in information transduction, which is clearly relevant to the control of dauer larva development. Conclusion C. elegans alters both its larval development and adult reproductive strategy in response to environmental stress. Together the phenotypic and genotypic data suggest that these two major life-history traits are co-ordinated responses to environmental stress

  10. A trait database for marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Payne, Mark R.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA......, and organised the data into a structured database. We collected 9345 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported on the species level, but some...

  11. A trait database for marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Payne, Mark; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , while information was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA...... and organized the data into a structured database. We collected 9306 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate, and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported at the species level...

  12. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  13. Plumage polymorphism and fitness in Swainson's hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C W; Collopy, M W; Woodbridge, B

    2011-10-01

    We examine the maintenance of a plumage polymorphism, variation in plumages among the same age and sex class within a population, in a population of Swainson's Hawks. We take advantage of 32 years of data to examine two prevalent hypotheses used to explain the persistence of morphs: apostatic selection and heterozygous advantage. We investigate differences in fitness among three morph classes of a melanistic trait in Swainson's Hawks: light (7% of the local breeding population), intermediate (57%) and dark (36%). Specifically, we examined morph differences in adult apparent survival, breeding success, annual number of fledglings produced, probability of offspring recruitment into the breeding population and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). If apostatic selection were a factor in maintaining morphs, we would expect that individuals with the least frequent morph would perform best in one or more of these fitness categories. Alternatively, if heterozygous advantage played a role in the maintenance of this polymorphism, we would expect heterozygotes (i.e. intermediate morphs) to have one or more increased rates in these categories. We found no difference in adult apparent survival between morph classes. Similarly, there were no differences in breeding success, nest productivity, LRS or probability of recruitment of offspring between parental morph. We conclude that neither apostatic selection nor heterozygous advantage appear to play a role in maintaining morphs in this population. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Indicadores de desempenho em rebanho da raça Holandesa: curvas de crescimento e altura, características reprodutivas, produtivas e parâmetros genéticos Productive indicator in a Holstein dairy herd: growth and height curves, reproductive and productive traits and genetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Val

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados dados de peso, altura e desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de 1.272 novilhas da raça Holandesa, nascidas no período de 1990 a 1998. Estudaram-se o desenvolvimento em peso e altura do nascimento até o primeiro parto, as características peso ao primeiro parto (PP, idade ao primeiro parto (IP, produção de leite na primeira lactação (PL, primeiro intervalo de partos (IEP, e os parâmetros genéticos pertinentes. As equações para as curvas de peso e altura, estimadas pelo modelo proposto por von Bertalanffy, foram: Yi= 802,10 (1 - 0,630EXP (-0,0022t e Yi= 1,40 (1 - 0,208EXP (-0,0038t, respectivamente. As novilhas atingiram o primeiro parto com altura média de 140cm e peso de 602kg aos 27 meses de idade. A produção total de leite na primeira lactação foi de 8.026kg e o primeiro IEP 420 dias. Na obtenção dos componentes de (covariância utilizou-se o método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivada. As estimativas de herdabilidade foram 0,31, 0,35 e 0,34, respectivamente, para PP, IP e PL, e 0,10 para IEP, evidenciando variância genética aditiva média para as três primeiras características. As correlações genéticas apresentaram pequena magnitude para PP e PL, PL e IP, e IEP e PL. A correlação entre IEP e PP foi 0,49; entre IEP e IP o valor foi negativo, -0,69, indicando provável antagonismo entre as duas últimas características.Data on weight, height, productive and reproductive performance of 1,272 Holstein heifers, born from 1990 to 1998, were used to evaluate the growth and height patterns of these females from birth to first calving, and the following traits: weight at first calving (PP, age at first calving (IP, milk production in the first lactation (PL and first calving interval (IEP, and to estimate genetic parameters of these traits. The von Bertalanffy fitted models were: Yi=802.10 (1-0.630EXP (-0.0022t for weight, and Yi=1.40 (1-0.208EXP (-0.0038t for height. The average

  15. Power and Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Overskeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness -- and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits

  16. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  17. Contextual modulation of social and endocrine correlates of fitness: insights from the life history of a sex changing fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaleena S Pradhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones are critical regulators of reproductive life history, and the steroid sensitive traits (morphology, behavior, physiology associated with particular life history stages can have substantial fitness consequences for an organism. Hormones, behavior and fitness are reciprocally associated and can be used in an integrative fashion to understand how the environment impacts organismal function. To address the fitness component, we highlight the importance of using reliable proxies of reproductive success, when studying proximate regulation of reproductive phenotypes. To understand the mechanisms by which the endocrine system regulates phenotype, we discuss the use of particular endocrine proxies and the need for appropriate functional interpretation of each. Lastly, in any experimental paradigm, the responses of animals vary based on the subtle differences in environmental and social context and this must also be considered. We explore these different levels of analyses by focusing on the fascinating life history transitions exhibited by the bi-directionally hermaphroditic fish, Lythrypnus dalli. Sex changing fish are excellent models for providing a deeper understanding of the fitness consequences associated with the behavioral and endocrine variation. We close by proposing that local regulation of steroids is one potential mechanism that allows for the expression of novel phenotypes that can be characteristic of specific life history stages. A comparative species approach will facilitate progress in understanding the diversity of mechanisms underlying the contextual regulation of phenotypes and their associated fitness correlates.

  18. Contextual modulation of social and endocrine correlates of fitness: insights from the life history of a sex changing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Devaleena S; Solomon-Lane, Tessa K; Grober, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones are critical regulators of reproductive life history, and the steroid sensitive traits (morphology, behavior, physiology) associated with particular life history stages can have substantial fitness consequences for an organism. Hormones, behavior and fitness are reciprocally associated and can be used in an integrative fashion to understand how the environment impacts organismal function. To address the fitness component, we highlight the importance of using reliable proxies of reproductive success when studying proximate regulation of reproductive phenotypes. To understand the mechanisms by which the endocrine system regulates phenotype, we discuss the use of particular endocrine proxies and the need for appropriate functional interpretation of each. Lastly, in any experimental paradigm, the responses of animals vary based on the subtle differences in environmental and social context and this must also be considered. We explore these different levels of analyses by focusing on the fascinating life history transitions exhibited by the bi-directionally hermaphroditic fish, Lythrypnus dalli. Sex changing fish are excellent models for providing a deeper understanding of the fitness consequences associated with behavioral and endocrine variation. We close by proposing that local regulation of steroids is one potential mechanism that allows for the expression of novel phenotypes that can be characteristic of specific life history stages. A comparative species approach will facilitate progress in understanding the diversity of mechanisms underlying the contextual regulation of phenotypes and their associated fitness correlates.

  19. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Lies; Gort, Gerrit; van Oers, Kees; Hinde, Camilla A

    2017-10-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating fitness with mate choice instead of preference will therefore lead to confounded conclusions about the role of preference in sexual selection. Here we show that direct fitness benefits underlie mate preferences for genetic characteristics in a unique experiment on wild great tits. In repeated mate preference tests, both sexes preferred mates that had similar heterozygosity levels to themselves, and not those with which they would optimise offspring heterozygosity. In a subsequent field experiment where we cross fostered offspring, foster parents with more similar heterozygosity levels had higher reproductive success, despite the absence of assortative mating patterns. These results support the idea that selection for preference persists despite constraints on mate choice. © 2017 The Authors Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B

    2013-08-23

    We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.

  1. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  2. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  3. Desempenho reprodutivo, características do pelame e taxa de sudação em vacas da raça Braford Effects of hair coat traits and sweating rate on reproductive performance of Braford cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Abaker Bertipaglia

    2008-09-01

    ção de bovinos da raça Braford no Brasil.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hair coat traits (thickness (T, reflectance (R, length (L, diameter (D and number of hairs per unit area (N and sweating rate (SR on calving interval (CI, n = 423 and days to calving (DC, n = 1202 of Braford cows raised in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Data were analyzed by least squares and the model for CI included the effects of age class of cow, genetic group, sire and regression on R, T, L, N, D and SR. For days to calving the following effects were considered: R, T, L, N, D, TS divided in classes; regressions on genetic group, age at the beginning of breeding season and sire. Variance and covariance components were estimated by REML. Hair coat traits and SR traits were not statistically significant for CI, but the SR effect was statistically significant on DC. The heritability estimates were practically null for CI and DC and ranged from 0.08 to 0.30 for adaptive characteristics (T = 0.16 ± 0.09; L = 0.18 ± 0.09; N = 0.08 ± 0.06; D = 0.12 ± 0.07; R = 0.30 ± 0.12; SR = 0.10 ± 0.06. Overall, estimates of genetic correlations between pair of traits (hair coat, sweating rate, CI and DC were characterized by high standard errors. Additional data is required to obtain accurate estimates of genetic correlations among hair coat traits, sweating rate and reproductive performance of Braford cows in Brazil.

  4. Maternal effects of the English grain aphids feeding on the wheat varieties with different resistance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhu, Tong-Yi; Song, Yue; Wu, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2018-05-09

    The maternal effects of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae on offspring phenotypes and performance on wheat varieties with different resistance traits were examined. We found that both conditioning wheat varieties(the host plant for over 3 months) and transition wheat varieties affected the biological parameters of aphid offspring after they were transferred between wheat varieties with different resistance traits. The conditioning varieties affected weight gain, development time (DT), and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), whereas transition varieties affected the fecundity, r m , net reproductive rate, and fitness index. The conditioning and transition wheat varieties had significant interaction effects on the aphid offspring's DT, mean relative growth rate, and fecundity. Our results showed that there was obvious maternal effects on offspring when S. avenae transferred bwteen wheat varieties with different resistance level, and the resistance traits of wheat varieties could induce an interaction between the conditioning and transition wheat varieties to influence the growth, development, reproduction, and even population dynamics of S. avenae. The conditioning varieties affected life-history traits related to individual growth and development to a greater extent, whereas transition varieties affected fecundity and population parameters more.

  5. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  6. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  7. The ecology and evolutionary endocrinology of reproduction in the human female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2009-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology (HRE) is the study of the mechanisms that link variation in reproductive traits with variation in local habitats. Empirical and theoretical contributions from biological anthropology, physiology, and demography have established the foundation necessary for developing a comprehensive understanding, grounded in life history theory (LHT), of temporal, individual, and populational variation in women's reproductive functioning. LHT posits that natural selection leads to the evolution of mechanisms that tend to allocate resources to the competing demands of growth, reproduction, and survival such that fitness is locally maximized. (That is, among alternative allocation patterns exhibited in a population, those having the highest inclusive fitness will become more common over generational time.) Hence, strategic modulation of reproductive effort is potentially adaptive because investment in a new conception may risk one's own survival, future reproductive opportunities, and/or current offspring survival. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is the principal neuroendocrine pathway by which the human female modulates reproductive functioning according to the changing conditions in her habitat. Adjustments of reproductive investment in a potential conception are manifested in temporal and individual variation in ovarian cycle length, ovulation, hormone levels, and the probability of conception. Understanding the extent and causes of adaptive and non-adaptive variation in ovarian functioning is fundamental to ascertaining the proximate and remote determinants of human reproductive patterns. In this review I consider what is known and what still needs to be learned of the ecology of women's reproductive biology, beginning with a discussion of the principal explanatory frameworks in HRE and the biometry of ovarian functioning. Turning next to empirical studies, it is evident that marked variation between cycles, women, and populations is the

  8. Living in isolation - population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential.

  9. Características produtivas e reprodutivas de vacas Holandesas e mestiças Holandês × Gir no Planalto Central Production and reproduction traits in Holstein and Gyr crossbred cows in the Central Plateau, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar o desempenho leiteiro e reprodutivo de vacas da raça Holandesa e mestiças Holandês × Gir na região do Planalto Central foram utilizados dados de 1.456 vacas de cinco composições raciais, originadas das raças Holandesa (H e Gir (G: puras H; ¾H ¼G; ½H ½G; ³/8H 5/8G; e ¼H ¾G. Analisaram-se as características produção média diária de leite (PMD, número de dias em lactação (DL e produção total da lactação corrigida para 305 dias (P305, idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, período de gestação (PG e intervalo de partos (IEP. Os maiores valores de PMD e P305 foram obtidos para os animais ¾H ¼G e ½H ½G e os menores, para os animais com maior proporção da raça Gir (¼H ¾G. Os valores das características reprodutivas IPP e IEP, no entanto, foram menores para os animais ¾H ¼G.Esses resultados evidenciam a adaptação das vacas mestiças ao ambiente a que foram submetidas ou que os animais puros da raça Holandesa, em razão do estresse nutricional e/ou térmico, não expressaram todo o seu potencial genético para produção leiteira.Além disso, os dados comprovaram a importância da utilização de sistemas de cruzamento na manutenção da produção dos animais e na sua adaptação ao ambiente.Data from 1456 purebred and crossbred cows of five different crossbred groups involving the Holstein (H and Gyr (G breeds (H; ¾H ¼G; ½H ½G; ³/8H 5/8G e ¼H ¾G were used to compare their milk production and reproductive traits in the Brazilian central plateau region. The performance traits studied were: average daily milk production (DMP; lactation length (LL; total production in 305 days (P305 and age at first calving (AFC, gestation length (GL and calving interval (CI. Higher averages of DMP and P305 were observed for animals ¾H ¼G and ½H ½G and the smallest ones for crossbred animals with larger proportion of the Gyr breed (¼H ¾G. The lowest values of AFC and CI were observed for ¾H

  10. Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Harriet; Bassett, Lee; Clowser, Christina; Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Archer, Catharine R; Hunt, John

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection may cause dietary requirements for reproduction to diverge across the sexes and promote the evolution of different foraging strategies in males and females. However, our understanding of how the sexes regulate their nutrition and the effects that this has on sex-specific fitness is limited. We quantified how protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intakes affect reproductive traits in male (pheromone expression) and female (clutch size and gestation time) cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). We then determined how the sexes regulate their intake of nutrients when restricted to a single diet and when given dietary choice and how this affected expression of these important reproductive traits. Pheromone levels that improve male attractiveness, female clutch size and gestation time all peaked at a high daily intake of P:C in a 1:8 ratio. This is surprising because female insects typically require more P than males to maximize reproduction. The relatively low P requirement of females may reflect the action of cockroach endosymbionts that help recycle stored nitrogen for protein synthesis. When constrained to a single diet, both sexes prioritized regulating their daily intake of P over C, although this prioritization was stronger in females than males. When given the choice between diets, both sexes actively regulated their intake of nutrients at a 1:4.8 P:C ratio. The P:C ratio did not overlap exactly with the intake of nutrients that optimized reproductive trait expression. Despite this, cockroaches of both sexes that were given dietary choice generally improved the mean and reduced the variance in all reproductive traits we measured relative to animals fed a single diet from the diet choice pair. This pattern was not as strong when compared to the single best diet in our geometric array, suggesting that the relationship between nutrient balancing and reproduction is complex in this species.

  11. Why is muscularity sexy? Tests of the fitness indicator hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Haselton, Martie G

    2007-08-01

    Evolutionary scientists propose that exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics are cues of genes that increase offspring viability or reproductive success. In six studies the hypothesis that muscularity is one such cue is tested. As predicted, women rate muscular men as sexier, more physically dominant and volatile, and less committed to their mates than nonmuscular men. Consistent with the inverted-U hypothesis of masculine traits, men with moderate muscularity are rated most attractive. Consistent with past research on fitness cues, across two measures, women indicate that their most recent short-term sex partners were more muscular than their other sex partners (ds = .36, .47). Across three studies, when controlling for other characteristics (e.g., body fat), muscular men rate their bodies as sexier to women (partial rs = .49-.62) and report more lifetime sex partners (partial rs = .20-.27), short-term partners (partial rs = .25-.28), and more affairs with mated women (partial r = .28).

  12. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  13. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  14. Honey and honey-based sugars partially affect reproductive trade-offs in parasitoids exhibiting different life-history and reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Essens, Tijl A; Las, Rutger A; van Veen, Cindy; Visser, Bertanne; Ellers, Jacintha; Heinen, Robin; Gols, Rieta

    2017-04-01

    Adult dietary regimes in insects may affect egg production, fecundity and ultimately fitness. This is especially relevant in parasitoid wasps where many species serve as important biological control agents of agricultural pests. Here, we tested the effect of honey and sugar diets on daily fecundity schedules, lifetime reproductive success and longevity in four species of parasitoid wasps when reared on their respective hosts. The parasitoid species were selected based on dichotomies in host usage strategies and reproductive traits. Gelis agilis and G. areator are idiobiont ecto-parasitoids that develop in non-growing hosts, feed on protein-rich host fluids to maximize reproduction as adults and produce small numbers of large eggs. Meteorus pulchricornis and Microplitis mediator are koinobiont endoparasitoids that develop inside the bodies of growing hosts, do not host-feed, and produce greater numbers of small eggs. Parasitoids were reared on diets of either pure honey (containing trace amounts of proteins), heated honey (with denatured proteins) and a honey-mimic containing sugars only. We hypothesized that the benefits of proteins in honey would enhance reproduction in the ectoparasitoids due to their high metabolic investment per egg, but not in the koinobionts. Pure honey diet resulted in higher lifetime fecundity in G. agilis compared with the honey-mimic, whereas in both koinobionts, reproductive success did not vary significantly with diet. Longevity was less affected by diet in all of the parasitoids, although there were variable trade-offs between host access and longevity in the four species. We argue that there are both trait-based and association-specific effects of supplementary nutrients in honey on reproductive investment and success in parasitoid wasps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive ecology and egg production of the radiated tortoise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied reproduction of wild Geochelone radiata at the Cap Sainte Marie Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar to gain insight into life history traits related to reproductive success. Reproductive behaviour was observed over two nesting seasons and egg production was studied by radiographing telemetered ...

  16. Canalization of body size matters for lifetime reproductive success of male predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus . Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus .

  17. Personality, immune response and reproductive success: an appraisal of the pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Dechaume-Moncharmont, François-Xavier; Moreau, Jérôme; Lucas, Camille; Capoduro, Rémi; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moret, Yannick

    2017-07-01

    The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis is an extended concept of the life-history theory that includes behavioural traits. The studies challenging the POLS hypothesis often focus on the relationships between a single personality trait and a physiological and/or life-history trait. While pathogens represent a major selective pressure, few studies have been interested in testing relationships between behavioural syndrome, and several fitness components including immunity. The aim of this study was to address this question in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a model species in immunity studies. The personality score was estimated from a multidimensional syndrome based of four repeatable behavioural traits. In a first experiment, we investigated its relationship with two measures of fitness (reproduction and survival) and three components of the innate immunity (haemocyte concentration, and levels of activity of the phenoloxidase including the total proenzyme and the naturally activated one) to challenge the POLS hypothesis in T. molitor. Overall, we found a relationship between behavioural syndrome and reproductive success in this species, thus supporting the POLS hypothesis. We also showed a sex-specific relationship between behavioural syndrome and basal immune parameters. In a second experiment, we tested whether this observed relationship with innate immunity could be confirmed in term of differential survival after challenging by entomopathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis. In this case, no significant relationship was evidenced. We recommend that future researchers on the POLS should control for differences in evolutionary trajectory between sexes and to pay attention to the choice of the proxy used, especially when looking at immune traits. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  18. Endocrine phenotype, reproductive success and survival in the great tit, Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, J Q; Sharp, P; Quetting, M; Hau, M

    2013-09-01

    A central goal in evolutionary ecology is to characterize and identify selection patterns on the optimal phenotype in different environments. Physiological traits, such as hormonal responses, provide important mechanisms by which individuals can adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. It is therefore expected that selection shapes hormonal traits, but the strength and the direction of selection on plastic hormonal signals are still under investigation. Here, we determined whether, and in which way, selection is acting on the hormones corticosterone and prolactin by characterizing endocrine phenotypes and their relationship with fitness in free-living great tits, Parus major. We quantified variation in circulating concentrations of baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and in prolactin during the prebreeding (March) and the breeding season (May) for two consecutive years, and correlated these with reproductive success (yearly fledgling number) and overwinter survival in female and male individuals. In both years, individuals with high baseline corticosterone concentrations in March had the highest yearly fledgling numbers; while in May, individuals with low baseline corticosterone had the highest yearly reproductive success. Likewise, individuals that displayed strong seasonal plasticity in baseline corticosterone concentrations (high in March and low in May) had the highest reproductive success in each year. Prolactin concentrations were not related to reproductive success, but were positively correlated to the proximity to lay. Between-year plasticity in stress-induced corticosterone concentrations of males was related to yearly variation in food abundance, but not to overall reproductive success. These findings suggest that seasonally alternating directional selection is operating on baseline corticosterone concentrations in both sexes. The observed between-year consistency in selection patterns indicates that a one-time hormone sample in a given

  19. Parâmetros genéticos de características reprodutivas de touros e vacas Gir leiteiro Genetic parameters for reproductive traits of dairy Gyr breed males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luiz Santana Júnior

    2010-08-01

    data of 7,055 females and 97 males from several Brazilian herds. Covariance components were estimated by using the restricted maximum likelihood method under animal model in univariate analyses. The model for seminal traits included the company-year-season of semen collection fixed effects, age at the collection as a covariate, linear and quadratic effects. For scrotal circumference, it was included year of birth, age class at measurement, and insemination company fixed effects. For age at first calving, it was included herd-year-season of birth fixed effects and animal and residual random effects. The heritabilities for scrotal circumference and age at first calving were, respectively, 0.37 and 0.22. The genetic trend of age at first calving was significant, with estimated value of -0.018 month/year and it shows that genetic progress in this trait practically did not occur over the studied years. The genetic correlations from bivariate analyses among scrotal circumference with volume, concentration, vigor, motility, major, minor, and total defects, number of doses, total number of feasible spermatozoid and age at first calving were 0.33, 0.22, 0.91, 0.86, -0.07, -0.03, -0.04, 0.30, 0.23 and -0.37, respectively. These results suggest improvements in reproductive efficiency of females when they are used in herds with bulls with greater scrotal circumference.

  20. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. The link between immunity and life history traits in scleractinian corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. Pinzón C.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunity is an important biological trait that influences the survival of individuals and the fitness of a species. Immune defenses are costly and likely compete for energy with other life-history traits, such as reproduction and growth, affecting the overall fitness of a species. Competition among these traits in scleractinian corals could influence the dynamics and structural integrity of coral reef communities. Due to variability in biological traits within populations and across species, it is likely that coral colonies within population/species adjust their immune system to the available resources. In corals, the innate immune system is composed of various pathways. The immune system components can be assessed in the absence (constitutive levels and/or presence of stressors/pathogens (immune response. Comparisons of the constitutive levels of three immune pathways (melanin synthesis, antioxidant and antimicrobial of closely related species of Scleractinian corals allowed to determine the link between immunity and reproduction and colony growth. First, we explored differences in constitutive immunity among closely related coral species of the genus Meandrina with different reproductive patterns (gonochoric vs. hermaphrodite. We then compared fast-growing branching vs. slow-growing massive Porites to test co-variation between constitutive immunity and growth rates and morphology in corals. Results indicate that there seems to be a relationship between constitutive immunity and sexual pattern with gonochoric species showing significantly higher levels of immunity than hermaphrodites. Therefore, gonochoric species maybe better suited to resist infections and overcome stressors. Constitutive immunity varied in relation with growth rates and colony morphology, but each species showed contrasting trends within the studied immune pathways. Fast-growing branching species appear to invest more in relatively low cost pathways of the immune system than

  2. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  3. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  4. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  5. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  6. Franchising reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-12-01

    Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.

  7. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  8. Maladaptive learning and memory in hybrids as a reproductive isolating barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber M; McQuillan, Michael A

    2018-05-30

    Selection against hybrid offspring, or postzygotic reproductive isolation, maintains species boundaries in the face of gene flow from hybridization. In this review, we propose that maladaptive learning and memory in hybrids is an important, but overlooked form of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Although a role for learning in premating isolation has been supported, whether learning deficiencies can contribute to postzygotic isolation has rarely been tested. We argue that the novel genetic combinations created by hybridization have the potential to impact learning and memory abilities through multiple possible mechanisms, and that any displacement from optima in these traits is likely to have fitness consequences. We review evidence supporting the potential for hybridization to affect learning and memory, and evidence of links between learning abilities and fitness. Finally, we suggest several avenues for future research. Given the importance of learning for fitness, especially in novel and unpredictable environments, maladaptive learning and memory in hybrids may be an increasingly important source of postzygotic reproductive isolation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  9. Effects of supplemental calcium salts of palm oil and chromium-propionate on insulin sensitivity and productive and reproductive traits of mid- to late-lactating Holstein × Gir dairy cows consuming excessive energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Bertin, R D; Colombo, E A; Miranda, V F B; Lourenço, L A C; Rodrigues, S M B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2018-01-01

    This experiment compared insulin sensitivity, milk production, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows consuming excessive energy during mid to late lactation and receiving in a 2 × 2 factorial design (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n = 20) or including 8% (DM basis) of Ca salts of palm oil (CSPO; n = 20), and (2) supplemented (n = 20) or not (n = 20) with 2.5 g/d of Cr-propionate. During the experiment (d 0-203), 40 multiparous, nonpregnant, lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gir cows (initial days in milk = 81 ± 2; mean ± SE) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily net energy for lactation requirements. From d -15 to 203, milk production was recorded daily, blood samples collected weekly, and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) recorded on d 0 and 203. For dry matter intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 5 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 6 times/group. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on d -3, 100, and 200. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on d -1, 98, and 198. Mean DMI, net energy for lactation intake, as well as BW and BCS change were similar across treatments. On average, cows gained 40 kg of BW and 0.49 BCS during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, CRN cows had lower serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and insulin-to-glucose ratio compared with CSPO cows, suggesting increased insulin sensitivity in CRN cows. During the GTT, insulin-sensitivity traits were also greater in CRN versus CSPO cows. Supplemental Cr-propionate resulted in lower serum insulin concentrations and insulin-to-glucose ratio within CRN cows only, indicating that Cr-propionate improved basal insulin sensitivity in CRN but not in CSPO

  10. The genetic basis of male fertility in relation to haplodiploid reproduction in Leptopilina clavipes (Hymenoptera : Figitidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, BA; Beukeboom, LW; van Alphen, JJM; Brakefield, PM; Zwaan, BJ

    Traits under relaxed selection are expected to become reduced or disappear completely, a process called vestigialization. In parthenogenetic populations, traits historically involved in sexual reproduction are no longer under selection and potentially subject to such reduction. In Leptopilina

  11. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  12. Responses to stress of Caenorhabditis elegans populations with different reproductive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alda Alvarez, O.; Jager, T.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Hermaphroditic and gonochoric reproduction are essentially different reproductive strategies that may lead to diverging population responses to adverse environmental conditions. Each strategy implies different physiological mechanisms, which affect life-history traits and represent different ways of

  13. Responses to stress of Caenorhabditis elegans populations with different reproductive strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alda Alvarez, O.; Jager, D.T.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    1. Hermaphroditic and gonochoric reproduction are essentially different reproductive strategies that may lead to diverging population responses to adverse environmental conditions. Each strategy implies different physiological mechanisms, which affect life-history traits and represent different ways

  14. Local density regulates migratory songbird reproductive success through effects on double-brooding and nest predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Bradley K; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Newman, Amy E M; Norris, D Ryan

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the density-dependent processes that regulate animal populations is key to understanding, predicting, and conserving populations. In migratory birds, density-dependence is most often studied during the breeding season, yet we still lack a robust understanding of the reproductive traits through which density influences individual reproductive success. We used 27-yr of detailed, individual-level productivity data from an island-breeding population of Savannah sparrows Passerculus sandwichensis to evaluate effects of local and total annual population density on female reproductive success. Local density (number of neighbors within 50 m of a female's nest) had stronger effects on the number of young fledged than did total annual population density. Females nesting in areas of high local density were more likely to suffer nest predation and less likely to initiate and fledge a second clutch, which led to fewer young fledged in a season. Fledging fewer young subsequently decreased the likelihood of a female recruiting offspring into the breeding population in a subsequent year. Collectively, these results provide insight into the scale and reproductive mechanisms mediating density-dependent reproductive success and fitness in songbirds. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Effects of plant sex on range distributions and allocation to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marc T J; Smith, Stacey D; Rausher, Mark D

    2010-05-01

    Despite an abundance of theory, few empirical studies have explored the ecological and evolutionary consequences of sex. We used a comparative phylogenetic approach to examine whether transitions between sexual and asexual reproduction are associated with changes in the size and distribution of species' geographical ranges, and their investment in reproduction. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the genus Oenothera sections Oenothera and Calylophus (Onagraceae), which contain 35 sexual and 30 functionally asexual species. From each species, we collected data on the geographical distribution and variation in plant traits related to reproduction. Functionally asexual species occurred at higher latitudes, but did not differ in range size, compared with sexual species. Transitions to asexuality were associated with decreased investment in floral structures, including the length of petals, floral tubes and styles. Decreased anther size and increased seed size within asexual species also suggest altered allocation to male and female fitness. The observed range shifts are consistent with superior colonization of environments by asexual species following glaciation, and the observed changes in reproductive allocation support predictions made by models relating to the evolution of selfing. Our results suggest that the evolutionary consequences of asexual reproduction might be less restrictive than previously thought.

  16. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  17. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R. B.; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Panagiota, Kalafati Ioanna; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathy; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tonjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Daniela, Toniolo; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Geus, Eco JC.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Felicita, Sala Cinzia; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hopper, John; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Michela, Traglia; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tönjes, Anke; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior – age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) – has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report the largest genome-wide association study to date of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study, and four additional loci in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to play a role – either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression – in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing our understanding of these complex traits. PMID:27798627

  18. Nectar alkaloids decrease pollination and female reproduction in a native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lynn S; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2012-04-01

    The evolution of floral traits may be shaped by a community of floral visitors that affect plant fitness, including pollinators and floral antagonists. The role of nectar in attracting pollinators has been extensively studied, but its effects on floral antagonists are less understood. Furthermore, the composition of non-sugar nectar components, such as secondary compounds, may affect plant reproduction via changes in both pollinator and floral antagonist behavior. We manipulated the nectar alkaloid gelsemine in wild plants of the native perennial vine Gelsemium sempervirens. We crossed nectar gelsemine manipulations with a hand-pollination treatment, allowing us to determine the effect of both the trait and the interaction on plant female reproduction. We measured pollen deposition, pollen removal, and nectar robbing to assess whether gelsemine altered the behavior of mutualists and antagonists. High nectar gelsemine reduced conspecific pollen receipt by nearly half and also reduced the proportion of conspecific pollen grains received, but had no effect on nectar robbing. Although high nectar gelsemine reduced pollen removal, an estimate of male reproduction, by one-third, this effect was not statistically significant. Fruit set was limited by pollen receipt. However, this effect varied across sites such that the sites that were most pollen-limited were also the sites where nectar alkaloids had the least effect on pollen receipt, resulting in no significant effect of nectar alkaloids on fruit set. Finally, high nectar gelsemine significantly reduced seed weight; however, this effect was mediated by a mechanism other than pollen limitation. Taken together, our work suggests that nectar alkaloids are more costly than beneficial in our system, and that relatively small-scale spatial variation in trait effects and interactions could determine the selective impacts of traits such as nectar composition.

  19. Consequences of Food Restriction for Immune Defense, Parasite Infection, and Fitness in Monarch Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Alexa Fritzsche; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have a finite pool of resources to allocate toward multiple competing needs, such as development, reproduction, and enemy defense. Abundant resources can support investment in multiple traits simultaneously, but limited resources might promote trade-offs between fitness-related traits and immune defenses. We asked how food restriction at both larval and adult life stages of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) affected measures of immunity, fitness, and immune-fitness interactions. We experimentally infected a subset of monarchs with a specialist protozoan parasite to determine whether parasitism further affected these relationships and whether food restriction influenced the outcome of infection. Larval food restriction reduced monarch fitness measures both within the same life stage (e.g., pupal mass) as well as later in life (e.g., adult lifespan); adult food restriction further reduced adult lifespan. Larval food restriction lowered both hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity at the larval stage, and the effects of larval food restriction on phenoloxidase activity persisted when immunity was sampled at the adult stage. Adult food restriction reduced only adult phenoloxidase activity but not hemocyte concentration. Parasite spore load decreased with one measure of larval immunity, but food restriction did not increase the probability of parasite infection. Across monarchs, we found a negative relationship between larval hemocyte concentration and pupal mass, and a trade-off between adult hemocyte concentration and adult life span was evident in parasitized female monarchs. Adult life span increased with phenoloxidase activity in some subsets of monarchs. Our results emphasize that food restriction can alter fitness and immunity across multiple life stages. Understanding the consequences of resource limitation for immune defense is therefore important for predicting how increasing constraints on wildlife resources will affect fitness and

  20. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  1. Handgrip Strength as a Darwinian Fitness Indicator in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Gallup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Handgrip strength (HGS is a robust measure of overall muscular strength and function, and has long been predictive of a multitude of health factors and physical outcomes for both men and women. The fact that HGS represents such a ubiquitous measure of health and vitality may reflect the significance of this trait during human evolution. This trait is also highly sexually dimorphic due to influences of androgenic hormones and fat-free body mass, suggesting that it has been further elaborated through sexual selection. Consistent with this view, research within evolutionary psychology and related fields has documented distinct relationships between HGS and measures of social and sexual behavior, especially in men. Here, we review studies across different societies and cultural contexts showing that male HGS predicts measures of aggression and social dominance, perceived formidability, male-typical body morphology and movement, courtship display, physical attractiveness, and sexual behavior and reproductive fitness. These findings underscore the value of including HGS as an independent measure within studies examining human sexual selection, and corroborate existing research suggesting that specific features of physical strength have and continue to be under positive directional selection in men.

  2. Handgrip Strength as a Darwinian Fitness Indicator in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Fink, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Handgrip strength (HGS) is a robust measure of overall muscular strength and function, and has long been predictive of a multitude of health factors and physical outcomes for both men and women. The fact that HGS represents such a ubiquitous measure of health and vitality may reflect the significance of this trait during human evolution. This trait is also highly sexually dimorphic due to influences of androgenic hormones and fat-free body mass, suggesting that it has been further elaborated through sexual selection. Consistent with this view, research within evolutionary psychology and related fields has documented distinct relationships between HGS and measures of social and sexual behavior, especially in men. Here, we review studies across different societies and cultural contexts showing that male HGS predicts measures of aggression and social dominance, perceived formidability, male-typical body morphology and movement, courtship display, physical attractiveness, and sexual behavior and reproductive fitness. These findings underscore the value of including HGS as an independent measure within studies examining human sexual selection, and corroborate existing research suggesting that specific features of physical strength have and continue to be under positive directional selection in men.

  3. Genetic control of dairy cow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The decline in dairy cow reproductive performance compromised the productivity and profitability of dairy production worldwide. The phenotypic performance of lactating cows with similar proportions of Holstein genes, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but either good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits managed in a standardised environment was compared. The objective of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms contributing to suboptimal re...

  4. A trait database for marine copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Philipp; Payne, Mark R.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The trait-based approach is gaining increasing popularity in marine plankton ecology but the field urgently needs more and easier accessible trait data to advance. We compiled trait information on marine pelagic copepods, a major group of zooplankton, from the published literature and from experts and organized the data into a structured database. We collected 9306 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate, and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported at the species level, but some phylogenetically conserved traits, such as myelination, were reported at higher taxonomic levels, allowing the entire diversity of around 10 800 recognized marine copepod species to be covered with a few records. Aside from myelination, data coverage was highest for spawning strategy and body size, while information was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA, PANGAEA.862968" target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.862968.

  5. Comparative Analyses of Phenotypic Trait Covariation within and among Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiman, Kathryn S; Robinson, Beren W

    2017-10-01

    Many morphological, behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits covary across the biological scales of individuals, populations, and species. However, the processes that cause traits to covary also change over these scales, challenging our ability to use patterns of trait covariance to infer process. Trait relationships are also widely assumed to have generic functional relationships with similar evolutionary potentials, and even though many different trait relationships are now identified, there is little appreciation that these may influence trait covariation and evolution in unique ways. We use a trait-performance-fitness framework to classify and organize trait relationships into three general classes, address which ones more likely generate trait covariation among individuals in a population, and review how selection shapes phenotypic covariation. We generate predictions about how trait covariance changes within and among populations as a result of trait relationships and in response to selection and consider how these can be tested with comparative data. Careful comparisons of covariation patterns can narrow the set of hypothesized processes that cause trait covariation when the form of the trait relationship and how it responds to selection yield clear predictions about patterns of trait covariation. We discuss the opportunities and limitations of comparative approaches to evaluate hypotheses about the evolutionary causes and consequences of trait covariation and highlight the importance of evaluating patterns within populations replicated in the same and in different selective environments. Explicit hypotheses about trait relationships are key to generating effective predictions about phenotype and its evolution using covariance data.

  6. Progeny reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on clarification of importance of different harmful factors of radiation and chemical nature on the function of progeny reproduction, growth and development are presented. Intake of radionuclides to organism, of white mices and rats in concentrations corresponding to 10 6 PCsub(s) ( 90 Sr, 210 Po, 210 Pb and other) is shown to result in 100% sterility of females, 10 5 -10 4 PCsub(s) concentrations cause damaging effect of different degrees of expression at later stages of effect. Smaller contents of radionuclides (10 3 -10 2 PCsub(s)) did not result in noticeable changes in reproductivity of animals. Similar regularities were observed under effect of different concentrations of chemical agent. Some peculiarities of animal physiology should be taken into account to obtain data of estimation of damaging effect of harmful factors on reproduction function

  7. Invasive plants and enemy release: Evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Hornoy , Benjamin; Tarayre , Michèle; Hervé , Maxime; Gigord , Luc; Atlan , Anne

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction a...

  8. Fitness costs associated with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-02-01

    Increasing adoption of transgenic crops expressing cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) represents an augmented risk for development of insect resistance. While fitness costs can greatly influence the rate of resistance evolution, most available data related to Bt resistance have been obtained from laboratory-selected insect strains. In this article, we test the existence of fitness costs associated with high levels of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize event TC1507 in a strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) originated from maize fields in Puerto Rico. Fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda were evaluated by comparing biological performance to susceptible insects when reared on meridic diet, maize or soybean leaf tissue, or cotton reproductive tissues. Parameters monitored included larval survival, larval and pupal weights, developmental time (larval and pupal), adult longevity, reproductive traits (fecundity and fertility), and sex ratio. We found that all monitored parameters were influenced to a similar extent by the host, independently of susceptibility to Bt maize. The only parameter that significantly differed between strains for all hosts was a longer larval developmental period in resistant S. frugiperda, which resulted in emergence asynchrony between susceptible and resistant adults. To test the relevance of fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda, we performed a selection experiment to monitor the stability of resistance in a heterogeneous strain through 12 generations of rearing on meridic diet. Our data demonstrate lack of fitness costs relevant to stability of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize and help explain reported stability of field-evolved resistance in Puerto Rican populations of S. frugiperda.

  9. The effect of energy intake on development and reproduction of gilts and sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of reproduction in female pigs is an important trait with regard to pig production. Reproduction may be defined as the number of piglets reared per sow per year. This trait is dependent on age at puberty, conception rate, litter size, the interval from weaning to oestrus and the

  10. Morph-specific metabolic rate and the timing of reproductive senescence in a color polymorphic dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christopher R; Johansson, Rasmus; Olsson, Mats

    2017-08-01

    Polymorphism has fascinated biologists for over a century because morphs persist within populations through evolutionary time in spite of showing disparate behavioral and physiological phenotypes; any one morph should go to fixation with the slightest fitness advantage over the others. Surely there must be trade-offs that balance selection on them. The polychromatic morphs of the Australian painted dragon lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, are one such system. The male color morphs of painted dragons have different physiological and behavioral traits including reproductive tactics, hormone levels, and the rate of body condition loss through the reproductive season. Due to their differences in physiology and reproductive tactics, we tested the hypotheses that male morphs would differ in resting metabolic rates (RMRs) and that the morphs' RMR would decline at different rates through the mating season. We found that bib-morphs (yellow gular patch) differ in RMR with bibbed (more aggressive) males having consistently higher RMR than non-bibbed males. Furthermore, we show that male dragons experience a decline in RMR as they age from reproductively active to inactive. We also found that the RMR of bibbed males has higher repeatability than non-bibbed males. Our results reinforce previous hypotheses about the morph-specific costs of bearing a gular patch in painted dragons. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michèle; Hervé, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  12. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hornoy

    Full Text Available Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  13. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  14. Correlations of Vegetative and Reproductive Characters with Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of the relationship between traits related to plant performance is advantageous in rice breeding for tolerance to drought and increase in grain yield. Correlations studies involving root, vegetative and reproductive traits were carried out with sixteen rice genotypes under differing soil moisture through a ...

  15. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  16. Behavioral shifts associated with reproduction in garter snakes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shine; B. Phillips; H. Waye; R. T. Mason

    2003-01-01

    Reproduction may involve profound modifications to behaviors such as feeding, antipredator tactics, and thermoregulation. Such shifts have generally been interpreted as direct consequences of reproduction but may instead be secondary effects of reproduction-associated changes in other traits such as habitat use. We quantified behaviors of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) courting and mating at a communal den, and also of postreproductive snakes dispersing from the same...

  17. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  18. Trait-based modelling of bioaccumulation by freshwater benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Livia Alvarenga; Diepens, Noël J; Guo, Xiaoying; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the role of species traits in chemical exposure is crucial for bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of chemicals. We measured and modelled bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sphaerium corneum. We used a battery test procedure with multiple enclosures in one aquarium, which maximized uniformity of exposure for the different species, such that the remaining variability was due mostly to species traits. The relative importance of uptake from either pore water or sediment ingestion was manipulated by using 28 d aged standard OECD sediment with low (1%) and medium (5%) OM content and 13 months aged sediment with medium OM (5%) content. Survival was ≥76% and wet weight increased for all species. Reproduction of H. azteca and weight gain of H. azteca and S. corneum were significantly higher in the medium OM aged sediments than in other sediments, perhaps due to a more developed microbial community (i.e., increase in food resources). Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) ranged from 3 to 114, depending on species and PCB congener, with C. riparius (3-10)fitted well to the experimental data and showed that bioaccumulation parameters were depended on species traits. Enclosure-based battery tests and mechanistic BSAF models are expected to improve the quality of the exposure assessment in whole sediment toxicity tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive Life Planning: Raising the Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jessica E; Moos, Merry-K

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Unintended pregnancy has been a concerning public health problem for decades. As we begin to understand the complexities of pregnancy intention and how women experience these pregnancies, reproductive life planning offers a paradigm shift. Methods Reproductive life planning is a patient-centered approach that places a patient's reproductive preferences-whether concrete or ambivalent-at the forefront of her clinical care. Results This process grants women and men the opportunity to consider how reproduction fits within the context of their broader lives. Within a clinical encounter, reproductive life planning allows counseling and care to be tailored to patient preferences. Discussion Although there is great potential for positive public health impacts in unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use and improved preconception health, the true benefit lies within reinforcing reproductive empowerment. Despite recommendations for universal adoption, many questions remain regarding implementation, equity and outcomes.

  20. Reproductive and behavioral aspects of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens in groups with different sex ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VU Cromberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of tinamous submitted to five different male:female ratios. The study was carried out with 72 birds in a randomized experimental design with 4 replications. Tinamous were housed in cages, using the ratios of one (1:1, two (2:1, three (3:1 and four (4:1 females per male, and also one male was housed with three females individually (3R:1, in a rotational system. Reproductive records of the breeding season from September 2004 to March 2005 were used. The reproductive traits studied were: number of eggs laid, fertility, and percentage of eggs damaged and cracked by pecking. Nonparametric analyses of these traits were performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Two replications of treatments 1:1 and 4:1, and one of treatment 2:1 were video-taped for three days, 12 hours/day. The videotapes were sampled according to the scan method to fit an ethogram. Birds were also watched for one hour per day to study dominance and agonistic behavior. None of the reproductive traits was affected by mating sex ratio (p<0.05. Female dominance could be related to displacement behavior (r=1.00, and male sitting in immobility plus sitting in activity behaviors were related to lower number of damaged eggs (r=-0.90. Social dominance was indirectly determined by displacement behavior in the study situation. A large number of damaged eggs occurred in all treatments, thereby not allowing a clear conclusion on the best male:female ratio.

  1. Prolactin is related to individual differences in parental behavior and reproductive success in a biparental passerine, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Kristina O; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Variation in parental care can lead to important fitness consequences. The endocrine system is known to regulate physiological and behavioral reproductive traits that are important contributors to lifetime reproductive success. However, the hormonal basis of variation in avian parental care is still not well understood. Plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are generally high during post-hatch parental care in birds, and may be a candidate mechanism that regulates variation in parental care and other reproductive success outcomes. Here we analyze the relationship between PRL, parental behavior (chick brooding and feeding) and reproductive success outcomes (clutch size, number of chicks hatched, and chick survival) for the first time in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Birds were given cabergoline, a dopamine agonist traditionally used to lower prolactin in mammals, or vehicle in their food. Cabergoline had no effect on prolactin concentrations, but across both groups we found that PRL is positively correlated with parental behavior, number of chicks hatched, and chick survival, but not clutch size. Results from this study will inform hypotheses and predictions for future manipulation studies which test for a causal role for PRL in parental traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  3. Uso da Técnica do Micro-Hematócrito para Predição do Peso Corporal e de Características Reprodutivas em Frangos de Corte Utilization of Micro-Hematocrit Technique on Body Weight and Reproductive Traits Prediction in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millor Fernandes do Rosário

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O hematócrito é uma metodologia indireta utilizada no monitoramento da síndrome ascítica que poderia ser utilizada também para avaliar o peso corporal e características reprodutivas em frangos de corte. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a técnica do micro-hematócrito em relação ao peso corporal e características reprodutivas (fertilidade, eclodibilidade e nascimento visando sua utilização pelos programas de melhoramento genético. Dois grupos contrastantes foram constituídos, baseados na seleção fenotípica de 630 reprodutores de 18 genótipos para a característica hematócrito. Progênies das aves selecionadas, 74 pintos não sexados (40 do grupo de hematócrito alto e 34 do grupo baixo foram criados com manejo convencional. Os pesos corporais e os valores de hematócrito foram mensurados aos 14 e 42 dias de idade. Para avaliar as características reprodutivas, ovos de 42 matrizes (22 do grupo alto e 20 do baixo foram incubados. As médias foram estimadas utilizando-se um modelo linear com o efeito fixo do grupo genético. Os pintos do grupo baixo apresentaram as maiores médias de peso corporal (305,59 e 1387,06 g, diferindo dos pintos do grupo alto os quais apresentaram médias de peso de 243,56 e 1128,11 g aos 14 e 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. Também para o valor do hematócrito os grupos diferiram significativamente. Para as características reprodutivas, não se verificou diferenças significativas entre os grupos, sendo as médias gerais para fertilidade de 93,8 e 94,9%, para eclodibilidade de 98,2 e 93,9% e para nascimento de 89,3 e 82,4%, respectivamente, para alto e baixo hematócrito. Concluiu-se que a técnica do micro-hematócrito pode ser empregada para avaliação do peso corporal, mas não para características reprodutivas.Hematocrit is an indirect method used to monitor ascites, which might be used also on body weight and reproductive traits evalution in broiler chickens. The aim of this paper was

  4. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients.

  5. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  6. Post-weaning parental care increases fitness but is not heritable in North American red squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J E; McAdam, A G; Charmantier, A; Humphries, M M; Coltman, D W; Fletcher, Q; Gorrell, J C; Boutin, S

    2015-06-01

    Most empirical attempts to explain the evolution of parental care have focused on its costs and benefits (i.e. fitness consequences). In contrast, few investigations have been made of the other necessary prerequisite for evolutionary change, inheritance. Here, we examine the fitness consequences and heritability (h(2)) of a post-weaning parental care behaviour (territory bequeathal) in a wild population of North American red squirrels. Each year, a subset (average across all years = 19%) of reproductive females bequeathed their territory to a dependent offspring. Bequeathing females experienced higher annual reproductive success and did not suffer a survival cost to themselves relative to those females retaining their territory. Bequeathing females thus realized higher relative annual fitness [ω = 1.18 ± 0.03 (SE)] than nonbequeathing females [ω = 0.96 ± 0.02 (SE)]. Additive genetic influences on bequeathal behaviour, however, were not significantly different from 0 (h(2) = 1.9 × 10(-3); 95% highest posterior density interval = 3.04 × 10(-8) to 0.37) and, in fact, bequeathal behaviour was not significantly repeatable (R = 2.0 × 10(-3); 95% HPD interval = 0-0.27). In contrast, directional environmental influences were apparent. Females were more likely to bequeath in years following low food abundance and when food availability in the upcoming autumn was high. Despite an evident fitness benefit, a lack of heritable genetic variance will constrain evolution of this trait. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Latitudinal comparisons of reproductive traits in five Brachyuran species along the Chilean coast Comparaciones latitudinales de aspectos reproductivos en cinco especies de braquiuros a lo largo de la costa de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO BRANTE

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding large-scale patterns in reproductive investment and fecundity of marine invertebrates is important for determining the critical environmental variables affecting reproduction and thus, the spatial patterns of population dynamics. However, information on patterns of reproduction of marine invertebrates at large spatial scales are either scarce, or have been conducted by mixing species with contrasting modes of development. Brachyuran crabs are an ideal group to analyze large-scale patterns of reproduction not only because many species are commercially exploited, but also because they show a single mode of larval development and wide distributional ranges. Here, we report latitudinal patterns of reproductive variables in five Brachyuran crab species along the coast of Chile (18-54 ° S: Cancer setosus, Paraxanthus barbiger, Homalaspis plana, Ovalipes trimaculatus, and Taliepus marginatus. Five variables were analyzed: brood weight, fecundity, embryo dry weight, embryo volume, and embryo loss. Comparisons between northern (20 °S, central (29-33 °S and southern Chile (35-41 ° S were conducted for C. setosus and between central and southern Chile for the other four species. A total of 378 brooding females were collected and analyzed. Although we did not find a clear and consistent pattern in all reproductive variables in the five crab species analyzed along the coast of Chile, generalizations can be drawn from this study. First, brood weight did not vary between central and southern Chile in most of the species (except P. barbiger. Second, embryo loss did not vary between central and southern Chile in four of the species studied. Third, embryo dry weight tended to increase toward high latitudes in four of the five species. We suggest that the costs associated to oxygen provision to broods may explain some of the patterns found, but other factors need also be consideredEl estudio de los patrones de inversión reproductiva y fecundidad

  8. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Curtis M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the second in a series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. In addition to within-year comparisons, between-year comparisons will be made to determine if traits of the wild Naches basin control population, the naturally spawning population in the upper Yakima River and the hatchery control population are diverging over time. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2003. In the future, these data will be compared to previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's (YKFP) spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is defined as increasing natural production and harvest opportunities, while keeping adverse ecological interactions and genetic impacts within acceptable bounds (Busack et al. 1997). Within this context demographics, phenotypic traits, and reproductive ecology have significance because they directly affect natural productivity. In addition, significant changes in locally adapted traits due to hatchery influence, i.e. domestication, would likely be maladaptive resulting in reduced population productivity and fitness (Taylor 1991; Hard 1995). Thus, there is a need to study demographic and phenotypic traits in the YKFP in order to understand hatchery and wild population productivity, reproductive ecology, and the effects of domestication (Busack et al. 1997). Tracking trends in these traits over time is also a critical aspect of domestication monitoring (Busack

  9. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  10. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  11. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  12. First evidence for postzygotic reproductive isolation between two populations of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L. within Lake Constance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of reproductive traits, such as hybrid incompatibility (postzygotic isolation and species recognition (prezygotic isolation, have shown their key role in speciation. Theoretical modeling has recently predicted that close linkage between genes controlling pre- and postzygotic reproductive isolation could accelerate the conditions for speciation. Postzygotic isolation could develop during the sympatric speciation process contributing to the divergence of populations. Using hybrid fitness as a measure of postzygotic reproductive isolation, we empirically studied population divergence in perch (Perca fluviatilis L. from two genetically divergent populations within a lake. Results During spawning time of perch we artificially created parental offspring and F1 hybrids of the two populations and studied fertilization rate and hatching success under laboratory conditions. The combined fitness measure (product of fertilization rate and hatching success of F1 hybrids was significantly reduced compared to offspring from within population crosses. Conclusion Our results suggest intrinsic genetic incompatibility between the two populations and indicate that population divergence between two populations of perch inhabiting the same lake may indeed be promoted by postzygotic isolation.

  13. Two's a crowd? Crowding effect in a parasitic castrator drives differences in reproductive resource allocation in single vs double infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Caitlin R; Moron, Nancy A; Kuris, Armand M

    2017-04-01

    The 'crowding effect' is a result of competition by parasites within a host for finite resources. Typically, the severity of this effect increases with increasing numbers of parasites within a host and manifests in reduced body size and thus fitness. Evidence for the crowding effect is mixed - while some have found negative effects, others have found a positive effect of increased parasite load on parasite fitness. Parasites are consumers with diverse trophic strategies reflected in their life history traits. These distinctions are useful to predict the effects of crowding. We studied a parasitic castrator, a parasite that usurps host reproductive energy and renders the host sterile. Parasitic castrators typically occur as single infections within hosts. With multiple parasitic castrators, we expect strong competition and evidence of crowding. We directly assess the effect of crowding on reproductive success in a barnacle population infected by a unique parasitic castrator, Hemioniscus balani, an isopod parasite that infects and blocks reproduction of barnacles. We find (1) strong evidence of crowding in double infections, (2) increased frequency of double infections in larger barnacle hosts with more resources and (3) perfect compensation in egg production, supporting strong space limitation. Our results document that the effects of crowding are particularly severe for this parasitic castrator, and may be applicable to other castrators that are also resource or space limited.

  14. A sex-chromosome inversion causes strong overdominance for sperm traits that affect siring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Ulrich; Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Pei, Yifan; Ihle, Malika; Wang, Daiping; Martin, Katrin; Opatová, Pavlína; Albrechtová, Jana; Wittig, Michael; Franke, Andre; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kempenaers, Bart

    2017-08-01

    Male reproductive success depends on the competitive ability of sperm to fertilize the ova, which should lead to strong selection on sperm characteristics. This raises the question of how heritable variation in sperm traits is maintained. Here we show that in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) nearly half of the variance in sperm morphology is explained by an inversion on the Z chromosome with a 40% allele frequency in the wild. The sperm of males that are heterozygous for the inversion had the longest midpieces and the highest velocity. Furthermore, such males achieved the highest fertility and the highest siring success, both within-pair and extra-pair. Males homozygous for the derived allele show detrimental sperm characteristics and the lowest siring success. Our results suggest heterozygote advantage as the mechanism that maintains the inversion polymorphism and hence variance in sperm design and in fitness.

  15. Description of the male of Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae, a parasitoid of the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa (Hemiptera, Liviidae, with notes on its reproductive traits and hyperparasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Triapitsyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A colony of the encyrtid wasp Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae has been established in the quarantine laboratory at the University of California, Riverside, California, USA as part of a classical biological control program against its invasive host, the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa (Hemiptera, Psylloidea, Liviidae, an important pest of olives in some parts of the world. The colony originators were reared from the same host found on abandoned, commercial olives in Catalonia, Spain; additional collections were made in Murcia. The parasitoid reproduces primarily by thelytoky; however, a few occasional males have been found in the field in Spain, but not in colonies reared under quarantine or laboratory conditions. Here, the female of P. euphyllurae is redescribed and its male is described and illustrated for the first time; the only previous mention of male P. euphyllurae was from Tunisia, reared from the same psyllid host but without any details on its morphology. A lectotype is designated for Encyrtus euphyllurae Masi. Information is given on the results of genetic matching between the two sexes of the parasitoid and also on the presence of the bacterial Wolbachia symbiont that apparently is affecting reproduction of this species, including its sex ratio in the field. Two species of hyperparasitoids have also emerged from the parasitized olive psylla nymphs from Catalonia: numerous specimens of Apocharips trapezoidea (Hartig (Hymenoptera, Figitidae and one specimen of a Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae.

  16. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos de características do pelame e de desempenho reprodutivo de vacas holandesas em clima tropical Genetic and phenotypic parameters for hair coat and reproduction traits of Holstein cows in tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Abaker Bertipaglia

    2007-04-01

    ; origin of sire; sire within origin; number of inseminations; age (only for calving interval; percentage of black meshes; hair coat thickness; hair length; number of hair per unit area; hair diameter; effective transmissivity and reflectivity. Covariance components were estimated by REML using an Animal Model. Heritability estimates for IPP, IEP, percentage of black meshes, number of hair per unit area, hair coat thickness, hair length and hair diameter were 0.23±0.08, 0.19±0.10, 0.75±0.08, 0.05±0.04, 0.04±0.05, 0.36±0.09, and 0.63±0.08, respectively. Genetic correlation between hair diameter and IPP (IEP was equal to -0.37±0.17 (-0.49±0.27. However, genetic correlations between IPP and hair thickness (-0.56±0.46, number of hair (-0.66±0.43 and black meshes (0.04±0.16 were unfavorable for jointly selection for sexual precocity and fitness to tropical environment. High values of heritability estimates and genetic correlations between diameter, IPP and IEP indicate that is possible to select for thickness of hair diameter and improve reproductive efficiency.

  17. CUSUM-based person-fit statistics for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith; Meijer, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be estimated inaccurately. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting score patterns for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive tests (CAT),

  18. CUSUM-based person-fit statistics for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith; Meijer, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be inaccurately estimated. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting score patterns for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive tests (CAT),

  19. Isolating Trait and Method Variance in the Measurement of Callous and Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva-Salisbury, Melissa L; Gill, Andrew D; Stickle, Timothy R

    2017-09-01

    To examine hypothesized influence of method variance from negatively keyed items in measurement of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, nine a priori confirmatory factor analysis model comparisons of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits were evaluated on multiple fit indices and theoretical coherence. Tested models included a unidimensional model, a three-factor model, a three-bifactor model, an item response theory-shortened model, two item-parceled models, and three correlated trait-correlated method minus one models (unidimensional, correlated three-factor, and bifactor). Data were self-reports of 234 adolescents (191 juvenile offenders, 43 high school students; 63% male; ages 11-17 years). Consistent with hypotheses, models accounting for method variance substantially improved fit to the data. Additionally, bifactor models with a general CU factor better fit the data compared with correlated factor models, suggesting a general CU factor is important to understanding the construct of CU traits. Future Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits analyses should account for method variance from item keying and response bias to isolate trait variance.

  20. Autism as the Low-Fitness Extreme of a Parentally Selected Fitness Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Andrew; Miller, Geoffrey; Mintz, Jim

    2008-12-01

    Siblings compete for parental care and feeding, while parents must allocate scarce resources to those offspring most likely to survive and reproduce. This could cause offspring to evolve traits that advertise health, and thereby attract parental resources. For example, experimental evidence suggests that bright orange filaments covering the heads of North American coot chicks may have evolved for this fitness-advertising purpose. Could any human mental disorders be the equivalent of dull filaments in coot chicks-low-fitness extremes of mental abilities that evolved as fitness indicators? One possibility is autism. Suppose that the ability of very young children to charm their parents evolved as a parentally selected fitness indicator. Young children would vary greatly in their ability to charm parents, that variation would correlate with underlying fitness, and autism could be the low-fitness extreme of this variation. This view explains many seemingly disparate facts about autism and leads to some surprising and testable predictions.

  1. Are elder siblings helpers or competitors? Antagonistic fitness effects of sibling interactions in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Aïda; Faurie, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    Determining the fitness consequences of sibling interactions is pivotal for understanding the evolution of family living, but studies investigating them across lifetime are lacking. We used a large demographic dataset on preindustrial humans from Finland to study the effect of elder siblings on key life-history traits. The presence of elder siblings improved the chances of younger siblings surviving to sexual maturity, suggesting that despite a competition for parental resources, they may help rearing their younger siblings. After reaching sexual maturity however, same-sex elder siblings' presence was associated with reduced reproductive success in the focal individual, indicating the existence of competition among same-sex siblings. Overall, lifetime fitness was reduced by same-sex elder siblings' presence and increased by opposite-sex elder siblings' presence. Our study shows opposite effects of sibling interactions depending on the life-history stage, and highlights the need for using long-term fitness measures to understand the selection pressures acting on sibling interactions. PMID:23173210

  2. Age-based and reproductive biology of the Pacific Longnose Parrotfish Hipposcarus longiceps from Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M. Taylor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific longnose parrotfish Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840 represents a prime fishery resource throughout much of the tropical Pacific. In this study, we sampled the species from the Guam commercial fishery market across five consecutive years to characterize reproductive and age-based demographic information imperative for informed fishery management. Compared with other parrotfishes, this species was found to be large-bodied, but has only a moderate life span of 10 + years. Hipposcarus longiceps was confirmed as a diandric protogynous hermaphrodite with highly sex-specific growth patterns and an overall mean asymptotic length of 434 mm fork length (FL. Females were estimated to reach median maturity at 329 mm FL (2.4 years and have a median length at female-to-male sex change of 401 mm FL. Life-history trait values derived here were used to update previous models relating life history and vulnerability to overexploitation. We found that enhancement of just one species’ trait values improved model fits considerably, which strengthens the conclusion that life-history traits are a strong determinant of species’ vulnerability in the parrotfishes. This information is an imperative complement to other data sources facilitating formal stock assessment of a key fishery target.

  3. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  4. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  5. Investigating Relationships between Reproduction, Immune Defenses, and Cortisol in Dall Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Cynthia J; Boan, Brianne V; Lohuis, Thomas D; Stewart, Kelley M

    2018-01-01

    Life-history theory is fundamental to understanding how animals allocate resources among survival, development, and reproduction, and among traits within these categories. Immediate trade-offs occur within a short span of time and, therefore, are more easily detected. Trade-offs, however, can also manifest across stages of the life cycle, a phenomenon known as carryover effects. We investigated trade-offs on both time scales in two populations of Dall sheep ( Ovis dalli dalli ) in Southcentral Alaska. Specifically, we (i) tested for glucocorticoid-mediated carryover effects from the breeding season on reproductive success and immune defenses during parturition and (ii) tested for trade-offs between immune defenses and reproduction within a season. We observed no relationship between cortisol during mating and pregnancy success; however, we found marginal support for a negative relationship between maternal cortisol and neonate birth weights. Low birth weights, resulting from high maternal cortisol, may result in low survival or low fecundity for the neonate later in life, which could result in overall population decline. We observed a negative relationship between pregnancy and bacterial killing ability, although we observed no relationship between pregnancy and haptoglobin. Study site affected bactericidal capacity and the inflammatory response, indicating the influence of external factors on immune responses, although we could not test hypotheses about the cause of those differences. This study helps advance our understanding of the plasticity and complexity of the immune system and provides insights into the how individual differences in physiology may mediate differences in fitness.

  6. Investigating Relationships between Reproduction, Immune Defenses, and Cortisol in Dall Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J. Downs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-history theory is fundamental to understanding how animals allocate resources among survival, development, and reproduction, and among traits within these categories. Immediate trade-offs occur within a short span of time and, therefore, are more easily detected. Trade-offs, however, can also manifest across stages of the life cycle, a phenomenon known as carryover effects. We investigated trade-offs on both time scales in two populations of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli in Southcentral Alaska. Specifically, we (i tested for glucocorticoid-mediated carryover effects from the breeding season on reproductive success and immune defenses during parturition and (ii tested for trade-offs between immune defenses and reproduction within a season. We observed no relationship between cortisol during mating and pregnancy success; however, we found marginal support for a negative relationship between maternal cortisol and neonate birth weights. Low birth weights, resulting from high maternal cortisol, may result in low survival or low fecundity for the neonate later in life, which could result in overall population decline. We observed a negative relationship between pregnancy and bacterial killing ability, although we observed no relationship between pregnancy and haptoglobin. Study site affected bactericidal capacity and the inflammatory response, indicating the influence of external factors on immune responses, although we could not test hypotheses about the cause of those differences. This study helps advance our understanding of the plasticity and complexity of the immune system and provides insights into the how individual differences in physiology may mediate differences in fitness.

  7. Genetic association between leg conformation in young pigs and sow reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thu Hong; Nilsson, Katja; Norberg, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Lameness is an issue of concern in pig production due both to animal welfare and to economical aspects. Lame sows are believed to suffer from pain and stress which is reported to have a negative influence on reproduction. Leg conformation and locomotion traits in young animals are associated...... with the risk of lameness at higher age. The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of leg conformation traits recorded at performance testing (around 5 months of age) and their genetic correlations with reproduction traits. Information on leg conformation traits from 123,307 pigs scored...... and on reproduction traits from 22,204 litters in the first and second parity from Swedish Yorkshire nucleus herds were available for genetic analysis. Eight conformation and locomotion traits, coming from the old or the new scoring system in Sweden, included old movement, old overall leg score, new movement, new...

  8. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Curtis M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA); Schroder, Steven L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Johnston, Mark V. (yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    2005-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the fourth in a series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook populations in the Yakima River basin. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005 and includes analyses of historical baseline data, as well. Supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's (YKFP) spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is defined as increasing natural production and harvest opportunities, while keeping adverse ecological interactions and genetic impacts within acceptable bounds (Busack et al. 1997). Within this context demographics, phenotypic traits, and reproductive ecology have significance because they directly affect natural productivity. In addition, significant changes in locally adapted traits due to hatchery influence, i.e. domestication, would likely be maladaptive resulting in reduced population productivity and fitness (Taylor 1991; Hard 1995). Thus, there is a need to study demographic and phenotypic traits in the YKFP in order to understand hatchery and wild population productivity, reproductive ecology, and the effects of domestication (Busack et al. 1997). Tracking trends in these traits over time is also a critical aspect of domestication monitoring (Busack et al. 2004) to determine whether trait changes have a genetic component and, if so, are they within acceptable limits. The first chapter of this report compares first generation hatchery and wild upper Yakima River spring chinook returns over a suite of life-history, phenotypic and demographic traits. The second

  9. The application of bayesian statistic in data fit processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xingyin; Li Zhenfu; Song Zhaohui

    2010-01-01

    The rationality and disadvantage of least squares fitting that is usually used in data processing is analyzed, and the theory and commonly method that Bayesian statistic is applied in data processing is shown in detail. As it is proved in analysis, Bayesian approach avoid the limitative hypothesis that least squares fitting has in data processing, and the result has traits that it is more scientific and more easily understood, may replace the least squares fitting to apply in data processing. (authors)

  10. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  11. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  12. Whole Trait Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2014-01-01

    Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268

  13. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    examples to show how reproductive timing Tc and level R0 are shaped by stage dynamics (individual trait changes), selection on the trait, and parent-offspring phenotypic correlation. We also show how population structure can affect dispersion in reproduction among ages and stages. These macroscopic...... to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...

  14. Fitness drivers in the threatened Dianthus guliae Janka (Caryophyllaceae): disentangling effects of growth context, maternal influence and inbreeding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, D; Gullo, T; Bernardo, L

    2011-01-01

    We studied inbreeding depression, growth context and maternal influence as constraints to fitness in the self-compatible, protandrous Dianthus guliae Janka, a threatened Italian endemic. We performed hand-pollinations to verify outcomes of self- and cross-fertilisation over two generations, and grew inbred and outbred D. guliae offspring under different conditions - in pots, a common garden and field conditions (with/without nutrient addition). The environment influenced juvenile growth and flowering likelihood/rate, but had little effect on inbreeding depression. Significant interactions among genetic and environmental factors influenced female fertility. Overall, genetic factors strongly affected both early (seed mass, seed germination, early survival) and late (seed/ovule ratio) life-history traits. After the first pollination experiment, we detected higher mortality in the selfed progeny, which is possibly a consequence of inbreeding depression caused by over-expression of early-acting deleterious alleles. The second pollination induced a strong loss of reproductive fitness (seed production, seed mass) in inbred D. guliae offspring, regardless of the pollination treatment (selfing/crossing); hence, a strong (genetic) maternal influence constrained early life-history traits of the second generation. Based on current knowledge, we conclude that self-compatibility does not prevent the detrimental effects of inbreeding in D. guliae populations, and may increase the severe extinction risk if out-crossing rates decrease. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 3 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Curtis (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    This is the third in a series of annual reports that address reproductive ecological research and comparisons of hatchery and wild origin spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the baseline reproductive ecology, demographics and phenotypic traits of the unsupplemented upper Yakima population, however this report focuses on data collected on hatchery and wild spring chinook returning in 2003; the third year of hatchery adult returns. This report is organized into three chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter and summarizes data collected between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2004 in the Yakima basin. Summaries of each of the chapters in this report are included below. A major component of determining supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is an increase in natural production. Within this context, comparing upper Yakima River hatchery and wild origin fish across traits such as sex ratio, age composition, size-at-age, fecundity, run timing and gamete quality is important because these traits directly affect population productivity and individual fish fitness which determine a population's productivity.

  16. Cost of reproduction in a long-lived bird: incubation effort reduces immune function and future reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, S A; Hasselquist, Dennis; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E

    2005-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that increased current reproductive effort should lead to a fitness cost. This cost of reproduction may be observed as reduced survival or future reproduction, and may be caused by temporal suppression of immune function in stressed or hard-working individuals. In birds, consideration of the costs of incubating eggs has largely been neglected in favour of the costs of brood rearing. We manipulated incubation demand in two breeding seasons (2000 and 2001) in female...

  17. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  18. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  19. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  20. Influência de fatores genéticos e ambientais sobre características reprodutivas do rebanho eqüino do Exército Brasileiro Genetic and environmental effects on reproduction traits of an equine herd of the Brazilian army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinício Aurélio Lagoas Campos

    2007-02-01

    , Thoroughbred (Th, Hanoverian (HAN and No Defined Breed (NDB. Data collected from 1977 to 2002 was provided by a Brazilian Army herd. Models used for analyses included the fixed effects of month and year of foaling and measuring, age of dam, foal sex and genetic group. With the exceptions of number of foaling and birth year of dam for foaling date and genetic group for AFF, fixed effects were significant sources of variation for the reproductive traits. The average for FI was 563.9 days and it was significantly influenced by breed effect. There was a trend towards a reduction on FI as younger dams entered the population. The average for AFF was 7.17 years and it was significantly influenced by birth year of the dam. Average reproductive life was 5.34 years. The highest value (6.70 years was observed for BS and the lowest one (4.24 years for Th. The average number of foals was 22.98 per stallion and 3.7 per mare. The GI was 13.05 years for males and 9.99 years for females. Heritability estimates for reproductive traits were low. Replacement of dams at younger age and less use of Th may improve the reproductive efficiency of this herd.

  1. Freqüência da mutação gene da síndrome do estresse suíno e sua associação com características reprodutivas em marrãs híbridas Frequency of the porcine stress sindrome gene mutation and its association with reproductive traits in crossbred gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a freqüência do gene causador da síndrome do estresse em suíno (PSS e sua associação com características reprodutivas em marrãs híbridas. Setenta e duas marrãs híbridas Landrace x Large White, provenientes de granjas comerciais localizadas na região de Ponte Nova - Minas Gerais, foram analisadas para a presença da mutação PSS. No diagnóstico da mutação feito por reação em cadeia da polimerase - polimorfismo de comprimento de fragmentos de restrição (PCR-RFLP, o fragmento de 659pb do gene ryr-1 foi amplificado e, nos mutantes a substituição de citosina por timina, que acarreta mudança de aminoácidos da proteína madura de arginina para cisteína nos animais afetados, foi identificado. Dados relativos ao número de leitões nascidos vivos, leitões nascidos com baixa viabilidade e leitões natimortos por leitegada, peso médio dos leitões ao nascer e repetições de cio foram analisados. Do total de marrãs analisadas, foram encontradas 13,88% de marrãs heterozigotas e nenhuma homozigota recessiva. Não houve efeito dos genótipos sobre as características analisadas.The objective of this work was to determine the frequency of the porcine stress sindrome (PSS gene mutation and its association with reproductive traits in crossbred gilts. Seventy two crossbred Landrace x Large White females from commercial farms of Ponte Nova region location - Minas Gerais State, were analyzed for the PSS mutation. The mutation diagnose was made by polimerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polimorphism, where the 659pb fragment from the ryr-1 gene was amplifyied, and in the mutants the substitution of cytosine by thimine, that leads to the change in the mature protein amino acids from arginine to cysteine in the affected animals, was identified. Data relative to the number of piglets born alive, born alive with low viability and dead piglets per litter, average piglets born weight and

  2. Love Influences Reproductive Success in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Butovskaya, Marina; Karwowski, Maciej; Groyecka, Agata; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2017-01-01

    As love seems to be universal, researchers have attempted to find its biological basis. However, no studies till date have shown its direct association with reproductive success, which is broadly known to be a good measure of fitness. Here, we show links between love, as defined by the Sternberg Triangular Theory of Love, and reproductive success among the Hadza—traditional hunter-gatherer population. We found that commitment and reproductive success were positively and consistently related in both sexes, with number of children showing negative and positive associations with intimacy and passion, respectively, only among women. Our study may shed new light on the meaning of love in humans' evolutionary past, especially in traditional hunter-gatherer societies in which individuals, not their parents, were responsible for partner choice. We suggest that passion and commitment may be the key factors that increase fitness, and therefore, that selection promoted love in human evolution. However, further studies in this area are recommended. PMID:29209243

  3. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Polymorphism in NPY and IGF-I genes associate with reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... effects of NPY and IGF-I genes on reproductive traits of chickens. Key words: ... flavor and good egg quality are accorded with Chinese consumers' taste. ... Numerous studies in mammals and more recently in teleost fish.

  5. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  6. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  7. Trait-specific dependence in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne

    2002-10-01

    Informed by three theoretical frameworks--trait psychology, evolutionary psychology, and interdependence theory--we report four investigations designed to develop and test the reliability and validity of a new construct and accompanying multiscale inventory, the Trait-Specific Dependence Inventory (TSDI). The TSDI assesses comparisons between present and alternative romantic partners on major dimensions of mate value. In Study 1, principal components analyses revealed that the provisional pool of theory-generated TSDI items were represented by six factors: Agreeable/Committed, Resource Accruing Potential, Physical Prowess, Emotional Stability, Surgency, and Physical Attractiveness. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis replicated these results on a different sample and tested how well different structural models fit the data. Study 3 provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the six TSDI scales by correlating each one with a matched personality trait scale that did not explicitly incorporate comparisons between partners. Study 4 provided further validation evidence, revealing that the six TSDI scales successfully predicted three relationship outcome measures--love, time investment, and anger/upset--above and beyond matched sets of traditional personality trait measures. These results suggest that the TSDI is a reliable, valid, and unique construct that represents a new trait-specific method of assessing dependence in romantic relationships. The construct of trait-specific dependence is introduced and linked with other theories of mate value.

  8. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  9. Age-dependent terminal declines in reproductive output in a wild bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Richardson, David S.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In many iteroparous species individual fitness components, such as reproductive output, first increase with age and then decline during late-life. However, individuals differ greatly in reproductive lifespan, but reproductive declines may only occur in the period just before their death as a result

  10. Life-history strategies of North American elk: trade-offs associated with reproduction and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina Morano; Kelley M. Stewart; James S. Sedinger; Christopher A. Nicolai; Marty Vavra

    2013-01-01

    The principle of energy allocation states that individuals should attempt to maximize fitness by allocating resources optimally among growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Such allocation may result in trade-offs between survival and reproduction, or between current and future reproduction. We used a marked population of North American elk (Cervus elaphus...

  11. Life history traits of Bathyclarias nyasensis (Siluroidei) in Lake Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life history traits, including age, growth, reproduction and diet of Bathyclarias nyasensis from Lake Malawi were studied between December 1996 and November 1998. Owing to reabsorp tion of pectoral spines with increasing fish size, and the relatively low number of spines that could be aged reliably, only otoliths were ...

  12. A Genome Scan for Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Average Daily ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reviewer

    Sari, P.O. Box -578, Iran .... (2015) identified one SNP with genome wide significance effect within SYNE1 gene on ..... analysis of thirty one production, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary US Holstein cows. ... Problems involved in breeding for efficiency of food utilization. Proc .... 131, 210-216.

  13. Aspects of the Reproductive Biology of Stenanona Flagelliflora (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L. X.; Castro, D. M. F.; Hernandez, A. R. A.; Villanueva, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Stenanona flagelliflora was described in 2004. There are no studies on its biology. The goal of this study was to document some aspects of its reproductive biology. The particular objectives were to: i) describe the variation on vegetative and floral traits; ii) establish the composition of the community of floral visitors; iii) estimate the mating system and reproductive success; and, iv) establish the relationship between vegetative traits and reproductive success. The study was conducted within the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Veracruz, Mexico. We quantified several vegetative and floral traits; conducted observations and collected floral visitors; and determined the mating system and reproductive success. Stenanona flagelliflora has relatively few stamens and carpels, but a relatively high viability of pollen grains. The most abundant floral visitors were dipterans from the Phoridae Family. Mating system is between xenogamous and facultative xenogamous; thus, pollination depends upon pollen vectors. Fruit-set was relatively high; but seed-set was very low, because most monocarps did not contain seeds. Our results suggest that reproduction of S. flagelliflora is not limited by resource availability, but by pollinator frequency and effectiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the reproductive biology of a species within the Stenanona genus. (author)

  14. Alternative reproductive tactics and the propensity of hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, K; Raatikainen, K J; Häkkilä, M; Haukilehto, E; Kotiaho, J S

    2009-12-01

    One explanation for hybridization between species is the fitness benefits it occasionally confers to the hybridizing individuals. This explanation is possible in species that have evolved alternative male reproductive tactics: individuals with inferior tactics might be more prone to hybridization provided it increases their reproductive success and fitness. Here we experimentally tested whether the propensity of hybridization in the wild depends on male reproductive tactic in Calopteryx splendens damselflies. Counter to our expectation, it was males adopting the superior reproductive tactic (territoriality) that had greatest propensity to hybridize than males adopting the inferior tactics (sneakers and floaters). Moreover, among the territorial males, the most ornamented males had greatest propensity to hybridize whereas the pattern was reversed in the sneaker males. Our results suggest that there is fluctuating selection on male mate discrimination against heterospecific females depending on both ornament size and the male's reproductive tactic.

  15. Social traits, social networks and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D N; McAdam, A G

    2017-12-01

    The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness. Meanwhile, quantitative geneticists have demonstrated that traits expressed in a social context can depend on the phenotypes and genotypes of interacting partners, leading to influences of the social environment on the traits and fitness of individuals and the evolutionary trajectories of populations. Therefore, both fields are investigating similar topics, yet have arrived at these points relatively independently. We review how these approaches are diverged, and yet how they retain clear parallelism and so strong potential for complementarity. This demonstrates that, despite separate bodies of theory, advances in one might inform the other. Techniques in network analysis for quantifying social phenotypes, and for identifying community structure, should be useful for those studying the relationship between individual behaviour and group-level phenotypes. Entering social association matrices into quantitative genetic models may also reduce bias in heritability estimates, and allow the estimation of the influence of social connectedness on trait expression. Current methods for measuring natural selection in a social context explicitly account for the fact that a trait is not necessarily the property of a single individual, something the network approaches have not yet considered when relating network metrics to individual fitness. Harnessing evolutionary models that consider traits affected by genes in other individuals (i.e. indirect genetic

  16. Functional traits explain ecosystem function through opposing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, Marc W

    2017-08-01

    The ability to explain why multispecies assemblages produce greater biomass compared to monocultures, has been a central goal in the quest to understand biodiversity effects on ecosystem function. Species contributions to ecosystem function can be driven by two processes: niche complementarity and a selection effect that is influenced by fitness (competitive) differences, and both can be approximated with measures of species' traits. It has been hypothesised that fitness differences are associated with few, singular traits while complementarity requires multidimensional trait measures. Here, using experimental data from plant assemblages, I show that the selection effect was strongest when trait dissimilarity was low, while complementarity was greatest with high trait dissimilarity. Selection effects were best explained by a single trait, plant height. Complementarity was correlated with dissimilarity across multiple traits, representing above and below ground processes. By identifying the relevant traits linked to ecosystem function, we obtain the ability to predict combinations of species that will maximise ecosystem function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  18. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  19. Children's Concepts of Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E.; Kendall, Diane G.

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study provide little support for either Freudian or Piagetian theorizing about what the young child thinks of reproduction. Implications for sex education and reproduction information are presented. (Author/CJ)

  20. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  1. Host specificity, phenotype matching and the evolution of reproductive isolation in a coevolved plant-pollinator mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himler, Anna G; Machado, Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Coevolutionary interactions between plants and their associated pollinators and seed dispersers are thought to have promoted the diversification of flowering plants (Raven 1977; Regal 1977; Stebbins 1981). The actual mechanisms by which pollinators could drive species diversification in plants are not fully understood. However, it is thought that pollinator host specialization can influence the evolution of reproductive isolation among plant populations because the pollinator's choice of host is what determines patterns of gene flow in its host plant, and host choice may also have important consequences on pollinator and host fitness (Grant 1949; Bawa 1992). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Smith et al. (2009) present a very interesting study that addresses how host specialization affects pollinator fitness and patterns of gene flow in a plant host. Several aspects of this study match elements of a seminal mathematical model of plant-pollinator codivergence (Kiester et al. 1984) suggesting that reciprocal selection for matched plant and pollinator reproductive traits may lead to speciation in the host and its pollinator when there is strong host specialization and a pattern of geographic subdivision. Smith et al.'s study represents an important step to fill the gap in our understanding of how reciprocal selection may lead to speciation in coevolved plant-pollinator mutualisms.

  2. The three faces of ecological fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Kent A

    2011-03-01

    This paper argues that fitness is most usefully understood as those properties of organisms that are explanatory of survival in the broadest sense, not merely descriptive of reproductive success. Borrowing from Rosenberg and Bouchard (2009), fitness in this sense is ecological in that it is defined by the interactions between organisms and environments. There are three sorts of ecological fitness: the well-documented ability to compete, the ability to cooperate (as in mutualistic symbiosis), and a third sense of fitness that has received insufficient attention in evolutionary theory, the ability to construct. Following Lotka, it can be understood thermodynamically as the ability to maintain or enlarge the energy-circulating capacity of an ecosystem. An organism that does this could end with its gene frequency unchanged but its probability of survival enhanced since it would sustain or increase the total carrying capacity of its ecosystem. Photosynthesizers and other autotrophs are obvious candidates for organisms that are fit in the constructive sense, but any organisms, including heterotrophs, can exhibit constructive fitness if they have some mechanism for channeling external flows of free energy into their ecosystems. I will briefly examine the prospects for the human species in the light of these considerations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth and reproductive traits of Friesian X Sanga crossbred cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The typical cattle production system in Ghana is predominantly pasture-based. Cattle are grazed all year round on natural pastures with minimal feed supplementation. The animals kept in this production system often experience inadequate nutrition and fluctuating nutrient supply affecting their productivity. There is ...

  4. Phenotypic Divergence in the Reproductive Traits of Marbled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, the results indicated some level of phenotypic divergence of the fish ... divergence cannot be partitioned between fishing mortality, genetic .... female fish was estimated from the egg counts ..... that greatly improved the quality of the.

  5. Phenotypic divergence in reproductive traits of the marbled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malindi and Watamu) and their adjacent reserves that allow regulated fishing. ... Results showed significant differences in fecundity between sites (F = 3.742, P = 0.004) with higher mean (± SD) fecundity for fish in the parks (110,128 ± 75,492) and ...

  6. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  7. A Novel Quantitative Approach to Women’s Reproductive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Fritha H.; Judge, Debra S.

    2012-01-01

    The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment) is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented ‘short-term mating strategy’, ‘early onset of sexual activity’, ‘reproductive output’, ‘timing of childbearing’, ‘breastfeeding’, and ‘child spacing’. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child) similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births) for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these

  8. A novel quantitative approach to women's reproductive strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritha H Milne

    Full Text Available The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented 'short-term mating strategy', 'early onset of sexual activity', 'reproductive output', 'timing of childbearing', 'breastfeeding', and 'child spacing'. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these strategic

  9. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  10. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  11. Sexual selection and magic traits in speciation with gene flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. SERVEDIO, Michael KOPP

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which sexual selection is involved in speciation with gene flow remains an open question and the subject of much research. Here, we propose that some insight can be gained from considering the concept of magic traits (i.e., traits involved in both reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. Both magic traits and other, “non-magic”, traits can contribute to speciation via a number of specific mechanisms. We argue that many of these mechanisms are likely to differ widely in the extent to which they involve sexual selection. Furthermore, in some cases where sexual selection is present, it may be prone to inhibit rather than drive speciation. Finally, there are a priori reasons to believe that certain categories of traits are much more effective than others in driving speciation. The combination of these points suggests a classification of traits that may shed light on the broader role of sexual selection in speciation with gene flow. In particular, we suggest that sexual selection can act as a driver of speciation in some scenarios, but may play a negligible role in potentially common categories of magic traits, and may be likely to inhibit speciation in common categories of non-magic traits [Current Zoology 58 (3: 507–513, 2012].

  12. Energetic fitness: Field metabolic rates assessed via 3D accelerometry complement conventional fitness metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémillet, David; Lescroël, Amelie; Ballard, Grant; Dugger, Katie M.; Massaro, Melanie; Porzig, Elizabeth L.; Ainley, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating the fitness of organisms is an essential step towards understanding their responses to environmental change. Connections between energy expenditure and fitness have been postulated for nearly a century. However, testing this premise among wild animals is constrained by difficulties in measuring energy expenditure while simultaneously monitoring conventional fitness metrics such as survival and reproductive output.We addressed this issue by exploring the functional links between field metabolic rate (FMR), body condition, sex, age and reproductive performance in a wild population.We deployed 3D accelerometers on 115 Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae during four breeding seasons at one of the largest colonies of this species, Cape Crozier, on Ross Island, Antarctica. The demography of this population has been studied for the past 18 years. From accelerometry recordings, collected for birds of known age and breeding history, we determined the vector of the dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA) and used it as a proxy for FMR.This allowed us to demonstrate relationships among FMR, a breeding quality index (BQI) and body condition. Notably, we found a significant quadratic relationship between mean VeDBA during foraging and BQI for experienced breeders, and individuals in better body condition showed lower rates of energy expenditure.We conclude that using FMR as a fitness component complementary to more conventional fitness metrics will yield greater understanding of evolutionary and conservation physiology.

  13. The influence of reproduction and lambing season of the Dohne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of reproduction and lambing season of the Dohne. Merino on different wool production traits. Ortrud Steinhagen. Animal and Dair-v Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene,. 1675 Republic of South Africa. P.J. de Wet. Department of Sheep and Wool Science, University of Stellenbosch,. Stellenbosch ...

  14. The use of reproductive vigor descriptors in studying genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of reproductive vigor descriptors in studying genetic variability in nine Tunisian faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) populations. ... The dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance of the 9 populations using UPGMA method, show some genetic drift between populations. Key words: Faba bean, agromorphological traits, ...

  15. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival ove...

  16. Complex cooperative breeders: Using infant care costs to explain variability in callitrichine social and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L

    2016-03-01

    The influence of ecology on social behavior and mating strategies is one of the central questions in behavioral ecology and primatology. Callitrichines are New World primates that exhibit high behavioral variability, which is widely acknowledged, but not always systematically researched. Here, I examine the hypothesis that differences in the cost of infant care among genera help explain variation in reproductive traits. I present an integrative approach to generate and evaluate predictions from this hypothesis. I first identify callitrichine traits that vary minimally and traits that are more flexible (e.g., have greater variance or norm of reaction), including the number of males that mate with a breeding female, mechanisms of male reproductive competition, number of natal young retained, and the extent of female reproductive suppression. I outline how these more labile traits should vary along a continuum of infant care costs according to individual reproductive strategies. At one end of the spectrum, I predict that groups with higher infant care costs will show multiple adult males mating and providing infant care, high subordinate female reproductive suppression, few natal individuals delaying dispersal, and increased reproductive output by the dominant female -with opposite predictions under low infant costs. I derive an estimate of the differences in ecological and physiological infant care costs that suggest an order of ascending costs in the wild: Cebuella, Callithrix, Mico, Callimico, Saguinus, and Leontopithecus. I examine the literature on each genus for the most variable traits and evaluate a) where they fall along the continuum of infant care costs according to their reproductive strategies, and b) whether these costs correspond to the ecophysiological estimates of infant care costs. I conclude that infant care costs can provide a unifying explanation for the most variable reproductive traits among callitrichine genera. The approach presented can be

  17. Dim artificial light at night affects mating, reproductive output, and reactive oxygen species in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Lucy Katherine; Nagarajan-Radha, Venkatesh; Green, Mark Philip; Jones, Therésa Melanie

    2018-05-07

    Humans are lighting the night-time environment with ever increasing extent and intensity, resulting in a variety of negative ecological effects in individuals and populations. Effects of light at night on reproductive fitness traits are demonstrated across taxa however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are largely untested. One possible mechanism is that light at night may result in perturbed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress levels. Here, we reared Drosophila melanogaster under either dim (10 lx) light or no light (0 lx) at night for three generations and then compared mating and lifetime oviposition patterns. In a second experiment, we explored whether exposure to light at night treatments resulted in variation in ROS levels in the heads and ovaries of six, 23- and 36-day-old females. We demonstrate that dim light at night affects mating and reproductive output: 10 lx flies courted for longer prior to mating, and female oviposition patterns differed to 0 lx females. ROS levels were lower in the ovaries but not heads, of 10 lx compared with 0 lx females. We suggest that reduced ROS levels may reflect changes in ovarian physiology and cell signaling, which may be related to the differences observed in oviposition patterns. Taken together, our results indicate negative consequences for invertebrates under more stressful, urban, lit conditions and further investigation into the mechanisms driving these changes is warranted to manage invertebrate communities in a brighter future. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixture Toxicity and a Trait Based Approach to Soil Invertebrate Species for Site Specific Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Amy; Cousins, Mark; Hogan, Natacha; Siciliano, Steven D

    2018-05-05

    Although petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released to the environment typically occur as mixtures, PHC remediation guidelines often reflect individual substance toxicity. It is well documented that groups of aliphatic PHCs act via the same mechanism of action, nonpolar narcosis and, theoretically, concentration addition mixture toxicity principles apply. To assess this theory, ten standardized acute and chronic soil invertebrate toxicity tests on a range of organisms (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Oppia nitens and Hypoaspis aculeifer) were conducted with a refined PHC binary mixture. Reference models for concentration addition and independent action were applied to the mixture toxicity data with consideration of synergism, antagonism and dose level toxicity. Both concentration addition and independent action, without further interactions, provided the best fit with observed response to the mixture. Individual fraction effective concentration values were predicted from optimized, fitted reference models. Concentration addition provided a better estimate than independent action of individual fraction effective concentrations based on comparison with available literature and species trends observed in toxic responses to the mixture. Interspecies differences in standardized laboratory soil invertebrate species responses to PHC contaminated soil was reflected in unique traits. Diets that included soil, large body size, permeable cuticle, low lipid content, lack of ability to molt and no maternal transfer were traits linked to a sensitive survival response to PHC contaminated soil in laboratory tests. Traits linked to sensitive reproduction response in organisms tested were long life spans with small clutch sizes. By deriving single fraction toxicity endpoints considerate of mixtures, we reduce resources and time required in conducting site specific risk assessments for the protection of soil organism's exposure pathway. This

  19. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-06-10

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (years) had 8 times lower mortality risk if the grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters' inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother's own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter's reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan.

  1. Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for growth traits on bovine chromosome 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Miyata

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in livestock allows the identification of genes that determine the genetic variation affecting traits of economic interest. We analyzed the birth weight and weight at 60 days QTL segregating on bovine chromosome BTA14 in a F2 resource population using genotypes produced from seven microsatellite markers. Phenotypes were derived from 346 F2 progeny produced from crossing Bos indicus Gyr x Holstein Bos taurus F1 parents. Interval analysis to detect QTL for birth weight revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 1 centimorgan (cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 1.210 ± 0.438 kg. Interval analysis for weight at 60 days revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 0 cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 2.122 ± 0.735 kg. The region to which the QTL were assigned is described in the literature as responsible for some growth traits, milk yield, milk composition, fat deposition and has also been related to reproductive traits such as daughter pregnancy rate and ovulation rate. The effects of the QTL described on other traits were not investigated.

  2. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  3. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  4. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yagound

    Full Text Available Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps, the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation

  5. Genetic evaluation of reproduction performance of Jersey × Red Sindhi crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinothraj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to study the reproduction performance and effect of non-genetic factors on reproduction performance of Jersey crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Data on 355 Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Post-graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences, Kattupakkam, Tamil Nadu, distributed over 30 years (1985 to 2014. The effect of various non-genetic factors including the period of birth, season of birth, period of calving, season of calving and parity were analyzed through least-squares analyses using univariate general linear model. The different (covariance components for calculation of genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood method by fitting an animal model. Results: The overall least-squares means (±standard error of age at first service, age at first calving, weight at first calving, service period, calving interval, dry period, and number of services per conception were 848.06±9.72 days, 1204±12.20 days, 289.81±1.71 kg, 210.01±6.41 days, 489.12±6.45 days, 137.96±5.58 days, 2.50±0.07, respectively. Period of calving had either significant (p<0.05 or highly significant (p<0.01 effect on all reproduction traits studied except service period, calving interval, and dry period. Number of services per conception was affected by season of calving. Parity had significant influence (p<0.05 or highly significant (p<0.01 influence on all the traits studied except service period and dry period. Heritability estimates of age at first service, age at first calving, weight at first calving, service period, calving interval, dry period, and number of services per conception were 0.299, 0.220, 0.017, 0.142, 0.222, 0.177, and 0.042, respectively. The estimates of repeatability for service period, calving interval, dry period, and number of services per conception were 0.219, 0.234, 0.420, and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: The reproduction performances of Jersey

  6. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Elizabeth Christina; Gort, G.; van Oers, K.; Hinde, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating

  7. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Lies; Gort, Gerrit; Oers, van Kees; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2017-01-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating

  8. Effect of rosette size, clonality and spatial distribution on the reproduction of Vriesea carinata (Bromeliaceae in the Atlantic Forest of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Aparecido de Souza Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant size and clonality are important traits for explaining the reproductive effort of clonal plants. Larger plants can invest more resources into reproduction, and clonality is known to increase reproductive effort. Moreover, reproductive effort is influenced by environmental variation, and so the spatial distribution of plants may affect plant reproductive effort. We investigated the effect of plant size, clonality and spatial distribution on the reproductive effort of Vriesea carinata in the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraná, Brazil. We marked twenty individual plants and measured their rosette size, biomass and number, as well as rosette reproductive effort (number of flowers, fruits and seeds. We also evaluated the relationship between reproductive effort and spatial distribution of plants. Reproductive effort did not correlate with size, whereas greater clonal growth contributed to a lower reproductive effort because rosettes within clones that had more rosettes set fewer flowers. We found that plants growing closer to each other exhibited similar reproductive efforts independently of vegetative traits, because reproductive traits were spatially autocorrelated. In Vriesea carinata, the main drivers of reproductive effort are clonality, which decreases flower production, and spatial factors, which result in greater similarity in reproductive efforts among more proximate plants.

  9. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, Joshua S.; Anderson, Kristen D.; Andreasen, Magnus Heide; Bridge, Tom C. L.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Connolly, Sean R.; Darling, Emily S.; Diaz, Marcela; Falster, Daniel S.; Franklin, Erik C.; Gates, Ruth D.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A.; Kosnik, Matthew A.; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Luiz, Osmar; Martinelli, Julieta; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M.; Pochon, Xavier; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Putnam, Hollie M.; Roberts, T. Edward; Stat, Michael; Wallace, Carden C.; Widman, Elizabeth; Baird, Andrew H.

    2016-03-01

    Trait-based approaches advance ecological and evolutionary research because traits provide a strong link to an organism’s function and fitness. Trait-based research might lead to a deeper understanding of the functions of, and services provided by, ecosystems, thereby improving management, which is vital in the current era of rapid environmental change. Coral reef scientists have long collected trait data for corals; however, these are difficult to access and often under-utilized in addressing large-scale questions. We present the Coral Trait Database initiative that aims to bring together physiological, morphological, ecological, phylogenetic and biogeographic trait information into a single repository. The database houses species- and individual-level data from published field and experimental studies alongside contextual data that provide important framing for analyses. In this data descriptor, we release data for 56 traits for 1547 species, and present a collaborative platform on which other trait data are being actively federated. Our overall goal is for the Coral Trait Database to become an open-source, community-led data clearinghouse that accelerates coral reef research.

  10. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, Joshua S; Anderson, Kristen D; Andreasen, Magnus Heide; Bridge, Tom C L; Cairns, Stephen D; Connolly, Sean R; Darling, Emily S; Diaz, Marcela; Falster, Daniel S; Franklin, Erik C; Gates, Ruth D; Harmer, Aaron; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A; Kosnik, Matthew A; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Luiz, Osmar; Martinelli, Julieta; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M; Pochon, Xavier; Pratchett, Morgan S; Putnam, Hollie M; Roberts, T Edward; Stat, Michael; Wallace, Carden C; Widman, Elizabeth; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-03-29

    Trait-based approaches advance ecological and evolutionary research because traits provide a strong link to an organism's function and fitness. Trait-based research might lead to a deeper understanding of the functions of, and services provided by, ecosystems, thereby improving management, which is vital in the current era of rapid environmental change. Coral reef scientists have long collected trait data for corals; however, these are difficult to access and often under-utilized in addressing large-scale questions. We present the Coral Trait Database initiative that aims to bring together physiological, morphological, ecological, phylogenetic and biogeographic trait information into a single repository. The database houses species- and individual-level data from published field and experimental studies alongside contextual data that provide important framing for analyses. In this data descriptor, we release data for 56 traits for 1547 species, and present a collaborative platform on which other trait data are being actively federated. Our overall goal is for the Coral Trait Database to become an open-source, community-led data clearinghouse that accelerates coral reef research.

  11. Genetic variation and co-variation for fitness between intra-population and inter-population backgrounds in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W.; Wade, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrids from crosses between populations of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, express varying degrees of inviability and morphological abnormalities. The proportion of allopatric population hybrids exhibiting these negative hybrid phenotypes varies widely, from 3% to 100%, depending upon the pair of populations crossed. We crossed three populations and measured two fitness components, fertility and adult offspring numbers from successful crosses, to determine how genes segregating within populations interact in inter-population hybrids to cause the negative phenotypes. With data from crosses of 40 sires from each of three populations to groups of 5 dams from their own and two divergent populations, we estimated the genetic variance and covariance for breeding value of fitness between the intra- and inter-population backgrounds and the sire × dam-population interaction variance. The latter component of the variance in breeding values estimates the change in genic effects between backgrounds owing to epistasis. Interacting genes with a positive effect, prior to fixation, in the sympatric background but a negative effect in the hybrid background cause reproductive incompatibility in the Dobzhansky-Muller speciation model. Thus, the sire × dam-population interaction provides a way to measure the progress toward speciation of genetically differentiating populations on a trait by trait basis using inter-population hybrids. PMID:21044199

  12. Fitness differences due to allelic variation at Esterase-4 locus in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAVITA KRISHNAMOORTI

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Keywords. esterases; null allele; reproductive fitness; natural selection; Drosophila ananassae. .... cific substrate (1-naphthylacetate AR) and stain (fast blue. RR). On the ... transferred to fresh food vials and eggs were counted.

  13. Examining Person--Environment Fit and Academic Major Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Decisions regarding college majors have the potential to affect a person's overall academic performance and long-term career success. With Holland's (1997) trait-and-factor theory serving as a foundation, the authors examined relationships between person-environment fit, college major satisfaction, and grade point average of undergraduate students…

  14. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  15. Reproductive traits and population structure of Astyanax aeneus (Characiformes: Characidae from a subtropical river in Mexico Rasgos reproductivos y estructura de la población de Astyanax aeneus (Characiformes: Characidae de un río subtropical en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Trujillo-Jiménez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Champotón River is an unknown area within the Mesoamerican hotspot in Southestern México. Reproductive traits and population structure of Astyanax aeneus were analyzed along an environmental gradient of the upper, middle and lower sections of the river, where diverse environmental factors were recorded. For this, nets were cast for 1h at each site and A. aeneus were collected from all sections with sweep nets (5 and 10m long by 5m deep, 0.03m mesh size and a casting net (0.05m mesh size. At each study site and campaign, a total of 80 specimens (in average were collected and were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for further analysis. Population structure by size was analyzed for each study site, based on the relative frequencies by standard length classes. The length-weight relationship was determined, and the identification of gonadal developmental stages, reproductive period, size at first sexual maturity, relative fecundity, sex ratio and somatic indexes (gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic and Fulton’s condition factor were also assessed. Seven size classes were found in the upper and middle sections, and nine downstream, with seasonal and spatial pattern in size-class frequency distribution. Size at first maturity was 45.7mm for females and 40.8mm for males. The maximum relative fecundity was recorded at the downstream site and was positively correlated with body weight and standard length. Sex ratio (1.8:1 males: females differed significantly from expected values (1:1. Gonadosomatic index scores indicated that the reproductive period of this species in the Champotón River was from April to July, during the warm and wet season. Hepatosomatic index was negatively correlated with the Gonadosomatic index, evidencing transfer of energy from the liver towards gamete production. This strategy enabled A. aeneus to maintain robustness during the study period with tiny changes in condition factor. A. aeneus in the Champotón River, as opposed to South

  16. Developing Leadership Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan King

    1980-01-01

    Defines six leadership traits that are necessary to and fostered by editing a college newspaper: delegating authority, developing subordinates, motivating others, being approachable, commanding respect, and bringing out optimum performances in others. (TJ)

  17. Fitness consequences of divorce in the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Ens, Bruno J.

    We investigated the fitness consequences of divorce in oystercatchers. We made a distinction between two types of divorce: in desertions the disruption of the pair bond is initiated by one of the pair members, and in usurpations by a conspecific individual. Survival and reproduction prospects for

  18. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  19. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  20. Pre- and Postcopulatory Traits of Salvator Male Lizards in Allopatry and Sympatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Naretto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive traits of males are under influence of sexual pressures before and after copulation. The strength of sexual selection varies across populations because they undergo varying competition for mating opportunities. Besides intraspecific pressures, individuals seem to be subjected to pressures driven by interspecific interactions in sympatry. Lizards may vary their reproductive strategies through varying sexual characters, body size, gonadal investment, and sperm traits. We evaluated the reproductive traits, involved in pre- and postcopulatory competition, in allopatric and sympatric populations of Salvator lizards. We observed a spatial gradient of male competition among populations, with the following order: allopatric zone of S. rufescens; sympatric zone; and allopatric zone of S. merianae. Accordingly, variation in secondary sexual character, the relative testis mass, and the length of sperm component was observed between allopatry and sympatry in each species, suggesting differences in the investment of reproductive traits. However, we found that these two Salvator species did not differ in secondary sexual characters in sympatry. Interestingly, the trade-off between testes and muscle varied differently from allopatry to sympatry between these Salvator species, suggesting that the influence of social context on reproductive traits investment would affect lizard species differently.

  1. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Coates, K.S.; Birkhofer, K.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investig......The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system...... to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly...... and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival...

  2. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  3. Same Traits, Different Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. Churchyard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.

  4. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoreg...

  5. Host responses in life-history traits and tolerance to virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowing how hosts respond to parasite infection is paramount in understanding the effects of parasites on host populations and hence host-parasite co-evolution. Modification of life-history traits in response to parasitism has received less attention than other defence strategies. Life-history theory predicts that parasitised hosts will increase reproductive effort and accelerate reproduction. However, empirical analyses of these predictions are few and mostly limited to animal-parasite systems. We have analysed life-history trait responses in 18 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana infected at two different developmental stages with three strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Accessions were divided into two groups according to allometric relationships; these groups differed also in their tolerance to CMV infection. Life-history trait modification upon virus infection depended on the host genotype and the stage at infection. While all accessions delayed flowering, only the more tolerant allometric group modified resource allocation to increase the production of reproductive structures and progeny, and reduced the length of reproductive period. Our results are in agreement with modifications of life-history traits reported for parasitised animals and with predictions from life-history theory. Thus, we provide empirical support for the general validity of theoretical predictions. In addition, this experimental approach allowed us to quantitatively estimate the genetic determinism of life-history trait plasticity and to evaluate the role of life-history trait modification in defence against parasites, two largely unexplored issues.

  6. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  7. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  8. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  9. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  10. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity in fish life-history traits in two neotropical reservoirs: Petit-Saut Reservoir in French Guiana and Brokopondo Reservoir in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard de Mérona

    Full Text Available Fish species are known for their large phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits in relation to environmental characteristics. Plasticity allows species to increase their fitness in a given environment. Here we examined the life-history response of fish species after an abrupt change in their environment caused by the damming of rivers. Two reservoirs of different age, both situated on the Guiana Shield, were investigated: the young Petit-Saut Reservoir in French Guiana (14 years and the much older Brokopondo Reservoir in Suriname (44 years. Six life-history traits in 14 fish species were studied and compared to their value in the Sinnamary River prior to the completion of Petit-Saut Reservoir. The traits analyzed were maximum length, absolute and relative length at first maturation, proportion of mature oocytes in ripe gonad, batch fecundity and mean size of mature oocytes. The results revealed a general increase of reproductive effort. All species showed a decrease in maximum length. Compared to the values observed before the dam constructions, eight species had larger oocytes and three species showed an increased batch fecundity. These observed changes suggest a trend towards a pioneer strategy. The changes observed in Petit-Saut Reservoir also seemed to apply to the 30 years older Brokopondo Reservoir suggesting that these reservoirs remain in a state of immaturity for a long time.

  12. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  13. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. The Langley Fitness Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  15. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  16. Genome-wide association study for endocrine fertility traits using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and sequence variants in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenghe, A.M.M.; Bouwman, A.C.; Berglund, B.; Strandberg, E.; Koning, de D.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine fertility traits, which are defined from progesterone concentration levels in milk, are interesting indicators of dairy cow fertility because they more directly reflect the cows own reproductive physiology than classical fertility traits, which are more biased by farm management

  17. Benefit of multiple trait selection to increase reproductive traits; experimental evidence from Golden hamsters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satoh, M.; Nishida, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Lende, van der T.

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen generations of selection were conducted to study responses for litter size at birth (LSB), weight at weaning of standardized litter (LWW), and individual body weight at 8 wk of age (BW8) using golden hamsters as an experimental model for pigs. The experiment involved three lines: selection

  18. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  19. Contemporary Ecological Interactions Improve Models of Past Trait Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Matthew C; Gaiarsa, Marília P; Stouffer, Daniel B

    2018-02-20

    Despite the fact that natural selection underlies both traits and interactions, evolutionary models often neglect that ecological interactions may, and in many cases do, influence the evolution of traits. Here, we explore the interdependence of ecological interactions and functional traits in the pollination associations of hawkmoths and flowering plants. Specifically, we develop an adaptation of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of trait evolution that allows us to study the influence of plant corolla depth and observed hawkmoth-plant interactions on the evolution of hawkmoth proboscis length. Across diverse modelling scenarios, we find that the inclusion of contemporary interactions can provide a better description of trait evolution than the null expectation. Moreover, we show that the pollination interactions provide more-likely models of hawkmoth trait evolution when interactions are considered at increasingly finescale groups of hawkmoths. Finally, we demonstrate how the results of best-fit modelling approaches can implicitly support the association between interactions and trait evolution that our method explicitly examines. In showing that contemporary interactions can provide insight into the historical evolution of hawkmoth proboscis length, we demonstrate the clear utility of incorporating additional ecological information to models designed to study past trait evolution.

  20. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In