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Sample records for reprocessing plant trp

  1. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, M.; Scheinman, L.; Sievering, N.; Wonder, E.; Lipman, D.; Immerman, W.; Elliott, J.M.; Crane, F.

    1981-04-01

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems.

  2. Safeguards instruments for Large-Scale Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Case, R.S.; Sonnier, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Between 1987 and 1992 a multi-national forum known as LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards) met to assist the IAEA in development of effective and efficient safeguards for large-scale reprocessing plants. The US provided considerable input for safeguards approaches and instrumentation. This paper reviews and updates instrumentation of importance in measuring plutonium and uranium in these facilities.

  3. Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

  4. Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

  5. Technical specifications on the welding in fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karino, Motonobu; Uryu, Mitsuru; Matsui, N.; Nakazawa, Fumio; Imanishi, Makoto; Koizumi; Kazuhiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Tanaka, Hideo

    1999-04-01

    The past specifications SGN of the welding in JNC was reexamined for the reprocessing plants in order to further promote the quality control. The specification first concerns the quality of raw materials, items of the quality tests, material management, and qualification standards of the welders. It extends over details of the welding techniques, welding design, welding testings, inspection and the judgment standards. (H. Baba)

  6. Calibration of burnup monitor installed in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeda, Kaoru; Naito, Hirofumi; Hirota, Masanari [Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Natsume, Koichiro [Isogo Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Kumanomido, Hironori [Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant uses burnup credit for criticality control at the Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF) and the Dissolution Facility. A burnup monitor measures nondestructively burnup value of a spent fuel assembly and guarantees the credit for burnup. For practical reasons, a standard radiation source is not used in calibration of the burnup monitor, but the burnup values of many spent fuel assemblies are measured based on operator-declared burnup values. This paper describes the concept of burnup credit, the burnup monitor, and the calibration method. It is concluded, from the results of calibration tests, that the calibration method is valid. (author)

  7. General Atomic reprocessing pilot plant: description and results of initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment in the plant and summarizes the results of the initial phase of reprocessing testing.

  8. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  9. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  10. Calibration of burnup monitor in the Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oheda, K.; Naito, H.; Hirota, M. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan); Natsume, K. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Kumanomido, H. [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has adopted a credit for burnup in criticality control in the Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF) and the Dissolution Facility. The burnup monitor system, prepared for BWR and PWR type fuel assemblies, nondestructively measures the burnup value and determines the residual U-235 enrichment in a spent fuel assembly, and criticality is controlled by the value of residual U-235 enrichment in SFSF and by the value of top 50 cm average burnup in the Dissolution Facility. The burnup monitor consists of three measurement systems; a Boss gamma-ray profile measurement system, a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry system, and a passive neutron measurement system. The monitor sensitivity is calibrated against operator-declared burnup values through repetitive measurements of 100 spent fuel assemblies: BWR 8 X 8, PWR 14 X 14. and 17 X 17. The outline of the measurement methods, objectives of the calibration, actual calibration method, and an example of calibration performed in a demonstration experiment are presented. (author)

  11. Seismic analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Service Reprocessing Plant at West Valley, New York: documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Davito, A.M.

    1977-04-26

    This material was generated as part of a seismic case review of the NFS Reprocessing Plant. This study is documented in UCRL-52266. The material is divided into two parts: mathematical model information, and ultimate load calculations and comparisons. (DLC)

  12. Guide to the selection, training, and licensing or certification of reprocessing plant operators. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-06-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 55, establishes procedures and criteria for the licensing of operators, including senior operators, in ''Production and Utilization Facilities'', which includes plants for reprocessing irradiated fuel. A training guide is presented which will facilitate the licensing of operators for nuclear reprocessing plants by offering generalized descriptions of the basic principles (theory) and the unit operations (mechanics) employed in reprocessing spent fuels. In the present volume, details about the portions of a training program that are of major interest to management are presented. (JSR)

  13. Brevicompanine C, cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp), plant growth regulators from Penicillium brevi-compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yasuo; Sawada, Aya; Kuramata, Masato; Kusano, Miyako; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi

    2005-02-01

    New plant growth regulators, named brevicompanine C (1), cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp) (2), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp) (3), have been isolated from Penicillium brevi-compactum Dierckx, and their structures have been established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR and chiral TLC analysis. Plant growth activities of 1, 2, and 3 have been examined using lettuce seedling bioassay methods. All compounds accelerated the root growth of the seedlings in proportion to their concentration from 1 to 100 mg/L.

  14. General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, H.H.

    1979-04-01

    In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for both thorium containing BISO and uranium containinng WAR fissile fuels are included. A continuous vertical centrifuge is used to clarify the resultant dissolver product solution. Process instrumentation and controls for the system reflect design philosophy suitable for remote operation.

  15. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  16. Airborne effluent control for LMFBR fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Groenier, W.S.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    A significant part of the LMFBR fuel reprocessing development program has been devoted to the development of efficient removal systems for the volatile fission products, including /sup 131/I, krypton, tritium, /sup 129/I, and most recently /sup 14/C. Flowsheet studies have indicated that very significant reductions of radioactive effluents can be achieved by integrating advanced effluent control systems with new concepts of containment and ventilation; however, the feasibility of such has not yet been established, nor have the economics been examined. This paper presents a flowsheet for the application of advanced containment systems to the processing of LMFBR fuels and summarizes the status and applicability of specific fission product removal systems.

  17. NO/sub x/ emissions from Hanford nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A. L.; Dirkes, R. L.

    1978-09-15

    Operation of the existing Hanford nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities will increase the release of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) to the atmosphere over present emission rates. Stack emissions from two reprocessing facilities, one waste storage facility and two coal burning power plants will contain increased concentrations of NO/sub x/. The opacity of the reprocessing facilities' emissions is predicted to periodically exceed the State and local opacity limit of twenty percent. Past measurements failed to detect differences in the ambient air NO/sub x/ concentration with and without reprocessing plant operations. Since the facilities are not presently operating, increases in the non-occupational ambient air NO/sub x/ concentration were predicted from theoretical diffusion models. Based on the calculations, the annual average ambient air NO/sub x/ concentration will increase from the present level of less than 0.004 ppM to less than 0.006 ppM at the Hanford site boundaries. The national standard for the annual mean ambient air NO/sub 2/ concentration is 0.05 ppM. Therefore, the non-occupational ambient air NO/sub x/ concentration will not be increased to significant levels by reprocessing operations in the Hanford 200 Areas.

  18. Development of Demo of Solution Measurement and Monitoring System in Reprocessing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Qing-lei; CHANG; Li; LI; Jing-huai; LU; Jie; TIAN; Yuan

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous unattended measurement and monitoring systems at reprocessing plants,and the most important one is the solution measurement and monitoring system,which can monitor the stable operation of the process and account the nuclear material of the entire

  19. Preliminary concepts: coordinated safeguards for materials management in a thorium--uranium fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This report addresses preliminary concepts for coordinated safeguards materials management in a typical generic thorium--uranium-fueled light-water reactor (LWR) fuels reprocessing plant. The reference facility is designed to recover thorium and uranium from first-generation (denatured /sup 235/U) startup fuels, first-recycle and equilibrium (denatured /sup 233/U) thorium--uranium LWR fuels, and to recover the plutonium generated in the /sup 238/U denaturant as well. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL; Johnson, Shirley [Tucker Creek Consulting

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

  1. Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-08-01

    The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

  2. Evaluation and development plan of NRTA measurement methods for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Hakkila, E.A.; Flosterbuer, S.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) has been proposed as a safeguards method at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), a large-scale commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors spent-fuel reprocessing facility. NRTA for RRP requires material balance closures every month. To develop a more effective and practical NRTA system for RRP, we have evaluated NRTA measurement techniques and systems that might be implemented in both the main process and the co-denitration process areas at RRP to analyze the concentrations of plutonium in solutions and mixed oxide powder. Based on the comparative evaluation, including performance, reliability, design criteria, operation methods, maintenance requirements, and estimated costs for each possible measurement method, recommendations for development were formulated. This paper discusses the evaluations and reports on the recommendation of the NRTA development plan for potential implementation at RRP.

  3. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  4. Initiating events study of the first extraction cycle process in a model reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renze; Zhang, Jian Gang; Zhuang, Dajie; Feng, Zong Yang [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    Definition and grouping of initiating events (IEs) are important basics for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). An IE in a spent fuel reprocessing plant (SFRP) is an event that probably leads to the release of dangerous material to jeopardize workers, public and environment. The main difference between SFRPs and nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that hazard materials spread diffusely in a SFRP and radioactive material is just one kind of hazard material. Since the research on IEs for NPPs is in-depth around the world, there are several general methods to identify IEs: reference of lists in existence, review of experience feedback, qualitative analysis method, and deductive analysis method. While failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important qualitative analysis method, master logic diagram (MLD) method is the deductive analysis method. IE identification in SFRPs should be consulted with the experience of NPPs, however the differences between SFRPs and NPPs should be considered seriously. The plutonium uranium reduction extraction (Purex) process is adopted by the technics in a model reprocessing plant. The first extraction cycle (FEC) is the pivotal process in the Purex process. Whether the FEC can function safely and steadily would directly influence the production process of the whole plant-production quality. Important facilities of the FEC are installed in the equipment cells (ECs). In this work, IEs in the FEC process were identified and categorized by FMEA and MLD two methods, based on the fact that ECs are containments in the plant. The results show that only two ECs in the FEC do not need to be concerned particularly with safety problems, and criticality, fire and red oil explosion are IEs which should be emphatically analyzed. The results are accordant with the references.

  5. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

  6. Model of iodine transport and reaction kinetics in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W. Jr.

    1977-05-01

    A model is presented to describe the time-dependent flow and retention of stable iodine isotopes and the decay of /sup 131/I in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The plant consists of 16 units of equipment such as a voloxidizer or graphite burner, fuel dissolver, solvent extractors, storage tanks, vaporizers, primary iodine sorbers, and silver zeolite. The rate of accumulation of bulk and radioactive iodine in these units and in the environment is described using 19 differential equations. Reasonable time-dependence of iodine retention factors (RFs) by the plant were calculated. RFs for a new plant in excess of 10/sup 6/ for stable iodine and /sup 129/I decrease to the range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 2/ as plant operating times exceed 50 to 100 days. The RFs for /sup 131/I also decrease initially, for a period of approximately 10 days, but then increase by several orders of magnitude due to radioactive decay and isotopic exchange. Generally, the RFs for /sup 131/I exceed those for stable iodine by factors of 10/sup 4/ or more. 19 references, 13 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

  7. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Calibration of burnup monitor of spent nuclear fuel installed at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeda, Kaoru; Matoba, Masaru; Wakabayashi, Genichiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Naito, Hirofumi; Hirota, Masanari [Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Morizaki, Hidetoshi; Kumanomido, Hironori; Natsume, Koichiro [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    The spent nuclear fuel storage pool of Rokkasho reprocessing plant adopts the burnup credit' conception. Spent fuel assemblies are measured every one by one, by burnup monitors, and stored to a storage rack which is designed with specified residual enrichment. For nuclear criticality control, it is necessary for the burnup monitor that the measured value includes a kind of margin, which consists of errors of the monitor. In this paper, we describe the error of the burnup monitors, and the way of taking of the margin. From the result of calibration of the burnup monitor carried out from July through November, 1999, we describe that the way of taking of the margin is validated. And comments about possibility of error reduction are remarked. (author)

  9. Task 5c: measurement and instrumentation under subsystem design of the LLL safeguard material control program. [For fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-31

    A product survey was conducted of all security products currently available on the market. Documentation is presented of the survey and a printout of the data is included. A general description is given of new but recommended instrumentation and security devices for application to fuel reprocessing plants. Security systems and hardware recommended for development, assembly, and testing are discussed briefly. (DLC)

  10. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  11. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Safety and cost information were developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a fuel reprocessing plant with characteristics similar to the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. The main process building, spent fuel receiving and storage station, liquid radioactive waste storage tank system, and a conceptual high-level waste-solidification facility were postulated to be decommissioned. The plant was conceptually decommissioned to three decommissioning states or modes; layaway, protective storage, and dismantlement. Assuming favorable work performance, the elapsed time required to perform the decommissioning work in each mode following plant shutdown was estimated to be 2.4 years for layaway, 2.7 years for protective storage, and 5.2 years for dismantlement. In addition to these times, approximately 2 years of planning and preparation are required before plant shutdown. Costs, in constant 1975 dollars, for decommissioning were estimated to be $18 million for layaway, $19 million for protective storage and $58 million for dismantlement. Maintenance and surveillance costs were estimated to be $680,000 per year after layaway and $140,000 per year after protective storage. The combination mode of protective storage followed by dismantlement deferred for 10, 30, and 100 years was estimated to cost $64 million, $67 million and $77 million, respectively, in nondiscounted total 1975 dollars. Present values of these costs give reduced costs as dismantlement is deferred. Safety analyses indicate that radiological and nonradiological safety impacts from decommissioning activities should be small. The 50-year radiation dose commitment to the members of the public from airborne releases from normal decommissioning activities were estimated to be less than 11 man-rem.

  12. Adequacy of radioiodine control and monitoring at nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Soldat, J.K.

    1984-06-01

    The present backlog of irradiated reactor fuel leads to projections that no fuel out of the reactor less than 10 years need be reprocessed prior to the year 2000. The only radioiodine present in such aged fuel is /sup 129/I (half-life 1.6 x 10/sup 7/ y). The /sup 131/I initially present in the fuel decays to insignificance in the first few hundred days post-reactor. The /sup 129/I content of irradiated fuel is about 1 Ci per gigawatt-year of electricity generated (Ci/GW(e)-y). The US EPA has specified, in 40 CFR 190, a release limit for /sup 129/I of 5 mCi/GW(e)-y. Thus a retention factor (RF) of 200 for /sup 129/I at the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) is required. Experience indicates that RF values obtained under actual FRP operating conditions can average as little as 10% of experimentally determined RF values. Therefore processes theoretically capable of achieving RF values of up to 10/sup 4/ have been investigated. The US EPA has also specified in 40 CFR 90 a thyroid dose limit of 75 mrem/y for a member of the general public. This dose limit could be readily met at a typical FRP site with an RF value of about 10 or less. Therefore, the limit of 5 mCi/GW(e)-y is more restrictive than the thyroid dose limit for /sup 129/I. The absence of /sup 131/I in effluents from processing of aged fuels makes analysis of /sup 129/I somewhat easier. However, in-line, real-time monitoring for /sup 129/I in FRP gas streams is currently not feasible. Moisture, chemicals, and other radioactive fission products interfere with in-plant measurements. Samples collected over several days must be taken to a laboratory for /sup 129/I analysis. Measurement techniques currently in use or under investigation include neutron activation analysis, scintillation counting, mass spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. 26 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  13. Thermal decomposition of organic solvent with nitric acid in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Tadao; Nishio, Gunji; Takada, Junichi; Tukamoto, Michio; Watanabe, Kouji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Miyata, Sadaichirou

    1995-02-01

    Since a thermal decomposition of organic solvent containing TBP (tributyl phosphate) with nitric acid and heavy metal nitrates is an exothermic reaction, it is possible to cause an explosive decomposition of TBP-complex materials formed by a nitration between the solvent and nitric acid, if the solvent involving TBP-complex is heated upto a thermal limit in an evaporator to concentrate a fuel liquid solution from the extraction process in the reprocessing plant. In JAERI, the demonstration test for explosive decomposition of TBP-complex by the nitration was performed to elucidate the safety margin of the evaporator in the event of hypothetical explosion under auspices of the Science and Technology Agency. The demonstration test was carried out by heating TBP/n-dodecane solvent mixed with nitric acid and uranium nitrate. In the test, the thermal decomposition behavior of the solvent was examined, and also a kinematic reaction constant and a heat formation of the TBP-complex decomposition were measured by the test. In the paper, a safety analysis of a model evaporator was conducted during accidental conditions under the explosive decomposition of the solvent. (author).

  14. Atmospheric tritium concentrations under influence of AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant (France) and background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Maro, D; Pellerin, G; Voiseux, C; Lamotte, M; Laguionie, P

    2017-10-01

    In-air tritium measurements were conducted around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant, as well as on other sites that are not impacted by the nuclear industry in northwest of France. The results indicate that the dominant tritium form around the AREVA site is HT (86%). HT and HTO levels are lower than 5 and 1 Bq. m(-3) for hourly samples taken in the plume. No tritiated organic molecules (TOM) were detected. 26 measurement campaigns were performed and links were established between near-field (85)Kr, HT and HTO activities. Environmental measurements are in line with those taken at the discharge stack, and tend to demonstrate that there are no rapid changes in the tritium forms released. Out of the influence of any nuclear activities, the levels measured were below 13 mBq.m(-3) for HT and 5 mBq.m(-3) for HTO (<0.5 Bq. L(-1)). HTO level in air seems to be influenced by HTO activities in surrounding seawater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Corrosion circumstance in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant and evaluation of the corrosion rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Akira [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai Reprocessing Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    In the reprocessing plant, corrosive circumstances arise, because the major equipment contains a high concentration of the metal ions that originate from the fission products. They are also equipped in the various concentrations of nitric acid and various temperatures. Based on failed experiments due to corrosion, repairing the equipment and exchanging materials, the corrosion rate of stainless steel containing Nb was measured over 1 mm/yr in the heat transfer surface of the dissolver. Pin-holes in the weld zone of the heat conduction surface of the dissolver and the acid recovery evaporator were observed. Although the corrosion rate of Ti-5Ta in the vapor zone of the plutonium solution evaporator reached 0.1 - 0.3 mm/yr, no local attacks were confirmed. On the other hand, the corrosion of Ti-5Ta was not observed in the acid recovery evaporator. This report presents the survey result of the corrosion equipment and an outline of the corrosion tests, with the wall thickness measurement result obtained as a soundness confirmation of the equipment. (author)

  16. Safety demonstration tests on pressure rise in ventilation system and blower integrity of a fuel-reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Junichi; Suzuki, Motoe; Tsukamoto, Michio; Koike, Tadao; Nishio, Gunji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    In JAERI, the demonstration test was carried out as a part of safety researches of the fuel-reprocessing plant using a large-scale facility consist of cells, ducts, dumpers, HEPA filters and a blower, when an explosive burning due to a rapid reaction of thermal decomposition for solvent/nitric acid occurs in a cell of the reprocessing plant. In the demonstration test, pressure response propagating through the facility was measured under a blowing of air from a pressurized tank into the cell in the facility to elucidate an influence of pressure rise in the ventilation system. Consequently, effective pressure decrease in the facility was given by a configuration of cells and ducts in the facility. In the test, transient responses of HEPA filters and the blower by the blowing of air were also measured to confirm the integrity. So that, it is confirmed that HEPA filters and the blower under pressure loading were sufficient to maintain the integrity. The content described in this report will contribute to safety assessment of the ventilation system in the event of explosive burning in the reprocessing plant. (author)

  17. Considerations affecting deep-well disposal of tritium-bearing low-level aqueous waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevorrow, L. E.; Warner, D. L.; Steindler, M. J.

    1977-03-01

    Present concepts of disposal of low-level aqueous wastes (LLAW) that contain much of the fission-product tritium from light water reactors involve dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams at fuel reprocessing plants. These concepts have been challenged in recent years. Deep-well injection of low-level aqueous wastes, an alternative to biospheric dispersal, is the subject of this presentation. Many factors must be considered in assessing its feasibility, including technology, costs, environmental impact, legal and regulatory constraints, and siting. Examination of these factors indicates that the technology of deep-well injection, extensively developed for other industrial wastes, would require little innovation before application to low-level aqueous wastes. Costs would be low, of the order of magnitude of 10/sup -4/ mill/kWh. The environmental impact of normal deep-well disposal would be small, compared with dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams; abnormal operation would not be expected to produce catastrophic results. Geologically suitable sites are abundant in the U.S., but a well would best be co-located with the fuel-reprocessing plant where the LLAW is produced. Legal and regulatory constraints now being developed will be the most important determinants of the feasibility of applying the method.

  18. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

  20. Development of Online Spectroscopic pH Monitoring for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants: Weak Acid Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Amanda J; Ahlers, Laura R H; Campbell, Emily L; Levitskaia, Tatiana G; Peterson, James M; Smith, Frances N; Bryan, Samuel A

    2015-05-19

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing, separating trivalent minor actinides and lanthanide fission products is extremely challenging and often necessitates tight pH control in TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) separations. In TALSPEAK and similar advanced processes, aqueous pH is one of the most important factors governing the partitioning of lanthanides and actinides between an aqueous phase containing a polyaminopolycarboxylate complexing agent and a weak carboxylic acid buffer and an organic phase containing an acidic organophosphorus extractant. Real-time pH monitoring would significantly increase confidence in the separation performance. Our research is focused on developing a general method for online determination of the pH of aqueous solutions through chemometric analysis of Raman spectra. Spectroscopic process-monitoring capabilities, incorporated in a counter-current centrifugal contactor bank, provide a pathway for online, real-time measurement of solution pH. The spectroscopic techniques are process-friendly and can be easily configured for online applications, whereas classic potentiometric pH measurements require frequent calibration/maintenance and have poor long-term stability in aggressive chemical and radiation environments. Raman spectroscopy discriminates between the protonated and deprotonated forms of the carboxylic acid buffer, and the chemometric processing of the Raman spectral data with PLS (partial least-squares) regression provides a means to quantify their respective abundances and therefore determine the solution pH. Interpretive quantitative models have been developed and validated under a range of chemical composition and pH conditions using a lactic acid/lactate buffer system. The developed model was applied to new spectra obtained from online spectral measurements during a solvent extraction experiment using a counter-current centrifugal contactor bank. The model

  1. Development of a new surfactant liquid formulation for TBP removal in reprocessing plants for decommissioning purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, B.; Bisel, I.; Pochon, P.; Delagrange, J.; Fulconis, J.M. [French Atomic Energy Commission, CEA/Siege, 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex 15 (France); Causse, J. [Universite de Montpellier, Place Eugene Bataillon 34095 Montpellier Cedex II (France)

    2003-07-01

    CEA has developed in the past years surfactant liquid solutions to remove organic matter located at the surfaces of nuclear components used in reprocessing facilities. These components may be covered with Tributyl Phosphate or products resulting from TBP radiolysis like Dibutyl phosphate or Monobutyl phosphate. These molecules can be combined either with uranium, plutonium or metal ions like zirconium for example. Conventional treatment used for decontamination usually have poor degreasing effect (like sodium hydroxide) so few of these products can be removed successfully. The aim of developing these new treatments is to achieve a better degreasing effect and eliminate sodium ions from the secondary liquid wastes. In a first step, low alkaline formulations have been developed (sodium content about 0,5 M to 1 M). In a second step, it is aimed to remove sodium ions completely, together with keeping a high degreasing efficiency. Another advantage to remove sodium hydroxide from decontamination solutions is to avoid Pu precipitation during the decontamination process. This paper describes the study of a degreasing formulation based on the use of fully soluble low foaming surfactants in nitric acid medium. One presents laboratory scale experiments, experiments on active samples, liquid secondary waste processing, a scale one experiment, and associated basic studies. In conclusion, chemical properties of a surfactant solution in nitric acid medium have been detailed. Aim of the formulation was to remove TBP molecules from metallic surfaces. Efficiency of the treatment was evaluated on inactive and hot samples and compared to more conventional treatments like concentrated sodium hydroxide and pure nitric acid. A micellization of 5,3 g/L of TBP in 0,5 M nitric acid is obtained. This value is about 15 times larger than TBP solubility in acid. The efficiency was found to be higher than that of sodium hydroxide and consequently the risk of Pu and U insolubilization is

  2. TRP channels and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, David

    2013-01-01

    Nociception is the process whereby primary afferent nerve fibers of the somatosensory system detect noxious stimuli. Pungent irritants from pepper, mint, and mustard plants have served as powerful pharmacological tools for identifying molecules and mechanisms underlying this initial step of pain sensation. These natural products have revealed three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family--TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1--as molecular detectors of thermal and chemical stimuli that activate sensory neurons to produce acute or persistent pain. Analysis of TRP channel function and expression has validated the existence of nociceptors as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons devoted to the detection of noxious stimuli. These studies are also providing insight into the coding logic of nociception and how specification of nociceptor subtypes underlies behavioral discrimination of noxious thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of these channels has provided the intellectual and technical foundation for developing new classes of analgesic drugs.

  3. Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most recent work in the United States has addressed the use of silver-exchanged faujasites and mordenites. The chemical reactions of iodine with silver on the sorbent are not well defined, but it is generally believed that chemisorbed iodides and iodates are formed. The process for iodine recovery generally involves passage of the iodine-laden gas stream through a packed bed of the adsorbent material preheated to a temperature of about 150/degree/C. Most iodine removal system designs utilizing silver-containing solid sorbents assume only a 30 to 50% silver utilization. Based on laboratory tests, potentially 60 to 70% of the silver contained in the sorbents can be reacted with iodine. To overcome the high cost of silver associated with these materials, various approaches have been explored. Among these are the regeneration of the silver-containing sorbent by stripping the iodine and trapping the iodine on a sorbent that has undergone only partial silver exchange and is capable of attaining a much higher silver utilization. This summary report describes the US work in regeneration of iodine-loaded solid sorbent material. In addition, the report discusses the broader subject of plant off-gas treatment including system design. The off-gas technologies to recovery No/sub x/ and to recover and dispose of Kr, /sup 14/C, and I are described as to their impacts on the design of an integrated off-gas system. The effect of ventilation philosophy for the reprocessing plant is discussed as an integral part of the overall treatment philosophy of the plant off-gas. 103 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  5. Estimation of 85Kr dispersion from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan, using an atmospheric dispersion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Iyogi, T; Kawabata, H; Chiang, J H; Suwa, H; Hisamatsu, S

    2015-11-01

    The spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) located in Rokkasho, Japan, discharged small amounts of (85)Kr into the atmosphere during final tests of the plant with actual spent fuel from 31 March 2006 to October 2008. During this period, the gamma-ray dose rates due to discharged (85)Kr were higher than the background rates measured at the Institute for Environmental Sciences and at seven monitoring stations of the Aomori prefectural government and JNFL. The dispersion of (85)Kr was simulated by means of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model and the CG-MATHEW/ADPIC models (ver. 5.0) with a vertical terrain-following height coordinate. Although the simulated gamma-ray dose rates due to discharged (85)Kr agreed fairly well with measured rates, the agreement between the estimated monthly mean (85)Kr concentrations and the observed concentrations was poor. Improvement of the vertical flow of air may lead to better estimation of (85)Kr dispersion.

  6. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  7. Noble gas retention in a reprocessing plant by selective absorption at low radiokrypton inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrich, E.; Huefner, R.; Weirich, F.

    1982-01-01

    In consideration of the special requirements on safety and technique in handling radioactive materials a continuous and selective variant of the noble gas scrubbing process with the solvent CF/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ (refrigerant 12 or briefly R12) has been worked out. Principles and process direction are described. A good off-gas decontamination and a good Xe/Kr-separation have been obtained in a small laboratory facility, on the basis of which a semi-technical plant has been designed. The essential test aims of that plant are sketched and the ability to master several problems (purification of the solvent, radiolysis, corrosion) and the technical feasibility are discussed.

  8. Acidic surfactant solutions for tributylphosphate removal in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants: A formulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causse, J.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, LPAD, SPDE, DEN, 30 (France)

    2009-04-15

    The removal of tributylphosphate (TBP), an organic solvent widely used as a complexing agent for uranium and plutonium in nuclear plants, was investigated to understand and adapt the mechanisms involved in TBP detachment and solubilization in acidic surfactant solutions. Two well-known degreasing mechanisms, roll-up and emulsification, should be combined for maximum effect. These mechanisms were characterized with a CCD camera to measure contact angles between a solid substrate and a liquid drop. We measured the contact angles of a TBP drop deposited on a stainless steel plate immersed in an acidic surfactant solution, and quantified the amount of TBP solubilized in the micelles by turbidity measurements. Preliminary results of micelle size characterization by dynamic light scattering are presented. We formulated new acidic surfactant solutions associating two industrial surfactants, Pluronic P123 and Rewopal X1207L, with improvement factors in various fields (total organic matter content, oil detachment and solubilization efficiency, emulsion stability, etc.). (authors)

  9. Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Shima, Nagayoshi; Iyogi, Takashi; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH(3)T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH(3)T concentrations. The HT and CH(3)T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Östlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH(3)T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH(4) to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH(3)T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of the CELVA-1D code to evaluate the safety of an air-ventilation system during postulated fire and explosion in the reprocessing plant. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Gunji; Watanabe, Kouji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kouno, Kouji; Yamazaki, Noboru; Mukaide, Shigeo; Yoshioka, Itsuo

    1998-03-01

    The CELVA-1D computer code was developed to evaluate the confinement of radioactive materials during postulated fire and explosion in a cell of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The CELVA-1D code calculates a response of temperature, pressure, flow velocity of fluid in an air-ventilation system of the plants by one-dimensional thermofluid analysis and calculates an ability to confine radioactive aerosol particles by transport, deposition, and HEPA filtration. The mathematical models in CELVA-1D were verified by comparison of the calculation with the result of JAERI`s demonstration tests simulating hypothetical fire and explosion accidents in the cell. (author)

  11. Estimation of tritium dispersion from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho using an atmospheric dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Koichi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun' ichi [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Akata, Naofumi [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien; Suwa, Hiroji [Japan NUS Co., Ltd., Tokyo 160-0023 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Japan's first large-scale commercial plant for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel was constructed in Rokkasho, Japan, by Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). Final tests of plant operation carried out with spent fuels since 31 March 2006 have indicated that small amounts of radionuclides (mainly {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I) are discharged into the atmosphere from the main stack of the plant. To estimate the atmospheric dispersion of {sup 3}H discharged from the plant, we used a combination of the Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the CG-MATHEW/ADPIC models, Version 5.0 (ARAC-2). Simulation results were validated with atmospheric {sup 3}H concentrations and wet deposition rates measured at the Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES), located 2.6 km east from the stack. Biweekly atmospheric HTO, HT, and CH3T samples and monthly precipitation samples were collected at IES from April 2006 to February 2009 (the test period). Concentrations of {sup 3}H in the samples were measured with a low-background liquid scintillation counter (LSC-LB5, Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). To simulate the dispersion of {sup 3}H from the stack, a meteorological field was calculated by MM5 and used as input to ARAC-2, which consists of a mass-consistent wind model and a particle-tracing-type dispersion model. The simulation areas were 315 km x 315 km for MM5 and 50 km x 50 km for ARAC-2. The following meteorological data were input to MM5: grid point data derived from the Mesoscale Model of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), data from JMA's Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS), and wind speed and direction at IES and JNFL measured every 10 min. The weekly discharge rates of {sup 3}H disclosed by JNFL were used as the source term for ARAC-2. The concentrations of {sup 3}H in atmospheric moisture and precipitation samples increased from their background values during the test period. As an index of

  12. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Modelo padrao para relatorio de analise de seguranca de usinas de reprocessamento de combustiveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-15

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization.

  13. Classic Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    This is a flowsheet as well as a series of subsheets to be used for discussion on the standard design of a reprocessing plant. This flowsheet consists of four main sections: offgas handling, separations, solvent wash, and acid recycle. As well as having the main flowsheet, subsections have been broken off into their own sheets to provide for larger font and ease of printing.

  14. Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

    1996-03-01

    In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

  15. Report of reprocessing of reflection seismic profile X-5 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic reflection profile X-5 exhibits a 7,700 ft long anomalous zone of poor quality to nonexistent reflections between shotpoints 100 and 170, compared to the high-quality, flat-lying, coherent reflections on either side. Results from drill holes in the area suggest 'layer cake' geology with no detectable abnormalities such as faults present. In an attempt to determine whether the anomalous zone of the seismic profile is an artifact or actually indicates a geologic condition, the data were extensively reprocessed using state-of-the-art processing techniques and the following conclusions were made: 1. The field-recorded data in the anomalous zone are of poor quality due to surface conditions and recording parameters used. 2. Reprocessing shows reflectors throughout the anomalous zone at all levels. However, it cannot prove that the reflectors are continuous throughout the anomalous zone. 3. Significant improvement in data quality may be achieved if the line is reshot using carefully determined recording parameters.

  16. Development of On-Line Spectroscopic pH Monitoring for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants: Weak Acid Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Amanda J.; Hylden, Laura R.; Campbell, Emily L.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Smith, Frances N.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2015-05-19

    Knowledge of real-time solution properties and composition is a necessity for any spent nuclear fuel reprocessing method. Metal-ligand speciation in aqueous solutions derived from the dissolved commercial spent fuel is highly dependent upon the acid concentration/pH, which influences extraction efficiency and the resulting speciation in the organic phase. Spectroscopic process monitoring capabilities, incorporated in a counter current centrifugal contactor bank, provide a pathway for on-line real-time measurement of solution pH. The spectroscopic techniques are process-friendly and can be easily configured for on-line applications, while classic potentiometric pH measurements require frequent calibration/maintenance and have poor long-term stability in aggressive chemical and radiation environments. Our research is focused on developing a general method for on-line determination of pH of aqueous solutions through chemometric analysis of Raman spectra. Interpretive quantitative models have been developed and validated under the range of chemical composition and pH using a lactic acid/lactate buffer system. The developed model was applied to spectra obtained on-line during solvent extractions performed in a centrifugal contactor bank. The model predicted the pH within 11% for pH > 2, thus demonstrating that this technique could provide the capability of monitoring pH on-line in applications such as nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  17. Improvement in soil-plant-atmosphere modelling of {sup 14}C dynamics and the application of two models to data from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limer, Laura M.C. [Quintessa Limited, 633/635 Birchwood Boulevard, WA3 7QU, Warrington (United Kingdom); Le Dizes-Maurel, Severine; Maro, Denis [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, LM2E, Cadarache, Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Klos, Ryk [Aleksandria Sciences Limited, S7 2DD, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Norden, Maria [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The need to address radiological impacts from {sup 14}C released to the biosphere has been recognised for some time. However, because of its role in biological processes and its ecological cycling, the standard methods employed to model long-term radionuclide transport and accumulation in the biosphere cannot be used satisfactorily for {sup 14}C. The degree of complexity in any {sup 14}C model used must be balanced against the availability of supporting data and the assessment context. In 2011, the model SSPAM14C was developed on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), with the intention to usage in both long-term and short-term release assessments (Limer et al., 2013). As part of the model testing it was applied to data collected during laboratory experiments performed by Imperial College London in the 1990's (Tucker and Shaw, 1997). Independently, IRSN has also been developing its own {sup 14}C model, TOCATTA (Le Dizes et al., 2012), and has previously tested it against field data collected by IRSN, between 2006 and 2008, in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in France (Aulagnier et al., 2012). The main conclusion drawn from these comparisons highlighted the need to develop an hourly time step model of {sup 14}C transfer based more thoroughly on knowledge arising from plant physiology, soil science and meteorology (Farquhar and von Caemmerer, 1982). These models have undergone further development, and have been applied here to the La Hague field data as it represents a medium term data set with both short term variation and a sizeable time series of measurements against which to compare the models. By increasing the temporal resolution of the IRSN model, a new version called TOCATTA-ccan simulate the impact of intermittent {sup 14}C releases occurring either the day or night (Aulagnier et al., 2013). Simplification of the soil sub-model in SSPAM14C is also shown to be justified for application to operational release

  18. Improving ATLAS reprocessing software

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    For my CERN Summer Student programme I have been working with ATLAS reprocessing group. Data taken at ATLAS experiment is not only processed after being taken, but is also reprocessed multiple times afterwards. This allows applying new alignments, calibration of detector and using improved or faster algorithms. Reprocessing is usually done in campaigns for different periods of data or for different interest groups. The idea of my project was to simplify the definition of tasks and monitoring of their progress. I created a LIST configuration files generator script in Python and a monitoring webpage for tracking current reprocessing tasks.

  19. TRP channels in schistosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effectively the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many anthelmintics, likely including PZQ, target ion channels, membrane protein complexes essential for normal functioning of the neuromusculature and other tissues. Despite this fact, only a few classes of parasitic helminth ion channels have been assessed for their pharmacological properties or for their roles in parasite physiology. One such overlooked group of ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP channel superfamily. TRP channels share a common core structure, but are widely diverse in their activation mechanisms and ion selectivity. They are critical to transducing sensory signals, responding to a wide range of external stimuli. They are also involved in other functions, such as regulating intracellular calcium and organellar ion homeostasis and trafficking. Here, we review current literature on parasitic helminth TRP channels, focusing on those in schistosomes. We discuss the likely roles of these channels in sensory and locomotor activity, including the possible significance of a class of TRP channels (TRPV that is absent in schistosomes. We also focus on evidence indicating that at least one schistosome TRP channel (SmTRPA has atypical, TRPV1-like pharmacological sensitivities that could potentially be exploited for future therapeutic targeting.

  20. Specialist MTR reprocessing at Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, A. J.; Skea, D. C. J. (UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom))

    1999-12-15

    A summary is provided of the facilities at Dounreay and goes on to describe the plans to adapt an existing facility to reprocess irradiated TRIGA fuel. These facilities will provide a treatment for the fuel, thus enabling reactor operators to pursue their programme of decommissioning. The main features of the processing route are receipt, storage, dismantling and chemical treatment by solvent extraction. Solvent extraction will be on a small scale using improved plant containment and replaceable modular equipment. An outline process flowsheet is described. Wastes produced by the process will pass through established routes, with medium active liquor being stored in the short term and ultimately cemented. The modifications to the facilities will allow the reprocessing of other 'exotic' fuel types to produce waste forms suitable for disposal. (orig.)

  1. Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Sinsel

    2003-06-30

    Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.

  2. TRP channels: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    to a plethora of data on the roles of TRPs in a variety of tissues and species, including mammals, insects, and yeast. The present review summarizes the most pertinent recent evidence regarding the structural and functional properties of TRP channels, focusing on the regulation and physiology of mammalian TRPs....

  3. Transformative monitoring approaches for reprocessing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2011-09-01

    The future of reprocessing in the United States is strongly driven by plant economics. With increasing safeguards, security, and safety requirements, future plant monitoring systems must be able to demonstrate more efficient operations while improving the current state of the art. The goal of this work was to design and examine the incorporation of advanced plant monitoring technologies into safeguards systems with attention to the burden on the operator. The technologies examined include micro-fluidic sampling for more rapid analytical measurements and spectroscopy-based techniques for on-line process monitoring. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model was used to design the layout and test the effect of adding these technologies to reprocessing. The results here show that both technologies fill key gaps in existing materials accountability that provide detection of diversion events that may not be detected in a timely manner in existing plants. The plant architecture and results under diversion scenarios are described. As a tangent to this work, both the AMUSE and SEPHIS solvent extraction codes were examined for integration in the model to improve the reality of diversion scenarios. The AMUSE integration was found to be the most successful and provided useful results. The SEPHIS integration is still a work in progress and may provide an alternative option.

  4. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  5. Control systems of fission reactors and of reprocessing plants: general architecture; Controle-commande des reacteurs et des usines: architecture generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, B.; Guesnier, G. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires; Chabert, J. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    1998-10-01

    As any industrial facility, nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing centers need means to monitor and manage the physical processes that are involved in their activities. All these means form the control system. Control systems are made up of sensors, able to turn physical data into electric signals, of automatic control circuits dedicated to process these electric signals, of supervisor systems to give to the staff the possibility to intervene, and of actuators designed to transform electric signals into actions on the physical process. The general design of control systems has to conform to the requirements imposed by the physical process itself, by nuclear safety and by operating conditions. As for the physical process, requirements can be diverse according to the purpose of the nuclear facility but the continuity must be assured because of the permanent release of energy from irradiated materials. As for safety, we have to notice the stiff requirements for all the equipment that is concerned by the confinement of radioactivity. The general architecture of control systems is made up of 3 levels; i) level 0: sensors and actuators, ii) level 1: automatic control circuits and iii) level 2: the control room. The second and third levels are mainly based on computer and data processing systems. All the equipment is classified into 3 levels of demands. The first level is the stiffest which generally implies that devices are specially designed so that they satisfy all the requirements. (A.C.)

  6. Transfer of conservative and non-conservative radionuclides from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the coastal waters of Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmahon, C.A.; Fegan, M.; Wong, J.; Long, S.C.; Mckittrick, L.; Thomas, K.; Rafferty, B. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland has monitored levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Irish marine environment for over 20 years. While the primary objective of the monitoring programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from the presence of these radionuclides in the marine environment, the programme also aims to assess the geographical distribution and temporal variations of the radionuclides. The programme involves the routine sampling of and testing for radioactivity in fish, shellfish, seaweed, sediments and seawater. The data generated in the course of this programme, as well as in a separate study of changing plutonium isotopic ratios in Fucus vesiculosus from the west coast of Ireland, are used in this paper to estimate transport times from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the western Irish Sea and from the Irish Sea to the west coast of Ireland. The results obtained are discussed in the paper and the transfer times estimated for particle-reactive radionuclides (plutonium isotopes) compared with those obtained for more conservative radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 99}Tc). Transfer factors (calculated as the ratio between observed concentrations in the environment and an average discharge rate {tau} years earlier, where {tau} is the transport time) are also presented. (author)

  7. Comparison of RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, ADMS atmospheric dispersion model outputs, using emergency response procedures, with (85)Kr measurements made in the vicinity of nuclear reprocessing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Olivier; Smith, Kilian; Organo, Catherine; Solier, Luc; Maro, Denis; Hébert, Didier

    2013-10-01

    The Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN) performed a series of (85)Kr air sampling campaigns at mesoscale distances (18-50 km) from the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (North West France) between 2007 and 2009. The samples were collected in order to test and optimise a technique to measure low krypton-85 ((85)Kr) air concentrations and to investigate the performance of three atmospheric dispersion models (RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, and ADMS), This paper presents the (85)Kr air concentrations measured at three sampling locations which varied from 2 to 8000 Bq m(-3), along with the (85)Kr air concentrations output by the dispersion models. The dispersion models made reasonable estimates of the mean concentrations of (85)Kr field measurements during steady wind conditions. In contrast, the models failed to accurately predict peaks in (85)Kr air concentration during periods of rapid and large changes in wind speed and/or wind direction. At distances where we made the comparisons (18-50 km), in all cases, the models underestimated the air concentration activities.

  8. 9 CFR 114.18 - Reprocessing of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reprocessing of biological products. 114.18 Section 114.18 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.18 Reprocessing of biological products. The Administrator...

  9. Accident Safety Analysis Method Study for Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant%乏燃料后处理厂事故安全分析方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐柔; 徐云起

    2012-01-01

    According to some relative documents (like NRC, DOE and IAEA documents et al. ), and considering the experience and practical technology level of the safety analysis of spent fuel reprocess-ing plant in China, this article suggested that the risk assessment, which combining both deterministic ap-proach and probabilistic safety analysis, could be applied to the accident safety analysis of spent fuel repro-cessing plant in China. Meanwhile, the coordinated working procedure was also proposed.%参考了NRC、DOE、IAEA等相关文件,结合我国乏燃料后处理厂安全分析的经验和实际技术水平,建议我国乏燃料后处理厂在事故安全分析中可采用确定论和概率安全分析相结合的风险评价方法,并提出了相应的工作流程。

  10. Final report, Task 3: possible uses of the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. reprocessing plant at West Valley, New York. [For research on alternative fuel cycles, spiking, coprocessing, waste solidification, and recovery of radioactive gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-14

    The West Valley Plant could readily be used for work on reprocessing of alternative fuels, spiking, coprocessing (including CIVEX), waste solidification, and the recovery of radioactive gases. The plant could be easily modified for any scale between small-scale experimental work to production-scale demonstration, involving virtually any combination of fissile/fertile fuel materials that might be used in the future. The use of this plant for the contemplated experimental work would involve lower capital costs than the use of other facilities at DOE sites, except possibly for spiking of recovered products; the operating costs would be no greater than at other sites. The work on reprocessing of alternative fuels and coprocessing could commence within about one year; on recovery of radioactive gases, in 3 to 5 years; on spiking, in 4 years; and on waste solidification demonstration, in about 5 years. The contemplated work could be begun at this plant at least as early as at Barnwell, although work on spiking of recovered products could probably be started in existing hot cells earlier than at West Valley. (DLC)

  11. TRP Channels in Human Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Van Haute

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of morphological and functional characteristics in the human prostate. It will focus on the current knowledge about transient receptor potential (TRP channels expressed in the human prostate, and their putative role in normal physiology and prostate carcinogenesis. Controversial data regarding the expression pattern and the potential impact of TRP channels in prostate function, and their involvement in prostate cancer and other prostate diseases, will be discussed.

  12. Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.; Camp, A.L.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Ellwein, L.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility.

  13. 后处理厂溶剂再生系统始发事件的FMEA评价%Initial Event Evaluation of Solvent Regeneration System in Reprocessing Plant by FMEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丹; 李锐柔; 张春龙; 刘运陶; 张敏; 童节娟; 赵军

    2015-01-01

    The identification of initial events is the basis of accident analysis.Currently, in the accident analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants,the general method for initial event identification still has not been established.Taking solvent regeneration system of decontamination cycle in the reprocessing plant as the research example,the engineering reliability evaluation method of the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA)was applied to the identification and screening of initial events.The analysis results show that the types of initial events mainly consist of the leakage from the breakage of the boundary of radioactive material confinements (including equipment,pipes and valves), the failure of interface measuring instruments of acid or alkaline washing mixed-settler, the failure of liquid level measuring instruments of each storage tank or washing mixed-settler,as well as the shaft sealing leakage of the organic phase export metering pump for contaminated solvent reception tank.With the comparison of the reprocessing plant safety analysis reports of the United States and the actual accident examples of foreign reprocessing plants,the analysis results of FMEA method show good coverage and prac-ticability to the accidents caused by equipment failure.Therefore,the FMEA method can be used as a reference method for initial events selection,and can be popularized to other process systems of reprocessing plants.%识别始发事件是事故分析的基础。目前后处理厂对始发事件的识别尚未形成通用方法。本文以后处理厂共去污分离循环的溶剂再生系统为研究示范对象,采用失效模式和影响分析(FMEA)的工程评价方法识别和筛选始发事件。分析结果表明,该系统始发事件的类型主要包括:包容放射性物料的边界(设备、管道、阀门)破损泄漏;酸、碱洗槽界面测量仪表失效;各贮槽和洗涤槽液位测量仪表失效;污溶剂接受槽有机相出口计量泵

  14. Radioactive Semivolatiles in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, B. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing, various radioactive elements enter the gas phase from the unit operations found in the reprocessing facility. In previous reports, the pathways and required removal were discussed for four radionuclides known to be volatile, 14C, 3H, 129I, and 85Kr. Other, less volatile isotopes can also report to the off-gas streams in a reprocessing facility. These were reported to be isotopes of Cs, Cd, Ru, Sb, Tc, and Te. In this report, an effort is made to determine which, if any, of 24 semivolatile radionuclides could be released from a reprocessing plant and, if so, what would be the likely quantities released. As part of this study of semivolatile elements, the amount of each generated during fission is included as part of the assessment for the need to control their emission. Also included in this study is the assessment of the cooling time (time out of reactor) before the fuel is processed. This aspect is important for the short-lived isotopes shown in the list, especially for cooling times approaching 10 y. The approach taken in this study was to determine if semivolatile radionuclides need to be included in a list of gas-phase radionuclides that might need to be removed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. A list of possible elements was developed through a literature search and through knowledge and literature on the chemical processes in typical aqueous processing of nuclear fuels. A long list of possible radionuclides present in irradiated fuel was generated and then trimmed by considering isotope half-life and calculating the dose from each to a maximum exposed individual with the US EPA airborne radiological dispersion and risk assessment code CAP88 (Rosnick 1992) to yield a short list of elements that actually need to be considered for control because they require high decontamination factors to meet a reasonable fraction of the regulated release. Each of these elements is

  15. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring at reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-05-01

    The discovery in Iraq after the Gulf War of the existence of a large clandestine nuclear-weapon program has led to an across-the-board international effort, dubbed Programme 93+2, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. One particularly significant potential change is the introduction of environmental monitoring (EM) techniques as an adjunct to traditional safeguards methods. Monitoring of stable noble gas (Kr, Xe) isotopic abundances at reprocessing plant stacks appears to be able to yield information on the burnup and type of the fuel being processed. To estimate the size of these signals, model calculations of the production of stable Kr, Xe nuclides in reactor fuel and the subsequent dilution of these nuclides in the plant stack are carried out for two case studies: reprocessing of PWR fuel with a burnup of 35 GWd/tU, and reprocessing of CAND fuel with a burnup of 1 GWd/tU. For each case, a maximum-likelihood analysis is used to determine the fuel burnup and type from the isotopic data.

  16. Data validation and security for reprocessing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolk, Keith Michael; Merkle, Peter Benedict; DurÔan, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2008-10-01

    Next generation nuclear fuel cycle facilities will face strict requirements on security and safeguards of nuclear material. These requirements can result in expensive facilities. The purpose of this project was to investigate how to incorporate safeguards and security into one plant monitoring system early in the design process to take better advantage of all plant process data, to improve confidence in the operation of the plant, and to optimize costs. An existing reprocessing plant materials accountancy model was examined for use in evaluating integration of safeguards (both domestic and international) and security. International safeguards require independent, secure, and authenticated measurements for materials accountability--it may be best to design stand-alone systems in addition to domestic safeguards instrumentation to minimize impact on operations. In some cases, joint-use equipment may be appropriate. Existing domestic materials accountancy instrumentation can be used in conjunction with other monitoring equipment for plant security as well as through the use of material assurance indicators, a new metric for material control that is under development. Future efforts will take the results of this work to demonstrate integration on the reprocessing plant model.

  17. Plasma coal reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Results of many years of investigations of plasma-chemical technologies for pyrolysis, hydrogenation, thermochemical preparation for combustion, gasification, and complex reprocessing of solid fuels and hydrocarbon gas cracking are represented. Application of these technologies for obtaining the desired products (hydrogen, industrial carbon, synthesis gas, valuable components of the mineral mass of coal) corresponds to modern ecological and economical requirements to the power engineering, metallurgy, and chemical industry. Plasma fuel utilization technologies are characterized by the short-term residence of reagents within a reactor and the high degree of the conversion of source substances into the desired products without catalyst application. The thermochemical preparation of the fuel to combustion is realized in a plasma-fuel system presenting a reaction chamber with a plasmatron; and the remaining plasma fuel utilization technologies, in a combined plasma-chemical reactor with a nominal power of 100 kW, whose zone of the heat release from an electric arc is joined with the chemical reaction zone.

  18. TRP channels and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Loris A

    2011-01-01

    Depression and schizophrenia are major psychiatric disorders that cause much human suffering. Current treatments have major limitations and new drug targets are eagerly sought. Study of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in these disorders is at an early stage and the potential of agents that activate or inhibit these channels remains speculative. The findings that TRPC6 channels promote dendritic growth and are selectively activated by hyperforin, the key constitutent of St John's wort, suggest that TRPC6 channels might prove to be a new target for antidepressant drug development. There is now considerable evidence that TRPV1 antagonists have anxiolytic activity but there is no direct evidence that they have antidepressant activity. There is also no direct evidence that TRP channels play a role in schizophrenia. However, the findings that TRPC channels are involved in neuronal development and fundamental synaptic mechanisms, and that TRPV1 channels play a role in central dopaminergic and cannabinoid mechanisms is suggestive of potential roles of these channels in schizophrenia. Investigation of TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of yielding further understanding of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders and the development of new drug treatments.

  19. Thorium utilization program progress report for January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975. [Reprocessing; refabrication; recycle fuel irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Kasten, P.R.

    1976-05-01

    Work was carried out on the following: HTGR reprocessing development and pilot plant, refabrication development and pilot plant, recycle fuel irradiations, engineering and economic studies, and conceptual design of a commercial recycle plant. (DLC)

  20. Monitoring 85Kr at China Reprocessing and Radiochemistry Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Xue-sheng; LIU; Guo-rong; WANG; Chen; XU; Chang-kun; ZHOU; Hao

    2015-01-01

    85Kr is a long life fission product and a noble gas and one of the main target radionuclides in monitoring environment for the reprocessing plant.During the course of the spent fuel elements are dissolved,85Kr is released and part of these 85Kr will be let out through the stack after

  1. TRP Channels in Skin Biology and Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family mediate the influx of monovalent and/or divalent cations into cells in response to a host of chemical or physical stimuli. In the skin, TRP channels are expressed in many cell types, including keratinocytes, sensory neurons, melanocytes, and immune/inflammatory cells. Within these diverse cell types, TRP channels participate in physiological processes ranging from sensation to skin homeostasis. In addition, there is a growing body ...

  2. Capital and operating costs of irradiated natural uranium reprocessing plants; Couts d'investissement et d'exploitation des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Jouannaud, C.; Couture, J.; Duboz, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C. [Saint Gobain Nucleaire (France)

    1966-07-01

    This paper presents first a method of analysing natural uranium reprocessing plants investment costs (method similar to LANG and BACH well known in the fuel oil industry) and their operating costs (analysed according to their economic type). This method helps establishing standard cost structures for these plants, allowing thus comparisons between existing or planned industrial facilities. It also helps evaluating the foreseeable consequences of technical progress. Some results obtained are given, concerning: the investment costs sensitivity to the various technical parameters defining the fuel and their comparison according to the country or the economic area taken into account. Finally, the influence of the plants size on their investment costs is shown. (author) [French] La communication expose d'abord une methode d'analyse des couts d'investissement des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie (inspiree de celles de LANG et de BACH, bien connues dans l'industrie petroliere) et de leurs couts d'exploitation (selon leur nature economique). Cette methode permet d'etablir des structures types de couts de ces usines et de comparer les realisations industrielles et les projets. Elle facilite l'exploration des consequences previsibles du progres technique. On indique un certain nombre de resultats obtenus, concernant la sensibilite des couts d'investissement de ces usines aux differents parametres techniques definissant le combustible et leur confrontation selon les pays ou aires economiques envisages. On montre enfin comment doit pouvoir s'exprimer l'influence de la taille des usines sur leur cout d'investissement. (auteur)

  3. Transient receptor potential (TRP gene superfamily encoding cation channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transient receptor potential (TRP non-selective cation channels constitute a superfamily, which contains 28 different genes. In mammals, this superfamily is divided into six subfamilies based on differences in amino acid sequence homology between the different gene products. Proteins within a subfamily aggregate to form heteromeric or homomeric tetrameric configurations. These different groupings have very variable permeability ratios for calcium versus sodium ions. TRP expression is widely distributed in neuronal tissues, as well as a host of other tissues, including epithelial and endothelial cells. They are activated by environmental stresses that include tissue injury, changes in temperature, pH and osmolarity, as well as volatile chemicals, cytokines and plant compounds. Their activation induces, via intracellular calcium signalling, a host of responses, including stimulation of cell proliferation, migration, regulatory volume behaviour and the release of a host of cytokines. Their activation is greatly potentiated by phospholipase C (PLC activation mediated by coupled GTP-binding proteins and tyrosine receptors. In addition to their importance in maintaining tissue homeostasis, some of these responses may involve various underlying diseases. Given the wealth of literature describing the multiple roles of TRP in physiology in a very wide range of different mammalian tissues, this review limits itself to the literature describing the multiple roles of TRP channels in different ocular tissues. Accordingly, their importance to the corneal, trabecular meshwork, lens, ciliary muscle, retinal, microglial and retinal pigment epithelial physiology and pathology is reviewed.

  4. TRP Channels in Skin Biology and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Caterina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP family mediate the influx of monovalent and/or divalent cations into cells in response to a host of chemical or physical stimuli. In the skin, TRP channels are expressed in many cell types, including keratinocytes, sensory neurons, melanocytes, and immune/inflammatory cells. Within these diverse cell types, TRP channels participate in physiological processes ranging from sensation to skin homeostasis. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence implicating abnormal TRP channel function, as a product of excessive or deficient channel activity, in pathological skin conditions such as chronic pain and itch, dermatitis, vitiligo, alopecia, wound healing, skin carcinogenesis, and skin barrier compromise. These diverse functions, coupled with the fact that many TRP channels possess pharmacologically accessible sites, make this family of proteins appealing therapeutic targets for skin disorders.

  5. TRP Channels in Skin Biology and Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, Michael J.; Pang, Zixuan

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family mediate the influx of monovalent and/or divalent cations into cells in response to a host of chemical or physical stimuli. In the skin, TRP channels are expressed in many cell types, including keratinocytes, sensory neurons, melanocytes, and immune/inflammatory cells. Within these diverse cell types, TRP channels participate in physiological processes ranging from sensation to skin homeostasis. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence implicating abnormal TRP channel function, as a product of excessive or deficient channel activity, in pathological skin conditions such as chronic pain and itch, dermatitis, vitiligo, alopecia, wound healing, skin carcinogenesis, and skin barrier compromise. These diverse functions, coupled with the fact that many TRP channels possess pharmacologically accessible sites, make this family of proteins appealing therapeutic targets for skin disorders. PMID:27983625

  6. Fluorescence kinetics of Trp-Trp dipeptide and its derivatives in water via ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Menghui; Yi, Hua; Chang, Mengfang; Cao, Xiaodan; Li, Lei; Zhou, Zhongneng; Pan, Haifeng; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Sanjun; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast fluorescence dynamics of Tryptophan-Tryptophan (Trp-Trp/Trp2) dipeptide and its derivatives in water have been investigated using a picosecond resolved time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) apparatus together with a femtosecond resolved upconversion spectrophotofluorometer. The fluorescence decay profiles at multiple wavelengths were fitted by a global analysis technique. Nanosecond fluorescence kinetics of Trp2, N-tert-butyl carbonyl oxygen-N'-aldehyde group-l-tryptophan-l-tryptophan (NBTrp2), l-tryptophan-l-tryptophan methyl ester (Trp2Me), and N-acetyl-l-tryptophan-l-tryptophan methyl ester (NATrp2Me) exhibit multi-exponential decays with the average lifetimes of 1.99, 3.04, 0.72 and 1.22ns, respectively. Due to the intramolecular interaction between two Trp residues, the "water relaxation" lifetime was observed around 4ps, and it is noticed that Trp2 and its derivatives also exhibit a new decay with a lifetime of ∼100ps, while single-Trp fluorescence decay in dipeptides/proteins shows 20-30ps. The intramolecular interaction lifetime constants of Trp2, NBTrp2, Trp2Me and NATrp2Me were then calculated to be 3.64, 0.93, 11.52 and 2.40ns, respectively. Candidate mechanisms (including heterogeneity, solvent relaxation, quasi static self-quenching or ET/PT quenching) have been discussed.

  7. Commercial Nuclear Reprocessing in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrill, Charles Leland [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    The short presentation outline: Reprocessing Overview; Events leading up to Carter’s Policy; Results of the decision; Policy since Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. Conclusions reached: Reprocessing ban has become an easy and visible fix to the public concern about proliferation, but has not completely stopped proliferation; and, Reprocessing needs to become detached from political considerations, so technical research can continue, regardless of the policy decisions we decide to take.

  8. X-ray reprocessing in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Biswajit

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss several aspects of X-ray reprocessing into X-rays or longer wavelength radiation in different kinds of binary systems. In high mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing of hard X-rays into emission lines or lower temperature black body emission is a useful tool to investigate the reprocessing media like the stellar wind, clumpy structures in the wind, accretion disk or accretion stream. In low mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing from the surface of the companion star, the accretion disk, warps and other structures in the accretion disk produce signatures in longer wavelength radiation. X-ray sources with temporal structures like the X-ray pulsars and thermonuclear burst sources are key in such studies. We will discuss results from several new investigations of X-ray reprocessing phenomena in X-ray binaries.

  9. Reprocessing method for spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Sawa, Toshio; Suzuoki, Akira [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takashima, Yoichi; Kumagai, Mikiro

    1998-09-29

    The present invention provides a method of reprocessing spent fuels to form MOX having a Pu/U ratio suitable to fuels of LWR or fast reactors and uranium oxides of fuels of an LWR reactor. In a brief separation step for uranium, carbonate is added to a nitric acid solution in which spent fuels are dissolved, to dissolve a portion of uranium in the nitric acid solution. The residual uranium, plutonium and fission products are made into complexes of carboxylic acid ions and precipitated. The precipitated complexes of carboxylic acid ions are brought into contact with a different nitric acid solution to recover the uranium, plutonium and fission products. The concentration of the carbonate in the nitric acid solution in which uranium is partially dissolved is determined in accordance with the plutonium/uranium ratio based on the relation between the saturation concentration of uranium to the concentration of carbonate in the nitric acid solution. (T.M.)

  10. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs, have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  11. Characteristics and behavior of emulsion at nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonda, K.; Nemoto, T.; Oka, K.

    1982-05-01

    The characteristics and behavior of the emulsion formed in mixer-settlers during nuclear fuel reprocessing were studied with the dissolver solution of spent fuel burned up to 28,000 MWd/MTU and a palladium colloidal solution, respectively. The emulsion was observed to be oil in water where nonsoluble residues of spent fuel were condensed as emulsifiers. Emulsion formed at interfaces in the settler showed electric conductivity due to continuity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion and viscosity due to the creamy state of the emulsion. The higher the palladium particle concentration was, the larger the amount of emulsion formed. This result agreed well with experience obtained in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant operation that both nonsoluble residues and emulsion formation increased remarkably on fuels in which burnup exceeded 20 000 MWd/MTU.

  12. Targeting TRP channels for novel migraine therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussor, Gregory; Yan, J; Xie, Jennifer Y; Ossipov, Michael H; Dodick, David W; Porreca, Frank

    2014-11-19

    Migraine is increasingly understood to be a disorder of the brain. In susceptible individuals, a variety of "triggers" may influence altered central excitability, resulting in the activation and sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive afferents surrounding blood vessels (i.e., the trigeminovascular system), leading to migraine pain. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in a subset of dural afferents, including those containing calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). Activation of TRP channels promotes excitation of nociceptive afferent fibers and potentially lead to pain. In addition to pain, allodynia to mechanical and cold stimuli can result from sensitization of both peripheral afferents and of central pain pathways. TRP channels respond to a variety of endogenous conditions including chemical mediators and low pH. These channels can be activated by exogenous stimuli including a wide range of chemical and environmental irritants, some of which have been demonstrated to trigger migraine in humans. Activation of TRP channels can elicit CGRP release, and blocking the effects of CGRP through receptor antagonism or antibody strategies has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of migraine. Identification of approaches that can prevent activation of TRP channels provides an additional novel strategy for discovery of migraine therapeutics.

  13. Gloves Reprocessing: Does It Really Save Money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Pankaj; Kumari, Santosh; Sodhi, Jitender; Talati, Shweta; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Gloves are reprocessed and reused in health-care facilities in resource-limited settings to reduce the cost of availability of gloves. The study was done with the aim to compute the cost of reprocessing of gloves so that an economically rationale decision can be taken. A retrospective record-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in a central sterile supply department where different steps during reprocessing of gloves were identified and the cost involved in reprocessing per pair of gloves was calculated. The cost of material and manpower was calculated to arrive at the cost of reprocessing per pair of gloves. The cost of a reprocessed pair of surgical gloves was calculated to be Indian Rupee (INR) 14.33 which was greater than the cost of a new pair of disposable surgical gloves (INR 9.90) as the cost of sterilization of one pair of gloves itself came out to  be INR 10.97. The current study showed that the purchase of sterile disposable single-use gloves is cheaper than the process of recycling. Reprocessing of gloves is not economical on tangible terms even in resource-limited settings, and from the perspective of better infection control as well as health-care worker safety, it further justifies the use of disposable gloves.

  14. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  15. The Fourth (A)ATSR Data Reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryl, Philippe; Cocevar, Pauline; Done, Fay; Aatsr Quality Working Group

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to inform users of the upcoming Fourth Reprocessing of ATSR-1, ATSR-2 and AATSR data. The main objective of the Fourth Reprocessing is to generate (A)ATSR Level 1B data products in a similar format to SLSTR products from Sentinel-3. In this way, users can easily access the 20-year dataset from the ERS and ENVISAT (A)ATSR missions and carry the analysis forward into the Sentinel era. In addition to the product format change, the dataset will build on the improvements implemented in the Third Reprocessing, and will contain further improvements and enhancements, as described below.

  16. Mechanosensitive TRP channels in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ryuji; Jian, Zhong; Kawarabayashi, Yasuhiro

    2009-09-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins constitute a large non-voltage-gated cation channel superfamily, activated polymodally by various physicochemical stimuli, and are implicated in a variety of cellular functions. Known activators for TRP include not only chemical stimuli such as receptor stimulation, increased acidity and pungent/cooling agents, but temperature change and various forms of mechanical stimuli such as osmotic stress, membrane stretch, and shear force. Recent investigations have revealed that at least ten mammalian TRPs exhibit mechanosensitivity (TRPC1, 5, 6; TRPV1, 2, 4; TRPM3, 7; TRPA1; TRPP2), but the mechanisms underlying it appear considerably divergent and complex. The proposed mechanisms are associated with lipid bilayer mechanics, specialized force-transducing structures, biochemical reactions, membrane trafficking and transcriptional regulation. Many of mechanosensitive (MS)-TRP channel likely undergo multiple regulations via these mechanisms. In the cardiovascular system in which hemodynamic forces constantly operate, the impact of mechanical stress may be particularly significant. Extensive morphological and functional studies have indicated that several MS-TRP channels are expressed in cardiac muscle, vascular smooth muscle, endothelium and vasosensory neurons, each differentially contributing to cardiovascular (CV) functions. To further complexity, the recent evidence suggests that mechanical stress may synergize with neurohormonal mechanisms thereby amplifying otherwise marginal responses. Furthermore, the currently available data suggest that MS-TRP channels may be involved in CV pathophysiology such as cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac hypertrophy/myopathy, hypertension and aneurysms. This review will overview currently known mechanisms for mechanical activation/modulation of TRPs and possible connections of MS-TRP channels to CV disorders.

  17. Analysis list: Trp53 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Trp53 Embryo,Embryonic fibroblast + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Trp53....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Trp53.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bi...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Trp53.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Trp53.Em...bryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Trp53.Embryonic_fibr

  18. Evaluation technology for burnup and generated amount of plutonium by measurement of xenon isotopic ratio in dissolver off-gas at reprocessing facility (Joint research)

    OpenAIRE

    岡野 正紀; 久野 剛彦; 高橋 一朗; 白水 秀知; Charlton, W. S.; Wells, C. A.; Hemberger, P. H.; 山田 敬二; 酒井 敏雄

    2006-01-01

    The amount of Pu in the spent fuel was evaluated from Xe isotopic ratio in off-gas in reprocessing facility, is related to burnup. Six batches of dissolver off-gas at spent fuel dissolution process were sampled from the main stack in Tokai Reprocessing Plant during BWR fuel reprocessing campaign. Xenon isotopic ratio was determined with GC/MS. Burnup and generated amount of Pu were evaluated with Noble Gas Environmental Monitoring Application code (NOVA), developed by Los Alamos National Labo...

  19. Storage and Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Addressing the problem of waste, especially high-level waste (HLW), is a requirement of the nuclear fuel cycle that cannot be ignored. We explore the two options employed currently, long-term storage and reprocessing.

  20. An Amino Acid Coordination Polymer[Co(L-trp)(D-trp)]n%氨基酸配位聚合物[Co(L-trp)(D-trp)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 许兴友; 马卫兴; 胡喜兰; 施鹏飞; 王明艳; 陆路德; 杨旭杰; 汪信

    2008-01-01

    The coordination polymer [Co(L-trp)(D-trp)]n (where L-trp is L-tryptophan or (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-indolyl)propionic acid and D-trp is D-tryptophan or (R)-2-Amino-3-(3-indolyl)propionic acid) was prepared by hydrothermal method. The structure and physicochemical properties were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure determination, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and cyclic vohammogram. The crystal data for the title compound: Monoclinic, P21/c, β=98.024(2)°, α=1.9595(3) nm, b=0.546 45(7) nm, c=0.905 54(17) nm, Z=2,μ=0.934 mm-1, R1=0.063 2, wR2=0. 155 3. The crystal structure shows a two-dimensional double chain plane structure feature. The cyrstallized coordination polymer has a centrosymmetric space group. Each Co2+ is coordinated with a pair of racemes, and the complex is a mesomer. CCDC: 651088.

  1. Nuclear fuel reprocessing and high level waste disposal: informational hearings. Volume V. Reprocessing. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-08

    Testimony was presented by a four member panel on the commercial future of reprocessing. Testimony was given on the status of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the United States. The supplemental testimony and materials submitted for the record are included in this report. (LK)

  2. Species-specific identity elements of tRNA Trp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Through the comparisons among 91 tRNA Trp sequences from prokaryotes, archea and eukaryotes, the potential species-specific identity elements of tRNA Trp are found to be located within acceptor stem, dihydrouridine (D) stem, anticodon(AC) stem and discriminator base. Mutagenesis of B. subtilis tRNA Trp to the eukaryotic consensus se quence, in vitro transcription and enzymatic assay of tRNA Trp toward different tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases (TrpRS) were employed to shed light on these species-specific identity elements and demonstrate the accurate recognition and the coevolution between tRNA and TrpRS. B. subtilis tRNA Trp with its acceptor stem and discriminator base transplanted by eukaryotic counterparts exhibited diminished reactivity toward B. subtilis enzyme but could be efficiently aminoacylated by rat liver crude enzyme. In contrast, B. subtilis tRNA Trp analog with the eukaryotic anticodon stem and D stem retains its recognition by B. subtilis enzyme. The results provide a strong evidence that the species-specific identity elements of tRNA Trp are orientated within the acceptor stem and discriminator base of tRNA Trp, and the anticodon stem and D stem are of little importance to the interaction between tRNA Trp and its cognate synthetase (TrpRS).

  3. Corrosion studies in fuel element reprocessing environments containing nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavers, J A; White, R R; Berry, W E; Griess, J C

    1982-04-01

    Nitric acid is universally used in aqueous fuel element reprocessing plants; however, in the processing scheme being developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, some of the equipment will be exposed to nitric acid under conditions not previously encountered in fuel element reprocessing plants. A previous report presented corrosion data obtained in hyperazeotropic nitric acid and in concentrated magnesium nitrate solutions used in its preparation. The results presented in this report are concerned with the following: (1) corrosion of titanium in nitric acid; (2) corrosion of nickel-base alloys in a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution; (3) the formation of Cr(VI), which enhances corrosion, in nitric acid solutions; and (4) corrosion of mechanical pipe connectors in nitric acid. The results show that the corrosion rate of titanium increased with the refreshment rate of boiling nitric acid, but the effect diminished rapidly as the temperature decreased. The addition of iodic acid inhibited attack. Also, up to 200 ppM of fluoride in 70% HNO/sub 3/ had no major effect on the corrosion of either titanium or tantalum. In boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/-0.05 M HF, Inconel 671 was more resistant than Inconel 690, but both alloys experienced end-grain attack. In the case of Inconel 671, heat treatment was very important; annealed and quenched material was much more resistant than furnace-cooled material.The rate of oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) increased significantly as the nitric acid concentration increased, and certain forms of ruthenium in the solution seemed to accelerate the rate of formation. Mechanical connectors of T-304L stainless steel experienced end-grain attack on the exposed pipe ends, and seal rings of both stainless steel and a titanium alloy (6% Al-4% V) underwent heavy attack in boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/.

  4. Trafficking of ThermoTRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Ferrandiz-Huertas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ThermoTRP channels (thermoTRPs define a subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP channels that are activated by changes in the environmental temperature, from noxious cold to injurious heat. Acting as integrators of several stimuli and signalling pathways, dysfunction of these channels contributes to several pathological states. The surface expression of thermoTRPs is controlled by both, the constitutive and regulated vesicular trafficking. Modulation of receptor surface density during pathological processes is nowadays considered as an interesting therapeutic approach for management of diseases, such as chronic pain, in which an increased trafficking is associated with the pathological state. This review will focus on the recent advances trafficking of the thermoTRP channels, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM3, TRPM8 and TRPA1, into/from the plasma membrane. Particularly, regulated membrane insertion of thermoTRPs channels contributes to a fine tuning of final channel activity, and indeed, it has resulted in the development of novel therapeutic approaches with successful clinical results such as disruption of SNARE-dependent exocytosis by botulinum toxin or botulinomimetic peptides.

  5. The Separation Method of Neptunium in Reprocessed Uranium Product by TEVA-UTEVA Column Extraction Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Hua; SU; Yu-lan; YING; Zhe-cong; ZHAO; Sheng-yang

    2012-01-01

    <正>237Np, as a highly toxic nuclide, is limited strictly in the final uranium product of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the low concentration level of 237Np, which is lower than 2.5 μg/g U, its accurate measurement is one of the most difficult analytical works in

  6. Anti-tumor Immunity Elicited by Adenovirus Encoding AdhTrp2 or AdmTrp2 without Vitiligo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongju LIU; Xianzhi XIONG; Zuoya LI; Jianbao XIN; Xiaonan TAO; Yu HU

    2008-01-01

    To compare the difference in tumor immunity and autoimmunity elicited by adenovirus (Ad) encoding human or murine tyrosinase-related protein 2 (AdhTRP2 or AdmTRP2), and to find the most effective way to induce immunity by AdhTRP2 or AdmTRP2, C57BL/6 mice were im-munized with AdhTRP2 or AdmTRP2 intramuscularly at different doses of 105, 106, 107 and 108 separately (10 mice for each dose). Two weeks after the immunization, in vivo CTL assay and in- tracellular staining (ICS) of IFN-γ were carried out to analyze the dose-effect relationship. Tumor growth and vitiligo (as an sign of autoimmunity) were observed until 3 months after challenge with 105 B I6F10 tumor cells. The results showed that Ad encoding AdmTrp2 induced weak tumor im- mune response. Similar immunization with AdhTrp-2 elicited stronger protective immunity. CTL activity and IFN-γ-produced CD8+T cells were directly proportional to dose of AdhTrp2 or AdmTrp2. Moreover, AdhTrp2 group showed tumor rejection in 100% of challenged mice till the end of 3rd month while 60% of mice immunized with AdmTrp2 were protected against tumor. In the whole process of this experiment, no vitiligo was observed in mice immunized either with AdhTrp2 or AdmTrp2. It is concluded that anti-melanoma responses induced by genetic vaccina- tion expressing xenoantigens breaks immune tolerance effectively and is able to elicit strong anti-gen-specific cytotoxic T cell response without vitiligo.

  7. Hybrid reprocessing technology of fluoride volatility and solvent extraction. New reprocessing technology, FLUOREX, for LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Fumio [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Hybrid Process of Fluoride Volatility and Solvent Extraction (FLUOREX) has been objected to develop a low cost reprocessing technology for collection of U and MOX (mixture U and Pu) in LWR fuel cycle. Outline, characteristics, technologies, problems and material balance of FLUOREX are explained. LWR spent fuel consists of about 96% U, 1% Pu and about 3% fission products (FP) and minor actinides (MA). FLUOREX method is hybrid system, which isolates about 90% U at high speed and refines by fluoride volatility process and residue about 10% U, Pu, MA and FP are processed by PUREX method after dissolution in acid. The special features are low cost by small type and lightweight, stable without gas Pu and stop of fluorine gas, reducing load of environment, resistance of nuclear proliferation, application of technologies demonstrated and flexible method for fast reactor. Three problems for development are selective fluoridation of U, transportation of oxides in the fluoride residue and dissolution of transported oxides. The preliminary examination of plan showed 800GWD/t processing volume, 200 day/year operation day, about 51 ten-thousand cubic meter volume of plant, about 1/3 Rokkasho reprocessing plant. (S.Y.)

  8. Functional diversity and evolutionary dynamics of thermoTRP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeru; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Animals have evolved sophisticated physiological systems for sensing ambient temperature since changes in environmental temperatures affect various biological processes. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (thermoTRP) channels serve as thermal sensors in diverse animal species. They are multimodal receptors that are activated by temperature as well as other physical and chemical stimuli. Since thermoTRP channels are calcium permeable non-selective cation channels, their activation leads to an influx of calcium and sodium ions into the cell and triggers downstream signal transduction. ThermoTRP channels have been characterized in diverse animal species over the past several years, illuminating the diversification of thermoTRP channels in the course of evolution. The gene repertoires of thermoTRP channels differ among animal species. Additionally, in some cases, the temperature and chemical sensitivities among orthologous thermoTRP channels vary among species. The evolutionary flexibility of thermoTRP channels enabled them to contribute to unique physiological systems such as infrared sensation in snakes and bats and seasonal adaptation in silk moth. On the other hand, the functional differences of thermoTRP channels among species have been utilized for understanding the molecular basis for their activation (or inhibition) mechanisms, and amino acid residues (or domains) responsible for the respective channel properties have been identified in various thermoTRP channels. Here we summarize the current understanding of the functional diversity and evolutionary dynamics of thermoTRP channels.

  9. Arabidopsis Indole Synthase,a Homolog of Tryptophan Synthase Alpha,is an Enzyme Involved in the Trp-independent Indole-containing Metabolite Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Zhang; Bing Wang; Jian Ouyang; Jiayang Li; Yonghong Wang

    2008-01-01

    The plant tryptophan (Trp) biosynthetic pathway produces many secondary metabolites with diverse functions.Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA),proposed as a derivative from Trp or its precursors,plays an essential role in plant growth and development.Although the Trp-dependant and Trp-independent IAA biosynthetic pathways have been proposed,the enzymes,reactions and regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown.In Arabidopsis,indole-3-glycerol phosphate (IGP) is suggested to serve as a branchpoint component in the Trp-independent IAA biosynthesis.To address whether other enzymes in addition to Trp synthase α(TSA1) catalyze IGP cleavage,we identified and characterized an indole synthase (INS) gene,a homolog of TSA1 in Arabidopsis.INS exhibits different subcellular localization from TSA1 owing to the lack of chloroplast transit peptide (cTP).In silico data show that the expression levels of INS and TSA1 in all examined organs are quite different.Histochemical staining of INS promoter-GUS transgenic lines indicates that INS is expressed in vascular tissue of cotyledons,hypocotyls,roots and rosette leaves as well as in flowers and siliques.INS is capable of complementing the Trp auxotrophy of Escherichia coil △trpA strain,which is defective in Trp synthesis due to the deletion of TSA.This implies that INS catalyzes the conversion of IGP to indole and may be involved in the biosynthesis of Trp-independent IAA or other secondary metabolites in Arabidopsis.

  10. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  11. Acquisition of certification on quality assurance system ISO9002 in the Tokai Reprocessing Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, Jinichi; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Iwasaki, Shogo; Fukanoki, Shinji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai Reprocessing Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    On September 6th 2001, Tokai Reprocessing Center obtained Certification under Quality Assurance System ISO9002: 2nd edition 1994 (JIS Z9902: 1998)-Model for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing. In Tokai Reprocessing Plant, quality assurance activities have been undertaken to contribute to the safety and stable operation of the plant based on the JEAG4101 since 1983. Since 1995, the establishment of a quality assurance system based on the ISO9000 series has been underway, and with the fire and explosion incident at the Bituminization Demonstration Facility as a turning point, this activity has been accelerated and certification obtained under ISO9002. These procedures have strengthened quality assurance activities in the plant operation and transparency of the business has been improved for society through an objective evaluation conducted by the International Organization for Standardization. This report describes the details of quality assurance activities until the acquisition of certification and the outline of the established quality assurance system. (author)

  12. Instrumental aspects of TPD / TRP techniques; Aspetti strumentali delle tecniche TPD / TRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossi, C.; Recchia, S. [CNR, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica

    1997-11-01

    Criteria for designing the most suitable experimental setup for TPD / TRP measurements are discussed in detail. Interfacing the control and measurement components with a PC represents a crucial step in this operation. Two different approaches are considered: the first based on a computer-linked gas chromatographic integrator, the second featuring an analogic/ digital conversion module. When complex probe molecules or chemical reactions are involved, combining selective detectors such as GC and MS is recommended as the best solution.

  13. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Marignac, Y.; Rouy, E. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France); Thompson, G. [IRSS, Cambridge (United States); Fairlie, I.; Lowry, D.; Sumner, D

    2001-11-15

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  14. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki (ed.) [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  15. Trp63 is regulated by STAT5 in mammary tissue and subject to differentiation in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Assefnia, Shahin; Kang, Keunsoo; Groeneveld, Svenja; Yamaji, Daisuke; Dabydeen, Sarah; Alamri, Ahmad; Liu, Xuefeng; Hennighausen, Lothar; Furth, Priscilla A

    2014-01-01

    Trp63, founding member of the Trp53 family, contributes to epithelial differentiation and is expressed in breast neoplasia. Trp63 features two distinct promoters yielding specific mRNAs encoding two major TRP63 isoforms, a transactivating transcription factor and a dominant negative isoform. Specific TRP63 isoforms are linked to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, survival and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Although TRP63 overexpression in cultured cells is used to elucidate functions, little i...

  16. Structural damage and chemical contaminants on reprocessed arthroscopic shaver blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    In response to socioeconomic pressure to cut budgets in medicine, single-use surgical instruments are often reprocessed despite potential biological hazard. To evaluate the quality and contaminants of reprocessed shaver blades. Reprocessed shaver blades have mechanical damage and chemical contamination. Controlled laboratory study. Seven blades and 3 abraders were reprocessed 1 time or 3 times and then were assessed. In the first part of the study, structural damage on the blades after 3 reprocessings was compared to that after 1 reprocessing using optical microscopy. In the second part, surface damage was observed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy; elemental and chemical analyses of contaminants found by the microscopy were performed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical microscopic examination revealed abrasion on the surface of the inner blade and cracks on the inner tube after 1 reprocessing. These changes were more evident after 3 reprocessings. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the blade reprocessed once showed contaminants containing calcium, carbon, oxygen, and silicon, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated biological protein consisting mainly of collagen, some type of salts, and polycarbonate used in plastic molding. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the reprocessed abrader revealed contaminants containing carbon, calcium, phosphorous, and oxygen, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed H2O, hydroxyapatite, and hydroxyl proteins. Scanning Auger microscopy showed that the tin-nickel plating on the moving blade and abrader was missing in some locations. This is the first study to evaluate both mechanical damage and chemical contaminants containing collagen, hydroxyapatite, and salts

  17. The reprocessing of reactor core materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing, E-mail: wang-jing@nuaa.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanial Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Liu, Bing; Shao, Youlin; Lu, Zhenming; Liu, Malin [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Generation IV high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) are preferentially fueled by spherical fuel elements, which are composed of a fuel zone of triso-coated uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) particles and a matrix graphite layer. Unqualified coated particles and spherical fuel elements unavoidablely occur during the processing of coating UO{sub 2} kernels and embedding the coated particles into the graphite matrix. So it is necessary to reprocess the UO{sub 2} in the unqualified coated particles and spherical fuel elements to maximize the use of the reactor core materials. In this work, we present several methods to: (1) separate the coated particles from the graphite matrix and, (2) expose and recover the UO{sub 2} kernels from the coated particles. The comparison of different methods shows that the thermal oxidation of graphite by a fixed bed burner and the jet grinding of the unqualified coated particles are prosing in practice for the separation of coated particles from the graphite matrix and recovering the uranium dioxide kernels, respectively. Some other methods, such as etching the SiC layer with the active fluorine species in plasma generated by the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) under the atmosphere also show their great potential values in the reprocessing of reactor core materials, especially for the activated and contaminated fuels.

  18. Plutonium behavior during the early diagenesis of marine sediments: applications to two marine environments labelled by radionuclides released from reprocessing plants; Etude du comportement du plutonium au cours de la diagenese precoce des sediments marins: applications a deux environnements marins marques par les rejets issus d'usines de retraitement de combustibles uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouzy, A

    2004-12-15

    The plutonium released into the English Channel and the Irish Sea by nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is mainly associated to sediments. Nevertheless, this association is partially reversible. This work combines a field study, carried out on the Cumbrian mud patch and the Esk estuary (Eastern Irish Sea), and laboratory experiments performed on carbonaceous coarse-grained sediments collected in the Central Channel. It presents new data on the plutonium solid partition in sediments and suggests realistic scenarios for describing its release from sediments to the water column. The role of reactive sulphides acting as temporary sink phases is shown in anoxic sediments; those sulphides are liable to release dissolved plutonium upon their oxidation. The plutonium is also bound to carbonates within the carbonaceous matrix and as carbonate surface complexes. Conceptual schemes of the behaviour of the plutonium in marine sediments are proposed; they highlight the strong remobilization potential of plutonium from marine sediments to the interstitial water. Its plutonium content can be injected into the overlying water column. (author)

  19. TRP Channels as Therapeutic Targets in Diabetes and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsombok, Andrea; Derbenev, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    During the last three to four decades the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus has greatly increased worldwide, including in the United States. Both the short- and long-term forecasts predict serious consequences for the near future, and encourage the development of solutions for the prevention and management of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels were identified in tissues and organs important for the control of whole body metabolism. A variety of TRP channels has been shown to play a role in the regulation of hormone release, energy expenditure, pancreatic function, and neurotransmitter release in control, obese and/or diabetic conditions. Moreover, dietary supplementation of natural ligands of TRP channels has been shown to have potential beneficial effects in obese and diabetic conditions. These findings raised the interest and likelihood for potential drug development. In this mini-review, we discuss possibilities for better management of obesity and diabetes mellitus based on TRP-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27548188

  20. TRP channels in microglia: role in physiology and disease

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are responsible for modulating the cellular environment in the nervous system, where they have neuroprotective effects. In these cells has been reported the expression of different ion channels, including those belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family. TRP are nonselective cation channels that have six transmembrane domains and both N-terminus and C-terminus domain located in the cytoplasm. These proteins can be activated by mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli...

  1. Properties of endotracheal tubes reprocessed by two procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Elisa

    2011-04-01

    component. SEM analysis detected some large particles and fissures. EDX analysis on the large particles detected sodium and calcium signals. Altogether, signs of contamination and material damage were very strong. Conclusion Both reprocessing methods of reused EITs gave comparable results on sterility and mechanical behavior, but reprocessing may cause decreased surface and matrix quality.

  2. TRP channels: sensors and transducers of gasotransmitter signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki eTakahashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential (trp gene superfamily encodes cation channels that act as multimodal sensors for a wide variety of stimuli from outside and inside the cell. Upon sensing, they transduce electrical and Ca2+ signals via their cation channel activities. These functional features of TRP channels allow the body to react and adapt to different forms of environmental changes. Indeed, members of one class of TRP channels have emerged as sensors of gaseous messenger molecules that control various cellular processes. Nitric oxide (NO, a vasoactive gaseous molecule, regulates TRP channels directly via cysteine S-nitrosylation or indirectly via cGMP/PKG-dependent phosphorylation. Recent studies have revealed that changes in the availability of molecular oxygen (O2 also control the activation of TRP channels. Anoxia induced by O2-glucose deprivation and severe hypoxia (1% O2 activates TRPM7 and TRPC6, respectively, whereas TRPA1 has recently been identified as a novel sensor of hyperoxia and mild hypoxia (15% O2 in vagal and sensory neurons. TRPA1 also detects other gaseous molecules such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S and carbon dioxide (CO2. In this review, we focus on how signaling by gaseous molecules is sensed and integrated by TRP channels.

  3. Study of the {sup 60}Co speciation in the aqueous radioactive waste of the la Hague nuclear reprocessing plant; environmental behaviour after discharges in the waters of the channel; Etude de la speciation du {sup 60}Co dans les effluents de l'usine de retraitement de combustibles irradies de la Hague; devenir apres rejet dans les eaux de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudaire, J.M

    1999-07-01

    {sup 60}Co is produced as an activation product and is present in the low-level aqueous radioactive waste released from the La Hague plant. At present, the concentration in the sea (non filtered at 0.45 {mu}m) at the Goury site are close to or even below, the detection limit: 0.2 mBq.l{sup -1}. The {sup 60}Co speciation depends on the type of effluent considered: in the effluent A ('active'), the cobalt is in the form of a stable trivalent complex; in the effluent V (to be checked), the cobalt is in majority (50% of the activity release) in the form of particles (>0.45 {mu}m), and then in the form of two soluble species: ionic divalent (Co{sup 2+}) and some stable complexes. The evolution of the reprocessing techniques used does not affect the speciation. So, since the nuclear reprocessing plant started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the chemical species discharged in the sea shows time variation related to the evolution of the type of effluent discharged. Thus, since 1994, the particles of cobalt are the main species discharged in the Channel (the V effluents represent more than 85% of the total {sup 60}Co activity released). The effect of instantaneous dilution into the marine conditions involving a variation of pH, oxido-reduction, ionic strength, a gradient of salinity, does not interfere with the evolution of the chemical species discharged. Nevertheless, during the discharge of the V effluent, the main constituents of the sea water (Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) go through a precipitation. This comes with the coprecipitation of the ion Co{sup 2+} and with the particles of cobalt (complexes are not affected), and it can be responsible for an increase in the concentration in the particles. The chemical behaviour of the cobalt in the Channel is different from those of conservative element such as antimony. The ionic cobalt and the particles have a small dispersion in the water (cobalt has a very high particle/dissolved distribution factor, it is a non

  4. Psychiatric Disorders and TRP Channels: Focus on Psychotropic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirdaş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders are mostly associated with the changes in neural calcium ion signaling pathways required for activity-triggered cellular events. One calcium channel family is the TRP cation channel family, which contains seven subfamilies. Results of recent papers have discovered that calcium ion influx through TRP channels is important. We discuss the latest advances in calcium ion influx through TRP channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Activation of TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPV1 cation channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, fear-associated responses, and depression modulate calcium ion influx. Evidence substantiates that anandamide and its analog (methanandamide) induce an anxiolytic-like effect via CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels. Intracellular calcium influx induced by oxidative stress has an significant role in the etiology of bipolar disorders (BDs), and studies recently reported the important role of TRP channels such as TRPC3, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in converting oxidant or nitrogen radical signaling to cytosolic calcium ion homeostasis in BDs. The TRPV1 channel also plays a function in morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia. Among psychotropic drugs, amitriptyline and capsazepine seem to have protective effects on psychiatric disorders via the TRP channels. Some drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine also seem to have an important role in alcohol addiction and substance abuse via activation of the TRPV1 channel. Thus, we explore the relationships between the etiology of psychiatric disorders and TRP channel-regulated mechanisms. Investigation of the TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of the development of new drug treatments.

  5. Reprocessing of research reactor fuel the Dounreay option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, P.

    1997-08-01

    Reprocessing is a proven process for the treatment of spent U/Al Research Reactor fuel. At Dounreay 12679 elements have been reprocessed during the past 30 years. For reactors converting to LEU fuel the uranium recovered in reprocessing can be blended down to less than 20% U{sub 235}, enrichment and be fabricated into new elements. For reactors already converted to LEU it is technically possible to reprocess spent silicide fuel to reduce the U{sub 235} burden and present to a repository only stable conditioned waste. The main waste stream from reprocessing which contains the Fission products is collected in underground storage tanks where it is kept for a period of at least five years before being converted to a stable solid form for return to the country of origin for subsequent storage/disposal. Discharges to the environment from reprocessing are low and are limited to the radioactive gases contained in the spent fuel and a low level liquid waste steam. Both of these discharges are independently monitored, and controlled within strict discharge limits set by the UK Government`s Scottish Office. Transportation of spent fuel to Dounreay has been undertaken using many routes from mainland Europe and has utilised over the past few years both chartered and scheduled vessel services. Several different transport containers have been handled and are currently licensed in the UK. This paper provides a short history of MTR reprocessing at Dounreay, and provides information to show reprocessing can satisfy the needs of MTR operators, showing that reprocessing is a valuable asset in non-proliferation terms, offers a complete solution and is environmentally acceptable.

  6. Evolutionary conservation and changes in insect TRP channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TRP (Transient Receptor Potential channels respond to diverse stimuli and thus function as the primary integrators of varied sensory information. They are also activated by various compounds and secondary messengers to mediate cell-cell interactions as well as to detect changes in the local environment. Their physiological roles have been primarily characterized only in mice and fruit flies, and evolutionary studies are limited. To understand the evolution of insect TRP channels and the mechanisms of integrating sensory inputs in insects, we have identified and compared TRP channel genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, Nasonia vitripennis, and Pediculus humanus genomes as part of genome sequencing efforts. Results All the insects examined have 2 TRPV, 1 TRPN, 1 TRPM, 3 TRPC, and 1 TRPML subfamily members, demonstrating that these channels have the ancient origins in insects. The common pattern also suggests that the mechanisms for detecting mechanical and visual stimuli and maintaining lysosomal functions may be evolutionarily well conserved in insects. However, a TRPP channel, the most ancient TRP channel, is missing in B. mori, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis. Although P. humanus and D. melanogaster contain 4 TRPA subfamily members, the other insects have 5 TRPA subfamily members. T. castaneum, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis contain TRPA5 channels, which have been specifically retained or gained in Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Furthermore, TRPA1, which functions for thermotaxis in Drosophila, is missing in A. mellifera and N. vitripennis; however, they have other Hymenoptera-specific TRPA channels (AmHsTRPA and NvHsTRPA. NvHsTRPA expressed in HEK293 cells is activated by temperature increase, demonstrating that HsTRPAs function as novel thermal sensors in Hymenoptera. Conclusion The total number of insect TRP family members is 13-14, approximately half that of mammalian TRP

  7. Evolutionary conservation and changes in insect TRP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hironori; Sokabe, Takaaki; Kohno, Keigo; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-09-10

    TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) channels respond to diverse stimuli and thus function as the primary integrators of varied sensory information. They are also activated by various compounds and secondary messengers to mediate cell-cell interactions as well as to detect changes in the local environment. Their physiological roles have been primarily characterized only in mice and fruit flies, and evolutionary studies are limited. To understand the evolution of insect TRP channels and the mechanisms of integrating sensory inputs in insects, we have identified and compared TRP channel genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, Nasonia vitripennis, and Pediculus humanus genomes as part of genome sequencing efforts. All the insects examined have 2 TRPV, 1 TRPN, 1 TRPM, 3 TRPC, and 1 TRPML subfamily members, demonstrating that these channels have the ancient origins in insects. The common pattern also suggests that the mechanisms for detecting mechanical and visual stimuli and maintaining lysosomal functions may be evolutionarily well conserved in insects. However, a TRPP channel, the most ancient TRP channel, is missing in B. mori, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis. Although P. humanus and D. melanogaster contain 4 TRPA subfamily members, the other insects have 5 TRPA subfamily members. T. castaneum, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis contain TRPA5 channels, which have been specifically retained or gained in Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Furthermore, TRPA1, which functions for thermotaxis in Drosophila, is missing in A. mellifera and N. vitripennis; however, they have other Hymenoptera-specific TRPA channels (AmHsTRPA and NvHsTRPA). NvHsTRPA expressed in HEK293 cells is activated by temperature increase, demonstrating that HsTRPAs function as novel thermal sensors in Hymenoptera. The total number of insect TRP family members is 13-14, approximately half that of mammalian TRP family members. As shown for mammalian TRP channels, this

  8. TRP channels in microglia: role in physiology and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolima P Torres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are responsible for modulating the cellular environment in the nervous system, where they have neuroprotective effects. In these cells has been reported the expression of different ion channels, including those belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP family. TRP are nonselective cation channels that have six transmembrane domains and both N-terminus and C-terminus domain located in the cytoplasm. These proteins can be activated by mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli as well as pH changes. Their activation can induce calcium influx contributing to regulate the intracellular calcium concentration. Different studies describe the effect of TRP channels in cellular processes such as osmotic regulation, cytokine production, proliferation, activation, cell death and responses to oxidative stress. As a result, these channels have an important role in neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia, inflammatory responses and pain perception. Modulating the activity of the TRP channels can be a therapeutic target for various diseases associated with the central nervous system. In this review the most relevant aspects about the role of the TRP channels in the physiology of microglia and their potential use as a therapeutic target in central nervous system diseases will be described.

  9. Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing: Mechanical Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klima, B. B.

    1959-07-01

    The major events in the mechanical phase of the Power Reactor fuels reprocessing program during June were: 1. Feasibility of shearing of fuel elements without disassembly has been demonstrated in tests using porcelain-loaded prototype fuel elements. 2. Further work with the Manco shear was not deemed tb be advisable since permission has been granted to use another shear for cutting UO{sub 2}-loaded fuel elements. 3. Necessity to strip the windows in Building 3048, to sandblast, and repaint them has seriously disrupted occupancy of the cell by July 1. Start of installation probably will not be before August 1. 4. A cold SRE element should be received during July which will permit a direct look a t the problems associated with processing of these irradiated fuel elements. 5. Concurrence with AEC, Atomics International, and ORNL people on the fabrication of a poisoned carrier was obtained and all criteria for the carrier were released and the design was completed. 6. A decision was made to install and use a 24-inch Ty-Sa-Man saw which is on hand and was originally purchased for use in the Segmenting Facility for the SRE reprocessing. This will be used instead of the multipurpose saw to allow more time to refine the design of that saw. The multipurpose saw will be installed for use in subsequent reprocessing programs. This report will chronicle the changes in status which occurred during the calendar month of June. A complete description of each item is not included and may be found in the parent report. The dates indicated on the schedule have slipped since the last report primarily due to increase in scope of the work and postponement on all phases of the work except for the SRE preparations. Twenty-four new items have been added to the schedule. The status of procurement is shown. A total of 93 purchase requests have been turned in to t% Purchasing Department. A total of $199,261.83 has been committed by purchase orders, and a total of 56 purchase orders have been

  10. Preliminary study of the {sup 129}I distribution in environment of La Hague reprocessing plant with the help of a terrestrial moss: Homalotecium sericeum. Study report; Etude preliminaire de la repartition de {sup 129}I dans l'environnement de l'usine de retraitement de La Hague a l'aide d'une mousse terrestre: Homalotecium sericeum. Rapport d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The preliminary study of the {sup 129}I distribution has allowed to underline the limits of use of a Homalotecium sericeum type terrestrial moss as biological indicator. However, this preliminary study allowed all the same to give a spatial distribution of this radioelement around La Hague reprocessing plant (source term) that underlines the existence of four geographic areas in function of collected activities. The levels are generally under 99 Bq/kg dry. It is recommended to improve the knowledge that we can have of transfers and quantity of iodine 129 from the marine environment to the terrestrial environment, but also, the one that we can have of factors able to modify the spatial distribution of this radionuclide. (N.C.)

  11. TRP ion channels in thermosensation, thermoregulation and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Siemens, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the TRP superfamily of cation channels includes 27 related molecules that respond to a remarkable variety of chemical and physical stimuli. While physiological roles for many TRP channels remain unknown, over the past years several have been shown to function as molecular sensors in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. In particular, TRP channels are now known to constitute important components of sensory systems, where they participate in the detection or transduction of osmotic, mechanical, thermal, or chemosensory stimuli. We here summarize our current understanding of the role individual members of this versatile receptor family play in thermosensation and thermoregulation, and also touch upon their immerging role in metabolic control. PMID:27227022

  12. Methodological considerations to understand the sensory function of TRP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, Víctor M; Denlinger, Bristol L; Talavera, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential channels are exquisite molecular transducers of multiple physical and chemical stimuli, hence the raising interest to study their relevance to Sensory Biology. Here we discuss a number of aspects of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of TRP channels, which we consider essential for a clear understanding of their sensory function in vivo. By examining concrete examples extracted from recent literature we illustrate that TRP channel research is a field in motion, and that many established dogmas on biophysical properties, drug specificity and physiological role are continuously reshaped, and sometimes even dismantled.

  13. Sensory TRP channels: the key transducers of nociception and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Aaron D; Shepherd, Andrew J; Mohapatra, Durga P

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral detection of nociceptive and painful stimuli by sensory neurons involves a complex repertoire of molecular detectors and/or transducers on distinct subsets of nerve fibers. The majority of such molecular detectors/transducers belong to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels, which comprise both specific receptors for distinct nociceptive stimuli, as well as for multiple stimuli. This chapter discusses the classification, distribution, and functional properties of individual TRP channel types that have been implicated in various nociceptive and/or painful conditions.

  14. Reprocessing and reuse of urological armamentarium: How correct are we!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutik Vipulbhai Raval

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare is expensive for a large proportion of the population in spite of high per capita income and good health insurance penetration. In an effort to reduce cost of the procedure, reprocessing of devices was started in the late 1970s. Reprocessing practice includes various measures such as proper cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures. As reprocessing is aimed at reducing cost, there is a potential risk of compromising patient safety due to cross contamination after inadequate sterilization. There is also risk of performance alteration of urological reprocessed devices during sterilization/disinfection processing. Therefore, there is a need for formulating proper guidelines to decide methods of reprocessing for various urological equipment. There is also need to discuss the problematic areas that urologists face and to find their solutions. A PubMed search was made in September 2016, using key words “reprocessing of medical devices,” “Single Use Devices,” “methods of reprocessing of devices in clinical practice,” “use of formalin chamber,” “urological disposable sterilization,” etc., After excluding duplicates, all English articles were reviewed by title and abstract. Full texts of selected articles were obtained, and these articles were cross-referenced to find any other related articles. All the articles were reviewed. A product can be reused if it can be economically reprocessed with validated protocols with preservation of its function. There is no reason to discard it after one use. This practice is useful for controlling economics of a urological case and to reduce the financial burden. Current Food and Drug Administration guidelines are stringent. The contamination described to test the sterilization process in the suggested guidelines actually does never exist in clinical practice. Therefore, new guidelines considering the clinical practice scenario are desirable.

  15. Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands Operational Calibration Reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Blonski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric calibration coefficients for the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands have been reprocessed from the beginning of the Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership mission until present. An automated calibration procedure, implemented in the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System operational data production system, was applied to reprocess onboard solar calibration data and solar diffuser degradation measurements. The latest processing parameters from the operational system were used to include corrected solar vectors, optimized directional dependence of attenuation screens transmittance and solar diffuser reflectance, updated prelaunch calibration coefficients without an offset term, and optimized Robust Holt-Winters filter parameters. The parameters were consistently used to generate a complete set of the radiometric calibration coefficients for the entire duration of the Suomi NPP mission. The reprocessing has demonstrated that the automated calibration procedure can be successfully applied to all solar measurements acquired from the beginning of the mission until the full deployment of the automated procedure in the operational processing system. The reprocessed calibration coefficients can be further used to reprocess VIIRS SDR (Sensor Data Record and other data products. The reprocessing has also demonstrated how the automated calibration procedure can be used during activation of the VIIRS instruments on the future JPSS satellites.

  16. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  17. Antimutagenic effect of resveratrol against Trp-P-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenobe, F; Nakamura, S; Miyazawa, M

    1997-02-03

    The methanol extract of Yucca schidigera (YE) showed a suppressive effect on umu gene expression of the SOS response induced by 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. The suppressive effect of YE was also observed for 2-aminoanthracene and activated Trp-P-1, without a significant effect on bacterial growth. The extract exhibited a weak suppressive effect on SOS-induction by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, but not by furylfuramide or 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide. The antimutagenic activity of YE against Trp-P-1 was demonstrated by Ames assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Isolation and purification of the active component of YE was carried out using SiO2 column chromatography, and 275 mg of antimutagenic compound was isolated from 2.5 kg of dried chips of yucca roots and branches. The compound was identified as 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene (THS). The SOS suppression and antimutagenicity of THS against Trp-P-1 was determined by umu test and Ames test.

  18. File list: Oth.EmF.05.Trp53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Oth.ALL.20.Trp53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Oth.EmF.20.Trp53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.ALL.05.Trp53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Oth.EmF.10.Trp53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Oth.ALL.10.Trp53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Trp53.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. New insights into TRP channels: Interaction with pattern recognition receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huirong; Yi, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have implicated that the activation of innate immune system and inflammatory mechanisms are of importance in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The innate immune system is present in almost all multicellular organisms in response to pathogens or tissue injury, which is performed via germ-line encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or dangers-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Intracellular pathways linking immune and inflammatory response to ion channel expression and function have been recently identified. Among ion channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a major family of non-selective cation-permeable channels that function as polymodal cellular sensors involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about classifications, functions, and interactions of TRP channels and PRRs, which may provide new insights into their roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

  6. TRP channels in prostate cancer: the good,the bad and the ugly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitra Gkikal; Natalia Prevarskaya

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the last decade,transient receptor potential (TRP) channels emerge as key proteins in central mechanisms of the carcinogenesis such as cell proliferation,apoptosis and migration.Initial studies showed that expression profile of some TRP channels,notably TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8),TRP vanilloid 6 (TRPV6),TRP canonical (TRPC6) and TRPV2,is changing during the development and the progression of prostate cancer towards the hormone-refractory stages.The link between the change in expression levels and the functional role of these channels in prostate cancer is step by step being elucidated.These recent advances are here described and discussed.

  7. Aire deficiency promotes TRP-1 specific immune rejection of melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Lei; Nagavalli, Anil; Su, Maureen A.

    2013-01-01

    The thymic transcription factor AIRE prevents autoimmunity in part by promoting expression of tissue-specific self-antigens, which include many cancer antigens. For example, AIRE-deficient patients are predisposed to vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of melanocytes that is often triggered by efficacious immunotherapies against melanoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that Aire deficiency in mice may elevate immune responses to cancer and provide insights into how such responses might be triggered. In this study, we show that Aire deficiency decreases thymic expression of TRP-1 (TYRP1), which is a self-antigen in melanocytes and a cancer antigen in melanomas. Aire deficiency resulted in defective negative selection of TRP-1 specific T cells without affecting thymic numbers of regulatory T cells. Aire deficient mice displayed elevated T cell immune responses that were associated with suppression of melanoma outgrowth. Further, transplantation of Aire-deficient thymic stroma was sufficient to confer more effective immune rejection of melanoma in an otherwise Aire wildtype host. Together, our work showed how Aire deficiency can enhance immune responses against melanoma, and how manipulating TRP-1 specific T cell negative selection may offer a logical strategy to enhance immune rejection of melanoma. PMID:23370329

  8. Aire deficiency promotes TRP-1-specific immune rejection of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Lei; Nagavalli, Anil; Su, Maureen A

    2013-04-01

    The thymic transcription factor autoimmune regulator (Aire) prevents autoimmunity in part by promoting expression of tissue-specific self-antigens, which include many cancer antigens. For example, AIRE-deficient patients are predisposed to vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of melanocytes that is often triggered by efficacious immunotherapies against melanoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that Aire deficiency in mice may elevate immune responses to cancer and provide insights into how such responses might be triggered. In this study, we show that Aire deficiency decreases thymic expression of TRP-1 (TYRP1), which is a self-antigen in melanocytes and a cancer antigen in melanomas. Aire deficiency resulted in defective negative selection of TRP-1-specific T cells without affecting thymic numbers of regulatory T cells. Aire-deficient mice displayed elevated T-cell immune responses that were associated with suppression of melanoma outgrowth. Furthermore, transplantation of Aire-deficient thymic stroma was sufficient to confer more effective immune rejection of melanoma in an otherwise Aire wild-type host. Together, our work showed how Aire deficiency can enhance immune responses against melanoma and how manipulating TRP-1-specific T-cell negative selection may offer a logical strategy to enhance immune rejection of melanoma. ©2013 AACR.

  9. TRP channel gene expression in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Jared C; Wensel, Theodore G

    2011-12-08

    In order to identify candidate cation channels important for retinal physiology, 28 TRP channel genes were surveyed for expression in the mouse retina. Transcripts for all TRP channels were detected by RT-PCR and sequencing. Northern blotting revealed that mRNAs for 12 TRP channel genes are enriched in the retina. The strongest signals were observed for TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPM1, TRPM3, and TRPML1, and clear signals were obtained for TRPC4, TRPM7, TRPP2, TRPV2, and TRPV4. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed widespread expression throughout multiple retinal layers for TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPML1, PKD1, and TRPP2. Striking localization of enhanced mRNA expression was observed for TRPC1 in the photoreceptor inner segment layer, for TRPM1 in the inner nuclear layer (INL), for TRPM3 in the INL, and for TRPML1 in the outer plexiform and nuclear layers. Strong immunofluorescence signal in cone outer segments was observed for TRPM7 and TRPP2. TRPC5 immunostaining was largely confined to INL cells immediately adjacent to the inner plexiform layer. TRPV2 antibodies stained photoreceptor axons in the outer plexiform layer. Expression of TRPM1 splice variants was strong in the ciliary body, whereas TRPM3 was strongly expressed in the retinal pigmented epithelium.

  10. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Terry McVannel

    Since Shapiro's introduction of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in 1989, it has been a highly controversial therapeutic technique. Critical reviews of Shapiro's initial study have highlighted many methodological shortcomings in her work. And early empirical research that followed Shapiro's original study has been criticized…

  11. Do the Kepler AGN Light Curves Need Re-processing?

    CERN Document Server

    Kasliwal, Vishal P; Richards, Gordon T; Williams, Joshua; Carini, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    We gauge the impact of spacecraft-induced effects on the inferred variability properties of the light curve of the Seyfert 1 AGN Zw 229-15 observed by \\Kepler. We compare the light curve of Zw 229-15 obtained from the Kepler MAST database with a re-processed light curve constructed from raw pixel data (Williams & Carini, 2015). We use the first-order structure function, $SF(\\delta t)$, to fit both light curves to the damped power-law PSD of Kasliwal, Vogeley & Richards, 2015. On short timescales, we find a steeper log-PSD slope ($\\gamma = 2.90$ to within $10$ percent) for the re-processed light curve as compared to the light curve found on MAST ($\\gamma = 2.65$ to within $10$ percent)---both inconsistent with a damped random walk which requires $\\gamma = 2$. The log-PSD slope inferred for the re-processed light curve is consistent with previous results (Carini & Ryle, 2012, Williams & Carini, 2015) that study the same re-processed light curve. The turnover timescale is almost identical for bot...

  12. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Progress report, January 1 to March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, W.E. (comp.)

    1979-06-01

    On Oct. 1, 1978, a transition phase was begun to concentrate all US fuel reprocessing research in one major program, the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The CFRP is organized into the following: process R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, technical support, HTGR fuel reprocessing, and pyrochemical and dry processing methods. Progress is reported in each area. (DLC)

  13. Reprocessing VIIRS sensor data records from the early SNPP mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Cao, Changyong

    2016-10-01

    The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite began acquiring Earth observations in November 2011. VIIRS data from all spectral bands became available three months after launch when all infrared-band detectors were cooled down to operational temperature. Before that, VIIRS sensor data record (SDR) products were successfully generated for the visible and near infrared (VNIR) bands. Although VIIRS calibration has been significantly improved through the four years of the SNPP mission, SDR reprocessing for this early mission phase has yet to be performed. Despite a rapid decrease in the telescope throughput that occurred during the first few months on orbit, calibration coefficients for the VNIR bands were recently successfully generated using an automated procedure that is currently deployed in the operational SDR production system. The reanalyzed coefficients were derived from measurements collected during solar calibration events that occur on every SNPP orbit since the beginning of the mission. The new coefficients can be further used to reprocess the VIIRS SDR products. In this study, they are applied to reprocess VIIRS data acquired over pseudo-invariant calibration sites Libya 4 and Sudan 1 in Sahara between November 2011 and February 2012. Comparison of the reprocessed SDR products with the original ones demonstrates improvements in the VIIRS calibration provided by the reprocessing. Since SNPP is the first satellite in a series that will form the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), calibration methods developed for the SNPP VIIRS will also apply to the future JPSS measurements.

  14. Reprocessing of LEU U-Mo Dispersion and Monolithic Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Jerden, J.; Stepinski, D.C.; Figueroa, J.; Williamson, M.A.; Kleeck, M.A. Van; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Ziegler, A.J.; Maggos, L.E.; Swanson, J.; Fortner, J.; Bakel, A.J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    For conversion of high-performance research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, a fuel material with a higher density than uranium aluminide is required. Development studies are underway to develop U-Mo dispersion and monolithic fuels for conversion of several high- performance reactors. For dispersion fuels, development is narrowing down to a composition of U-7Mo dispersed in an aluminium matrix containing {approx}5% silicon. For monolithic fuels to be used in high performance research reactors in the United States, a zirconium-bonded U-10Mo foil appears to be the fuel of choice. For conversion to be realized a back-end disposition path is required for both fuels; one disposition pathway is reprocessing. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a pyroprocess for reprocessing spent monolithic fuel. Pyroprocessing was chosen over conventional aqueous solvent extraction due to the necessity of adding fluoride to the fuel-dissolution solution in order to dissolve the zirconium bonding layer on the U-Mo fuel. The proposed flowsheet and development activities will be described. A literature survey points to the ability to reprocess U-Mo dispersion fuels by an aqueous process, but due to several special characteristics of the fuel, the solvent-extraction flowsheets will be a departure from that normally used for the reprocessing of power reactor fuel. Special concerns that must be addressed in reprocessing these fuels are, for example, the low solubilities of uranyl molybdate, molybdic acid, and silicic acid in nitric acid solutions. This paper will address these concerns and development activities required to overcome them. (author)

  15. Combination and long term stability of the IGS Reprocessing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, David; Clarke, Peter J.; Lavallée, David A.

    2010-05-01

    During the relatively short life of the Global Positioning System (GPS) there have been several changes to the analysis procedure, leading to inhomogeneous coordinate time series. Although they have reduced systematic errors in more recent solutions, these changes have modified the apparent periodic signals observed and led to spurious discontinuities. The International GNSS Service (IGS) reprocessing campaign uses the latest operational models and techniques to reprocess the back catalogue of GPS data to produce remove inconsistencies caused by the various model changes, thus producing a homogeneous time series of station coordinates and Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs). Weekly coordinate and ERP solutions from up to 11 reprocessing analysis centres (ACs) have been aligned to the ITRF and combined using the TANYA software in a rigorous weighted least-squares solution. Analysis of the time series of station coordinates and Helmert transformation parameters between the combined solution and the ITRF shows a at least a 50 percent improvement in the stability of the reprocessed weekly solutions compared with earlier operational products. There is a gradual decrease in the weighted root mean square coordinate difference, both between the combined weekly solutions and the ITRF and between the individual AC solutions and their weekly combination, which reaches a minimum around the end of 2005 with a slight increase thereafter. We observe clear differences in the periodicity of Helmert transformation parameters between the individual AC solutions and the combined solution, which presumably result from variations in AC processing strategy. There is a clear annual or near annual periodic variation in the scale difference between the combined solution and the ITRF05 and some less clear variation between the translation parameters, which needs further analysis as to its cause. Keywords: GPS, ITRF, IGS reprocessing campaign, periodic errors

  16. Symposium on the reprocessing of irradiated fuels. Book 3, Session V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-12-31

    Book three of this conference has a single-focused session V entitled Engineering and Economics, with 16 papers. The session is concerned with several phases of chemical reprocessing of fuels which are of a general nature. Hot labs, radiochemical analytical facilities, and high level development cells are described. Dissolution equipment, contactors, flow generation, measurement, and control equipment, samplers, connectors, carriers, valves, filters, and hydroclones are described and discussed. Papers are included on: radiation safety, chemical safety, radiochemical plant operating experience in the U.S., and heavy element isotopic buildup. The general economics of solvent extraction processing is discussed, and capital and operating costs for several U. S. plants given. The Atomic Energy Commission's chemical processing programs and administration are evaluated and the services offered and charges therefore are listed.

  17. Detection of genotype-specific Ehrlichia canis exposure in Brazilian dogs by TRP36 peptide ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Braga, Isis A; Taques, Isis I G G; McBride, Jere W

    2016-02-01

    We recently characterized a novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis based on the tandem repeat (TR) sequence of the TRP36 gene in Brazil. The TR amino acid sequence of the Brazilian (Br) genotype (ASVVPEAE) was divergent from the previously described US genotype (TEDSVSAPA) of E. canis. In this study, we developed an ELISA based on TRP36 TR synthetic peptides from both Br and US E. canis TRP36 genotypes to serologically detect and distinguish infections caused by these genotypes. Sera from 30 Brazilian dogs naturally infected with E. canis, sera from dogs experimentally infected E. canis (Jake and Cuiabá #1 strains) and E. chaffeensis (Arkansas strain) and 12 seronegative E. canis dogs were evaluated. Fifteen naturally infected Brazilian dogs had antibodies that reacted with the US TRP36 (n=9) or Br TRP36 (n=6) only, and 13 dogs had antibodies that reacted with both TPR36 peptides suggesting that these dogs were exposed to both genotypes. Most dogs (n=28) had antibodies that reacted with the highly conserved E. canis TRP19 peptide; however, two dogs had antibodies to E. canis TRP19, but did not have TRP36 antibodies, raising the possibility that another novel TRP36 genotype is circulating in Brazil. Our results demonstrate that synthetic peptides based on the TR region of E. canis TRP36 can be used to serologically distinguish infections or identify coinfections by different genotypes, and to determine the seroprevalence of various E. canis genotypes in Brazil.

  18. Modulation of TRP channels by resveratrol and other stilbenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol (3,5,4’ - trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, a widely distributed natural stilbenoid, was proposed to account for the unique effects of red wine on life span and health. It has been reported to possess various biological and pharmacological activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects. Here, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and behavioral analyses, we investigated whether resveratrol and other stilbenoids can modulate TRP channels in sensory neurons in vitro, and have analgesic effects in vivo. Results We found that resveratrol dose-dependently suppressed the allyl isothiocyanate (AITC-induced currents (IAITC in HEK293 cells that express TRPA1, as well as in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. Instead, pinosylvin methyl ether (PME, another derivate of stilbene which has a similar structure to resveratrol, dose-dependently blocked the capsaicin-induced currents (ICAP in HEK293 cells that express TRPV1 as well as in DRG neurons. Interestingly, resveratrol had no inhibitory effect on the ICAP, and PME had no effect on the IAITC. Otherwise, trans-stilbene showed no any effect on IAITC or ICAP. The concentration response curve of AITC showed that resveratrol inhibited the action of TRPA1 not by changing the EC50, but by suppressing the AITC-induced maximum response. By contrast, the inhibition of TRPV1 by PME did not change the capsaicin-induced maximum response but did cause a right shift of the EC50. Moreover, pre-administration of resveratrol suppressed intraplantar injections of AITC-evoked nocifensive behaviors, as well as that PME suppressed capsaicin-evoked one. Conclusions These data suggest that resveratrol and other stilbenoids may have an inhibitory effect on TRP channels. In addition, these stilbenoids modulate TRP channel activity in different ways.

  19. Concerning the Optimal Salt Bridge for Trp-cage Stabilization†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. Victoria; Byrne, Aimee; Stewart, James; Andersen, Niels H.

    2011-01-01

    Gai and co-workers (Bunagan, M. R. (2006) J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3759-3763) reported computational design studies suggesting that a D9E mutation would stabilize the Trp-cage. Experimental studies for this mutation were reported in 2008 (Hudaky, P. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 1007-1016); the authors suggested that [D9E]-TC5b presented a more compact, and melting resistant structure due to the “optimal distance between the two sides of the molecule”. Nonetheless, the authors reported essentially the same CD melting temperature, 38±0.3 °C, for TC5b and its [D9E] mutant. In this study, a more stable Trp-cage, DAYAQ WLKDG GPSSG RPPPS, was examined by NMR and CD with the following mutations: [D9E], [D9R,R16E], [R16Orn], [D9E,R16Orn], [R16K], and [D9E,R16K]. Of these, the [D9E]-mutant displayed the smallest acidification induced change in the apparent Tm. In analogy to the prior study, the CD melts of TC10b and its [D9E] mutant were, however, very similar; all of the other mutations were significantly fold destabilizing by all measures. A detailed analysis indicates that the original D9/R16 salt bridge is optimal with regard to fold cooperativity and fold stabilization. Evidence for salt-bridging is also provided for a swapped pair, the [D9R,R16E]-mutant. Model systems reveal that an ionized aspartate at the C-terminus of a helix significantly decreases intrinsic helicity, a requirement for Trp-cage fold stability. The CD evidence which was cited as supporting increased fold stability for the [D9E]-TC5b at higher temperatures appears to be a reflection of increased helix stability in both the folded and unfolded state rather than a more favorable salt bridge. The present study also provides evidence for other Trp-cage stabilizing roles of the R16 sidechain. PMID:21222485

  20. Analysis of triso packing fraction and fissile material to DB-MHR using LWR reprocessed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Clarysson A.M. da; Pereira, Claubia; Costa, Antonella L.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: clarysson@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Gas-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor is being considered the next generation of nuclear power plants because of its characteristic to operate with reprocessed fuel. The typical fuel element consists of a hexagonal block with coolant and fuel channels. The fuel pin is manufactured into compacted ceramic-coated particles (TRISO) which are used to achieve both a high burnup and a high degree of passive safety. This work uses the MCNPX 2.6.0 to simulate the active core of Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor (DB-MHR) employing PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) reprocessed fuel. However, before a complete study of DB-MHR fuel cycle and recharge, it is necessary to evaluate the neutronic parameters to some values of TRISO Packing Fractions (PF) and Fissile Material (FM). Each PF and FM combination would generate the best behaviour of neutronic parameters. Therefore, this study configures several PF and FM combinations considering the heterogeneity of TRISO layers and lattice. The results present the best combination of PF and FM values according with the more appropriated behaviour of the neutronic parameters during the burnup. In this way, the optimized combination can be used to future works of MHR fuel cycle and recharge. (author)

  1. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_ann... - - Description of data contents Annotation of human and mouse CAGE peaks and RNA transcriptional initiatio...rence sequences (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Homo sapiens) File URL...: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_annotation/ ...File size: 16 MB File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Mus musculus) Fil

  2. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  3. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-26

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  4. [Role of thermo TRP channels in cutaneous neurogenic inflammation and itch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIE, Zhi-qiang

    2009-07-01

    The temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, is also called thermo TRP, including TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1, which are expressed in sensory neurons and non-neuronal cells (e.g.keratinocyte, mast cell) of the skin. Thermo TRP channels are activated/sensitized by physical and chemical mediators, which participate in thermosensation and thermoregulation, so that they are key players in pruritus or pain pathogenesis. Thermo TRP channels are also involved in cutaneous neurogenic inflammation, thus they are regarded as molecular targets for future therapy in skin inflammation, pruritus and pain. In addition, following a basic syntax and molecular substrate of nociception and pruriception established by TRP channels-centered concept, the sensory categories can be distinguished and re-defined. Thermo TRP channels should be taken into account when analyzing the pathogenesis and management of itch or pruritic dermatosis.

  5. Analysis of the sexual development-promoting region of Schizophyllum commune TRP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kikuo; Kinoshita, Hideki; Tazuke, Kazuyuki; Maki, Yoshinori; Yoshiura, Yumi; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Shibai, Hiroshiro; Kurosawa, Shin-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism of sexual development of basidiomycetous mushrooms from mating to fruit body formation. Sequencing analysis showed the TRP1 gene of basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune encoded an enzyme with three catalytic regions of GAT (glutamine amidotransferase), IGPS (indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase), and PRAI (5-phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase); among these three regions, the trp1 mutant (Trp(-)) had a missense mutation (L→F) of a 338th amino acid residue of the TRP1 protein within the IGPS region. To investigate the function of IGPS region related to sexual development, dikaryons with high, usual, and no expression of the IGPS region of TRP1 gene were made. The dikaryotic mycelia with high expression of the IGPS formed mature fruit bodies earlier than those with usual and no expression of the IGPS. These results showed that the IGPS region in TRP1 gene promoted sexual development of S. commune.

  6. Caffeine and other methylxanthines as interceptors of food-borne aromatic mutagens: inhibition of Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 mutagenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woziwodzka, Anna; Gołuński, Grzegorz; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Kaźmierkiewicz, Rajmund; Piosik, Jacek

    2013-11-18

    Caffeine is one of the most important biologically active food components. In this article, we demonstrate that caffeine and other methylxanthines significantly reduce the mutagenic activity of two food-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 in the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain. Moreover, protection against Trp-P-1-induced mutagenicity was independent of liver S9 enzymatic fraction, suggesting that mechanisms other than modulation of mutagen bioactivation can contribute to the observed protective effects. UV-vis spectroscopy and computational studies revealed that methylxanthines intercept Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 in noncovalent molecular complexes, with association constants (KAC) in the 10(2) M(-1) range. Enthalpy values (ΔH about -30 kJ·mol(-1)) of mutagen-methylxanthine heterocomplexation obtained microcalorimetrically correspond to stacking (π-π) interactions. Finally, we demonstrated that the biological activity of Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 is strictly dependent on the presence of the mutagen in a free (unbound with methylxanthine) form, suggesting that mutagen sequestration in stacking heterocomplexes with methylxanthines can decrease its bioavailability and diminish its biological effects.

  7. Glu-Trp-ONa or its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa) administration enhances the wound healing in the model of chronic skin wounds in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A; Smagina, Larisa V; Kudriavtceva, Tatiana A; Petlenko, Sergey V; Voronkina, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    The management of chronic skin wounds represents a major therapeutic challenge. The synthesized dipeptide (Glu-Trp-ONa) and its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa) were assessed in the model of nonhealing dermal wounds in rabbits in relation to their healing properties in wound closure. Following wound modeling, the rabbits received a course of intraperitoneal injections of Glu-Trp-ONa or R-Glu-Trp-ONa. Phosphate-buffered saline and Solcoseryl® were applied as negative and positive control agents, respectively. An injection of Glu-Trp-ONa and R-Glu-Trp-ONa decreased the period of wound healing in animals in comparison to the control and Solcoseryl-treated groups. Acylation of Glu-Trp-ONa proved to be beneficial as related to the healing properties of the dipeptide. Subsequent zymography analyses showed that the applied peptides decreased the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-2 in the early inflammatory phase and reversely increased the activity of MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-1 in the remodeling phase. Histological analyses of the wound sections (hematoxylin–eosin, Mallory’s staining) confirmed the enhanced formation of granulation tissue and re-epithelialization in the experimental groups. By administering the peptides, wound closures increased significantly through the modulation of the MMPs’ activity, indicating their role in wound healing. PMID:25848208

  8. Glu-Trp-ONa or its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa) administration enhances the wound healing in the model of chronic skin wounds in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A; Smagina, Larisa V; Kudriavtceva, Tatiana A; Petlenko, Sergey V; Voronkina, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    The management of chronic skin wounds represents a major therapeutic challenge. The synthesized dipeptide (Glu-Trp-ONa) and its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa) were assessed in the model of nonhealing dermal wounds in rabbits in relation to their healing properties in wound closure. Following wound modeling, the rabbits received a course of intraperitoneal injections of Glu-Trp-ONa or R-Glu-Trp-ONa. Phosphate-buffered saline and Solcoseryl® were applied as negative and positive control agents, respectively. An injection of Glu-Trp-ONa and R-Glu-Trp-ONa decreased the period of wound healing in animals in comparison to the control and Solcoseryl-treated groups. Acylation of Glu-Trp-ONa proved to be beneficial as related to the healing properties of the dipeptide. Subsequent zymography analyses showed that the applied peptides decreased the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-2 in the early inflammatory phase and reversely increased the activity of MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-1 in the remodeling phase. Histological analyses of the wound sections (hematoxylin-eosin, Mallory's staining) confirmed the enhanced formation of granulation tissue and re-epithelialization in the experimental groups. By administering the peptides, wound closures increased significantly through the modulation of the MMPs' activity, indicating their role in wound healing.

  9. Pathways of electron transfer in Escherichia coli DNA photolyase: Trp306 to FADH.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We describe the results of a series of theoretical calculations of electron transfer pathways between Trp306 and *FADH. in the Escherichia coli DNA photolyase molecule, using the method of interatomic tunneling currents. It is found that there are two conformationally orthogonal tryptophans, Trp359 and Trp382, between donor and acceptor that play a crucial role in the pathways of the electron transfer process. The pathways depend vitally on the aromaticity of tryptophans and the flavin molecu...

  10. Metabolic activation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine and DNA adduct formation depends on p53: Studies in Trp53(+/+),Trp53(+/-) and Trp53(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krais, Annette M; Speksnijder, Ewoud N; Melis, Joost P M; Singh, Rajinder; Caldwell, Anna; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Luijten, Mirjam; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2016-02-15

    The expression of the tumor suppressor p53 can influence the bioactivation of, and DNA damage induced by, the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, indicating a role for p53 in its cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation. The carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), which is formed during the cooking of food, is also metabolically activated by CYP enzymes, particularly CYP1A2. We investigated the potential role of p53 in PhIP metabolism in vivo by treating Trp53(+/+), Trp53(+/-) and Trp53(-/-) mice with a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg body weight PhIP. N-(Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP-C8-dG) levels in DNA, measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, were significantly lower in liver, colon, forestomach and glandular stomach of Trp53(-/-) mice compared to Trp53(+/+) mice. Lower PhIP-DNA adduct levels in the livers of Trp53(-/-) mice correlated with lower Cyp1a2 enzyme activity (measured by methoxyresorufin-O-demethylase activity) in these animals. Interestingly, PhIP-DNA adduct levels were significantly higher in kidney and bladder of Trp53(-/-) mice compared to Trp53(+/+) mice, which was accompanied by higher sulfotransferase (Sult) 1a1 protein levels and increased Sult1a1 enzyme activity (measured by 2-naphthylsulfate formation from 2-naphthol) in kidneys of these animals. Our study demonstrates a role for p53 in the metabolism of PhIP in vivo, extending previous results on a novel role for p53 in xenobiotic metabolism. Our results also indicate that the impact of p53 on PhIP biotransformation is tissue-dependent and that in addition to Cyp1a enzymes, Sult1a1 can contribute to PhIP-DNA adduct formation.

  11. Nucks1 synergizes with Trp53 to promote radiation lymphomagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yangbo; Leung, Stanley G; Liu, Yueyong; Huang, Yurong; Grundt, Kirsten; Østvold, Anne-Carine; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Schild, David; Mao, Jian-Hua; Wiese, Claudia

    2016-09-20

    NUCKS1 is a 27 kD vertebrate-specific protein, with a role in the DNA damage response. Here, we show that after 4 Gy total-body X-irradiation, Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice more rapidly developed tumors, particularly thymic lymphoma (TL), than Trp53+/- mice. TLs in both cohorts showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the Trp53+ allele in essentially all cases. In contrast, LOH of the Nucks1+ allele was rare. Nucks1 expression correlated well with Nucks1 gene dosage in normal thymi, but was increased in the majority of TLs from Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice, suggesting that elevated Nucks1 message may be associated with progression towards malignancy in vivo. Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice frequently succumbed to CD4- CD8- TLs harboring translocations involving Igh but not Tcra/d, indicating TLs in Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice mostly originated prior to the double positive stage and at earlier lineage than TLs in Trp53+/- mice. Monoclonal rearrangements at Tcrb were more prevalent in TLs from Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice, as was infiltration of primary TL cells to distant organs (liver, kidney and spleen). We propose that, in the context of Trp53 deficiency, wild type levels of Nucks1 are required to suppress radiation-induced TL, likely through the role of the NUCKS1 protein in the DNA damage response.

  12. Role of TRP channels in the induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) by heating skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Li; Yoshioka, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in skin are crucial for achieving temperature sensitivity to maintain internal temperature balance and thermal homeostasis, as well as to protect skin cells from environmental stresses such as infrared (IR) or near-infrared (NIR) radiation via heat shock protein (Hsp) production. However, the mechanisms by which IR and NIR activate TRP channels and produce Hsps intracellularly have been independently reported. In this review, we discuss the relationship between TRP channel activation and Hsp production, and introduce the roles of several skin TRP channels in the regulation of HSP production by IR and NIR exposure.

  13. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Monitoring and data reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, David; Hong, Tae; Carlson, Benjamin; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the monitoring and data reprocessing for the calorimeter-based hardware level-1 trigger system (L1Calo) for the ATLAS experiment. This trigger system was upgraded after the Run-1 data taking period (2009-2012) to prepare for Run-2 (2015-current), which allowed better control the event rates for algorithms based on jets and/or missing energy. Monitoring tools for the upgraded system is described. We also present a new offline tool to reprocess previous data samples with altered L1Calo settings, such as calibration constants and noise cuts. The samples are used to study the dependence of the event rates and signal efficiencies on the settings. The studies can help plan the appropriate L1Calo settings for upcoming data taking periods as well as for future runs.

  14. Inspiration fra New York - udforskende læreprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lone Tang

    2017-01-01

    Udforskende læreprocesser er inspireret af John Deweys filosofi og pædagogik og bygger på en didaktisk tilrettelæggelse, der vægter den demokratiske dannelse og børnenes medindflydelse på det, der arbejdes med i klasserummet. Børnenes erfaringer, interesser og engagement er selve afsættet...... for tilrettelæggelse af læreprocesserne. Med udgangspunkt i Deweys ideer om skolen, baseret på den eksperimentelle metode, præsenteres Paula Rogovins arbejde på Manhattan New School i New York som et eksempel på, hvordan arbejdet med udforskende læreprocesser kan tilrettelægges....

  15. Æstetiske læreprocesser som performative handlinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Helene

    2009-01-01

      Med afsæt i en analyse af et samtidskunstværk undersøger artiklen nogle af de konsekvenser, forskellen mellem en repræsentativ og en performativ tilgang til begrebet form kan tænkes at have for begrebet 'æstetiske læreprocesser'. Teoretisk bygger artiklen på den amerikanske kønsforsker Judith B...

  16. China Reprocessing and Radiochemistry Laboratory(CRARL) Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiao-rong; LI; Wei-min; BIAN; Xiao-yan; ZHU; Ling-fan

    2015-01-01

    According to the arrangement of the Radiochemistry Department’s annual work conference,the main tasks of China Reprocessing and Radiochemistry Laboratory(CRARL)in 2015 are as follows.In the first half of the year,strive 100 days to prepare for the hot test by strengthening the team’s cohesion and overcoming the difficulties.In the second half of the year,escort the

  17. Study of an ADS Loaded with Thorium and Reprocessed Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graiciany de Paula Barros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator-driven systems (ADSs are investigated for long-lived fission product transmutation and fuel regeneration. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nuclear fuel evolution and the neutronic parameters of a lead-cooled accelerator-driven system used for fuel breeding. The fuel used in some fuel rods was T232hO2 for U233 production. In the other fuel rods was used a mixture based upon Pu-MA, removed from PWR-spent fuel, reprocessed by GANEX, and finally spiked with thorium or depleted uranium. The use of reprocessed fuel ensured the use of T232hO2 without the initial requirement of U233 enrichment. In this paper was used the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.6.0 that presents the depletion/burnup capability, combining an ADS source and kcode-mode (for criticality calculations. The multiplication factor (keff evolution, the neutron energy spectra in the core at BOL, and the nuclear fuel evolution during the burnup were evaluated. The results indicated that the combined use of T232hO2 and reprocessed fuel allowed U233 production without the initial requirement of U233 enrichment.

  18. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, William S [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels.

  19. Review Of Decommissioning Experience In Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities at Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiberteau, Ph.; Vendroux, M. [CODEM GIE, BP 21004, 30201 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France); Berlan, C. [COGEMA Reprocessing Business Unit, 2, rue Paul Dautier - BP.4, 78141 Velizy Cedex (France)

    2003-07-01

    Final shutdown and decontamination, dismantling, and legacy waste retrieval programs are currently in progress at the Marcoule nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in southern France. They began in 1998 and will continue until about 2040. CODEM is the funding, decision-making and inspection organization for these decommissioning operations, COGEMA is the nuclear operator and the industrial contractor. After an overview of the facilities, the project and the participants, most significant operations are discussed in greater detail. High activity levels and the presence of large quantities of {alpha}-emitters complicate operating and waste treatment conditions. The major issues impacting cost-effectiveness-scenario, waste removal and project organization will be highlighted in the conclusion.

  20. Safe storage time for reprocessed flexible endoscopes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Marilee; Daniels, Glenda; Hough, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Flexible endoscopes are used to diagnose and treat gastrointestinal and pulmonary diseases. They have narrow, internal channels which are used to insert instruments, air and water into hollow organs and to remove tissues and secretions. Since endoscopes are contaminated during use and have heat sensitive components that cannot be sterilized, they are reprocessed with cleaning and high-level disinfection to destroy microorganisms. Knowing how long reprocessed endoscopes can be safely stored is essential for preventing infection and decreasing unnecessary costs. The objective was to systematically review the best available evidence related to safe storage time (in days) of flexible endoscopes that have undergone reprocessing in order to determine when they can be safely used again without posing any risk of contamination from pathogens. The types of equipment were flexible endoscopes that had been reprocessed according to recommended guidelines, stored for a specified period of time, and tested for microorganisms.The intervention was the length of time (in days) that reprocessed endoscopes were appropriately stored before use.This review included non-randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.This review considered studies that included the outcome measure: microbial growth on endoscopes which was measured with microbiological cultures. The search strategy aimed to find studies in English and Spanish and included published and unpublished studies from 1990 to 2014. An initial search of CINAHL, MEDLINE/PUBMed and EMBASE was conducted followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract and index terms used to describe the articles. Next, a search using all identified keywords and index terms was undertaken across all included databases. Then, the reference lists of all identified reports and articles were searched for additional studies. A citation search was performed in order to find additional studies that cited those

  1. Interplay between TRP channels and the cytoskeleton in health and disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, K.; Middelbeek, J.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a family of cation channels that play a key role in ion homeostasis and cell volume regulation. In addition, TRP channels are considered universal integrators of sensory information required for taste, vision, hearing, touch, temperature, and the detec

  2. Expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel mRNAs in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Wei; Davis, James C; Ding, ShengYuan; Nai, Qiang; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Ennis, Matthew

    2012-08-22

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of cation channels. The 28 TRP channel subtypes in rodent are divided into 6 subfamilies: TRPC1-7, TRPV1-6, TRPM1-8, TRPP2/3/5, TRPML1-3 and TRPA1. TRP channels are involved in peripheral olfactory transduction. Several TRPC channels are expressed in unidentified neurons in the main olfactory bulb (OB), but the expression of most TRP channels in the OB has not been investigated. The present study employed RT-PCR as an initial survey of the expression of TRP channel mRNAs in the mouse OB and in 3 cell types: external tufted, mitral and granule cells. All TRP channel mRNAs except TRPV5 were detected in OB tissue. Single cell RT-PCR revealed that external tufted, mitral and granule cell populations expressed in aggregate 14 TRP channel mRNAs encompassing members of all 6 subfamilies. These different OB neuron populations expressed 7-12 channel mRNAs. Common channel expression was more similar among external tufted and mitral cells than among these cells and granule cells. These results indicate that a large number of TRP channel subtypes are expressed in OB neurons, providing the molecular bases for these channels to regulate OB neuron activity and central olfactory processing.

  3. Nociceptive TRP Channels: Sensory Detectors and Transducers in Multiple Pain Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Mickle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Specialized receptors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP family of ligand-gated ion channels constitute the critical detectors and transducers of pain-causing stimuli. Nociceptive TRP channels are predominantly expressed by distinct subsets of sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Several of these TRP channels are also expressed in neurons of the central nervous system, and in non-neuronal cells that communicate with sensory nerves. Nociceptive TRPs are activated by specific physico-chemical stimuli to provide the excitatory trigger in neurons. In addition, decades of research has identified a large number of immune and neuromodulators as mediators of nociceptive TRP channel activation during injury, inflammatory and other pathological conditions. These findings have led to aggressive targeting of TRP channels for the development of new-generation analgesics. This review summarizes the complex activation and/or modulation of nociceptive TRP channels under pathophysiological conditions, and how these changes underlie acute and chronic pain conditions. Furthermore, development of small-molecule antagonists for several TRP channels as analgesics, and the positive and negative outcomes of these drugs in clinical trials are discussed. Understanding the diverse functional and modulatory properties of nociceptive TRP channels is critical to function-based drug targeting for the development of evidence-based and efficacious new generation analgesics.

  4. Significance of the Centrally Expressed TRP Channel "Painless" in "Drosophila" Courtship Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Sato, Shoma; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play vital roles in sensory neurons, mediating responses to various environmental stimuli. In contrast, relatively little is known about how TRP channels exert their effects in the central nervous system to control complex behaviors. This is also true for the…

  5. A C. elegans sperm TRP protein required for sperm-egg interactions during fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X-Z Shawn; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-08-08

    Fertilization, a critical step in animal reproduction, is triggered by a series of specialized sperm-egg interactions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fertilization are not well understood. Here, we identify a sperm-enriched C. elegans TRPC homolog, TRP-3. Mutations in trp-3 lead to sterility in both hermaphrodites and males due to a defect in their sperm. trp-3 mutant sperm are motile, but fail to fertilize oocytes after gamete contact. TRP-3 is initially localized in intracellular vesicles, and then translocates to the plasma membrane during sperm activation. This translocation coincides with a marked increase in store-operated calcium entry, providing an in vivo mechanism for the regulation of TRP-3 activity. As C. elegans oocytes lack egg coats, our data suggest that some TRPC family channels might function to mediate calcium influx during sperm-egg plasma membrane interactions leading to fertilization.

  6. In Vitro Repression of Transcription of the Trytophan Operon by trp Repressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Hayashi, Masaki

    1973-01-01

    The in vitro repression of transcription of the tryptophan operon by the trp repressor from Escherichia coli was studied. By measuring the inhibitory effect for trp-specific RNA synthesis in an in vitro transcription system directed by DNA of trp-transducing phage, we have detected and concentrated a trp repressor in an eluate of a Φ80 ptED native DNA-cellulose column. The repression of transcription of trp operon required the addition of L-tryptophan in the system, and when several tryptophan analogues were added, the repression or derepression was similar to that observed in vivo. The repressor fraction was separated from the majority of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase activity by Bio-gel P60 column chromatography. PMID:4579009

  7. Thioredoxin-related protein 32 (TRP32) specifically reduces oxidized phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tasuku; Funato, Yosuke; Miki, Hiroaki

    2013-03-08

    PRL family constitutes a unique class of phosphatases associated with metastasis. The phosphatase activity of PRL has been reported to be important for promoting metastasis, and it is inactivated by reversible oxidation of its catalytic cysteine. Here, we show that TRP32 specifically reduces PRL. Reduction of oxidized PRL in cells is inhibited by 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene, an inhibitor of TRX reductase. In vitro assays for the reduction of PRL show that only TRP32 can potently reduce oxidized PRL, whereas other TRX-related proteins linked to TRX reductase show little or no reducing activity. Indeed, TRP32 knockdown significantly prolongs the H2O2-induced oxidation of PRL. Binding analyses reveal that the unique C-terminal domain of TRP32 is required and sufficient for its direct interaction with PRL. These results suggest that TRP32 maintains the reduced state of PRL and thus regulates the biological function of PRL.

  8. Functional interaction between TRP4 and CFTR in mouse aorta endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droogmans Guy

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the functional interaction between the putative Ca2+ channel TRP4 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR, in mouse aorta endothelium (MAEC. Results MAEC cells express CFTR transcripts as shown by RT-PCR analysis. Application of a phosphorylating cocktail activated a Cl- current with characteristics similar to those of CFTR mediated currents in other cells types (slow activation by cAMP, absence of rectification, block by glibenclamide. The current is present in trp4 +/+ MAEC, but not in trp4 -/- cells, although the expression of CFTR seems unchanged in the trp4 deficient cells as judged from RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions It is concluded that TRP4 is necessary for CFTR activation in endothelium, possibly by providing a scaffold for the formation of functional CFTR channels.

  9. Histidine 352 (His352 and tryptophan 355 (Trp355 are essential for flax UGT74S1 glucosylation activity toward secoisolariciresinol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Ghose

    Full Text Available Flax secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG lignan is a natural phytoestrogen for which a positive role in metabolic diseases is emerging. Until recently however, much less was known about SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG biosynthesis. Lately, flax UGT74S1 was identified and characterized as an enzyme sequentially glucosylating secoisolariciresinol (SECO into SMG and SDG when expressed in yeast. However, the amino acids critical for UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase activity were unknown. A 3D structural modeling and docking, site-directed mutagenesis of five amino acids in the plant secondary product glycosyltransferase (PSPG motif, and enzyme assays were conducted. UGT74S1 appeared to be structurally similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana UGT72B1 model. The ligand docking predicted Ser357 and Trp355 as binding to the phosphate and hydroxyl groups of UDP-glucose, whereas Cys335, Gln337 and Trp355 were predicted to bind the 7-OH, 2-OCH3 and 17-OCH3 of SECO. Site-directed mutagenesis of Cys335, Gln337, His352, Trp355 and Ser357, and enzyme assays revealed an alteration of these binding sites and a significant reduction of UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase catalytic activity towards SECO and UDP-glucose in all mutants. A complete abolition of UGT74S1 activity was observed when Trp355 was substituted to Ala355 and Gly355 or when changing His352 to Asp352, and an altered metabolite profile was observed in Cys335Ala, Gln337Ala, and Ser357Ala mutants. This study provided for the first time evidence that Trp355 and His352 are critical for UGT74S1's glucosylation activity toward SECO and suggested the possibility for SMG production in vitro.

  10. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-02-20

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself.

  11. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    Progress and activities are reported on process development, laboratory R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility operations, and HTGR fuel reprocessing. (DLC)

  12. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sukanya B; Jayan, C

    2010-07-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a method which was initially used for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. But it is now being used in different therapeutic situations. EMDR is an eight-phase treatment method. History taking, client preparation, assessment, desensitization, installation, body scan, closure and reevaluation of treatment effect are the eight phases of this treatment which are briefly described. A case report is also depicted which indicates the efficacy of EMDR. The areas where EMDR is used and the possible ways through which it is working are also described.

  13. Sexual violence: psychiatric healing with eye movement reprocessing and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Lipman, Kenneth

    2010-08-01

    Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications.

  14. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Sukanya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is a method which was initially used for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. But it is now being used in different therapeutic situations. EMDR is an eight-phase treatment method. History taking, client preparation, assessment, desensitization, installation, body scan, closure and reevaluation of treatment effect are the eight phases of this treatment which are briefly described. A case report is also depicted which indicates the efficacy of EMDR. The areas where EMDR is used and the possible ways through which it is working are also described.

  15. Selected studies in HTGR reprocessing development. [KA2C process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notz, K.J.

    1976-03-01

    Recent work at ORNL on hot cell studies, off-gas cleanup, and waste handling is reviewed. The work includes small-scale burning tests with irradiated fuels to study fission product release, development of the KALC process for the removal of /sup 85/Kr from a CO/sub 2/ stream, preliminary work on a nonfluidized bed burner, solvent extraction studies including computer modeling, characterization of reprocessing wastes, and initiation of a development program for the fixation of /sup 14/C as CaCO/sub 3/. (auth)

  16. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  17. Seasonal signals in the reprocessed GPS coordinate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyeres, A.; van Dam, T.; Figurski, M.; Szafranek, K.

    2008-12-01

    The global (IGS) and regional (EPN) CGPS time series have already been studied in detail by several authors to analyze the periodic signals and noise present in the long term displacement series. The comparisons indicated that the amplitude and phase of the CGPS derived seasonal signals mostly disagree with the surface mass redistribution models. The CGPS results are highly overestimating the seasonal term, only about 40% of the observed annual amplitude can be explained with the joint contribution of the geophysical models (Dong et al. 2002). Additionally the estimated amplitudes or phases are poorly coherent with the models, especially at sites close to coastal areas (van Dam et al, 2007). The conclusion of the studies was that the GPS results are distorted by analysis artifacts (e.g. ocean tide loading, aliasing of unmodeled short periodic tidal signals, antenna PCV models), monument thermal effects and multipath. Additionally, the GPS series available so far are inhomogeneous in terms of processing strategy, applied models and reference frames. The introduction of the absolute phase center variation (PCV) models for the satellite and ground antennae in 2006 and the related reprocessing of the GPS precise orbits made a perfect ground and strong argument for the complete re-analysis of the GPS observations from global to local level of networks. This enormous work is in progress within the IGS and a pilot analysis was already done for the complete EPN observations from 1996 to 2007 by the MUT group (Military University of Warsaw). The quick analysis of the results proved the expectations and the superiority of the reprocessed data. The noise level (weekly coordinate repeatability) was highly reduced making ground for the later analysis on the daily solution level. We also observed the significant decrease of the seasonal term in the residual coordinate time series, which called our attention to perform a repeated comparison of the GPS derived annual periodicity

  18. Mechanical reprocessing of contaminated bone-cutters according to Lindemann

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Surgical bone-cutters according to Lindemann play a central role during dental surgical treatments. Bone-cutters become contaminated with blood, saliva, bones and microorganisms. For reuse on patients medical devices have to be reprocessed according to the KRINKO-/BfArM-recommendation from 2012. A "residue-free" cleaning must be ensured for rotating surgical instruments, which is to be investigated. 61 bone-cutters were used as test instruments, made of tungsten-carbide and 63 with a ZrN-hard...

  19. Glu-Trp-ONa or its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa administration enhances the wound healing in the model of chronic skin wounds in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevtsov MA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maxim A Shevtsov,1,2 Larisa V Smagina,1 Tatiana A Kudriavtceva,3 Sergey V Petlenko,4 Irina V Voronkina1 1Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, St Petersburg, Russia; 2IP Pavlov State Medical University of St Petersburg, St Petersburg, Russia; 3Institute of Experimental Medicine of the North-West Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (IEM NWB RAMS, St Petersburg, Russia; 4Military Medical Academy, St Petersburg, Russia Abstract: The management of chronic skin wounds represents a major therapeutic challenge. The synthesized dipeptide (Glu-Trp-ONa and its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa were assessed in the model of nonhealing dermal wounds in rabbits in relation to their healing properties in wound closure. Following wound modeling, the rabbits received a course of intraperitoneal injections of Glu-Trp-ONa or R-Glu-Trp-ONa. Phosphate-buffered saline and Solcoseryl® were applied as negative and positive control agents, respectively. An injection of Glu-Trp-ONa and R-Glu-Trp-ONa decreased the period of wound healing in animals in comparison to the control and Solcoseryl-treated groups. Acylation of Glu-Trp-ONa proved to be beneficial as related to the healing properties of the dipeptide. Subsequent zymography analyses showed that the applied peptides decreased the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-2 in the early inflammatory phase and reversely increased the activity of MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-1 in the remodeling phase. Histological analyses of the wound sections (hematoxylin–eosin, Mallory’s staining confirmed the enhanced formation of granulation tissue and re-epithelialization in the experimental groups. By administering the peptides, wound closures increased significantly through the modulation of the MMPs’ activity, indicating their role in wound healing. Keywords: chronic wound, matrix metalloproteinases, small peptides

  20. Positions of Trp codons in the leader peptide-coding region of the at operon influence anti-trap synthesis and trp operon expression in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Anastasia; Yanofsky, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and several other metabolites are all synthesized from a common precursor, chorismic acid. Since tryptophan is a product of an energetically expensive biosynthetic pathway, bacteria have developed sensing mechanisms to downregulate synthesis of the enzymes of tryptophan formation when synthesis of the amino acid is not needed. In Bacillus subtilis and some other Gram-positive bacteria, trp operon expression is regulated by two proteins, TRAP (the tryptophan-activated RNA binding protein) and AT (the anti-TRAP protein). TRAP is activated by bound tryptophan, and AT synthesis is increased upon accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp). Tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to trp operon leader RNA, generating a terminator structure that promotes transcription termination. AT binds to tryptophan-activated TRAP, inhibiting its RNA binding ability. In B. subtilis, AT synthesis is upregulated both transcriptionally and translationally in response to the accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp). In this paper, we focus on explaining the differences in organization and regulatory functions of the at operon's leader peptide-coding region, rtpLP, of B. subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Our objective was to correlate the greater growth sensitivity of B. licheniformis to tryptophan starvation with the spacing of the three Trp codons in its at operon leader peptide-coding region. Our findings suggest that the Trp codon location in rtpLP of B. licheniformis is designed to allow a mild charged-tRNA(Trp) deficiency to expose the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and start codon for the AT protein, leading to increased AT synthesis.

  1. Fast and Simultaneous Determination of Pu(Ⅳ) and Nitric Acid in Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Sample by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ding-ming; ZHANG; Li-hua; WANG; Ling; GONG; Yan-ping; FAN; De-jun; YI; Bao-shan; CHEN; Qiang; JI; Yong-chao; WU; Ji-zong

    2013-01-01

    Determination of Pu(Ⅳ)and nitric acid plays significant role in nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to control process accurately and timely.Coupling C-T fixed-type grating with InGaAs detector,a new novel analytical system for simultaneous measurement of nitric acid and Pu(Ⅳ)was developed by our working group.After obtaining near infrared absorptive spectra by the spectroscopic instrument,the spectra data

  2. A novel strategy to analyze L-tryptophan through allosteric Trp repressor based on rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guojie; Hu, Tianyu; Li, Jun; Wei, Hua; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu

    2015-09-15

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) has been considered as a powerful tool for nucleic acids detection. Here, a novel repressor-RCA-based method for L-tryptophan (L-Trp) detection was developed. This method utilizes the specific interaction between the RCA circular template and the Trp repressor protein (TrpR) involved in trp operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In the absence of L-Trp, the TrpR protein could not bind to the RCA template, and the RCA process can be continued. When L-Trp is present, the activated TrpR will bind to the operon sequence on the RCA template and inhibit the RCA reaction. Thus, the concentration of L-Trp is correlated directly with the fluorescent RCA signals. We succeeded in detecting L-Trp in a single step in simple homogeneous reaction system. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.77 μM (S/N=3) with good linearity. The method can unambiguously distinguish L-Trp from other 19 standard amino acids and L-Trp analogs. This strategy is also promising for detecting many small molecules such as other amino acids and carbohydrates.

  3. A structural view of ligand-dependent activation in thermoTRP channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena eSteinberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP proteins are a large family of ion channels, grouped intoseven sub-families. Although great advances have been made regarding the activation andmodulation of TRP channel activity, detailed molecular mechanisms governing TRPchannel gating are still needed. Sensitive to electric, chemical, mechanical, and thermalcues, TRP channels are tightly associated with the detection and integration of sensoryinput, emerging as a model to study the polymodal activation of ion channel proteins.Among TRP channels, the temperature-activated kind constitute a subgroup by itself,formed by Vanilloid receptors 1-4, Melastatin receptors 2, 4, 5 and 8, TRPC5, and TRPA1.Some of the so-called thermoTRP channels participate in the detection of noxious stimulimaking them an interesting pharmacological target for the treatment of pain. However, thepoor specificity of the compounds available in the market represents an important obstacleto overcome. Understanding the molecular mechanics underlying ligand-dependentmodulation of TRP channels may help with the rational design of novel syntheticanalgesics. The present review focuses on the structural basis of ligand-dependentactivation of TRPV1 and TRPM8 channels. Special attention is drawn to the dissection ofligand-binding sites within TRPV1, PIP 2 -dependent modulation of TRP channels, and thestructure of natural and synthetic ligands.

  4. Probing Tertiary Structure of Proteins Using Single Trp Mutations with Circular Dichroism at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Trp is the most spectroscopically informative aromatic amino acid of proteins. However, the near-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of Trp is complicated because the intensity and sign of 1La and 1Lb bands vary independently. To resolve vibronic structure and gain site-specific information from complex spectra, deconvolution was combined with cooling and site-directed tryptophan substitution. Low temperature near-UV CD was used to probe the local tertiary structure of a loop and α-helix in tear lipocalin. Upon cooling, the enhancement of the intensities of the near-UV CD was not uniform, but depends on the position of Trp in the protein structure. The most enhanced 1Lb band was observed for Trp at position 124 in the α-helix segment matching the known increased conformational mobility during ligand binding. Some aspects of the CD spectra of W28 and W130 were successfully linked to specific rotamers of Trp previously obtained from fluorescence lifetime measurements. The discussion was based on a framework that the magnitude of the energy differences in local conformations governs the changes in the CD intensities at low temperature. The Trp CD spectral classification of Strickland was modified to facilitate the recognition of pseudo peaks. Near-UV CD spectra harbor abundant information about the conformation of proteins that site directed Trp CD can report. PMID:24404774

  5. Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify…

  6. 76 FR 13605 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Vitrification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and certain treatment material) at the West Valley... a solid glass waste form. DOE used the vitrification melter as part of this process, specifically to melt glass frit (material used in making glass) together with reprocessing waste sludge and...

  7. 76 FR 34007 - Draft Regulatory Basis for a Potential Rulemaking on Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...: NUREG-1909, a white paper authored by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials, titled... waste through developing more sophisticated reprocessing technologies. During the Bush Administration... reprocessing spent fuel and deploying fast reactors to burn long-lived actinides. In response to these...

  8. Consolidated fuel reprocessing. Program progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This progress report is compiled from major contributions from three programs: (1) the Advanced Fuel Recycle Program at ORNL; (2) the Converter Fuel Reprocessing Program at Savannah River Laboratory; and (3) the reprocessing components of the HTGR Fuel Recycle Program, primarily at General Atomic and ORNL. The coverage is generally overview in nature; experimental details and data are limited.

  9. Cloning and sequencing of the trpE gene from Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 and several related subsurface Arthrobacter isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernova, T.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Austria, N.; Nichols, B.P.

    1998-09-01

    Tryptophan dependent mutants of Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 were isolated and trp genes were cloned by complementation and marker rescue of the auxotrophic strains. Rescue studies and preliminary sequence analysis reveal that at least the genes trpE, trpC, and trpB are clustered together in this organism. In addition, sequence analysis of the entire trpE gene, which encodes component I of anthranilate synthase, is described. Segments of the trpE gene from 17 subsurface isolates of Arthrobacter sp. were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The partial trpE sequences from the various strains were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The data suggest that in addition to single base changes, recombination and genetic exchange play a major role in the evolution of the Arthrobacter genome.

  10. Site-specific uv crosslinking of minihelix DNA and TrpRS from Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the recognition mechanism and the relationship between structure and function of minihelix DNA with Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase (TrpRS), TrpRS from Bacillus Subtilis was purified. Four minihelix DNAs were chemically synthesized and the photoreactive reagent s4T was incorporated into three of them at the positions of G73, T72 and T55 corresponding to tRNATrp.The apparatus for uv crossiinking was devised and the parameters for uv crosslinking were optimized. The results indicated that the G73 and T72 base of minihelix DNA interacted with TrpRS directly. The uv crosslinking reaction was improved by the dose of uv irradiation and the concentration of both TrpRS and minihelix DNA.``

  11. Ingestion of TRP channel agonists attenuates exercise-induced muscle cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Shank, Sean W; Gottschall, Jinger S; Passe, Dennis H; Murray, Bob; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-02-13

    Exercise associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a poorly understood problem that is neuromuscular in origin. Ingestion of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists has been efficacious in attenuating electrically-induced muscle cramps.

  12. Defining the Costs of Reusable Flexible Ureteroscope Reprocessing Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Dylan; Ahmad, Tessnim; Metzler, Ian; Tzou, David T; Taguchi, Kazumi; Usawachintachit, Manint; Zetumer, Samuel; Sherer, Benjamin; Stoller, Marshall; Chi, Thomas

    2017-09-20

    Careful decontamination and sterilization of reusable flexible ureteroscopes used in ureterorenoscopy cases prevent the spread of infectious pathogens to patients and technicians. However, inefficient reprocessing and unavailability of ureteroscopes sent out for repair can contribute to expensive operating room (OR) delays. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was applied to describe the time and costs involved in reprocessing. Direct observation and timing were performed for all steps in reprocessing of reusable flexible ureteroscopes following operative procedures. Estimated times needed for each step by which damaged ureteroscopes identified during reprocessing are sent for repair were characterized through interviews with purchasing analyst staff. Process maps were created for reprocessing and repair detailing individual step times and their variances. Cost data for labor and disposables used were applied to calculate per minute and average step costs. Ten ureteroscopes were followed through reprocessing. Process mapping for ureteroscope reprocessing averaged 229.0 ± 74.4 minutes, whereas sending a ureteroscope for repair required an estimated 143 minutes per repair. Most steps demonstrated low variance between timed observations. Ureteroscope drying was the longest and highest variance step at 126.5 ± 55.7 minutes and was highly dependent on manual air flushing through the ureteroscope working channel and ureteroscope positioning in the drying cabinet. Total costs for reprocessing totaled $96.13 per episode, including the cost of labor and disposable items. Utilizing TDABC delineates the full spectrum of costs associated with ureteroscope reprocessing and identifies areas for process improvement to drive value-based care. At our institution, ureteroscope drying was one clearly identified target area. Implementing training in ureteroscope drying technique could save up to 2 hours per reprocessing event, potentially preventing expensive OR delays.

  13. Divergence of the TRP36 protein (gp36) in Ehrlichia canis strains found in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Melo, Andreia L T

    2015-03-01

    The molecular characterization of 16S rRNA gene and immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis usually provide little information about the overall diversity of this organism. On the other hand, distinct sequences of the Tandem Repeat Protein 36 (TRP36/gp36) gene of E. canis have been reported, indicating substantial degree of diversity. The present letter aims to update and discuss the molecular divergence of the TRP36 protein between strains of E. canis isolated in different countries including Brazil.

  14. Computer code system for the R and D of nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactor. 4. Development of an object-oriented analysis code for estimation of the material balance in the pyrochemical reprocessing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Nobuo; Sato, Koji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-03-01

    An analysis code using the object-oriented software EX{center_dot}TD Ver.4 was developed for the estimation of material balance for the system design of the pyrochemical reprocessing plants consisting of batch processes. This code can also estimate the radioactivity balance, decay heat balance and holdup, and easily cope with the improvement of the process flow, and so on. An example of the material balance estimation under the consideration of the solvent (molten salt) recycling time is presented for the oxide electrowinning reprocessing system designed in the feasibility study of the FBR fuel cycle system. The results indicate the possibility of reduction of the vitrified waste form volume due to the extension of the recycling time of the solvent. This paper describes the outline of the code and estimation of the material balance in the oxide electrowinning reprocessing system under consideration of the solvent recycling time. (author)

  15. Origin, development, and evolution of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR has led to a great number of studies since its appearance in 1989. The aim of this article is to describe EMDR development and evolution to the present day. With this purpose a search was carried out on MEDLINE and PsycINFO with the entry "eye movement desensitization". After revising the resulting 797 articles, those that because of their relevance explained best the development and evolution of the technique were chosen and shaped into a lifeline graphically representing the history of EMDR. Despite the fact that during the first years the focus of research was on the validation of the technique for post-traumatic disorder (PTSD, it was soon applied to other areas. Only 14% of the articles found account for controlled studies. Up to date, in spite of the effectiveness of EMDR for the treatment of PTSD that has been proven, many different explanatory hypotheses are still up for discussion.

  16. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Marcela Stacey; Steven Bakhtiar

    2011-05-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate – and should not be equated -with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. . Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R&D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  17. Antioxidant and antiglycation activities of the synthesised dipeptide, Asn-Trp, derived from computer-aided simulation of yam dioscorin hydrolysis and its analogue, Gln-Trp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2014-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that the Trp residue contributes to a high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Therefore, in this study, a Trp-containing dipeptide derived from a computer-aided simulation of pepsin hydrolysis of the yam tuber, dioscorin-namely, Asn-Trp (NW), and its analogue, Gln-Trp (QW)-were synthesised to compare their antioxidant and antiglycation activities with carnosine, homocarnosine, or glutathione (GSH). The antioxidant assays included hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, anti-AAPH-induced hemolysis, and ORAC activity. NW had a significantly higher antioxidant activity than had QW and performed much better than carnosine, homocarnosine, or GSH. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA)/galactose or BSA/glucose as experimental models, NW had better antiglycation effects than had QW, as detected by an anti-N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (anti-CML) antibody. Moreover, NW and QW (50-200 μM) showed protection against methylglyoxal-induced cell deaths in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results suggest that NW, derived from computer-aided simulation of dioscorin hydrolysis, exhibits antioxidant and antiglycation activities, which thus shows the benefits of the yam tuber as an antioxidant-rich food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  19. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  20. Neutronic evaluation of thorium and reprocessed fuels by GANEX and UREX+ in ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Graiciany, E-mail: graiciany.barros@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Velasquez, Carlos E.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L., E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    A conceptual design of accelerator driven systems (ADS) that utilize thorium and reprocessed fuel in order to produce {sup 233}U and to transmute high radiotoxicity isotopes in spent nuclear fuel has been proposed. The use of thorium and reprocessed fuel in an ADS is one of the clean, safe, and economical solutions for the problem of nuclear waste. In this study, the aim was to compare the neutronic behavior of the core using spent fuel reprocessed by GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) and UREX+ (Uranium Extraction), both spiked with thorium. The simulated design was a cylinder fuelled with a hexagonal lattice with 156 fuel rods. One of the studied fuels was a mixture based upon Pu-MA, removed from PWR-spent fuel, theoretically reprocessed by GANEX reprocessing and spiked with 82% of thorium. The other fuel was a reprocessed fuel obtained theoretically from UREX+ (Uranium Extraction) process and spiked with 82% of thorium. Monteburns 2.0 (MCNP5/ORIGEN 2.1) code was used to simulate the neutronic aspects of the fuels. The multiplication factors, the neutron spectra, and the nuclear fuel evolution were analyzed during 10 years of burn-up. The results allowed comparing the two reprocessing techniques, the {sup 233}U production and the reduction in the amount of high radiotoxicity isotopes of these fuels. (author)

  1. A step towards closing the CANDU fuel cycle: an innovative scheme for reprocessing used CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, F.; Lister, D. [Univ. of New Brunswick, UNB Nuclear, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Disposal versus reprocessing costs for used CANDU fuel was recently discussed by Rozon and Lister in a report produced for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Their study discussed the economic incentives for reprocessing, not for the recovery of fissile uranium but for the recovery of plutonium ash. A $370/kg break-even price of uranium was calculated, and their model was found to be very sensitive to the reprocessing costs of the chosen technology. Findings were consistent with earlier studies done by Harvard University. Various reprocessing technologies (most based on solvent extraction) have been in use for many decades, but there appears to be no conceptual engineering study available in the open literature for a spent fuel reprocessing facility - one that includes process flows, operating costs and economic analysis. A deeper engineering study of the design and economics of re-processing technologies has since been undertaken by the nuclear group at the University of New Brunswick. An improved fluorination process was developed and modeled using ASPEN process simulation software. This study examines the impact of chosen technology on the spent fuel re-processing costs. (author)

  2. Side chain flexibility and coupling between the S4-S5 linker and the TRP domain in thermo-sensitive TRP channels: Insights from protein modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sergio; Gomez Lagunas, Froylan; Balleza, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily is subdivided into several subfamilies on the basis of sequence similarity, which is highly heterogeneous but shows a molecular architecture that resembles the one present in members of the Kv channel superfamily. Because of this diversity, they produce a large variety of channels with different gating and permeability properties. Elucidation of these particular features necessarily requires comparative studies based on structural and functional data. The present study aims to compilate, analyze, and determine, in a coherent way, the relationship between intrinsic side-chain flexibility and the allosteric coupling in members of the TRPV, TRPM, and TRPC families. Based on the recently determined structures of TRPV1 and TRPV2, we have generated protein models for single subunits of TRPV5, TRPM8, and TRPC5 channels. With these models, we focused our attention on the apparently crucial role of the GP dipeptide at the center of the S4-S5 linker and discussed its role in the interaction with the TRP domain, specifically with the highly-conserved Trp during this coupling. Our analysis suggests an important role of the S4-S5L flexibility in the thermosensitivity, where heat-activated channels possess rigid S4-S5 linkers, whereas cold-activated channels have flexible ones. Finally, we also present evidence of the key interaction between the conserved Trp residue of the TRP box and of several residues in the S4-S5L, importantly the central Pro. Proteins 2017; 85:630-646. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dual Loss of Rb1 and Trp53 in the Adrenal Medulla Leads to Spontaneous Pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Tonks

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a Cre/loxP system, we have determined the phenotypic consequences attributable to in vivo deletion of both Rb1 and Trp53 in the mouse adrenal medulla. The coablation of these two tumor suppressor genes during embryogenesis did not disrupt adrenal gland development but resulted in the neoplastic transformation of the neural crest-derived adrenal medulla, yielding pheochromocytomas (PCCs that developed with complete penetrance and were inevitably bilateral. Despite their typically benign status, these PCCs had profound ramifications on mouse vitality, with effected mice having a median survival of only 121 days. Evaluation of these PCCs by both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed that most Rb1-/-:Trp53-/- chromaffin cells possessed atypical chromagenic vesicles that did not seem capable of appropriately storing synthesized catecholamines. The structural remodeling of the heart in mice harboring Rb1-/-:Trp53-/- PCCs suggests that the mortality of these mice may be attributable to the inappropriate release of catecholamines from the mutated adrenal chromaffin cells. On the basis of the collective data from Rb1 and Trp53 knockout mouse models, it seems that the conversion of Rb1 loss-driven adrenal medulla hyperplasia to PCC can be greatly enhanced by the compound loss of Trp53, whereas the loss of Trp53 alone is generally ineffectual on adrenal chromaffin cell homeostasis. Consequently, the Trp53 tumor suppressor gene is an efficient genetic modifier of Rb1 loss in the development of PCC, and their compound loss in the adrenal medulla has a profound impact on both cellular homeostasis and animal vitality.

  4. BAX and tumor suppressor TRP53 are important in regulating mutagenesis in spermatogenic cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guogang; Vogel, Kristine S; McMahan, C Alex; Herbert, Damon C; Walter, Christi A

    2010-12-01

    During the first wave of spermatogenesis, and in response to ionizing radiation, elevated mutant frequencies are reduced to a low level by unidentified mechanisms. Apoptosis is occurring in the same time frame that the mutant frequency declines. We examined the role of apoptosis in regulating mutant frequency during spermatogenesis. Apoptosis and mutant frequencies were determined in spermatogenic cells obtained from Bax-null or Trp53-null mice. The results showed that spermatogenic lineage apoptosis was markedly decreased in Bax-null mice and was accompanied by a significantly increased spontaneous mutant frequency in seminiferous tubule cells compared to that of wild-type mice. Apoptosis profiles in the seminiferous tubules for Trp53-null were similar to control mice. Spontaneous mutant frequencies in pachytene spermatocytes and in round spermatids from Trp53-null mice were not significantly different from those of wild-type mice. However, epididymal spermatozoa from Trp53-null mice displayed a greater spontaneous mutant frequency compared to that from wild-type mice. A greater proportion of spontaneous transversions and a greater proportion of insertions/deletions 15 days after ionizing radiation were observed in Trp53-null mice compared to wild-type mice. Base excision repair activity in mixed germ cell nuclear extracts prepared from Trp53-null mice was significantly lower than that for wild-type controls. These data indicate that BAX-mediated apoptosis plays a significant role in regulating spontaneous mutagenesis in seminiferous tubule cells obtained from neonatal mice, whereas tumor suppressor TRP53 plays a significant role in regulating spontaneous mutagenesis between postmeiotic round spermatid and epididymal spermatozoon stages of spermiogenesis.

  5. The multi-isotope process monitor: Non-destructive, near-real-time nuclear safeguards monitoring at a reprocessing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Christopher Robert

    The IAEA will require advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at envisioned large scale nuclear reprocessing plants. This dissertation describes results from simulations and experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel safeguards approach for process monitoring in reprocessing plants. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams, nondestructively and in near-real time (NRT). Three different models were used to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate chemical distribution during separation, and simulate spectra from a variety of gamma detectors in product and raffinate streams for processed fuel. This was done for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Experiments were performed to validate the results from the model. Three segments of commercial spent nuclear fuel with variations in burnup and cooling time were dissolved and subjected to a batch PUREX method to separate the uranium and plutonium from fission and activation products. Gamma spectra were recorded by high purity germanium (HPGe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. Hierarchal Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied to spectra from both model and experiment to investigate spectral variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup level and cooling time. Partial Least Squares was utilized to extract quantitative information about process variables, such as acid concentration or burnup. The MIP Monitor was found to be sensitive to the induced variations of the process and was capable of extracting quantitative process information from the analyzed spectra.

  6. Transmutation Strategy Using Thorium-Reprocessed Fuel ADS for Future Reactors in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Mai Vu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power is believed to be a key to the energy security for a developing country like Vietnam where the power demanding increases rapidly every year. Nevertheless, spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants is the source of radiotoxic and proliferation risk. A conceptual design of ADS utilizing thorium fuel as a based fuel and reprocessed fuel as a seed for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production is proposed as one of the clean, safe, and economical solutions for the problem. In the design, 96 seed assemblies and 84 blanket assemblies were inserted into the core to make a heterogeneous subcritical core configuration. Introducing thorium fuel into the core offers an effective way to transmute plutonium and minor actinide (MA and gain energy from this process. Transmutation rate as a function of burnup is estimated using MCNPX 2.7.0 code. Results show that by using the seed-blanket designed ADS, at 40 GWd/t burnup, 192 kg of plutonium and 156 kg of MA can be eliminated. Equivalently, 1  ADS can be able to transmute the transuranic (TRU waste from 2  LWRs. 14 units of ADS would be required to eliminate TRUs from the future reactors to be constructed in Vietnam.

  7. Cloning of TRP Gene of Bombyx mori%家蚕TPR基因的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛伟涛

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to clone Bornbyx rnori TRP gene. [ Method ] The total RNA of Bombyx mori was extracted during its pupal pedod with Trizol method, and then the TRP gene was cloned by RT-PCR. [ Result] The full-length cDNA of TRP gene was successfully obtained, and the ORF fragment (858 bp) of TRP gene was cloned by PCR. [ Conclusion] TRP gene of Bombyx mori was cloned for the first time,which could provide solid basis for the study on its function.%[目的]克隆家蚕TPR基因,为研究该基因功能提供依据.[方法]利用Trizol法提取家蚕蛹期总RNA,再用RT-PCR的方法对家蚕TPR基因进行克隆.[结果]成功得到家蚕TPR基因全cDNA序列,并用PCR扩增得到了TPR基因的ORF,全长858 bp.[结论]首次对家蚕TPR家族基因进行了克隆,为今后对该基因功能研究奠定了坚实的基础.

  8. Cloning of TRP Gene of Bombyx mori%家蚕TPR基因的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛伟涛

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to clone Bombyx mori TRP gene. [ Method ] The total RNA of Bombyx mori was extracted during its pupal period with Trizol method, and then the TRP gene was cloned by RT-PCR. [ Result] The full-length cDNA of TRP gene was successfully obtained, and the ORF fragment (858 bp) of TRP gene was cloned by PCR. [Conclusion] TRP gene of Bombyx mori was cloned for the first time, which could provide solid basis for the study on its function.%[目的]克隆家蚕TPR基因,为研究该基因功能提供依据.[方法]利用Trizol法提取家蚕蛹期总RNA,再用RT-PCR方法对家蚕TPR基因进行克隆.[结果]成功得到家蚕TPR基因全cDNA序列,并用PCR扩增得到了TPR基因的ORF,全长858 bp.[结论]首次对家蚕TPR家族基因进行了克隆,为今后对该基因功能研究奠定了坚实的基础.

  9. Evolution of TRP channels inferred by their classification in diverse animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guangda; Shi, Xiao; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2015-03-01

    The functions of TRP channels have primarily been characterized in model organisms within a limited evolutionary context. We thus characterize the TRP channels in choanoflagellate, sponge, Cnidaria, Lophotrochozoa, and arthropods to understand how they emerged during early evolution of animals and have changed during diversification of various species. As previously reported, five metazoan TRP subfamily members (TRPA, TRPC, TRPM, TRPML, and TRPV) were identified in choanoflagellates, demonstrating that they evolved before the emergence of multicellular animals. TRPN was identified in Hydra magnipapillata, and therefore emerged in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria-Bilateria. A novel subfamily member (TRPVL) was identified in Cnidaria and Capitella teleta, indicating that it was present in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria-Bilateria but has since been lost in most bilaterians. The characterization of arthropod TRP channels revealed that Daphnia pulex and insects have specifically expanded the TRPA subfamily, which diverged from the ancient TRPA1 channel gene. The diversity of TRPA channels except TRPA1 was detectable even within a single insect family, namely the ant lineage. The present study demonstrates the evolutionary history of TRP channel genes, which may have diverged in conjunction with the specific habitats and life histories of individual species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Reprocessed DOQQ Aerial Imagery (NODC Accession 0086051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Coastal Services Center purchased services to reprocess existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic habitat...

  11. Current issues in endoscope reprocessing and infection control during gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas B Nelson; Lawrence F Muscarella

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the evidence regarding transmission of infection during gastrointestinal endoscopy, factors important in endoscope reprocessing and infection control, areas to focus on to improve compliance, and recent developments and advances in the field.

  12. Consolidated fuel-reprocessing program. Progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, W D

    1982-09-01

    Highlights of progress accomplished during the quarter ending June 30, 1982 are summarized. Discussion is presented under the headings: Process development; Laboratory R and D; Engineering research; Engineering systems; Integrated equipment test facility operation; Instrument development; and HTGR fuel reprocessing.

  13. Physiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Ulf O E; von Schèele, Bo; Theorell, Töres; Söndergaard, Hans Peter

    2008-05-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an established treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, its working mechanism remains unclear. This study explored physiological correlates of eye movements during EMDR in relation to current hypotheses; distraction, conditioning, orienting response activation, and REM-like mechanisms. During EMDR therapy, fingertip temperature, heart rate, skin conductance, expiratory carbon dioxide level, and blood pulse oximeter oxygen saturation, were measured in male subjects with PTSD. The ratio between the low and high frequency components of the heart rate power spectrum (LF/HF) were computed as measures of autonomic balance. Respiratory rate was calculated from the carbon dioxide trace. Stimulation shifted the autonomic balance as indicated by decreases in heart rate, skin conductance and LF/HF-ratio, and an increased finger temperature. The breathing frequency and end-tidal carbon dioxide increased; oxygen saturation decreased during eye movements. In conclusion, eye movements during EMDR activate cholinergic and inhibit sympathetic systems. The reactivity has similarities with the pattern during REM-sleep.

  14. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, P R; Parker, K C

    2001-04-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a controversial treatment suggested for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other conditions, was evaluated in a meta-analysis of 34 studies that examined EMDR with a variety of populations and measures. Process and outcome measures were examined separately. and EMDR showed an effect on both when compared with no treatment and with therapies not using exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli and in pre post EMDR comparisons. However, no significant effect was found when EMDR was compared with other exposure techniques. No incremental effect of eye movements was noted when EMDR was compared with the same procedure without them. R. J. DeRubeis and P. Crits-Christoph (1998) noted that EMDR is a potentially effective treatment for noncombat PTSD. but studies that examined such patient groups did not give clear support to this. In sum, EMDR appears to be no more effective than other exposure techniques, and evidence suggests that the eye movements integral to the treatment, and to its name, are unnecessary.

  15. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-03-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Two teenagers with major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent three and seven sessions of EMDR aimed at memories of stressful life events. After treatment, their depressive symptoms decreased to the level of full remission, and the therapeutic gains were maintained after two and three months of follow up. The effectiveness of EMDR for depression is explained by the model of adaptive information processing. Given the powerful effects observed within a brief period of time, the authors suggest that further investigation of EMDR for depressive disorders is warranted.

  16. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR as a Neurorehabilitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  17. Reprocessability of molybdenum and magnesia based inert matrix fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert Elena L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the reprocessability of metallic 92Mo and ceramic MgO, which is under investigation for (Pu,MA-oxide (MA = minor actinide fuel within a metallic 92Mo matrix (CERMET and a ceramic MgO matrix (CERCER. Magnesium oxide and molybdenum reference samples have been fabricated by powder metallurgy. The dissolution of the matrices was studied as a function of HNO3 concentration (1-7 mol/L and temperature (25-90°C. The rate of dissolution of magnesium oxide and metallic molybdenum increased with temperature. While the MgO rate was independent of the acid concentration (1-7 mol/L, the rate of dissolution of Mo increased with acid concentration. However, the dissolution of Mo at high temperatures and nitric acid concentrations was accompanied by precipitation of MoO3. The extraction of uranium, americium, and europium in the presence of macro amounts of Mo and Mg was studied by three different extraction agents: tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP, N,Nʹ-dimethyl-N,Nʹ-dioctylhexylethoxymalonamide (DMDOHEMA, and N,N,N’,N’- -tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA. With TBP no extraction of Mo and Mg occurred. Both matrix materials are partly extracted by DMDOHEMA. Magnesium is not extracted by TODGA (D < 0.1, but a weak extraction of Mo is observed at low Mo concentration.

  18. Evaluation and quantification of reprocessing modification in single-use devices in interventional cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarolo, Francesco; Ferrari, Paolo; Silvia, Bortoluzzi; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio; Zennaro, Lucio; Rigo, Adelio; Guarrera, Giovanni Maria; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2004-11-01

    The increasing demand in interventional cardiology urges for reprocessing of single-use-labelled medical devices. To fulfil this aim, accurate and validated regeneration protocols are mandatory to guarantee sterility, functionality and safeness. The reprocessing protocol was realized by decontamination with chloro-donors, cleaning with enzymatic solutions and hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization. Reprocessing effects on ablation and electrophysiology catheters were evaluated by assessing physical-chemical changes on surfaces and bulks, as a function of the reprocessing cycles number. Conventional optical microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) underlined the presence of micro-scratches on the polyurethane shaft surface. A clear correlation was found between surface damages and number of reprocessing cycles. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed the occurrence of physical-chemical etching of the polyurethane shaft caused by the hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization, with increasing of nano-roughness at increasing number of the reprocessing cycles. UV-Vis spectra performed on the incubation solution of polymeric shaft sample, showed an absorbance increase at about 208 nm. This fact could be attributed to the water elution from the polymer of low molecular weight oligomers. The presence of hydrolysis products of the polymeric shaft after incubation demands both the characterization of the products released in the solution and the chemical characterization of the water exposed surface.

  19. Endoscope reprocessing methods: a prospective study on the impact of human factors and automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstead, Cori L; Wetzler, Harry P; Snyder, Alycea K; Horton, Rebecca A

    2010-01-01

    The main cause of endoscopy-associated infections is failure to adhere to reprocessing guidelines. More information about factors impacting compliance is needed to support the development of effective interventions. The purpose of this multisite, observational study was to evaluate reprocessing practices, employee perceptions, and occupational health issues. Data were collected utilizing interviews, surveys, and direct observation. Written reprocessing policies and procedures were in place at all five sites, and employees affirmed the importance of most recommended steps. Nevertheless, observers documented guideline adherence, with only 1.4% of endoscopes reprocessed using manual cleaning methods with automated high-level disinfection versus 75.4% of those reprocessed using an automated endoscope cleaner and reprocessor. The majority reported health problems (i.e., pain, decreased flexibility, numbness, or tingling). Physical discomfort was associated with time spent reprocessing (p = .041). Discomfort diminished after installation of automated endoscope cleaners and reprocessors (p = .001). Enhanced training and accountability, combined with increased automation, may ensure guideline adherence and patient safety while improving employee satisfaction and health.

  20. Comparing ion conductance recordings of synthetic lipid bilayers with cell membranes containing TRP channels

    CERN Document Server

    Laub, Katrine R; Blicher, Andreas; Madsen, Soren B; Luckhoff, Andreas; Heimburg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article we compare electrical conductance events from single channel recordings of three TRP channel proteins (TRPA1, TRPM2 and TRPM8) expressed in human embryonic kidney cells with channel events recorded on synthetic lipid membranes close to melting transitions. Ion channels from the TRP family are involved in a variety of sensory processes including thermo- and mechano-reception. Synthetic lipid membranes close to phase transitions display channel-like events that respond to stimuli related to changes in intensive thermodynamic variables such as pressure and temperature. TRP channel activity is characterized by typical patterns of current events dependent on the type of protein expressed. Synthetic lipid bilayers show a wide spectrum of electrical phenomena that are considered typical for the activity of protein ion channels. We find unitary currents, burst behavior, flickering, multistep-conductances, and spikes behavior in both preparations. Moreover, we report conductances and lifetimes for lipi...

  1. A thermodynamic framework for understanding temperature sensing by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, David E; Miller, Christopher

    2011-12-06

    The exceptionally high temperature sensitivity of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channels is the molecular basis of hot and cold sensation in sensory neurons. The laws of thermodynamics dictate that opening of these specialized TRP channels must involve an unusually large conformational standard-state enthalpy, ΔH(o): positive ΔH(o) for heat-activated and negative ΔH(o) for cold-activated TRPs. However, the molecular source of such high-enthalpy changes has eluded neurobiologists and biophysicists. Here we offer a general, unifying mechanism for both hot and cold activation that recalls long-appreciated principles of protein folding. We suggest that TRP channel gating is accompanied by large changes in molar heat capacity, ΔC(P). This postulate, along with the laws of thermodynamics and independent of mechanistic detail, leads to the conclusion that hot- and cold-sensing TRPs operate by identical conformational changes.

  2. Uterine deletion of Trp53 compromises antioxidant responses in mouse decidua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnum, Kristin E.; Hirota, Yasushi; Baker, Erin Shammel; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Daikoku, Takiko; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2012-09-01

    Preterm birth is a global health issue impacting both mothers and children. However, the etiology of preterm birth is not clearly understood. From our recent finding that premature decidual senescence with terminal differentiation is a cause of preterm birth in mice with uterine Trp53 deletion, encoding p53 protein, led us to explore other potential factors that are related to preterm birth. Utilizing proteomics approaches, here we show that 183 candidate proteins cause significant changes in decidua with Trp53 deletion as compared to normal decidua. Functional categorization of these proteins unveiled new pathways that are influenced by p53. In particular, downregulation of a cluster of antioxidant proteins in p53 deficient decidua suggests that increased oxidative stress could be one cause of preterm birth in mice with uterine deletion of Trp53.

  3. Spent Fuel Source Term Calculation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Zhi-long; WAN; Hai-xia; LI; Long; WU; Xiao-chun; SHAO; Jing; LIU; Li-li; ZHANG; Jing

    2013-01-01

    The spent fuel of nuclear power plant should be transported to reprocessing plant for reprocessing after reserving for a period of time.Before that,safety analysis and environmental impact assessment should be carried on to the transportation process,which need radioactive source term calculation and analysis.The task of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel source term calculation includes estimation of

  4. Evidence for Novel Pharmacological Sensitivities of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP Channels in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, is a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions globally. Praziquantel (PZQ, the only drug currently available for treatment and control, is largely ineffective against juvenile worms, and reports of PZQ resistance lend added urgency to the need for development of new therapeutics. Ion channels, which underlie electrical excitability in cells, are validated targets for many current anthelmintics. Transient receptor potential (TRP channels are a large family of non-selective cation channels. TRP channels play key roles in sensory transduction and other critical functions, yet the properties of these channels have remained essentially unexplored in parasitic helminths. TRP channels fall into several (7-8 subfamilies, including TRPA and TRPV. Though schistosomes contain genes predicted to encode representatives of most of the TRP channel subfamilies, they do not appear to have genes for any TRPV channels. Nonetheless, we find that the TRPV1-selective activators capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX induce dramatic hyperactivity in adult worms; capsaicin also increases motility in schistosomula. SB 366719, a highly-selective TRPV1 antagonist, blocks the capsaicin-induced hyperactivity in adults. Mammalian TRPA1 is not activated by capsaicin, yet knockdown of the single predicted TRPA1-like gene (SmTRPA in S. mansoni effectively abolishes capsaicin-induced responses in adult worms, suggesting that SmTRPA is required for capsaicin sensitivity in these parasites. Based on these results, we hypothesize that some schistosome TRP channels have novel pharmacological sensitivities that can be targeted to disrupt normal parasite neuromuscular function. These results also have implications for understanding the phylogeny of metazoan TRP channels and may help identify novel targets for new or repurposed therapeutics.

  5. Human salivary alpha-amylase Trp58 situated at subsite -2 is critical for enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubbu, Narayanan; Ragunath, Chandran; Mishra, Prasunkumar J; Thomas, Leonard M; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Kandra, Lili

    2004-06-01

    The nonreducing end of the substrate-binding site of human salivary alpha-amylase contains two residues Trp58 and Trp59, which belong to beta2-alpha2 loop of the catalytic (beta/alpha)(8) barrel. While Trp59 stacks onto the substrate, the exact role of Trp58 is unknown. To investigate its role in enzyme activity the residue Trp58 was mutated to Ala, Leu or Tyr. Kinetic analysis of the wild-type and mutant enzymes was carried out with starch and oligosaccharides as substrates. All three mutants exhibited a reduction in specific activity (150-180-fold lower than the wild type) with starch as substrate. With oligosaccharides as substrates, a reduction in k(cat), an increase in K(m) and distinct differences in the cleavage pattern were observed for the mutants W58A and W58L compared with the wild type. Glucose was the smallest product generated by these two mutants in the hydrolysis oligosaccharides; in contrast, wild-type enzyme generated maltose as the smallest product. The production of glucose by W58L was confirmed from both reducing and nonreducing ends of CNP-labeled oligosaccharide substrates. The mutant W58L exhibited lower binding affinity at subsites -2, -3 and +2 and showed an increase in transglycosylation activity compared with the wild type. The lowered affinity at subsites -2 and -3 due to the mutation was also inferred from the electron density at these subsites in the structure of W58A in complex with acarbose-derived pseudooligosaccharide. Collectively, these results suggest that the residue Trp58 plays a critical role in substrate binding and hydrolytic activity of human salivary alpha-amylase.

  6. Review of the literature for dry reprocessing oxide, metal, and carbide fuel: The AIROX, RAHYD, and CARBOX pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, R.C.; Rhee, B.W. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Energy Systems Group

    1979-09-30

    The state of the art of dry processing oxide, carbide, and metal fuel has been determined through an extensive literature review. Dry processing in one of the most proliferation resistant fuel reprocessing technologies available to date, and is one of the few which can be exported to other countries. Feasibility has been established for oxide, carbide, and metal fuel on a laboratory scale, and large-scale experiments on oxide and carbide fuel have shown viability of the dry processing concept. A complete dry processing cycle has been demonstrated by multicycle processing-refabrication-reirradiation experiments on oxide fuel. Additional experimental work is necessary to: (1) demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for carbide and metal fuel, (2) optimize dry processing conditions, and (3) establish fission product behavior. Dry process waste management is easier than for an aqueous processing facility since wastes are primarily solids and gases. Waste treatment can be accomplished by techniques which have been, or are being, developed for aqueous plants.

  7. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Hf-40 Wt Pct Ti Alloy in Nitric Acid Medium for Reprocessing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, J.; Ravi, K. R.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-09-01

    The Hf-40 wt pct Ti (Hf-Ti) alloy was developed for neutron poison application in the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The furnace-cooled Hf-Ti sample exhibited the microstructure comprising equiaxed-α, lamellar-α, and feathery-α. The water-quenched Hf-Ti sample confirmed the presence of lath and internally twinned martensite. In comparison to the furnace-cooled sample, low corrosion current density and passivation current density values obtained for the water-quenched Hf-Ti in 6 M HNO3 at 298 K (25 °C) indicated better passivation ability. The martensitic structure exhibited high hardness (660 HV) and negligible corrosion rate in 6 M nitric acid at 298 K (25 °C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis confirmed that passivation behavior of this alloy was due to the protective passive film composed of TiO2 and HfO2.

  8. Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Suk Kim; Min-Jin Kim; Young Hun Choi; Byung Kuk Kim; Kwang Sik Kim; Kyung Jin Park; Suk Man Park; Nam Ho Lee; Chang-Gu Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Methods:Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results: Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Conclusions:Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders.

  9. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP32 is a Nucleomodulin that Directly Regulates Expression of Host Genes Governing Differentiation and Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Tierra R; Dunphy, Paige S; Zhu, Bing; Kibler, Clayton E; McBride, Jere W

    2016-08-29

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that reprograms the mononuclear phagocyte through diverse effector-host interactions to modulate numerous host cell processes, including transcription. In a previous study, we reported that E. chaffeensis TRP32, a type 1 secreted effector, interacts with multiple host nucleus-associated proteins and also auto-activates reporter gene expression in yeast. In this study, we demonstrate that TRP32 is a nucleomodulin that binds host DNA and alters host gene transcription. TRP32 enters the host cell nucleus via a noncanonical translocation mechanism that involves phosphorylation of Y179 located in a C-terminal tri-tyrosine motif. Both genistein and mutation of Y179 inhibited TRP32 nuclear entry. An electromobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated TRP32 host DNA binding via its tandem repeat domain. TRP32 DNA binding and motif preference were further confirmed by supershift assays, as well as competition and mutant probe analyses. Using ChIP-Seq, we determined that TRP32 binds a G-rich motif primarily within ±500 bp of the gene transcription start site. An ontology analysis identified genes involved in processes such as immune cell differentiation, chromatin remodeling, and RNA transcription and processing, as primary TRP32 targets. TRP32 bound genes (n=1223) were distributed on all chromosomes and included several global regulators of proliferation and inflammation such as FOS and JUN, AKT3 and NRAS, and non-coding RNA genes, miRNA 21 and miRNA 142. TRP32 target genes were differentially regulated during infection, the majority of which were repressed, and direct repression/activation of these genes by TRP32 was confirmed in vitro with a cellular luciferase reporter assay.

  10. Elevated expression of TrpC5 and GLUT1 is associated with chemoresistance in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Ning, Kuan; Lu, Ting-Xun; Hua, Dong

    2017-02-01

    Reprogramming of energy metabolism (aerobic glycolysis) is thought to play an essential role in cancer. Compared to oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis consumes more glucose through the upregulation of glucose transporters, notably glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Elevated glycolysis occurs in chemoresistant cancer cells, but the detailed mechanism is not well understood. The upregulation of the Ca2+-permeable transient receptor potential channel 5 (TrpC5) activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-resistant human colorectal cancer (CRC) HCT-8 (HCT-8/5-Fu) cells. In the present study, TrpC5 was overexpressed at the mRNA and protein levels along with GLUT1 in HCT-8/5-Fu cells. Suppression of TrpC5 expression with a TrpC5-specific shRNA reduced the induction of GLUT1 in the HCT-8 cells. The inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway with XAV939 resulted in a decreased GLUT1 and nuclear c-Myc expression. Further study using clinical specimens validated the positive correlation between TrpC5 and GLUT1 protein levels and showed that a high TrpC5/GLUT1 expression was significantly correlated with chemoresistance. Taken together, we demonstrated the essential role of TrpC5 in GLUT1 induction and revealed that a high TrpC5/GLUT1 expression is associated with chemoresistance in human CRC.

  11. A C. elegans stretch receptor neuron revealed by a mechanosensitive TRP channel homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Zhaoyang; Sternberg, Paul W; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2006-03-30

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as a genetic model organism for dissecting integration of the sensory and motor systems. Despite extensive genetic and behavioural analyses that have led to the identification of many genes and neural circuits involved in regulating C. elegans locomotion behaviour, it remains unclear whether and how somatosensory feedback modulates motor output during locomotion. In particular, no stretch receptors have been identified in C. elegans, raising the issue of whether stretch-receptor-mediated proprioception is used by C. elegans to regulate its locomotion behaviour. Here we have characterized TRP-4, the C. elegans homologue of the mechanosensitive TRPN channel. We show that trp-4 mutant worms bend their body abnormally, exhibiting a body posture distinct from that of wild-type worms during locomotion, suggesting that TRP-4 is involved in stretch-receptor-mediated proprioception. We show that TRP-4 acts in a single neuron, DVA, to mediate its function in proprioception, and that the activity of DVA can be stimulated by body stretch. DVA both positively and negatively modulates locomotion, providing a unique mechanism whereby a single neuron can fine-tune motor activity. Thus, DVA represents a stretch receptor neuron that regulates sensory-motor integration during C. elegans locomotion.

  12. Prostaglandin H synthase-mediated bioactivation of the amino acid pyrolysate product Trp P-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, T.W.; Krauss, R.S.; Eling, T.E.

    1986-08-01

    We report evidence that the mutagen and carcinogen 3-amino-1-methyl-5H pyrido(4,3b)indole (Trp P-2) is a substrate for co-oxidation by prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) in ram seminal vesicle (RSV) microsomes. Trp P-2 serves as a reducing cofactor for the hydroperoxidase activity of PHS as shown by the concentration-dependent inhibition of the hydroperoxidase catalyzed incorporation of molecular oxygen into phenylbutazone. Spectral data suggest that this metabolism results in disruption of the double bond conjugation within the nucleus of the molecule. A single metabolite peak which was dependent upon arachidonic acid and substrate concentration was separated from the parent compound by h.p.l.c. following incubation with RSV microsomes. Co-oxidation of Trp P-2 produced reactive intermediates which bound covalently to microsomal protein (9 nmol/mg) and to calf thymus DNA (475 pmol/mg). Binding was inhibited by indomethacin, and supported by substitution of hydrogen peroxide for arachidonic acid. These data suggest a possible role for PHS in the in situ activation of Trp P-2 to its ultimate carcinogenic form in tissues which contain PHS.

  13. Rate constant and reaction coordinate of Trp-cage folding in explicit water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juraszek, J.; Bolhuis, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    We report rate constant calculations and a reaction coordinate analysis of the rate-limiting folding and unfolding process of the Trp-cage mini-protein in explicit solvent using transition interface sampling. Previous transition path sampling simulations revealed that in this (un)folding process the

  14. Efficient and reproducible folding simulations of the Trp-case protein with multiscale molecular dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA XueFeng; ZHANG Song; HUANG go; ZHOU Yun; SUN ZhiRong

    2008-01-01

    Folding simulations are often time-consuming or highly sensitive to the initial conformation of the simulation even for mini protein like the Trp-cage. Here, we present a multiscale molecular dynamics method which appears to be both efficient and insensitive to the starting conformation based on the testing results from the Trp-cage protein. In this method the simulated system is simultaneously modeled on atoms and coarse-grained particles with incremental coarsening levels. The dynamics of coarse-grained particles are adapted to the recent trajectories of finer-grained particles instead of fixed and parameterized energy functions as used in previous coarse-grained models. In addition, the compositions of coarse-grained particles are allowed to be updated automatically based on the coherence during its history. Starting from the fully extended conformation and other several different conformations of the Trp-cage protein, our method successfully finds out the native-like conformations of the Trp-cage protein in the largest cluster of the trajectories in all of the eight performed simulations within at most 10 ns simulation time. The results show that approaches based on multiscale modeling are promising for ab initio protein structure prediction.

  15. Emerging role of TRP channels in cell migration: from tumor vascularization to metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eFioro Pla

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels modulate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, controlling critical cytosolic and nuclear events that are involved in the initiation and progression of cancer. It is not, therefore, surprising that the expression of some TRP channels is altered during tumor growth and metastasis. Cell migration of both epithelial and endothelial cells is an essential step of the so-called metastatic cascade that leads to the spread of the disease within the body. It is in fact required for both tumor vascularization as well as for tumor cell invasion into adjacent tissues and intravasation into blood/lymphatic vessels. Studies from the last 15 years have unequivocally shown that the ion channles and the transport proteins also play important roles in cell migration. On the other hand, recent literature underlies a critical role for TRP channels in the migration process both in cancer cells as well as in tumor vascularization. This will be the main focus of our review. We will provide an overview of recent advances in this field describing TRP channels contribution to the process vascular and cancer cell migration, and we will systematically discuss relevant molecular mechanism involved.

  16. Twin-screw extruded lipid implants containing TRP2 peptide for tumour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Marie-Paule; Bobbala, Sharan; Gibson, Blake; Hook, Sarah; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2017-01-16

    Much effort has been put in the development of specific anti-tumour immunotherapies over the last few years, and several studies report on the use of liposomal carriers for tumour-associated antigens. In this work, the use of lipid implants, prepared using two different extruders, was investigated for sustained delivery in tumour therapy. The implants consisted of cholesterol, soybean lecithin, Dynasan 114, trehalose, ovalbumin (OVA) or a TRP2 peptide, and Quil-A. Implants were first produced on a Haake Minilab extruder, and then a scale-down to minimal quantities of material on a small scale ZE mini extruder was performed. All formulations were characterised in terms of extrudability, implant properties and in vitro release behaviour of the model antigen ovalbumin. The type of extruder used to produce the implants had a major influence on implant properties and the release behaviour, demonstrating that extrusion parameters and lipid formulations have to be individually adapted to each extrusion device. Subsequently, lipid implants containing TRP-2 peptide were extruded on the ZE mini extruder and investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo study showed that mice having received TRP2 loaded implants had delayed tumour growth for 3days compared to groups having received no TRP2.

  17. Alpha-lactalbumin combined with a regular diet increases plasma Trp-LNAA ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Bindels, J.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Brain serotonin influences food intake and mood. It is synthesised from tryptophan (Tip) of which uptake in the brain is dependent on plasma ratio of tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids (Trp-LNAA). A carbohydrate-rich diet increases this ratio, whereas a protein-rich diet decrea

  18. Spectroscopic evidence for an engineered, catalytically active Trp radical that creates the unique reactivity of lignin peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew T; Doyle, Wendy A; Dorlet, Pierre; Ivancich, Anabella

    2009-09-22

    The surface oxidation site (Trp-171) in lignin peroxidase (LiP) required for the reaction with veratryl alcohol a high-redox-potential (1.4 V) substrate, was engineered into Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) by introducing a Trp residue into a heme peroxidase that has similar protein fold but lacks this activity. To create the catalytic activity toward veratryl alcohol in CiP, it was necessary to reproduce the Trp site and its negatively charged microenvironment by means of a triple mutation. The resulting D179W+R258E+R272D variant was characterized by multifrequency EPR spectroscopy. The spectra unequivocally showed that a new Trp radical [g values of g(x) = 2.0035(5), g(y) = 2.0027(5), and g(z) = 2.0022(1)] was formed after the [Fe(IV)=O Por(*+)] intermediate, as a result of intramolecular electron transfer between Trp-179 and the porphyrin. Also, the EPR characterization crucially showed that [Fe(IV)=O Trp-179(*)] was the reactive intermediate with veratryl alcohol. Accordingly, our work shows that it is necessary to take into account the physicochemical properties of the radical, fine-tuned by the microenvironment, as well as those of the preceding [Fe(IV)=O Por(*+)] intermediate to engineer a catalytically competent Trp site for a given substrate. Manipulation of the microenvironment of the Trp-171 site in LiP allowed the detection by EPR spectroscopy of the Trp-171(*), for which direct evidence has been missing so far. Our work also highlights the role of Trp residues as tunable redox-active cofactors for enzyme catalysis in the context of peroxidases with a unique reactivity toward recalcitrant substrates that require oxidation potentials not realized at the heme site.

  19. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    promises as a replacement for AHA. FHA undergoes hydrolysis to formic acid which is volatile, thus allowing the recycling of nitric acid. Unfortunately, FHA powder was not stable in the experiments we ran in our laboratory. In addition, AHA and FHA also decompose to hydroxylamine which may undergo an autocatalytic reaction. Other reductants are available and could be extremely useful for actinides separation. The review presents the current plutonium reductants used in used nuclear fuel reprocessing and will introduce innovative and novel reductants that could become reducers for future research on UNF separation.

  20. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential.

  1. Structure-activity relationship of Trp-containing analogs of the antimicrobial peptide gomesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Tatiana M; Buri, Marcus V; Daffre, Sirlei; Campana, Patricia T; Riske, Karin A; Miranda, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Gomesin (Gm) has a broad antimicrobial activity making it of great interest for development of drugs. In this study, we analyzed three Gm analogs, [Trp(1) ]-Gm, [Trp(7) ]-Gm, and [Trp(9) ]-Gm, in an attempt to gain insight into the contributions of different regions of the peptide sequence to its activity. The incorporation of the tryptophan residue in different positions has no effect on the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the Gm analogs in relation to Gm. Spectroscopic studies (circular dichroism, fluorescence and absorbance) of Gm and its analogs were performed in the presence of SDS, below and above its critical micelle concentration (CMC) (~8 mM), in order to monitor structural changes induced by the interaction with this anionic surfactant (0-15 mM). Interestingly, we found that the analogs interact more strongly with SDS at low concentrations (0.3-6.0 mM) than close to or above its CMC. This suggests that SDS monomers are able to cover the whole peptide, forming large detergent-peptide aggregates. On the other hand, the peptides interact differently with SDS micelles, inserting partially into the micelle core. Among the peptides, Trp in position 1 becomes more motionally-restricted in the presence of SDS, probably because this residue is located at the N-terminal region, which presents higher conformational freedom to interact stronger with SDS molecules. Trp residues in positions 7 and 9, close to and in the region of the turn of the molecule, respectively, induced a more constrained structure and the compounds cannot insert deeper into the micelle core or be completely buried by SDS monomers. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Förster energy-transfer studies between Trp residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) and the glycosylation site of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Jihad R

    2003-10-10

    Energy-transfer studies between Trp residues of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and the fluorescent probe Calcofluor White were performed. Calcofluor White interacts with carbohydrate residues of the protein, while the three Trp residues are located at the surface (Trp-160) and in hydrophobic domains of the protein (Trp-25 and Trp-122). Binding of Calcofluor to the protein induces a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the Trp residues accompanied by an increase of that of Calcofluor White. Efficiency (E) of Trp fluorescence quenching was determined to be equal to 45%, and the Förster distance R(o), at which the efficiency of energy transfer is 50%, was calculated to be 18.13 A. This low distance and the value of the efficiency clearly indicate that energy transfer between Trp residues and Calcofluor White is weak.

  3. ATP measurement as method to monitor the quality of reprocessing flexible endoscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen, Dorothea

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient performance of cleaning and disinfection of flexible endoscopes can pose an infection risk to patients. Actually quality of reprocessing is checked by performing microbiological cultures. Unfortunately, their results are not available on the same day so that more rapid methods are desirable. We compared the ATP (adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for hygiene checking of the reprocessing procedures of 108 flexible endoscopes with routine microbiological culture technics. Sensitivity and specifity of ATP bioluminescence was calculated. 28 endoscopes showed bacterial growth of at least one sample. Depending on the applied threshold of bioluminescence between 67 and 28 endoscopes were positive. Sensitivity varied between 0.46 and 0.75 and specifity between 0.43 and 0.81. ATP bioluminescence does not replace routine microbiologic methods but it can indicate the need of immediate check of reprocessing.

  4. Remote maintenance lessons learned'' on prototypical reprocessing equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, C.T.; Schrock, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Hardware representative of essentially every major equipment item necessary for reprocessing breeder reactor nuclear fuel has been installed and tested for remote maintainability. This testing took place in a cold mock-up of a remotely maintained hot cell operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) within the Fuel Recycle Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The reprocessing equipment tested included a Disassembly System, a Shear System, a Dissolver System, an Automated Sampler System, removable Equipment Racks on which various chemical process equipment items were mounted, and an advanced servomanipulator (ASM). These equipment items were disassembled and reassembled remotely by using the remote handling systems that are available within the cold mock-up area. This paper summarizes the lessons learned'' as a result of the numerous maintenance activities associated with each of these equipment items. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Monitoring of endoscope reprocessing with an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parohl, Nina; Stiefenhöfer, Doris; Heiligtag, Sabine; Reuter, Henning; Dopadlik, Dana; Mosel, Frank; Gerken, Guido; Dechêne, Alexander; Heintschel von Heinegg, Evelyn; Jochum, Christoph; Buer, Jan; Popp, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background: The arising challenges over endoscope reprocessing quality proposes to look for possibilities to measure and control the process of endoscope reprocessing. Aim: The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring endoscope reprocessing with an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) based bioluminescence system. Methods: 60 samples of eight gastroscopes have been assessed from routine clinical use in a major university hospital in Germany. Endoscopes have been assessed with an ATP system and microbial cultures at different timepoints during the reprocessing. Findings: After the bedside flush the mean ATP level in relative light units (RLU) was 19,437 RLU, after the manual cleaning 667 RLU and after the automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) 227 RLU. After the manual cleaning the mean total viable count (TVC) per endoscope was 15.3 CFU/10 ml, and after the AER 5.7 CFU/10 ml. Our results show that there are reprocessing cycles which are not able to clean a patient used endoscope. Conclusion: Our data suggest that monitoring of flexible endoscope with ATP can identify a number of different influence factors, like the endoscope condition and the endoscopic procedure, or especially the quality of the bedside flush and manual cleaning before the AER. More process control is one option to identify and improve influence factors to finally increase the overall reprocessing quality, best of all by different methods. ATP measurement seems to be a valid technique that allows an immediate repeat of the manual cleaning if the ATP results after manual cleaning exceed the established cutoff of 200 RLU.

  6. Sustainable Steelmaking Using Biomass and Waste Oxides (TRP9902)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard J. Fruehan

    2004-09-30

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed to employ renewable energy in the form of wood charcoal to produce hot metal. The process was aimed at the market niche of units ranging from 400,000 to 1 million tons of hot metal a year. In the new process, a Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF) would be combined with a smelter to produce hot metal. This combination was proposed to overcome the technical hurdles of energy generation in smelters and the low productivity of RHFs, and also allow the use of wood charcoal as energy source and reductant. In order to assess the feasibility of the new process, it was necessary to estimate the productivity of the two units involved, the RHF and the smelter. This work concentrated on the development of a productivity model for the RHF able to predict changes in productivity according to the type of carbon and iron oxides used as feed materials. This model was constructed starting with the most fundamental aspect of reduction in composites measuring intrinsic rates of oxidation of different carbons in CO{sub 2}-CO atmospheres and reduction of different oxides in the same atmospheres. After that, a model was constructed considering the interplay of intrinsic kinetics and the transfer of heat to and within pellets such as used in the RHF. Finally, a productivity model for the RHF was developed based on the model developed for a pellet and the differences in heat transfer conditions between the laboratory furnace and the actual RHF. The final model produced for the RHF predicts production rates within 30% of actual plant data reported with coal and indicates that productivity gains as high as 50% could be achieved replacing coal with wood charcoal in the green balls owing to the faster reaction rates achieved with the second carbon. This model also indicates that an increase of less than 5% in total carbon consumption should take place in operations using wood charcoal instead of coal.

  7. Position-Dependent Influence of the Three Trp Residues on the Membrane Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptide, Tritrpticin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Arias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs constitute promising candidates for the development of new antibiotics. Among the ever-expanding family of AMPs, tritrpticin has strong antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pathogens. This 13-residue peptide has an unusual amino acid sequence that is almost symmetrical and features three central Trp residues with two Arg residues near each end of the peptide. In this work, the role of the three sequential Trp residues in tritrpticin was studied in a systematic fashion by making a series of synthetic peptides with single-, double- and triple-Trp substitutions to Tyr or Ala. 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated the ability of all of the tritrpticin-analog peptides to interact with negatively-charged membranes. Consequently, most tritrpticin analogs exhibited the ability to permeabilize synthetic ePC:ePG (egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine (ePC, egg-yolk phosphatidylglycerol (ePG vesicles and live Escherichia coli bacteria. The membrane perturbation characteristics were highly dependent on the location of the Trp residue substitution, with Trp6 being the most important residue and Trp8 the least. The membrane permeabilization activity of the peptides in synthetic and biological membranes was directly correlated with the antimicrobial potency of the peptides against E. coli. These results contribute to the understanding of the role of each of the three Trp residues to the antimicrobial activity of tritrpticin.

  8. Pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salt fast reactor fuel: focus on the reductive extraction step

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Davide; Durán-Klie Gabriela; Delpech Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile...

  9. Methods of Gas Phase Capture of Iodine from Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas: A Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl Haefner

    2007-02-01

    A literature survey was conducted to collect information and summarize the methods available to capture iodine from fuel reprocessing off-gases. Techniques were categorized as either wet scrubbing or solid adsorbent methods, and each method was generally described as it might be used under reprocessing conditions. Decontamination factors are quoted only to give a rough indication of the effectiveness of the method. No attempt is made to identify a preferred capture method at this time, although activities are proposed that would provide a consistent baseline that would aid in evaluating technologies.

  10. Economics and resources analysis of the potential use of reprocessing options by the current Spanish nuclear reactor park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Merino Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.

    2014-07-01

    Reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel serves multiple purposes, from Pu separation and recovery for MOX fuel fabrication to reduction of high level waste volume, and is nowadays being implemented in several countries like France, Japan, Russia or United Kingdom. This work is aimed at exploring the possibility (in resources and economic terms) of implementing reprocessing for MOX fabrication in Spain. (Author)

  11. Molecular basis of epithelial Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport: insights from the TRP channel family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimke, Henrik Anthony; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Bindels, René J M

    2011-01-01

    potential (TRP) family identified several new ion channels acting as gatekeepers of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) transport in these epithelia, greatly increasing our understanding of the molecular processes that facilitate the movement of these minerals. In the intestine, TRP channels contribute to the saturable...... active transcellular movement of divalent cations from the lumen into the enterocyte. Furthermore, in bone, TRPV channels play important roles by influencing the osteoclastic resorption process, thereby contributing importantly to overall bone mineral content. The divalent cation-permeable TRPV5 and TRPM......6 channels are located in the renal distal convolution, the main site of active transcellular Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) transport. The channels are regulated by a multitude of factors and hormones that contribute importantly to keeping the systemic concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) within normal limits...

  12. Structure and function of Escherichia coli met repressor: similarities and contrasts with trp repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S E; Stockley, P G

    1996-04-29

    Transcription of genes encoding enzymes for the biosynthesis of methionine and trytophan in Escherichia coli is regulated by the ligand-activated met and trp repressors. X-ray crystallographic studies show how these two small proteins, although similar in size and function, have totally different three-dimensional structures and specifically recognize their respective DNA operator sequences in different ways. A common feature is that both repressors bind as cooperative arrays to tandem repeats of 8 base-pair 'Met' or 'Trp boxes' respectively, and the consensus sequences share the rare tetranucleotide CTAG. A series of structural and functional studies have shown how the two repressors discriminate between their operators, using a combination of direct contacts between side chains and bases, and indirect sensing of conformational properties of the DNA.

  13. Expression and distribution of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiqun; Hill, Warren G; Apodaca, Gerard; Zeidel, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    The urothelium is proposed to be a sensory tissue that responds to mechanical stress by undergoing dynamic membrane trafficking and neurotransmitter release; however, the molecular basis of this function is poorly understood. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are ideal candidates to fulfill such a role as they can sense changes in temperature, osmolarity, and mechanical stimuli, and several are reported to be expressed in the bladder epithelium. However, their complete expression profile is unknown and their cellular localization is largely undefined. We analyzed expression of all 33 TRP family members in mouse bladder and urothelium by RT-PCR and found 22 specifically expressed in the urothelium. Of the latter, 10 were chosen for closer investigation based on their known mechanosensory or membrane trafficking functions in other cell types. Western blots confirmed urothelial expression of TRPC1, TRPC4, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM4, TRPM7, TRPML1, and polycystins 1 and 2 (PKD1 and PKD2) proteins. We further defined the cellular and subcellular localization of all 10 TRP channels. TRPV2 and TRPM4 were prominently localized to the umbrella cell apical membrane, while TRPC4 and TRPV4 were identified on their abluminal surfaces. TRPC1, TRPM7, and TRPML1 were localized to the cytoplasm, while PKD1 and PKD2 were expressed on the apical and basolateral membranes of umbrella cells as well as in the cytoplasm. The cellular location of TRPV1 in the bladder has been debated, but colocalization with neuronal marker calcitonin gene-related peptide indicated clearly that it is present on afferent neurons that extend into the urothelium, but may not be expressed by the urothelium itself. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the urothelium acts as a sentinel and by expressing multiple TRP channels it is likely it can detect and presumably respond to a diversity of external stimuli and suggest that it plays an important role in urothelial signal

  14. A TRP Channel in the Lysosome Regulates Large Particle Phagocytosis via Focal Exocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis of large extracellular particles such as apoptotic bodies requires delivery of the intracellular endosomal and lysosomal membranes to form plasmalemmal pseudopods. Here we identified Mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1) as the key lysosomal Ca2+ channel regulating focal exocytosis and phagosome biogenesis. Both particle ingestion and lysosomal exocytosis are inhibited by synthetic TRPML1 blockers, and are defective in macrophages isolated from TRPML1 knockout mice. Furthermore, TRPML...

  15. A channelopathy mechanism revealed by direct calmodulin activation of TrpV4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukin, Stephen H; Teng, Jinfeng; Kung, Ching

    2015-07-28

    Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM) regulates varieties of ion channels, including Transient Receptor Potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TrpV4). It has previously been proposed that internal Ca(2+) increases TrpV4 activity through Ca(2+)-CaM binding to a C-terminal Ca(2+)-CaM binding domain (CBD). We confirmed this model by directly presenting Ca(2+)-CaM protein to membrane patches excised from TrpV4-expressing oocytes. Over 50 TRPV4 mutations are now known to cause heritable skeletal dysplasia (SD) and other diseases in human. We have previously examined 14 SD alleles and found them to all have gain-of-function effects, with the gain of constitutive open probability paralleling disease severity. Among the 14 SD alleles examined, E797K and P799L are located immediate upstream of the CBD. They not only have increase basal activity, but, unlike the wild-type or other SD-mutant channels examined, they were greatly reduced in their response to Ca(2+)-CaM. Deleting a 10-residue upstream peptide (Δ795-804) that covers the two SD mutant sites resulted in strong constitutive activity and the complete lack of Ca(2+)-CaM response. We propose that the region immediately upstream of CBD is an autoinhibitory domain that maintains the closed state through electrostatic interactions, and adjacent detachable Ca(2+)-CaM binding to CBD sterically interferes with this autoinhibition. This work further supports the notion that TrpV4 mutations cause SD by constitutive leakage. However, the closed conformation is likely destabilized by various mutations by different mechanisms, including the permanent removal of an autoinhibition documented here.

  16. TrpC5 Mediates Acute Leptin and Serotonin Effects via Pomc Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying acute leptin and serotonin 2C receptor-induced hypophagia remain unclear. Here, we show that neuronal and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc-specific loss of transient receptor potential cation 5 (TrpC5 subunits is sufficient to decrease energy expenditure and increase food intake resulting in elevated body weight. Deficiency of Trpc5 subunits in Pomc neurons is also sufficient to block the anorexigenic effects of leptin and serotonin 2C receptor (Ht2Cr agonists. The loss of acute anorexigenic effects of these receptors is concomitant with a blunted electrophysiological response to both leptin and Ht2Cr agonists in arcuate Pomc neurons. We also demonstrate that the Ht2Cr agonist lorcaserin-induced improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance are blocked by TrpC5 deficiency in Pomc neurons. Together, our results link TrpC5 subunits in the brain with leptin- and serotonin 2C receptor-dependent changes in neuronal activity, as well as energy balance, feeding behavior, and glucose metabolism.

  17. ZBTB20 regulates nociception and pain sensation by modulating TRP channel expression in nociceptive sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, An-Jing; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Anjun; Ma, Xianhua; Liang, Qing; Cao, Dongmei; Wood, John N; He, David Z; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Yuan, Wen-Jun; Xie, Zhifang; Zhang, Weiping J

    2014-11-05

    In mammals, pain sensation is initiated by the detection of noxious stimuli through specialized transduction ion channels and receptors in nociceptive sensory neurons. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are the key sensory transducers that confer nociceptors distinct sensory modalities. However, the regulatory mechanisms about their expression are poorly defined. Here we show that the zinc-finger protein ZBTB20 regulates TRP channels expression in nociceptors. ZBTB20 is highly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia. Disruption of ZBTB20 in nociceptors led to a marked decrease in the expression levels of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 and the response of calcium flux and whole-cell currents evoked by their respective specific agonists. Phenotypically, the mice lacking ZBTB20 specifically in nociceptors showed a defect in nociception and pain sensation in response to thermal, mechanical and inflammatory stimulation. Our findings point to ZBTB20 as a critical regulator of nociception and pain sensation by modulating TRP channels expression in nociceptors.

  18. Inhibition of autophagy attenuates pancreatic cancer growth independent of TP53/TRP53 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Annan; Kimmelman, Alec C

    2014-09-01

    Basal levels of autophagy are elevated in most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). Suppressing autophagy pharmacologically using chloroquine (CQ) or genetically with RNAi to essential autophagy genes inhibits human pancreatic cancer growth in vitro and in vivo, which presents possible treatment opportunities for PDAC patients using the CQ-derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Indeed, such clinical trials are ongoing. However, autophagy is a complex cellular mechanism to maintain cell homeostasis under stress. Based on its biological role, a dual role of autophagy in tumorigenesis has been proposed: at tumor initiation, autophagy helps maintain genomic stability and prevent tumor initiation; while in advanced disease, autophagy degrades and recycles cellular components to meet the metabolic needs for rapid growth. This model was proven to be the case in mouse lung tumor models. However, in contrast to prior work in various PDAC model systems, loss of autophagy in PDAC mouse models with embryonic homozygous Trp53 deletion does not inhibit tumor growth and paradoxically increases progression. This raised concerns whether there may be a genotype-dependent reliance of PDAC on autophagy. In a recent study, our group used a Trp53 heterozygous mouse PDAC model and human PDX xenografts to address the question. Our results demonstrate that autophagy inhibition was effective against PDAC tumors irrespective of TP53/TRP53 status.

  19. A Review of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): Research Findings and Implications for Counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCluskie, Kathryn C.

    1998-01-01

    States that within the last six years a new therapeutic technique for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), has emerged. Examines the strengths and weaknesses of published studies concerning EMDR, describes the nature of the debate about the efficacy of EMDR, and reviews implications…

  20. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Treatment for Psychologically Traumatized Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies the effects of 3 90-minute Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment sessions on traumatic memories of 80 participants. Participants receiving EMDR showed decreases in complaints and anxiety, and increases in positive cognition. Participants in the delayed-treatment condition showed no improvement in any measures in…

  1. Radiation Protection Report of the First Hot Test at China Reprocessing and Radiochemistry Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Yang; LIU; Ning; JIAO; Xiao-yan; XU; Xin; MA; Hao-ran; WANG; Xiang-li

    2015-01-01

    The first hot test has been completed at China Reprocessing and Radiochemistry Laboratory in September to December 2015.In order to ensure the safety of personal,facility and environment,security group wrote safety management regulation,drew up the specialized radiation monitoring plan and organized emergency exercise.

  2. Mechanical, Thermomechanical and Reprocessing Behavior of Green Composites from Biodegradable Polymer and Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morreale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising concerns in terms of environmental protection and the search for more versatile polymer-based materials have led to an increasing interest in the use of polymer composites filled with natural organic fillers (biodegradable and/or coming from renewable resources as a replacement for traditional mineral inorganic fillers. At the same time, the recycling of polymers is still of fundamental importance in order to optimize the utilization of available resources, reducing the environmental impact related to the life cycle of polymer-based items. Green composites from biopolymer matrix and wood flour were prepared and the investigation focused on several issues, such as the effect of reprocessing on the matrix properties, wood flour loading effects on virgin and reprocessed biopolymer, and wood flour effects on material reprocessability. Tensile, Dynamic-mechanical thermal (DMTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and creep tests were performed, pointing out that wood flour leads to an improvement of rigidity and creep resistance in comparison to the pristine polymer, without compromising other properties such as the tensile strength. The biopolymer also showed a good resistance to multiple reprocessing; the latter even allowed for improving some properties of the obtained green composites.

  3. Mechanical, Thermomechanical and Reprocessing Behavior of Green Composites from Biodegradable Polymer and Wood Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Marco; Liga, Antonio; Mistretta, Maria Chiara; Ascione, Laura; Mantia, Francesco Paolo La

    2015-11-11

    The rising concerns in terms of environmental protection and the search for more versatile polymer-based materials have led to an increasing interest in the use of polymer composites filled with natural organic fillers (biodegradable and/or coming from renewable resources) as a replacement for traditional mineral inorganic fillers. At the same time, the recycling of polymers is still of fundamental importance in order to optimize the utilization of available resources, reducing the environmental impact related to the life cycle of polymer-based items. Green composites from biopolymer matrix and wood flour were prepared and the investigation focused on several issues, such as the effect of reprocessing on the matrix properties, wood flour loading effects on virgin and reprocessed biopolymer, and wood flour effects on material reprocessability. Tensile, Dynamic-mechanical thermal (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and creep tests were performed, pointing out that wood flour leads to an improvement of rigidity and creep resistance in comparison to the pristine polymer, without compromising other properties such as the tensile strength. The biopolymer also showed a good resistance to multiple reprocessing; the latter even allowed for improving some properties of the obtained green composites.

  4. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  5. 77 FR 38789 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Concentrator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... vitrifying waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and certain treatment material at the West Valley... canisters where the mixture hardened into a solid glass waste form. DOE operated the vitrification system... of Chapter IV of DOE Manual 435.1-1, provided the waste will be incorporated in a solid physical...

  6. Effects of reprocessing on chemical and morphological properties of guide wires used in angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Valentim Gelamo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the reprocessing technique of enzymatic bath with ultrasonic cleaning and ethylene oxide sterilization on the chemical properties and morphological structure of polymeric coatings of guide wire for regular guiding catheter. METHODS: These techniques simulated the routine of guide wire reprocessing in many hemodynamic services in Brazil and other countries. Samples from three different manufacturers were verified by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. RESULTS: A single or double sterilization of the catheters with ethylene oxide was not associated with morphological or chemical changes. However, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the washing method was associated with rough morphological changes, including superficial holes and bubbles, in addition to chemical changes of external atomic layers of polymeric coating surfaces, as detected by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method, which is compatible with extended chemical changes on catheter surfaces. CONCLUSION: The reprocessing of the catheters with ethylene oxide was not associated with morphological or chemical changes, and it seemed appropriate to maintain guide wire coating integrity. However, the method combining chemical cleaning with mechanical vibration resulted in rough anatomical and chemical surface deterioration, suggesting that this reprocessing method should be discouraged.

  7. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Status and trends; Upparbetning av anvaent kaernbraensle. Laege och trender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultgren, Aa.

    1993-01-01

    The report gives a short review of the status for industrial reprocessing and recycling of Uranium/Plutonium. The following countries are covered: Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Japan, Russia, USA. Different fuel cycle strategies are accounted for, and new developments outlined. 116 refs, 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  8. The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Procedure Prevents Defensive Processing in Health Persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a

  9. A Comparison of "at-launch" V03 GPM Data Products and V04 Reprocessed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kwiatkowksi, John; Ji, Yimin; Kelley, Owen; Stout, John; Woltz, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    The first major reprocessing of GPM mission data is scheduled for 1 March 2016. This is an important first-step in the creation of a consistent mission data suite.It will be the first set of data in which the GPM constellation radiometers are intercalibrated using GPM GMI. In addition, the GPROF profile database will be substantially observational and based on the GPM combined data product. The GPM V03 "at-launch" 1C algorithms intercalibrated the constellation radiometers using TRMM TMI as the satellite reference standard. The GPROF profile database used for retrievals was based on TRMM, AMSRE, RadarSat and NMQ quality-controlled ground radar data in addition to model input. The V04 GPROF reprocessing will depend upon a profile database that is constructed using V04 GPM combined (DPR/GMI) observational data. This paper will provide comparison analysis of at launch V03 vs reprocessed V04. It will present global means comparing the V03 and V04 retrievals for both GPROF and the DPR radar. It will also look at the difference of the means separately for Land and Ocean. In addition it will look at specific instances of differences using the GPM gridded text products. In conclusion it will present the plans for a V05 reprocessing which is scheduled to take place in March of 2017.

  10. Advances in Endoscope Reprocessing Technology and Its Impact on Pathogen Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, Cathleen

    Pathogen transmissions via flexible endoscopes have been documented in the literature and have been historically related to human error or omission of steps in the reprocessing cycle. The 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report challenged manufacturers of automated endoscope reprocessors to improve and advance technology to automate more of the reprocessing steps. A review and synthesis of the literature following the 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report was performed to evaluate whether advances in reprocessing technology have occurred and whether these have had an impact on pathogen transmission via flexible endoscopes. The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care was used to guide the project. The literature search regarding pathogen transmission related to flexible endoscopes yielded 10 documents citing infections from 2008 to 2015. A total of 353 patients were identified as having been infected with a contaminated gastroscope, bronchoscope, or duodenoscope. An evaluation of reprocessing technology identified 3 automated endoscope reprocessors with enhanced capabilities and flushing devices intended to automate portions of the manual cleaning step.

  11. Pulse radiolysis studies of intramolecular electron transfer in model peptides and proteins. 7. Trp -> TyrO radical transformation in hen egg-white lysozyme. Effects of pH, temperature, Trp62 oxidation and inhibitor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobrowski, K.; Holcman, J.; Poznanski, J.

    1997-01-01

    (.). Arrhenius plots of the temperature-dependence of k(5) showed that the activation energy of LRET varies both with temperature and the protonation state of the enzyme. The activation energies are in the range 7.6-56.0 kJ mol(-1) and are similar to those for activation of amide hydrogen exchange in native HEWL...... below its denaturation temperature. Selective oxidation by ozone of the Trp62 indole side-chain in HEWL to N'-formylkynurenine (NFKyn62-HEWL) caused a large drop in the initial yield of Trp(.) radicals, G(Trp(.))(i). This was accompanied by a relatively small decrease in k(5) but selective oxidation...... by ozone had a pronounced effect on its temperature-dependence. Taken together these observations indicate that of the six tryptophans present in HEWL Trp62 contributes about 50% to the yield of the observed LRET. In the enzyme-inhibitor complex, HEWL(GlcNAc)(3), where Trp62 and Trp63 are completely...

  12. TRP channels, omega-3 fatty acids, and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration: from the cell membrane to intracellular cross-links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Leonelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential channels family (TRP channels is a relatively new group of cation channels that modulate a large range of physiological mechanisms. In the nervous system, the functions of TRP channels have been associated with thermosensation, pain transduction, neurotransmitter release, and redox signaling, among others. However, they have also been extensively correlated with the pathogenesis of several innate and acquired diseases. On the other hand, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids have also been associated with several processes that seem to counterbalance or to contribute to the function of several TRPs. In this short review, we discuss some of the remarkable new findings in this field. We also review the possible roles played by n-3 fatty acids in cell signaling that can both control or be controlled by TRP channels in neurodegenerative processes, as well as both the direct and indirect actions of n-3 fatty acids on TRP channels.

  13. Trp(56) of rac1 specifies interaction with a subset of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Xing, J; Streuli, M; Leto, T L; Zheng, Y

    2001-12-14

    Signaling specificity of Rho GTPase pathways is achieved in part by selective interaction between members of the Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and their Rho GTPase substrates. For example, Trio, GEF-H1, and Tiam1 are a subset of GEFs that specifically activate Rac1 but not the closely related Cdc42. The Rac1 specificity of these GEFs appears to be governed by Rac1-GEF binding interaction. To understand the detailed mechanism underlying the GEF specificity issue, we have analyzed a panel of chimeras made between Rac1 and Cdc42 and examined a series of point mutants of Rac1 made at the switch I, switch II, and beta(2)/beta(3) regions for their ability to interact with and to be activated by the GEFs. The results reveal that Rac1 residues of both the switch I and switch II regions are involved in GEF docking and GEF-mediated nucleotide disruption, because mutation of Asp(38), Asn(39), Gln(61), Tyr(64), or Arg(66)/Leu(67) into Ala results in the loss of GEF binding, whereas mutation at Tyr(32), Asp(65), or Leu(70)/Ser(71) leads to the loss of GEF catalysis while retaining the binding capability. The region between amino acids 53-72 of Rac1 is required for specific recognition and activation by the GEFs, and Trp(56) in beta(3) appears to be the critical determinant. Introduction of Trp(56) to Cdc42 renders it fully responsive to the Rac-specific GEF in vitro and in cells. Further, a polypeptide derived from the beta(3) region of Rac1 including the Trp(56) residue serves as a specific inhibitor for Rac1 interaction with the GEFs. Taken together, these results indicate that Trp(56) is the necessary and sufficient determinant of Rac1 for discrimination by the subset of Rac1-specific GEFs and suggest that a compound mimicking Trp(56) action could be explored as an interfering reagent specifically targeting Rac1 activation.

  14. Comparisons of Interfacial Phe, Tyr, and Trp Residues as Determinants of Orientation and Dynamics for GWALP Transmembrane Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, Kelsey A.; Gleason, Nicholas J.; Gist, Renetra; Langston, Rebekah; Greathouse, Denise V.; Koeppe, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic amino acids often flank the transmembrane alpha helices of integral membrane proteins. By favoring locations within the membrane–water interface of the lipid bilayer, aromatic residues Trp, Tyr, and sometimes Phe may serve as anchors to help stabilize a transmembrane orientation. In this work, we compare the influence of interfacial Trp, Tyr, or Phe residues upon the properties of tilted helical transmembrane peptides. For such comparisons, it has been critical to start with no more ...

  15. Construction of a Trp- commercial baker's yeast strain by using food-safe-grade dominant drug resistance cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Francisco; Prieto, José Antonio

    2003-12-01

    We have designed a food-safe-grade module for gene disruptions in commercial baker's yeast strains, which contains the G418 resistance cassette, KanMX4, flanked by direct repeats from the MEL1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This module was used to obtain a Trp(-) auxotrophic mutant of the polyploid HY strain by successive targeting to the TRP1 locus and later in vivo excision of the kan(r) marker. Southern blot analysis indicated that HY contains five copies of the TRP1 gene. However, after four disruption rounds, a strain named HYtrpM(4), unable to grow in the absence of tryptophan, was selected. Southern and Northern analysis of HYtrpM(4) cells showed that a remaining functional wild-type copy was still present, suggesting that the level of phosphoribosylanthranylate isomerase activity, resulting from a single copy of TRP1, is too low to sustain growth. Accordingly, a high reversion frequency of the Trp(-) phenotype, through gene conversion, was found in cells of the mutant strain. Nevertheless, this was not a drawback for its use as a recipient strain of heterologous genes. Indeed, YEpACT-X24 transformants were stable after 25 generations and expressed and secreted high levels of active recombinant xylanase. These data indicate that the new Trp(-) strain can be used to generate a stable recombinant yeast that fulfils all the requirements and market criteria for commercial utilisation.

  16. Cloning and Expression of trp Operon in Escherichia coli%大肠埃希菌trp operon的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林维平; 刘晓影; 武敬亮; 高志芹; 孙同毅

    2008-01-01

    色氨酸操纵子所表达酶的高效表达和酶活性的提高,从而构建高产色氨酸菌株.利用PCR的方法从大肠埃希菌基因组中直接克隆色氨酸操纵子,并将其连接到原核表达载体pBV220中,得到重组质粒pBV220-trp operon,转化大肠埃希菌DH5α,温度诱导重组蛋白表达,表达产物经SDS-PAGE分析并用比色法测定其活性.通过凝胶电泳观察PCR扩增产物大小约为7 kb.SDS-PAGE鉴定目的蛋白得到了高效表达,邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的活性分别比对照提高了3.4倍和2.5倍.成功构建了重组质粒pBV220-trp operon,邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的表达量和表达活性在大肠埃希菌中得到了提高,为高产色氨酸基因工程菌的构建奠定基础.

  17. Auxin Biosynthesis: A Simple Two-Step Pathway Converts Tryptophan to Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunde Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA),the main naturally occurring auxin,is essential for almost every aspect of plant growth and development.However,only recently have studies finally established the first complete auxin biosynthesis pathway that converts tryptophan (Trp) to IAA in plants.Trp is first converted to indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) by the TAA family of amino transferases and subsequently IAA is produced from IPA by the YUC family of flavin monooxygenases.The two-step conversion of Trp to IAA is the main auxin biosynthesis pathway that plays an essential role in many developmental processes.

  18. Evaluation of Methods for Decladding LWR Fuel for a Pyroprocessing-Based Reprocessing Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    removed prior to any other operation that has the potential to contaminate the plenum structure. The compression springs, typically made of Inconel - 718 ...44 A.1.4 Dissolution in Hydrofluoric Acid .............................. 46 A.1.5 Nonaqueous Dissolution ...46 A.1.6 Alcholic HCl Solutions ..................................... 48 A.1.7 Direct Dissolution in Molten Lead or Zinc Chloride

  19. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 comprises six appendices on: facility description; residual radioactivity inventory estimates; description and contamination levels of reference site; derivation of residual contamination levels; decommissioning mode detail; and decommissioning safety assessment details.

  20. Development of refining technology of Xe recovered from reprocessing plant off gas for commercial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiku, Yasushi [Air Water Inc., Osaka (Japan); Okimoto, Katsunori; Shoji, Hisashi; Hayashi, Sin-ichiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai Reprocessing Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The present study is aiming to develop refining system of recovered Xe at Krypton Recovery Facility (KRF) by pressure swing adsorption with purge system for commercial use, such as to lighting and ion engine. Refined Xe with low radioactive Kr was prepared through three series of adsorption column packing synthetic Ca-X zeolite. And the computer simulation by molecular mechanics was practiced to obtain purification mechanism for Xe/Kr mixed gas. The simulation was fitted with the practical adsorption test. So the effects of pressure and cation were studied about adsorption. (author)

  1. Metal-organic frameworks for removal of Xe and Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K; Strachan, Denis

    2012-08-01

    Removal of xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr) from process off-gases containing 400 ppm Xe, 40 ppm Kr, 78% N(2), 21% O(2), 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO(2), and so forth using adsorption was demonstrated for the first time. Two well-known metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC, which both have unsaturated metal centers but different pore morphologies, were selected as novel adsorbents. Results of an activated carbon were also included for comparison. The Ni/DOBDC has higher Xe/Kr selectivities than those of the activated carbon and the HKUST-1. In addition, results show that the Ni/DOBDC and HKUST-1 can adsorb substantial amounts of Xe and Kr even when they are mixed in air. Moreover, the Ni/DOBDC can successfully separate 400 ppm Xe from 40 ppm Kr and air containing O(2), N(2), and CO(2) with a Xe/Ke selectivity of 7.3 as indicated by our breakthrough results. This shows a promising future for MOFs in radioactive nuclide separations from spent fuels.

  2. Identification and characterization of TRP14, a thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingguang; Ji, Huasong; Guo, Minglan; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-11-01

    Thioredoxin (abbreviated as Trx) is an important ubiquitous disulfide reductase, which can protect organisms against various oxidative stresses. In the present study, a thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa (named as Ec-TRP14) was identified from the marine fish grouper, Epinephelus coioides by RACE PCR. The full-length cDNA of Ec-TRP14 was comprised of 1066 bp with a 372 bp open reading frame that encodes a putative protein of 123 amino acids. Similar to most TRP14s, Ec-TRP14 contained the conserved motif C-P-D-C. Ec-TRP14 mRNA is predominately expressed in liver, brain and muscle. The expression of Ec-TRP14 was up-regulated in the liver of grouper challenged with SGIV. Ec-TRP14 was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the rEc-Ec-TRP14 fusion protein was demonstrated to possess the antioxidant activity. The grouper spleen (GS) cells were treated with a high concentration of rEc-TRP14 (8.3 μg/ml), which significantly enhanced cells viability under damage caused by viral infection. These results together indicated that Ec-TRP14 could function as an important antioxidant in a physiological context, and might be involved in the responses to viral challenge.

  3. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts.

  4. Synergy between Prkdc and Trp53 regulates stem cell proliferation and GI-ARS after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Kay E; Ashley, Amanda K; Moser, Russell D; Kemp, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is one of the most widely used treatments for cancer. However, acute damage to the gastrointestinal tract or gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS) is a major dose-limiting side effect, and the mechanisms that underlie this remain unclear. Here we use mouse models to explore the relative roles of DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in radiation response. IR induces DNA double strand breaks and DNA-PK mutant Prkdc(scid/scid) mice are sensitive to GI-ARS due to an inability to repair these breaks. IR also activates the tumor suppressor p53 to trigger apoptotic cell death within intestinal crypt cells and p53 deficient mice are resistant to apoptosis. To determine if DNA-PK and p53 interact to govern radiosensitivity, we compared the response of single and compound mutant mice to 8 Gy IR. Compound mutant Prkdc(scid/scid)/Trp53(-/-)mice died earliest due to severe GI-ARS. While both Prkdc(scid/scid) and Prkdc(scid/scid)/Trp53(-/-)mutant mice had higher levels of IR-induced DNA damage, particularly within the stem cell compartment of the intestinal crypt, in Prkdc(scid/scid)/Trp53(-/-)mice these damaged cells abnormally progressed through the cell cycle resulting in mitotic cell death. This led to a loss of Paneth cells and a failure to regenerate the differentiated epithelial cells required for intestinal function. IR-induced apoptosis did not correlate with radiosensitivity. Overall, these data reveal that DNA repair, mediated by DNA-PK, and cell cycle arrest, mediated by p53, cooperate to protect the stem cell niche after DNA damage, suggesting combination approaches to modulate both pathways may be beneficial to reduce GI-ARS. As many cancers harbor p53 mutations, this also suggests targeting DNA-PK may be effective to enhance sensitivity of p53 mutant tumors to radiation.

  5. A direct comparison of protein structure in the gas and solution phase: the Trp-cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patriksson, Alexandra; Adams, Christopher M; Kjeldsen, Frank;

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of zwitterions of the Trp-cage protein in the gas phase show that the most stable ion in vacuo has preserved the charge locations acquired in solution. A direct comparison of the gas and solution-phase structures reveals that, despite the similarity in charge location......, there is significant difference in the structures, with a substantial increase in hydrogen bonds and exposure of hydrophobic parts in the gas phase. The structure of the salt bridge in the gas phase is also much more stable than in the (experimental) solution structure....

  6. Lipid Storage Disorders Block Lysosomal Trafficking By Inhibiting TRP Channel and Calcium Release

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Lysosomal lipid accumulation, defects in membrane trafficking, and altered Ca2+ homeostasis are common features in many lysosomal storage diseases. Mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1) is the principle Ca2+ channel in the lysosome. Here we show that TRPML1-mediated lysosomal Ca2+ release, measured using a genetically-encoded Ca2+ indicator (GCaMP3) attached directly to TRPML1 and elicited by a potent membrane-permeable synthetic agonist, is dramatically reduced in Niemann-Pick (NP) disease cells....

  7. Thioredoxin Txnl1/TRP32 Is a Redox-active Cofactor of the 26 S Proteasome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine M; Klausen, Louise Kjær; Prag, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a large proteolytic machine, which degrades most intracellular proteins. We found that thioredoxin, Txnl1/TRP32, binds to Rpn11, a subunit of the regulatory complex of the human 26S proteasome. Txnl1 is abundant, metabolically stable and widely expressed and is present...... in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Txnl1 has thioredoxin activity with a redox potential of about -250 mV. Mutant Txnl1 with one active site cysteine replaced by serine formed disulfide bonds to eEF1A1, a substrate-recruiting factor of the 26S proteasome. eEF1A1 is therefore a likely physiological substrate...

  8. Mecanoproteínas TRP(transient-receptor potencial) y movimiento dentario

    OpenAIRE

    Broseta Collado, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Algunos miembros de la familia de los canales iónicos TRP (transient receptor potential) funcionan como proteínas en una amplia variedad de tejidos y células. En el presente estudio se han utilizado técnicas de inmunohistoquímica para analizar la presencia de la mecano-proteína TRPV4 en el ligamento periodontal del primer molar superior de la rata en condiciones de normalidad y sometido a tracción ortodóncica (50 g) durante 10 días. En el diente control la inmunorreacción para TRPV4 es escasa...

  9. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Steven M; Rogers, Susan; Russell, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Recent practice guidelines and meta-analyses have designated eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a first-line treatment for trauma. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is an eight-phase therapeutic approach guided by an information-processing model that addresses the combat veteran's critical incidents, current triggers, and behaviors likely to prove useful in his or her future. Two case examples of combat veterans illustrate the ability of EMDR to achieve symptom reduction in a variety of clinical domains (e.g., anxiety, depression, anger, physical pain) simultaneously without requiring the patient to carry out homework assignments or discuss the details of the event. The treatment of phantom limb pain and other somatic presentations is also reviewed. The ability of EMDR to achieve positive effects without homework indicates that it can be effectively employed on consecutive days, making it especially useful during combat situations.

  10. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  11. Effect of Reprocessing and Accelerated Weathering on Impact-Modified Recycled Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V.; Mohanty, Smita; Biswal, Manoranjan; Nayak, Sanjay K.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of recycled polycarbonate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, high-impact polystyrene, and its blends from waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics products properties were enhanced by the addition of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier. The optimized blend formulation was processed through five cycles, at processing temperature, 220-240 °C and accelerated weathering up to 700 h. Moreover, the effect of reprocessing and accelerated weathering in the physical properties of the modified blends was investigated by mechanical, thermal, rheological, and morphological studies. The results show that in each reprocessing cycle, the tensile strength and impact strength decreased significantly and the similar behavior has been observed from accelerated weathering. Subsequently, the viscosity decreases and this decrease becomes the effect of thermal and photo-oxidative degradation. This can be correlated with FTIR analysis.

  12. Cyclone furnace for intensive reprocessing or burning of dispersed mineral raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, E.; Jankowski, S.; Kurdowski, W.; Parda, A.; Zamojdo, R.

    1982-10-30

    In order to reduce emission of solid (or liquid) microparticles of reprocessed or burned dispersed mineral raw material, a separation furnace is proposed which has the appearance of a horizontally lying drum of a steam boiler. The raw material to be reprocessed is fed into the furnace chamber through two cylindrical pipelines arranged in its upper part in the opposite ends, and in the middle between them in the upper part there is a gas line for removal of exhaust gases arranged at a 55/sup 0/ angle to the horizontal. In the lower part there is a device for discharging the accumulated solid microparticles or fluid arranged at a 30/sup 0/ angle to the base plane.

  13. Reprocessing of Ices in Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks: Carbon and Nitrogen Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Furuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of the turbulent transport on ice chemistry in protoplanetary disks, focusing on carbon and nitrogen bearing molecules. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking the turbulent mixing in the vertical direction. Turbulence can bring ice-coated dust grains from the midplane to the warm irradiated disk surface, and the ice mantles are reprocessed by photoreactions, thermal desorption, and surface reactions. The upward transport decreases the abundance of methanol and ammonia ices at r < 30 AU, because warm dust temperature prohibits their reformation on grain surfaces. This reprocessing could explain the smaller abundances of carbon and nitrogen bearing molecules in cometary coma than those in low-mass protostellar envelopes. We also show the effect of mixing on the synthesis of complex organic molecules (COMs) are two ways: (1) transport of ices from the midplane to the disk surface and (2) transport of atomic hydrogen from the surface to the midplane. The fo...

  14. Desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing for pathological gambling: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwallip; Han, Changwoo; Kim, Daeho

    2015-03-01

    This case series introduces the desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing (DeTUR), as a promising adjunctive therapy in addition to comprehensive treatment package for pathological gambling. This addiction protocol of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing was delivered to four male inpatients admitted to a 10-week inpatient program for pathological gambling. The therapist gave three 60-min weekly sessions of the DeTUR using bilateral stimulation (horizontal eye movements or alternative tactile stimuli) focusing on the hierarchy of triggering situations and the urge to initiate gambling behaviors. After treatment, self-reported gambling symptoms, depression, anxiety, and impulsiveness were all improved, and all the participants reported satisfaction with the therapy. They were followed up for 6 months and all maintained their abstinence from gambling and their symptomatic improvements. Given the efficiency (i.e., brevity and efficacy) of the treatment, a controlled study to confirm the effects of the DeTUR on pathological gambling would be justified.

  15. Available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozser, Sandor; Marshall, Frances M.; Adelfang, Pablo; Bradley, Edward [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Budu, Madalina Elena [SOSNY Research and Development Company, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chiguer, Mustapha [AREVA, Paris La Defense (France)

    2016-03-15

    International activities in the back end of the research reactor (RR) fuel cycle have so far been dominated by the programmes of acceptance of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by the country where it was originally enriched. In the future inventories of LEU SNF will continue to be created and the back end solution of RR SNF remains a critical issue. The IAEA, based on the experience gained during the decade of international cooperation in supporting the objectives of the HEU take-back programmes, drew up a report presenting available reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF. This paper gives an overview of the report, which will address all aspects of reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF.

  16. Experimental research subject and renovation of chemical processing facility (CPF) for advanced fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Tomozo; Shinozaki, Tadahiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Koma, Yoshikazu; Miyachi, Shigehiko; Ichige, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki; Nemoto, Shin-ichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    In order to enhance economical efficiency, environmental impact and nuclear nonproliferation resistance, the Advanced Reprocessing Technology, such as simplification and optimization of process, and applicability evaluation of the innovative technology that was not adopted up to now, has been developed for the reprocessing of the irradiated fuel taken out from a fast reactor. Renovation of the hot cell interior equipments, establishment and updating of glove boxes, installation of various analytical equipments, etc. in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was done to utilize the CPF more positivity which is the center of the experimental field, where actual fuel can be used, for research and development towards establishment of the Advanced Reprocessing Technology development. The hot trials using the irradiated fuel pins of the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' for studies on improved aqueous reprocessing technology, MA separation technology, dry process technology, etc. are scheduled to be carried out with these new equipments. (author)

  17. Treatment of dysfunctionally stored experiences with the method Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing – EMDR

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cvetek

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a new therapeutic method called EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) is described. The method was formed mainly for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, but there are also some reports about success with other mental disorders. The theoretical base of EMDR and especially the accelerated information processing model, the concept of memory networks and the explanations of effects of eye movements are presented. The process of EMDR is also described.

  18. Treatment of dysfunctionally stored experiences with the method Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing – EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cvetek

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new therapeutic method called EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is described. The method was formed mainly for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, but there are also some reports about success with other mental disorders. The theoretical base of EMDR and especially the accelerated information processing model, the concept of memory networks and the explanations of effects of eye movements are presented. The process of EMDR is also described.

  19. Følelser i bevægelse. Om læreprocesser i musikterapeutens uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen sætter fokus på forholdet mellem musik og følelser, som dette indgår i musikterapistuderendes personlige og professionelle læreprocesser. Der tages teoretisk afsæt i Antonio Damasios og Daniel Sterns kropsorienterede teorier om emotioner og følelser, med særligt fokus på baggrundsfølelser...

  20. Quality Assessment and Collection V1.1 Reprocessing of the Suomi NPP VIIRS LAND Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadiga, S.; Davidson, C. C.; Sarkar, S.; Ye, G.; Hattori, M.; Praderas, C.; Kalb, V.; Nguyen, A.; Hamilton, C.; Kuyper, J.; Roman, M. O.; Mauoka, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) is an important element of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The primary goals of NASA's Land PEATE are to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land operational products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), and to recommend improvements to the operational algorithms to meet NASA's Land science needs. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, which has been modified to run the IDPS operational algorithms, as well as software provided by the NASA SNPP Land Science Team. Since the early pre-launch period (c. 2009) the Land PEATE has used the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by NPPDAPS.In June 2014, Land PEATE completed Collection V1.1 reprocessing of the SNPP VIIRS Land products from the beginning (Jan 19, 2012) of the SNPP mission to current day using the best of the IDPS operational and NASA Land science team provided algorithms. The processing used the refined LUTs provided by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) for the L1B Sensor Data Records (SDR), including LUTs for calibration and stray light correction of the VIIRS Day/Night Band. In addition to generating the operational SDRs, Intermediate Products (IPs), and Environmental Data Records (EDRs) this reprocessing also produced Diagnostics Data Records, MODIS heritage L3 gridded products using the VIIRS observations. This paper describes approaches used to assess the quality of the products from operational processing and reprocessing of VIIRS records at Land PEATE. The paper also presents results from inter-comparison of records from this reprocessing with the MODIS heritage products. Our analysis verified that MODIS quality data records can be produced using the VIIRS observations, however with additional

  1. Conservatism in effective dose calculations for accident events involving fuel reprocessing waste tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2011-07-01

    Conservatism in the calculation of the effective dose following an airborne release from an accident involving a fuel reprocessing waste tank is examined. Within the regulatory constraints at the Hanford Site, deterministic effective dose calculations are conservative by at least an order of magnitude. Deterministic calculations should be used with caution in reaching decisions associated with required safety systems and mitigation philosophy related to the accidental release of airborne radioactive material to the environment.

  2. THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bunn; Steve Fetter; John P. Holdren; Bob van der Zwaan

    2003-07-01

    This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

  3. Activity Concentration Monitoring for Alpha Radioactive Aerosol in CRARL after Reprocessing Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiang-li; LIU; Ning; WANG; Xiao-rong; BAI; Yang; JIAO; Xiao-yan; XU; Xin; MA; Hao-ran

    2015-01-01

    The activity concentration for alpha radioactive aerosol in CRARL after reprocessing experiments was analyzed.Through the decay method of activity concentration monitoring,the processed result shows the background is 3.05×10-3 s-1,σ(0)=2.25×10-3,LC=2.33×10-3 Bq/m3,LD=4.66×10-3 Bq/m3.The result indicated

  4. Pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salt fast reactor fuel: focus on the reductive extraction step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Davide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile material and to separate the minor actinides from fission products. The reprocessing involves several chemical steps based on redox and acido-basic properties of the various elements contained in the fuel salt. One challenge is to perform a selective extraction of actinides and lanthanides in spent liquid fuel. Extraction of actinides and lanthanides are successively performed by a reductive extraction in liquid bismuth pool containing metallic lithium as a reductive reagent. The objective of this paper is to give a description of the several steps of the reprocessing retained for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR concept and to present the initial results obtained for the reductive extraction experiments realized in static conditions by contacting LiF-ThF4-UF4-NdF3 with a lab-made Bi-Li pool and for which extraction efficiencies of 0.7% for neodymium and 14.0% for uranium were measured. It was concluded that in static conditions, the extraction is governed by a kinetic limitation and not by the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  5. Reprocessing of dental instruments in washer-disinfectors: does a representative test soil exist in dentistry?

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, A.; Bristela, M.; Stauffer, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reprocessing of medical devices, being classified as semi-critical B is recommended to be performed in a washer-disinfector. In order to estimate, whether the expected contaminants of the various medical disciplines can be effectively removed by this washer-disinfector, different so called "test soils" have been proposed to be tested as a marker of cleaning efficacy of the disinfector. Todays described test soils are optimised for the testing of contaminations occurring in surgic...

  6. Effect of a change management program in a medical device reprocessing department: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Judy; Knapp, Mike; Sinclair, Douglas; Arshoff, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Faced with a variety of challenges in relation to performance, quality, staff engagement and morale in the Medical Device Reprocessing Department, managers at St. Michael's Hospital developed and implemented several innovative approaches including combining staff training and performance metrics. The results of these initiatives included a substantial reduction in the departmental budget along with higher productivity, output and quality; better staff morale; an improved relationship between management and the union; and a stronger partnership between the department and its institutional customers.

  7. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Coubard, Olivier A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, 26 years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons ...

  8. An integrative model for the neural mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Coubard, Olivier A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, twenty-six years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the ...

  9. Lanthanides extraction processes in molten fluoride media. Application to nuclear spent fuel reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Taxil, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Nourry, Christophe; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Chamelot, Pierre; Cassayre, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes four techniques of extraction of lanthanides elements (Ln) from molten salts in the general frame of reprocessing nuclear wastes; One of them is chemical: the precipitation of Ln ions in insoluble compounds (oxides or oxifluorides); the others use electrochemical methodology in molten fluorides for extraction and measurement of the progress of the processes: first electrodeposition of pure Ln metals on an inert cathode material was proved to be incomplete and cause probl...

  10. Electrochemical reduction of metal oxides in molten salts for nuclear reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz, R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the electrochemical reduction of metal oxides in molten salts for nuclear reprocessing applications. The objective of this research is to characterise and understand the direct electrochemical reduction of UO₂ to U metal in a LiCl-KCl molten salt eutectic, as part of the nuclear pyroprocessing scheme, following a similar approach to the FFC Cambridge for the reduction of TiO₂ to Ti metal. The voltammetric behaviour of reduction processes of metal oxides were evaluated usi...

  11. Reprocessed and combined thorium fuel cycles in a PER system with a micro heterogeneous approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Fabiana B.A.; Castro, Victor F.; Faria, Rochkhudson B. de; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini, Angela, E-mail: fabianabeghini@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: victorfariacastro@gmail.com, E-mail: rochkdefaria@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: fortini@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    A micro heterogeneous approaches were used to study the behavior of reprocessed fuel spiked with thorium in a PWR fuel element considering (TRU-Th) cycle. The goal is to achieve a higher burnup using three different configurations to model the fuel element using SCALE 6.0. The reprocessed fuels were obtained using the ORIGEN 2.1 code from a spent PWR standard fuel (33,000 MWd/tHM burned), with 3.1% of initial enrichment. The spent fuel remained in the cooling pool for five years and then reprocessed using the UREX+ technique. Three configurations of micro heterogeneous approaches were analyzed, and the k{sub inf} and plutonium evolution during the burnup were evaluated. The preliminary results show that the behavior of advanced fuel based on transuranic elements spiked with thorium, and micro heterogeneous approach are satisfactory in PWRs, and the configuration that use a combination of Th and TRU (configuration 1) seems to be the most promising once has higher values for k{sub inf} during the burnup, compared with other configurations. (author)

  12. Influence of Reprocessing in the formation of functional groups during low density polyethylene aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício M. Selonke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in polymer recycling has increased. However, in every reprocessing step the material undergoes shear stress and is affected by temperature and oxygen. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of multiple extrusion in the generation of functional groups, namely hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and transvinylene. Low density polyethylene was reprocessed three times in a single screw extruder. In each recycling step hot pressed films were prepared. These films were submitted to a heat treatment in an oven with air circulation and renovation to proceed with aging tests at different times and temperatures. The results obtained showed that all functional groups had their concentration increased with the increase in number of reprocessing, the aging time and temperature of the heat treatment. The factorial design was applied to verify the influence of these parameters. All the parameters had significant effects, since their regression coefficients had the same order of magnitude, with the most influential parameter being the aging temperature, followed by the aging time and number of extrusions. Most of the interactions were influential, indicating that the formation of functional groups depends upon their interaction, and not only on their isolated effects.

  13. Basic research on separation control of long life nuclides in fuel reprocessing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Usami, Go [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Hotoku, Shinobu

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of technetium (Tc) in nuclear fuel reprocessing processes has become the subject to be elucidated in the transition to distribution process by coextraction and the catalytic action in distribution process. In order to forecast or control the behavior of Tc in reprocessing processes, it is necessary to understand that at which valence Tc exists stably in respective processes. Tc is stable at 7 valence in nitric acid solution expected in reprocessing. In this research, the reaction speed of the oxidation and reduction reactions of rhenium (Re) which simulates Tc was measured by laser Raman spectroscopy which can do high speed analysis of valence. The experimental method is explained. The Raman spectra of Re in the experimental system of this research were measured in perchloric acid solution and nitric acid solution, and compared with the values in literatures. As the result, the validity of this research was assured. It was confirmed that Re(7) was not reduced by sulfamic acid and ascorbic acid. Re(7) was reduced by thiocyanic acid once, but was oxidized again by the reaction of thiocyanic acid and nitric acid. (K.I.)

  14. Direct Cost of Reprocessing Cotton-woven Surgical Drapes: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fexina Tomé

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identify the direct cost of reprocessing double and single cotton-woven drapes of the surgical LAP package. METHOD A quantitative, exploratory and descriptive case study, performed at a teaching hospital. The direct cost of reprocessing cotton-woven surgical drapes was calculated by multiplying the time spent by professionals involved in reprocessing the unit with the direct cost of labor, adding to the cost of materials. The Brazilian currency (R$ originally used for the calculations was converted to US currency at the rate of US$0.42/R$. RESULTS The average total cost for surgical LAP package was US$9.72, with the predominance being in the cost of materials (US$8.70 or 89.65%. It is noteworthy that the average total cost of materials was mostly impacted by the cost of the cotton-woven drapes (US$7.99 or 91.90%. CONCLUSION The knowledge gained will subsidize discussions about replacing reusable cotton-woven surgical drapes for disposable ones, favoring arguments regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this possibility considering human resources, materials, as well as structural, environmental and financial resources.

  15. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on Public Speaking Anxiety of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Aslani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public speaking anxiety is a prominent problem in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on public speaking anxiety of college students. Materials and Methods: The design of research was quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. The sample consistent of 30 students with speech anxiety that selected base on available sampling and assigned randomly in experimental (N=15 and control (N=15 groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 7 sessions. In order to collect the data, Paul’s personal report of confidence as a speaker, S-R inventory of anxiousness was used. To analyze the data, SPSS-19 software and covariance analysis were used. Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing reducing public speaking anxiety. The one-way analysis of covariance for each variable shows there are significant differences in confidence of speaker (p=0.001 and physiological symptoms of speech anxiety (p=0.001 at the two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective on reducing physiological symptoms of speech anxiety and increasing the speaker’s confidence.

  16. Effect of compatibilization and reprocessing on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieny Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on polymer mixtures aimed at the potential applications of these materials. This work analyzed the effect of polymer reprocessing and the type and concentration of compatibilizer on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites. The composites, which were polypropylene grafted with acrylic acid (PP-g-AA and maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA, were processed in a twin screw extruder with and without compatibilizer. Reprocessed polypropylene reached complete crystallization in less time than the composites with virgin polypropylene. The addition of wood flour to the composites did not change the kinetics significantly compared to that of the pure polymers, but the compatibilizers did, particularly PP-g-AA. The nucleation exponent (n and crystallization rate (K were calculated from Avrami plots. The values of n ranged from 2 to 3, indicating instantaneous to sporadic nucleation. The crystallization half-time of reprocessed polypropylene was shorter than that of virgin polypropylene and of the compositions containing PP-g-AA compatibilizer. The activation energy of crystallization and the equilibrium melting temperature were calculated, respectively, from Arrhenius and Hoffman-Weeks plots. Both of these parameters showed lower values in the composites, particularly in the ones containing compatibilizers.

  17. Swift Monitoring of NGC 4151: Evidence for a Second X-Ray/UV Reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R.; Gelbord, J.; Cackett, E.; Connolly, S.; Done, C.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gardner, E.; Gehrels, N.; Goad, M.; Horne, K.; McHardy, I.; Peterson, B. M.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Breeveld, A.; Barth, A. J.; Bentz, M.; Bottorff, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Crawford, S. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Evans, P.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ferland, G.; Grupe, D.; Joner, M.; Kennea, J.; Korista, K. T.; Krimm, H. A.; Kriss, G.; Leonard, D. C.; Mathur, S.; Netzer, H.; Nousek, J.; Page, K.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D. A.; Treu, T.; Vogler, H. A.; Winkler, H.; Zheng, W.

    2017-05-01

    Swift monitoring of NGC 4151 with an ˜6 hr sampling over a total of 69 days in early 2016 is used to construct light curves covering five bands in the X-rays (0.3-50 keV) and six in the ultraviolet (UV)/optical (1900-5500 Å). The three hardest X-ray bands (>2.5 keV) are all strongly correlated with no measurable interband lag, while the two softer bands show lower variability and weaker correlations. The UV/optical bands are significantly correlated with the X-rays, lagging ˜3-4 days behind the hard X-rays. The variability within the UV/optical bands is also strongly correlated, with the UV appearing to lead the optical by ˜0.5-1 days. This combination of ≳3 day lags between the X-rays and UV and ≲1 day lags within the UV/optical appears to rule out the “lamp-post” reprocessing model in which a hot, X-ray emitting corona directly illuminates the accretion disk, which then reprocesses the energy in the UV/optical. Instead, these results appear consistent with the Gardner & Done picture in which two separate reprocessings occur: first, emission from the corona illuminates an extreme-UV-emitting toroidal component that shields the disk from the corona; this then heats the extreme-UV component, which illuminates the disk and drives its variability.

  18. Mutations in Transhydrogenase Change the Fluorescence Emission State of TRP72 from 1La to 1Lb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveen Jensen, Karina; Strambini, Giovanni; Gonnelli, Margherita; Broos, Jaap; Jackson, J. Baz

    2008-01-01

    The dI component of Rhodospirillum rubrum transhydrogenase has a single Trp residue (Trp72), which has distinctive optical properties, including short-wavelength fluorescence emission with clear vibrational fine structure, and long-lived, well-resolved phosphorescence emission. We have made a set of mutant dI proteins in which residues contacting Trp72 are conservatively substituted. The room-temperature fluorescence-emission spectra of our three Met97 mutants are blue shifted by ∼4 nm, giving them a shorter-wavelength emission than any other protein described in the literature, including azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluorescence spectra in low-temperature glasses show equivalent well-resolved vibrational bands in wild-type and the mutant dI proteins, and in azurin. Substitution of Met97 in dI changes the relative intensities of some of these vibrational bands. The analysis supports the view that fluorescence from the Met97 mutants arises predominantly from the 1Lb excited singlet state of Trp72, whereas 1La is the predominant emitting state in wild-type dI. It is suggested that the sulfur atom of Met97 promotes greater stabilization of 1La than either 1Lb or the ground state. The phosphorescence spectra of Met97 mutants are also blue-shifted, indicating that the sulfur atom decreases the transition energy between the 3La state of the Trp and the ground state. PMID:18599622

  19. Construction of pEGFP-ChEgTrp as DNA model for multi-epitope vaccine against Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with Echinococcus granulosus causes hydatidosis in human and ruminants. With regards to the high prevalence of hydatidosis in Iran, dealing with this disease is important in terms of public health. Objective: The aim of this study was to construct pEGFP-ChEgTrp as DNA model for multi-epitope vaccine against Echinococcus granulosus Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute, Karaj in 2013. Initially, epitopes stimulating the host immune response were predicted by IEDB Database and the coding sequences were made. The sequences were amplified by PCR. The PCR products were cloned into pEGFP-N1 vector after digestion with XhoI restriction enzyme. The bacteria containing recombinant plasmid were evaluated using Colony PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing methods. Findings: Four peptides with 10 linear epitopes were predicted in EgTrp antigen. The nucleotide sequence coding ChEgTrp was amplified by PCR using specific primers and a 270 bp fragment was obtained. This fragment was cloned into pEGFP-N1 vector and the recombinant plasmid was confirmed by Colony PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. For final confirmation, the recombinant plasmid was sequenced and the pEGFP-ChEgTrp was constructed. Conclusion: The ChEgTrp was successfully cloned into the pEGFP-N1 vector and this plasmid can be used to design DNA vaccines.

  20. Apoptosis induced by (di-isopropyloxyphoryl-Trp)2-Lys-OCH3 in K562 and HeLa cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Liu; Shi-Ying Liu; Ping Xu; Zhen-Hua Xie; Guo-Ping Cai; Yu-Yang Jiang

    2008-03-01

    According to the method used in our laboratory, our group synthesized (DIPP-Trp)2-Lys-OCH3. It inhibited the proliferation of K562 and HeLa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an IC50 of 15.12 and 42.23 M, respectively. (DIPP-Trp)2-Lys-OCH3 induced a dose-dependent increase of the G2/M cell population in K562 cells, and S cell population in HeLa cells; the sub-G0 population increased dramatically in both cell lines as seen by PI staining experiments using a FACS Calibur Flow cytometer (BeckmanCoulter, USA). Phosphatidylserine could significantly translocate to the surface of the membrane in (DIPP-Trp)2-Lys-OCH3-treated K562 and HeLa cells. The increase of an early apoptotic population was observed in a dose-dependent manner by both annexin-FITC and PI staining. It was concluded that (DIPP-Trp)2-Lys-OCH3 not only induced cells to enter into apoptosis, but also affected the progress of the cell cycle. It may have arrested the K562 and HeLa cells in the G2/M, S phases, respectively. The apoptotic pathway was pulsed at this point, resulting in the treated cells entering into programmed cell death. (DIPP-Trp)2-Lys-OCH3 is a potential anticancer drug that intervenes in the signalling pathway.

  1. Effect of reprocessing cycles on the degradation of polypropylene copolymer filled with talc or montmorillonite during injection molding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S., E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 (Brazil); Ashton, E.; Weschenfelder, V. F.; Cândido, L. H. A.; Kindlein, W. [Laboratory of Design LDSM, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Mechanical recycling of polymeric materials is a favorable technique resulting in economic and environmental benefits, especially in the case of polymers with a high production volume as the polypropylene copolymer (PP). However, recycling by reprocessing techniques can lead to thermal, mechanical or thermo-oxidative degradation that can affect the structure of the polymer and subsequently the material properties. PP filled with montmorillonite (MMT) or talc are widely produced and studied, however, its degradation reactions by reprocessing cycles are poorly studied so far. In this study, the effects of reprocessing cycles in the structure and in the properties of the PP/MMT and PP/Talc were evaluated. The samples were mixed with 5% talc or MMT Cloisite C15A in a twin-screw extrusion. After extrusion, this filled material was submitted to five reprocessing cycles through an injection molding process. In order to evaluate the changes induced by reprocessing techniques, the samples were characterized by DSC, FT-IR, Izod impact and tensile strength tests. The study showed that Young modulus, elongation at brake and Izod impact were not affected by reprocessing cycles, except when using talc. In this case, the elongation at brake reduced until the fourth cycle, showing rigidity increase. The DSC results showed that melting and crystallization temperature were not affected. A comparison of FT-IR spectra of the reprocessed indicated that in both samples, between the first and the fifth cycle, no noticeable change has occurred. Thus, there is no evidence of thermo oxidative degradation. In general, these results suggest that PP reprocessing cycles using MMT or talc does not change the material properties until the fifth cycle.

  2. Brca2 and Trp53 deficiency cooperate in the progression of mouse prostate tumourigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Francis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that one of the strongest risk factors for prostate cancer is a family history of the disease, suggesting that inherited factors play a major role in prostate cancer susceptibility. Germline mutations in BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer with its predominant tumour suppressor function thought to be the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. BRCA2 has also been implicated in prostate cancer etiology, but it is unclear the impact that mutations in this gene have on prostate tumourigenesis. Here we have undertaken a genetic analysis in the mouse to determine the role of Brca2 in the adult prostate. We show that deletion of Brca2 specifically in prostate epithelia results in focal hyperplasia and low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN in animals over 12 months of age. Simultaneous deletion of Brca2 and the tumour suppressor Trp53 in prostate epithelia gave rise to focal hyperplasia and atypical cells at 6 months, leading to high-grade PIN in animals from 12 months. Epithelial cells in these lesions show an increase in DNA damage and have higher levels of proliferation, but also elevated apoptosis. Castration of Brca2;Trp53 mutant animals led to regression of PIN lesions, but atypical cells persisted that continued to proliferate and express nuclear androgen receptor. This study provides evidence that Brca2 can act as a tumour suppressor in the prostate, and the model we describe should prove useful in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  3. TRP channels and traffic-related environmental pollution-induced pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, Armen N; Fanick, E Robert; Brooks, Edward G

    2016-05-01

    Environmental pollutant exposures are major risk factors for adverse health outcomes, with increased morbidity and mortality in humans. Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the major harmful components of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure to DE affects several physiological systems, including the airways, and pulmonary diseases are increased in highly populated urban areas. Hence, there are urgent needs to (1) create newer and lesser polluting fuels, (2) improve exhaust aftertreatments and reduce emissions, and (3) understand mechanisms of actions for toxic effects of both conventional and cleaner diesel fuels on the lungs. These steps could aid the development of diagnostics and interventions to prevent the negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on the pulmonary system. Exhaust from conventional, and to a lesser extent, clean fuels, contains particulate matter (PM) and more than 400 additional chemical constituents. The major toxic constituents are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PM and PAHs could potentially act via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In this review, we will first discuss the associations between DE from conventional as well as clean fuel technologies and acute and chronic airway inflammation. We will then review possible activation and/or potentiation of TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels by PM and PAHs. Finally, we will discuss and summarize recent findings on the mechanisms whereby TRPs could control the link between DE and airway inflammation, which is a primary determinant leading to pulmonary disease.

  4. Fast TRP/TIS Measurement Method for Notebook PC HSDPA%笔记本电脑HSDPA的快速TRP/TIS测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 冯正和

    2008-01-01

    为了实现笔记本电脑中HSDPA天线及噪声的快速调试,对现有的测量方法进行了改进:在有源和无源方向图相似的条件下,利用三维无源测量的结果和单点有源测量的结果获得TRP和TIS的估算.通过和标准有源暗室的测量结果对比发现,该方法具有和三维有源测量方法可比拟的准确度,并且在这方面远好于单点峰值有源测量方法;另一方面,由于该测量方法仅仅包含三维无源测量、单点有源测量以及简单的计算,因此相对于三维有源测量而言,可以大大提高TRP和TIS的测量速度.基于上面的原因,本文提出的快速测量方法不失为当前TRP/TIS测量方法的有效补充.

  5. Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities with Optical and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2012-11-06

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resourceintensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify offnormal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop

  6. Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 2: Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2012-02-10

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop

  7. Progress report on evaluation of potential impact of /sup 14/C releases from an HTGR reprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killough, G.G.; Dixon, K.R.; Edwards, N.T.; Murphy, B.D.; Rohwer, P.S.; Harris, W.F.; Kaye, S.V.

    1976-07-01

    The potential radiological impacts of atmospheric releases of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ are assessed for a model HTGR reprocessing facility. Two off-gas systems were considered: (1) a 300-ft stack with no thermal output, and (2) a 1000-ft stack with a stack gas temperature of 80/sup 0/C and heat output of 4.2 x 10/sup 7/ Btu/hr. Meteorological data for the Oak Ridge area were used with an assumed annual release rate of 5000 Ci as input to an atmospheric transport model, which in turn was used to predict air concentrations of /sup 14/C at points of habitation and food production in the local area (within 50 miles) of the facility. The total-body dose rates estimated for the average resident living in the local area were 0.107 mrem/yr for the 300-ft stack and 0.063 mrem/yr for the 1000-ft stack. Population doses were computed for a population of 10/sup 6/ individuals uniformly distributed within the 50-mile local area of the facility; these were 110 man-rem for the 300-ft stack and 63 man-rem for the 1000-ft stack. The results of these dose calculations suggest that a 1000-ft stack would be very effective in reducing the estimated doses. Plant growth carbon assimilation model was derived in order to investigate the adequacy of the assumption of tissue equilibration with time-averaged ambient specific activity as a basis for dose estimates. Simulation runs with these models suggest that in the presence of frequent fluctuations of large amplitude in the ambient air /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ concentrations, specific activity in plant tissue can exceed conventionally calculated time-averaged specific activity.

  8. Preliminary Crystallography Confirms that the Archaeal DNA-binding and Tryptophan-sensing Regulator TrpY is a Dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Cafasso; B Manjasetty; E Karr; K Sandman; M Chance; J Reeve

    2011-12-31

    TrpY regulates the transcription of the metabolically expensive tryptophan-biosynthetic operon in the thermophilic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. TrpY was crystallized using the hanging-drop method with ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 87, c = 147 {angstrom}, and diffracted to 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The possible packing of molecules within the cell based on the values of the Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) and analysis of the self-rotation function are consistent with the asymmetric unit being a dimer. Determining the structure of TrpY in detail will provide insight into the mechanisms of DNA binding, tryptophan sensing and transcription regulation at high temperature by this novel archaeal protein.

  9. An association between TRP64ARG polymorphism of the B3 adrenoreceptor gene and some metabolic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abilova Samai S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds B3 adrenoreceptors (ADRB3 are abundant in adipose tissue and play the role in its metabolism and lipolysis. Some variants of the ADRB3 gene may predispose subjects for the development obesity and metabolic abnormalities in the setting of modern sedentary lifestyle. ADRB3 gene polymorphism association with metabolic disturbances has never been studied before in the ethnic Kyrgyz population. Aim To study an association between Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 and metabolic syndrome (MS components in an ethnic Kyrgyz group. Materials and methods 213 Ethnic Kyrgyz volunteers over the age of 30 were enrolled in the study. The assessment plan for each individual comprised of general physical and anthropometric exams as well as laboratory tests (glucose, lipid panel, insulin and genotyping by Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3. MS diagnosis was consistent with modified ATP III criteria (2005. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the potential independent association between Arg64 allele with obesity, abdominal obesity (AO and arterial hypertension (AH. Results Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 was assessed in 213 individuals (145 men, 68 women aged 30-73 (mean age 50.7 ± 7.6. Arg64 allele frequency was 0.239; ADRB3 genotype distribution among participants was: Trp64 homozygotes 54.5%, Trp64Arg 43.2% and Arg64 homozygotes 2.3%. There was an association between Trp64Arg и Arg64Arg genotypes and higher BMI, WC and obesity frequency (p Conclusion Arg64 allele of the ADRB3 gene in the studied group has an association with MS components such as obesity, AO and decreased HDL-C level.

  10. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP120 Activates Canonical Notch Signaling To Downregulate TLR2/4 Expression and Promote Intracellular Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima T. Lina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis preferentially targets mononuclear phagocytes and survives through a strategy of subverting innate immune defenses, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown E. chaffeensis type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP effectors are involved in diverse molecular pathogen-host interactions, such as the TRP120 interaction with the Notch receptor-cleaving metalloprotease ADAM17. In the present study, we demonstrate E. chaffeensis, via the TRP120 effector, activates the canonical Notch signaling pathway to promote intracellular survival. We found that nuclear translocation of the transcriptionally active Notch intracellular domain (NICD occurs in response to E. chaffeensis or recombinant TRP120, resulting in upregulation of Notch signaling pathway components and target genes notch1, adam17, hes, and hey. Significant differences in canonical Notch signaling gene expression levels (>40% were observed during early and late stages of infection, indicating activation of the Notch pathway. We linked Notch pathway activation specifically to the TRP120 effector, which directly interacts with the Notch metalloprotease ADAM17. Using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against γ-secretase enzyme, Notch transcription factor complex, Notch1, and ADAM17, we demonstrated that Notch signaling is required for ehrlichial survival. We studied the downstream effects and found that E. chaffeensis TRP120-mediated activation of the Notch pathway causes inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways required for PU.1 and subsequent Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4 expression. This investigation reveals a novel mechanism whereby E. chaffeensis exploits the Notch pathway to evade the host innate immune response for intracellular survival.

  11. XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chien-I [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Jen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    The association between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer has been widely studied. However, few studies have examined the correlation between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and arsenic or its metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln, with urinary arsenic profiles and UC. To this end, we conducted a hospital-based case–control study with 324 UC patients and 647 age- and gender-matched non-cancer controls. Genomic DNA was used to examine the genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). Urinary arsenic profiles were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) linked with hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotypes were significantly related to UC, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.68 (1.03–2.75) and 0.66 (0.48–0.90), respectively. Participants with higher total urinary arsenic levels, a higher percentage of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and a lower percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) had a higher OR of UC. Participants carrying XRCC1 risk diplotypes G-C/G-C, A-C/A-C, and A-T/G-T, and who had higher total arsenic levels, higher InAs%, or lower DMA% compared to those with other XRCC1 diplotypes had a higher OR of UC. Our results suggest that the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Arg DNA repair genes play an important role in poor arsenic methylation capacity, thereby increasing the risk of UC in non-obvious arsenic exposure areas. - Highlights: • The XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotype was significantly associated with increased OR of UC. • The XRCC1 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotype had a significantly decreased OR of UC. • Combined effect of the XRCC1 genotypes and poor arsenic methylation capacity on

  12. Noncontact dipole effects on channel permeation. I. Experiments with (5F-indole)Trp13 gramicidin A channels.

    OpenAIRE

    Busath, D D; Thulin, C D; Hendershot, R W; Phillips, L R; Maughan, P; Cole, C D; Bingham, N C; Morrison, S.; Baird, L C; Hendershot, R J; Cotten, M; Cross, T A

    1998-01-01

    Gramicidin A (gA), with four Trp residues per monomer, has an increased conductance compared to its Phe replacement analogs. When the dipole moment of the Trp13 side chain is increased by fluorination at indole position 5 (FgA), the conductance is expected to increase further. gA and FgA conductances to Na+, K+, and H+ were measured in planar diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) or glycerylmonoolein (GMO) bilayers. In DPhPC bilayers, Na+ and K+ conductances increased upon fluorination, wher...

  13. The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channel Family in Colletotrichum graminicola: A Molecular and Physiological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Mario; Weihmann, Fabian; Schliebner, Ivo; Horbach, Ralf; Deising, Holger B; Wirsel, Stefan G R; Peiter, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) is a universal second messenger in all higher organisms and centrally involved in the launch of responses to environmental stimuli. Ca2+ signals in the cytosol are initiated by the activation of Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and/or in endomembranes. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) contains a Ca2+-permeable channel of the TRP family, TRPY1, which is localized in the vacuolar membrane and contributes to cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) elevations, for example in response to osmotic upshock. A TRPY1 homologue in the rice blast fungus is known to be important for growth and pathogenicity. To determine the role of the TRP channel family in the maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, proteins homologous to TRPY1 were searched. This identified not one, but four genes in the C. graminicola genome, which had putative orthologs in other fungi, and which we named CgTRPF1 through 4. The topology of the CgTRPF proteins resembled that of TRPY1, albeit with a variable number of transmembrane (TM) domains additional to the six-TM-domain core and a diverse arrangement of putatively Ca2+-binding acidic motifs. All CgTRPF genes were expressed in axenic culture and throughout the infection of maize. Like TRPY1, all TRPF proteins of C. graminicola were localized intracellularly, albeit three of them were found not in large vacuoles, but co-localized in vesicular structures. Deletion strains for the CgTRPF genes were not altered in processes thought to involve Ca2+ release from internal stores, i.e. spore germination, the utilization of complex carbon sources, and the generation of tip-focussed [Ca2+]cyt spikes. Heterologous expression of CgTRPF1 through 4 in a tryp1Δ yeast mutant revealed that none of the channels mediated the release of Ca2+ in response to osmotic upshock. Accordingly, aequorin-based [Ca2+]cyt measurements of C. graminicola showed that in this fungus, osmotic upshock-triggered [Ca2+]cyt elevations were generated entirely by influx of Ca2

  14. The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP Channel Family in Colletotrichum graminicola: A Molecular and Physiological Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lange

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ is a universal second messenger in all higher organisms and centrally involved in the launch of responses to environmental stimuli. Ca2+ signals in the cytosol are initiated by the activation of Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and/or in endomembranes. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a Ca2+-permeable channel of the TRP family, TRPY1, which is localized in the vacuolar membrane and contributes to cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt elevations, for example in response to osmotic upshock. A TRPY1 homologue in the rice blast fungus is known to be important for growth and pathogenicity. To determine the role of the TRP channel family in the maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, proteins homologous to TRPY1 were searched. This identified not one, but four genes in the C. graminicola genome, which had putative orthologs in other fungi, and which we named CgTRPF1 through 4. The topology of the CgTRPF proteins resembled that of TRPY1, albeit with a variable number of transmembrane (TM domains additional to the six-TM-domain core and a diverse arrangement of putatively Ca2+-binding acidic motifs. All CgTRPF genes were expressed in axenic culture and throughout the infection of maize. Like TRPY1, all TRPF proteins of C. graminicola were localized intracellularly, albeit three of them were found not in large vacuoles, but co-localized in vesicular structures. Deletion strains for the CgTRPF genes were not altered in processes thought to involve Ca2+ release from internal stores, i.e. spore germination, the utilization of complex carbon sources, and the generation of tip-focussed [Ca2+]cyt spikes. Heterologous expression of CgTRPF1 through 4 in a tryp1Δ yeast mutant revealed that none of the channels mediated the release of Ca2+ in response to osmotic upshock. Accordingly, aequorin-based [Ca2+]cyt measurements of C. graminicola showed that in this fungus, osmotic upshock-triggered [Ca2+]cyt elevations were generated entirely by

  15. 6-Nitro-L-tryptophan: a novel spectroscopic probe of trp aporepressor and human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R S; Marmorstein, R Q

    1988-04-01

    The binding of 6-nitro-L-tryptophan to trp aporepressor and human serum albumin has been examined by visible difference spectroscopy and circular dichroism. 6-Nitro-L-tryptophan, prepared by nitration of L-tryptophan with nitric acid in glacial acetic acid, exhibits a visible and near-uv absorption spectrum with lambda max at about 330 nm (epsilon = 7 X 10(3) M-1 cm-1) and a shoulder near 380 nm in H2O. In the presence of trp aporepressor, the visible absorption intensity is sharply diminished. Visible difference spectral titration data give KD = 1.27 X 10(-4) M and n = 0.95 per subunit at 25 degrees C. While 6-nitro-L-tryptophan exhibits no significant circular dichroism between 300 and 500 nm, the complex with trp aporepressor exhibits strong circular dichroism signals, with a negative maximum at 386 nm (delta epsilon = -7.5 M-1 cm-1) and a positive maximum at 310 nm (delta epsilon = +6 M-1 cm-1). Circular dichroism titration data give KD = 1.69 X 10(-4) M and n = 0.90 per subunit at 25 degrees C. The KD values determined spectroscopically are in excellent agreement with that determined by equilibrium dialysis, KD = 1.5 X 10(-4) M at 25 degrees C. In the presence of human serum albumin, the spectrum of 6-nitro-L-tryptophan exhibits a blue shift and an increase in absorption intensity; similar changes are observed in solvents of low dielectric contrast such as 80% aqueous dioxane. Visible difference spectral titration data give KD = 8.0 X 10(-5) M and n = 0.95 for human serum albumin. The complex of 6-nitro-L-tryptophan with human serum albumin exhibits a strong positive circular dichroism maximum at 380 nm (delta epsilon = +9.8 M-1 cm-1) with a shoulder at 310-320 nm. Circular dichroism titration data give KD = 6.4 X 10(-5) M and n = 0.83, in good agreement with the visible difference spectral results. Taken together, our results demonstrate the utility of 6-nitro-L-tryptophan as a spectroscopic probe for tryptophan-binding proteins.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the written procedures or check lists by appropriately trained personnel not having direct..., approval, release, distribution, and revision of documents involving design interfaces. The design...

  17. Monitoring the Folding of Trp-cage Peptide by Two-dimensional Infrared (2DIR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zaizhi; Preketes, Nicholas K.; Mukamel, Shaul; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Protein folding is one of the most fundamental problems in modern molecular biology. Uncovering the detailed folding mechanism requires methods that can monitor the structures at high temporal and spatial resolution. Two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy is a new tool for studying protein structures and dynamics with high time resolution. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we illustrate the folding process of Trp-cage along the dominant pathway on free energy landscape by analyzing nonchiral and chiral coherent 2DIR spectra along the pathway. Isotope-labeling is used to reveal residue-specific information. We show that the high resolution structural sensitivity of 2DIR can differentiate the ensemble evolution of protein, and thus provides a microscopic picture of the folding process. PMID:23448437

  18. TRICK or TRP? What Trpc2-/- Mice Tell Us about Vomeronasal Organ Mediated Innate Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ron eYu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal organ (VNO plays an important role in mediating semiochemical communications and social behaviors in terrestrial species. Genetic knockout of individual components in the signaling pathways have been used to probe vomeronasal functions, and have provided much insights into how the VNO orchestrates innate behaviors. However, all data do not agree. In particular, knocking out Trpc2, a member of the TRP family of non-selective cationic channel thought to be the main transduction channel in the VNO, results in a number of fascinating behavioral phenotypes that have not been observed in other animals whose vomeronasal function is disrupted. Recent studies have identified signaling pathways that operate in parallel of Trpc2, raising the possibility that Trpc2 mutant animals may display neomorphic behaviors. In this article, I provide a critical analysis of emerging evidence to reconcile the discrepancies and discuss their implications.

  19. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Trp1197Stop causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Nesterovitch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, including asthma. Previously, a molecular mechanism underlying a 5-fold familial increase of blood ACE was discovered: Pro1199Leu substitution enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Carriers of this mutation were Caucasians from Europe (mostly Dutch or had European roots. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found a family of African-American descent whose affected members' blood ACE level was increased 13-fold over normal. In affected family members, codon TGG coding for Trp1197 was substituted in one allele by TGA (stop codon. As a result, half of ACE expressed in these individuals had a length of 1196 amino acids and lacked a transmembrane anchor. This ACE mutant is not trafficked to the cell membrane and is directly secreted out of cells; this mechanism apparently accounts for the high serum ACE level seen in affected individuals. A haplotype of the mutant ACE allele was determined based on 12 polymorphisms, which may help to identify other carriers of this mutation. Some but not all carriers of this mutation demonstrated airflow obstruction, and some but not all have hypertension. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified a novel Trp1197Stop mutation that results in dramatic elevation of serum ACE. Since blood ACE elevation is often taken as a marker of disease activity (sarcoidosis and Gaucher diseases, it is important for clinicians and medical scientists to be aware of alternative genetic causes of elevated blood ACE that are not apparently linked to disease.

  20. Tumor endothelial expression of P-glycoprotein upon microvesicular transfer of TrpC5 derived from adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, YePing; Pan, QiongXi; Jiang, Li; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, FangFang; Liu, YanJun; Xing, Hui; Shi, Mei; Li, Jiao; Li, XiYuan; Zhu, YaoDan; Chen, Yun; Bruce, Iain C.; Jin, Jian, E-mail: jinjian31@126.com; Ma, Xin, E-mail: maxin@jiangnan.edu.cn

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TrpC5 was mainly accumulated in microvesicles of drug-resistant MCF-7/ADM cells. • Microvesicles from MCF-7/ADM transferred TrpC5 to endothelial cells. • TrpC5 inhibition reduced P-glycoprotein accumulation on tumor blood vessels in vivo. - Abstract: Treatment of carcinoma commonly fails due to chemoresistance. Studies have shown that endothelial cells acquire resistance via the tumor microenvironment. Microvesicle (MV) shedding from the cell membrane to the microenvironment plays an important role in communication between cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MCF-7 adriamycin-resistant cells (MCF-7/ADM) shed MVs that alter the characteristics of human microvessel endothelial cells (HMECs). MVs from tumor cells transferred a Ca{sup 2+}-permeable channel TrpC5 to HMECs, inducing the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by activation of the transcription factor NFATc3 (nuclear factor of activated T cells isoform c3). Expression of the mdr1 gene was blocked by the TrpC5-blocking antibody T5E3, and the production of P-gp in HMECs was reduced by blockade of TrpC5. Thus, we postulate that endothelial cells acquire the resistant protein upon exposure to TrpC5-containg MVs in the microenvironment, and express P-gp in the TrpC5–NFATc3 signal pathway.

  1. The reprocessing of advanced mixed lithium orthosilicate/metatitanate tritium breeder pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leys, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.leys@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Bergfeldt, Thomas; Kolb, Matthias H.H.; Knitter, Regina [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Goraieb, Aniceto A. [Karlsruhe Beryllium Handling Facility, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • The recycling of advanced breeder pebbles without a deterioration of the material properties is possible using a melt-based process. • The only accumulation of impurities upon reprocessing, results from the platinum crucible alloy used for processing. • It is possible to replenish burnt-up lithium by additions of LiOH·H{sub 2}O to the melt during reprocessing. - Abstract: The recycling of tritium breeding materials will be necessary for any future use of nuclear fusion energy due to economical as well as ecological considerations. In the case of the solid breeder blanket concept, the ceramic pebble beds that are intended for the generation of tritium will eventually need to be restored due to depleted lithium levels as well as due to fractured pebbles, which will cause a deterioration of the pebble bed properties. It is proposed that the pebbles, which are fabricated using a melt-based process, are recycled using the same initial process, by replenishing the lithium levels and reforming the pebbles at the same time. To prove this recycling scheme, advanced ceramic pebbles were fabricated and then re-melted multiple times to prove that the reprocessing did not have any negative effect on the pebble properties and secondly, pebbles were produced with a simulated lithium burn-up and subsequently replenished by additions of LiOH to the melt. It was shown that the re-melting and lithium re-enrichment had no effect on the pebble properties, demonstrating that a melt-based process is suitable for recycling used breeder pebbles.

  2. Analysis of global climate variability from homogenously reprocessed ground-based GNSS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Furqan; Hunegnaw, Addisu; Teferle, Felix Norman; Bingley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The tropospheric delay information obtained through long-term homogenous reprocessing of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations can be used for climate change and variability analysis on a global scale. A reprocessed global dataset of GNSS-derived zenith total delay (ZTD) and position estimates, based on the network double differencing (DD) strategy and covering 1994-2012, has been recently produced at the University of Luxembourg using the Bernese GNSS Software 5.2 (BSW5.2) and the reprocessed products from the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). The network of ground-based GNSS stations processed to obtain this dataset consists of over 400 globally distributed stations. The GNSS-derived ZTD has been validated by comparing it to that derived from reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). After validation and quality control, the ZTD dataset obtained using the DD strategy has been used to investigate the inter-annual, seasonal and diurnal climate variability and trends in the tropospheric delay on various regional to global spatial scales. Precise point positioning (PPP) is a processing strategy for GNSS observations which is based on observations from a single station rather than a network of baselines and is therefore computationally more efficient than the DD strategy. However, the two processing strategies, i.e. DD and PPP, have their own strengths and weaknesses and could affect the solutions differently at different geographical locations. In order to explore the use of PPP strategy for climate monitoring, another experimental dataset covering a shorter period has been produced using the PPP strategy and compared to the DD based ZTD dataset.

  3. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program. Progress report, April 1 to June 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    All research and development on fuel reprocessing in the United States is managed under the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Technical progress is reported in overview fashion. Conceptual studies for the proposed Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET) have continued. Studies to date have confirmed the feasibility of modifying an existing DOE facility at Hanford, Washington. A study to measure the extent of plutonium polymerization during steam-jet transfers of nitric acid solutions indicated polymer would appear only after several successive transfers at temperatures of 75/sup 0/C or higher. Fast-Flux Test Facility fuel was processed for the first time in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility. Studies of krypton release from pulverized sputter-deposited Ni-Y-Kr matrices have shown that the release rate is inversely proportional to the particle radius at 200/sup 0/C. Preparation of the initial 500-g batch of mixed oxide gel-spheres was completed. Fabrication processing at HEDL of mixed oxide gel-spheres (DIPRES process) was initiated. Operational testing of both 8 packs of the centrifugal contactor has been completed. Fabrication of both the prototypical disassembly system and the prototypical shear system has been initiated. Planning for FY 1984 installation and modification work in the integrated equipment list facility was completed. Acceptance tests of the original Integrated Process Demonstration system have been completed. Instrumentation and controls work with the prototype multiwavelength uranium photometer was successful and has been expanded to continuously and simultaneously monitor three process streams (raffinate, aqueous feed, and organic strip) in the secondary extraction cycle. Major efforts of the environmental, safeguards, and waste management areas were directed toward providing data for BRET.

  4. Prolonged Exposure versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Astin, Millie C; Marsteller, Fred

    2005-12-01

    This controlled study evaluated the relative efficacy of Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) compared to a no-treatment wait-list control (WAIT) in the treatment of PTSD in adult female rape victims (n = 74). Improvement in PTSD as assessed by blind independent assessors, depression, dissociation, and state anxiety was significantly greater in both the PE and EMDR group than the WAIT group (n = 20 completers per group). PE and EMDR did not differ significantly for change from baseline to either posttreatment or 6-month follow-up measurement for any quantitative scale.

  5. XMM-Newton On-demand Reprocessing Using SaaS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; Fajersztejn, N.; Loiseau, N.; Gabriel, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present here the architectural design of the new on-the-fly reprocessing capabilities that will be soon developed and implemented in the new XMM-Newton Science Operation Centre. The inclusion of processing capabilities into the archive, as we plan, will be possible thanks to the recent refurbishment of the XMM-Newton science archive, its alignment with the latest web technologies and the XMM-Newton Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA), a revolutionary idea of providing processing capabilities through internet services.

  6. Apparatus and method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Parrish, W.H. Sr.

    1982-01-19

    Spent nuclear fuels, including actinide fuels, volatile and non-volatile fission products, are reprocessed and separated in a molten metal solvent housed in the reaction region of a separation vessel which includes a reflux region positioned above the molten tin solvent. The reflux region minimizes loss of evaporated solvent during the separation of the actinide fuels from the volatile fission products. Additionally, inclusion of the reflux region permits the separation of the more volatile fission products (noncondensable) from the less volatile ones (condensable).

  7. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs.

  8. Re-use of explanted osteosynthesis devices: a reliable and inexpensive reprocessing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Valentina; Cristofolini, Luca; Stea, Susanna; Traina, Francesco; Beraudi, Alina; Tersi, Luca; Harman, Melinda; Viceconti, Marco

    2011-10-01

    Orthopaedic surgical treatments emphasizing immobilization using open reduction and internal fixation with osteosynthesis devices are widely accepted for their efficacy in treating complex fractures and reducing permanent musculoskeletal deformity. However, such treatments are profoundly underutilized in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), partially due to inadequate availability of the costly osteosynthesis devices. Orthopaedic surgeons in some LMIC regularly re-use osteosynthesis devices in an effort to meet treatment demands, even though such devices typically are regulated for single-use only. The purpose of this study is to report a reprocessing protocol applied to explanted osteosynthesis devices obtained at a leading trauma care hospital. Explanted osteosynthesis devices were identified through a Register of Explanted Orthopaedic Prostheses. Guidelines to handle ethical issues were approved by the local Ethical Committee and informed patient consent was obtained at the time of explant surgery. Primary acceptance criteria were established and applied to osteosynthesis devices explanted between 2005 and 2008. A rigorous protocol for conducting decontamination and visual inspection based on specific screening criteria was implemented using simple equipment that is readily available in LMIC. A total of 2050 osteosynthesis devices, including a large variety of plates, screws and staples, were reprocessed using the decontamination and inspection protocols. The acceptance rate was 66%. Estimated labour time and implementation time of the protocol to reprocess a typical osteosynthesis unit (1 plate and 5 screws) was 25 min, with an estimated fixed cost (in Italy) of €10 per unit for implementing the protocol, plus an additional €5 for final sterilization at the end-user hospital site. This study was motivated by the treatment demands encountered by orthopaedic surgeons providing medical treatment in several different LMIC and their need for access to basic

  9. Process behavior and environmental assessment of /sup 14/C releases from an HTGR fuel reprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, J.W.; Kaye, S.V.

    1976-01-01

    Large quantities of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ will be evolved when graphite fuel blocks are burned during reprocessing of spent fuel from HTGR reactors. The possible release of some or all of this /sup 14/C to the environment is a matter of concern which is investigated in this paper. Various alternatives are considered in this study for decontaminating and releasing the process off-gas to the environment. Concomitant radiological analyses have been done for the waste process scenarios to supply the necessary feedbacks for process design.

  10. The Development of a Quality Management Framework for Evaluating Medical Device Reprocessing Practice in Healthcare Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorv, Bailey; Horodyski, Robin; Welton, Cynthia; Vail, John; Simonetto, Luca; Jokanovic, Danilo; Sharma, Richa; Mahoney, Angela Rea; Savoy-Bird, Shay; Bains, Shalu

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the importance of medical device reprocessing (MDR) for the provision of safe patient care. Although industry service standards are available to guide MDR practices, there remains a lack of published key performance indicators (KPIs) and targets that are necessary to evaluate MDR quality for feedback and improvement. This article outlines the development of an initial framework that builds on established guidelines and includes service standards, KPIs and targets for evaluating MDR operations. This framework can support healthcare facilities in strengthening existing practices and enables a platform for collaboration towards better MDR performance management.

  11. Research on advanced aqueous reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel: literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hecke, K.; Goethals, P.

    2006-07-15

    The goal of the partitioning and transmutation strategy is to reduce the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel to the level of natural uranium in a short period of time (about 1000 years) and thus the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. Furthermore, it aims to reduce the volume of waste requiring deep geological disposal and hence the associated space requirements and costs. Several aqueous as well as pyrochemical separation processes have been developed for the partitioning of the long-lived radionuclides from the remaining of the spent fuel. This report aims to describe and compare advanced aqueous reprocessing methods.

  12. Internet-delivered eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (iEMDR): an open trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Spence; Nickolai Titov; Luke Johnston; Dear, Blake F.; Bethany Wootton; Matthew Terides; Judy Zou

    2013-01-01

    Recent research indicates internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) can reduce symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined the efficacy of an internet-delivered treatment protocol that combined iCBT and internet-delivered eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (iEMDR), in an uncontrolled trial. Eleven of the 15 participants completed post-treatment questionnaires. Large effect sizes were found from pre-treatment to 3-month follow-up ( d = 1.03 –...

  13. Identification of a mutation in the tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1) gene associated with brown oculocutaneous albinism (OCA3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildenberg, S.C.; Oetting, W.S.; Fryer, J.P. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The genes responsible for the two most common types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) have been identified. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene (chromosome 11q14-21) produce OCA1, and mutations of the P gene (chromosome 15q11.2-13) produce OCA2. Another type of OCA known as brown OCA or OCA3 is found commonly in the African and African-American population. OCA3 is characterized by light brown skin and hair with the ocular features of albinism and represents the third most frequent type of OCA. We previously identified dizygotic African-American twin boys who were discordant for OCA3. Melanocytes from the affected twin produced brown melanin and contained no detectable TRP1 protein. We have now characterized the TRP1 gene from the affected twin. The human TRP1 gene, homologous to the murine brown locus, contains 8 exons and maps to chromosome 9p23. Using PCR amplification of each exon coupled with SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing, we found the affected twin to homozygous for a single bp deletion in exon 6. The deletion removes a G in codon 368 leading to a premature stop at codon 384. We also identified a Tsp509 polymorphism in the 3{prime} UTR. We conclude that mutations of the TRP1 gene are responsible for brown OCA or OCA3, making this the third major OCA gene identified in humans.

  14. Pubertal and adult windows of susceptibility to a high animal fat diet in Trp53-null mammary tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yirong; Aupperlee, Mark D; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Ying Siow; Kirk, Erin L; Sun, Xuezheng; Troester, Melissa A; Schwartz, Richard C; Haslam, Sandra Z

    2016-12-13

    Premenopausal breast cancer is associated with increased animal fat consumption among normal weight, but not overweight women (Farvid et al., 2014). Our previous findings in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice similarly showed promotion of carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis by a diet high in saturated animal fat (HFD). This effect was specific to pubertal versus adult HFD. This study identifies the effects of HFD during puberty versus adulthood in Trp53-null transplant BALB/c mice and investigates its mechanism of enhancing tumorigenesis. Either pubertal or adult HFD is sufficient to increase incidence of Trp53-null mammary tumors. Puberty-restricted HFD exposure promoted tumor cell proliferation, increased angiogenesis, and increased recruitment of total and M2 macrophages in epithelial tumors. Adult-restricted exposure to HFD similarly increased proliferation, angiogenesis, recruitment of total and M2 macrophages, and additionally reduced apoptosis. Adult HFD also increased incidence of spindle cell carcinomas resembling claudin-low breast cancer, and thus adult HFD in the Trp53-null transplantation system may be a useful model for human claudin low breast cancer. Importantly, these results on Trp53-null and our prior studies on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis demonstrate a pubertal window of susceptibility to the promotional effects of HFD, indicating the potential of early life dietary intervention to reduce breast cancer risk.

  15. Solid-Phase Synthesis of New Trp(Nps-Containing Dipeptide Derivatives as TRPV1 Channel Blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario González-Muñiz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trp(Nps-Lys-NH2 derivatives, bearing alkyl or guanidine groups either at the N–terminus or on the Lys side-chain or at both positions were conveniently prepared on solid-phase and evaluated as TRPV1 channel antagonists.

  16. Health technology assessment on reprocessing single-use catheters for cardiac electrophysiology: results of a three-years study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarolo, F; Disertori, M; Caola, I; Guarrera, G M; Favaretti, C; Nollo, G

    2007-01-01

    The study aims to define the technical, ethical, juridical and economic issues involved in the assessment of a reprocessing policy for single-use interventional cardiac devices (SUDs). The feasibility of reprocessing was evaluated for cardiac electrophysiology catheters by comparing the chemical, physical and functional properties of new and reprocessed devices. The issue of hygiene was addressed by developing microbiological tests for the quantification of bioburden, sterility and pyrogenic load. The results of more than 1500 tests, conducted on 531 catheters, suggested a precautionary number of regenerations of five cycles. The ethical aspects were reviewed and the European juridical framework was assessed, revealing a need for harmonization. Applying a specific economic model, potential savings were calculated for a representative cardiology department and estimated at national and European level. Potential savings of 41.2% and 32.9% were calculated for diagnostic and ablation catheters, respectively. Safe and effective reprocessing of SUDs could be pursued if quality control processes and certified procedures are met. A reprocessing policy in EP laboratory could lead to savings of about 27,250 euros per 100,000 population, but the economic benefits are strongly dependent on the maximum number of regenerations and the regeneration rate.

  17. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.W. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

  18. Ancestral Reconstruction of a Pre-LUCA Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Ancestor Supports the Late Addition of Trp to the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, G P; Alm, E J

    2015-04-01

    The genetic code was likely complete in its current form by the time of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Several scenarios have been proposed for explaining the code's pre-LUCA emergence and expansion, and the relative order of the appearance of amino acids used in translation. One co-evolutionary model of genetic code expansion proposes that at least some amino acids were added to the code by the ancient divergence of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) families. Of all the amino acids used within the genetic code, Trp is most frequently claimed as a relatively recent addition. We observe that, since TrpRS and TyrRS are paralogous protein families retaining significant sequence similarity, the inferred sequence composition of their ancestor can be used to evaluate this co-evolutionary model of genetic code expansion. We show that ancestral sequence reconstructions of the pre-LUCA paralog ancestor of TyrRS and TrpRS have several sites containing Tyr, yet a complete absence of sites containing Trp. This is consistent with the paralog ancestor being specific for the utilization of Tyr, with Trp being a subsequent addition to the genetic code facilitated by a process of aaRS divergence and neofunctionalization. Only after this divergence could Trp be specifically encoded and incorporated into proteins, including the TyrRS and TrpRS descendant lineages themselves. This early absence of Trp is observed under both homogeneous and non-homogeneous models of ancestral sequence reconstruction. Simulations support that this observed absence of Trp is unlikely to be due to chance or model bias. These results support that the final stages of genetic code evolution occurred well within the "protein world," and that the presence-absence of Trp within conserved sites of ancient protein domains is a likely measure of their relative antiquity, permitting the relative timing of extremely early events within protein evolution before LUCA.

  19. Studies of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima by random sequencing of cDNA and genomic libraries. Identification and sequencing of the trpEG (D) operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C W; Markiewicz, P; Lee, J J; Schierle, C F; Miller, J H

    1993-06-20

    Random sequencing of cDNA and genomic libraries has been used to study the genome of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima. To date, 175 unique clones have been analyzed by comparing short sequence tags with known proteins in the PIR and GenBank databases. We find that a significant proportion of sequences can be matched to previously identified protein from non-Thermotoga sources. A high match rate was obtained from an oligo(dT)-primed cDNA library, where one-third of all unique sequences analyzed (21/65) shared high amino acid sequence similarity with proteins in the PIR and GenBank databases. Also, approximately one-third of the unique sequences from a second cDNA library (28/89), constructed with random oligo primers, could be matched to sequences in PIR and GenBank. Identification of genes from the oligo(dT)-primed cDNA library indicates that some Thermotoga mRNAs are polyadenylated. Genes have also been identified from a 1 to 2 kb genomic DNA library. Here, (3/21) of genomic sequences analyzed could be matched to protein in PIR and GenBank. One of the genomic clones had high sequence similarity to the tryptophan synthesis gene anthranilate synthase component I (trpE). Using this sequence tag, the Thermotoga trp operon was isolated and sequenced. The Thermotoga maritima trp operon is arranged with trpE forming an overlapping transcript with a second protein consisting of a fusion of anthranilate synthase component II (trpG) and anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferse (trpD). With regard to the fusion, the operon organization is similar to Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, but lacks the classic attenuation system of enteric bacteria. Amino acid sequence comparison with 19 trpE, 18 trpG and 14 trpD genes from other organisms suggest that the Thermotoga trp genes resemble corresponding genes from other thermophiles more closely than expected.

  20. Molecular basis of TRAP-5'SL RNA interaction in the Bacillus subtilis trp operon transcription attenuation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Adam P; Mokdad, Ali; Major, François; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Babitzke, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon is regulated by the interaction of tryptophan-activated TRAP with 11 (G/U)AG trinucleotide repeats that lie in the leader region of the nascent trp transcript. Bound TRAP prevents folding of an antiterminator structure and favors formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator hairpin upstream of the trp operon structural genes. A 5'-stem-loop (5'SL) structure that forms just upstream of the triplet repeat region increases the affinity of TRAP-trp RNA interaction, thereby increasing the efficiency of transcription termination. Single-stranded nucleotides in the internal loop and in the hairpin loop of the 5'SL are important for TRAP binding. We show here that altering the distance between these two loops suggests that G7, A8, and A9 from the internal loop and A19 and G20 from the hairpin loop constitute two structurally discrete TRAP-binding regions. Photochemical cross-linking experiments also show that the hairpin loop of the 5'SL is in close proximity to the flexible loop region of TRAP during TRAP-5'SL interaction. The dimensions of B. subtilis TRAP and of a three-dimensional model of the 5'SL generated using the MC-Sym and MC-Fold pipeline imply that the 5'SL binds the protein in an orientation where the helical axis of the 5'SL is perpendicular to the plane of TRAP. This interaction not only increases the affinity of TRAP-trp leader RNA interaction, but also orients the downstream triplet repeats for interaction with the 11 KKR motifs that lie on TRAP's perimeter, increasing the likelihood that TRAP will bind in time to promote termination.

  1. TrpA1 Regulates Defecation of Food-Borne Pathogens under the Control of the Duox Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jo Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen expulsion from the gut is an important defense strategy against infection, but little is known about how interaction between the intestinal microbiome and host immunity modulates defecation. In Drosophila melanogaster, dual oxidase (Duox kills pathogenic microbes by generating the microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS, hypochlorous acid (HOCl in response to bacterially excreted uracil. The physiological function of enzymatically generated HOCl in the gut is, however, unknown aside from its anti-microbial activity. Drosophila TRPA1 is an evolutionarily conserved receptor for reactive chemicals like HOCl, but a role for this molecule in mediating responses to gut microbial content has not been described. Here we identify a molecular mechanism through which bacteria-produced uracil facilitates pathogen-clearing defecation. Ingestion of uracil increases defecation frequency, requiring the Duox pathway and TrpA1. The TrpA1(A transcript spliced with exon10b (TrpA1(A10b that is present in a subset of midgut enteroendocrine cells (EECs is critical for uracil-dependent defecation. TRPA1(A10b heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes is an excellent HOCl receptor characterized with elevated sensitivity and fast activation kinetics of macroscopic HOCl-evoked currents compared to those of the alternative TRPA1(A10a isoform. Consistent with TrpA1's role in defecation, uracil-excreting Erwinia carotovora showed higher persistence in TrpA1-deficient guts. Taken together, our results propose that the uracil/Duox pathway promotes bacteria expulsion from the gut through the HOCl-sensitive receptor, TRPA1(A10b, thereby minimizing the chances that bacteria adapt to survive host defense systems.

  2. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  3. Influence of releases of (129)I and (137)Cs from European reprocessing facilities in Fucus vesiculosus and seawater from the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Niagolova, N; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Abril, J A; García-León, M

    2014-08-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T1/2=15.7×10(6) years) that is present in the environment because of natural and anthropogenic sources. Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing facilities located at Sellafield (England) and La Hague (France). The marine environment, i.e., the oceans, is the major source of iodine. Brown seaweed accumulates iodine at high levels up to 1.0% of dry weigh, and therefore they are ideal bioindicators for studying levels of (129)I. In this work, (129)I concentrations have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and seawater collected in the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas in July 2007. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (44-575)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seaweed and (5.4-51)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seawater, with an enhancement in the Skagerrak area in comparison to the Kattegat area. Iodine-129 concentrations in both seaweed and seawater were used to determine the concentration factor of iodine in brown seaweed F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in the Skagerrak area and their gradually decreasing trend to the Kattegat indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in those areas comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants.

  4. Contaminants of the bismuth phosphate process as signifiers of nuclear reprocessing history.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sweet, Lucas E.

    2012-10-01

    Reagents used in spent nuclear fuel recycling impart unique contaminant patterns into the product stream of the process. Efforts are underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to characterize and understand the relationship between these patterns and the process that created them. A main challenge to this effort, recycling processes that were employed at the Hanford site from 1944-1989 have been retired for decades. This precludes direct measurements of the contaminant patterns that propagate within product streams of these facilities. In the absence of any operating recycling facilities at Hanford, we have taken a multipronged approach to cataloging contaminants of U.S. reprocessing activities using: (1) historical records summarizing contaminants within the final Pu metal button product of these facilities; (2) samples of opportunity that represent intermediate products of these processes; and (3) lab-scale experiments and model simulations designed to replicate contaminant patterns at each stage of nuclear fuel reprocessing. This report provides a summary of the progress and results from Fiscal Year (April 1, 2010-September 30) 2011.

  5. Advanced aqueous reprocessing in P and T strategies: process demonstrations on genuine fuels and targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satmark, B.; Apostolidis, C.; Courson, O.; Malmbeck, R.; Carlos, R.; Pagliosa, G.; Romer, K.; Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, DG-JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Hot Cell Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work the performance of several processes used for advanced reprocessing of commercial LWR fuels as well as transmutation targets is compared. As a first step uranium and plutonium were recovered by PUREX type reprocessing. The raffinate, containing fission products, lanthanides and the minor actinides (MA) were used as feed for the second step in which minor actinides and lanthanides were separated from the bulk of the fission products. The five different processes tested use CMPO, DIDPA, TRPO, Diamide and CYANEX 923 as extractant. In the third step MA are separated from lanthanides. Here three processes were tested, i.e. using CYANEX 301, the synergistic mixture of di-chloro substituted CYANEX 301 and TOPO, and BTP solvents. Column-, batch- and continuous counter-current extraction techniques were used for the tests. The different processes will be described and discussed in terms of performances and efficiencies for Am and Cm. Efficient separation of MA from different genuine fuel solutions could be demonstrated and thereby also the possibility of closing a future transmutation fuel cycle. The combination, Diamide and BTP was found to be the best among extractants tested to achieve an efficient MA recovery from spent fuel. (authors)

  6. Advanced aqueous reprocessing in P and T strategies: process demonstrations on genuine fuels and targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, B.; Apostolidis, C.; Carlos, R.; Courson, O.; Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Pagliosa, G.; Roemer, K.; Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, JRC, Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the present work the performance of several processes used for advanced reprocessing of commercial LWR fuels as well as transmutation targets is compared. As a first step uranium and plutonium were recovered by PUREX type reprocessing. The raffinate, containing fission products including lanthanides and the minor actinides (MA) was used as feed for the second step in which minor actinides and lanthanides were separated from the bulk of the fission products. The five different processes tested use CMPO, DIDPA, TRPO, diamide and CYANEX 923 as extractants. In the third step MA are separated from lanthanides. Here three processes were tested, i.e. using CYANEX 301, the synergistic mixture of di-chloro substituted CYANEX 301 and TOPO, and BTP solvents. Column-, batch- and continuous counter-current extraction techniques were used for the tests. The different processes will be described and discussed in terms of performances and efficiencies for Am and Cm separation. Efficient separation of MA from different genuine fuel solutions could be demonstrated and thereby also the possibility of closing a future transmutation fuel cycle. The combination of diamide and BTP seems to be the best, among extractants tested, to achieve an efficient MA recovery from spent fuel. (orig.)

  7. Efficient method for variable reprocessing of paraffinic and highly paraffinic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odintsov, O.K.; Pereverzev, A.N.; Brovarskaya, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    Different procedures for reprocessing are necessary to obtain the maximum yields of desirable products and minimize the refining costs for feedstocks having significant concentrations of high molecular weight paraffins. A detailed processing scheme is given for each of two reprocessed oils: a Belorussian type containing 25-26 weight % n-paraffins in the kerosene-diesel fractions and a Romashkin crude from the ''Druzhba'' pipeline containing 13-15 weight % n-paraffins in the same fraction. The deparaffining process for the feedstocks must be stable and variable in response to the concentration of paraffins in the crude; an acceptable reactive fuel, complying with thermal stability requirements, was obtained in an 8% by volume yield and had an initial crystallization temperature of -55/sup 0/C and an aromatic content of 19 weight %; an acceptable fuel oil, complying with appropriate technical standards, was obtained by mixing the diesel fraction and fuel oil (in a 2:3 ratio) after the atmospheric distillation of the oil mixture from the ''Druzhba'' pipeline.

  8. Atmospheric dispersal of [sup 129]iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.E.; Schink, D.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Oceanography); Oktay, S.; Santschi, P.H. (Texas A and M Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Dept. of Oceanography)

    1999-08-01

    [sup 129]I/[sup 127]I ratios measured in meteoric water and epiphytes from the continental United States are higher than those measured in coastal seawater or surface freshwater and suggest long-range atmospheric transport of [sup 129]I from the main source for the earth's surface inventory, viz., nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The median ratio for 14 meteoric water samples is 2100 [times] 10[sup [minus]12], corresponding to a [sup 129]I concentration of 2.5 [times] 10[sup 7] atoms/L, whereas 9 epiphyte samples have a median ratio of 1800 [times] 10[sup [minus]12]. Calculated deposition rates of [sup 129]I in the continental United States reveal that a small but significant fraction of the atmospheric releases from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield, England, and Cap de La Hague, France, is deposited after distribution by long-range transport. The inferred dominant mode of transport is easterly, within the troposphere, mainly in the form of the organic gas methyl iodide.

  9. Assessment of sensitivity of neutron-physical parameters of fast neutron reactor to purification of reprocessed fuel from minor actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, V. A.; Kochetkov, L. A.; Nevinitsa, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    The work is devoted to computational investigation of the dependence of basic physical parameters of fast neutron reactors on the degree of purification of plutonium from minor actinides obtained as a result of pyroelectrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and used for manufacturing MOX fuel to be reloaded into the reactors mentioned. The investigations have shown that, in order to preserve such important parameters of a BN-800 type reactor as the criticality, the sodium void reactivity effect, the Doppler effect, and the efficiency of safety rods, it is possible to use the reprocessed fuel without separation of minor actinides for refueling (recharging) the core.

  10. Systematic and quantitative mRNA expression analysis of TRP channel genes at the single trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion level in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewauw Ine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensory nerve fibres arising from cell bodies within the trigeminal ganglia (TG in the head and from a string of dorsal root ganglia (DRG located lateral to the spinal cord convey endogenous and environmental stimuli to the central nervous system. Although several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP superfamily of cation channels have been implicated in somatosensation, the expression levels of TRP channel genes in the individual sensory ganglia have never been systematically studied. Results Here, we used quantitative real-time PCR to analyse and compare mRNA expression of all TRP channels in TG and individual DRGs from 27 anatomically defined segments of the spinal cord of the mouse. At the mRNA level, 17 of the 28 TRP channel genes, TRPA1, TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPML1 and TRPP2, were detectable in every tested ganglion. Notably, four TRP channels, TRPC4, TRPM4, TRPM8 and TRPV1, showed statistically significant variation in mRNA levels between DRGs from different segments, suggesting ganglion-specific regulation of TRP channel gene expression. These ganglion-to-ganglion differences in TRP channel transcript levels may contribute to the variability in sensory responses in functional studies. Conclusions We developed, compared and refined techniques to quantitatively analyse the relative mRNA expression of all TRP channel genes at the single ganglion level. This study also provides for the first time a comparative mRNA distribution profile in TG and DRG along the entire vertebral column for the mammalian TRP channel family.

  11. Environmental Temperature Differentially Modulates C. elegans Longevity through a Thermosensitive TRP Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature profoundly affects aging in both poikilotherms and homeotherms. A general belief is that lower temperatures extend lifespan, whereas higher temperatures shorten it. Although this “temperature law” is widely accepted, it has not been extensively tested. Here, we systematically evaluated the role of temperature in lifespan regulation in C. elegans. We found that, although exposure to low temperatures at the adult stage prolongs lifespan, low-temperature treatment at the larval stage surprisingly reduces lifespan. Interestingly, this differential effect of temperature on longevity in larvae and adults is mediated by the same thermosensitive TRP channel TRPA-1 that signals to the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO. DAF-16/FOXO and TRPA-1 act in larva to shorten lifespan but extend lifespan in adulthood. DAF-16/FOXO differentially regulates gene expression in larva and adult in a temperature-dependent manner. Our results uncover complexity underlying temperature modulation of longevity, demonstrating that temperature differentially regulates lifespan at different stages of life.

  12. A TRP channel in the lysosome regulates large particle phagocytosis via focal exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, Mohammad; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Goschka, Andrew; Li, Xinran; Cheng, Xiping; Gregg, Evan; Azar, Marlene; Zhuo, Yue; Garrity, Abigail G; Gao, Qiong; Slaugenhaupt, Susan; Pickel, Jim; Zolov, Sergey N; Weisman, Lois S; Lenk, Guy M; Titus, Steve; Bryant-Genevier, Marthe; Southall, Noel; Juan, Marugan; Ferrer, Marc; Xu, Haoxing

    2013-09-16

    Phagocytosis of large extracellular particles such as apoptotic bodies requires delivery of the intracellular endosomal and lysosomal membranes to form plasmalemmal pseudopods. Here, we identified mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1) as the key lysosomal Ca2+ channel regulating focal exocytosis and phagosome biogenesis. Both particle ingestion and lysosomal exocytosis are inhibited by synthetic TRPML1 blockers and are defective in macrophages isolated from TRPML1 knockout mice. Furthermore, TRPML1 overexpression and TRPML1 agonists facilitate both lysosomal exocytosis and particle uptake. Using time-lapse confocal imaging and direct patch clamping of phagosomal membranes, we found that particle binding induces lysosomal PI(3,5)P2 elevation to trigger TRPML1-mediated lysosomal Ca2+ release specifically at the site of uptake, rapidly delivering TRPML1-resident lysosomal membranes to nascent phagosomes via lysosomal exocytosis. Thus phagocytic ingestion of large particles activates a phosphoinositide- and Ca2+-dependent exocytosis pathway to provide membranes necessary for pseudopod extension, leading to clearance of senescent and apoptotic cells in vivo.

  13. TRP channels: a missing bond in the entrainment mechanism of peripheral clocks throughout evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletini, Maristela O; Moraes, Maria Nathália; Ramos, Bruno César; Jerônimo, Rodrigo; Castrucci, Ana Maria de Lauro

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythm may be understood as a temporal organization that works to orchestrate physiological processes and behavior in a period of approximately 24 h. Because such temporal organization has evolved in the presence of predictable environmental clues, such as day length, tides, seasons, and temperature, the organism has confronted the natural selection in highly precise intervals of opportunities and risks, generating temporal programs and resetting mechanisms, which are well conserved among different taxa of animals. The present review brings some evidence of how these programs may have co-evolved in systems able to deal with 2 or more environmental clues, and how they similarly function in different group of animals, stressing how important temperature and light were to establish the temporal organizations. For example, melanopsin and rhodopsin, photopigments present respectively in circadian and visual photoreceptors, are required for temperature discrimination in Drosophila melanogaster. These pigments may signal light and temperature via activation of cationic membrane channel, named transient-receptor potential channel (TRP). In fact, TRPs have been suggested to function as thermal sensor for various groups of animals. Another example is the clock machinery at the molecular level. A set of very-well conserved proteins, known as clock proteins, function as transcription factors in positive and negative auto-regulatory loops generating circadian changes of their expression, and of clock-controlled genes. Similar molecular machinery is present in organisms as diverse as cyanobacteria (Synechococcus), fungi (Neurospora), insects (Drosophila), and vertebrates including humans.

  14. Hepatic fibrinogen storage disease due to the fibrinogen γ375 Arg → Trp mutation "fibrinogen aguadilla" is present in Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutation γ375Arg → Trp (fibrinogen Aguadilla is one of four mutations (Brescia, Aguadilla, Angers, and AI duPont capable of causing hepatic storage of fibrinogen. It has been observed in four children from the Caribbean, Europe, and Japan, suffering from cryptogenic liver disease. We report the first case of hepatic fibrinogen storage disease in Arabs due to a mutation in the fibrinogen γ-chain gene in a 3-year-old Syrian girl presenting with elevated liver enzymes. The finding of an impressive accumulation of fibrinogen in liver cells raised the suspicion of endoplasmic reticulum storage disease. Sequencing of the fibrinogen genes revealed a γ375Arg → Trp mutation (fibrinogen Aguadilla in the child and in her father. In conclusion, when confronted with chronic hepatitis of unknown origin, one should check the plasma fibrinogen level and look carefully for the presence of hepatocellular intracytoplasmic globular inclusions to exclude hepatic fibrinogen storage disease.

  15. Proof of Concept Simulations of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near-Real-Time Safeguards Monitor for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-02-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will require the development of advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of nondestructive, near-real-time, autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes recent results from model simulations designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing plants. The MIP monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in near-real-time. Three computer models including ORIGEN-ARP, AMUSE, and SYNTH were used in series to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate element partitioning during separation, and simulate spectra from product and raffinate streams using a variety of gamma detectors, respectively. Simulations were generated for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup, and cooling time. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were also used in the analysis. The MIP monitor was found to be sensitive to induced variations of several operating parameters including distinguishing ±2.5% variation from normal process acid concentrations. The ability of PLS to predict burnup levels from simulated spectra was also demonstrated to be within 3.5% of measured values.

  16. Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Gene Encoding a Protective Leishmania amazonensis Trp-Asp (WD) Protein

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Several Leishmania proteins have been identified and characterized in pursuit of understanding pathogenesis and protection in cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the present study, we utilized sera from infected BALB/c mice to screen a Leishmania amazonensis amastigote cDNA expression library and obtained the full-length gene that encodes a novel Trp-Asp (WD) protein designated LAWD (for Leishmania antigenic WD protein). The WD family of proteins mediates protein-protein interactions and coordinates ...

  17. Análisis preliminar de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp en tortugas marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Infante-Rojas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen siete especies de tortugas marinas, todas amenazadas o en riesgo inminente de extinción. Los estudios con ADN mitocondrial han permitido hacer acercamientos sobre filogenia, evolución, rutas migratorias y centros de dispersión, además para la identificación de polimorfismos y haplotipos, siendo base para planes de manejo y conservación. El presente estudio representa la primera descripción comparada de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp mitocondrial en tortugas marinas. Se realizó un alineamiento múltiple de 26 secuencias del gen que codifica para el ARNtTrp y se propuso la estructura secundaria utilizando el programa ARWEN. Se identificaron potenciales interacciones terciarias por homología comparada con el ARNtTrp de mamíferos. Los resultados mostraron una secuencia consenso de 76 bases con siete regiones conservadas que representan el 76 % de la molécula. Se identificaron polimorfismos que representan tres haplotipos para C. caretta, dos para C. mydas y uno para cada una de las demás especies. Las estructuras secundarias mostraron cambios nucleotídicos puntuales para cada especie y también mostraron que el tallo aceptor, el brazo TψC y el bucle anticodón son motivos conservados en el ARNtTrp de las tortugas marinas. Se encontró un enlace no canónico tipo A-A en el tallo DHU que podría considerarse característico de tortugas marinas. Además, se obtuvo una estructura secundaria consenso en donde se identificaron las siete regiones conservadas, seis posibles interacciones terciarias y el bucle DHU como región variable.

  18. The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Technique in the Treatment of Test Anxiety of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Matthew; Baldo, Tracy D.; Wykes, Scott D.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of test anxiety. Thirty-five college students with test anxiety were assigned to either a treatment or delayed treatment control group. EMDR was shown to be effective in reducing overall test anxiety as well as "emotionality" and…

  19. Cationic gold staining of glomerular anionic sites in archived tissue, reprocessed from paraffin wax into LR gold resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, N P; Shires, M; Aparicio, S R; Davison, A M

    1993-05-01

    Glomerular capillary wall anionic sites have been demonstrated by cationic gold staining of archived renal biopsy tissue (up to 10 years old), obtained from six patients, originally embedded in paraffin wax, and subsequently reprocessed into LR gold resin. The staining patterns at pH 2.5 and pH 7.0, demonstrating different glomerular basement membrane (GBM) anionic constituents, were compared in three patients from whom tissue directly processed into LR gold and reprocessed tissue was available. Ultrastructural preservation was poorer and shrinkage artefact greater in paraformaldehyde-lysine periodate (PLP) as opposed to formol saline-fixed reprocessed tissue. However, GBM anionic site expression was well preserved, or even enhanced (lamina rara externa, pH 7.0) in reprocessed tissue, using either fixative. Although it may not be possible to compare subtle changes in anionic site distribution in variously fixed and processed tissues, due to these artefacts, the technique enables retrospective study of charge status in archived material from disease groups in which there are distinct anionic site aberrations.

  20. REPROCESSING OF SHALLOW SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA TO IMAGE FAULTS NEAR A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE ON THE OAK RIDGE RESERVATION, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOLL, W.E.

    1997-12-30

    Shallow seismic reflection data from Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstrates that spectral balancing and tomographic refraction statics can be important processing tools for shallow seismic data. At this site, reprocessing of data which had previously yielded no useable CMP stacked sections was successful after application of these processing techniques.

  1. Reprocessing of Shallow Seismic Reflection Data to Image Faults Near a Hazardous Waste Site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, W.E.

    1997-12-31

    Shallow seismic reflection data from Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstrates that spectral balancing and tomographic refraction statics can be important processing tools for shallow seismic data. At this site, reprocessing of data which had previously yielded no usable CMP stacked sections was successful after application of these processing techniques.

  2. 75 FR 45167 - Notice of Public Workshop on a Potential Rulemaking for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... civilian nuclear power globally and close the nuclear fuel cycle through reprocessing spent fuel and... Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level Radioactive Waste, and Reactor... regulations in 10 CFR Part 171, ``Annual Fees for Reactor Licenses and Fuel Cycle Licenses and......

  3. Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M.J.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Reitsma, J.B.; de Jongh, A.; Ollf, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) are efficacious treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have directly compared them using well-powered designs and few have investigated respon

  4. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy for personality disorders in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielkens, E M J; Sobczak, S; Van Alphen, S P J

    2016-10-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a kind of psychotherapy, which is growing in popularity, particularly for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When Shapiro first introduced EMDR in 1989, it was approached as a controversial treatment because of lack of evidence. However, nowadays there is growing evidence for EMDR efficacy in PTSD (Mc Guire et al., 2014) and EMDR is recommended by international and national treatment guidelines for PTSD. Moreover, EMDR is also used for the treatment of other anxiety disorders, such as panic disorders (De Jongh et al., 2002). Furthermore, research continues on effects of EMDR in addiction, somatoform disorders and psychosis. So far, there is no empirical research on the efficacy of EMDR treatment in older adults.

  5. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatic stress with the EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, P; Hofmann, A; Flatten, G

    2003-12-04

    EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) is a method, developed at the end of the nineteen-eighties, for the treatment of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The patient is asked to concentrate on certain aspect of the traumatic memory while keeping his eyes fixed on the movements of the therapist's finger. Apparently, this triggers information processing that results in appreciable relief for the patient. The method has proven to be equally as effective as behavioral-therapeutic techniques, and, has in the meantime, been included in national and international guidelines for the treatment of PTSD. The indications for EMDR treatment include not only PTSD, but, increasingly, also other, sometimes more severely chronic, it trauma sequelae. Within the framework of basic care, EMDR must be embedded within a treatment plan and should, where applicable, be combined with other methods.

  6. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Roos; Benjamin, Anja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Jongeneel, Ruud

    2009-09-01

    Intellectual disability is a comorbid condition in epilepsy. People with epilepsy and intellectual disability are at high risk of developing behavioral problems. Among the many contributors to behavioral problems in people with epilepsy and intellectual disability are those of traumatic experiences. As such, behavioral problems can be seen as a reflection of these traumatic experiences. Among established trauma therapies, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an emerging treatment that is effective in adults and also seems to be effective in children. This article is a case report of EMDR in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability, in whom the EMDR children's protocol was used. The aim was to assess whether clinical trauma status significantly diminished to nonclinical status posttreatment. Change in trauma symptoms was evaluated with the Reliable Change Index (RCI). Results showed a significant decrease in trauma symptoms toward nonclinical status from pretreatment to posttreatment. EMDR consequences for epilepsy and intellectual disability are discussed.

  7. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  8. Immobilization of fission products arising from pyrometallurgical reprocessing in chloride media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leturcq, G.; Grandjean, A.; Rigaud, D.; Perouty, P.; Charlot, M.

    2005-12-01

    Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing to recover energy-producing elements such as uranium or plutonium can be performed by a pyrochemical process. In such method, the actinides and fission products are extracted by electrodeposition in a molten chloride medium. These processes generate chlorinated alkali salt flows contaminated by fission products, mainly Cs, Ba, Sr and rare earth elements constituting high-level waste. Two possible alternatives are investigated for managing this wasteform; a protocol is described for dechlorinating the fission products to allow vitrification, and mineral phases capable of immobilizing chlorides are listed to allow specification of a dedicated ceramic matrix suitable for containment of these chlorinated waste streams. The results of tests to synthesize chlorosilicate phases are also discussed.

  9. Reprocessing of Soft X-ray Emission Lines in Black Hole Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauche, C W; Liedahl, D A; Mathiesen, B F; Jimenez-Garate, M A; Raymond, J C

    2003-10-17

    By means of a Monte Carlo code that accounts for Compton scattering and photoabsorption followed by recombination, we have investigated the radiation transfer of Ly{alpha}, He{alpha}, and recombination continua photons of H- and He-like C, N, O, and Ne produced in the photoionized atmosphere of a relativistic black hole accretion disk. We find that photoelectric opacity causes significant attenuation of photons with energies above the O VIII K-edge; that the conversion efficiencies of these photons into lower-energy lines and recombination continua are high; and that accounting for this reprocessing significantly (by factors of 21% to 105%) increases the flux of the Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} emission lines of H- and He-like C and O escaping the disk atmosphere.

  10. Tier-1 reprocessing and other key grid computing activities within the ATLAS-Gridka cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nderitu, Simon K. [Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Computing in ATLAS is organized in so-called Tier-1 clouds. The Tier-1 provides crucial services for DDM and production, which had been developed and extensively tested in the last years. A further key activity of a Tier-1 is data reprocessing which requires bulk reading of RAW data from tape. It is an I/O intensive activity. Thus an efficient performance of the tape system I/O is very important. Tape reading tests have been done with an aim of optimizing the system. The talk presents the result of the progress made and the current status in line with the expected performance. Also an overview of the current status and progress in the other areas is given.

  11. Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Molecular Clouds Regulated by Reprocessed Radiation Feedback from Nascent Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, M Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Radiation feedback from young star clusters embedded in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) is believed to be important to the control of star formation. For the most massive and dense clouds, including those in which super star clusters (SSCs) are born, pressure from reprocessed radiation exerted on dust grains may disperse a significant portion of the cloud mass back into the interstellar medium (ISM). Using our radiaton hydrodynamics (RHD) code, Hyperion, we conduct a series of numerical simulations to test this idea. Our models follow the evolution of self-gravitating, strongly turbulent clouds in which collapsing regions are replaced by radiating sink particles representing stellar clusters. We evaluate the dependence of the star formation efficiency (SFE) on the size and mass of the cloud and $\\kappa$, the opacity of the gas to infrared (IR) radiation. We find that the single most important parameter determining the evolutionary outcome is $\\kappa$, with $\\kappa \\gtrsim 15 \\text{ cm}^2 \\text{ g}^{-1}$ needed ...

  12. [The reprocessing of medical products: from regulatory polices to operational practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliana Auxiliadora Magalhães; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2011-12-01

    The number of technological resources used in health care interventions is growing and continually expanding with the introduction of new products and articles. Problems associated with the reutilization of medical products, both reusable and of single use, affect policies and related technical-operational, economic, political, ethical, legal, and environmental matters. This study aims to contextualize the regulatory systems of medical products, and analyze the subsequent operational implications for Brazilian hospital practices. The article consists of a bibliographic review, carried out without time and language restriction, utilizing the Web of Science, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs databases, with the support of specific descriptors. This study uses the contextualization of regulatory plans for medical products across the world and in Brazil and the existing condition of standardization of the reprocessing of these products as the assessment sources with which to analyze the operational implications for these practices in Brazilian hospitals.

  13. Management of high-level waste arisen from SNF reprocessing by non-aqueous methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukinykh, A.N.; Bychkov, A.V.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.; Kormilitsyn, M.V

    2004-07-01

    Composition, properties and outputs of high-active products and waste have been studied after pyro-electrochemical reprocessing of BN-350 and BOR-60 reactor irradiated MOX fuel. The main amount of fission products, actinides and impurities is concentrated in a small volume of solid recycled products - uranium dioxides of two types and high-active waste - phosphate deposit and spent salt electrolyte. The phosphate deposit and electrolyte are subject to the final disposal but uranium dioxides are returned to the cycle after a certain period of storage. Based on the study of waste properties it was concluded that they can be kept in sealed stainless steel containers without treatment for a long time. Both types of waste may be immobilized in phosphate glass or in monazite-type and kosnarite-type (NZP) ceramics to make an additional safety barrier before the final disposal. (authors)

  14. Modeling the dynamics of evaluation: a multilevel neural network implementation of the iterative reprocessing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Phillip J; Monroe, Brian M; Read, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    We present a neural network implementation of central components of the iterative reprocessing (IR) model. The IR model argues that the evaluation of social stimuli (attitudes, stereotypes) is the result of the IR of stimuli in a hierarchy of neural systems: The evaluation of social stimuli develops and changes over processing. The network has a multilevel, bidirectional feedback evaluation system that integrates initial perceptual processing and later developing semantic processing. The network processes stimuli (e.g., an individual's appearance) over repeated iterations, with increasingly higher levels of semantic processing over time. As a result, the network's evaluations of stimuli evolve. We discuss the implications of the network for a number of different issues involved in attitudes and social evaluation. The success of the network supports the IR model framework and provides new insights into attitude theory.

  15. Science and pseudoscience in the development of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: implications for clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, J D; Lilienfeld, S O; Lohr, J M; Montgomery, R W; O'Donohue, W T; Rosen, G M; Tolin, D F

    2000-11-01

    The enormous popularity recently achieved by Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for anxiety disorders appears to have greatly outstripped the evidence for its efficacy from controlled research studies. The disparity raises disturbing questions concerning EMDR's aggressive commercial promotion and its rapid acceptance among practitioners. In this article, we: (1) summarize the evidence concerning EMDR's efficacy; (2) describe the dissemination and promotion of EMDR; (3) delineate the features of pseudoscience and explicate their relevance to EMDR; (4) describe the pseudoscientific marketing practices used to promote EMDR; (5) analyze factors contributing to the acceptance of EMDR by professional psychologists; and (6) discuss practical considerations for professional psychologists regarding the adoption of EMDR into professional practice. We argue that EMDR provides an excellent vehicle for illustrating the differences between scientific and pseudoscientific therapeutic techniques. Such distinctions are of critical importance for clinical psychologists who intend to base their practice on the best available research.

  16. The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results suggest that employee PsyCap, OV, and work happiness are associated with one another through both implicit and explicit attitudes. Further, the Iterative-Reprocessing Model of attitudes (IRM) provides some insights into the processes underlying these associations. By examining the role and processes through which explicit and implicit attitudes relate to wellbeing at work, the study integrates theories on attitudes, positive organizational scholarship, positive organizational behavior and positive education. It is one of the first studies to apply the theory of the IRM to explain associations amongst PsyCap, OV and work happiness, and to test the IRM theory in a field-based setting. In applying attitude theory to wellbeing research, this study provides insights to mechanisms underlying workplace wellbeing that have not been previously examined and in doing so responds to calls for researchers to learn more about the mechanisms underlying wellbeing interventions. Further, it highlights the need to understand subconscious processes in future wellbeing research and to include implicit measures in positive psychology interventions measurement programs. Practically, this research calls attention to the importance of developing both the positive attitudes of employees and the organizational culture in developing employee work happiness. PMID:28154546

  17. Analysis of the Reuse of Uranium Recovered from the Reprocessing of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [ORNL; Trowbridge, Lee D [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Williams, Kent Alan [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    This report provides an analysis of the factors involved in the reuse of uranium recovered from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels (1) by reenrichment and recycling as fuel to LWRs and/or (2) by recycling directly as fuel to heavy-water-reactors (HWRs), such as the CANDU (registered trade name for the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor). Reuse is an attractive alternative to the current Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) baseline plan, which stores the reprocessed uranium (RU) for an uncertain future or attempts to dispose of it as 'greater-than-Class C' waste. Considering that the open fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States already creates a huge excess quantity of depleted uranium, the closed fuel cycle should enable the recycle of the major components of spent fuel, such as the uranium and the hazardous, long-lived transuranic (TRU) actinides, as well as the managed disposal of fission product wastes. Compared with the GNEP baseline scenario, the reuse of RU in the uranium fuel cycle has a number of potential advantages: (1) avoidance of purchase costs of 11-20% of the natural uranium feed; (2) avoidance of disposal costs for a large majority of the volume of spent fuel that is reprocessed; (3) avoidance of disposal costs for a portion of the depleted uranium from the enrichment step; (4) depending on the {sup 235}U assay of the RU, possible avoidance of separative work costs; and (5) a significant increase in the production of {sup 238}Pu due to the presence of {sup 236}U, which benefits somewhat the transmutation value of the plutonium and also provides some proliferation resistance.

  18. Multivariate analysis of GPS position time series of JPL second reprocessing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.; Mohammadloo, T. H.; Argus, D. F.

    2017-01-01

    The second reprocessing of all GPS data gathered by the Analysis Centers of IGS was conducted in late 2013 using the latest models and methodologies. Improved models of antenna phase center variations and solar radiation pressure in JPL's reanalysis are expected to significantly reduce errors. In an earlier work, JPL estimates of position time series, termed first reprocessing campaign, were examined in terms of their spatial and temporal correlation, power spectra, and draconitic signal. Similar analyses are applied to GPS time series at 89 and 66 sites of the second reanalysis with the time span of 7 and 21 years, respectively, to study possible improvements. Our results indicate that the spatial correlations are reduced on average by a factor of 1.25. While the white and flicker noise amplitudes for all components are reduced by 29-56 %, the random walk amplitude is enlarged. The white, flicker, and random walk noise amount to rate errors of, respectively, 0.01, 0.12, and 0.09 mm/yr in the horizontal and 0.04, 0.41 and 0.3 mm/yr in the vertical. Signals reported previously, such as those with periods of 13.63, 14.76, 5.5, and 351.4 / n for n=1,2,ldots,8 days, are identified in multivariate spectra of both data sets. The oscillation of the draconitic signal is reduced by factors of 1.87, 1.87, and 1.68 in the east, north and up components, respectively. Two other signals with Chandlerian period and a period of 380 days can also be detected.

  19. Reprocessing of {sup 10}B-contaminated {sup 10}Be AMS targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, K.J., E-mail: ksz@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee NSW 2232 (Australia); Pedro, J.B. [Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies, Private Bag 129, Hobart TAS 7001 (Australia); Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Private Bag 80, Hobart TAS 7001 (Australia); Smith, A.M.; Child, D.P.; Fink, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 10}Be accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an increasingly important tool in studies ranging from exposure age dating and palaeo-geomagnetism to the impact of solar variability on the Earth's climate. High levels of boron in BeO AMS targets can adversely impact the quality of {sup 10}Be measurements through interference from the isobar {sup 10}B. Numerous methods in chemical sample preparation and AMS measurement have been employed in order to reduce the impact of excessive boron rates. We present details of a method developed to chemically reprocess a set of forty boron-contaminated BeO targets derived from modern Antarctic ice. Previously, the excessive boron levels in these samples, as measured in an argon-filled absorber cell preceding the ionisation detector, had precluded routine AMS measurement. The procedure involved removing the BeO + Nb mixture from the target holders and dissolving the BeO in hot concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The solution was then heated with HF to remove the boron as volatile BF{sub 3} before re-precipitating as Be(OH){sub 2} and calcining to BeO. This was again mixed with niobium and pressed into fresh target holders. Following reprocessing, the samples gave boron rates reduced by 10-100 Multiplication-Sign , which were sufficiently low and similar to previous successful batches of ice core, snow and associated blank samples, thus allowing a successful {sup 10}Be measurement in the absence of any boron correction. Overall recovery of the BeO for this process averaged 40%. Extensive testing of relevant processing equipment and reagents failed to determine the source of the boron. As a precautionary measure, a similar H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + HF step has been subsequently added to the standard ice processing method.

  20. The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results suggest that employee PsyCap, OV, and work happiness are associated with one another through both implicit and explicit attitudes. Further, the Iterative-Reprocessing Model of attitudes (IRM) provides some insights into the processes underlying these associations. By examining the role and processes through which explicit and implicit attitudes relate to wellbeing at work, the study integrates theories on attitudes, positive organizational scholarship, positive organizational behavior and positive education. It is one of the first studies to apply the theory of the IRM to explain associations amongst PsyCap, OV and work happiness, and to test the IRM theory in a field-based setting. In applying attitude theory to wellbeing research, this study provides insights to mechanisms underlying workplace wellbeing that have not been previously examined and in doing so responds to calls for researchers to learn more about the mechanisms underlying wellbeing interventions. Further, it highlights the need to understand subconscious processes in future wellbeing research and to include implicit measures in positive psychology interventions measurement programs. Practically, this research calls attention to the importance of developing both the positive attitudes of employees and the organizational culture in developing employee work happiness.

  1. Using OPUS to Perform HST On-The-Fly Re-Processing (OTFR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swam, M. S.; Hopkins, E.; Swade, D. A.

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) OPUS implementation of On-The-Fly Calibration (OTFC) processing currently provides the benefit of applying the most current calibration algorithms, reference files, and repairs of errant header keyword values (aperture, shutter, etc.) to Level-1b datasets as they are retrieved from the HST archive. While OTFC has performed well, a number of concerns about maintenance and flexibility have resulted in the evolution towards an On-The-Fly Re-Processing (OTFR) System. Also based on the OPUS pipeline architecture, OTFR carries further the notion of creating products for archive users at the time of their request, by completely regenerating calibrated (Level-2) data products for an exposure from the base telemetry files sent from the HST (Level-1a data). By starting processing at this earlier state, and taking advantage of the changes to the data processing software that are made as that software matures, improved, more consistent calibrated (Level-2) data products are produced. Use of OPUS distributed multi-processing, the relatively small size of HST datasets, and the efficiency of the data processing and calibration software results in a very small impact on the overall time it takes to complete an archive retrieval. There could be an impact to archive research, however, since the archive catalog meta-data will not completely reflect the reprocessed products as they would be delivered to the archive user. This problem will be addressed by performing catalog updates for any major discrepancies. This paper will describe the concerns raised about OTFC, the design of the OTFR pipeline system, and the benefits of using the OPUS architecture in this design.

  2. NOISE CHARACTERISTIC AND SEASONAL SIGNALS IN THE RE-PROCESSED EUREF PERMANENT NETWORK COORDINATE TIME SERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyeres, A.; Williams, S. D.; Figurski, M.; van Dam, T. M.; Szafranek, K.

    2009-12-01

    Previous analyses of periodic signals present in continuous GPS time series showed that the amplitude and phase of the derived seasonal term mostly disagree with surface mass loading models. The CGPS results appeared to over-estimate the amplitude of the seasonal term and the estimated amplitudes and/or phases were poorly coherent with the loading models, especially at sites close to coastal areas. The studies concluded that the GPS results are distorted by analysis artifacts (such as ocean tide loading, aliasing, and antenna phase centre variation models), monument thermal effects, and multipath. In addition, the actual CGPS time series were inhomogeneous in terms of processing strategy, applied models and reference frame alignment. With the introduction of absolute antenna phase centre variation models an effort, within the EUREF Permanent Network, was initiated to produce a complete GPS re-analysis from global to local levels. A test re-processing of all EPN observations from 1996 to 2007 has already been completed by the Military University of Technology (MUT), Warsaw, Poland and cumulative EPN solutions, from the daily SINEX files, have been created using the CATREF software. We used a combination of Weighted Least Squares, Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF’s) and Wavelets to analyze the data for their spatial and temporal noise characteristics and investigate the periodic signals. We find that the noise levels in the re-processed daily solutions is reduced compared to past solutions, but the noise spectra is still represented by a combination of flicker noise and white noise. The amplitudes of the seasonal term have generally decreased and the spatial distribution of the phase lag appears to be more uniform. Comparisons of the estimated annual variations with combined loading models (NCEP + LaD - World - Fraser + ECCO) and the vertical displacement model of the GRACE R4 gravity fields show an improved agreement

  3. Multivariate analysis of GPS position time series of JPL second reprocessing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.; Mohammadloo, T. H.; Argus, D. F.

    2017-06-01

    The second reprocessing of all GPS data gathered by the Analysis Centers of IGS was conducted in late 2013 using the latest models and methodologies. Improved models of antenna phase center variations and solar radiation pressure in JPL's reanalysis are expected to significantly reduce errors. In an earlier work, JPL estimates of position time series, termed first reprocessing campaign, were examined in terms of their spatial and temporal correlation, power spectra, and draconitic signal. Similar analyses are applied to GPS time series at 89 and 66 sites of the second reanalysis with the time span of 7 and 21 years, respectively, to study possible improvements. Our results indicate that the spatial correlations are reduced on average by a factor of 1.25. While the white and flicker noise amplitudes for all components are reduced by 29-56 %, the random walk amplitude is enlarged. The white, flicker, and random walk noise amount to rate errors of, respectively, 0.01, 0.12, and 0.09 mm/yr in the horizontal and 0.04, 0.41 and 0.3 mm/yr in the vertical. Signals reported previously, such as those with periods of 13.63, 14.76, 5.5, and 351.4 / n for n=1,2,{\\ldots },8 days, are identified in multivariate spectra of both data sets. The oscillation of the draconitic signal is reduced by factors of 1.87, 1.87, and 1.68 in the east, north and up components, respectively. Two other signals with Chandlerian period and a period of 380 days can also be detected.

  4. Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by pharmacological modulation of temperature-sensitive TRP channels: theoretical framework and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketa, Viktor V; Marrelli, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as a remarkably effective method of neuroprotection from ischemia and is being increasingly used in clinics. Accordingly, it is also a subject of considerable attention from a basic scientific research perspective. One of the fundamental problems, with which current studies are concerned, is the optimal method of inducing hypothermia. This review seeks to provide a broad theoretical framework for approaching this problem, and to discuss how a novel promising strategy of pharmacological modulation of the thermosensitive ion channels fits into this framework. Various physical, anatomical, physiological and molecular aspects of thermoregulation, which provide the foundation for this text, have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed exhaustively here. Instead, the first part of the current review, which may be helpful for a broader readership outside of thermoregulation research, will build on this existing knowledge to outline possible opportunities and research directions aimed at controlling body temperature. The second part, aimed at a more specialist audience, will highlight the conceptual advantages and practical limitations of novel molecular agents targeting thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in achieving this goal. Two particularly promising members of this channel family, namely TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), will be discussed in greater detail.

  5. High-Temperature unfolding of a trp-Cage mini-protein: a molecular dynamics simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshasayee Aswin Sai Narain

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trp cage is a recently-constructed fast-folding miniprotein. It consists of a short helix, a 3,10 helix and a C-terminal poly-proline that packs against a Trp in the alpha helix. It is known to fold within 4 ns. Results High-temperature unfolding molecular dynamics simulations of the Trp cage miniprotein have been carried out in explicit water using the OPLS-AA force-field incorporated in the program GROMACS. The radius of gyration (Rg and Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD have been used as order parameters to follow the unfolding process. Distributions of Rg were used to identify ensembles. Conclusion Three ensembles could be identified. While the native-state ensemble shows an Rg distribution that is slightly skewed, the second ensemble, which is presumably the Transition State Ensemble (TSE, shows an excellent fit. The denatured ensemble shows large fluctuations, but a Gaussian curve could be fitted. This means that the unfolding process is two-state. Representative structures from each of these ensembles are presented here.

  6. Insulin-producing cells regulate the sexual receptivity through the painless TRP channel in Drosophila virgin females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaomi Sakai

    Full Text Available In a variety of animal species, females hold a leading position in evaluating potential mating partners. The decision of virgin females to accept or reject a courting male is one of the most critical steps for mating success. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, however, the molecular and neuronal mechanisms underlying female receptivity are still poorly understood, particularly for virgin females. The Drosophila painless (pain gene encodes a transient receptor potential (TRP ion channel. We previously demonstrated that mutations in pain significantly enhance the sexual receptivity of virgin females and that pain expression in pain(GAL4 -positive neurons is necessary and sufficient for pain-mediated regulation of the virgin receptivity. Among the pain(GAL4 -positive neurons in the adult female brain, here we have found that insulin-producing cells (IPCs, a neuronal subset in the pars intercerebralis, are essential in virgin females for the regulation of sexual receptivity through Pain TRP channels. IPC-specific knockdown of pain expression or IPC ablation strongly enhanced female sexual receptivity as was observed in pain mutant females. When pain expression or neuronal activity was conditionally suppressed in adult IPCs, female sexual receptivity was similarly enhanced. Furthermore, both pain mutations and the conditional knockdown of pain expression in IPCs depressed female rejection behaviors toward courting males. Taken together, our results indicate that the Pain TRP channel in IPCs plays an important role in controlling the sexual receptivity of Drosophila virgin females by positively regulating female rejection behaviors during courtship.

  7. Seed Treatment with Auxins Modulates Growth and Ion Partitioning in Salt-stressed Wheat Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether seed priming with different concentrations (100, 150, and 200 mg/L) of auxins (indoleacetic acid (IAA), indolebutyric acid (IBA), or their precursor tryptophane (Trp)) could alter salinity induced perturbances in salicylic acid and ion concentrations and, hence, growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, namely M.H.-97 (salt intolerant) and Inqlab-91 (salt tolerant). Primed and non-primed seeds were sown in Petri dishes in a growth room, as well as in a field treated with 15 dS/m NaCl salinity. All priming agents, except IBA, increased the final germination percentage in both cultivars. The seedlings of either cultivar raised from Trp-treated seeds had greater dry biomass when under salt stress. In field experiments, Trp priming was much more effective in mediating the increase in grain yield,irrespective of the cultivar, under salt stress. The alleviatory effect of Trp was found to be associated with reduced uptake of Na+ in the roots and subsequent translocation to the shoots, as well as increased partitioning of Ca2+ in the roots of salt-stressed wheat plants. Plants of both cultivars raised from Trp- and IAA-treated seeds accumulated free salicylic acid in their leaves when under salt stress. Overall, the Trp priming-induced improvement in germination and the subsequent growth of wheat plants could be related to ion homeostasis when under salt stress. The possible involvement of salicylic acid in the Trp priming-induced better growth under conditions of salt stress is discussed.

  8. Energy expenditure, body composition and insulin response to glucose in male twins discordant for the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, K; Christiansen, C; Bjørnsbo, K S;

    2006-01-01

    and environmental background, the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3AR gene is associated with lower fat mass, fasting insulin levels and an appropriate insulin response to glucose. Thus, heterozygosity for the Trp64Arg variant is unlikely to increase the risk of obesity, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.......AIM: The tryptophan to arginine change in position 64 (Trp64Arg) polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) gene has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In this, decreased rates of energy expenditure and impaired insulin......-ray absorptiometry scanning and energy expenditure by indirect and direct calorimetry. RESULTS: Twins heterozygous for the Trp64Arg polymorphism showed significantly lower fat mass independent of the method used, and significantly lower fasting insulin and glucose concentrations compared with their homozygous wild...

  9. Association of the beta3-adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg polymorphism with common metabolic traits: studies of 7605 middle-aged white people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, A. P.; Andersen, G; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    2008-01-01

    of type 2 diabetes and obesity in a relatively large, homogenous study population. METHODS: The Trp64Arg polymorphism was genotyped in 7605 Danish subjects using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Association was examined in case-control studies of obesity (1529...... cases and 6049 controls) and type 2 diabetes (1373 cases and 4742 controls) and quantitative trait analyses among 5822 individuals. Furthermore, the association of Trp64Arg with type 2 diabetes was examined in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: The Trp64Arg polymorphism was not associated with obesity. However...... (p=0.02). After sex stratification these associations were only present among women. Furthermore, the Arg-allele was borderline associated with type 2 diabetes in a meta-analysis of the present and 26 previous studies (p=0.06, OR1.27 (CI: 0.99-1.63)) (n=18891). CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Trp64Arg...

  10. Characterization of TRAP-mediated regulation of the B. subtilis trp operon using in vitro transcription and transcriptional reporter fusions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Natalie M; Gollnick, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, transcription of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon is regulated by an attenuation mechanism involving two alternative RNA secondary structures in the 5' leader region upstream of the structural genes. Regulation is accomplished, at least in part, by controlling which RNA structure forms during transcription of the operon. When intracellular tryptophan levels are high, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) binds to the nascent trp mRNA to promote formation of a transcription terminator structure so as to induce transcription termination prior to the structural genes. In limiting tryptophan, TRAP does not bind, the alternative antiterminator RNA structure forms, and the operon is transcribed. Several in vitro and in vivo assays have been utilized to study TRAP-mediated regulation of both transcription and translation. Here, we describe using in vitro transcription attenuation assays and in vivo trp-lacZ fusions to examine TRAP-mediated regulation of the trp genes.

  11. Food Compounds Activating Thermosensitive TRP Channels in Asian Herbal and Medicinal Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsuo; Terada, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    There are several thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels including capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Food components activating TRPV1 inhibit body fat deposition through sympathetic nerve stimulation. TRPA1 is another pungency sensor for pungent compounds and is mainly coexpressed with TRPV1 in sensory nerve endings. Therefore, TRPA1 activation is expected to have an anti-obesity effect similar to TRPV1 activation. We have searched for agonists for TRPV1 and TRPA1 in vitro from Asian spices by the use of TRPV1- and TRPA1-expressing cells. Further, we performed food component addition tests to high-fat and high-sucrose diets in mice. We found capsiate, capsiconiate, capsainol from hot and sweet peppers, several piperine analogs from black pepper, gingeriols and shogaols from ginger, and sanshools and hydroxysanshools from sansho (Japanese pepper) to be TRPV1 agonists. We also identified several sulfides from garlic and durian, hydroxy fatty acids from royal jelly, miogadial and miogatrial from mioga (Zingiber mioga), piperine analogs from black pepper, and acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) from galangal (Alpinia galanga) as TRPA1 agonists. Piperine addition to diets diminished visceral fats and increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and black pepper extract showed stronger effects than piperine. Cinnamaldehyde and ACA as TRPA1 agonists inhibited fat deposition and increased UCP1. We found that several agonists of TRPV1 and TRPA1 and some agonists of TRPV1 and TRPA1 inhibit visceral fat deposition in mice. The effects of such compounds on humans remain to be clarified, but we expect that they will be helpful in the prevention of obesity.

  12. A potential yeast actin allosteric conduit dependent on hydrophobic core residues val-76 and trp-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Stokasimov, Ema; Fields, Jonathon; Rubenstein, Peter A

    2010-07-02

    Intramolecular allosteric interactions responsible for actin conformational regulation are largely unknown. Previous work demonstrated that replacing yeast actin Val-76 with muscle actin Ile caused decreased nucleotide exchange. Residue 76 abuts Trp-79 in a six-residue linear array beginning with Lys-118 on the surface and ending with His-73 in the nucleotide cleft. To test if altering the degree of packing of these two residues would affect actin dynamics, we constructed V76I, W79F, and W79Y single mutants as well as the Ile-76/Phe-79 and Ile-76/Tyr-79 double mutants. Tyr or Phe should decrease crowding and increase protein flexibility. Subsequent introduction of Ile should restore packing and dampen changes. All mutants showed decreased growth in liquid medium. W79Y alone was severely osmosensitive and exhibited vacuole abnormalities. Both properties were rescued by Ile-76. Phe-79 or Tyr decreased the thermostability of actin and increased its nucleotide exchange rate. These effects, generally greater for Tyr than for Phe, were reversed by introduction of Ile-76. HD exchange showed that the mutations caused propagated conformational changes to all four subdomains. Based on results from phosphate release and light-scattering assays, single mutations affected polymerization in the order of Ile, Phe, and Tyr from least to most. Introduction of Ile-76 partially rescued the polymerization defects caused by either Tyr-79 or Phe-79. Thus, alterations in crowding of the 76-79 residue pair can strongly affect actin conformation and behavior, and these results support the theory that the amino acid array in which they are located may play a central role in actin regulation.

  13. The tumor suppressor gene Trp53 protects the mouse lens against posterior subcapsular cataracts and the BMP receptor Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A. Wiley

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that lenses lacking the Acvr1 gene, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor, had abnormal proliferation and cell death in epithelial and cortical fiber cells. We tested whether the tumor suppressor protein p53 (encoded by Trp53 affected this phenotype. Acvr1 conditional knockout (Acvr1CKO mouse fiber cells had increased numbers of nuclei that stained for p53 phosphorylated on serine 15, an indicator of p53 stabilization and activation. Deletion of Trp53 rescued the Acvr1CKO cell death phenotype in embryos and reduced Acvr1-dependent apoptosis in postnatal lenses. However, deletion of Trp53 alone increased the number of fiber cells that failed to withdraw from the cell cycle. Trp53CKO and Acvr1;Trp53DCKO (double conditional knockout, but not Acvr1CKO, lenses developed abnormal collections of cells at the posterior of the lens that resembled posterior subcapsular cataracts. Cells from human posterior subcapsular cataracts had morphological and molecular characteristics similar to the cells at the posterior of mouse lenses lacking Trp53. In Trp53CKO lenses, cells in the posterior plaques did not proliferate but, in Acvr1;Trp53DCKO lenses, many cells in the posterior plaques continued to proliferate, eventually forming vascularized tumor-like masses at the posterior of the lens. We conclude that p53 protects the lens against posterior subcapsular cataract formation by suppressing the proliferation of fiber cells and promoting the death of any fiber cells that enter the cell cycle. Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens. Enhancing p53 function in the lens could contribute to the prevention of steroid- and radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataracts.

  14. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W. Jr.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-05-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable as it applies to this nuclear facility. The base case is representative of conceptual, developing technology of head-end graphite-burning operations and of extensions of solvent-extraction technology of current designs for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing plants. The model plant has an annual capacity of 450 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM, where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed.

  15. Effect of the secondary structure of carbohydrate residues of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) on the local dynamics of Trp residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Jihad René

    2004-01-01

    We studied in this work the relation between the secondary structure of the carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein and the local motions of Trp residues of the protein. We measured for this purpose the fluorescence emission intensity and anisotropy of the Trp residues between -46 and +30 degrees of the sialylated and asialylated protein. Our results indicate that, in both forms, the global profile of the emission intensity with temperature shows that Trp residues display static and collisional interaction with the neighboring amino acids. However, the profile of the asialylated form is more structured than that observed for the sialylated protein. The Y-plot analysis of the emission-anisotropy results indicated that the frictional resistance to rotation of the surface Trp residue is less important in the sialylated protein than in the asialylated form. This result is in good agreement with the fact that, in the asialylated conformation, the carbohydrate residues are closer to the protein surface than in the sialylated form, thereby increasing the contact of the surface Trp residue with the neighboring amino acids. Also, the interaction between the carbohydrate residues and the surface Trp residue contributes to the modification of the frictional resistance to rotation of the fluorophore.

  16. Modulation of innate and learned sexual behaviors by the TRP channel Painless expressed in the fruit fly brain: behavioral genetic analysis and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoma eSato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels have attracted considerable attention because of their vital roles in primary sensory neurons, mediating responses to a wide variety of external environmental stimuli. However, much less is known about how TRP channels in the brain respond to intrinsic signals and are involved in neurophysiological processes that control complex behaviors. Painless (Pain is the Drosophila TRP channel that was initially identified as a molecular sensor responsible for detecting noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli. Here, we review recent behavioral genetic studies demonstrating that Pain expressed in the brain plays a critical role in both innate and learned aspects of sexual behaviors. Several members of the TRP channel superfamily play evolutionarily conserved roles in sensory neurons as well as in other peripheral tissues. It is thus expected that brain TRP channels in vertebrates and invertebrates would have some common physiological functions. Studies of Pain in the Drosophila brain using a unique combination of genetics and physiological techniques should provide valuable insights into the fundamental principles concerning TRP channels expressed in the vertebrate and invertebrate brains.

  17. Influence of reprocessing on fibre length distribution, tensile strength and impact strength of injection moulded cellulose fibre-reinforced polylactide (PLA composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Graupner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the reprocessing behaviour of recycled injection moulded polylactide (PLA composites. The composites are reinforced with regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell of variable fineness and a fibre mass content of 30%. They were reprocessed up to three times. The influence of reprocessing on the fibre length distribution and the resulting composite mechanical properties (tensile and impact strength was analysed. While the first reprocessing cycle does not affect the mechanical characteristics of the neat PLA matrix, the strength of the composites decreases significantly due to a decreasing fibre aspect ratio. It was shown that fibres having a larger cross-sectional area display a lower aspect ratio than finer fibres, after reprocessing. This phenomenon leads to a larger decrease in tensile strength of composites reinforced with coarser fibres when compared to composites reinforced with finer fibres. A comparison of virgin composites and threefold reprocessed composites with a similar fibre length distribution resulted in a significantly higher tensile strength compared to the virgin sample. This result leads to the conclusion that not only the fibre length is drastically reduced by reprocessing but also that the fibres and the matrix were damaged.

  18. Simulation of atmospheric krypton-85 transport to assess the detectability of clandestine nuclear reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Jens Ole

    2010-02-02

    The radioactive noble gas krypton-85 is released into the atmosphere during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel or irradiated breeding targets. This is a necessary step for plutonium separation. Therefore the {sup 85}Kr signature of reprocessing could possibly be used for the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities producing nuclear weaponusable material. The {sup 85}Kr content of the atmosphere has grown over the last decades as the emissions from military and civilian nuclear industry could not be compensated by the decay with a half-life of 10.76 years. In this study, the global {sup 85}Kr background distribution due to emissions of known reprocessing facilities for the period from 1971 until 2006 was simulated using the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 applying the newest available annual emission data. The convective tracer transport scheme and the operator splitting for the physical calculations in the model were modified in order to guarantee physically correct results for tracer point sources, in particular non negative concentrations. An on-line routine controlling the {sup 85}Kr -budget in the model enforced exact mass conservation. The results of the simulation were evaluated by extensive comparison with measurements performed by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection with very good agreement at most observation sites except those in the direct vicinity of {sup 85}Kr sources. Of particular interest for the {sup 85}Kr detection potential was the variability of {sup 85}Kr background concentrations which was evaluated for the first time in a global model. In addition, the interhemispheric transport as simulated by ECHAM5 was analyzed using a two-box model providing a mean exchange time of τ {sub ex} = 10.5 months. The analysis of τ{sub ex} over simulated 35 years indicates that in years with strong South Asian or African Monsoon the interhemispheric transport is faster during the monsoon season. A correlation analysis of

  19. Fuel salt reprocessing influence on the MSFR behavior and on its associated reprocessing unit; Influence du retraitement physico-chimique du sel combustible sur le comportement du MSFR et sur le dimensionnement de son unite de retraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, X.

    2010-10-15

    In order to face with the growing of the energy demand, the nuclear industry has to reach the fourth generation technology. Among those concept, molten salt reactor, and especially the fast neutron spectrum configuration, seems very promising: indeed breeding is achievable while the feedback coefficient are still negative. However, the reprocessing salt scheme is not totally set down yet. A lot of uncertainties remain on chemical properties of the salt. Thanks to numerical simulation we studied the behavior of the molten Salt Fast Reactor coupled to a nominal reprocessing unit. We are now able to determine heat transfer and radiation in each elementary step of the unit and, by this way determine those that need special study for radioprotection. We also studied which elements are fundamental to extract for the reactor operation. Finally, we present a sensibility analysis of the chemical uncertainties to few relevant properties of the reactor behavior. (author)

  20. Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter - 12167

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Jim; Kurasch, David [consultant - USA (United States); Sullivan, Dan; Crandall, Thomas [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the vitrification melter used in the West Valley Demonstration Project can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) after completion of a waste-incidental-to-reprocessing evaluation performed in accordance with the evaluation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. The vitrification melter - which consists of a ceramic lined, electrically heated box structure - was operated for more than 5 years melting and fusing high-level waste (HLW) slurry and glass formers and pouring the molten glass into 275 stainless steel canisters. Prior to shutdown, the melter was decontaminated by processing low-activity decontamination flush solutions and by extracting molten glass from the melter cavity. Because it could not be completely emptied, residual radioactivity conservatively estimated at approximately 170 TBq (4,600 Ci) remained in the vitrification melter. To establish whether the melter was incidental to reprocessing, DOE prepared an evaluation to demonstrate that the vitrification melter: (1) had been processed to remove key radionuclides to the maximum extent technically and economically practical; (2) would be managed to meet safety requirements comparable to the performance objectives for LLW established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and (3) would be managed by DOE in accordance with DOE's requirements for LLW after it had been incorporated in a solid physical form with radionuclide concentrations that do not exceed the NRC concentration limits for Class C LLW. DOE consulted with the NRC on the draft evaluation and gave other stakeholders an opportunity to submit comments before the determination was made. The NRC submitted a request for additional information in connection with staff review of the draft evaluation; DOE provided the additional information and made improvements to the evaluation, which was issued in January 2012. DOE considered the NRC Technical Evaluation

  1. NASADEM Overview and First Results: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Reprocessing and Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Crippen, R. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2015-12-01

    NASADEM is a significant modernization of SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program. We are reprocessing the raw radar signal data using improved algorithms and incorporating ICESat and ASTER-derived DEM data unavailable during the original processing. The NASADEM products will be freely-available through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) at 1-arcsecond spacing. The most significant processing improvements involve void reduction through improved phase unwrapping and using ICESat data for control. The updated unwrapping strategy now includes the use of SNAPHU for data processing patches where the unwrapped coverage from the original residue-based unwrapper falls below a coverage threshold. In North America continental processing, first experiments show the strip void area is reduced by more than 50% and the number of strip void patches is reduced by 40%. Patch boundary voids are mitigated by reprocessing with a different starting burst and merging the unwrapping results. We also updated a low-resolution elevation database to aid with unwrapping bootstrapping, retaining isolated component of unwrapped phase, and assessing the quality of the strip DEMs. We introduce a height ripple error correction to reduce artifacts in the strip elevation data. These ripples are a few meters in size with along-track spatial scales of tens of kilometers and are due to uncompensated mast motion most pronounced after Shuttle roll angle adjustment maneuvers. We developed an along-track filter utilizing differences between the SRTM heights and ICESat lidar elevation data. For a test using all data over North America, the algorithm reduced the ICESat-SRTM bias from 80 cm to 3 cm and the RMS from 5m to 4m. After merging and regridding the SRTM strip DEMs into 1x1-degree tiles, remaining voids are primarily filled with the ASTER-derived Global DEM. We use a Delta Surface Fill method to rubbersheet fill data across the void for

  2. Reprocessing the Historical Satellite Passive Microwave Record at Enhanced Spatial Resolutions using Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Long, D. G.; Paget, A. C.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning in 1978, the satellite passive microwave data record has been a mainstay of remote sensing of the cryosphere, providing twice-daily, near-global spatial coverage for monitoring changes in hydrologic and cryospheric parameters that include precipitation, soil moisture, surface water, vegetation, snow water equivalent, sea ice concentration and sea ice motion. Currently available global gridded passive microwave data sets serve a diverse community of hundreds of data users, but do not meet many requirements of modern Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) or Climate Data Records (CDRs), most notably in the areas of intersensor calibration, quality-control, provenance and consistent processing methods. The original gridding techniques were relatively primitive and were produced on 25 km grids using the original EASE-Grid definition that is not easily accommodated in modern software packages. Further, since the first Level 3 data sets were produced, the Level 2 passive microwave data on which they were based have been reprocessed as Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs) with improved calibration and documentation. We are funded by NASA MEaSUREs to reprocess the historical gridded data sets as EASE-Grid 2.0 ESDRs, using the most mature available Level 2 satellite passive microwave (SMMR, SSM/I-SSMIS, AMSR-E) records from 1978 to the present. We have produced prototype data from SSM/I and AMSR-E for the year 2003, for review and feedback from our Early Adopter user community. The prototype data set includes conventional, low-resolution ("drop-in-the-bucket" 25 km) grids and enhanced-resolution grids derived from the two candidate image reconstruction techniques we are evaluating: 1) Backus-Gilbert (BG) interpolation and 2) a radiometer version of Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR). We summarize our temporal subsetting technique, algorithm tuning parameters and computational costs, and include sample SSM/I images at enhanced resolutions of up to 3 km. We are actively

  3. Structural and population-based evaluations of TBC1D1 p.Arg125Trp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G Richardson

    Full Text Available Obesity is now a leading cause of preventable death in the industrialised world. Understanding its genetic influences can enhance insight into molecular pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. A non-synonymous polymorphism (rs35859249, p.Arg125Trp in the N-terminal TBC1D1 phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB domain has shown a replicated association with familial obesity in women. We investigated these findings in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a large European birth cohort of mothers and offspring, and by generating a predicted model of the structure of this domain. Structural prediction involved the use of three separate algorithms; Robetta, HHpred/MODELLER and I-TASSER. We used the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT to investigate familial association in the ALSPAC study cohort (N = 2,292 mother-offspring pairs. Linear regression models were used to examine the association of genotype with mean measurements of adiposity (Body Mass Index (BMI, waist circumference and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA assessed fat mass, and logistic regression was used to examine the association with odds of obesity. Modelling showed that the R125W mutation occurs in a location of the TBC1D1 PTB domain that is predicted to have a function in a putative protein:protein interaction. We did not detect an association between R125W and BMI (mean per allele difference 0.27 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.00, 0.53 P = 0.05 or obesity (odds ratio 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.77, 1.31, P = 0.96 in offspring after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that there was familial association between R125W and obesity (χ(2 = 0.06, P = 0.80. Our analysis suggests that R125W in TBC1D1 plays a role in the binding of an effector protein, but we find no evidence that the R125W variant is related to mean BMI or odds of obesity in a general population sample.

  4. The behaviour of ¹²⁹I released from nuclear fuel reprocessing factories in the North Atlantic Ocean and transport to the Arctic assessed from numerical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Min, Byung-Il; Periáñez, R

    2015-01-15

    A quantitative evaluation of the fate of (129)I, released from the European reprocessing plants of Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France), has been made by means of a Lagrangian dispersion model. Transport of radionuclides to the Arctic Ocean has been determined. Thus, 5.1 and 16.6 TBq of (129)I have been introduced in the Arctic from Sellafield and La Hague respectively from 1966 to 2012. These figures represent, respectively, 48% and 55% of the cumulative discharge to that time. Inventories in the North Atlantic, including shelf seas, are 4.4 and 13.8 TBq coming from Sellafield and La Hague respectively. These figures are significantly different from previous estimations based on field data. The distribution of these inventories among several shelf seas and regions has been evaluated as well. Mean ages of tracers have been finally obtained, making use of the age-averaging hypothesis. It has been found that mean ages for Sellafield releases are about 3.5 year larger than for La Hague releases.

  5. Proof of concept simulations of the Multi-Isotope Process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near-real-time safeguards monitor for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard N.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency will require the development of advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of nondestructive, near-real-time, autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes recent results from model simulations designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) monitor, a novel addition to a safeguards system for reprocessing facilities. The MIP monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in near-real-time. Three computer models including ORIGEN-ARP, AMUSE, and SYNTH were used in series to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate element partitioning during separation, and simulate spectra from product and raffinate streams using a variety of gamma detectors, respectively. Simulations were generated for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup, and cooling time. Hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least squares (PLS) were also used in the analysis. The MIP monitor was found to be sensitive to induced variations of several operating parameters including distinguishing ±2.5% variation from normal process acid concentrations. The ability of PLS to predict burnup levels from simulated spectra was also demonstrated to be within 3.5% of measured values.

  6. Acrylonitrile quenching of trp phosphorescence in proteins: a probe of the internal flexibility of the globular fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambini, Giovanni B; Gonnelli, Margherita

    2010-08-04

    Quenching of Trp phosphorescence in proteins by diffusion of solutes of various molecular sizes unveils the frequency-amplitude of structural fluctuations. To cover the sizes gap between O(2) and acrylamide, we examined the potential of acrylonitrile to probe conformational flexibility of proteins. The distance dependence of the through-space acrylonitrile quenching rate was determined in a glass at 77 K, with the indole analog 2-(3-indoyl) ethyl phenyl ketone. Intensity and decay kinetics data were fitted to a rate, k(r) =k(0) exp[-(r -r(0))/r(e)], with an attenuation length r(e) = 0.03 nm and a contact rate k(0) = 3.6 x 10(10) s(-1). At ambient temperature, the bimolecular quenching rate constant (kq) was determined for a series of proteins, appositely selected to test the importance of factors such as the degree of Trp burial and structural rigidity. Relative to kq = 1.9 x 10(9) M(-1)s(-1) for free Trp in water, in proteins kq ranged from 6.5 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) for superficial sites to 1.3 x 10(2) M(-1)s(-1) for deep cores. The short-range nature of the interaction and the direct correlation between kq and structural flexibility attest that in the microsecond-second timescale of phosphorescence acrylonitrile readily penetrates even compact protein cores and exhibits significant sensitivity to variations in dynamical structure of the globular fold.

  7. Kinetics of formation for lanthanide (III) complexes of DTPA-(Me-Trp)2 used as imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anjani K; Sinha, Deepa; Datta, Anupama; Kakkar, Dipti; Mishra, Anil K

    2011-05-01

    Diethlenetriamine-N,N,N'N''N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-bis (amide) analogs have been synthesized and evaluated as a potential biomedical imaging agents. Imaging and biodistribution studies were performed in mice that showed a significant accumulation of DTPA analogs in brain. The stability and protonation constants of the complexes formed between the ligand [DTPA-(Me-Trp)(2)] and Gd(3+), Eu(3+), and Cu(2+) have been determined by pH potentiometry (Gd(3+), Eu(3+)) and spectrophotometry (Cu(2+)) at 25 °C and at constant ionic strength maintained by 0.10 M KCl. The kinetic inertness of Gd [DTPA-(Me-Trp)(2)] was characterized by the rates of exchange reactions with Zn(2+) and Eu(3+). In the Eu(3+) exchange, a second-order [H(+)] dependence was found for the pseudo-first-order rate constant [k(0) = (4.5 ± 1.2) × 10(-6)/s; k(1) = 0.58 ± 0.1 /M/s, k(2) = (6.6 ± 0.2) × 10(4) /M(2)/s, k(3) = (4.8 ± 0.8) × 10(-4) /M/s]. In the Eu(3+) exchange, at pH DTPA-(Me-Trp)(2)] is more inert than GdDTPA(2-), the most commonly used MRI contrast agent (t(1/2) = 127 h). High kinetic stability is an important requirement for the Gd complexes used as contrast enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Investigation of KIF6 Trp719Arg in a case-control study of myocardial infarction: a Costa Rican population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance A Bare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: The 719Arg allele of KIF6 (rs20455 was associated with coronary events in Caucasian participants of five prospective studies. We investigated whether this KIF6 variant was associated with non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI in a case-control study of an admixed population from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Genotypes of the KIF6 variant were determined for 4,134 men and women. Cases (1,987 had survived a first MI; controls (2,147 had no history of MI and were matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. We tested the association between the KIF6 719Arg allele and non-fatal MI by conditional logistic regression and adjusted for admixture of founder populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared with the reference Trp/Trp homozygotes, KIF6 719Arg carriers were not at significantly higher risk for non-fatal MI in this study after adjustment for traditional risk factors or admixture (OR= 1.12; 95%CI, 0.98-1.28. Heterozygotes of the KIF6 Trp719Arg variant were at increased risk of non-fatal MI: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.34, but this association would not be significant after a multiple testing correction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that carriers of the KIF6 719Arg allele were not at increased risk of non-fatal MI in a case-control study of Costa Ricans living in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  9. Alphavirus replicon particles expressing TRP-2 provide potent therapeutic effect on melanoma through activation of humoral and cellular immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Avogadri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and is refractory to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore alternative approaches to treat this disease, such as immunotherapy, are needed. Melanoma vaccine design has mainly focused on targeting CD8+ T cells. Activation of effector CD8+ T cells has been achieved in patients, but provided limited clinical benefit, due to immune-escape mechanisms established by advanced tumors. We have previously shown that alphavirus-based virus-like replicon particles (VRP simultaneously activate strong cellular and humoral immunity against the weakly immunogenic melanoma differentiation antigen (MDA tyrosinase. Here we further investigate the antitumor effect and the immune mechanisms of VRP encoding different MDAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VRP encoding different MDAs were screened for their ability to prevent the growth of the B16 mouse transplantable melanoma. The immunologic mechanisms of efficacy were investigated for the most effective vaccine identified, focusing on CD8+ T cells and humoral responses. To this end, ex vivo immune assays and transgenic mice lacking specific immune effector functions were used. The studies identified a potent therapeutic VRP vaccine, encoding tyrosinase related protein 2 (TRP-2, which provided a durable anti-tumor effect. The efficacy of VRP-TRP2 relies on a novel immune mechanism of action requiring the activation of both IgG and CD8+ T cell effector responses, and depends on signaling through activating Fcγ receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies a VRP-based vaccine able to elicit humoral immunity against TRP-2, which plays a role in melanoma immunotherapy and synergizes with tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These findings will aid in the rational design of future immunotherapy clinical trials.

  10. Alphavirus replicon particles expressing TRP-2 provide potent therapeutic effect on melanoma through activation of humoral and cellular immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogadri, Francesca; Merghoub, Taha; Maughan, Maureen F; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Morris, John; Ritter, Erika; Olmsted, Robert; Houghton, Alan N; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2010-09-10

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and is refractory to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore alternative approaches to treat this disease, such as immunotherapy, are needed. Melanoma vaccine design has mainly focused on targeting CD8+ T cells. Activation of effector CD8+ T cells has been achieved in patients, but provided limited clinical benefit, due to immune-escape mechanisms established by advanced tumors. We have previously shown that alphavirus-based virus-like replicon particles (VRP) simultaneously activate strong cellular and humoral immunity against the weakly immunogenic melanoma differentiation antigen (MDA) tyrosinase. Here we further investigate the antitumor effect and the immune mechanisms of VRP encoding different MDAs. VRP encoding different MDAs were screened for their ability to prevent the growth of the B16 mouse transplantable melanoma. The immunologic mechanisms of efficacy were investigated for the most effective vaccine identified, focusing on CD8+ T cells and humoral responses. To this end, ex vivo immune assays and transgenic mice lacking specific immune effector functions were used. The studies identified a potent therapeutic VRP vaccine, encoding tyrosinase related protein 2 (TRP-2), which provided a durable anti-tumor effect. The efficacy of VRP-TRP2 relies on a novel immune mechanism of action requiring the activation of both IgG and CD8+ T cell effector responses, and depends on signaling through activating Fcγ receptors. This study identifies a VRP-based vaccine able to elicit humoral immunity against TRP-2, which plays a role in melanoma immunotherapy and synergizes with tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These findings will aid in the rational design of future immunotherapy clinical trials.

  11. 65 Years of Reprocessed GLDAS Version 2.0 Data and Their Exploration Using the NASA GES DISC Giovanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W.; Beaudoing, H.; Rodell, M.; Silberstein, D.

    2015-01-01

    GLDAS-2.0 data have been reprocessed with updated Princeton meteorological forcing data within the Land Information System (LIS) Version 7, and temporal coverage have been extended to 1948-2012.Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) has two components: GLDAS-2.0: entirely forced with the Princeton meteorological forcing data GLDAS-2.1: forced with atmospheric analysis and observation-based data after 2001In order to create more climatologically consistent data sets, NASA GSFC's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) has recently reprocessed the GLDAS-2.0, by using updated Princeton meteorological forcing data within the LIS Version 7.GLDAS-2.0 data and data services are provided at NASA GES DISC Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), in collaboration with HSL.

  12. HUPO Brain Proteome Project: summary of the pilot phase and introduction of a comprehensive data reprocessing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Michael; Apweiler, Rolf; Arnold, Georg; Becker, Albert; Blüggel, Martin; Carrette, Odile; Colvis, Christine; Dunn, Michael J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Fountoulakis, Michael; van Hall, André; Herberg, Friedrich; Ji, Jianguo; Ji, Juango; Kretzschmar, Hans; Lewczuk, Piotr; Lubec, Gert; Marcus, Katrin; Martens, Lennart; Palacios Bustamante, Nadine; Park, Young Mok; Pennington, Stephen R; Robben, Johan; Stühler, Kai; Reidegeld, Kai A; Riederer, Peter; Rossier, Jean; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Schrader, Michael; Stephan, Christian; Tagle, Danilo; Thiele, Herbert; Wang, Jing; Wiltfang, Jens; Yoo, Jong Shin; Zhang, Chenggang; Klose, Joachim; Meyer, Helmut E

    2006-09-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) initiated several projects focusing on the proteome analysis of distinct human organs. The Brain Proteome Project (BPP) is the initiative dedicated to the brain, its development and correlated diseases. Two pilot studies have been performed aiming at the comparison of techniques, laboratories and approaches. With the help of the results gained, objective data submission, storage and reprocessing workflow have been established. The biological relevance of the data will be drawn from the inter-laboratory comparisons as well as from the re-calculation of all data sets submitted by the different groups. In the following, results of the single groups as well as the centralised reprocessing effort will be summarised and compared, showing the added value of this concerted work.

  13. Costs of head-end incineration with respect to Kr separation in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Boehnert, R.

    1976-07-15

    The C-incinerations and the Kr-separations during head-end incineration in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements are described. The costs for constructing an operating a head-end incineration of reprocessing capacities with 5,000 to 50,000 MW(e)-HTR power have been determined. The cost estimates are divided into investment and operating costs, further after the fraction of the N/sub 2/-content in the incineration exhaust gas, which strongly affects costs. It appears that, in the case of Kr-separation from the incineration exhaust gas, the investment costs as well as the operating costs of the head-end for N/sub 2/-containing exhaust gas are considerably greater than those for gas without N/sub 2/. The C-incineration of the graphite of the HTR fuel elements should therefore only be performed with influx gas that is free of N/sub 2/.

  14. Expression of the Trp2 allele of COL9A2 is associated with alterations in the mechanical properties of human intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladin, Darwesh M K; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Chan, Danny; Yee, Anita F Y; Jim, Jeffrey J T; Luk, Keith D K; Lu, William W

    2007-12-01

    Biomechanical study into the association between genetic polymorphism in COL9A2 and mechanical properties of human nucleus pulposus. To examine whether there is an association between genetic polymorphism in a structural gene, and alterations in the mechanical properties of the intervertebral discs that may predispose to disc degeneration. Genetic studies have demonstrated that a polymorphism (Trp2 allele) in COL9A2 coding for alpha2 chain of collagen IX predisposes the individual to disc degeneration. The mechanism of this predisposition is not known. Blood and whole disc samples were retrieved from adolescents and young adults during scoliosis surgery, degenerated discs were retrieved from patients with back pain during anterior spinal fusion. Anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus from a set of the scoliosis discs were used to perform immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the presence of collagen IX in the scoliosis discs. For the remaining samples, DNA was extracted from blood to determine the Trp2 status by sequencing. Nondegenerated (Trp2-), nondegenerated (Trp2+), and degenerated (Trp2-) nucleus pulposus samples were tested in confined compression. Swelling pressure and compressive modulus were measured and compared between groups. Positive staining of collagen IX was detected in both anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus sections confirming its presence in the scoliosis discs. The mean swelling pressure and compressive modulus values of 6 nondegenerated (Trp2+) samples (swelling pressure = 0.0019 MPa, compressive modulus = 0.97 MPa) were significantly lower (P pressure = 0.015 MPa; compressive modulus = 1.89 MPa). This is the first study to demonstrate an association between the Trp2 allele and disc mechanics, thus relating genetic variations and debilitating mechanical alterations that may ultimately result in intervertebral disc degeneration.

  15. Análisis preliminar de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp en tortugas marinas

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey Infante-Rojas; Javier Hernández-Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente existen siete especies de tortugas marinas, todas amenazadas o en riesgo inminente de extinción. Los estudios con ADN mitocondrial han permitido hacer acercamientos sobre filogenia, evolución, rutas migratorias y centros de dispersión, además para la identificación de polimorfismos y haplotipos, siendo base para planes de manejo y conservación. El presente estudio representa la primera descripción comparada de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp mitocondrial en tortuga...

  16. Global Daily Sea Ice Concentration Reprocessing Data Set for 1978-2007 from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (NCEI Accession 0068294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data constitute the reprocessed sea ice concentration data set from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF), covering the...

  17. Comparison of GPS tropospheric delays derived from two consecutive EPN reprocessing campaigns from the point of view of climate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldysz, Zofia; Nykiel, Grzegorz; Araszkiewicz, Andrzej; Figurski, Mariusz; Szafranek, Karolina

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this research was to acquire information about consistency of ZTD (zenith total delay) linear trends and seasonal components between two consecutive GPS reprocessing campaigns. The analysis concerned two sets of the ZTD time series which were estimated during EUREF (Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Europe) EPN (Permanent Network) reprocessing campaigns according to 2008 and 2015 MUT AC (Military University of Technology Analysis Centre) scenarios. Firstly, Lomb-Scargle periodograms were generated for 57 EPN stations to obtain a characterisation of oscillations occurring in the ZTD time series. Then, the values of seasonal components and linear trends were estimated using the LSE (least squares estimation) approach. The Mann-Kendall trend test was also carried out to verify the presence of linear long-term ZTD changes. Finally, differences in seasonal signals and linear trends between these two data sets were investigated. All these analyses were conducted for the ZTD time series of two lengths: a shortened 16-year series and a full 18-year one. In the case of spectral analysis, amplitudes of the annual and semi-annual periods were almost exactly the same for both reprocessing campaigns. Exceptions were found for only a few stations and they did not exceed 1 mm. The estimated trends were also similar. However, for the reprocessing performed in 2008, the trends values were usually higher. In general, shortening of the analysed time period by 2 years resulted in a decrease of the linear trends values of about 0.07 mm yr-1. This was confirmed by analyses based on two data sets.

  18. 65 Years of Reprocessed GLDAS Version 2.0 Data and Their Exploration Using the NASA GES DISC Giovanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.; Silberstein, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) has two components: (1) GLDAS-2.0, entirely forced with the Princeton meteorological forcing data and (2) GLDAS-2.1, forced with a combination of model and observation-based data sets. GLDAS-2.0 data from the Noah model have been reprocessed in July 2015 with updated Princeton forcing data and upgraded Land Information System (LIS) software. The temporal coverage of GLDAS 2.0 is extended to 1948 ~ 2012. The reprocessed GLDAS-2.0 data are archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), in self-describing and machine-independent NetCDF format, and can be accessed via HTTP for direct download, OPeNDAP for parameter and spatial subsetting, time aggregation, and format conversion, and Giovanni - Interactive Visualization and Analysis System. The OPeNDAP subsetting is also integrated into Simple Subset Wizard (SSW) for better User Interface and better downloading capability. This presentation describes the main characteristics of GLDAS data, the major improvements of the reprocessed data, and the access to the data. To further facilitate their use, reprocessed GLDAS-2.0 data are integrated into Giovanni, where the data can be easily explored with 17 visualization types, such as Lat-Lon Map and Animation, Time Series, Scatter Plot, and Histogram. This presentation also showcases the main climatology characteristics of 65 years of GLDAS, derived with Giovanni's new capabilities in computing climatology for user-defined time range and visualizing in Lat-Lon Map and Time Series. GLDAS-2.1 is analogous to and will soon replace GLDAS Version 1 (GLDAS-1), covering the time period from 2001 (or 2000 for the 0.25 degree data) to the present, with about a one-month latency. The data are also in NetCDF format and can be accessed via HTTP, OPeNDAP, and Giovanni.

  19. Muon reconstruction efficiency in reprocessed 2010 LHC proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    This note presents measurements of the muon reconstruction and isolation efficiencies based on an analysis of Z->μ+μ- decays in 40 pb-1 of sqrt(s)=7 TeV proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector in 2010. The data entering the analysis were reprocessed with an optimized ATLAS reconstruction software and improved detector calibration and alignment constants.

  20. Dissociation predicts treatment response in eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-01-01

    Using clinical data from a specialized trauma clinic, this study investigated pretreatment clinical factors predicting response to eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) among adult patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were evaluated using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale before treatment and were reassessed using the CAPS after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 69 patients underwent an average of 4 sessions of EMDR, and 60 (87%) completed the posttreatment evaluation, including 8 participants who terminated treatment prematurely. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that 39 (65%) of the 60 patients were classified as responders and 21 (35%) as nonresponders when response was defined as more than a 30% decrease in total CAPS score. The nonresponders had higher levels of dissociation (depersonalization and derealization) and numbing symptoms, but other PTSD symptoms, such as avoidance, hyperarousal, and intrusion, were not significantly different. The number of psychiatric comorbidities was also associated with treatment nonresponse. The final logistic regression model yielded 2 significant variables: dissociation (p < .001) and more than 2 comorbidities compared to none (p < .05). These results indicate that complex symptom patterns in PTSD may predict treatment response and support the inclusion of the dissociative subtype of PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

  1. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in addiction continuing care: a phenomenological study of women in recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marich, Jamie

    2010-09-01

    Traditional models of addiction treatment and relapse prevention fail to consider the role that unresolved trauma plays in an addicted woman's recovery experience. Implementing Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) into the treatment process offers a potential solution to this problem. Ten women (alumnae of an extended-care treatment facility) participated in a semistandardized interview to share their experiences with active addiction, treatment, EMDR therapy, and recovery. With the use of A. P. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological psychological method for analysis, four major thematic areas emerged from the interview data: the existence of safety as an essential crucible of the EMDR experience, the importance of accessing the emotional core as vital to the recovery experience, the role of perspective shift in lifestyle change, and the use of a combination of factors for successful treatment. All 10 women, to some degree, credited EMDR treatment as a crucial component of their addiction continuing-care processes, especially in helping with emotional core access and perspective shift. Implications emerge from the data on how to best implement EMDR into a comprehensive addiction treatment program.

  2. An integrative model for the neural mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. Coubard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, twenty-six years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR in anxiety disorders, particularly in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release – TIMER-RIDER – model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  3. The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing procedure prevents defensive processing in health persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a university sample (n = 124) listened to the persuasive message in a randomized laboratory experiment. In the EMDR condition, they were also instructed to follow with their eyes a dot on the computer screen. The dot constantly moved from one side of the screen to the other in 2 seconds. In addition, a self-affirmation procedure was applied in half of the participants. EMDR led to a significant increase in persuasion, only in recipients in whom the persuasive message could be expected to activate defensive self-regulation (in participants with a moderate health value and in participants with low self-esteem). In those with a moderate health value, EMDR increased persuasion, but only when recipients were not affirmed. In addition, EMDR increased persuasion only in recipients with low self-esteem, not in those with high self-esteem. These results showed that EMDR influenced persuasion and in some way lowered defensive reactions. The similarities and differences in effects of EMDR and self-affirmation further increased our insight into the psychology of defensiveness.

  4. Hemodynamic responses of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Ohta ni, Toshiyuki; Matsuo, Koji; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Tadafumi; Kato, Nobumasa

    2009-12-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective psychological intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma-related recall (Recall) with eye movements (EMs) is thought to reduce distress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. Thirteen patients with PTSD received EMDR treatment over the course of 2-10 weeks. We assessed the change in hemoglobin concentration in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during Recall with and without EM using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Clinical diagnosis and improvement were evaluated using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Recall with EM was associated with a significant decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) in the lateral PFC as compared with Recall without EM. Longitudinally, [oxy-Hb] during Recall significantly decreased and the amount of decrease was significantly correlated with clinical improvement when the post-treatment data was compared with that of the pre-treatment. Our results suggest that performing EM during Recall reduces the over-activity of the lateral PFC, which may be part of the biological basis for the efficacy of EMDR in PTSD. NIRS may be a useful tool for objective assessment of psychological intervention in PTSD.

  5. Neurophysiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing sessions: preliminary evidence for traumatic memories integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria I; Castelli Gattinara, Paola; Onofri, Antonio; Lepore, Marta; Brunetti, Riccardo; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the potential role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in enhancing the integration of traumatic memories by measuring EEG coherence, power spectra and autonomic variables before (pre-EMDR) and after (post-EMDR) EMDR sessions during the recall of patient's traumatic memory. Thirteen EMDR sessions of six patients with post-traumatic stress disorder were recorded. EEG analyses were conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra, EEG coherence and heart rate variability (HRV) were compared between pre- and post-EMDR sessions. After EMDR, we observed a significant increase of alpha power in the left inferior temporal gyrus (T = 3.879; P = 0.041) and an increased EEG coherence in beta band between C3 and T5 electrodes (T = 6.358; P EMDR sessions was also observed (pre-EMDR: 6.38 ± 6.83; post-EMDR: 2.46 ± 2.95; U-Test = 45, P = 0.043). Finally, the values of lagged coherence were negatively associated with subjective units of disturbance (r(24) = -0.44, P EMDR leads to an integration of dissociated aspects of traumatic memories and, consequently, a decrease of hyperarousal symptoms [Correction made here after initial publication].

  6. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, Olivier A

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, 26 years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release (TIMER-RIDER)-model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i) activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii) bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  7. Methodological Aspects of Cognitive Rehabilitation with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghi, Afsaneh; Zali, Alireza; Tehranidost, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes' spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  8. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating psychological disturbances in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling

    2015-07-01

    In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the intervention effects of four-session eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot. A total of 83 adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder related to Typhoon Morakot, major depressive disorder, or current moderate or high suicide risk after experiencing Typhoon Morakot were allocated to a four-session course of EMDR (N = 41) or to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 42). A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effects of EMDR in reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents by using preintervention severity values as covariates. The multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated that the EMDR group exhibited significantly lower preintervention severity values of general anxiety and depression than did the TAU group. In addition, the preintervention severity value of disaster-related anxiety in the EMDR group was lower than that in the TAU group (p = 0.05). The results of this study support that EMDR could alleviate general anxiety and depressive symptoms and reduce disaster-related anxiety in adolescents experiencing major traumatic disasters.

  9. Is peracetic acid suitable for the cleaning step of reprocessing flexible endoscopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Fliss, Patricia M; Martiny, Heike

    2014-09-16

    The bioburden (blood, protein, pathogens and biofilm) on flexible endoscopes after use is often high and its removal is essential to allow effective disinfection, especially in the case of peracetic acid-based disinfectants, which are easily inactivated by organic material. Cleaning processes using conventional cleaners remove a variable but often sufficient amount of the bioburden. Some formulations based on peracetic acid are recommended by manufacturers for the cleaning step. We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the available evidence to clarify the suitability of peracetic acid-based formulations for cleaning flexible endoscopes. A total of 243 studies were evaluated. No studies have yet demonstrated that peracetic acid-based cleaners are as effective as conventional cleaners. Some peracetic acid-based formulations have demonstrated some biofilm-cleaning effects and no biofilm-fixation potential, while others have a limited cleaning effect and a clear biofilm-fixation potential. All published data demonstrated a limited blood cleaning effect and a substantial blood and nerve tissue fixation potential of peracetic acid. No evidence-based guidelines on reprocessing flexible endoscopes currently recommend using cleaners containing peracetic acid, but some guidelines clearly recommend not using them because of their fixation potential. Evidence from some outbreaks, especially those involving highly multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens, indicated that disinfection using peracetic acid may be insufficient if the preceding cleaning step is not performed adequately. Based on this review we conclude that peracetic acid-based formulations should not be used for cleaning flexible endoscopes.

  10. Physical Structure and Dust Reprocessing in a sample of HH Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Podio, L; Bacciotti, F; Eislöffel, J; Ray, T P

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the physical structure and dust reprocessing in the shocks along the beam of a number of classical Herbig-Haro jets in the Orion and Lupus molecular cloud. Spectral diagnostic techniques are applied to obtain the jet physical conditions from the ratios between selected forbidden lines. The presence of dust grains is investigated by estimating the gas-phase abundance of calcium with respect to its Solar value. We find the electron density, ne, varies between 0.05-4 10^3 cm^-3, the ionisation fraction, xe, is 0.01-0.7, the temperature, te, ranges between 0.6-3 10^4 K, and the hydrogen density between 0.01-6 10^4 cm^-3. Interestingly, in the HH 111 jet, ne, xe, and te, peak in the High Velocity Interval (HVI) of the strongest working surfaces, confirming the prediction from shocks models. Calcium turns out to be depleted with respect to its Solar value, but its gas-phase abundance is higher than that estimated in the interstellar medium in Orion. The depletion is high (up to 80%) along the low-exc...

  11. Reprocessed emission line profiles from dense clouds in geometrically thick accretion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, S A; Hartnoll, Sean A.

    2000-01-01

    The central engines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) contain cold, dense material as well as hot X-ray emitting gas. The standard paradigm for the engine geometry is a cold thin disc sandwiched between hot X-ray coronae. Strong support for this geometry in Seyferts comes from the study of fluorescent iron line profiles, although the evidence is not ubiquitously air tight. The thin disc model of line profiles in AGN and in X-ray binaries should be bench marked against other plausible possibilities. One proposed alternative is an engine consisting of dense clouds embedded in an optically thin, geometrically thick X-ray emitting engine. This model is further motivated by studies of geometrically thick engines such as advection dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). Here we compute the reprocessed iron line profiles from dense clouds embedded in geometrically thick, optically thin X-ray emitting discs near a Schwarzchild black hole. We consider a range of cloud distributions and disc solutions, including ADAFs, pure r...

  12. A Reprocessing Model for Complete Execution of RFID Access Operations on Tag Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wooseok Ryu; Bonghee Hong; Joonho Kwon; Ge Yu

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of inconsistent states of radio frequency identification (RFID) tag data caused by incomplete execution of read/write operations during access to RFID tag memory.Passive RFID tags require RF communication to access memory data.This study is motivated by the volatility of RF communication,where instability is caused by intermittent connections and uncertain communication.If a given tag disappears from the communication area of the reader during the reading or writing of tag data,the operation is incomplete,resulting in an inconsistent state of tag data.To avoid this inconsistency,it is necessary to ensure that any operations on tag memory are completed.In this paper,we propose an asynchronous reprocessing model for finalizing any incomplete execution of read/write operations to remove inconsistent states.The basic idea is to resume incomplete operations autonomously by detecting a tag's re-observation from any reader.To achieve this,we present a concurrency control mechanism based on continuous query processing that enables the suspended tag operations to be re-executed.The performance study shows that our model improves the number of successful operations considerably in addition to suppressing inconsistent data access completely.

  13. Rapid Large Scale Reprocessing of the ODI Archive using the QuickReduce Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopu, A.; Kotulla, R.; Young, M. D.; Hayashi, S.; Harbeck, D.; Liu, W.; Henschel, R.

    2015-09-01

    The traditional model of astronomers collecting their observations as raw instrument data is being increasingly replaced by astronomical observatories serving standard calibrated data products to observers and to the public at large once proprietary restrictions are lifted. For this model to be effective, observatories need the ability to periodically re-calibrate archival data products as improved master calibration products or pipeline improvements become available, and also to allow users to rapidly calibrate their data on-the-fly. Traditional astronomy pipelines are heavily I/O dependent and do not scale with increasing data volumes. In this paper, we present the One Degree Imager - Portal, Pipeline and Archive (ODI-PPA) calibration pipeline framework which integrates the efficient and parallelized QuickReduce pipeline to enable a large number of simultaneous, parallel data reduction jobs - initiated by operators AND/OR users - while also ensuring rapid processing times and full data provenance. Our integrated pipeline system allows re-processing of the entire ODI archive (˜15,000 raw science frames, ˜3.0 TB compressed) within ˜18 hours using twelve 32-core compute nodes on the Big Red II supercomputer. Our flexible, fast, easy to operate, and highly scalable framework improves access to ODI data, in particular when data rates double with an upgraded focal plane (scheduled for 2015), and also serve as a template for future data processing infrastructure across the astronomical community and beyond.

  14. Use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of dermatologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2002-01-01

    The use of psychological therapies in dermatology is being increasingly recognized because stress and negative emotions are major factors in a wide range of dermatologic disorders. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a relatively new psychological intervention which was first described to be effective in post-traumatic stress disorder, a condition associated with extremely stressful life situations. We evaluated the efficacy of EMDR in primary dermatologic disorders where psychological stress plays an important part in the pathogenesis of the disorder, and in clinical situations where the dermatologic symptom is the feature of a stress-related psychiatric disorder. Four patients (two patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, respectively, whose symptoms were exacerbated by stress, one patient with acne excoríee associated with body image pathology as a result of childhood emotional abuse, and one patient with generalized urticaria associated with post-traumatic stress disorder) were treated using the standard EMDR protocol with 3-6 sessions for a period ranging from 4 to 12 weeks, and followed up for 6-12 months after the end of EMDR therapy. All 4 patients experienced a marked improvement in their symptoms after 3-6 sessions of EMDR, within a period of dermatologic symptoms.

  15. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  16. Assimilation of reprocessed ERS scatterometer data into ECMWF weather analysis on the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Crapolicchio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991 and ERS-2 in 1995, carrying a C-band Scatterometer, a data set of more than thirteen years of backscattered signal from the Earth surface is available for exploitation. With its global coverage, day or night and all-weather operation, ERS Scatterometer data offer unique opportunity for long-term studies and research. To fulfill the needs of the scientific community, the European Space Agency (ESA has developed the project: Advanced Scatterometer Processing System (ASPS. Main scope of the project is to provide with state-of-the-art algorithm, high quality and homogenous Scatterometer measurements (sigma nought of the Earth surface and high quality wind field over the Oceans by re-processing the entire ERS mission. Additional scope is to provide on experimental basis scientific products in high resolution tailored for the emerging Scatterometer application on Ice and Land. The ASPS project is now in a pre-operational phase and the scope of the paper is to give to the scientific community an overview of the ASPS data and show the assimilation of the data into the ECMWF weather analysis system. ASPS data hopefully will help the scientific community to better understand and monitor the Earth's climate changes and to protect our environment.

  17. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on the Emotion Regulation and Emotion Recognition of Addicted Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyla Meysami-Bonab

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy on the emotion regulation and emotion recognition of addicts with traumatic experience. Materials and Methods: This research is an experimental study with pre and post-test design and a control group. The subjects of this study were selected using random sampling method on drug addicts of Ardebil Addiction Treatment Camp who have successfully completed the detoxification period and they were evaluated in two different experimental (15 individuals and control (15 individuals groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 8 sessions (each one for 60 minutes and the control group received no special treatment. All participants filled a questionnaire of Emotion Regulation and Emotion Recognition at the onset of the research and 2 months after termination of treatment. For the data analysis, SPSS-17 software and covariance analysis were used.Results: The results of covariance analysis test indicated that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy intervention increased the average of positive emotion regulation and emotion recognition scores in the post-test phase and significantly reduced the average of negative emotion regulation scores.Conclusion: These results suggest that the treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective in improving regulation and recognition of emotions in addicts with traumatic experience.

  18. Effect of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Holographic Reprocessing on Reduction of Posttraumatic Cognitions in Students Exposed to Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz molavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: This research was conducted to examine the effect of cognitive processing therapy and holographic reprocessing on the reduction of posttraumatic cognitions in students exposed to trauma. "nMethod: This was an experimental study with spread pretest-posttest randomized groups design. Statistical society of this research consisted of male freshman, junior and senior high school students of Uremia (N=10286. Utilizing Traumatic Events Screening Inventory, and SCL-90 R on 1000 randomly selected high school students, 129 students were recognized as having experienced traumatic events. Of the subjects, 60 were selected randomly. Then, clinical interview was conducted, and the selected sample was randomly assigned in to three groups of cognitive processing therapy, holographic reprocessing and control. These groups responded to Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory in pretest and post test. Differences of pre-post test scores were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Scheffe test. "nResults: The results demonstrated significant differences between the three groups in total score of the Posttraumatic Cognition Inventory. Difference was also observed in negative cognitions on self and self-blame dimensions. Furthermore, these two therapeutic methods were equally effective in the reduction of posttraumatic cognitions.   "nConclusion: It appears that cognitive processing therapy and holographic reprocessing which had been originally developed and tested for sexually assaulted females, can also be applied for the victims of other traumatic events, particularly  adolescents.

  19. Evaluation of reprocessing medical devices in 14 German regional hospitals and at 27 medical practitioners‘ offices within the European context – consequences for European harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiede, Birgit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Safe reprocessing of medical devices through cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization is essential for the prevention of health care associated infections (HAI and to guarantee patient safety. Several studies detected residual contamination and even severe infections of patients, despite carrying out reprocessing. To develop appropriate solutions, the existing situation in Germany and selected European countries was analyzed. Additionally, in 27 medical practitioners’ offices and 14 hospitals, the true practice of reprocessing was analyzed using a questionnaire, a checklist, and inspection on site. A structured analysis of potential alternatives to the internal reprocessing was conducted within the German and European context. The results indicate that the conditions for the execution of the reprocessing process in the analyzed health facilities in southern Hesse (Germany do not satisfy legal requirements. The detected deficiencies were consistent with other reports from Germany and Europe. The analysis gave insight into several reasons for the detected deficiencies. The three main reasons were the high costs for proper implementation, the subjective value assigned to the reprocessing unit in health care facilities, and deficits in monitoring by the health authority. Throughout the European Union, a similar regulatory framework for the performance of the reprocessing process exists, while the environment, structures of the health systems and administrative supervision vary significantly. The German states as well as selected European countries are currently discussing the challenges of increased quality-assured execution of the reprocessing process. For instance, the same supervisory system for hospitals and medical practitioners should be established at an equal standard. Alternatives such as the use of single-use medical devices, outsourcing the decontamination processes, or the cooperation of health facilities may be considered

  20. Role of Non-Active-Site Residue Trp-93 in the Function and Stability of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, M. Tabish

    2015-01-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is expressed by various members of Enterobacteriaceae as a defense mechanism to hydrolyze β-lactam antibiotics. Despite various studies showing the significance of active-site residues in the catalytic mechanism, there is a paucity of reports addressing the role of non-active-site residues in the structure and function of NDM-1. In this study, we investigated the significance of non-active-site residue Trp-93 in the structure and function of NDM-1. We cloned blaNDM-1 from an Enterobacter cloacae clinical strain (EC-15) and introduced the mutation of Trp-93 to Ala (yielding the Trp93Ala mutant) by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis. Proteins were expressed and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The MICs of the Trp93Ala mutant were reduced 4- to 8-fold for ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, imipenem, and meropenem. The poor hydrolytic activity of the Trp93Ala mutant was also reflected by its reduced catalytic efficiency. The overall catalytic efficiency of the Trp93Ala mutant was reduced by 40 to 55% (the Km was reduced, while the kcat was similar to that of wild-type NDM-1 [wtNDM-1]). Heat-induced denaturation showed that the ΔGDo and Tm of Trp93Ala mutant were reduced by 1.8 kcal/mol and 4.8°C, respectively. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that the α-helical content of the Trp93Ala mutant was reduced by 2.9%. The decrease in stability and catalytic efficiency of the Trp93Ala mutant was due to the loss of two hydrogen bonds with Ser-63 and Val-73 and hydrophobic interactions with Leu-65, Val-73, Gln-123, and Asp-124. The study provided insight into the role of non-active-site amino acid residues in the hydrolytic mechanism of NDM-1. PMID:26525789

  1. Expression of the wild-type and the Cys-/Trp-less alpha 3 beta 3 gamma complex of thermophilic F1-ATPase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T; Yoshida, M

    1995-09-12

    The alpha, beta and gamma subunits of F1-ATPase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 were expressed in Escherichia coli cells simultaneously in large amounts. Most of the expressed subunits assembled into a form of alpha 3 beta 3 gamma complex in E. coli cells and this complex was easily purified to homogeneity. The recombinant alpha 3 beta 3 gamma complex thus obtained showed similar enzymatic properties to the alpha 3 beta 3 gamma complex obtained by in vitro reconstitution from individual subunits (Yokoyama, K. et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 21837-21841) except that the former had several-fold higher ATPase activity than the latter. Using this expression system, a mutant alpha 3 beta 3 gamma complex with no Trp and Cys was generated by replacing alpha Cys193 and alpha Trp463 with Ser and Phe, respectively. This mutant complex was functionally intact, indicating both residues are not essential for catalysis. The Cys-/Trp-less complex is a convenient 'second wild type' enzyme from which one can generate mutants with Trp (as a fluorescent probe) or Cys (as an acceptor of a variety of probes) at desired positions without concern for 'background' Trp and Cys residues.

  2. Noncontact dipole effects on channel permeation. I. Experiments with (5F-indole)Trp13 gramicidin A channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busath, D D; Thulin, C D; Hendershot, R W; Phillips, L R; Maughan, P; Cole, C D; Bingham, N C; Morrison, S; Baird, L C; Hendershot, R J; Cotten, M; Cross, T A

    1998-12-01

    Gramicidin A (gA), with four Trp residues per monomer, has an increased conductance compared to its Phe replacement analogs. When the dipole moment of the Trp13 side chain is increased by fluorination at indole position 5 (FgA), the conductance is expected to increase further. gA and FgA conductances to Na+, K+, and H+ were measured in planar diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) or glycerylmonoolein (GMO) bilayers. In DPhPC bilayers, Na+ and K+ conductances increased upon fluorination, whereas in GMO they decreased. The low ratio in the monoglyceride bilayer was not reversed in GMO-ether bilayers, solvent-inflated or -deflated bilayers, or variable fatty acid chain monoglyceride bilayers. In both GMO and DPhPC bilayers, fluorination decreased conductance to H+ but increased conductance in the mixed solution, 1 M KCl at pH 2.0, where K+ dominates conduction. Eadie-Hofstee plot slopes suggest similar destabilization of K+ binding in both lipids. Channel lifetimes were not affected by fluorination in either lipid. These observations indicate that fluorination does not change the rotameric conformation of the side chain. The expected difference in the rate-limiting step for transport through channels in the two bilayers qualitatively explains all of the above trends.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products by solvent extraction using a mixture of tributyl phosphate in an organic diluent. Purex... denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and treatment of fission... plutonium oxide conversion systems. Complete systems especially designed or prepared for the conversion...

  4. The effect of eye movement and desensitization by reprocessing on depression in adolescents with Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnavazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common genetic diseases in the world and especially in our country. For many reasons, including chronic disease, health care costs, fear of early death, disease statues led to Depression, psychological and social problems in thalassemia patients. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and processing efficiency of this method and to decreasing the Depression of children with thalassemia. Method: This study was a clinical trial. 60 thalassemic patients aged 20-12 years were randomly assigned to two groups. Demographic questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were used to collection of data. The trial of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in 3 sessions on alternate days for 45 to 30 minutes after. Depression before and after the intervention were measured velocity. An analysis by descriptive statistics, t-test and paired t-test, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests Non parameter equal to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed. Results: This study shows that the mean or average level of Depression children with thalassemia before implementing EMDR therapy group27/73±3/52 was After doing EMDR therapy to 17/80±2/36 was Which is greatly reduced compared to pre-intervention and the results were statistically significant(P0<001. The result showed that EMDR has main full effect on decreasing the symptoms of Depression. Conclusion: The result showed that EMDR can useful through having the influence on integration information processing an effective method to treat or reduce Depression children with thalassemia.

  5. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  6. NASADEM Initial Production Processing Results: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Reprocessing with Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Crippen, R. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-12-01

    NASADEM is a significant modernization of SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program. We are reprocessing the raw radar signal data using improved algorithms and incorporating ICESat and DEM data unavailable during the original processing. The NASADEM products will be freely-available through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) at one-arcsecond spacing and delivered by continent: North America, South America, Australia, Eurasia, Africa, and Island Groups. We are in the production phase of the project. This involves radar interferometry (InSAR) processing on thousands of radar datatakes. New phase unwrapping and height ripple error correction (HREC) procedures are applied to the data. The resulting strip DEMs and ancillary information are passed to a back-end processor to create DEM mosaics and new geocoded single-swath products. Manual data quality assessment (QA) and fixes are performed at several steps in the processing chain. Post-production DEM void-filling is described in a companion AGU Fall Meeting presentation. The team completed the InSAR processing for all continents and the manual QA of the strip DEMs for more than half the world. North America strip DEM void areas are reduced by more than 50%. The ICESat data is used for height ripple error correction and as control for continent-scale adjustment of the strip DEMs. These ripples are due to uncompensated mast motion most pronounced after Shuttle roll angle adjustment maneuvers. After an initial assessment of the NASADEM production processing for the Americas, we further refined the selection of ICESat data for control by excluded data over glaciers, snow cover, forest clear cuts, and sloped areas. The HREC algorithm reduces the North America ICESat-SRTM bias from 80 cm to 3 cm and the RMS from 5m to 4m.

  7. Glass ceramics containment matrix for insoluble residues coming from spent fuel reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, O.; Boën, R.

    2014-04-01

    Spent fuel reprocessing by hydrometallurgical process generates insoluble residues waste streams called fines solution. Considering their radioactivity, fines solution could be considered as Intermediate Level Waste. This waste stream is usually mixed with fission products stream before vitrification. Thus fines are incorporated in glass matrix designed for High Level Waste. The withdrawal of fines from high level glass could decrease the volume of high level waste after conditioning. It could also decrease the reaction time between high level waste and additives to obtain a homogeneous melt and then increase the vitrification process capacity. Separated conditioning of fines in glass matrices has been tested. The fines content targeted value is 16 wt%. To achieve this objective, two types of glass ceramic formulations have been tested. 700 g of the two selected glass ceramics have been prepared using simulated fines. Additives used were ground glass. Melting is achieved at 1100 °C. According to the type of glass ceramic, reducing or oxidizing conditions have been performed during melting. Due to their composition and the melting redox conditions, different phases have been observed. These crystalline phases are typically RuO2, metallic Ru, metallic Pd, MoO2 and CaMoO4. In view of melting these matrices in an in can process the corrosiveness of one of the most oxidizing borosilicate glass ceramic formulation has been tested. This one has been remelted at 1100 °C in inconel 601 pot for 3 days. The oxygen fugacity measurement performed in the remelted glass leads to an oxidizing value, indicating that no significant reaction occurred between the inconel pot and the glass melt had occurred.

  8. Reprocessing of dental instruments in washer-disinfectors: does a representative test soil exist in dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Alexander; Bristela, Margit; Stauffer, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Reprocessing of medical devices, being classified as semi-critical B is recommended to be performed in a washer-disinfector. In order to estimate, whether the expected contaminants of the various medical disciplines can be effectively removed by this washer-disinfector, different so called "test soils" have been proposed to be tested as a marker of cleaning efficacy of the disinfector. Todays described test soils are optimised for the testing of contaminations occurring in surgical procedures, but not for dental procedures. In this study the test soils being proposed in the EN 15883-5 (e.g. KMNE soil, recipe by Koller and coagulated sheep's blood) were compared with 8 reference substances used in the conservative-prosthetic dental practice. The success of the cleaning efficacy in the washer-disinfector was checked visually and by determining the residual protein concentration on the contaminated instruments after the cleaning procedure. It could be shown that in contrast to the proposed test soils of the EN 15883-5, the used reference substances of the dental practice could not be removed by the washer-disinfector. Removal of these reference substances was only possible after manual or ultrasonic cleaning. Since blood plays a subordinate role as a contaminant of instruments during conservative-prosthetic dental treatments, testing of the cleaning efficacy of the washer-disinfector with test soils according to the proposals of the EN 15883-5 is not representative in this discipline of dentistry. Most of the materials used in dental practice can only be removed manually or with the help of the ultrasound bath.

  9. Advances in research of the effects of menthol on TRP channels%薄荷醇影响TRP通道的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄钊; 王晖

    2011-01-01

    In recent years it has been discovered that there is a close connection between menthol and the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, including TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPM8 and TRPA1. This review attempts to summarize the advances in research of the effects of menthol on the TRP channels regulating the intracellular calcium ion.%近年来,国内外学者在薄荷醇影响钙离子通道的研究中发现,其与瞬时感受器电位(TRP)通道有着密切的关系,其中包括TRPV1、TRPV3、TRPM8和TRPA1.本文对近年来薄荷醇参与细胞内Ca2+调节的TRP通道的相关研究进行综述.

  10. TrpM, a Small Protein Modulating Tryptophan Biosynthesis and Morpho-Physiological Differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzotto, Emilia; Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Giardina, Anna; Sutera, Alberto; Silva, Joohee; Vocat, Celinè; Botta, Luigi; Scaloni, Andrea; Puglia, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), small open reading frames encoding proteins with unknown functions were identified in several amino acid biosynthetic gene operons, such as SCO2038 (trpX) in the tryptophan trpCXBA locus. In this study, the role of the corresponding protein in tryptophan biosynthesis was investigated by combining phenotypic and molecular analyses. The 2038KO mutant strain was characterized by delayed growth, smaller aerial hyphae and reduced production of spores and actinorhodin antibiotic, with respect to the WT strain. The capability of this mutant to grow on minimal medium was rescued by tryptophan and tryptophan precursor (serine and/or indole) supplementation on minimal medium and by gene complementation, revealing the essential role of this protein, here named TrpM, as modulator of tryptophan biosynthesis. His-tag pull-down and bacterial adenylate cyclase-based two hybrid assays revealed TrpM interaction with a putative leucyl-aminopeptidase (PepA), highly conserved component among various Streptomyces spp. In silico analyses showed that PepA is involved in the metabolism of serine, glycine and cysteine through a network including GlyA, CysK and CysM enzymes. Proteomic experiments suggested a TrpM-dependent regulation of metabolic pathways and cellular processes that includes enzymes such as GlyA, which is required for the biosynthesis of tryptophan precursors and key proteins participating in the morpho-physiological differentiation program. Altogether, these findings reveal that TrpM controls tryptophan biosynthesis at the level of direct precursor availability and, therefore, it is able to exert a crucial effect on the morpho-physiological differentiation program in S. coelicolor A3(2). PMID:27669158

  11. Identification of a Residue (Glu60) in TRAP Required for Inducing Efficient Transcription Termination at the trp Attenuator Independent of Binding Tryptophan and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Natalie M; Patterson, Andrea; Gollnick, Paul

    2017-03-15

    Transcription of the tryptophan (trp) operon in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by an attenuation mechanism. Attenuation is controlled by the trpRNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP). TRAP binds to a site in the 5' leader region of the nascent trp transcript in response to the presence of excess intracellular tryptophan. This binding induces transcription termination upstream of the structural genes of the operon. In prior attenuation models, the role of TRAP was only to alter the secondary structure of the leader region RNA so as to promote formation of the trp attenuator, which was presumed to function as an intrinsic terminator. However, formation of the attenuator alone has been shown to be insufficient to induce efficient termination, indicating that TRAP plays an additional role in this process. To further examine the function of TRAP, we performed a genetic selection for mutant TRAPs that bind tryptophan and RNA but show diminished termination at the trp attenuator. Five such TRAP mutants were obtained. Four of these have substitutions at Glu60, three of which are Lys (E60K) substitutions and the fourth of which is a Val (E60V) substitution. The fifth mutant obtained contains a substitution at Ile63, which is on the same β-strand of TRAP as Glu60. Purified E60K TRAP binds tryptophan and RNA with properties similar to those of the wild type but is defective at inducing termination at the trp attenuator in vitroIMPORTANCE Prior models for attenuation control of the B. subtilis trp operon suggested that the only role for TRAP is to bind to the leader region RNA and alter its folding to induce formation of an intrinsic terminator. However, several recent studies suggested that TRAP plays an additional role in the termination mechanism. We hypothesized that this function could involve residues in TRAP other than those required to bind tryptophan and RNA. Here we obtained TRAP mutants with alterations at Glu60 that are deficient at inducing termination in the

  12. 一种解决小型终端手机天线的人头人手OTA指标(TRP&TIS)的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴诚君

    2011-01-01

    1.更改天线馈地点位置 2.天线下方PCB板上增加地 3.利用最小面积调试天线 本专利申请的名称: 一种解决小型终端手机天线的人头人手OTA指标(TRP&TIS)的方法 要解决的技术问题是什么: 本发明:1.解决了手机天线的人头人手指标(TRP&TIS),满足TRP和TIS指标。

  13. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing light-water reactor fuel. [Radiation dose commitment to human populations from radioactive effluents released to environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, B.C.; Blanco, R.E.; Dahlman, R.C.; Hill, G.S.; Kitts, F.G.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-10-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which processes light-water reactor (LWR) fuels, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of current plant technology and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of LWR fuel. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases is in an early stage of development and is not suitable for immediate use. The methodology used in estimating the costs, and the radiological doses, detailed calculations, and tabulations are presented in Appendix A and ORNL-4992. This report is a revision of the original study (ORNL/TM-4901).

  14. Microbiological evaluation of different reprocessing methods for cuffed and un-cuffed tracheostomy tubes in home-care and hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhard, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manufacturers’ recommendations on cleaning of tracheostomy tubes focus on general warning information and non-specific manual cleaning procedures. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate different reprocessing methods and to determine the mechanical integrity and functionality of tracheostomy tubes following reprocessing.Methods: Sixteen cuffed or un-cuffed tracheostomy tubes obtained from hospital in-patients were reprocessed using one of the following reprocessing methods: a manual brushing and rinsing with tap water, brushing followed by disinfection with a glutaraldehyde solution, c manual brushing followed machine-based cleaning in a dishwasher, and d manual brushing followed by ultrasound cleaning in a commercially available ultrasound device. Microbial burden of the tubes before and after reprocessing was assessed by measurement of microbial colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL of rinsing fluid. After cleaning, tracheostomy tubes were investigated for loss of functionality. Findings: Manual brushing and rinsing with tap water reduced microbial colonization in average by 10 CFU/mL, but with poor reproducibility and reliability. Complete microbial reduction was achieved only with additional chemical or machine-based thermal disinfection. Ultrasound sonification yielded no further microbial reduction after manual brushing. Conclusion: Manual brushing alone will not result in complete eradication of microorganism colonising cuffed or un-cuffed tracheostomy tubes. However, manual cleaning followed by chemical or thermal disinfection may be regarded as safe and reproducible reprocessing method. If a machine-based reprocessing method is used for cuffed tubes, the cuffs’ ventilation hose must be secured in a safe position prior to thermal disinfection.

  15. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing on Anxiety in Children with Thalassemia in a 12-month follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shahnavazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and  Objective: Thalassemia is the most common genetic diseases in the world and especially in our country. For many reasons, including chronic disease, health care costs, the expected mortality Ray disease states such as anxiety, psychological and social problems in thalassemia. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR on anxiety of children with thalassemia in a 12-month follow up..  Methods: It was a clinical trial study, which was performed on 60 patients with Thalassemia in 2013-2014. A total of 60 thalassemic patients based on Beck anxiety inventory, selected using sampling and were randomly divided into experimental and Control groups. in experimental group, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy was perfomed in five sessions and The control group received no intervention. In order to collect information on demographic questionnaire and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. data were gathered on anxiety symptoms at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12 month follow up and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, repeated measures and chi square. Results: The average age of the participants was 15.22±1.93  years old. This study shows that the mean or average level of anxiety children with thalassemia in the experimental group before and after intervention and in a 12-month follow up group 34.73 ± 5.62, 19.90 ± 2.48 and 19.23 ± 2.48 respectively; repeated measures ANOVA showed significant statistical difference (p.05 Conclusion: This study shows that Method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as an alternative method to treat or reduce anxiety, aggressive children with thalassemia .Trained Nurses can use this new method is effective in the treatment of anxiety.

  16. Endo-lysosomal TRP mucolipin-1 channels trigger global ER Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Bethan S.; Yates, Elizabeth; Grimm, Christian; Schapira, Anthony H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transient receptor potential (TRP) mucolipins (TRPMLs), encoded by the MCOLN genes, are patho-physiologically relevant endo-lysosomal ion channels crucial for membrane trafficking. Several lines of evidence suggest that TRPMLs mediate localised Ca2+ release but their role in Ca2+ signalling is not clear. Here, we show that activation of endogenous and recombinant TRPMLs with synthetic agonists evoked global Ca2+ signals in human cells. These signals were blocked by a dominant-negative TRPML1 construct and a TRPML antagonist. We further show that, despite a predominant lysosomal localisation, TRPML1 supports both Ca2+ release and Ca2+ entry. Ca2+ release required lysosomal and ER Ca2+ stores suggesting that TRPMLs, like other endo-lysosomal Ca2+ channels, are capable of ‘chatter’ with ER Ca2+ channels. Our data identify new modalities for TRPML1 action. PMID:27577094

  17. Treatment of PTSD by eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) improves sleep quality, quality of life, and perception of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, Mara Regina; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2006-07-01

    The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the sleep of patients is widely reported. However, the parameters that can be altered are not the same for all patients. Some studies report an impairment of sleep maintenance and recurrent nightmares, while others failed to find such alterations. Among the many treatments, the eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapy used specifically to treat PTSD and general trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EMDR treatment can improve PTSD symptoms, such as sleep, depression, anxiety, and poor quality of life.

  18. Nondestructive, energy-dispersive, x-ray fluorescence analysis of actinide stream concentrations from reprocessed nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.C.; Ruhter, W.D.

    1979-06-27

    In one plan for reprocessing LWR spent fuel, after separation from fission products and transplutonics, part of the U and all of the Pu in a nitrate solution will form a coprocessed stream which is then evaporated and sent to a hold tank for accounting. The remaining U fraction will be purified and sent to a separate storage tank. These two streams can be monitored using x-ray fluorescence analysis. This report discusses equipment, spectra, cell calibration, and dynamic concentration measurements. 7 figures. (DLC)

  19. Between innovation and tradition: the paradoxical relationship between eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Debra; Rousseau, Cécile; Lacroix, Louise

    2004-03-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a relatively new form of psychotherapy to emerge in the West. Using both a case analysis and literature review we situate EMDR within the use of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) in psychological healing practices across times and cultures. We discuss EMDR's unique predicament as a therapy that draws upon techniques common to most therapeutic ASCs, while at the same time distancing itself from this tradition through its pseudoscientific language and technologic aesthetic. Our conclusion attempts to shed light on this paradox and raise questions for further study.

  20. Characterization and simulation of soft gamma-ray mirrors for their use with spent fuel rods at reprocessing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, J; Descalle, M A; Alameda, J B; Brejnholt, N F; Chichester, D L; Decker, T A; Fernandez-Perea, M; Hill, R M; Kisner, R A; Melin, A M; Patton, B W; Soufli, R; Trellue, H; Watson, S M; Ziock, K P; Pivovaroff, M J

    2016-06-01

    The use of a grazing incidence optic to selectively reflect K-shell fluorescence emission and isotope-specific lines from special nuclear materials is a highly desirable nondestructive analysis method for use in reprocessing fuel environments. Preliminary measurements have been performed, and a simulation suite has been developed to give insight into the design of the x ray optics system as a function of the source emission, multilayer coating characteristics, and general experimental configurations. The experimental results are compared to the predictions from our simulation toolkit to illustrate the ray-tracing capability and explore the effect of modified optics in future measurement campaigns.