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Sample records for representational similarity analysis

  1. A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Nili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA, which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the distance matrix of the response patterns elicited by a set of stimuli. The representational distance matrix encapsulates what distinctions between stimuli are emphasized and what distinctions are de-emphasized in the representation. A model is tested by comparing the representational distance matrix it predicts to that of a measured brain region. RSA also enables us to compare representations between stages of processing within a given brain or model, between brain and behavioral data, and between individuals and species. Here, we introduce a Matlab toolbox for RSA. The toolbox supports an analysis approach that is simultaneously data- and hypothesis-driven. It is designed to help integrate a wide range of computational models into the analysis of multichannel brain-activity measurements as provided by modern functional imaging and neuronal recording techniques. Tools for visualization and inference enable the user to relate sets of models to sets of brain regions and to statistically test and compare the models using nonparametric inference methods. The toolbox supports searchlight-based RSA, to continuously map a measured brain volume in search of a neuronal population code with a specific geometry. Finally, we introduce the linear-discriminant t value as a measure of representational discriminability that bridges the gap between linear decoding analyses and RSA. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the toolbox, we apply it to both simulated and real fMRI data. The key functions are equally applicable to other modalities of brain-activity measurement. The

  2. Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri; Johnsrude, Ingrid

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit...... is supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech....... multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech...

  3. A Representational Similarity Analysis of the Dynamics of Object Processing Using Single-Trial EEG Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Kaneshiro

    Full Text Available The recognition of object categories is effortlessly accomplished in everyday life, yet its neural underpinnings remain not fully understood. In this electroencephalography (EEG study, we used single-trial classification to perform a Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA of categorical representation of objects in human visual cortex. Brain responses were recorded while participants viewed a set of 72 photographs of objects with a planned category structure. The Representational Dissimilarity Matrix (RDM used for RSA was derived from confusions of a linear classifier operating on single EEG trials. In contrast to past studies, which used pairwise correlation or classification to derive the RDM, we used confusion matrices from multi-class classifications, which provided novel self-similarity measures that were used to derive the overall size of the representational space. We additionally performed classifications on subsets of the brain response in order to identify spatial and temporal EEG components that best discriminated object categories and exemplars. Results from category-level classifications revealed that brain responses to images of human faces formed the most distinct category, while responses to images from the two inanimate categories formed a single category cluster. Exemplar-level classifications produced a broadly similar category structure, as well as sub-clusters corresponding to natural language categories. Spatiotemporal components of the brain response that differentiated exemplars within a category were found to differ from those implicated in differentiating between categories. Our results show that a classification approach can be successfully applied to single-trial scalp-recorded EEG to recover fine-grained object category structure, as well as to identify interpretable spatiotemporal components underlying object processing. Finally, object category can be decoded from purely temporal information recorded at single

  4. Syntactic computations in the language network: Characterising dynamic network properties using representational similarity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Komisarjevsky Tyler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The core human capacity of syntactic analysis involves a left hemisphere network involving left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LMTG and the anatomical connections between them. Here we use MEG to determine the spatio-temporal properties of syntactic computations in this network. Listeners heard spoken sentences containing a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g. …landing planes…, at the offset of which they heard a disambiguating verb and decided whether it was an acceptable/unacceptable continuation of the sentence. We charted the time-course of processing and resolving syntactic ambiguity by measuring MEG responses from the onset of each word in the ambiguous phrase and the disambiguating word. We used representational similarity analysis (RSA to characterize syntactic information represented in the LIFG and LpMTG over time and to investigate their relationship to each other. Testing a variety of lexico-syntactic and ambiguity models against the MEG data, our results suggest early lexico-syntactic responses in the LpMTG and later effects of ambiguity in the LIFG, pointing to a clear differentiation in the functional roles of these two regions. Our results suggest the LpMTG represents and transmits lexical information to the LIFG, which responds to and resolves the ambiguity.

  5. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi N Roth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e. discriminative information may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e. relative information. For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action.We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in early visual cortex, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS, but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped.We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model’s receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC.These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representation into relative spatial representation along the visual stream.

  6. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Zvi N

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream.

  7. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Zvi N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream. PMID:27242455

  8. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  9. Decoding levels of representation in reading: A representational similarity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Bruggemann, Dorothy; Gallego, Ivan Felipe; Li, Donald S P; Tamez, Emilio R

    2017-05-01

    Multiple levels of representation are involved in reading single words: visual representations of letter shape, orthographic representations of letter identity and order, phonological representations of the word's pronunciation, and semantic representations of its meaning. Previous lesion and neuroimaging studies have identified a network of regions recruited during word reading, including ventral occipital-temporal regions and the angular gyrus (AG). However, there is still debate about what information is being represented and processed in these regions. This study has two aims. The first is to help adjudicate between competing hypotheses concerning the role of ventral occipital cortex in reading. The second is to adjudicate between competing hypotheses concerning the role of the AG in reading. Participants read words in the scanner while performing a proper name detection task and we use a multivariate pattern analysis technique for analyzing fMRI data - representational similarity analysis (RSA) - to decode the type of information being represented in these regions based on computationally explicit theories. Distributed patterns of activation in the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) and the AG show evidence of some type of orthographic processing, while the right hemisphere homologues of the vOT supports visual, but not orthographic, information processing of letter strings. In addition, there is evidence of left-lateralized semantic processing in the lvOT and evidence of top-down feedback in the lvOT. Taken together, these results suggest an interactive activation theory of visual word processing in which both the lvOT and lAG are neural loci of an orthographic level of representations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Similar component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; WANG Xin; LI Junwei; CAO Xianguang

    2006-01-01

    A new unsupervised feature extraction method called similar component analysis (SCA) is proposed in this paper. SCA method has a self-aggregation property that the data objects will move towards each other to form clusters through SCA theoretically,which can reveal the inherent pattern of similarity hidden in the dataset. The inputs of SCA are just the pairwise similarities of the dataset,which makes it easier for time series analysis due to the variable length of the time series. Our experimental results on many problems have verified the effectiveness of SCA on some engineering application.

  11. Being First Matters: Topographical Representational Similarity Analysis of ERP Signals Reveals Separate Networks for Audiovisual Temporal Binding Depending on the Leading Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, Roberto; Gross, Joachim; Willis, Ashleigh; Thut, Gregor

    2017-05-24

    In multisensory integration, processing in one sensory modality is enhanced by complementary information from other modalities. Intersensory timing is crucial in this process because only inputs reaching the brain within a restricted temporal window are perceptually bound. Previous research in the audiovisual field has investigated various features of the temporal binding window, revealing asymmetries in its size and plasticity depending on the leading input: auditory-visual (AV) or visual-auditory (VA). Here, we tested whether separate neuronal mechanisms underlie this AV-VA dichotomy in humans. We recorded high-density EEG while participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task including various AV-VA asynchronies and unisensory control conditions (visual-only, auditory-only) and tested whether AV and VA processing generate different patterns of brain activity. After isolating the multisensory components of AV-VA event-related potentials (ERPs) from the sum of their unisensory constituents, we ran a time-resolved topographical representational similarity analysis (tRSA) comparing the AV and VA ERP maps. Spatial cross-correlation matrices were built from real data to index the similarity between the AV and VA maps at each time point (500 ms window after stimulus) and then correlated with two alternative similarity model matrices: AVmaps = VAmaps versus AVmaps ≠ VAmaps The tRSA results favored the AVmaps ≠ VAmaps model across all time points, suggesting that audiovisual temporal binding (indexed by synchrony perception) engages different neural pathways depending on the leading sense. The existence of such dual route supports recent theoretical accounts proposing that multiple binding mechanisms are implemented in the brain to accommodate different information parsing strategies in auditory and visual sensory systems.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intersensory timing is a crucial aspect of multisensory integration, determining whether and how inputs in

  12. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  13. Representation and Similarity: Suárez on Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Scientific Representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poznic, M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of scientific representation plays a central role in current debates on modeling in the sciences. One or maybe the major epistemic virtue of successful models is their capacity to adequately represent specific phenomena or target systems. According to similarity views of scientific

  14. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  15. Representational similarity encoding for fMRI: Pattern-based synthesis to predict brain activity using stimulus-model-similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew James; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Raizada, Rajeev D S

    2016-03-01

    Patterns of neural activity are systematically elicited as the brain experiences categorical stimuli and a major challenge is to understand what these patterns represent. Two influential approaches, hitherto treated as separate analyses, have targeted this problem by using model-representations of stimuli to interpret the corresponding neural activity patterns. Stimulus-model-based-encoding synthesizes neural activity patterns by first training weights to map between stimulus-model features and voxels. This allows novel model-stimuli to be mapped into voxel space, and hence the strength of the model to be assessed by comparing predicted against observed neural activity. Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) assesses models by testing how well the grand structure of pattern-similarities measured between all pairs of model-stimuli aligns with the same structure computed from neural activity patterns. RSA does not require model fitting, but also does not allow synthesis of neural activity patterns, thereby limiting its applicability. We introduce a new approach, representational similarity-encoding, that builds on the strengths of RSA and robustly enables stimulus-model-based neural encoding without model fitting. The approach therefore sidesteps problems associated with overfitting that notoriously confront any approach requiring parameter estimation (and is consequently low cost computationally), and importantly enables encoding analyses to be incorporated within the wider Representational Similarity Analysis framework. We illustrate this new approach by using it to synthesize and decode fMRI patterns representing the meanings of words, and discuss its potential biological relevance to encoding in semantic memory. Our new similarity-based encoding approach unites the two previously disparate methods of encoding models and RSA, capturing the strengths of both, and enabling similarity-based synthesis of predicted fMRI patterns.

  16. Neural Representations of Belief Concepts: A Representational Similarity Approach to Social Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshinskaya, Anna; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Caramazza, Alfonso; Mitchell, Jason P

    2017-01-01

    The present experiment identified neural regions that represent a class of concepts that are independent of perceptual or sensory attributes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants viewed names of social groups (e.g. Atheists, Evangelicals, and Economists) and performed a one-back similarity judgment according to 1 of 2 dimensions of belief attributes: political orientation (Liberal to Conservative) or spiritualism (Spiritualist to Materialist). By generalizing across a wide variety of social groups that possess these beliefs, these attribute concepts did not coincide with any specific sensory quality, allowing us to target conceptual, rather than perceptual, representations. Multi-voxel pattern searchlight analysis was used to identify regions in which activation patterns distinguished the 2 ends of both dimensions: Conservative from Liberal social groups when participants focused on the political orientation dimension, and spiritual from Materialist groups when participants focused on the spiritualism dimension. A cluster in right precuneus exhibited such a pattern, indicating that it carries information about belief-attribute concepts and forms part of semantic memory-perhaps a component particularly concerned with psychological traits. This region did not overlap with the theory of mind network, which engaged nearby, but distinct, parts of precuneus. These findings have implications for the neural organization of conceptual knowledge, especially the understanding of social groups. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Lewis Structure Representation of Free Radicals Similar to ClO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Warren; Kobrak, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the Lewis structure representation of various free radicals, which are quite similar to the ClO radical and its isoelectronic analogues. The analysis of the periodic trends of these radicals shows that oxygen is the most electronegative atom among them.

  18. A Minimum Spanning Tree Representation of Anime Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Canggih Puspo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new way to represent Japanese animation (anime) is presented. We applied a minimum spanning tree to show the relation between anime. The distance between anime is calculated through three similarity measurements, namely crew, score histogram, and topic similarities. Finally the centralities are also computed to reveal the most significance anime. The result shows that the minimum spanning tree can be used to determine the similarity anime. Furthermore, by using centralities ca...

  19. 16 CFR 239.4 - “Lifetime” and similar representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âLifetimeâ and similar representations. 239.4 Section 239.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.4 “Lifetime” and similar representations. If...

  20. Fuzzy Relational Databases: Representational Issues and Reduction Using Similarity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Testemale, Claudette

    1987-01-01

    Compares and expands upon two approaches to dealing with fuzzy relational databases. The proposed similarity measure is based on a fuzzy Hausdorff distance and estimates the mismatch between two possibility distributions using a reduction process. The consequences of the reduction process on query evaluation are studied. (Author/EM)

  1. Using a pharmacophore representation concept to elucidate molecular similarity of dopamine antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlamazoglou, V.; Thireou, T.; Eliopoulos, E.

    2007-05-01

    The pharmacophoric concept plays an important role in ligand-based drug design methods to describe the similarity and diversity of molecules, and could also be exploited as a molecular representation scheme. A three-point pharmacophore method was used as a molecular representation perception. This procedure was implemented for dopamine antagonists of the D2 receptor subtype. The molecular structures of the antagonists included in this analysis were categorized into two structurally distinct classes. Using structural superposition with internal energy minimization, two pharmacophore models were deduced. Based on these two models other D2 antagonists that fulfil them were derived and studied. This procedure aided the identification of the common 3D patterns present in diverse molecules that act at the same biological target and the extraction of a common molecular framework for the two structural classes. The pharmacophoric information was found to be suitable for guiding superposition of structurally diverse molecules, using a more biologically meaningful selection of the targeting points.

  2. Human object-similarity judgments reflect and transcend the primate-IT object representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eMur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Primate inferior temporal (IT cortex is thought to contain a high-level representation of objects at the interface between vision and semantics. This suggests that the perceived similarity of real-world objects might be predicted from the IT representation. Here we show that objects that elicit similar activity patterns in human IT tend to be judged as similar by humans. The IT representation explained the human judgments better than early visual cortex, other ventral stream regions, and a range of computational models. Human similarity judgments exhibited category clusters that reflected several categorical divisions that are prevalent in the IT representation of both human and monkey, including the animate/inanimate and the face/body division. Human judgments also reflected the within-category representation of IT. However, the judgments transcended the IT representation in that they introduced additional categorical divisions. In particular, human judgments emphasized human-related additional divisions between human and nonhuman animals and between man-made and natural objects. Human IT was more similar to monkey IT than to human judgments. One interpretation is that IT has evolved visual feature detectors that distinguish between animates and inanimates and between faces and bodies because these divisions are fundamental to survival and reproduction for all primate species, and that other brain systems serve to more flexibly introduce species-dependent and evolutionarily more recent divisions.

  3. Human Object-Similarity Judgments Reflect and Transcend the Primate-IT Object Representation.

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    Mur, Marieke; Meys, Mirjam; Bodurka, Jerzy; Goebel, Rainer; Bandettini, Peter A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Primate inferior temporal (IT) cortex is thought to contain a high-level representation of objects at the interface between vision and semantics. This suggests that the perceived similarity of real-world objects might be predicted from the IT representation. Here we show that objects that elicit similar activity patterns in human IT (hIT) tend to be judged as similar by humans. The IT representation explained the human judgments better than early visual cortex, other ventral-stream regions, and a range of computational models. Human similarity judgments exhibited category clusters that reflected several categorical divisions that are prevalent in the IT representation of both human and monkey, including the animate/inanimate and the face/body division. Human judgments also reflected the within-category representation of IT. However, the judgments transcended the IT representation in that they introduced additional categorical divisions. In particular, human judgments emphasized human-related additional divisions between human and non-human animals and between man-made and natural objects. hIT was more similar to monkey IT than to human judgments. One interpretation is that IT has evolved visual-feature detectors that distinguish between animates and inanimates and between faces and bodies because these divisions are fundamental to survival and reproduction for all primate species, and that other brain systems serve to more flexibly introduce species-dependent and evolutionarily more recent divisions.

  4. Explosion Source Similarity Analysis via SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedlin, Matthew; Ben Horin, Yochai; Margrave, Gary

    2016-04-01

    An important seismological ingredient for establishing a regional seismic nuclear discriminant is the similarity analysis of a sequence of explosion sources. To investigate source similarity, we are fortunate to have access to a sequence of 1805 three-component recordings of quarry blasts, shot from March 2002 to January 2015. The centroid of these blasts has an estimated location 36.3E and 29.9N. All blasts were detonated by JPMC (Jordan Phosphate Mines Co.) All data were recorded at the Israeli NDC, HFRI, located at 30.03N and 35.03E. Data were first winnowed based on the distribution of maximum amplitudes in the neighborhood of the P-wave arrival. The winnowed data were then detrended using the algorithm of Cleveland et al (1990). The detrended data were bandpass filtered between .1 to 12 Hz using an eighth order Butterworth filter. Finally, data were sorted based on maximum trace amplitude. Two similarity analysis approaches were used. First, for each component, the entire suite of traces was decomposed into its eigenvector representation, by employing singular-valued decomposition (SVD). The data were then reconstructed using 10 percent of the singular values, with the resulting enhancement of the S-wave and surface wave arrivals. The results of this first method are then compared to the second analysis method based on the eigenface decomposition analysis of Turk and Pentland (1991). While both methods yield similar results in enhancement of data arrivals and reduction of data redundancy, more analysis is required to calibrate the recorded data to charge size, a quantity that was not available for the current study. References Cleveland, R. B., Cleveland, W. S., McRae, J. E., and Terpenning, I., Stl: A seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess, Journal of Official Statistics, 6, No. 1, 3-73, 1990. Turk, M. and Pentland, A., Eigenfaces for recognition. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 3(1), 71-86, 1991.

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of similarity-based neural representations of facial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Mark D; Nestor, Adrian; Plaut, David C; Behrmann, Marlene

    2017-01-10

    Humans' remarkable ability to quickly and accurately discriminate among thousands of highly similar complex objects demands rapid and precise neural computations. To elucidate the process by which this is achieved, we used magnetoencephalography to measure spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity with high temporal resolution during visual discrimination among a large and carefully controlled set of faces. We also compared these neural data to lower level "image-based" and higher level "identity-based" model-based representations of our stimuli and to behavioral similarity judgments of our stimuli. Between ∼50 and 400 ms after stimulus onset, face-selective sources in right lateral occipital cortex and right fusiform gyrus and sources in a control region (left V1) yielded successful classification of facial identity. In all regions, early responses were more similar to the image-based representation than to the identity-based representation. In the face-selective regions only, responses were more similar to the identity-based representation at several time points after 200 ms. Behavioral responses were more similar to the identity-based representation than to the image-based representation, and their structure was predicted by responses in the face-selective regions. These results provide a temporally precise description of the transformation from low- to high-level representations of facial identity in human face-selective cortex and demonstrate that face-selective cortical regions represent multiple distinct types of information about face identity at different times over the first 500 ms after stimulus onset. These results have important implications for understanding the rapid emergence of fine-grained, high-level representations of object identity, a computation essential to human visual expertise.

  6. Competition and Cooperation among Similar Representations: Toward a Unified Account of Facilitative and Inhibitory Effects of Lexical Neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    One of the core principles of how the mind works is the graded, parallel activation of multiple related or similar representations. Parallel activation of multiple representations has been particularly important in the development of theories and models of language processing, where coactivated representations ("neighbors") have been shown to…

  7. Investigation of Time Series Representations and Similarity Measures for Structural Damage Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, R. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the time series representation methods and similarity measures for sensor data feature extraction and structural damage pattern recognition. Both model-based time series representation and dimensionality reduction methods are studied to compare the effectiveness of feature extraction for damage pattern recognition. The evaluation of feature extraction methods is performed by examining the separation of feature vectors among different damage patterns and the pattern recognition success rate. In addition, the impact of similarity measures on the pattern recognition success rate and the metrics for damage localization are also investigated. The test data used in this study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES) Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case datasets and damage test data with different damage modalities are used. The simulation results show that both time series representation methods and similarity measures have significant impact on the pattern recognition success rate. PMID:24191136

  8. Investigation of time series representations and similarity measures for structural damage pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Chen, Bo; Swartz, R Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the time series representation methods and similarity measures for sensor data feature extraction and structural damage pattern recognition. Both model-based time series representation and dimensionality reduction methods are studied to compare the effectiveness of feature extraction for damage pattern recognition. The evaluation of feature extraction methods is performed by examining the separation of feature vectors among different damage patterns and the pattern recognition success rate. In addition, the impact of similarity measures on the pattern recognition success rate and the metrics for damage localization are also investigated. The test data used in this study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES) Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case datasets and damage test data with different damage modalities are used. The simulation results show that both time series representation methods and similarity measures have significant impact on the pattern recognition success rate.

  9. IMAGES AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATION: SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS CONTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Gonçalves Terra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common sense knowledge formation is object of study of the Social Representation Theory, which highlights the role of communication in the production of comprehension by the subjects. The visual images favor the socialization of meanings and are active elements in the formation of social representations. Given the expressive role of the images in the formation of representational contents, this paper aims to present a semiotics analysis method for researches on social representations. The semiotic analysis of images was selected as a theoretical and methodological basis, for offering the means required for guidance for an effective research method to identify the social representations of socially shared iconic signs. The analysis method was explored by means of analytical procedures, employed for the apprehension of social representations of the feminine in posters for Brazilian Ministry of Health campaigns, which allowed access to the network of meanings associated with the analyzed visual image. It should be emphasized that the relevance of the use of semiotic analysis to analyze social representations, which presents itself as a fertile perspective for further studies expanding the possibilities of exploitation of visual content.

  10. Evidence for Similar Early but Not Late Representation of Possible and Impossible Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez eFreud

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual processes that mediate the ability to efficiently represent object 3D structure are still not fully understood. The current study was aimed to shed light on these processes by utilizing spatially possible and impossible objects that could not be created in real 3D space. Despite being perceived as exceptionally unusual, impossible objects still possess fundamental Gestalt attributes and valid local depth cues that may support their initial successful representation. Based on this notion and on recent findings from our lab, we hypothesized that the initial representation of impossible objects would involve common mechanisms to those mediating typical object perception while the perceived differences between possible and impossible objects would emerge later along the processing hierarchy. In Experiment 1, participants preformed same/different classifications of two markers superimposed on a display with two objects (possible or impossible. Faster reaction times were observed for displays in which the markers were superimposed on the same object (object-based benefit. Importantly, this benefit was similar for possible and impossible objects, suggesting that the representations of the two object categories rely on similar perceptual organized processes. Yet, responses for impossible objects were slower compared to possible objects. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the origin of this effect. Participants classified the location of two markers while exposure duration was manipulated. A similar pattern of performance was found for possible and impossible objects for the short exposure duration, with differences in accuracy between these two types of objects emerging only for longer exposure durations. Overall, these findings provide evidence that the representation of object structure relies on a multi-level process and that object impossibility selectively impairs the rendering of fine-detailed description of object structure.

  11. Similar methodological analysis involving the user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúcia R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the use of a protocol for analysis of similar methodological analysis related to user experience. For both, were selected articles recounting experiments in the area. They were analyze based on the similar analysis protocol and finally, synthesized and associated.

  12. Representation of Semantic Similarity in the Left Intraparietal Sulcus: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Neyens

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, semantic similarity between concrete entities correlates with the similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS during category naming. We examined the replicability of this effect under passive viewing conditions, the potential role of visuoperceptual similarity, where the effect is situated compared to regions that have been previously implicated in visuospatial attention, and how it compares to effects of object identity and location. Forty-six subjects participated. Subjects passively viewed pictures from two categories, musical instruments and vehicles. Semantic similarity between entities was estimated based on a concept-feature matrix obtained in more than 1,000 subjects. Visuoperceptual similarity was modeled based on the HMAX model, the AlexNet deep convolutional learning model, and thirdly, based on subjective visuoperceptual similarity ratings. Among the IPS regions examined, only left middle IPS showed a semantic similarity effect. The effect was significant in hIP1, hIP2, and hIP3. Visuoperceptual similarity did not correlate with similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS. The semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS was significantly stronger than in the right middle IPS and also stronger than in the left or right posterior IPS. The semantic similarity effect was similar to that seen in the angular gyrus. Object identity effects were much more widespread across nearly all parietal areas examined. Location effects were relatively specific for posterior IPS and area 7 bilaterally. To conclude, the current findings replicate the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS under passive viewing conditions, and demonstrate its anatomical specificity within a cytoarchitectonic reference frame. We propose that the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS reflects the transient uploading of semantic representations in working memory.

  13. Communication: Understanding molecular representations in machine learning: The role of uniqueness and target similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

    2016-10-01

    The predictive accuracy of Machine Learning (ML) models of molecular properties depends on the choice of the molecular representation. Inspired by the postulates of quantum mechanics, we introduce a hierarchy of representations which meet uniqueness and target similarity criteria. To systematically control target similarity, we simply rely on interatomic many body expansions, as implemented in universal force-fields, including Bonding, Angular (BA), and higher order terms. Addition of higher order contributions systematically increases similarity to the true potential energy and predictive accuracy of the resulting ML models. We report numerical evidence for the performance of BAML models trained on molecular properties pre-calculated at electron-correlated and density functional theory level of theory for thousands of small organic molecules. Properties studied include enthalpies and free energies of atomization, heat capacity, zero-point vibrational energies, dipole-moment, polarizability, HOMO/LUMO energies and gap, ionization potential, electron affinity, and electronic excitations. After training, BAML predicts energies or electronic properties of out-of-sample molecules with unprecedented accuracy and speed.

  14. Numerical encoding of DNA sequences by chaos game representation with application in similarity comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tung; Yin, Changchuan; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2016-10-01

    Numerical encoding plays an important role in DNA sequence analysis via computational methods, in which numerical values are associated with corresponding symbolic characters. After numerical representation, digital signal processing methods can be exploited to analyze DNA sequences. To reflect the biological properties of the original sequence, it is vital that the representation is one-to-one. Chaos Game Representation (CGR) is an iterative mapping technique that assigns each nucleotide in a DNA sequence to a respective position on the plane that allows the depiction of the DNA sequence in the form of image. Using CGR, a biological sequence can be transformed one-to-one to a numerical sequence that preserves the main features of the original sequence. In this research, we propose to encode DNA sequences by considering 2D CGR coordinates as complex numbers, and apply digital signal processing methods to analyze their evolutionary relationship. Computational experiments indicate that this approach gives comparable results to the state-of-the-art multiple sequence alignment method, Clustal Omega, and is significantly faster. The MATLAB code for our method can be accessed from: www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/57152.

  15. Gait signal analysis with similarity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyuk; Shin, Seungsoo

    2014-01-01

    Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons.

  16. Gait Signal Analysis with Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyuk Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons.

  17. Appropriate Similarity Measures for Author Cocitation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan); L. Waltman (Ludo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a number of new insights into the methodological discussion about author cocitation analysis. We first argue that the use of the Pearson correlation for measuring the similarity between authors’ cocitation profiles is not very satisfactory. We then discuss what kind of similar

  18. Visual motion transforms visual space representations similarly throughout the human visual hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben M; Dumoulin, Serge O

    2016-02-15

    Several studies demonstrate that visual stimulus motion affects neural receptive fields and fMRI response amplitudes. Here we unite results of these two approaches and extend them by examining the effects of visual motion on neural position preferences throughout the hierarchy of human visual field maps. We measured population receptive field (pRF) properties using high-field fMRI (7T), characterizing position preferences simultaneously over large regions of the visual cortex. We measured pRFs properties using sine wave gratings in stationary apertures, moving at various speeds in either the direction of pRF measurement or the orthogonal direction. We find direction- and speed-dependent changes in pRF preferred position and size in all visual field maps examined, including V1, V3A, and the MT+ map TO1. These effects on pRF properties increase up the hierarchy of visual field maps. However, both within and between visual field maps the extent of pRF changes was approximately proportional to pRF size. This suggests that visual motion transforms the representation of visual space similarly throughout the visual hierarchy. Visual motion can also produce an illusory displacement of perceived stimulus position. We demonstrate perceptual displacements using the same stimulus configuration. In contrast to effects on pRF properties, perceptual displacements show only weak effects of motion speed, with far larger speed-independent effects. We describe a model where low-level mechanisms could underlie the observed effects on neural position preferences. We conclude that visual motion induces similar transformations of visuo-spatial representations throughout the visual hierarchy, which may arise through low-level mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical similarity or numerical representation counts in same-different, numerical comparison, physical comparison, and priming tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Xin, Ziqiang; Feng, Tingyong; Chen, Yinghe; Szűcs, Denes

    2017-01-30

    Recent studies have highlighted the fact that some tasks used to study symbolic number representations are confounded by judgments about physical similarity. Here, we investigated whether the contribution of physical similarity and numerical representation differed in the often-used symbolic same-different, numerical comparison, physical comparison, and priming tasks. Experiment 1 showed that subjective physical similarity was the best predictor of participants' performance in the same-different task, regardless of simultaneous or sequential presentation. Furthermore, the contribution of subjective physical similarity was larger in a simultaneous presentation than in a sequential presentation. Experiment 2 showed that only numerical representation was involved in numerical comparison. Experiment 3 showed that both subjective physical similarity and numerical representation contributed to participants' physical comparison performance. Finally, only numerical representation contributed to participants' performance in a priming task as revealed by Experiment 4. Taken together, the contribution of physical similarity and numerical representation depends on task demands. Performance primarily seems to rely on numerical properties in tasks that require explicit quantitative comparison judgments (physical or numerical), while physical stimulus properties exert an effect in the same-different task.

  20. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  1. Similar representations of sequence knowledge in young and older adults: A study of effector independent transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sebastiaan Barnhoorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system.We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65 – 74 and 32 young adults (18 – 30. During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two 6-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences

  2. Statistical energy analysis of similarly coupled systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian

    2002-01-01

    Based on the principle of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) for non-conservatively coupled dynamical systems under non-correlative or correlative excitations, energy relationship between two similar SEA systems is established in the paper. The energy relationship is verified theoretically and experimentally from two similar SEA systems i.e., the structure of a coupled panel-beam and that of a coupled panel-sideframe, in the cases of conservative coupling and non-conservative coupling respectively. As an application of the method, relationship between noise power radiated from two similar cutting systems is studied. Results show that there are good agreements between the theory and the experiments, and the method is valuable to analysis of dynamical problems associated with a complicated system from that with a simple one.

  3. Unitary representations and harmonic analysis an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sugiura, M

    1990-01-01

    The principal aim of this book is to give an introduction to harmonic analysis and the theory of unitary representations of Lie groups. The second edition has been brought up to date with a number of textual changes in each of the five chapters, a new appendix on Fatou''s theorem has been added in connection with the limits of discrete series, and the bibliography has been tripled in length.

  4. Visual Similarity Based Document Layout Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Wen; Xiao-Qing Ding

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a visual similarity based document layout analysis (DLA) scheme is proposed, which by using clustering strategy can adaptively deal with documents in different languages, with different layout structures and skew angles. Aiming at a robust and adaptive DLA approach, the authors first manage to find a set of representative filters and statistics to characterize typical texture patterns in document images, which is through a visual similarity testing process.Texture features are then extracted from these filters and passed into a dynamic clustering procedure, which is called visual similarity clustering. Finally, text contents are located from the clustered results. Benefit from this scheme, the algorithm demonstrates strong robustness and adaptability in a wide variety of documents, which previous traditional DLA approaches do not possess.

  5. 16 CFR 239.3 - “Satisfaction Guarantees” and similar representations in advertising; disclosure in advertising...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âSatisfaction Guaranteesâ and similar... GUIDES FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.3 “Satisfaction Guarantees” and similar representations in advertising; disclosure in advertising that mentions “satisfaction guarantees” or...

  6. A Rational Analysis of the Acquisition of Multisensory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    How do people learn multisensory, or amodal, representations, and what consequences do these representations have for perceptual performance? We address this question by performing a rational analysis of the problem of learning multisensory representations. This analysis makes use of a Bayesian nonparametric model that acquires latent multisensory…

  7. Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  8. Mapping Cigarettes Similarities using Cluster Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Jäntschi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship and/or occurrences in and between chemical composition information (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, market information (brand, manufacturer, price, and public health information (class, health warning as well as clustering of a sample of cigarette data. A number of thirty cigarette brands have been analyzed. Six categorical (cigarette brand, manufacturer, health warnings, class and four continuous (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide concentrations and package price variables were collected for investigation of chemical composition, market information and public health information. Multiple linear regression and two clusterization techniques have been applied. The study revealed interesting remarks. The carbon monoxide concentration proved to be linked with tar and nicotine concentration. The applied clusterization methods identified groups of cigarette brands that shown similar characteristics. The tar and carbon monoxide concentrations were the main criteria used in clusterization. An analysis of a largest sample could reveal more relevant and useful information regarding the similarities between cigarette brands.

  9. Converting Boundary Representation Solid Models to Half-Space Representation Models for Monte Carlo Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis JE, Eddy MJ, Sutton TM, Altomari TJ

    2007-03-01

    Solid modeling computer software systems provide for the design of three-dimensional solid models used in the design and analysis of physical components. The current state-of-the-art in solid modeling representation uses a boundary representation format in which geometry and topology are used to form three-dimensional boundaries of the solid. The geometry representation used in these systems is cubic B-spline curves and surfaces--a network of cubic B-spline functions in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space. Many Monte Carlo codes, however, use a geometry representation in which geometry units are specified by intersections and unions of half-spaces. This paper describes an algorithm for converting from a boundary representation to a half-space representation.

  10. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan Sebastiaan; Döhring, Falko R.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is

  11. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan S.; Döhring, Falko R.; Asseldonk, van Edwin H.F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highl

  12. Social Representations in Psychology: A Bibliometrical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eicher, V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the evolution of social representations theory (SRT over time, languages, and journals by comparing it with the evolution of social identity theory (SIT. Additionally, we perform a lexical analysis of abstracts on SRT and discuss the changes of topics over time and languages. While SRT is less represented in mainstream journals of social psychology than SIT, it is more widely distributed across linguistic areas, as shown by the relative frequency of different languages. Two major research domains often associated with SRT are health issues and intergroup dynamics. Papers concentrating on SRT as a theoretical approach are more recent and primarily written in English, while French-language papers focus less on theoretical aspects. While SRT is diverse and recognized in social psychology, it is not as widely known as other social psychological theories (e.g., SIT. We conclude with thoughts on how to promote wider integration of SRT with mainstream social psychology.

  13. Representation of Semantic Similarity in the Left Intraparietal Sulcus : Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyens, Veerle; Bruffaerts, Rose; Liuzzi, Antonietta Gabriella; Kalfas, Ioannis; Peeters, Ronald; Keuleers, Emmanuel; Vogels, Rufin; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gert; Dupont, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2017-01-01

    According to a recent study, semantic similarity between concrete entities correlates with the similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS during category naming. We examined the replicability of this effect under passive viewing conditions, the potential role of visuoperceptual similarity,

  14. Shape similarity, better than semantic membership, accounts for the structure of visual object representations in a population of monkey inferotemporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Alemi-Neissi, Alireza; Pagan, Marino; Dicarlo, James J; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zoccolan, Davide

    2013-01-01

    The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects). In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics), we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex.

  15. Novel similarity measures for face representation based on local binary pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-hu; FENG Ju-fu

    2009-01-01

    The successful face recognition based on local binary pattern (LBP) relies on the effective extraction of LBP features and the inferring of similarity between the extracted features. In this paper, we focus on the latter and propose two novel similarity measures for the local matching methods and the holistic matching methods respectively. One is Earth Mover's Distance with Hamming and Lp ground distance (EMD-HammingLp),which is a cross-bin dissimilarity measure for LBP histograms. The other is IMage Hamming Distance (IMHD),which is a dissimilarity measure for the whole LBP images. Experiments on FERET database show that the proposed two similarity measures outperform the state-of-the-art Chi-square similarity measure for extraction of LBP features.

  16. Analysis of graphic representations of activity theory in international journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Mazzarotto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Activity theory is a relevant framework for the Design field, and their graphic representations are cognitive artifacts that aid the understanding, use and communication of this theory. However, there is a lack of consistency around the graphics and labels used in these representations. Based on this, the aim of this study was to identify, analyze and evaluate these differences and propose a representation that aims to be more suitable for the theory. For this, uses as method a literature review based on Engeström (2001 and its three generations of visual models, combined with graphical analysis of representations collected in a hundred papers from international journals.

  17. Neural Representation. A Survey-Based Analysis of the Notion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The word representation (as in "neural representation"), and many of its related terms, such as to represent, representational and the like, play a central explanatory role in neuroscience literature. For instance, in "place cell" literature, place cells are extensively associated with their role in "the representation of space." In spite of its extended use, we still lack a clear, universal and widely accepted view on what it means for a nervous system to represent something, on what makes a neural activity a representation, and on what is re-presented. The lack of a theoretical foundation and definition of the notion has not hindered actual research. My aim here is to identify how active scientists use the notion of neural representation, and eventually to list a set of criteria, based on actual use, that can help in distinguishing between genuine or non-genuine neural-representation candidates. In order to attain this objective, I present first the results of a survey of authors within two domains, place-cell and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) research. Based on the authors' replies, and on a review of neuroscientific research, I outline a set of common properties that an account of neural representation seems to require. I then apply these properties to assess the use of the notion in two domains of the survey, place-cell and MVPA studies. I conclude by exploring a shift in the notion of representation suggested by recent literature.

  18. Composites Similarity Analysis Method Based on Knowledge Set in Composites Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Li Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Composites similarity analysis is an important link of composites review, it can not only to declare composites review rechecking, still help composites applicants promptly have the research content relevant progress and avoid duplication. This paper mainly studies the composites similarity model in composites review. With the actual experience of composites management, based on the author’s knowledge set theory, paper analyzes deeply knowledge set representation of composites knowledge, impr...

  19. Document Representation and Clustering with WordNet Based Similarity Rough Set Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Yamada

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on document clustering till date use Vector Space Model (VSM to represent documents in the document space, where documents are denoted by a vector in a word vector space. The standard VSM does not take into account the semantic relatedness between terms. Thus, terms with some semantic similarity are dealt with in the same way as terms with no semantic relatedness. Since this unconcern about semantics reduces the quality of clustering results, many studies have proposed various approaches to introduce knowledge of semantic relatedness into VSM model. Those approaches give better results than the standard VSM. However they still have their own issues. We propose a new approach as a combination of two approaches, one of which uses Rough Sets theory and co-occurrence of terms, and the other uses WordNet knowledge to solve these issues. Experiments for its evaluation show advantage of the proposed approach over the others.

  20. Network Analysis of Students' Use of Representations in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPadden, Daryl; Brewe, Eric

    2016-03-01

    We present the preliminary results of a study on student use of representations in problem solving within the Modeling Instruction - Electricity and Magnetism (MI-E&M) course. Representational competence is a critical skill needed for students to develop a sophisticated understanding of college science topics and to succeed in their science courses. In this study, 70 students from the MI-E&M, calculus-based course were given a survey of 25 physics problem statements both pre- and post- instruction, covering both Newtonian Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism (E&M). For each problem statement, students were asked which representations they would use in that given situation. We analyze the survey results through network analysis, identifying which representations are linked together in which contexts. We also compare the representation networks for those students who had already taken the first-semester Modeling Instruction Mechanics course and those students who had taken a non-Modeling Mechanics course.

  1. A Similarity-Based Approach for Audiovisual Document Classification Using Temporal Relation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrane Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a novel approach for video classification that bases on the analysis of the temporal relationships between the basic events in audiovisual documents. Starting from basic segmentation results, we define a new representation method that is called Temporal Relation Matrix (TRM. Each document is then described by a set of TRMs, the analysis of which makes events of a higher level stand out. This representation has been first designed to analyze any audiovisual document in order to find events that may well characterize its content and its structure. The aim of this work is to use this representation to compute a similarity measure between two documents. Approaches for audiovisual documents classification are presented and discussed. Experimentations are done on a set of 242 video documents and the results show the efficiency of our proposals.

  2. Shape similarity, better than semantic membership, accounts for the structure of visual object representations in a population of monkey inferotemporal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Baldassi

    Full Text Available The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects. In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics, we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex.

  3. Scale-Dependent Representations of Relief Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Automatic generalization of geographic information is the core of multi-scale representation of spatial data,but the scale-dependent generalization methods are far from abundant because of its extreme complicacy.This paper puts forward a new consistency model about scale-dependent representations of relief based on wavelet analysis,and discusses the thresholds in the model so as to acquire the continual representations of relief with different details between scales.The model not only meets the need of automatic generalization but also is scale-dependent completely.Some practical examples are given.

  4. Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects (Dagstuhl Seminar 12512)

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Laube, Patrick; Van Loon, Emiel

    2013-01-01

    From December 16 to December 21, 2012, the Dagstuhl Seminar 12512 "Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects" was held in Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz Center for Informatics. The major goal of this seminar was to bring together the diverse and fast growing, research community that is involved in developing better computational techniques for spatio-temporal object representation, data mining, and visualization of moving object data. The participants included experts from fie...

  5. 10491 Abstracts Collection -- Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Sack, Jörg-Rüdiger; Speckmann, Bettina; Van Loon, Emiel; Weibel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    From December 5 to December 10, 2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10491 ``Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects'' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics. The major goal of this seminar has been to bring together the diverse and fast growing, research community that is involved in developing better computational techniques for spatio-temporal object representation, data mining, and visualization massive amounts of moving object data. ...

  6. Bi-Level Semantic Representation Analysis for Multimedia Event Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaojun; Ma, Zhigang; Yang, Yi; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Hauptmann, Alexander G

    2017-05-01

    Multimedia event detection has been one of the major endeavors in video event analysis. A variety of approaches have been proposed recently to tackle this problem. Among others, using semantic representation has been accredited for its promising performance and desirable ability for human-understandable reasoning. To generate semantic representation, we usually utilize several external image/video archives and apply the concept detectors trained on them to the event videos. Due to the intrinsic difference of these archives, the resulted representation is presumable to have different predicting capabilities for a certain event. Notwithstanding, not much work is available for assessing the efficacy of semantic representation from the source-level. On the other hand, it is plausible to perceive that some concepts are noisy for detecting a specific event. Motivated by these two shortcomings, we propose a bi-level semantic representation analyzing method. Regarding source-level, our method learns weights of semantic representation attained from different multimedia archives. Meanwhile, it restrains the negative influence of noisy or irrelevant concepts in the overall concept-level. In addition, we particularly focus on efficient multimedia event detection with few positive examples, which is highly appreciated in the real-world scenario. We perform extensive experiments on the challenging TRECVID MED 2013 and 2014 datasets with encouraging results that validate the efficacy of our proposed approach.

  7. Analysis of the dynamics of reasoning using multiple representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a formalisation and analysis method for the dynamics of a reasoning process in which multiple representations play a role. Dynamics of reasoning processes are described by reasoning traces consisting of sequences of reasoning states over time. Reasoning states have a compositiona

  8. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Rikxoort, E.M. van

    2005-01-01

    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 diferent con- figurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  9. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; van den Broek, Egon; van Rikxoort, E.M.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 different configurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  10. Evolution of gender representation among Canadian OTL-HNS residents: a 27-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorfi, Sarah; Schwartz, Joseph S; Verma, Neil; Young, Meredith; Joseph, Lawrence; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2017-08-29

    The proportion of females enrolling into medical schools has been growing steadily. However, the representation of female residents among individual specialties has shown considerable variation. The purpose of this study was to compare the trends of gender representation in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (OTL-HNS) residency programs with other specialty training programs in Canada. In order to contextualize these findings, a second phase of analysis examined the success rate of applicants of different genders to OTL-HNS residency programs. Anonymized data were obtained from the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) and from the Canadian Post-M.D. Education Registry (CAPER) from 1988 to 2014. The differences in gender growth rates were compared to other subspecialty programs of varying size. Descriptive analysis was used to examine gender representation among OTL-HNS residents across years, and to compare these trends with other specialties. Bayesian hierarchical models were fit to analyze the growth in program rates in OTL-HNS based on gender. CaRMS and CAPER data over a 27 year period demonstrated that OTL-HNS has doubled its female representation from 20% to 40% between 1990 and 1994 and 2010-2014. The difference in annual growth rate of female representation versus male representation in OTL-HNS over this time period was 2.7%, which was similar to other large specialty programs and surgical subspecialties. There was parity in success rates of female and male candidates ranking OTL-HNS as their first choice specialty for most years. Female representation in Canadian OTL-HNS residency programs is steadily increasing over the last 27 years. Large variation in female applicant acceptance rates was observed across Canadian universities, possibly attributable to differences in student body or applicant demographics. Factors influencing female medical student career selection to OTL-HNS require further study to mitigate disparities in gender

  11. Stochastic Descent Analysis of Representation Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Although stochastic approximation learning methods have been widely used in the machine learning literature for over 50 years, formal theoretical analyses of specific machine learning algorithms are less common because stochastic approximation theorems typically possess assumptions which are difficult to communicate and verify. This paper presents a new stochastic approximation theorem for state-dependent noise with easily verifiable assumptions applicable to the analysis and design of import...

  12. Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack

    2006-12-01

    Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede’s (1991) cultural factors and Davis’ (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

  13. Maritime Group Motion Analysis: Representation, Learning, Recognition, and Deviation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Maritime Group Motion Analysis : Representation, Learning, Recognition, and Deviation Detection § Allen Waxman MultiSensor Scientific, LLC...while the authors were employed by, or sub-contractors of, Intelligent Software Solutions, Inc., of Colorado Springs, CO, USA, funded under contract...reading the PDF file of this manuscript.) Abstract - This paper introduces new concepts and methods in the analysis of group motions over extended

  14. Orbit uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis with separated representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Marc; Jones, Brandon; Doostan, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Most approximations for stochastic differential equations with high-dimensional, non-Gaussian inputs suffer from a rapid (e.g., exponential) increase of computational cost, an issue known as the curse of dimensionality. In astrodynamics, this results in reduced accuracy when propagating an orbit-state probability density function. This paper considers the application of separated representations for orbit uncertainty propagation, where future states are expanded into a sum of products of univariate functions of initial states and other uncertain parameters. An accurate generation of separated representation requires a number of state samples that is linear in the dimension of input uncertainties. The computation cost of a separated representation scales linearly with respect to the sample count, thereby improving tractability when compared to methods that suffer from the curse of dimensionality. In addition to detailed discussions on their construction and use in sensitivity analysis, this paper presents results for three test cases of an Earth orbiting satellite. The first two cases demonstrate that approximation via separated representations produces a tractable solution for propagating the Cartesian orbit-state uncertainty with up to 20 uncertain inputs. The third case, which instead uses Equinoctial elements, reexamines a scenario presented in the literature and employs the proposed method for sensitivity analysis to more thoroughly characterize the relative effects of uncertain inputs on the propagated state.

  15. Representation of analysis results involving aleatory and epistemic uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Sallaberry, Cedric J.

    2008-08-01

    Procedures are described for the representation of results in analyses that involve both aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty, with aleatory uncertainty deriving from an inherent randomness in the behavior of the system under study and epistemic uncertainty deriving from a lack of knowledge about the appropriate values to use for quantities that are assumed to have fixed but poorly known values in the context of a specific study. Aleatory uncertainty is usually represented with probability and leads to cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) or complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for analysis results of interest. Several mathematical structures are available for the representation of epistemic uncertainty, including interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory and probability theory. In the presence of epistemic uncertainty, there is not a single CDF or CCDF for a given analysis result. Rather, there is a family of CDFs and a corresponding family of CCDFs that derive from epistemic uncertainty and have an uncertainty structure that derives from the particular uncertainty structure (i.e., interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory, probability theory) used to represent epistemic uncertainty. Graphical formats for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in families of CDFs and CCDFs are investigated and presented for the indicated characterizations of epistemic uncertainty.

  16. [Representation and mathematical analysis of human corneal surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan; Tălu, Mihai; Giovanzana, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In the description and analysis of human corneal surface are used various mathematical models based on parametric representations, used in biomechanical studies and 3D solid modeling of the cornea. Mathematical models are important into the biomechanics of the cornea to model the corneal behavior. Corneal biomechanics also has the potential to improve outcomes in refractive surgery. The objective of this paper is to present the most representative mathematical models currently used for modeling of human corneal in optics and biomechanics fields.

  17. Protein structure similarity from principle component correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou James

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to rapid expansion of protein structure databases in recent years, methods of structure comparison are becoming increasingly effective and important in revealing novel information on functional properties of proteins and their roles in the grand scheme of evolutionary biology. Currently, the structural similarity between two proteins is measured by the root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD in their best-superimposed atomic coordinates. RMSD is the golden rule of measuring structural similarity when the structures are nearly identical; it, however, fails to detect the higher order topological similarities in proteins evolved into different shapes. We propose new algorithms for extracting geometrical invariants of proteins that can be effectively used to identify homologous protein structures or topologies in order to quantify both close and remote structural similarities. Results We measure structural similarity between proteins by correlating the principle components of their secondary structure interaction matrix. In our approach, the Principle Component Correlation (PCC analysis, a symmetric interaction matrix for a protein structure is constructed with relationship parameters between secondary elements that can take the form of distance, orientation, or other relevant structural invariants. When using a distance-based construction in the presence or absence of encoded N to C terminal sense, there are strong correlations between the principle components of interaction matrices of structurally or topologically similar proteins. Conclusion The PCC method is extensively tested for protein structures that belong to the same topological class but are significantly different by RMSD measure. The PCC analysis can also differentiate proteins having similar shapes but different topological arrangements. Additionally, we demonstrate that when using two independently defined interaction matrices, comparison of their maximum

  18. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis for pollutant source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan-Ping; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a similarity analysis method was proposed to evaluate the source-sink relationships among environmental media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were taken as the representative contaminants. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis has been widely used in the fields of natural products chemistry and forensic chemistry, but its application to environmental science has been limited. We established a library of various sources of media containing contaminants (e.g., plastics), recognizing that the establishment of a more comprehensive library allows for a better understanding of the sources of contamination. We then compared an environmental complex mixture (e.g., sediment, soil) with the profiles in the library. These comparisons could be used as the first step in source tracking. The cosine similarities between plastic and soil or sediment ranged from 0.53 to 0.68, suggesting that plastic in electronic waste is an important source of PBDEs in the environment, but it is not the only source. A similarity analysis between soil and sediment indicated that they have a source-sink relationship. Generally, the similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of complex mixtures in the environment than a profile-based approach that only focuses on target pollutants. There is an inherent advantage to creating a data matrix containing all peaks and their relative levels after matching the peaks based on retention times and peak areas. This data matrix can be used for source identification via a similarity analysis without quantitative or qualitative analysis of all chemicals in a sample.

  19. Similarity theory based method for MEMS dynamics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gui-xian; PENG Yun-feng; ZHANG Xin

    2008-01-01

    A new method for MEMS dynamics analysis is presented, ased on the similarity theory. With this method, two systems' similarities can be captured in terms of physics quantities/governed-equations amongst different energy fields, and then the unknown dynamic characteristics of one of the systems can be analyzed ac-cording to the similar ones of the other system. The probability to establish a pair of similar systems among MEMS and other energy systems is also discussed based on the equivalent between mechanics and electrics, and then the feasibility of applying this method is proven by an example, in which the squeezed damping force in MEMS and the current of its equivalent circuit established by this method are compared.

  20. Fixed Points in Self-Similar Analysis of Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V. I.

    1998-01-01

    Two possible definitions of fixed points in the self-similar analysis of time series are considered. One definition is based on the minimal-difference condition and another, on a simple averaging. From studying stock market time series, one may conclude that these two definitions are practically equivalent. A forecast is made for the stock market indices for the end of March 1998.

  1. Orthogonal Procrustes Analysis for Dictionary Learning in Sparse Linear Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giuliano; Lin, Jianyi

    2017-01-01

    In the sparse representation model, the design of overcomplete dictionaries plays a key role for the effectiveness and applicability in different domains. Recent research has produced several dictionary learning approaches, being proven that dictionaries learnt by data examples significantly outperform structured ones, e.g. wavelet transforms. In this context, learning consists in adapting the dictionary atoms to a set of training signals in order to promote a sparse representation that minimizes the reconstruction error. Finding the best fitting dictionary remains a very difficult task, leaving the question still open. A well-established heuristic method for tackling this problem is an iterative alternating scheme, adopted for instance in the well-known K-SVD algorithm. Essentially, it consists in repeating two stages; the former promotes sparse coding of the training set and the latter adapts the dictionary to reduce the error. In this paper we present R-SVD, a new method that, while maintaining the alternating scheme, adopts the Orthogonal Procrustes analysis to update the dictionary atoms suitably arranged into groups. Comparative experiments on synthetic data prove the effectiveness of R-SVD with respect to well known dictionary learning algorithms such as K-SVD, ILS-DLA and the online method OSDL. Moreover, experiments on natural data such as ECG compression, EEG sparse representation, and image modeling confirm R-SVD’s robustness and wide applicability. PMID:28103283

  2. Orthogonal Procrustes Analysis for Dictionary Learning in Sparse Linear Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giuliano; Lanzarotti, Raffaella; Lin, Jianyi

    2017-01-01

    In the sparse representation model, the design of overcomplete dictionaries plays a key role for the effectiveness and applicability in different domains. Recent research has produced several dictionary learning approaches, being proven that dictionaries learnt by data examples significantly outperform structured ones, e.g. wavelet transforms. In this context, learning consists in adapting the dictionary atoms to a set of training signals in order to promote a sparse representation that minimizes the reconstruction error. Finding the best fitting dictionary remains a very difficult task, leaving the question still open. A well-established heuristic method for tackling this problem is an iterative alternating scheme, adopted for instance in the well-known K-SVD algorithm. Essentially, it consists in repeating two stages; the former promotes sparse coding of the training set and the latter adapts the dictionary to reduce the error. In this paper we present R-SVD, a new method that, while maintaining the alternating scheme, adopts the Orthogonal Procrustes analysis to update the dictionary atoms suitably arranged into groups. Comparative experiments on synthetic data prove the effectiveness of R-SVD with respect to well known dictionary learning algorithms such as K-SVD, ILS-DLA and the online method OSDL. Moreover, experiments on natural data such as ECG compression, EEG sparse representation, and image modeling confirm R-SVD's robustness and wide applicability.

  3. Similarity analysis of the streamer zone of Blue Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, N A; Milikh, G M

    2016-01-01

    Multiple observations of Blue Jets (BJ)) show that BJ emits a fan of streamers similar to a laboratory leader. Moreover,in the exponential atmosphere those long streamers grow preferentially upward, producing a narrow coneconfined by the aperture angle. It was also noticed that BJ are similar to the streamer zone of a leader (streamer corona) and the modeling studies based on the streamers fractal structure were conducted. Objective of this paper is to study the fractal dimension of the bunch of streamer channels emitted by BJ, at different altitude and under the varying reduced electric field. This similarity analysis has been done in three steps: First we described the dendritic structure of streamers in corona discharge applying the fractal theory. Then using this model and the data from existing laboratory experiments we obtained the fractal dimension of the branching streamer channels. Finally the model was validated by the observations of BJ available from the literature.

  4. Fundamentals of convex analysis duality, separation, representation, and resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Panik, Michael J

    1993-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convex Analysis offers an in-depth look at some of the fundamental themes covered within an area of mathematical analysis called convex analysis. In particular, it explores the topics of duality, separation, representation, and resolution. The work is intended for students of economics, management science, engineering, and mathematics who need exposure to the mathematical foundations of matrix games, optimization, and general equilibrium analysis. It is written at the advanced undergraduate to beginning graduate level and the only formal preparation required is some familiarity with set operations and with linear algebra and matrix theory. Fundamentals of Convex Analysis is self-contained in that a brief review of the essentials of these tool areas is provided in Chapter 1. Chapter exercises are also provided. Topics covered include: convex sets and their properties; separation and support theorems; theorems of the alternative; convex cones; dual homogeneous systems; basic solutions and comple...

  5. Beyond Categories: A Structural Analysis of the Social Representations of Information Users' Collective Perceptions on 'Relevance'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju, Boryung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance has a long history of scholarly investigation and discussion in information science. One of its notable concepts is that of 'user-based' relevance. The purpose of this study is to examine how users construct their perspective on the concept of relevance; to analyze what the constituent elements (facets of relevance are, in terms of core-periphery status; and to compare the difference of constructions of two groups of users (information users vs. information professionals as applied with a social representations theory perspective. Data were collected from 244 information users and 123 information professionals through use of a free word association method. Three methods were employed to analyze data: (1 content analysis was used to elicit 26 categories (facets of the concept of relevance; (2 structural analysis of social representations was used to determine the core-periphery status of those facets in terms of coreness, sum of similarity, and weighted frequency; and, (3 maximum tree analysis was used to present and compare the differences between the two groups. Elicited categories in this study overlap with the ones from previous relevance studies, while the findings of a core-periphery analysis show that Topicality, User-needs, Reliability/Credibility, and Importance are configured as core concepts for the information user group, while Topicality, User-needs, Reliability/Credibility, and Currency are core concepts for the information professional group. Differences between the social representations of relevance revealed that Topicality was similar to User-needs and to Importance. Author is closely related to Title while Reliability/Credibility is linked with Currency. Easiness/Clarity is similar to Accuracy. Overall, information users and professionals function with a similar social collective of shared meanings for the concept of relevance. The overall findings identify the core and periphery concepts of relevance and their

  6. Mining Biclusters of Similar Values with Triadic Concept Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kaytoue, Mehdi; Macko, Juraj; Meira, Wagner; Napoli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Biclustering numerical data became a popular data-mining task in the beginning of 2000's, especially for analysing gene expression data. A bicluster reflects a strong association between a subset of objects and a subset of attributes in a numerical object/attribute data-table. So called biclusters of similar values can be thought as maximal sub-tables with close values. Only few methods address a complete, correct and non redundant enumeration of such patterns, which is a well-known intractable problem, while no formal framework exists. In this paper, we introduce important links between biclustering and formal concept analysis. More specifically, we originally show that Triadic Concept Analysis (TCA), provides a nice mathematical framework for biclustering. Interestingly, existing algorithms of TCA, that usually apply on binary data, can be used (directly or with slight modifications) after a preprocessing step for extracting maximal biclusters of similar values.

  7. A method for rapid similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Na

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the rapid expansion of RNA structure databases in recent years, efficient methods for structure comparison are in demand for function prediction and evolutionary analysis. Usually, the similarity of RNA secondary structures is evaluated based on tree models and dynamic programming algorithms. We present here a new method for the similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures. Results Three sets of real data have been used as input for the example applications. Set I includes the structures from 5S rRNAs. Set II includes the secondary structures from RNase P and RNase MRP. Set III includes the structures from 16S rRNAs. Reasonable phylogenetic trees are derived for these three sets of data by using our method. Moreover, our program runs faster as compared to some existing ones. Conclusion The famous Lempel-Ziv algorithm can efficiently extract the information on repeated patterns encoded in RNA secondary structures and makes our method an alternative to analyze the similarity of RNA secondary structures. This method will also be useful to researchers who are interested in evolutionary analysis.

  8. Using SQL Databases for Sequence Similarity Searching and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William R; Mackey, Aaron J

    2017-09-13

    Relational databases can integrate diverse types of information and manage large sets of similarity search results, greatly simplifying genome-scale analyses. By focusing on taxonomic subsets of sequences, relational databases can reduce the size and redundancy of sequence libraries and improve the statistical significance of homologs. In addition, by loading similarity search results into a relational database, it becomes possible to explore and summarize the relationships between all of the proteins in an organism and those in other biological kingdoms. This unit describes how to use relational databases to improve the efficiency of sequence similarity searching and demonstrates various large-scale genomic analyses of homology-related data. It also describes the installation and use of a simple protein sequence database, seqdb_demo, which is used as a basis for the other protocols. The unit also introduces search_demo, a database that stores sequence similarity search results. The search_demo database is then used to explore the evolutionary relationships between E. coli proteins and proteins in other organisms in a large-scale comparative genomic analysis. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. PHOG analysis of self-similarity in aesthetic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Ali; Koch, Michael; Denzler, Joachim; Redies, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    non-aesthetic categories of monochrome images. The aesthetic image datasets comprise a large variety of artworks of Western provenance. Other man-made aesthetically pleasing images, such as comics, cartoons and mangas, were also studied. For comparison, a database of natural scene photographs is used, as well as datasets of photographs of plants, simple objects and faces that are in general of low aesthetic value. As expected, natural scenes exhibit the highest degree of PHOG self-similarity. Images of artworks also show high selfsimilarity values, followed by cartoons, comics and mangas. On average, other (non-aesthetic) image categories are less self-similar in the PHOG analysis. A measure of scale-invariant self-similarity (PHOG) allows a good separation of the different aesthetic and non-aesthetic image categories. Our results provide further support for the notion that, like complex natural scenes, images of artworks display a higher degree of self-similarity across different scales of resolution than other image categories. Whether the high degree of self-similarity is the basis for the perception of beauty in both complex natural scenery and artworks remains to be investigated.

  10. Network similarity and statistical analysis of earthquake seismic data

    CERN Document Server

    Deyasi, Krishanu; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    We study the structural similarity of earthquake networks constructed from seismic catalogs of different geographical regions. A hierarchical clustering of underlying undirected earthquake networks is shown using Jensen-Shannon divergence in graph spectra. The directed nature of links indicates that each earthquake network is strongly connected, which motivates us to study the directed version statistically. Our statistical analysis of each earthquake region identifies the hub regions. We calculate the conditional probability of the forthcoming occurrences of earthquakes in each region. The conditional probability of each event has been compared with their stationary distribution.

  11. Network similarity and statistical analysis of earthquake seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyasi, Krishanu; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Banerjee, Anirban

    2017-09-01

    We study the structural similarity of earthquake networks constructed from seismic catalogs of different geographical regions. A hierarchical clustering of underlying undirected earthquake networks is shown using Jensen-Shannon divergence in graph spectra. The directed nature of links indicates that each earthquake network is strongly connected, which motivates us to study the directed version statistically. Our statistical analysis of each earthquake region identifies the hub regions. We calculate the conditional probability of the forthcoming occurrences of earthquakes in each region. The conditional probability of each event has been compared with their stationary distribution.

  12. Representation learning for cross-modality classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Tulder (Gijs); M. de Bruijne (Marleen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDifferences in scanning parameters or modalities can complicate image analysis based on supervised classification. This paper presents two representation learning approaches, based on autoencoders, that address this problem by learning representations that are similar across domains. Bot

  13. Similarity analysis of the streamer zone of Blue jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N. A.; Shneider, M. N.; Milikh, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    Multiple observations of Blue Jets (BJ) and Gigantic Blue Jets (GBJ) show that BJ and GBJ emits a fan of streamers similar to a laboratory leader. Moreover, in the exponential atmosphere those long streamers grow preferentially upward, producing a narrow cone confined by the aperture angle. It was also noticed that BJ are similar to the streamer zone of a leader (streamer corona) and the modeling studies based on the streamers fractal structure were conducted. Objective of this paper is to study the fractal dimension of the bunch of streamer channels emitted by BJ and GBJ, at different altitude and under the varying electric field. This similarity analysis has been done in three steps: first we described the dendritic structure of streamers in corona discharge applying the fractal theory. Then using this model and the data from existing laboratory experiments we obtained the fractal dimension of the branching streamer channels. Finally the model was validated by the observations of BJ available from the literature.

  14. Multicriteria Similarity-Based Anomaly Detection Using Pareto Depth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ko-Jen; Xu, Kevin S; Calder, Jeff; Hero, Alfred O

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of identifying patterns in a data set that exhibits anomalous behavior, often referred to as anomaly detection. Similarity-based anomaly detection algorithms detect abnormally large amounts of similarity or dissimilarity, e.g., as measured by the nearest neighbor Euclidean distances between a test sample and the training samples. In many application domains, there may not exist a single dissimilarity measure that captures all possible anomalous patterns. In such cases, multiple dissimilarity measures can be defined, including nonmetric measures, and one can test for anomalies by scalarizing using a nonnegative linear combination of them. If the relative importance of the different dissimilarity measures are not known in advance, as in many anomaly detection applications, the anomaly detection algorithm may need to be executed multiple times with different choices of weights in the linear combination. In this paper, we propose a method for similarity-based anomaly detection using a novel multicriteria dissimilarity measure, the Pareto depth. The proposed Pareto depth analysis (PDA) anomaly detection algorithm uses the concept of Pareto optimality to detect anomalies under multiple criteria without having to run an algorithm multiple times with different choices of weights. The proposed PDA approach is provably better than using linear combinations of the criteria, and shows superior performance on experiments with synthetic and real data sets.

  15. Immunoinformatics and Similarity Analysis of House Dust Mite Tropomyosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are house dust mites (HDM that they cause severe asthma and allergic symptoms. Tropomyosin protein plays an important role in mentioned immune and allergic reactions to HDMs. Here, tropomyosin protein from Dermatophagoides spp. was comprehensively screened in silico for its allergenicity, antigenicity and similarity/conservation.Materials and Methods: The amino acid sequences of D. farinae tropomyosin, D. pteronyssinus and other mites were retrieved. We included alignments and evaluated conserved/ variable regions along sequences, constructed their phylogenetic tree and estimated overall mean distances. Then, followed by with prediction of linear B-cell epitope based on different approaches, and besides in-silico evaluation of IgE epitopes allergenicity (by SVMc, IgE epitope, ARPs BLAST, MAST and hybrid method. Finally, comparative analysis of results by different approaches was made.Results: Alignment results revealed near complete identity between D. farina and D. pteronyssinus members, and also there was close similarity among Dermatophagoides spp. Most of the variations among mites' tropomyosin were approximately located at amino acids 23 to 80, 108 to 120, 142 to 153 and 220 to 230. Topology of tree showed close relationships among mites in tropomyosin protein sequence, although their sequences in D. farina, D. pteronyssinus and Psoroptes ovis are more similar to each other and clustered. Dermanyssus gallinae (AC: Q2WBI0 has less relationship to other mites, being located in a separate branch. Hydrophilicity and flexibility plots revealed that many parts of this protein have potential to be hydrophilic and flexible. Surface accessibility represented 7 different epitopes. Beta-turns in this protein are with high probability in the middle part and its two terminals. Kolaskar and Tongaonkar method analysis represented 11 immunogenic epitopes between amino acids 7-16. From

  16. Analysis and representation of complex structures in separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, James; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    We discuss our recent work on extraction and visualization of topological information in separated fluid flow data sets. As with scene analysis, an abstract representation of a large data set can greatly facilitate the understanding of complex, high-level structures. When studying flow topology, such a representation can be produced by locating and characterizing critical points in the velocity field and generating the associated stream surfaces. In 3D flows, the surface topology serves as the starting point. The 2D tangential velocity field near the surface of the body is examined for critical points. The tangential velocity field is integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points to produce curves depicting the topology of the flow near the body. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the 2D vector field topology. This skeleton provides a basis for analyzing the 3D structures associated with the flow separation. The points along the separation curves in the skeleton are used to start tangent curve integrations. Integration origins are successively refined to produce stream surfaces. The map of the global topology is completed by generating those stream surfaces associated with 3D critical points.

  17. A Novel Relevance Feedback Approach Based on Similarity Measure Modification in an X-Ray Image Retrieval System Based on Fuzzy Representation Using Fuzzy Attributed Relational Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Pourghassem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevance feedback approaches is used to improve the performance of content-based image retrieval systems. In this paper, a novel relevance feedback approach based on similarity measure modification in an X-ray image retrieval system based on fuzzy representation using fuzzy attributed relational graph (FARG is presented. In this approach, optimum weight of each feature in feature vector is calculated using similarity rate between query image and relevant and irrelevant images in user feedback. The calculated weight is used to tune fuzzy graph matching algorithm as a modifier parameter in similarity measure. The standard deviation of the retrieved image features is applied to calculate the optimum weight. The proposed image retrieval system uses a FARG for representation of images, a fuzzy matching graph algorithm as similarity measure and a semantic classifier based on merging scheme for determination of the search space in image database. To evaluate relevance feedback approach in the proposed system, a standard X-ray image database consisting of 10000 images in 57 classes is used. The improvement of the evaluation parameters shows proficiency and efficiency of the proposed system.

  18. Dimensional analysis, similarity, analogy, and the simulation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Dimensional analysis, similarity, analogy, and cybernetics are shown to be four consecutive steps in application of the simulation theory. This paper introduces the classes of phenomena which follow the same formal mathematical equations as models of the natural laws and the interior sphere of restraints groups of phenomena in which one can introduce simplfied nondimensional mathematical equations. The simulation by similarity in a specific field of physics, by analogy in two or more different fields of physics, and by cybernetics in nature in two or more fields of mathematics, physics, biology, economics, politics, sociology, etc., appears as a unique theory which permits one to transport the results of experiments from the models, convenably selected to meet the conditions of researches, constructions, and measurements in the laboratories to the originals which are the primary objectives of the researches. Some interesting conclusions which cannot be avoided in the use of simplified nondimensional mathematical equations as models of natural laws are presented. Interesting limitations on the use of simulation theory based on assumed simplifications are recognized. This paper shows as necessary, in scientific research, that one write mathematical models of general laws which will be applied to nature in its entirety. The paper proposes the extent of the second law of thermodynamics as the generalized law of entropy to model life and its activities. This paper shows that the physical studies and philosophical interpretations of phenomena and natural laws cannot be separated in scientific work; they are interconnected and one cannot be put above the others.

  19. Studies in Astronomical Time Series Analysis. VI. Bayesian Block Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Scargle, Jeffrey D; Jackson, Brad; Chiang, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and characterizing local variability in time series and other forms of sequential data. The goal is to identify and characterize statistically significant variations, at the same time suppressing the inevitable corrupting observational errors. We present a simple nonparametric modeling technique and an algorithm implementing it - an improved and generalized version of Bayesian Blocks (Scargle 1998) - that finds the optimal segmentation of the data in the observation interval. The structure of the algorithm allows it to be used in either a real-time trigger mode, or a retrospective mode. Maximum likelihood or marginal posterior functions to measure model fitness are presented for events, binned counts, and measurements at arbitrary times with known error distributions. Problems addressed include those connected with data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piecewise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multi-variate time series data, analysis of vari...

  20. Multi-Connection Pattern Analysis: Decoding the representational content of neural communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanning; Richardson, Robert Mark; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2017-08-13

    The lack of multivariate methods for decoding the representational content of interregional neural communication has left it difficult to know what information is represented in distributed brain circuit interactions. Here we present Multi-Connection Pattern Analysis (MCPA), which works by learning mappings between the activity patterns of the populations as a factor of the information being processed. These maps are used to predict the activity from one neural population based on the activity from the other population. Successful MCPA-based decoding indicates the involvement of distributed computational processing and provides a framework for probing the representational structure of the interaction. Simulations demonstrate the efficacy of MCPA in realistic circumstances. In addition, we demonstrate that MCPA can be applied to different signal modalities to evaluate a variety of hypothesis associated with information coding in neural communications. We apply MCPA to fMRI and human intracranial electrophysiological data to provide a proof-of-concept of the utility of this method for decoding individual natural images and faces in functional connectivity data. We further use a MCPA-based representational similarity analysis to illustrate how MCPA may be used to test computational models of information transfer among regions of the visual processing stream. Thus, MCPA can be used to assess the information represented in the coupled activity of interacting neural circuits and probe the underlying principles of information transformation between regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing the processing of music and language meaning using EEG and FMRI provides evidence for similar and distinct neural representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Steinbeis

    Full Text Available Recent demonstrations that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful information has raised several questions as to what the underlying mechanisms of establishing meaning in music are, and if the meaning of music is represented in comparable fashion to language meaning. This paper presents evidence showing that expressed affect is a primary pathway to music meaning and that meaning in music is represented in a very similar fashion to language meaning. In two experiments using EEG and fMRI, it was shown that single chords varying in harmonic roughness (consonance/dissonance and thus perceived affect could prime the processing of subsequently presented affective target words, as indicated by an increased N400 and activation of the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG. Most importantly, however, when primed by affective words, single chords incongruous to the preceding affect also elicited an N400 and activated the right posterior STS, an area implicated in processing meaning of a variety of signals (e.g. prosody, voices, motion. This provides an important piece of evidence in support of music meaning being represented in a very similar but also distinct fashion to language meaning: Both elicit an N400, but activate different portions of the right temporal lobe.

  2. Comparing the processing of music and language meaning using EEG and FMRI provides evidence for similar and distinct neural representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2008-05-21

    Recent demonstrations that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful information has raised several questions as to what the underlying mechanisms of establishing meaning in music are, and if the meaning of music is represented in comparable fashion to language meaning. This paper presents evidence showing that expressed affect is a primary pathway to music meaning and that meaning in music is represented in a very similar fashion to language meaning. In two experiments using EEG and fMRI, it was shown that single chords varying in harmonic roughness (consonance/dissonance) and thus perceived affect could prime the processing of subsequently presented affective target words, as indicated by an increased N400 and activation of the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Most importantly, however, when primed by affective words, single chords incongruous to the preceding affect also elicited an N400 and activated the right posterior STS, an area implicated in processing meaning of a variety of signals (e.g. prosody, voices, motion). This provides an important piece of evidence in support of music meaning being represented in a very similar but also distinct fashion to language meaning: Both elicit an N400, but activate different portions of the right temporal lobe.

  3. Robust image analysis with sparse representation on quantized visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bing-Kun; Zhu, Guangyu; Shen, Jialie; Yan, Shuicheng

    2013-03-01

    Recent techniques based on sparse representation (SR) have demonstrated promising performance in high-level visual recognition, exemplified by the highly accurate face recognition under occlusion and other sparse corruptions. Most research in this area has focused on classification algorithms using raw image pixels, and very few have been proposed to utilize the quantized visual features, such as the popular bag-of-words feature abstraction. In such cases, besides the inherent quantization errors, ambiguity associated with visual word assignment and misdetection of feature points, due to factors such as visual occlusions and noises, constitutes the major cause of dense corruptions of the quantized representation. The dense corruptions can jeopardize the decision process by distorting the patterns of the sparse reconstruction coefficients. In this paper, we aim to eliminate the corruptions and achieve robust image analysis with SR. Toward this goal, we introduce two transfer processes (ambiguity transfer and mis-detection transfer) to account for the two major sources of corruption as discussed. By reasonably assuming the rarity of the two kinds of distortion processes, we augment the original SR-based reconstruction objective with l(0) norm regularization on the transfer terms to encourage sparsity and, hence, discourage dense distortion/transfer. Computationally, we relax the nonconvex l(0) norm optimization into a convex l(1) norm optimization problem, and employ the accelerated proximal gradient method to optimize the convergence provable updating procedure. Extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, Caltech-101, Caltech-256, Corel-5k, and CMU pose, illumination, and expression, manifest the necessity of removing the quantization corruptions and the various advantages of the proposed framework.

  4. Analysis of the Chemical Representations in Secondary Lebanese Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Saadeddine Salim; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the requirements that chemical representations should meet in textbooks in order to enhance conceptual understanding. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical representations that are present in 7 secondary Lebanese chemistry textbooks. To achieve the latter purpose, an instrument adapted from…

  5. Community-enhanced Network Representation Learning for Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Cunchao; Zeng, Xiangkai; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2016-01-01

    Network representation learning (NRL) aims to build low-dimensional vectors for vertices in a network. Most existing NRL methods focus on learning representations from local context of vertices (such as their neighbors). Nevertheless, vertices in many complex networks also exhibit significant global patterns widely known as communities. It's a common sense that vertices in the same community tend to connect densely, and usually share common attributes. These patterns are expected to improve NRL and benefit relevant evaluation tasks, such as link prediction and vertex classification. In this work, we propose a novel NRL model by introducing community information of vertices to learn more discriminative network representations, named as Community-enhanced Network Representation Learning (CNRL). CNRL simultaneously detects community distribution of each vertex and learns embeddings of both vertices and communities. In this way, we can obtain more informative representation of a vertex accompanying with its commu...

  6. Self-similar traffic analysis in optical burst assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Zhicheng; Zeng Qingji; Xiao Shilin

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the traffic properties before and after assembly at edge node of Ethernet over optical burst switching (OBS) network for the first time. Burst and inter-arrival time distributions are simulated under time-based and length-based assembly schemes. Self-similar traffic Hurst parameter is compared through R/S and V/T plot. Finally three self-similar traffic generating methods are given. Simulation results demonstrate that, multi-source traffic increases self-similar degree, however after assembly, time-based scheme can decrease self-similar degree, and aggregated burst size is close to Gaussian distribution. Length-based method has no effects on the self-similarity of input traffic. RMD is fit for study of burst network with large self-similarity.

  7. A Framework for Analysis of Music Similarity Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Christensen, Mads G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2007-01-01

    To analyze specific properties of music similarity measures that the commonly used genre classification evaluation procedure does not reveal, we introduce a MIDI based test framework for music similarity measures. We introduce the framework by example and thus outline an experiment to analyze...... the dependency of a music similarity measure on the instrumentation of a song compared to the melody, and to analyze its sensitivity to transpositions. Using the outlined experiment, we analyze music similarity measures from three software packages, namely Marsyas, MA toolbox and Intelligent Sound Processing...

  8. Measures of Similarity for Command and Control Situation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Resnik proposed to use information content[17]. He reasoned that if we consider the taxon- omy to be a source of information, that we could effectively...determined by the specific probabilistic profile of that source2. From this, Resnik proposed that the degree of similarity between concepts within a...379–423,623–656, 1948. [17] Philip Resnik . Semantic similarity in a taxonomy: An information-based measure and its application to problems of

  9. Studies in Astronomical Time Series Analysis. VI. Bayesian Block Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Norris, Jay P.; Jackson, Brad; Chiang, James

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and characterizing local variability in time series and other forms of sequential data. The goal is to identify and characterize statistically significant variations, at the same time suppressing the inevitable corrupting observational errors. We present a simple nonparametric modeling technique and an algorithm implementing it-an improved and generalized version of Bayesian Blocks [Scargle 1998]-that finds the optimal segmentation of the data in the observation interval. The structure of the algorithm allows it to be used in either a real-time trigger mode, or a retrospective mode. Maximum likelihood or marginal posterior functions to measure model fitness are presented for events, binned counts, and measurements at arbitrary times with known error distributions. Problems addressed include those connected with data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piece- wise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multivariate time series data, analysis of variance, data on the circle, other data modes, and dispersed data. Simulations provide evidence that the detection efficiency for weak signals is close to a theoretical asymptotic limit derived by [Arias-Castro, Donoho and Huo 2003]. In the spirit of Reproducible Research [Donoho et al. (2008)] all of the code and data necessary to reproduce all of the figures in this paper are included as auxiliary material.

  10. STUDIES IN ASTRONOMICAL TIME SERIES ANALYSIS. VI. BAYESIAN BLOCK REPRESENTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D. [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, MS 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Norris, Jay P. [Physics Department, Boise State University, 2110 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725-1570 (United States); Jackson, Brad [The Center for Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, MH 308, San Jose, CA 95192-0103 (United States); Chiang, James, E-mail: jeffrey.d.scargle@nasa.gov [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and characterizing local variability in time series and other forms of sequential data. The goal is to identify and characterize statistically significant variations, at the same time suppressing the inevitable corrupting observational errors. We present a simple nonparametric modeling technique and an algorithm implementing it-an improved and generalized version of Bayesian Blocks-that finds the optimal segmentation of the data in the observation interval. The structure of the algorithm allows it to be used in either a real-time trigger mode, or a retrospective mode. Maximum likelihood or marginal posterior functions to measure model fitness are presented for events, binned counts, and measurements at arbitrary times with known error distributions. Problems addressed include those connected with data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piecewise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multivariate time series data, analysis of variance, data on the circle, other data modes, and dispersed data. Simulations provide evidence that the detection efficiency for weak signals is close to a theoretical asymptotic limit derived by Arias-Castro et al. In the spirit of Reproducible Research all of the code and data necessary to reproduce all of the figures in this paper are included as supplementary material.

  11. Similarity spectra analysis of high-performance jet aircraft noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Tracianne B; Gee, Kent L; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M

    2013-04-01

    Noise measured in the vicinity of an F-22A Raptor has been compared to similarity spectra found previously to represent mixing noise from large-scale and fine-scale turbulent structures in laboratory-scale jet plumes. Comparisons have been made for three engine conditions using ground-based sideline microphones, which covered a large angular aperture. Even though the nozzle geometry is complex and the jet is nonideally expanded, the similarity spectra do agree with large portions of the measured spectra. Toward the sideline, the fine-scale similarity spectrum is used, while the large-scale similarity spectrum provides a good fit to the area of maximum radiation. Combinations of the two similarity spectra are shown to match the data in between those regions. Surprisingly, a combination of the two is also shown to match the data at the farthest aft angle. However, at high frequencies the degree of congruity between the similarity and the measured spectra changes with engine condition and angle. At the higher engine conditions, there is a systematically shallower measured high-frequency slope, with the largest discrepancy occurring in the regions of maximum radiation.

  12. New trends in applied harmonic analysis sparse representations, compressed sensing, and multifractal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrelli, Carlos; Jaffard, Stephane; Molter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a selection of written notes corresponding to courses taught at the CIMPA School: "New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis: Sparse Representations, Compressed Sensing and Multifractal Analysis". New interactions between harmonic analysis and signal and image processing have seen striking development in the last 10 years, and several technological deadlocks have been solved through the resolution of deep theoretical problems in harmonic analysis. New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis focuses on two particularly active areas that are representative of such advances: multifractal analysis, and sparse representation and compressed sensing. The contributions are written by leaders in these areas, and covers both theoretical aspects and applications. This work should prove useful not only to PhD students and postdocs in mathematics and signal and image processing, but also to researchers working in related topics.

  13. Semantic similarity from natural language and ontology analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harispe, Sébastien; Janaqi, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence federates numerous scientific fields in the aim of developing machines able to assist human operators performing complex treatments---most of which demand high cognitive skills (e.g. learning or decision processes). Central to this quest is to give machines the ability to estimate the likeness or similarity between things in the way human beings estimate the similarity between stimuli.In this context, this book focuses on semantic measures: approaches designed for comparing semantic entities such as units of language, e.g. words, sentences, or concepts and instances def

  14. Improvement of water distribution networks analysis by topological similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Mahavir Singh; Suraj Krishan Kheer; I.K. Pandita

    2016-01-01

    In this research paper a methodology based on topological similarity is used to obtain starting point of iteration for solving reservoir and pipe network problems. As of now initial starting point for iteration is based on pure guess work which may be supported by experience. Topological similarity concept comes from the Principle of Quasi Work (PQW). In PQW the solution of any one problem of a class is used to solve other complex problems of the same class. This paves way for arriving at a u...

  15. Similarity Attracts: An Analysis of Recruitment Decisions in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebken, Heinke

    2010-01-01

    The finding and the recruiting of scientists have been a long-standing issue in higher education. Due to the dearth of reliable evidence on scholarly potential at an early stage of a scientist's career, the hiring department often has to look for alternative assessment criteria. Drawing on the similarity-attraction theory, it is hypothesized that…

  16. Network Analysis of Students' Representation Use in Mechanics and E&M

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPadden, Daryl; Brewe, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the representational tools that students in the Modeling Instruction-Introductory E&M (MI-E&M) course use on introductory physics problems. Representational competence is a critical skill needed for students to develop and communicate a sophisticated understanding of science topics, particularly in physics where multiple representations are often used within a single problem. The Modeling Instruction curriculum highlights representation development as a part of the modeling process, making the MI-E&M course a rich context to collect data. In the Spring 2015 and Spring 2016 semesters, over 150 students total (from 3 sections of MI-E&M) were given a survey of 25 physics problem statements both pre- and post- instruction, covering both Newtonian Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism (E&M), and asked which representations they would use in that given situation. Using network analysis, we compare how students use representations in Mechanics and E&M contexts.

  17. An Analysis of Different Representations for Vectors and Planes in R[superscript 3]: Learning Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Ivonne; Possani, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the difficulties faced by students when working with different representations of vectors, planes and their intersections in R[superscript 3]. Duval's theoretical framework on semiotic representations is used to design a set of evaluating activities, and later to analyze student work. The…

  18. Finding "Problem Types" in Judgments of Problem-Similarity: Comparison of Cluster Analysis with Subject Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Richard D.

    Literature in mathematic problem-solving suggests that learners store information in memory which helps them solve stereotyped algebra word problems. Cluster analysis has been used as an exploratory tool to infer the types of problems which have common representations in memory. This study compares the results of a hierarchical cluster analysis of…

  19. Revealing action representation processes in audio perception using fractal EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidimitriou, Stelios K; Zacharakis, Asteris I; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C; Panoulas, Konstantinos J; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J; Panas, Stavros M

    2011-04-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, and especially the Mu-rhythm over the sensorimotor cortex that relates to the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNS), were acquired from two subject groups (orchestral musicians and nonmusicians), in order to explore action representation processes involved in the perception and performance of musical pieces. Two types of stimuli were used, i.e., an auditory one consisting of an excerpt of Beethoven's fifth symphony and a visual one presenting a conductor directing an orchestra performing the same excerpt of the piece. Three tasks were conducted including auditory stimulation, audiovisual stimulation, and visual stimulation only, and the acquired signals were processed using fractal [time-dependent fractal dimension (FD) estimation] and statistical analysis (analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney). Experimental results showed significant differences between the two groups while desychronization of the Mu-rhythm, which can be linked to MNS activation, was observed during all tasks for the musicians' group, as opposed to the nonmusicians' group who exhibited similar response only when the visual stimulus was present. The mobility of the conductor was also correlated to the estimated FD signals, showing significantly higher correlation for the case of musicians compared to nonmusicians' one. The present study sheds light upon the difference in action representation in auditory perception between musicians and nonmusicians and paves the way for better comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of the MNS.

  20. Knowledge Representation and Inference for Analysis and Design of Database and Tabular Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Ligeza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rulebased systems constitute a powerful tool for specification of knowledge in design and implementation of knowledge based systems. They provide also a universal programming paradigm for domains such as intelligent control, decision support, situation classification and operational knowledge encoding. In order to assure safe and reliable performance, such system should satisfy certain formal requirements, including completeness and consistency. This paper addresses the issue of analysis and verification of selected properties of a class of such system in a systematic way. A uniform, tabular scheme of single-level rule-based systems is considered. Such systems can be applied as a generalized form of databases for specification of data pattern (unconditional knowledge, or can be used for defining attributive decision tables (conditional knowledge in form of rules. They can also serve as lower-level components of a hierarchical multi-level control and decision support knowledge-based systems. An algebraic knowledge representation paradigm using extended tabular representation, similar to relational database tables is presented and algebraic bases for system analysis, verification and design support are outlined.

  1. Similarity Measures, Author Cocitation Analysis, and Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    The use of Pearson's correlation coefficient in Author Cocitation Analysis was compared with Salton's cosine measure in a number of recent contributions. Unlike the Pearson correlation, the cosine is insensitive to the number of zeros. However, one has the option of applying a logarithmic transformation in correlation analysis. Information calculus is based on both the logarithmic transformation and provides a non-parametric statistics. Using this methodology one can cluster a document set in...

  2. Semantic Analysis of Tag Similarity Measures in Collaborative Tagging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cattuto, Ciro; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Social bookmarking systems allow users to organise collections of resources on the Web in a collaborative fashion. The increasing popularity of these systems as well as first insights into their emergent semantics have made them relevant to disciplines like knowledge extraction and ontology learning. The problem of devising methods to measure the semantic relatedness between tags and characterizing it semantically is still largely open. Here we analyze three measures of tag relatedness: tag co-occurrence, cosine similarity of co-occurrence distributions, and FolkRank, an adaptation of the PageRank algorithm to folksonomies. Each measure is computed on tags from a large-scale dataset crawled from the social bookmarking system del.icio.us. To provide a semantic grounding of our findings, a connection to WordNet (a semantic lexicon for the English language) is established by mapping tags into synonym sets of WordNet, and applying there well-known metrics of semantic similarity. Our results clearly expose differe...

  3. Similarity Measures, Author Cocitation Analysis, and Information Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    The use of Pearson's correlation coefficient in Author Cocitation Analysis was compared with Salton's cosine measure in a number of recent contributions. Unlike the Pearson correlation, the cosine is insensitive to the number of zeros. However, one has the option of applying a logarithmic transformation in correlation analysis. Information calculus is based on both the logarithmic transformation and provides a non-parametric statistics. Using this methodology one can cluster a document set in a precise way and express the differences in terms of bits of information. The algorithm is explained and used on the data set which was made the subject of this discussion.

  4. Geospatial Representation, Analysis and Computing Using Bandlimited Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    approach 1 PROGRESS ON “GEOSPATIAL REPRESENTATION AND COMPUTING” 2 for modeling gravity of irregular shaped bodies, e.g. asteroids . The work in this...iteration to solve (11). Let Nit denote the number of iterations, which can either be set to a fixed number or deter- mined adaptively. Labeling the

  5. Towards a universal representation for audio information retrieval and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Troelsgaard, Rasmus; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental and general representation of audio and music which integrates multi-modal data sources is important for both application and basic research purposes. In this paper we address this challenge by proposing a multi-modal version of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model which provides a...

  6. Content Analysis of Science Teacher Representations in Google Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Teacher images can impact numerous perceptions in educational settings, as well as through popular media. The portrayal of effective science teaching is especially challenging to specify, given the complex nature of science inquiry and other standards-based practices. The present study examined the litany of representations of science teachers…

  7. Simulation and analysis of controlled multi-representational reasoning processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-representation reasoning processes often show a variety of reasoning paths that can be followed. To analyse such reasoning processes with special attention for differences between individuals, it is required (1) to obtain an overview of the variety of possibilities and (2) to address navigatio

  8. Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyfitz, Barbara

    2014-02-15

    This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

  9. Similarity transformation approach to identifiability analysis of nonlinear compartmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, S; Godfrey, K R; Rabitz, H

    1989-04-01

    Through use of the local state isomorphism theorem instead of the algebraic equivalence theorem of linear systems theory, the similarity transformation approach is extended to nonlinear models, resulting in finitely verifiable sufficient and necessary conditions for global and local identifiability. The approach requires testing of certain controllability and observability conditions, but in many practical examples these conditions prove very easy to verify. In principle the method also involves nonlinear state variable transformations, but in all of the examples presented in the paper the transformations turn out to be linear. The method is applied to an unidentifiable nonlinear model and a locally identifiable nonlinear model, and these are the first nonlinear models other than bilinear models where the reason for lack of global identifiability is nontrivial. The method is also applied to two models with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics, both of considerable importance in pharmacokinetics, and for both of which the complicated nature of the algebraic equations arising from the Taylor series approach has hitherto defeated attempts to establish identifiability results for specific input functions.

  10. An Ensemble 4D Seismic History Matching Framework with Sparse Representation Based on Wavelet Multiresolution Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xiaodong; Jakobsen, Morten; Nævdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose an ensemble 4D seismic history matching framework for reservoir characterization. Compared to similar existing frameworks in reservoir engineering community, the proposed one consists of some relatively new ingredients, in terms of the type of seismic data in choice, wavelet multiresolution analysis for the chosen seismic data and related data noise estimation, and the use of recently developed iterative ensemble history matching algorithms. Typical seismic data used for history matching, such as acoustic impedance, are inverted quantities, whereas extra uncertainties may arise during the inversion processes. In the proposed framework we avoid such intermediate inversion processes. In addition, we also adopt wavelet-based sparse representation to reduce data size. Concretely, we use intercept and gradient attributes derived from amplitude versus angle (AVA) data, apply multilevel discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) to attribute data, and estimate noise level of resulting wavelet coeffici...

  11. [Representation and mathematical analysis of human crystalline lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan; Giovanzana, Stefano; Tălu, Mihai

    2011-01-01

    The surface of human crystalline lens can be described and analyzed using mathematical models based on parametric representations, used in biomechanical studies and 3D solid modeling of the lens. The mathematical models used in lens biomechanics allow the study and the behavior of crystalline lens on variables and complex dynamic loads. Also, the lens biomechanics has the potential to improve the results in the development of intraocular lenses and cataract surgery. The paper presents the most representative mathematical models currently used for the modeling of human crystalline lens, both optically and biomechanically.

  12. A social representations analysis of design science research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available elaborations’ of unfamiliar phenomena or events [55]. Such phenomena or events become social reality by virtue of the representations that the community holds. Only by being represented by a group of people by means of familiar conceptual devices can an event... of information systems (IS) [7, 8, 9, 10]. However, the current use of SRT is almost silent on the diffusion and popularisation of new and unfamiliar concepts that directly concern the research commu- nity. Consequently, an incomplete picture exists about the way...

  13. Multilinear Biased Discriminant Analysis: A Novel Method for Facial Action Unit Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Khademi, Mahmoud; Manzuri-Shalmani, Mohammad T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a novel efficient method for representation of facial action units by encoding an image sequence as a fourth-order tensor is presented. The multilinear tensor-based extension of the biased discriminant analysis (BDA) algorithm, called multilinear biased discriminant analysis (MBDA), is first proposed. Then, we apply the MBDA and two-dimensional BDA (2DBDA) algorithms, as the dimensionality reduction techniques, to Gabor representations and the geometric features of the input image sequence respectively. The proposed scheme can deal with the asymmetry between positive and negative samples as well as curse of dimensionality dilemma. Extensive experiments on Cohn-Kanade database show the superiority of the proposed method for representation of the subtle changes and the temporal information involved in formation of the facial expressions. As an accurate tool, this representation can be applied to many areas such as recognition of spontaneous and deliberate facial expressions, multi modal/media huma...

  14. A novel image compression-encryption hybrid algorithm based on the analysis sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Xu, Biao; Zhou, Nanrun

    2017-06-01

    Recent advances on the compressive sensing theory were invoked for image compression-encryption based on the synthesis sparse model. In this paper we concentrate on an alternative sparse representation model, i.e., the analysis sparse model, to propose a novel image compression-encryption hybrid algorithm. The analysis sparse representation of the original image is obtained with an overcomplete fixed dictionary that the order of the dictionary atoms is scrambled, and the sparse representation can be considered as an encrypted version of the image. Moreover, the sparse representation is compressed to reduce its dimension and re-encrypted by the compressive sensing simultaneously. To enhance the security of the algorithm, a pixel-scrambling method is employed to re-encrypt the measurements of the compressive sensing. Various simulation results verify that the proposed image compression-encryption hybrid algorithm could provide a considerable compression performance with a good security.

  15. Female political representation and child health: Evidence from a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamruzzaman, Amm; Lange, Matthew

    2016-10-24

    This article explores the impact of female political representation in national parliaments on child health through a multilevel analysis. Using available Demographic and Health Surveys, we employ both cross-sectional data for 51 low- and middle-income countries and longitudinal data for 20 countries with multiple surveys. For both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, female representation is negatively related to infant mortality and positively related to measles vaccination status. To explore potential mechanisms, we control for state spending on health and analyze whether the impact of female representation depends on a critical mass of female representatives. The analysis offers evidence that state spending accounts for some of the mediation effect and that the impact of female representation on infant death depends on a critical mass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Sparse Representations Using Bi-Orthogonal Dictionaries

    CERN Document Server

    Vehkaperä, Mikko; Chatterjee, Saikat; Aurell, Erik; Skoglund, Mikael; Rasmussen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The sparse representation problem of recovering an N dimensional sparse vector x from M < N linear observations y = Dx given dictionary D is considered. The standard approach is to let the elements of the dictionary be independent and identically distributed (IID) zero-mean Gaussian and minimize the l1-norm of x under the constraint y = Dx. In this paper, the performance of l1-reconstruction is analyzed, when the dictionary is bi-orthogonal D = [O1 O2], where O1,O2 are independent and drawn uniformly according to the Haar measure on the group of orthogonal M x M matrices. By an application of the replica method, we show that the typical compression threshold for such D is the same as for the IID Gaussian dictionary.

  17. Analysis and Improvement of Low Rank Representation for Subspace segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Siming, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We analyze and improve low rank representation (LRR), the state-of-the-art algorithm for subspace segmentation of data. We prove that for the noiseless case, the optimization model of LRR has a unique solution, which is the shape interaction matrix (SIM) of the data matrix. So in essence LRR is equivalent to factorization methods. We also prove that the minimum value of the optimization model of LRR is equal to the rank of the data matrix. For the noisy case, we show that LRR can be approximated as a factorization method that combines noise removal by column sparse robust PCA. We further propose an improved version of LRR, called Robust Shape Interaction (RSI), which uses the corrected data as the dictionary instead of the noisy data. RSI is more robust than LRR when the corruption in data is heavy. Experiments on both synthetic and real data testify to the improved robustness of RSI.

  18. An Integrative Framework for the Analysis of Multiple and Multimodal Representations for Meaning-Making in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kok-Sing; Delgado, Cesar; Moje, Elizabeth Birr

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an integrative framework for analyzing science meaning-making with representations. It integrates the research on multiple representations and multimodal representations by identifying and leveraging the differences in their units of analysis in two dimensions: timescale and compositional grain size. Timescale considers the…

  19. Sample similarity analysis of angles of repose based on experimental results for DEM calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental material property, particle-particle friction coefficient is usually calculated based on angle of repose which can be obtained experimentally. In the present study, the bottomless cylinder test was carried out to investigate this friction coefficient of a kind of biomass material, i.e. willow chips. Because of its irregular shape and varying particle size distribution, calculation of the angle becomes less applicable and decisive. In the previous studies only one section of those uneven slopes is chosen in most cases, although standard methods in definition of a representable section are barely found. Hence, we presented an efficient and reliable method from the new technology, 3D scan, which was used to digitize the surface of heaps and generate its point cloud. Then, two tangential lines of any selected section were calculated through the linear least-squares regression (LLSR, such that the left and right angle of repose of a pile could be derived. As the next step, a certain sum of sections were stochastic selected, and calculations were repeated correspondingly in order to achieve sample of angles, which was plotted in Cartesian coordinates as spots diagram. Subsequently, different samples were acquired through various selections of sections. By applying similarities and difference analysis of these samples, the reliability of this proposed method was verified. Phased results provides a realistic criterion to reduce the deviation between experiment and simulation as a result of random selection of a single angle, which will be compared with the simulation results in the future.

  20. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza

    2017-03-31

    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  1. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  2. Additive Representations of Preferences, A New Foundation of Decision Analysis; The Algebraic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn Wakker (1989, "Additive Representations of Preferences, A New Foundation of Decision Analysis"), a new foundation of decision analysis was given. The main tool was a way to derive comparisons of "tradeoffs" from ordinal preferences, with comparisons of tradeoffs revealing orderings of

  3. A social representations analysis of design science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie Naidoo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Design science research (DSR is a relatively unfamiliar research paradigm within the computing field in South Africa. In light of recent interest in this paradigm, this study sought to explore DSR perspectives among local computing researchers. Key theoretical concepts from social representations theory (SRT such as anchoring and objectification were used to explore how researchers construct their understanding of DSR. A visual approach was used to administer drawing and association tasks to two focus groups; each focus group comprised around 25 participants ranging from doctoral students to experienced researchers. The focus group discussions invoked interesting complementary and distinctive associations about the process and content of DSR – anchored in dominant and conventional research practices. The results also illustrated several ways in which DSR is objectified by the researchers in drawings and metaphorical constructions. We conclude that SRT is useful for exploring beliefs about novel and relatively unfamiliar research practices. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of how computing researchers go about making sense and assigning meaning to changing research practices. The findings are developed into recommendations for introducing changes to research practices. These recommendations can be used to direct efforts to more appropriately accommodate changing research practices within the computing community to broaden knowledge generation.

  4. Neurobiological systems for lexical representation and analysis in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Tyler, Lorraine K; Su, Li; Wingfield, Cai; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2013-10-01

    Current research suggests that language comprehension engages two joint but functionally distinguishable neurobiological processes: a distributed bilateral system, which supports general perceptual and interpretative processes underpinning speech comprehension, and a left hemisphere (LH) frontotemporal system, selectively tuned to the processing of combinatorial grammatical sequences, such as regularly inflected verbs in English [Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. Morphology, language and the brain: The decompositional substrate for language comprehension. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 362, 823-836, 2007]. Here we investigated how English derivationally complex words engage these systems, asking whether they selectively activate the LH system in the same way as inflections or whether they primarily engage the bilateral system that support nondecompositional access. In an fMRI study, we saw no evidence for selective activation of the LH frontotemporal system, even for highly transparent forms like bravely. Instead, a combination of univariate and multivariate analyses revealed the engagement of a distributed bilateral system, modulated by factors of perceptual complexity and semantic transparency. We discuss the implications for theories of the processing and representation of English derivational morphology and highlight the importance of neurobiological constraints in understanding these processes.

  5. Development of a fingerprint reduction approach for Bayesian similarity searching based on Kullback-Leibler divergence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisius, Britta; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2009-06-01

    The contribution of individual fingerprint bit positions to similarity search performance is systematically evaluated. A method is introduced to determine bit significance on the basis of Kullback-Leibler divergence analysis of bit distributions in active and database compounds. Bit divergence analysis and Bayesian compound screening share a common methodological foundation. Hence, given the significance ranking of all individual bit positions comprising a fingerprint, subsets of bits are evaluated in the context of Bayesian screening, and minimal fingerprint representations are determined that meet or exceed the search performance of unmodified fingerprints. For fingerprints of different design evaluated on many compound activity classes, we consistently find that subsets of fingerprint bit positions are responsible for search performance. In part, these subsets are very small and contain in some cases only a few fingerprint bit positions. Structural or pharmacophore patterns captured by preferred bit positions can often be directly associated with characteristic features of active compounds. In some cases, reduced fingerprint representations clearly exceed the search performance of the original fingerprints. Thus, fingerprint reduction likely represents a promising approach for practical applications.

  6. Sparse Component Analysis Using Time-Frequency Representations for Operational Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqian Qin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sparse component analysis (SCA has been widely used for blind source separation(BSS for many years. Recently, SCA has been applied to operational modal analysis (OMA, which is also known as output-only modal identification. This paper considers the sparsity of sources’ time-frequency (TF representation and proposes a new TF-domain SCA under the OMA framework. First, the measurements from the sensors are transformed to the TF domain to get a sparse representation. Then, single-source-points (SSPs are detected to better reveal the hyperlines which correspond to the columns of the mixing matrix. The K-hyperline clustering algorithm is used to identify the direction vectors of the hyperlines and then the mixing matrix is calculated. Finally, basis pursuit de-noising technique is used to recover the modal responses, from which the modal parameters are computed. The proposed method is valid even if the number of active modes exceed the number of sensors. Numerical simulation and experimental verification demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  7. Sparse Component Analysis Using Time-Frequency Representations for Operational Modal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shaoqian; Guo, Jie; Zhu, Changan

    2015-01-01

    Sparse component analysis (SCA) has been widely used for blind source separation(BSS) for many years. Recently, SCA has been applied to operational modal analysis (OMA), which is also known as output-only modal identification. This paper considers the sparsity of sources' time-frequency (TF) representation and proposes a new TF-domain SCA under the OMA framework. First, the measurements from the sensors are transformed to the TF domain to get a sparse representation. Then, single-source-points (SSPs) are detected to better reveal the hyperlines which correspond to the columns of the mixing matrix. The K-hyperline clustering algorithm is used to identify the direction vectors of the hyperlines and then the mixing matrix is calculated. Finally, basis pursuit de-noising technique is used to recover the modal responses, from which the modal parameters are computed. The proposed method is valid even if the number of active modes exceed the number of sensors. Numerical simulation and experimental verification demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. PMID:25789492

  8. Information analysis for modeling and representation of meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Uda, Norihiko

    1994-01-01

    In this dissertation, information analysis and an information model called the Semantic Structure Model based on information analysis are explained for semantic processing. Methods for self organization of information are also described. In addition, Information-Base Systems for thinking support of research and development in non linear optical materials are explained. As a result of information analysis, general properties of information and structural properties of concepts become clear. Ge...

  9. Cue Representation and Situational Awareness in Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Diana R.

    2009-01-01

    Task analysis in human performance technology is used to determine how human performance can be well supported with training, job aids, environmental changes, and other interventions. Early work by Miller (1953) and Gilbert (1969, 1974) addressed cue processing in task execution and recommended cue descriptions in task analysis. Modern task…

  10. Spectral Analysis of Multi-dimensional Self-similar Markov Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Modarresi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider a wide sense discrete scale invariant process with scale $l>1$. We consider to have $T$ samples at each scale, and choose $\\alpha$ by the equality $l=\\alpha^T$. Our special scheme of sampling is to choose our samples at discrete points $\\alpha^k, k\\in W$. So we provide a discrete time wide sense scale invariant(DT-SI) process. We find the spectral representation of the covariance function of such DT-SI process. By providing harmonic like representation of multi-dimensional self-similar processes, spectral density function of them are presented. We also consider a discrete time scale invariance Markov(DT-SIM) process with the above scheme of sampling at points $\\alpha^k, k\\in {\\bf W}$ and show that the spectral density matrix of DT-SIM process and its associated $T$-dimensional self-similar Markov process is fully specified by $\\{R_{j}^H(1),R_{j}^H(0),j=0, 1, ..., T-1\\}$ where $R_{j}^H(\\tau)=\\mathrm{Cov}\\big(X(\\alpha^{j+\\tau}),X(\\alpha^j)\\big)$

  11. A Model for Comparative Analysis of the Similarity between Android and iOS Operating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixandroiu R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent expansion of mobile devices, in this article we try to do an analysis of two of the most used mobile OSS. This analysis is made on the method of calculating Jaccard's similarity coefficient. To complete the analysis, we developed a hierarchy of factors in evaluating OSS. Analysis has shown that the two OSS are similar in terms of functionality, but there are a number of factors that weighted make a difference.

  12. simDEF: definition-based semantic similarity measure of gene ontology terms for functional similarity analysis of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaranghader, Ahmad; Matwin, Stan; Sokolova, Marina; Beiko, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    Measures of protein functional similarity are essential tools for function prediction, evaluation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and other applications. Several existing methods perform comparisons between proteins based on the semantic similarity of their GO terms; however, these measures are highly sensitive to modifications in the topological structure of GO, tend to be focused on specific analytical tasks and concentrate on the GO terms themselves rather than considering their textual definitions. We introduce simDEF, an efficient method for measuring semantic similarity of GO terms using their GO definitions, which is based on the Gloss Vector measure commonly used in natural language processing. The simDEF approach builds optimized definition vectors for all relevant GO terms, and expresses the similarity of a pair of proteins as the cosine of the angle between their definition vectors. Relative to existing similarity measures, when validated on a yeast reference database, simDEF improves correlation with sequence homology by up to 50%, shows a correlation improvement >4% with gene expression in the biological process hierarchy of GO and increases PPI predictability by > 2.5% in F1 score for molecular function hierarchy. Datasets, results and source code are available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/Software/simDEF CONTACT: ahmad.pgh@dal.ca or beiko@cs.dal.ca Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Design of Lessons Using Mathematics Analysis Software to Support Multiple Representations in Secondary School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robyn; Stacey, Kaye; Wander, Roger; Ball, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    Current technologies incorporating sophisticated mathematical analysis software (calculation, graphing, dynamic geometry, tables, and more) provide easy access to multiple representations of mathematical problems. Realising the affordances of such technology for students' learning requires carefully designed lessons. This paper reports on design…

  14. "Try a taste of Turkey": an analysis of Turkey's representation in British newspapers' travel sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; Kuipers, G.M.M.; van Zoonen, L.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the cultural representation of Turkey as a travel destination for British tourists. Drawing on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 99 travel features published in three British broadsheet and three tabloid papers over a five-year period, we investigate the content a

  15. The Design of Lessons Using Mathematics Analysis Software to Support Multiple Representations in Secondary School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robyn; Stacey, Kaye; Wander, Roger; Ball, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    Current technologies incorporating sophisticated mathematical analysis software (calculation, graphing, dynamic geometry, tables, and more) provide easy access to multiple representations of mathematical problems. Realising the affordances of such technology for students' learning requires carefully designed lessons. This paper reports on design…

  16. The Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of Women and Men in Bozorg Alavi's Short Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nasser; Khormaei, Alireza; Zarei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a critical discourse analysis approach to the investigation of the representation of men and women in Bozorg Alavi's short stories. The principal aim of this study is to find how different statuses of men and women are reflected in their languages. To this end, four short stories were selected and their discursive sentences were…

  17. The Representation of Women in Street Songs: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Mahraganat

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Falaky, Mai Samir

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the representation of male and female gender identities in Egyptian street songs called "Mahraganat." The study discusses the issue with reference to two common songs spreading among young commoners. Since the songs are written by writers who descend from low-standard social group, the analysis exhibits both…

  18. Large-Eddy Simulation Comparison of Neutral Flow Over a Canopy: Sensitivities to Physical and Numerical Conditions, and Similarity to Other Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwersloot, H. G.; Moene, A. F.; Attema, J. J.; de Arellano, J. Vilà-Guerau

    2017-01-01

    The representation of a neutral atmospheric flow over roughness elements simulating a vegetation canopy is compared between two large-eddy simulation models, wind-tunnel data and recently updated empirical flux-gradient relationships. Special attention is devoted to the dynamics in the roughness sublayer above the canopy layer, where turbulence is most intense. By demonstrating that the flow properties are consistent across these different approaches, confidence in the individual independent representations is bolstered. Systematic sensitivity analyses with the Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation model show that the transition in the one-sided plant-area density from the canopy layer to unobstructed air potentially alters the flow in the canopy and roughness sublayer. Anomalously induced fluctuations can be fully suppressed by spreading the transition over four steps. Finer vertical resolutions only serve to reduce the magnitude of these fluctuations, but do not prevent them. To capture the general dynamics of the flow, a resolution of 10 % of the canopy height is found to suffice, while a finer resolution still improves the representation of the turbulent kinetic energy. Finally, quadrant analyses indicate that momentum transport is dominated by the mean velocity components within each quadrant. Consequently, a mass-flux approach can be applied to represent the momentum flux.

  19. Sentiments analysis at conceptual level making use of the Narrative Knowledge Representation Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    2014-10-01

    This paper illustrates some of the knowledge representation structures and inference procedures proper to a high-level, fully implemented conceptual language, NKRL (Narrative Knowledge Representation Language). The aim is to show how these tools can be used to deal, in a sentiment analysis/opinion mining context, with some common types of human (and non-human) "behaviors". These behaviors correspond, in particular, to the concrete, mutual relationships among human and non-human characters that can be expressed under the form of non-fictional and real-time "narratives" (i.e., as logically and temporally structured sequences of "elementary events").

  20. Visualization and analysis of modulated pulses in magnetic resonance by joint time-frequency representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köcher, S S; Heydenreich, T; Glaser, S J

    2014-10-17

    We study the utility of joint time-frequency representations for the analysis of shaped or composite pulses for magnetic resonance. Such spectrograms are commonly used for the visualization of shaped laser pulses in optical spectroscopy. This intuitive representation provides additional insight compared to conventional approaches, which exclusively show either temporal or spectral information. We focus on the short-time Fourier transform, which provides not only amplitude but also phase information. The approach is illustrated for broadband inversion pulses, multiple quantum excitation and broadband heteronuclear decoupling. The physical interpretation and validity of the approach is discussed.

  1. Analysis of thin plates with holes by using exact geometrical representation within XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Logah; Tso, C.P.; Leng, Lim Thong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of thin plates with holes within the context of XFEM. New integration techniques are developed for exact geometrical representation of the holes. Numerical and exact integration techniques are presented, with some limitations for the exact integration technique. Simulation results show that the proposed techniques help to reduce the solution error, due to the exact geometrical representation of the holes and utilization of appropriate quadrature rules. Discussion on minimum order of integration order needed to achieve good accuracy and convergence for the techniques presented in this work is also included. PMID:27222749

  2. Topological Patterns for Scalable Representation and Analysis of Dataflow Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    implementation of a JPEG encoder. JPEG Throughput FPGA Resource Utilization Encoder (samples Slices (out 18kB 18x18 /cycle) of 13696) BRAM MULT Non...the shared-resource version of the JPEG encoder would result in a net reduction in BRAM utilization. This analysis can be confirmed from the resource...conservation of FPGA resources that overrides the multiplexing overhead. The shared-resource JPEG encoder uses less BRAM than the separate- resource

  3. Delay correlation analysis and representation for vital complaint VHDL models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Marvin J.; Misra, Ashutosh

    2004-11-09

    A method and system unbind a rise/fall tuple of a VHDL generic variable and create rise time and fall time generics of each generic variable that are independent of each other. Then, according to a predetermined correlation policy, the method and system collect delay values in a VHDL standard delay file, sort the delay values, remove duplicate delay values, group the delay values into correlation sets, and output an analysis file. The correlation policy may include collecting all generic variables in a VHDL standard delay file, selecting each generic variable, and performing reductions on the set of delay values associated with each selected generic variable.

  4. GOGrapher: A Python library for GO graph representation and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xinghua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology is the most commonly used controlled vocabulary for annotating proteins. The concepts in the ontology are organized as a directed acyclic graph, in which a node corresponds to a biological concept and a directed edge denotes the parent-child semantic relationship between a pair of terms. A large number of protein annotations further create links between proteins and their functional annotations, reflecting the contemporary knowledge about proteins and their functional relationships. This leads to a complex graph consisting of interleaved biological concepts and their associated proteins. What is needed is a simple, open source library that provides tools to not only create and view the Gene Ontology graph, but to analyze and manipulate it as well. Here we describe the development and use of GOGrapher, a Python library that can be used for the creation, analysis, manipulation, and visualization of Gene Ontology related graphs. Findings An object-oriented approach was adopted to organize the hierarchy of the graphs types and associated classes. An Application Programming Interface is provided through which different types of graphs can be pragmatically created, manipulated, and visualized. GOGrapher has been successfully utilized in multiple research projects, e.g., a graph-based multi-label text classifier for protein annotation. Conclusion The GOGrapher project provides a reusable programming library designed for the manipulation and analysis of Gene Ontology graphs. The library is freely available for the scientific community to use and improve.

  5. MULTIRESOLUTION ANALYSIS, SELF-SIMILAR TILINGS AND HAAR WAVELETS ON THE HEISENBERG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Heping; Liu Yu; Wang Haihui

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the properties of multiresolution analysis and self-similar tilings on the Heisenberg group are studied. Moreover, we establish a theory to construct an orthonormal Haar wavelet base in L~2(H~d) by using self-similar tilings for the acceptable dilations on the Heisenberg group.

  6. Facial Expression Representation Using Heteroscedastic Linear Discriminant Analysis and Gabor Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Khademi, Mahmoud; Manzuri, Mohammad T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel representation for facial expressions in two-dimensional image sequences is presented. We apply a variation of two-dimensional heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis (2DHLDA) algorithm, as an efficient dimensionality reduction technique, to Gabor representation of the input sequence. 2DHLDA is an extension of the two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2DLDA) approach and removes the equal within-class covariance. By applying 2DHLDA in two directions, we eliminate the correlations between both image columns and image rows. Then, we perform a one-dimensional LDA on the new features. This combined method can alleviate the small sample size problem and instability encountered by HLDA. The proposed method is robust to illumination changes and can represent temporal information as well as subtle changes in facial muscles properly. Also, employing both geometric and appearance features and using support vector machines (SVMs) classifier, we provide experiments on Cohn-Kanade datab...

  7. The Representation of Women in Street Songs: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Mahraganat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Samir El-Falaky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the representation of male and female gender identities in Egyptian street songs called Mahraganat. The study discusses the issue with reference to two common songs spreading among young commoners. Since the songs are written by writers who descend from low-standard social group, the analysis exhibits both cultural and societal notions related to how males and females are portrayed in such kind of music. This study attempts to describe how males describe their social group in comparison to the social group to which the women belong. It, thus, constructs the social identity of males and females through the lyrics of this new genre of music.  The findings from such an analysis answer the question about such genre within its social context and the ideologies by which it is dominated reflecting the discursive construction representation of gender and sexual identity. Keywords: gender, identity construction, genre, ideologies

  8. Exploring media bias with semantic analysis tools: validation of the Contrast Analysis of Semantic Similarity (CASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Nicholas S; Schott, John Paul; Jones, Michael N; Balota, David A; Yarkoni, Tal

    2011-03-01

    Text-analytic methods have become increasingly popular in cognitive science for understanding differences in semantic structure between documents. However, such methods have not been widely used in other disciplines. With the aim of disseminating these approaches, we introduce a text-analytic technique (Contrast Analysis of Semantic Similarity, CASS, www.casstools.org), based on the BEAGLE semantic space model (Jones & Mewhort, Psychological Review, 114, 1-37, 2007) and add new features to test between-corpora differences in semantic associations (e.g., the association between democrat and good, compared to democrat and bad). By analyzing television transcripts from cable news from a 12-month period, we reveal significant differences in political bias between television channels (liberal to conservative: MSNBC, CNN, FoxNews) and find expected differences between newscasters (Colmes, Hannity). Compared to existing measures of media bias, our measure has higher reliability. CASS can be used to investigate semantic structure when exploring any topic (e.g., self-esteem or stereotyping) that affords a large text-based database.

  9. Efficient statistical significance approximation for local similarity analysis of high-throughput time series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Li C; Ai, Dongmei; Cram, Jacob; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2013-01-15

    Local similarity analysis of biological time series data helps elucidate the varying dynamics of biological systems. However, its applications to large scale high-throughput data are limited by slow permutation procedures for statistical significance evaluation. We developed a theoretical approach to approximate the statistical significance of local similarity analysis based on the approximate tail distribution of the maximum partial sum of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. Simulations show that the derived formula approximates the tail distribution reasonably well (starting at time points > 10 with no delay and > 20 with delay) and provides P-values comparable with those from permutations. The new approach enables efficient calculation of statistical significance for pairwise local similarity analysis, making possible all-to-all local association studies otherwise prohibitive. As a demonstration, local similarity analysis of human microbiome time series shows that core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) are highly synergetic and some of the associations are body-site specific across samples. The new approach is implemented in our eLSA package, which now provides pipelines for faster local similarity analysis of time series data. The tool is freely available from eLSA's website: http://meta.usc.edu/softs/lsa. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. fsun@usc.edu.

  10. Review on Graph Clustering and Subgraph Similarity Based Analysis of Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How can complex relationships among molecular or clinico-pathological entities of neurological disorders be represented and analyzed? Graphs seem to be the current answer to the question no matter the type of information: molecular data, brain images or neural signals. We review a wide spectrum of graph representation and graph analysis methods and their application in the study of both the genomic level and the phenotypic level of the neurological disorder. We find numerous research works that create, process and analyze graphs formed from one or a few data types to gain an understanding of specific aspects of the neurological disorders. Furthermore, with the increasing number of data of various types becoming available for neurological disorders, we find that integrative analysis approaches that combine several types of data are being recognized as a way to gain a global understanding of the diseases. Although there are still not many integrative analyses of graphs due to the complexity in analysis, multi-layer graph analysis is a promising framework that can incorporate various data types. We describe and discuss the benefits of the multi-layer graph framework for studies of neurological disease.

  11. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Family and Friends Textbooks: Representation of Genderism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Esmaeili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA approach to investigate the linguistic representation of male and female social actors in Family and Friends 4, 5 and 6. To this end, van Leeuwen’s (1996 representational framework and Halliday and Matthiessen’s (2004 Transitivity Theory Model were adopted to reveal the ideology behind the constructions. The findings indicated a “sexist attitude” in favor of male social actors in which males were portrayed more than females and also had high activity. In addition, it was revealed that there was attempt to avoid traditional stereotypes of females in most parts of textbooks and women were not portrayed at home as housewives engaged in child care, however, it can be claimed that they suffered most obviously from low visibility. The findings may help EFL teachers, material developers and policy makers to be aware of equality/inequality issues in textbooks in order to make an equality perspective to learners. Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Gender, Textbook, Representation, Social Actors

  12. Ontology-based time information representation of vaccine adverse events in VAERS for temporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. FDA/CDC Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS provides a valuable data source for post-vaccination adverse event analyses. The structured data in the system has been widely used, but the information in the write-up narratives is rarely included in these kinds of analyses. In fact, the unstructured nature of the narratives makes the data embedded in them difficult to be used for any further studies. Results We developed an ontology-based approach to represent the data in the narratives in a “machine-understandable” way, so that it can be easily queried and further analyzed. Our focus is the time aspect in the data for time trending analysis. The Time Event Ontology (TEO, Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE, and Vaccine Ontology (VO are leveraged for the semantic representation of this purpose. A VAERS case report is presented as a use case for the ontological representations. The advantages of using our ontology-based Semantic web representation and data analysis are emphasized. Conclusions We believe that representing both the structured data and the data from write-up narratives in an integrated, unified, and “machine-understandable” way can improve research for vaccine safety analyses, causality assessments, and retrospective studies.

  13. A Decision Tree-Structured Algorithm of Speaker Adaptation Based on Gaussian Similarity Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ji; WANG Zuoying

    2001-01-01

    Gaussian Similarity Analysis (GSA)algorithm can be used to estimate the similarity between two Gaussian distributed variables with full covariance matrix. Based on this algorithm, we propose a method in speaker adaptation of covariance. It is different from the traditional algorithms, which mainly focus on the adaptation of mean vector of state observation probability density. A binary decision tree is constructed offline with the similarity measure and the adaptation procedure is data-driven. It can be shown from the experiments that we can get a significant further improvement over the mean vectors adaptation.

  14. Symmetries and Laplacians introduction to harmonic analysis, group representations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gurarie, D

    1992-01-01

    Designed as an introduction to harmonic analysis and group representations,this book covers a wide range of topics rather than delving deeply into anyparticular one. In the words of H. Weyl ...it is primarily meant forthe humble, who want to learn as new the things set forth therein, rather thanfor the proud and learned who are already familiar with the subject and merelylook for quick and exact information.... The main objective is tointroduce the reader to concepts, ideas, results and techniques that evolvearound symmetry-groups, representations and Laplacians. Morespecifically, the main interest concerns geometrical objects and structures{X}, discrete or continuous, that possess sufficiently large symmetrygroup G, such as regular graphs (Platonic solids), lattices, andsymmetric Riemannian manifolds. All such objects have a natural Laplacian&Dgr;, a linear operator on functions over X, invariant underthe group action. There are many problems associated with Laplacians onX, such as continuous or discrete...

  15. Media analysis of the representations of fusion and other future energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delicado, Ana; Schmidt, Luisa; Pereira, Sergio [Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Anibal de Bettencourt, 9 1600-189 Lisbon (Portugal); Oltra, Christian; Prades, Ana [CISOT-CIEMAT. Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes 604, 4, 2, 08007 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    Media representations of energy have a relevant impact on public opinion and public support for investment in new energy sources. Fusion energy is one among several emerging energy technologies that requires a strong public investment on its research and development. This paper aims to characterise and compare the media representations of fusion and other emerging energy technologies in Portugal and in Spain. The emerging energy technologies selected for analysis are wave and tidal power, hydrogen, deep sea offshore wind power, energy applications of nanotechnology, bio-fuels from microalgae and IV generation nuclear fission. This work covered the news published in a selection of newspapers in Portugal and Spain between January 2007 and June 2013. (authors)

  16. Structured representation of drug indications: lexical and semantic analysis and object-oriented modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, C; Venot, A

    2000-03-01

    No standardized representation of drug indications is currently available that could be used in drug knowledge bases. We describe an object-oriented representation of indications that should make it possible to develop new tools for selecting drugs and checking prescriptions in computerized drug prescription systems. The model was developed using the results of a lexical and semantic analysis of drug indications, collected into a single file and processed using natural language processing software. It distinguishes both the diseases for which the drug may be given and the efficiency of the drug for a given indication. Two aspects of the model were evaluated: the differences if two independent evaluators filled the attributes independently and the loss of information induced by the use of the model. A system based on this model, making it possible for the physician to select all the drugs satisfying various criteria, is also presented.

  17. The representation of women in Huisgenoot in 1963 and 2013: A multimodal discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann H. Marais

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The opinion that people and the media are in a relationship of mutual influence, together with the study of the cultural conceptualisation of femininity in two issues of Huisgenoot, is the point of departure. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a difference in the portrayal of women in the 1963 and 2013 issues of Huisgenoot. According to research, the visual image and written text work together to convey a message. Multimodal discourse analysis (MDA assumes that a variety of modes are used to construct meaning. MDA assumes that communication and representation comprise of more than just language. Therefore, the intersemiotic complementarity method within MDA is used. The study comes to the conclusion that the representation of the ideal woman’s responsibilities has extended, although the woman’s role is still restricted to certain domains, as reflected by the presence of the mother stereotypes.

  18. Atom column indexing: atomic resolution image analysis through a matrix representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiahan; Oni, Adedapo A; LeBeau, James M

    2014-12-01

    Here, we report the development of an approach to map atomic resolution images into a convenient matrix representation. Through the combination of two-dimensional Gaussian fitting and the projective standard deviation, atom column locations are projected onto two noncollinear reference lattice vectors that are used to assign each a unique (i, j) matrix index. By doing so, straightforward atomic resolution image analysis becomes possible. Using practical examples, we demonstrate that the matrix representation greatly simplifies categorizing atom columns to different sublattices. This enables a myriad of direct analyses, such as mapping atom column properties and correlating long-range atom column pairs. MATLAB source code can be downloaded from https://github.com/subangstrom/aci.

  19. Effects of multiple conformers per compound upon 3-D similarity search and bioassay data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve the utility of PubChem, a public repository containing biological activities of small molecules, the PubChem3D project adds computationally-derived three-dimensional (3-D descriptions to the small-molecule records contained in the PubChem Compound database and provides various search and analysis tools that exploit 3-D molecular similarity. Therefore, the efficient use of PubChem3D resources requires an understanding of the statistical and biological meaning of computed 3-D molecular similarity scores between molecules. Results The present study investigated effects of employing multiple conformers per compound upon the 3-D similarity scores between ten thousand randomly selected biologically-tested compounds (10-K set and between non-inactive compounds in a given biological assay (156-K set. When the “best-conformer-pair” approach, in which a 3-D similarity score between two compounds is represented by the greatest similarity score among all possible conformer pairs arising from a compound pair, was employed with ten diverse conformers per compound, the average 3-D similarity scores for the 10-K set increased by 0.11, 0.09, 0.15, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.18 for STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt, respectively, relative to the corresponding averages computed using a single conformer per compound. Interestingly, the best-conformer-pair approach also increased the average 3-D similarity scores for the non-inactive–non-inactive (NN pairs for a given assay, by comparable amounts to those for the random compound pairs, although some assays showed a pronounced increase in the per-assay NN-pair 3-D similarity scores, compared to the average increase for the random compound pairs. Conclusion These results suggest that the use of ten diverse conformers per compound in PubChem bioassay data analysis using 3-D molecular similarity is not expected to increase the separation of non

  20. Analyse conversationnelle et representations sociales: Unite et diversite de L'image du bilinguisme (Conversational Analysis and Social Representations: Unity and Diversity in the Image of Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Bernard, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Articles in this issue include the following: "Representations sociales et discours. Questions epistemologiques et methodologiques" (Social Representations and Discourse. Questions of Epistemology and Methodology); "Aspects theoretiques et methodologiques de la recherche sur le traitement discursif des representations sociales"…

  1. Analyse conversationnelle et representations sociales: Unite et diversite de L'image du bilinguisme (Conversational Analysis and Social Representations: Unity and Diversity in the Image of Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Bernard, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Articles in this issue include the following: "Representations sociales et discours. Questions epistemologiques et methodologiques" (Social Representations and Discourse. Questions of Epistemology and Methodology); "Aspects theoretiques et methodologiques de la recherche sur le traitement discursif des representations sociales"…

  2. A VISUAL AND VERBAL ANALYSIS OF CHILDREN REPRESENTATION IN TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Hermawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the representation of children in television advertisement of 3 Indie+ cellular phone operator. The study is descriptive qualitative and has employed Kress & Leuween’s Reading Images (2006 to analyze the visual data, and Halliday’ Transitivity System (1994, 2004 which is simplified by Gerot and Wignell (1995 for the analyzing the verbal data. The aim of the study is to examine the representation of children visually and verbally in the 3 Indie+ cellular phone operator advertisement. Based on the data analysis, the study finds that visually children are represented as a naive person who is “pretending to know” adult life when in fact they are still a child through the use of setting, layout composition, and perspective (shot, gaze. Children are verbally represented through the use of mental and material processes as somebody who tells about their hope, obsession, and aspirations in the future, and their naive imaginations of how an adult life is In relation to the product advertised the representation signifies that unlike other providers, using 3 Indie+ is very easy; it is not as hard as to live as adults.

  3. The Cognitive Advantages of Counting Specifically: A Representational Analysis of Verbal Numeration Systems in Oceanic Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Schlimm, Dirk; Beller, Sieghard

    2015-10-01

    The domain of numbers provides a paradigmatic case for investigating interactions of culture, language, and cognition: Numerical competencies are considered a core domain of knowledge, and yet the development of specifically human abilities presupposes cultural and linguistic input by way of counting sequences. These sequences constitute systems with distinct structural properties, the cross-linguistic variability of which has implications for number representation and processing. Such representational effects are scrutinized for two types of verbal numeration systems-general and object-specific ones-that were in parallel use in several Oceanic languages (English with its general system is included for comparison). The analysis indicates that the object-specific systems outperform the general systems with respect to counting and mental arithmetic, largely due to their regular and more compact representation. What these findings reveal on cognitive diversity, how the conjectures involved speak to more general issues in cognitive science, and how the approach taken here might help to bridge the gap between anthropology and other cognitive sciences is discussed in the conclusion.

  4. An improved method for functional similarity analysis of genes based on Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Chunyu; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Teng, Zhixia

    2016-12-23

    Measures of gene functional similarity are essential tools for gene clustering, gene function prediction, evaluation of protein-protein interaction, disease gene prioritization and other applications. In recent years, many gene functional similarity methods have been proposed based on the semantic similarity of GO terms. However, these leading approaches may make errorprone judgments especially when they measure the specificity of GO terms as well as the IC of a term set. Therefore, how to estimate the gene functional similarity reliably is still a challenging problem. We propose WIS, an effective method to measure the gene functional similarity. First of all, WIS computes the IC of a term by employing its depth, the number of its ancestors as well as the topology of its descendants in the GO graph. Secondly, WIS calculates the IC of a term set by means of considering the weighted inherited semantics of terms. Finally, WIS estimates the gene functional similarity based on the IC overlap ratio of term sets. WIS is superior to some other representative measures on the experiments of functional classification of genes in a biological pathway, collaborative evaluation of GO-based semantic similarity measures, protein-protein interaction prediction and correlation with gene expression. Further analysis suggests that WIS takes fully into account the specificity of terms and the weighted inherited semantics of terms between GO terms. The proposed WIS method is an effective and reliable way to compare gene function. The web service of WIS is freely available at http://nclab.hit.edu.cn/WIS/ .

  5. Age differences in the neural representation of working memory revealed by multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eCarp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory function declines across the lifespan. Computational models of aging attribute such memory impairments to reduced distinctiveness between neural representations of different mental states in old age, a phenomenon termed dedifferentiation. These models predict that neural distinctiveness should be reduced uniformly across experimental conditions in older adults. In contrast, the Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis (CRUNCH model predicts that the distinctiveness of neural representations should be increased in older adults (relative to young adults at low levels of task demand but reduced at high levels of demand. The present study used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA to measure the effects of age and task demands on the distinctiveness of the neural representations of verbal and visuospatial working memory. Neural distinctiveness was estimated separately for memory encoding, maintenance, and retrieval, and for low, medium, and high memory loads. Results from sensory cortex during encoding and retrieval were consistent with the dedifferentiation hypothesis: distinctiveness of visual cortical representations during these phases was uniformly reduced in older adults, irrespective of memory load. However, maintenance-related responses in prefrontal and parietal regions yielded a strikingly different pattern of results. At low loads, older adults showed higher distinctiveness than younger adults; at high loads, this pattern reversed, such that distinctiveness was higher in young adults. This interaction between age group and memory load is at odds with the dedifferentiation hypothesis but consistent with CRUNCH. In sum, our results provide partial support for both dedifferentiation- and compensation-based models; we argue that comprehensive theories of cognitive aging must incorporate aspects of both models to fully explain complex patterns of age-related neuro-cognitive change.

  6. Syntax is from Mars while Semantics from Venus! Insights from Spectral Analysis of Distributional Similarity Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Biemann, Chris; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2009-01-01

    We study the global topology of the syntactic and semantic distributional similarity networks for English through the technique of spectral analysis. We observe that while the syntactic network has a hierarchical structure with strong communities and their mixtures, the semantic network has several tightly knit communities along with a large core without any such well-defined community structure.

  7. Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS): A Method for Semantic Analysis of Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Matt; Lu, Xiaoming; Matloff, Norman S.; Wu, S. Felix

    Online Social Networks (OSN)[OSN] are experiencing an explosive growth rate and are becoming an increasingly important part of people’s lives. There is an increasing desire to aid online users in identifying potential friends, interesting groups, and compelling products to users. These networks have offered researchers almost total access to large corpora of data. An interesting goal in utilizing this data is to analyze user profiles and identify how similar subsets of users are. The current techniques for comparing users are limited as they require common terms to be shared by users. We present a simple and novel extension to a word-comparison algorithm [6], entitled Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS), which allows comparison of short text phrases even if they share no common terms. The output of Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) is simply a scalar value in [0,1], with 1 denoting complete similarity and 0 the opposite. Therefore it is easy to understand and can provide a total ordering of users. We, first, evaluated the effectiveness of Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) with a user-study, and then applied it to datasets from Facebook and Orkut verifying and extending earlier results. We show that Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) yields both a larger range for the similarity value and obtains a higher value than intersection-based mechanisms. Both Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) and the output from the analysis of the two Online Social Networks (OSN)[OSN] should help to predict and classify social links, make recommendations, and annotate friends relations for social network analysis.

  8. Similarity between chaos analysis and frequency analysis of pressure fluctuations in fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaaf, J; van Ommen, [No Value; Takens, F; Schouten, JC; van den Bleek, CM

    2004-01-01

    In literature the dynamic behavior of fluidized beds is frequently characterized by spectral analysis and chaos analysis of the pressure fluctuations that are caused by the gas-solids flow. In case of spectral analysis, most often the power spectral density (PSD) function is quantified, for example,

  9. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of genome sequences using chaos-game representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Mayukha; Kiran, V. Satya; Rao, P. Madhusudana; Manimaran, P.

    2016-08-01

    We characterized the multifractal nature and power law cross-correlation between any pair of genome sequence through an integrative approach combining 2D multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis and chaos game representation. In this paper, we have analyzed genomes of some prokaryotes and calculated fractal spectra h(q) and f(α) . From our analysis, we observed existence of multifractal nature and power law cross-correlation behavior between any pair of genome sequences. Cluster analysis was performed on the calculated scaling exponents to identify the class affiliation and the same is represented as a dendrogram. We suggest this approach may find applications in next generation sequence analysis, big data analytics etc.

  10. Catchment classification: empirical analysis of hydrologic similarity based on catchment function in the eastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sawicz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic similarity between catchments, derived from similarity in how catchments respond to precipitation input, is the basis for catchment classification, for transferability of information, for generalization of our hydrologic understanding and also for understanding the potential impacts of environmental change. An important question in this context is, how far can widely available hydrologic information (precipitation-temperature-streamflow data and generally available physical descriptors be used to create a first order grouping of hydrologically similar catchments? We utilize a heterogeneous dataset of 280 catchments located in the Eastern US to understand hydrologic similarity in a 6-dimensional signature space across a region with strong environmental gradients. Signatures are defined as hydrologic response characteristics that provide insight into the hydrologic function of catchments. A Bayesian clustering scheme is used to separate the catchments into 9 homogeneous classes, which enable us to interpret hydrologic similarity with respect to similarity in climatic and landscape attributes across this region. We finally derive several hypotheses regarding controls on individual signatures from the analysis performed here.

  11. The BIM representation for documentation and historical-critical analysis of the Modernist heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Balzani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BIM - Building Information Modeling applied to the historical-critical analysis and representation of the architectural heritage is becoming more and more an essential means for the understand- ing of design processes and changes over time, as well as a basic instrument for knowledge and as an aid for the design of conservation, mainte- nance, restoration and enhancement projects. The paper analyses BIM applications to the Indi- an and Brazilian modernist heritage, through the works of the greatest architects of the period, in- vestigated through a detailed methodology, also representative, which opens to further research- es and reinterpretations. 

  12. [Research of Electroencephalogram for Sleep Stage Based on Collaborative Representation and Kernel Entropy Component Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panbo; Shi, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Jiang, Qikun; Gu, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Sleep quality is closely related to human health. It is very important to correctly discriminate the sleep stages for evaluating sleep quality, diagnosing and analyzing the sleep-related disorders. Polysomnography (PSG) signals are commonly used to record and analyze sleep stages. Effective feature extraction and representation is one of the most important steps to improve the performance of sleep stage classification. In this work, a collaborative representation (CR) algorithm was adopted to re-represent the original extracted features from electroencephalogram sig- nal, and then the kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm was further used to reduce the feature dimension of CR-feature. To evaluate the performance of CR-KECA, we compared the original feature, CR feature and readied CR feature (CR-PCA) after principal component analysis (PCA). The experimental results of sleep stage classification indicated that the CR-KECA method achieved the best performance compared with the original feature, CR feature, and CR-PCA feature with the classification accuracy of 68.74 +/- 0.46%, sensitivity of 68.76 +/- 0.43% and specificity of 92.19 +/- 0.11%. Moreover, CR algorithm had low computational complexity, and the feature dimension after KECA was much smaller, which made CR-KECA algorithm suitable for the analysis of large-scale sleep data.

  13. Dimensional analysis and self-similarity methods for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This ground-breaking reference provides an overview of key concepts in dimensional analysis, and then pushes well beyond traditional applications in fluid mechanics to demonstrate how powerful this tool can be in solving complex problems across many diverse fields. Of particular interest is the book's coverage of  dimensional analysis and self-similarity methods in nuclear and energy engineering. Numerous practical examples of dimensional problems are presented throughout, allowing readers to link the book's theoretical explanations and step-by-step mathematical solutions to practical impleme

  14. Selections of data preprocessing methods and similarity metrics for gene cluster analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chunmei; WAN Baikun; GAO Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    Clustering is one of the major exploratory techniques for gene expression data analysis. Only with suitable similarity metrics and when datasets are properly preprocessed, can results of high quality be obtained in cluster analysis. In this study, gene expression datasets with external evaluation criteria were preprocessed as normalization by line, normalization by column or logarithm transformation by base-2, and were subsequently clustered by hierarchical clustering, k-means clustering and self-organizing maps (SOMs) with Pearson correlation coefficient or Euclidean distance as similarity metric. Finally, the quality of clusters was evaluated by adjusted Rand index. The results illustrate that k-means clustering and SOMs have distinct advantages over hierarchical clustering in gene clustering, and SOMs are a bit better than k-means when randomly initialized. It also shows that hierarchical clustering prefers Pearson correlation coefficient as similarity metric and dataset normalized by line. Meanwhile, k-means clustering and SOMs can produce better clusters with Euclidean distance and logarithm transformed datasets. These results will afford valuable reference to the implementation of gene expression cluster analysis.

  15. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. I. Formulation and asymptotic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(γ-1)μ with 0antigravity. This extends the previous analysis of spherically symmetric self-similar solutions for fluids with positive pressure (γ>1). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically “quasi-Friedmann,” in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the 0<γ<2/3 case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are genuinely asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasistatic or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotically quasistatic and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs solutions are analytically extendible and of great cosmological interest. We also investigate their conformal diagrams. The results of the present analysis are utilized in an accompanying paper to obtain and physically interpret numerical solutions.

  16. Advertising Representations of Older People in the United Kingdom and Taiwan: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural studies of advertising representations of older people are relatively scarce. This article aims to fill in this gap via a comparison between Taiwan and the United Kingdom, employing a combination of quantitative content analysis and the qualitative grounded theory method. The content-analysis phase reveals underrepresentation of older people in both countries' advertising contexts, as well as representational differences between Taiwan and the United Kingdom in terms of older characters' role salience, the products, physical settings, and social networks they are associated with. The grounded-theory phase yields nine prototypes of older people along with subcategories to conceptualize the qualities of older people as they appear in TV ads in these countries. The findings are discussed in relation to the stereotyping of older people and transformed into hypothetical statements to be modified in future research. In conclusion, the Confucian tradition of filial piety is still found to be important in explaining the observed cross-cultural differences, but the emergence of new norms about aging in Taiwanese advertising also suggests that this tradition may be in decline.

  17. Development of bilinear power system representations for small signal stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, J.; Messina, A.R. [Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav, P.O. Box 31-438, Plaza La Luna, Guadalajara, Jal. 44550 (Mexico); Betancourt, R. [School of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Colima, Manzanillo, Col. 28860 (Mexico); Barocio, E. [School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, NL. 66450 (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, a new analysis technique for predicting and characterizing nonlinear behavior of stressed power networks is proposed. Making use of an analytical approximation of the system nonlinear model via the use of a truncated Carleman linearization technique, a bilinear state-space model of the power system is developed in which the second and higher order nonlinear terms are explicitly incorporated in the series expansion representation of the system model. The proposed framework enables the study of the dynamic behavior of nonlinear systems, both analytically and numerically, and can be used to represent a wide class of non-linear systems and oscillatory processes. Analytical criteria are developed based on the structural properties of the bilinear state-space model matrices, which predict the existence and stability character of modal interaction in terms of the eigenstructure of the linear system representation. The properties and behavior of the bilinear model are then investigated, and a number of useful results are derived. The present method is quite general and extends readily to higher-dimensional systems. A simplified 2-area, 4-machine system is used to illustrate the proposed procedure. Detailed nonlinear time-domain simulations are conducted to identify the strength of nonlinear behavior arising from interaction of the fundamental modes of oscillation, as well as to check the validity of the analysis. (author)

  18. Measuring user similarity using electric circuit analysis: application to collaborative filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joonhyuk; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Young Hwan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user-item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems.

  19. Social Representation of Cyberbullying and Adolescent Suicide: A Mixed-Method Analysis of News Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Subramanian, Roma; Miles, Stephanie; Hinnant, Amanda; Andsager, Julie L

    2016-08-26

    Cyberbullying has provoked public concern after well-publicized suicides of adolescents. This mixed-methods study investigates the social representation of these suicides. A content analysis of 184 U.S. newspaper articles on death by suicide associated with cyberbullying or aggression found that few articles adhered to guidelines suggested by the World Health Organization and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention to protect against suicidal behavioral contagion. Few articles made reference to suicide or bullying prevention resources, and most suggested that the suicide had a single cause. Thematic analysis of a subset of articles found that individual deaths by suicide were used as cautionary tales to prompt attention to cyberbullying. This research suggests that newspaper coverage of these events veers from evidence-based guidelines and that more work is needed to determine how best to engage with journalists about the potential consequences of cyberbullying and suicide coverage.

  20. A-DaGO-Fun: an adaptable Gene Ontology semantic similarity-based functional analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazandu, Gaston K; Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Mulder, Nicola J

    2016-02-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) semantic similarity measures are being used for biological knowledge discovery based on GO annotations by integrating biological information contained in the GO structure into data analyses. To empower users to quickly compute, manipulate and explore these measures, we introduce A-DaGO-Fun (ADaptable Gene Ontology semantic similarity-based Functional analysis). It is a portable software package integrating all known GO information content-based semantic similarity measures and relevant biological applications associated with these measures. A-DaGO-Fun has the advantage not only of handling datasets from the current high-throughput genome-wide applications, but also allowing users to choose the most relevant semantic similarity approach for their biological applications and to adapt a given module to their needs. A-DaGO-Fun is freely available to the research community at http://web.cbio.uct.ac.za/ITGOM/adagofun. It is implemented in Linux using Python under free software (GNU General Public Licence). gmazandu@cbio.uct.ac.za or Nicola.Mulder@uct.ac.za Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. NaviGO: interactive tool for visualization and functional similarity and coherence analysis with gene ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing; Khan, Ishita K; Ding, Ziyun; Yerneni, Satwica; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-03-20

    The number of genomics and proteomics experiments is growing rapidly, producing an ever-increasing amount of data that are awaiting functional interpretation. A number of function prediction algorithms were developed and improved to enable fast and automatic function annotation. With the well-defined structure and manual curation, Gene Ontology (GO) is the most frequently used vocabulary for representing gene functions. To understand relationship and similarity between GO annotations of genes, it is important to have a convenient pipeline that quantifies and visualizes the GO function analyses in a systematic fashion. NaviGO is a web-based tool for interactive visualization, retrieval, and computation of functional similarity and associations of GO terms and genes. Similarity of GO terms and gene functions is quantified with six different scores including protein-protein interaction and context based association scores we have developed in our previous works. Interactive navigation of the GO function space provides intuitive and effective real-time visualization of functional groupings of GO terms and genes as well as statistical analysis of enriched functions. We developed NaviGO, which visualizes and analyses functional similarity and associations of GO terms and genes. The NaviGO webserver is freely available at: http://kiharalab.org/web/navigo .

  2. Analysis of flow signatures and catchment similarity indices for catchment classification in Yesilirmak Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyugur, Batuhan; Yilmaz, Koray K.

    2017-04-01

    Catchment classification schemes aim to identify groups of hydrologically similar catchments to enable a mapping between catchment physical characteristics and hydro-climatic conditions with the catchment functioning. This mapping, together with the quantified uncertainties, potentially facilitates improved process understanding, transfer of this understanding to ungauged catchments, model parameter regionalization and hence improve operational applications and watershed management. Although many studies focusing on the topic of catchment classification exist in the literature, there is yet no general consensus on the number and type of similarity metrics that should be included in such analysis. The aim of this study is to first carefully derive hydrologically relevant similarity metrics from catchment physical (elevation, area, slope, geology, soils, land use etc.), climatic (seasonality, temperature, aridity index etc.) and hydrologic response characteristics (flow signatures) and then utilize Affinity Propagation clustering algorithm to determine the optimal number of groupings based on individual as well as a combination of these similarity metrics. The study area is comprised of 24 sub-catchments located in the Yesilirmak Basin, Turkey, where daily streamflow and meteorological variables are available. The metrics that are based on flow signatures summarize a number of behavioral functions of the watershed system including those derived from flow duration curve (overall water balance, vertical redistribution) as well as temporal redistribution of flow (seasonality etc.). Our initial results indicated that inclusion of information on geology and seasonality (climate and flow) appears to be promising in delineating the hydrologic functioning of the catchments.

  3. A New Approach to Change Vector Analysis Using Distance and Similarity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Gillespie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to monitor the Earth’s surface over a range of spatial and temporal scales is fundamental in ecosystems planning and management. Change-Vector Analysis (CVA is a bi-temporal method of change detection that considers the magnitude and direction of change vector. However, many multispectral applications do not make use of the direction component. The procedure most used to calculate the direction component using multiband data is the direction cosine, but the number of output direction cosine images is equal to the number of original bands and has a complex interpretation. This paper proposes a new approach to calculate the spectral direction of change, using the Spectral Angle Mapper and Spectral Correlation Mapper spectral-similarity measures. The chief advantage of this approach is that it generates a single image of change information insensitive to illumination variation. In this paper the magnitude component of the spectral similarity was calculated in two ways: as the standard Euclidean distance and as the Mahalanobis distance. In this test the best magnitude measure was the Euclidean distance and the best similarity measure was Spectral Angle Mapper. The results show that the distance and similarity measures are complementary and need to be applied together.

  4. Performance Modeling and Approximate Analysis of Multiserver Multiqueue Systems with Poisson and Self-similar Arrivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The problem of state space explosion is still an outstanding challenge in Markovian performance analysis for multiserver multiqueue (MSMQ) systems. The system behavior of a MSMQ system is described using stochastic high-level Petri net (SHLPN) models, and an approximate performance analysis technique is proposed based on decomposition and refinement methods as well as iteration technique. A real MSMQ system, Web-server cluster, is investigated. The performance of an integrated scheme of request dispatching and scheduling is analyzed with both Poisson and self-similar request arrivals. The study shows that the approximate analysis technique significantly reduces the complexity of the model solution and is also efficient for accuracy of numerical results.

  5. MeSH-Informed Enrichment Analysis and MeSH-Guided Semantic Similarity Among Functional Terms and Gene Products in Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morota, Gota; Beissinger, Timothy M; Peñagaricano, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical vocabularies and ontologies aid in recapitulating biological knowledge. The annotation of gene products is mainly accelerated by Gene Ontology (GO), and more recently by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Here, we report a suite of MeSH packages for chicken in Bioconductor, and illustrate some features of different MeSH-based analyses, including MeSH-informed enrichment analysis and MeSH-guided semantic similarity among terms and gene products, using two lists of chicken genes available in public repositories. The two published datasets that were employed represent (i) differentially expressed genes, and (ii) candidate genes under selective sweep or epistatic selection. The comparison of MeSH with GO overrepresentation analyses suggested not only that MeSH supports the findings obtained from GO analysis, but also that MeSH is able to further enrich the representation of biological knowledge and often provide more interpretable results. Based on the hierarchical structures of MeSH and GO, we computed semantic similarities among vocabularies, as well as semantic similarities among selected genes. These yielded the similarity levels between significant functional terms, and the annotation of each gene yielded the measures of gene similarity. Our findings show the benefits of using MeSH as an alternative choice of annotation in order to draw biological inferences from a list of genes of interest. We argue that the use of MeSH in conjunction with GO will be instrumental in facilitating the understanding of the genetic basis of complex traits.

  6. Learning representations for object classification using multi-stage optimal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Liu, Xiuwen; Mio, Washington

    2008-01-01

    Learning data representations is a fundamental challenge in modeling neural processes and plays an important role in applications such as object recognition. Optimal component analysis (OCA) formulates the problem in the framework of optimization on a Grassmann manifold and a stochastic gradient method is used to estimate the optimal basis. OCA has been successfully applied to image classification problems arising in a variety of contexts. However, as the search space is typically very high dimensional, OCA optimization often requires expensive computational cost. In multi-stage OCA, we first hierarchically project the data onto several low-dimensional subspaces using standard techniques, then OCA learning is performed hierarchically from the lowest to the highest levels to learn about a subspace that is optimal for data discrimination based on the K-nearest neighbor classifier. One of the main advantages of multi-stage OCA lies in the fact that it greatly improves the computational efficiency of the OCA learning algorithm without sacrificing the recognition performance, thus enhancing its applicability to practical problems. In addition to the nearest neighbor classifier, we illustrate the effectiveness of the learned representations on object classification used in conjunction with classifiers such as neural networks and support vector machines.

  7. Spatial representation in the social interaction potential metric: an analysis of scale and parameter sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Farber, Steven

    2016-10-01

    The social interaction potential (SIP) metric measures urban structural constraints on social interaction opportunities of a metropolitan region based on the time geographic concept of joint accessibility. Previous implementations of the metric used an interaction surface based on census tracts and the locations of their centroids. This has been shown to be a shortcoming, as the metric strongly depends on the scale of the zoning system in the region, making it difficult to compare the SIP metric between metropolitan regions. This research explores the role of spatial representation in the SIP metric and identifies a suitable grid-based representation that allows for comparison between regions while retaining cost-effectiveness with respect to computational burden. We also report on findings from an extensive sensitivity analysis investigating the SIP metric's input parameters such as a travel flow congestion factor and the length of the allowable time budget for social activities. The results provide new insights on the role of the modifiable areal unit problem in the computation of time geographic measures of accessibility.

  8. Nonlinear Progressive Failure Analysis of Surrounding Rock System Based on Similarity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear progressive failure study of surrounding rock is important for the stability analysis of underground engineering projects. Taking a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing as an example, a three dimensional(3-D physical model was established based on similarity theory. To satisfy similarity requirement of physical–mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, compressive strength and Poisson ratio, physical model materials were developed. Using full inner-spy photograph technology, the deformation and failure process of rock were studied under the situation of independent and combined action of anchor, shotcrete and reinforcing mesh. Based on experimental results, the interaction mechanism between rock and support structure under high stress was investigated.

  9. Phase transitions for the multifractal analysis of self-similar measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, B.

    2006-05-01

    We are interested in the multifractal analysis of a class of self-similar measures with overlaps. This class, for which we obtain explicit formulae for the Lq-spectrum, τ(q), as well as the singularity spectrum f(α), is sufficiently large to point out new phenomena in the multifractal structure of self-similar measures. We show that, unlike in the classical quasi-Bernoulli case, the Lq-spectrum, τ(q), of the measures studied can have an arbitrarily large number of non-differentiability points (phase transitions). These singularities occur only for the negative values of q and yield to measures that do not satisfy the usual multifractal formalism. The weak quasi-Bernoulli property is the key point of most of the arguments.

  10. Phylogeny and prediction of genetic similarity of Cronobacter and related taxa by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Korczak, Bozena M; Stephan, Roger; Joosten, Han; Iversen, Carol

    2009-12-31

    Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on recN, rpoA and thdF genes was done on more than 30 species of the family Enterobacteriaceae with a focus on Cronobacter and the related genus Enterobacter. The sequences provide valuable data for phylogenetic, taxonomic and diagnostic purposes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genus Cronobacter forms a homogenous cluster related to recently described species of Enterobacter, but distant to other species of this genus. Combining sequence information on all three genes is highly representative for the species' %GC-content used as taxonomic marker. Sequence similarity of the three genes and even of recN alone can be used to extrapolate genetic similarities between species of Enterobacteriaceae. Finally, the rpoA gene sequence, which is the easiest one to determine, provides a powerful diagnostic tool to identify and differentiate species of this family. The comparative analysis gives important insights into the phylogeny and genetic relatedness of the family Enterobacteriaceae and will serve as a basis for further studies and clarifications on the taxonomy of this large and heterogeneous family.

  11. Thermal hydraulic similarity analysis of the integral effect test facility for main steam line break events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K.Y.; Park, H.S.; Euh, D.J.; Kwon, T.S.; Baek, W.P. [Thermal Hydraulic Safety Research Division Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute 150 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is being constructed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ATLAS is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288 volume scaled test facility based on the design features of the APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor developed by Korean industry. The ATLAS will be used to get more realistic understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena following postulated events and to carry out performance evaluation and safety analysis of the reference plants. The MSLB (Main Steam Line Break) event is one of the representative non-LOCA events and thermalhydraulic phenomena following the event are to be investigated in the ATLAS. In this paper, thermal hydraulic similarity for MSLB events between the ATLAS and the prototype plant, APR1400 is assessed by using the MARS code, which is a multi-dimensional best-estimate thermal hydraulic code being developed by KAERI. Several cases including SLBFPLOOP and SLBFP are taken into account for similarity analysis in this paper. The neutronic effects such as moderator temperature coefficients and doppler reactivity in APR1400 are not considered in this study. The same control logics for the major sequence of events such as reactor trip, turbine trip, valve opening and actuation of the emergency cooling system are applied to the ATLAS and the APR1400. The present investigation is focused on the scaling and the reduced power effects on thermal hydraulic similarity after initiation of MSLB events. It is found that the ATLAS facility has the similar thermal hydraulic responses against the MSLB events. However, the initial high secondary pressure before the MSLB initiation resulted in different primary pressure and temperature progression from the APR1400. The break flow from the main steam line is found to be one of the most dominating parameters governing the transient

  12. Pattern matching through Chaos Game Representation: bridging numerical and discrete data structures for biological sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinga Susana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chaos Game Representation (CGR is an iterated function that bijectively maps discrete sequences into a continuous domain. As a result, discrete sequences can be object of statistical and topological analyses otherwise reserved to numerical systems. Characteristically, CGR coordinates of substrings sharing an L-long suffix will be located within 2-L distance of each other. In the two decades since its original proposal, CGR has been generalized beyond its original focus on genomic sequences and has been successfully applied to a wide range of problems in bioinformatics. This report explores the possibility that it can be further extended to approach algorithms that rely on discrete, graph-based representations. Results The exploratory analysis described here consisted of selecting foundational string problems and refactoring them using CGR-based algorithms. We found that CGR can take the role of suffix trees and emulate sophisticated string algorithms, efficiently solving exact and approximate string matching problems such as finding all palindromes and tandem repeats, and matching with mismatches. The common feature of these problems is that they use longest common extension (LCE queries as subtasks of their procedures, which we show to have a constant time solution with CGR. Additionally, we show that CGR can be used as a rolling hash function within the Rabin-Karp algorithm. Conclusions The analysis of biological sequences relies on algorithmic foundations facing mounting challenges, both logistic (performance and analytical (lack of unifying mathematical framework. CGR is found to provide the latter and to promise the former: graph-based data structures for sequence analysis operations are entailed by numerical-based data structures produced by CGR maps, providing a unifying analytical framework for a diversity of pattern matching problems.

  13. Risk Analysis and Setting Priorities in Air Traffic Control by Using a Matrix of Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacane Monta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers how mathematical decision-making in Air Traffic Control could be done in order to minimize the risk of collisions. An example of how to prioritize airplanes which are in the vicinity of an airport according to their level of risk in respect to other airplanes is given by using a matrix of similarities and Euclidean metric. The analysis has shown that it is necessary to classify ATC specialists and ATC centers according to their ability to provide safe enough service using time methods and highly experienced team work.

  14. Novel Spectral Representations and Sparsity-Driven Algorithms for Shape Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming

    In this dissertation, we focus on extending classical spectral shape analysis by incorporating spectral graph wavelets and sparsity-seeking algorithms. Defined with the graph Laplacian eigenbasis, the spectral graph wavelets are localized both in the vertex domain and graph spectral domain, and thus are very effective in describing local geometry. With a rich dictionary of elementary vectors and forcing certain sparsity constraints, a real life signal can often be well approximated by a very sparse coefficient representation. The many successful applications of sparse signal representation in computer vision and image processing inspire us to explore the idea of employing sparse modeling techniques with dictionary of spectral basis to solve various shape modeling problems. Conventional spectral mesh compression uses the eigenfunctions of mesh Laplacian as shape bases, which are highly inefficient in representing local geometry. To ameliorate, we advocate an innovative approach to 3D mesh compression using spectral graph wavelets as dictionary to encode mesh geometry. The spectral graph wavelets are locally defined at individual vertices and can better capture local shape information than Laplacian eigenbasis. The multi-scale SGWs form a redundant dictionary as shape basis, so we formulate the compression of 3D shape as a sparse approximation problem that can be readily handled by greedy pursuit algorithms. Surface inpainting refers to the completion or recovery of missing shape geometry based on the shape information that is currently available. We devise a new surface inpainting algorithm founded upon the theory and techniques of sparse signal recovery. Instead of estimating the missing geometry directly, our novel method is to find this low-dimensional representation which describes the entire original shape. More specifically, we find that, for many shapes, the vertex coordinate function can be well approximated by a very sparse coefficient representation with

  15. An Analysis of South African Grade 9 Natural Sciences Textbooks for Their Representation of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Chanetsa, Tarisai

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis and comparison of three South African Grade 9 (13-14 years) Natural Sciences textbooks for the representation of nature of science (NOS). The analysis was framed by an analytical tool developed and validated by Abd-El-Khalick and a team of researchers in a large-scale study on the high school textbooks in the…

  16. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-06-01

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  17. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-06-08

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  18. ProteMiner-SSM: a web server for efficient analysis of similar protein tertiary substructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Darby Tien-Hau; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chung, Wen-Chin; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of protein–ligand interactions is a fundamental issue in drug design. As the detailed and accurate analysis of protein–ligand interactions involves calculation of binding free energy based on thermodynamics and even quantum mechanics, which is highly expensive in terms of computing time, conformational and structural analysis of proteins and ligands has been widely employed as a screening process in computer-aided drug design. In this paper, a web server called ProteMiner-SSM designed for efficient analysis of similar protein tertiary substructures is presented. In one experiment reported in this paper, the web server has been exploited to obtain some clues about a biochemical hypothesis. The main distinction in the software design of the web server is the filtering process incorporated to expedite the analysis. The filtering process extracts the residues located in the caves of the protein tertiary structure for analysis and operates with O(nlogn) time complexity, where n is the number of residues in the protein. In comparison, the α-hull algorithm, which is a widely used algorithm in computer graphics for identifying those instances that are on the contour of a three-dimensional object, features O(n2) time complexity. Experimental results show that the filtering process presented in this paper is able to speed up the analysis by a factor ranging from 3.15 to 9.37 times. The ProteMiner-SSM web server can be found at http://proteminer.csie.ntu.edu.tw/. There is a mirror site at http://p4.sbl.bc.sinica.edu.tw/proteminer/. PMID:15215355

  19. Denotation and connotation in public representation: Semantic network analysis of Hwang supporters' internet dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leo

    2013-04-01

    This article analyzes the internet discourses of Korean people who supported Hwang Woo Suk despite the disclosure of his scientific misconduct. During the controversial period, those who supported Hwang constructed a narrative of a fallen hero trapped by jealous rivals and an "unjust" society. The supporters' dramatized discourses compete with expert opinions of Seoul National University's Audit Board and prosecutors that investigated the scientific fraud. By introducing and applying an innovative method of semantic network analysis, this study explores how the supporters represent their personal concerns in daily life and latent social problems in South Korea, as well as the failure of science communication. In short, the supporters' internet representations connote concerns in daily life that motivated their sympathy and activism for Hwang.

  20. Machine Fault Detection Based on Filter Bank Similarity Features Using Acoustic and Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Holguín-Londoño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration and acoustic analysis actively support the nondestructive and noninvasive fault diagnostics of rotating machines at early stages. Nonetheless, the acoustic signal is less used because of its vulnerability to external interferences, hindering an efficient and robust analysis for condition monitoring (CM. This paper presents a novel methodology to characterize different failure signatures from rotating machines using either acoustic or vibration signals. Firstly, the signal is decomposed into several narrow-band spectral components applying different filter bank methods such as empirical mode decomposition, wavelet packet transform, and Fourier-based filtering. Secondly, a feature set is built using a proposed similarity measure termed cumulative spectral density index and used to estimate the mutual statistical dependence between each bandwidth-limited component and the raw signal. Finally, a classification scheme is carried out to distinguish the different types of faults. The methodology is tested in two laboratory experiments, including turbine blade degradation and rolling element bearing faults. The robustness of our approach is validated contaminating the signal with several levels of additive white Gaussian noise, obtaining high-performance outcomes that make the usage of vibration, acoustic, and vibroacoustic measurements in different applications comparable. As a result, the proposed fault detection based on filter bank similarity features is a promising methodology to implement in CM of rotating machinery, even using measurements with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Comparative analysis of two phenotypically-similar but genomically-distinct Burkholderia cenocepacia-specific bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Karlene H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic analysis of bacteriophages infecting the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC is an important preliminary step in the development of a phage therapy protocol for these opportunistic pathogens. The objective of this study was to characterize KL1 (vB_BceS_KL1 and AH2 (vB_BceS_AH2, two novel Burkholderia cenocepacia-specific siphoviruses isolated from environmental samples. Results KL1 and AH2 exhibit several unique phenotypic similarities: they infect the same B. cenocepacia strains, they require prolonged incubation at 30°C for the formation of plaques at low titres, and they do not form plaques at similar titres following incubation at 37°C. However, despite these similarities, we have determined using whole-genome pyrosequencing that these phages show minimal relatedness to one another. The KL1 genome is 42,832 base pairs (bp in length and is most closely related to Pseudomonas phage 73 (PA73. In contrast, the AH2 genome is 58,065 bp in length and is most closely related to Burkholderia phage BcepNazgul. Using both BLASTP and HHpred analysis, we have identified and analyzed the putative virion morphogenesis, lysis, DNA binding, and MazG proteins of these two phages. Notably, MazG homologs identified in cyanophages have been predicted to facilitate infection of stationary phase cells and may contribute to the unique plaque phenotype of KL1 and AH2. Conclusions The nearly indistinguishable phenotypes but distinct genomes of KL1 and AH2 provide further evidence of both vast diversity and convergent evolution in the BCC-specific phage population.

  2. Similarity Analysis of the Streamer Zone of Blue Jets and Gigantic Blue Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennady, M.; Popov, N. A.; Shneider, M.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple observations of Blue Jets (BJ) and Gigantic Blue Jets (GBJ) show that BJ emits a fan of streamers similar to a laboratory leader. Moreover, in the exponential atmosphere those long streamers grow preferentially upward, producing a narrow cone confined by the aperture angle. Petrov and Petrova [1999] and Pasko and George [2002] noticed that BJ are similar to the streamer zone of a leader (streamer corona) and conducted modeling studies based on the streamers fractal structure. Objective of this paper is to study the fractal dimension of the bunch of streamer channels emitted by BJ, at different altitude and under the varying reduced electric field. This similarity analysis has been done in three steps: First we described the dendritic structure of streamers in corona discharge applying the fractal theory by Popov [2002]. Then using this model and the data from existing laboratory experiments we obtained that the fractal dimension of the branching streamer channels D=2. We estimated next the packing factor of the streamers using the kinetic simulations that describe development of a group of streamers that propagate in a discharge gap while interact with each other. Finally the model was used to analyze some GBJ images available from the literature. The model output includes evaluation of the total number of streamer channels in the GBJs along with estimates of the aperture angle and of the average distance between the brunches. In addition the analysis allows us to obtain the mean streamer velocity for the studied GBJs and check the velocity against the observations. V.P. Pasko and J.J. George, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1458, 2002 N.I. Petrov and G.N. Petrova, Tech Phys. Lett., 44, 472, 1999 N.A. Popov, Plasma Phys. Reports, 28, 615, 2002.

  3. Similarity and Cluster Analysis of Intermediate Deep Events in the Southeastern Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscic, Marija; Becker, Dirk; Brüstle, Andrea; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of geodynamic processes in the Hellenic subduction zone (HSZ), in particular in the eastern part of the HSZ, we analyze a cluster of intermediate deep events in the region of Nisyros volcano. The cluster recorded during the deployment of the temporary seismic network EGELADOS consists of 159 events at 80 to 200 km depth with local magnitudes ranging from magnitude 0.2 to magnitude 4.1. The network itself consisted of 56 onshore and 23 offshore broadband stations completed by 19 permanent stations from NOA, GEOFON and MedNet. It was deployed from September 2005 to March 2007 and it covered the entire HSZ. Here, both spatial and temporal clustering of the recorded events is studied by using the three component similarity analysis. The waveform cross-correlation was performed for all event combinations using data recorded on 45 onshore stations. The results are shown as a function of frequency for individual stations and as averaged values over the network. The cross-correlation coefficients at the single stations show a decreasing similarity with increasing epicentral distance as well as the effect of local heterogeneities at particular stations, causing noticeable differences in waveform similarities. Event relocation was performed by using the double-difference earthquake relocation software HypoDD and the results are compared with previously obtained single event locations which were calculated using nonlinear location tool NonLinLoc and station corrections. For the relocation, both differential travel times obtained by separate cross-correlation of P- and S-waveforms and manual readings of onset times are used. It is shown that after the relocation the inter-event distance for highly similar events has been reduced. By comparing the results of the cluster analysis with results obtained from the synthetic catalogs, where the event rate, portion and occurrence time of the aftershocks is varied, it is shown that the event

  4. Genome-wide analysis of regions similar to promoters of histone genes

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhary, Rajesh

    2010-05-28

    Background: The purpose of this study is to: i) develop a computational model of promoters of human histone-encoding genes (shortly histone genes), an important class of genes that participate in various critical cellular processes, ii) use the model so developed to identify regions across the human genome that have similar structure as promoters of histone genes; such regions could represent potential genomic regulatory regions, e.g. promoters, of genes that may be coregulated with histone genes, and iii/ identify in this way genes that have high likelihood of being coregulated with the histone genes.Results: We successfully developed a histone promoter model using a comprehensive collection of histone genes. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation test, the model produced good prediction accuracy (94.1% sensitivity, 92.6% specificity, and 92.8% positive predictive value). We used this model to predict across the genome a number of genes that shared similar promoter structures with the histone gene promoters. We thus hypothesize that these predicted genes could be coregulated with histone genes. This hypothesis matches well with the available gene expression, gene ontology, and pathways data. Jointly with promoters of the above-mentioned genes, we found a large number of intergenic regions with similar structure as histone promoters.Conclusions: This study represents one of the most comprehensive computational analyses conducted thus far on a genome-wide scale of promoters of human histone genes. Our analysis suggests a number of other human genes that share a high similarity of promoter structure with the histone genes and thus are highly likely to be coregulated, and consequently coexpressed, with the histone genes. We also found that there are a large number of intergenic regions across the genome with their structures similar to promoters of histone genes. These regions may be promoters of yet unidentified genes, or may represent remote control regions that

  5. Fluorescence spectral analysis for the discrimination of complex, similar mixtures with the aid of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongnian; Lai, Yanhua; Kokot, Serge

    2012-07-01

    An analytical method for the classification of complex real-world samples was researched and developed with the use of excitation-emission fluorescence matrix (EEFM) spectroscopy, using the medicinal herbs, Rhizoma corydalis decumbentis (RCD) and Rhizoma corydalis (RC) as example samples. The data set was obtained from various authentic RCD-A and RC-A, adulterated AD, and commercial RCD-C and RC-C samples. The spectra (range: λ(ex) = 215∼395 nm and λ(em) = 290∼560 nm), arranged in two- and three-way data matrix formats, were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to produce two-dimensional component-by-component plots for qualitative data classification. The RCD-A and RC-A object groups were clearly discriminated, but the AD and the RCD-C as well as RC-C samples were less well separated. PARAFAC analysis produced somewhat better discrimination, and loadings plots revealed the presence of the marker compound Protopine-a strongly fluorescing substance-as well as at least two other unidentified fluorescent components. Classification performance of the common K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) methods was relatively poor when compared with that of the back propagation- and radial basis function-artificial neural networks (BP-ANN and RBF-ANN) models on the basis of two- and three-way formatted data. The best results were obtained with the three-way fingerprints and the RBF-ANN model. Subsequently, the quality of the commercial samples (RCD-C and RC-C) was classified on the best optimized RBF-ANN model. Thus, EEFM spectroscopy, which provides three-way measured data, is potentially a powerful analytical technique for the analysis of complex real-world substances provided the classification is performed by the RBF-ANN or similar ANN methods.

  6. K-Line Patterns’ Predictive Power Analysis Using the Methods of Similarity Match and Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock price prediction based on K-line patterns is the essence of candlestick technical analysis. However, there are some disputes on whether the K-line patterns have predictive power in academia. To help resolve the debate, this paper uses the data mining methods of pattern recognition, pattern clustering, and pattern knowledge mining to research the predictive power of K-line patterns. The similarity match model and nearest neighbor-clustering algorithm are proposed for solving the problem of similarity match and clustering of K-line series, respectively. The experiment includes testing the predictive power of the Three Inside Up pattern and Three Inside Down pattern with the testing dataset of the K-line series data of Shanghai 180 index component stocks over the latest 10 years. Experimental results show that (1 the predictive power of a pattern varies a great deal for different shapes and (2 each of the existing K-line patterns requires further classification based on the shape feature for improving the prediction performance.

  7. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy I: formulation and asymptotic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B J

    2007-01-01

    Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state $p=(\\gamma -1)\\mu$ with $01$). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically ``quasi-Friedmann'', in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the $0<\\gamma<2/3$ case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are {\\it genuinely} asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasi-static or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, or quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotica...

  8. Estimating multivariate similarity between neuroimaging datasets with sparse canonical correlation analysis: an application to perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria J; Mehta, Mitul A; Pich, Emilio M; Risterucci, Celine; Zelaya, Fernando; Reinders, Antje A T S; Williams, Steve C R; Dazzan, Paola; Doyle, Orla M; Marquand, Andre F

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies are based on either combining more than one data modality (inter-modal) or combining more than one measurement from the same modality (intra-modal). To date, most intra-modal studies using multivariate statistics have focused on differences between datasets, for instance relying on classifiers to differentiate between effects in the data. However, to fully characterize these effects, multivariate methods able to measure similarities between datasets are needed. One classical technique for estimating the relationship between two datasets is canonical correlation analysis (CCA). However, in the context of high-dimensional data the application of CCA is extremely challenging. A recent extension of CCA, sparse CCA (SCCA), overcomes this limitation, by regularizing the model parameters while yielding a sparse solution. In this work, we modify SCCA with the aim of facilitating its application to high-dimensional neuroimaging data and finding meaningful multivariate image-to-image correspondences in intra-modal studies. In particular, we show how the optimal subset of variables can be estimated independently and we look at the information encoded in more than one set of SCCA transformations. We illustrate our framework using Arterial Spin Labeling data to investigate multivariate similarities between the effects of two antipsychotic drugs on cerebral blood flow.

  9. New Structural Representation and Digital-Analysis Platform for Symmetrical Parallel Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenao Cao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An automatic design platform capable of automatic structural analysis, structural synthesis and the application of parallel mechanisms will be a great aid in the conceptual design of mechanisms, though up to now such a platform has only existed as an idea. The work in this paper constitutes part of such a platform. Based on the screw theory and a new structural representation method proposed here which builds a one‐to‐one correspondence between the strings of representative characters and the kinematic structures of symmetrical parallel mechanisms (SPMs, this paper develops a fully‐automatic approach for mobility (degree‐of‐freedom analysis, and further establishes an automatic digital‐analysis platform for SPMs. With this platform, users simply have to enter the strings of representative characters, and the kinematic structures of the SPMs will be generated and displayed automatically, and the mobility and its properties will also be analysed and displayed automatically. Typical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the approach.

  10. Representation of Gamblers in the Singaporean Press since Casino Legalization: A Corpus-driven Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray C. H. Leung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Capitalizing on the lack of gambling-related research among discourse analysts and the recent liberalization of casino operations in Singapore, the present article reports on the discursive representation of gamblers in Singapore newspaper texts by merging corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis. 889 articles from the popular daily paper The Straits Times (Singapore were retrieved via LexisNexis in accordance with a series of criteria. The extracted texts, which were dated from 17 April 2005 to 28 April 2013, constitute the 615 827-word corpus of the current study. WordSmith Tools 6.0 was used to perform collocation analysis, which was enriched by critical examination of the concordance lines. The findings indicate that apart from gender stereotyping, social alienation is manifested in various ways while gamblers are being portrayed. For instance, the pronoun collocate ‘we’ of the node ‘gambler*’ tends to signify the non-gamblers’ voice which is geared towards the institutional stance. The verb collocate ‘say’ is frequently used in contexts where the gamblers are being commented upon or criticized. The analytic outcomes of the research have once again confirmed the ‘hegemonizing’ character of newspaper texts. Keywords: critical discourse analysis, gamblers, Singaporean press, corpus linguistics, institutionally constructed identities, collocation

  11. CONCISE SOLUTION OF FORWARD KINEMATICS ANALYSIS OF PARALLEL MECHANISM IN 6-SPS SIMILAR PLATFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILu-yang; ZHOUWan-kun; WUHong-tao; ZHUJian-ying

    2004-01-01

    The forward kinematics analysis of a special 6-SPS Stewart platform is presented, in which both the base and the mobile platforms are hexagon and similar to each other. The forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism is a complicated nonlinear problem, however. there exists a class of parallel kinematics platforms that have the simplest forward kinematics. By introducing quaternion to represent the rotary transformation matrix and applying dual space method to eliminate the high degree polynomials, the forward kinematics can be expressed by a set of quadratic algebra equations, which decouple the position and the orientation of the mobile platform. The approach only requires solving one-variable quadratic equations. Besides, spurious complex roots are automatically avoided. Eight possible solutions are obtained from the approach. It discovers the inner symmetry relationship between the solutions of the forward kinematics.

  12. Classification of Chemical Substances Using Particulate Representations of Matter: An Analysis of Student Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stains, Marilyne; Talanquer, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    We applied a mixed-method research design to investigate the patterns of reasoning used by novice undergraduate chemistry students to classify chemical substances as elements, compounds, or mixtures based on their particulate representations. We were interested in the identification of the representational features that students use to build a…

  13. Spectral Representation Analysis of Non Contact Acousto Thermal Signature Data (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    the acoustic waves are absorbed into the material and converted to heat through the diffusion of transverse thermal currents, inter-crystalline...from Non-contact acousto-thermal signature (NCATS) experiments are considered. Spectral representation models are developed for general conductive...experiments are considered. Spectral representation models are developed for general conductive cooling physics. These models are subsequently used to

  14. A Critical Discourse Analysis of ELT Materials in Gender Representation: A Comparison of "Summit" and "Top Notch"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadikhah, Mehran; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the crucial importance of textbooks, their increasing development day by day, and their significant effects on saving time, energy, and budgets, only few studies have been done on textbooks evaluation from a critical discourse analysis perspective. This study aimed to analyze and compare the gender representation in "Top…

  15. Multivariate pattern analysis of MEG and EEG: A comparison of representational structure in time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2017-07-14

    Multivariate pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) data can reveal the rapid neural dynamics underlying cognition. However, MEG and EEG have systematic differences in sampling neural activity. This poses the question to which degree such measurement differences consistently bias the results of multivariate analysis applied to MEG and EEG activation patterns. To investigate, we conducted a concurrent MEG/EEG study while participants viewed images of everyday objects. We applied multivariate classification analyses to MEG and EEG data, and compared the resulting time courses to each other, and to fMRI data for an independent evaluation in space. We found that both MEG and EEG revealed the millisecond spatio-temporal dynamics of visual processing with largely equivalent results. Beyond yielding convergent results, we found that MEG and EEG also captured partly unique aspects of visual representations. Those unique components emerged earlier in time for MEG than for EEG. Identifying the sources of those unique components with fMRI, we found the locus for both MEG and EEG in high-level visual cortex, and in addition for MEG in low-level visual cortex. Together, our results show that multivariate analyses of MEG and EEG data offer a convergent and complimentary view on neural processing, and motivate the wider adoption of these methods in both MEG and EEG research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of newly established EST databases reveals similarities between heart regeneration in newt and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The newt Notophthalmus viridescens possesses the remarkable ability to respond to cardiac damage by formation of new myocardial tissue. Surprisingly little is known about changes in gene activities that occur during the course of regeneration. To begin to decipher the molecular processes, that underlie restoration of functional cardiac tissue, we generated an EST database from regenerating newt hearts and compared the transcriptional profile of selected candidates with genes deregulated during zebrafish heart regeneration. Results A cDNA library of 100,000 cDNA clones was generated from newt hearts 14 days after ventricular injury. Sequencing of 11520 cDNA clones resulted in 2894 assembled contigs. BLAST searches revealed 1695 sequences with potential homology to sequences from the NCBI database. BLAST searches to TrEMBL and Swiss-Prot databases assigned 1116 proteins to Gene Ontology terms. We also identified a relatively large set of 174 ORFs, which are likely to be unique for urodele amphibians. Expression analysis of newt-zebrafish homologues confirmed the deregulation of selected genes during heart regeneration. Sequences, BLAST results and GO annotations were visualized in a relational web based database followed by grouping of identified proteins into clusters of GO Terms. Comparison of data from regenerating zebrafish hearts identified biological processes, which were uniformly overrepresented during cardiac regeneration in newt and zebrafish. Conclusion We concluded that heart regeneration in newts and zebrafish led to the activation of similar sets of genes, which suggests that heart regeneration in both species might follow similar principles. The design of the newly established newt EST database allows identification of molecular pathways important for heart regeneration.

  17. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA) method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD) in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR) statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A), takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  18. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-De; Wu, Shi-Bin; Wang, Hao-Yu; Wei, Xin-Hua; Chen, Xin; Pan, Wan-Long; Hu, Jiani; Xie, Yao-Qin

    2015-12-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. Project supported in part by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015AA043203 and 2012AA02A604), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81171402, 61471349, and 81501463), the Innovative Research Team Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011S013), the Science and Technological Program for Higher Education, Science and Research, and Health Care Institutions of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011108101001), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014A030310360), the Fundamental Research Program of Shenzhen City, China (Grant No. JCYJ20140417113430639), and Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences, China.

  19. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  20. Consistent Feature Extraction From Vector Fields: Combinatorial Representations and Analysis Under Local Reference Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Harsh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This dissertation presents research on addressing some of the contemporary challenges in the analysis of vector fields—an important type of scientific data useful for representing a multitude of physical phenomena, such as wind flow and ocean currents. In particular, new theories and computational frameworks to enable consistent feature extraction from vector fields are presented. One of the most fundamental challenges in the analysis of vector fields is that their features are defined with respect to reference frames. Unfortunately, there is no single “correct” reference frame for analysis, and an unsuitable frame may cause features of interest to remain undetected, thus creating serious physical consequences. This work develops new reference frames that enable extraction of localized features that other techniques and frames fail to detect. As a result, these reference frames objectify the notion of “correctness” of features for certain goals by revealing the phenomena of importance from the underlying data. An important consequence of using these local frames is that the analysis of unsteady (time-varying) vector fields can be reduced to the analysis of sequences of steady (timeindependent) vector fields, which can be performed using simpler and scalable techniques that allow better data management by accessing the data on a per-time-step basis. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art analysis of steady vector fields is not robust, as most techniques are numerical in nature. The residing numerical errors can violate consistency with the underlying theory by breaching important fundamental laws, which may lead to serious physical consequences. This dissertation considers consistency as the most fundamental characteristic of computational analysis that must always be preserved, and presents a new discrete theory that uses combinatorial representations and algorithms to provide consistency guarantees during vector field analysis along with the uncertainty

  1. Investigating materials for breast nodules simulation by using segmentation and similarity analysis of digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Paula N.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Schiabel, Homero

    2015-03-01

    The task of identifying the malignancy of nodular lesions on mammograms becomes quite complex due to overlapped structures or even to the granular fibrous tissue which can cause confusion in classifying masses shape, leading to unnecessary biopsies. Efforts to develop methods for automatic masses detection in CADe (Computer Aided Detection) schemes have been made with the aim of assisting radiologists and working as a second opinion. The validation of these methods may be accomplished for instance by using databases with clinical images or acquired through breast phantoms. With this aim, some types of materials were tested in order to produce radiographic phantom images which could characterize a good enough approach to the typical mammograms corresponding to actual breast nodules. Therefore different nodules patterns were physically produced and used on a previous developed breast phantom. Their characteristics were tested according to the digital images obtained from phantom exposures at a LORAD M-IV mammography unit. Two analysis were realized the first one by the segmentation of regions of interest containing the simulated nodules by an automated segmentation technique as well as by an experienced radiologist who has delineated the contour of each nodule by means of a graphic display digitizer. Both results were compared by using evaluation metrics. The second one used measure of quality Structural Similarity (SSIM) to generate quantitative data related to the texture produced by each material. Although all the tested materials proved to be suitable for the study, the PVC film yielded the best results.

  2. Pattern similarity based soil moisture analysis for three seasons on a steep hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunhyung; Kim, Sanghyun

    2017-08-01

    Soil moisture is an important factor for understanding hydrological and solute transport processes at the hillslope scale. The selection of representative points for soil moisture measurement has been explored to investigate temporal variation of average soil moisture with minimum costs and maximum stability. The optimal selection of soil moisture monitoring points has been reevaluated to address hillslope hydrological processes and the impacts of seasonal differences. An alternative method to select soil moisture measurement points was developed to adequately represent immediate soil moisture response patterns to sequential rainfall events. To address the seasonal features of rainfall events and their impacts on soil moisture redistribution along the hillslope, field soil moisture data were collected at 49 points for three seasons over periods of 25 days with bi-hourly monitoring intervals. For effective characterization of soil moisture variation, soil moisture datasets were classified using cluster analysis based on Euclidean similarity. Points delineated using the proposed method not only provide better stability of average soil moistures but also adequately represent the response patterns of soil moisture to rainfall events on the hillslope.

  3. Quantitative and selective polymerase chain reaction analysis of highly similar human alpha-class glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Emilia; Mannervik, Bengt; Raffalli-Mathieu, Françoise

    2011-05-01

    Alpha-class glutathione transferases (GSTs) found expressed in human tissues constitute a family of four homologous enzymes with contrasting enzyme activities. In particular, GST A3-3 has been shown to contribute to the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in human cells and is selectively expressed in steroidogenic tissues. The more ubiquitous GST A1-1, GST A2-2, and GST A4-4 appear to be primarily involved in detoxification processes and are expressed at higher levels than GST A3-3. We are interested in studying the cell and tissue expression of the GST A3-3 gene, yet the existence of highly expressed sequence-similar homologs and of several splice variants is a serious challenge for the specific detection of unique transcript species. We found that published polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for GST A3-3 lack the specificity required for reliable quantitative analysis. Therefore, we designed quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers with greatly increased discrimination power for the human GSTA3 full-length transcript. The improved primers allow accurate discrimination between GST A3-3 and the other alpha-class GSTs and so are of great value to studies of the expression of the GSTA3 gene. The novel primers were used to quantify GSTA3 transcripts in human embryonic liver and steroidogenic cell lines.

  4. A Zonal Similarity Analysis of Velocity Profiles in Wall-Bounded Turbulent Shear Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Tuoc, Trinh Khanh

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that there are three distinct zones in a wall bounded turbulent flow field dominated by three completely different mechanisms: - An outer region where the velocity profile is determined by the pressure distribution - A highly active wall layer dominated by a sequence of inrush-sweep and ejections, and - An intermediate region well described by the traditional logarithmic law proposed by independently Millikan and Prandtl. The log-law and the wall layer are sometimes referred to as the inner region. Under these conditions, a unique set of normalisation parameters cannot possibly apply to all three zones. The inner region can be more successfully represented by normalising the distance and velocity with the values of these scales at the edge of the wall layer since they are shared by both the wall layer and the log-law region. The application of this similarity analysis has successfully collapsed extensive published data for the inner region covering a range of Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 1,000,0...

  5. Common reduced spaces of representation applied to multispectral texture analysis in cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvo, Joris; Angulo, Jesus; Breugnot, Josselin; Borbes, Sylvie; Closs, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a technique of multivariate data analysis widely used in various fields like biology, ecology or economy to reduce data dimensionality while retaining most important information. It is becoming a standard practice in multispectral/hyperspectral imaging since those multivariate data generally suffer from a high redundancy level. Nevertheless, by definition, PCA is meant to be applied to a single multispectral/hyperspectral image at a time. When several images have to be treated, running a PCA on each image would generate specific reduced spaces, which is not suitable for comparison between results. Thus, we focus on two PCA based algorithms that could define common reduced spaces of representation. The first method arises from literature and is computed with the barycenter covariance matrix. On the contrary, we designed the second algorithm with the idea of correcting standard PCA using permutations and inversions of eigenvectors. These dimensionality reduction methods are used within the context of a cosmetological study of a foundation make-up. Available data are in-vivo multispectral images of skin acquired on different volunteers in time series. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the make-up degradation especially in terms of texture analysis. Results have to be validate by statistical prediction of time since applying the product. PCA algorithms produce eigenimages that separately enhance skin components (pores, radiance, vessels...). From these eigenimages, we extract morphological texture descriptors and intent a time prediction. Accuracy of common reduced spaces outperform classical PCA one. In this paper, we detail how PCA is extended to the multiple groups case and explain what are the advantages of common reduced spaces when it comes to study several multispectral images.

  6. Face Aging Effect Simulation Using Hidden Factor Analysis Joint Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Huang, Di; Wang, Yunhong; Wang, Heng; Tang, Yuanyan

    2016-06-01

    Face aging simulation has received rising investigations nowadays, whereas it still remains a challenge to generate convincing and natural age-progressed face images. In this paper, we present a novel approach to such an issue by using hidden factor analysis joint sparse representation. In contrast to the majority of tasks in the literature that handle the facial texture integrally, the proposed aging approach separately models the person-specific facial properties that tend to be stable in a relatively long period and the age-specific clues that change gradually over time. It then merely transforms the age component to a target age group via sparse reconstruction, yielding aging effects, which is finally combined with the identity component to achieve the aged face. Experiments are carried out on three aging databases, and the results achieved clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in rendering a face with aging effects. Additionally, a series of evaluations prove its validity with respect to identity preservation and aging effect generation.

  7. UWB micro-doppler radar for human gait analysis using joint range-time-frequency representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhou; Fathy, Aly E.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel, standalone ultra wideband (UWB) micro-Doppler radar sensor that goes beyond simple range or micro-Doppler detection to combined range-time-Doppler frequency analysis. Moreover, it can monitor more than one human object in both line-of-sight (LOS) and through wall scenarios, thus have full human objects tracking capabilities. The unique radar design is based on narrow pulse transceiver, high speed data acquisition module, and wideband antenna array. For advanced radar post-data processing, joint range-time-frequency representation has been performed. Characteristics of human walking activity have been analyzed using the radar sensor by precisely tracking the radar object and acquiring range-time-Doppler information simultaneously. The UWB micro-Doppler radar prototype is capable of detecting Doppler frequency range from -180 Hz to +180 Hz, which allows a maximum target velocity of 9 m/s. The developed radar sensor can also be extended for many other applications, such as respiration and heartbeat detection of trapped survivors under building debris.

  8. General refinement strategy for magnetic structures using spherical neutron polarimetry and representation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, A. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Lelievre-Berna, E. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Wills, A.S., E-mail: a.s.wills@ucl.ac.u [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-01

    Spherical neutron polarimetry (SNP) is a powerful technique for the determination of magnetic structures which may otherwise be intractable. The complexity of the neutron scattering process and the large number of different possible trial structures typically leads to refinements based on a simple trial and error generation of possible models and a possible failure to explore valid possible models. The combination of the model symmetry types determined from representational analysis and reverse-Monte Carlo refinement creates a generalized refinement strategy for SNP data that allows refinement in terms of symmetry adapted modes built up from the basis vectors that describe the orientations of the magnetic moments on the different magnetic sites, and those of the different domains that are possible in a sample: spin (S)-domains and K-domains. This methodology typically leads to a large reduction in the number of refined parameters as well as the rigorous inclusion of any symmetry related domains. In combination with reverse-Monte Carlo refinement algorithms a general strategy for refining complex magnetic structures can be created. We present an example of a frustrated magnetic structure that have been determined using this approach Er{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIAL GENES IN OVARIAN CANCER USING REPRESENTATIONAL DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS OF cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chen; Min Wang; Xin-yan Wang; Shan Gao; Jun Wang; Xiao-ming Guan

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify differential genes between normal ovarian epithelium tissue and ovarian epithelial cancer using representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA). Methods cDNA-RDA was performed to identify the differentially expressed sequences between cDNAs from cancer tissue and cDNAs from normal ovarian tissue in the same patient who was in the early stage of ovarian serous cystadeno carcinoma. These differentially expressed fragments were cloned and analyzed, then sequenced and compared with known genes.Results Three differentially expressed cDNA fragments were isolated using cDNA from normal ovarian tissue as tester and cDNA from cancer tissue as driver amplicon by cDNA-RDA. DP Ⅲ-1 and DP Ⅲ-2 cDNA clone showed significant ho mology to the cDNA of alpha actin gene; DPⅢ-3 cDNA clone showed significant homology to the cDNA of transgelin gene. Conclusion cDNA-RDA can be used to sensitively identify the differentially expressed genes in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma. Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma involves alteration of multiple genes.

  10. Re-presentations of space in Hollywood movies: an event-indexing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, James; Iricinschi, Catalina

    2015-03-01

    Popular movies present chunk-like events (scenes and subscenes) that promote episodic, serial updating of viewers' representations of the ongoing narrative. Event-indexing theory would suggest that the beginnings of new scenes trigger these updates, which in turn require more cognitive processing. Typically, a new movie event is signaled by an establishing shot, one providing more background information and a longer look than the average shot. Our analysis of 24 films reconfirms this. More important, we show that, when returning to a previously shown location, the re-establishing shot reduces both context and duration while remaining greater than the average shot. In general, location shifts dominate character and time shifts in event segmentation of movies. In addition, over the last 70 years re-establishing shots have become more like the noninitial shots of a scene. Establishing shots have also approached noninitial shot scales, but not their durations. Such results suggest that film form is evolving, perhaps to suit more rapid encoding of narrative events. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Gender Representation under Critical Image Analysis: The Case of Iranian ELT Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabbagh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to identify and reveal gender positioning in the images used in the recent ELT nation-wide text books, i.e. Prospects 1, 2 & 3. To do so, the dimensions in Goffman (1976 were mixed with the image semiotic category of Kress and van Leeuwen (2006 to analyze the images in terms of determining active participant, gaze direction, visual techniques, body display, and the space in which the participants were shown. In order to elicit the hidden patterns, the data went over a thorough content analysis which revealed the following: First, males were presented more than females as active, looking at the viewer, and framed in a close–up format which signified their prominence and power in relation to females. Second, while both men and women were represented as fully clothed, no female character in the images were depicted in sparsely and lightly clothed. Third, a balanced representation was shown regarding the location in which males or females were present in the images, portraying at both home and workplace spaces despite not showing females in images related to open spaces such as streets and neighborhoods. Results promise implications for language teachers and teacher educators as to raise their awareness of gender bias, though in some aspects and not in others, in images of the text books. In addition, results have clear message for material developers not to selectively represent a gender-unbiased picture of males and females in only some limited aspects.

  12. Similarity matrix analysis and divergence measures for statistical detection of unknown deterministic signals hidden in additive noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bot, O., E-mail: lebotol@gmail.com [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, GIPSA-Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, GIPSA-Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Mars, J.I. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, GIPSA-Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, GIPSA-Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Gervaise, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, GIPSA-Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, GIPSA-Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Chaire CHORUS, Foundation of Grenoble Institute of Technology, 46 Avenue Félix Viallet, 38031 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France)

    2015-10-23

    This Letter proposes an algorithm to detect an unknown deterministic signal hidden in additive white Gaussian noise. The detector is based on recurrence analysis. It compares the distribution of the similarity matrix coefficients of the measured signal with an analytic expression of the distribution expected in the noise-only case. This comparison is achieved using divergence measures. Performance analysis based on the receiver operating characteristics shows that the proposed detector outperforms the energy detector, giving a probability of detection 10% to 50% higher, and has a similar performance to that of a sub-optimal filter detector. - Highlights: • We model the distribution of the similarity matrix coefficients of a Gaussian noise. • We use divergence measures for goodness-of-fit test between a model and measured data. • We distinguish deterministic signal and Gaussian noise with similarity matrix analysis. • Similarity matrix analysis outperforms energy detector.

  13. MeSH-Informed Enrichment Analysis and MeSH-Guided Semantic Similarity Among Functional Terms and Gene Products in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gota Morota

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical vocabularies and ontologies aid in recapitulating biological knowledge. The annotation of gene products is mainly accelerated by Gene Ontology (GO, and more recently by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. Here, we report a suite of MeSH packages for chicken in Bioconductor, and illustrate some features of different MeSH-based analyses, including MeSH-informed enrichment analysis and MeSH-guided semantic similarity among terms and gene products, using two lists of chicken genes available in public repositories. The two published datasets that were employed represent (i differentially expressed genes, and (ii candidate genes under selective sweep or epistatic selection. The comparison of MeSH with GO overrepresentation analyses suggested not only that MeSH supports the findings obtained from GO analysis, but also that MeSH is able to further enrich the representation of biological knowledge and often provide more interpretable results. Based on the hierarchical structures of MeSH and GO, we computed semantic similarities among vocabularies, as well as semantic similarities among selected genes. These yielded the similarity levels between significant functional terms, and the annotation of each gene yielded the measures of gene similarity. Our findings show the benefits of using MeSH as an alternative choice of annotation in order to draw biological inferences from a list of genes of interest. We argue that the use of MeSH in conjunction with GO will be instrumental in facilitating the understanding of the genetic basis of complex traits.

  14. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  15. [The Unified Health System in the users' social representation: an analysis of its structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; de Sá, Celso Pereira

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the representational structure of a group of users of the Unified Health System (SUS) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, concerning the system. A qualitative research, grounded on the theory of the central nucleus of the social representations, was developed with 104 users of five health care facilities. Data were collected through the free evocation to the inducer term SUS, and analyzed by the software EVOC 2000. The structure of the representation disclosed four dimensions: conceptual, evaluative, spatial, and finalistic. They presented, respectively, the following lexicons in their central nucleus: health, well attended, hospital and attendance. Negative elements of contrast were found amidst the positive representation of the system and the presence of all four dimensions was observed in the periphery, with predominance of the finalistic one. The conclusion is that the system presents itself to the citizens in a pragmatic way and that its implementation is still necessary.

  16. Social representations of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  17. Neurophysiological analysis of target-related sympathetic pathways--from animal to human: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänig, W; Häbler, H-J

    2003-03-01

    similar, if not identical, at least in the neuraxis, in both species. Future progress in the analysis of the central neuronal circuits that are associated with the different final sympathetic pathways will very much depend on whether we are able to align the human models and the animal models. Human models using microneurography have the advantage to work under awake conditions. The activity in the postganglionic neurons can be correlated with various other (afferent, centrally generated) signals, effector responses, perceptions, central changes monitored by imaging methods, etc. However, human models have considerable limitations. Animal models can be divided into in vivo models and various types of reduced in vitro models. Animal models allow using various methodological approaches (e.g., neurophysiological, pharmacological, modern anatomical tracing methods; behavioural animal models; transgenic animals), which cannot be used in the human. Interaction of the research performed in the human and animals will allow to design animal models that are relevant for diseases in which the sympathetic nervous systems is involved and to trace down the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The scientific questions to be asked are formulated on the basis of clinical observations resulting in testable hypotheses that are investigated in the in vivo human and animal models. Results obtained in the in vivo models lead to the formulation of hypotheses that are testable in reduced in vivo and particularly in vitro animal models. Microneurographic recordings from sympathetic postganglionic fibres in the human will keep its place in the analysis of the sympathetic nervous system in health and disease although only relatively few laboratories in the world will be able to keep the standards and expertise to use this approach. Experimental investigation of the organization of the sympathetic nervous system in animal models has changed dramatically in the last 15 years. The number of in

  18. Socially bold personality in the real communication and Internet communication: the analysis of representations of people of the different age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogodina A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the results of the study, subject of which is the submis- sion of the respondents of the different age groups about the social and bold personality. Required property of the respondents was the presence in the Internet environment and participation in various social networks. They assessed social and bold personal- ity in such contexts of communication, as real communication and Internet communication. Analyses were undertaken to determine the structural and content features of emotional and semantic representations of the phenomenon of the social and bold personality, depending on the context of communication, but also the detection of age-sensitive representations of the young respondents (19—35 years, middle-aged respondents (36-55 years and older respondents (from 56 to 70 years. The concept of the “social and bold personality in real communion” is shown to have a high semantic relevance, strongly marked positive emotional coloration and a similar factor structure for respondents of all age groups. The concept of the “social and bold personality in online communication” with a high semantic significance in the perception of the young respondents moves into a zone of moderate and semantic importance in representations of the middle-aged and older respondents. In representations of the respondents of all age groups, the attractiveness of the "social and bold personality in Internet communication" is less than in comparison with the "social and bold personality in the real communication". The age-specific of the social representations about social and bold personality in the real and virtual communication has been analysed in detail.

  19. Molecular analysis in true hermaphrodites with different karyotypes and similar phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L.; Cervantes, A.; Kofman-Alfaro, S. [H.G.M. Ssa. Facultad de Medicina (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-05-17

    True hermaphroditism is characterized by the development of ovarian and testicular tissue in the same individual. Muellerian and Wolffian structures are usually present, and external genitalia are often ambiguous. The most frequent karyotype in these patients is 46,XX or various forms of mosaicism, whereas 46,XY is very rarely found. The phenotype in all these subjects is similar. We studied 10 true hermaphrodites. Six of them had a 46,XX chromosomal complement: 3 had been reared as males and 3 as females. The other 4 patients were mosaics: 3 were 46,XX/46,XY and one had a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype. One of the 46,XX/46,XY mosaics was reared as a female, whereas the other 3 mosaics were reared as males. The sex of assignment in the 10 patients depended only on labio-scrotal differentiation. Molecular studies in 46,XX subjects documented the absence of Y centromeric sequences in all cases, arguing against hidden mosaicism. One patient presented Yp sequences (ZFY+, SRY+), which contrast with South African black 46,XX true hermaphrodites in whom no Y sequences were found. Molecular analysis in the subjects with mosaicism demonstrated the presence of Y centromeric and Yp sequences confirming the presence of a Y chromosome. Gonadal development, endocrine function, and phenotype in the 10 patients did not correlate with the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences in the genome, confirming that true hermaphroditism is a heterogeneous condition. Both Mexican and non-South African 46,XX true hermaphrodites may be SRY positive. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. How to Normalize Co-Occurrence Data? An Analysis of Some Well-Known Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan); L. Waltman (Ludo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn scientometric research, the use of co-occurrence data is very common. In many cases, a similarity measure is employed to normalize the data. However, there is no consensus among researchers on which similarity measure is most appropriate for normalization purposes. In this paper, we t

  1. Quantitative analysis on the non-similarity of thermal deformation of the gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guihua; Fei, Yetai; Ma, Xiushui; Fei, Wen

    2008-12-01

    Gears as common machine elements are deformed when its temperature varies. One direct result is that the tooth shape of meshing gear is changed. Using the theory of heat and elastic mechanics, the involute cylindrical gear is taken for example. Calculation makes it clear that the total profile of gear after thermal deformation is different from the shape before thermal deformation. That is named non-similarity, and the non-similarity error is given. For proving the non-similarity existed in thermal deformation of Gear, a four-dimension equipment is adopted for experiment, which is able to realize rotated motion and rectilinear motion. The experimental result also shows that the non-similarity does exist in thermal deformation of involute cylindrical gear. Shared a common theory, the non-similarity is existed in the circular gear.

  2. A technical study and analysis on fuzzy similarity based models for text classification

    CERN Document Server

    Puri, Shalini; 10.5121/ijdkp.2012.2201

    2012-01-01

    In this new and current era of technology, advancements and techniques, efficient and effective text document classification is becoming a challenging and highly required area to capably categorize text documents into mutually exclusive categories. Fuzzy similarity provides a way to find the similarity of features among various documents. In this paper, a technical review on various fuzzy similarity based models is given. These models are discussed and compared to frame out their use and necessity. A tour of different methodologies is provided which is based upon fuzzy similarity related concerns. It shows that how text and web documents are categorized efficiently into different categories. Various experimental results of these models are also discussed. The technical comparisons among each model's parameters are shown in the form of a 3-D chart. Such study and technical review provide a strong base of research work done on fuzzy similarity based text document categorization.

  3. Multiple sparse representations classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Plenge (Esben); S.K. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); E. Meijering (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In t

  4. Algorithmic aspects of analysis, prediction, and control in science and engineering an approach based on symmetry and similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Nava, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to describe and analyze a system's behavior and extract the desired prediction and control algorithms from this analysis. A typical prediction is based on observing similar situations in the past, knowing the outcomes of these past situations, and expecting that the future outcome of the current situation will be similar to these past observed outcomes. In mathematical terms, similarity corresponds to symmetry, and similarity of outcomes to invariance.   This book shows how symmetries can be used in all classes of algorithmic problems of sciences and engineering: from analysis to prediction to control. Applications cover chemistry, geosciences, intelligent control, neural networks, quantum physics, and thermal physics. Specifically, it is shown how the approach based on symmetry and similarity can be used in the analysis of real-life systems, in the algorithms of prediction, and in the algorithms of control.

  5. Advanced Models and Algorithms for Self-Similar IP Network Traffic Simulation and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radev, Dimitar; Lokshina, Izabella

    2010-11-01

    The paper examines self-similar (or fractal) properties of real communication network traffic data over a wide range of time scales. These self-similar properties are very different from the properties of traditional models based on Poisson and Markov-modulated Poisson processes. Advanced fractal models of sequentional generators and fixed-length sequence generators, and efficient algorithms that are used to simulate self-similar behavior of IP network traffic data are developed and applied. Numerical examples are provided; and simulation results are obtained and analyzed.

  6. Analysis of Strongly Connected Analysis of Strongly Connected Components (SCC Using Dynamic Graph Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alshomrani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphs are the basis of many real life applications. In our research we compare and analyse strongly connected components algorithm by using general techniques for efficient implementation. This experimental procedure exemplify in two contexts. 1. Comparison of strongly connected components algorithms. 2. Analysis of particular algorithm. Such a practice will enable java programmers, especially for those who work on such algorithms to use them efficiently. In this paper we described algorithms implementation, test and benchmark to experiment the performance of algorithms. During experimenting we found some interesting results as Cheriyan-Mehlhorn-Gabow algorithm outperform then Tarjan's algorithm

  7. Intrinsic functional component analysis via sparse representation on Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Dajiang

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia (accounting for 60% to 80%) and is the fifth leading cause of death for those people who are 65 or older. By 2050, one new case of AD in United States is expected to develop every 33 sec. Unfortunately, there is no available effective treatment that can stop or slow the death of neurons that causes AD symptoms. On the other hand, it is widely believed that AD starts before development of the associated symptoms, so its prestages, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or even significant memory concern (SMC), have received increasing attention, not only because of their potential as a precursor of AD, but also as a possible predictor of conversion to other neurodegenerative diseases. Although these prestages have been defined clinically, accurate/efficient diagnosis is still challenging. Moreover, brain functional abnormalities behind those alterations and conversions are still unclear. In this article, by developing novel sparse representations of whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals and by using the most updated Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset, we successfully identified multiple functional components simultaneously, and which potentially represent those intrinsic functional networks involved in the resting-state activities. Interestingly, these identified functional components contain all the resting-state networks obtained from traditional independent-component analysis. Moreover, by using the features derived from those functional components, it yields high classification accuracy for both AD (94%) and MCI (92%) versus normal controls. Even for SMC we can still have 92% accuracy.

  8. Representation of cancer in the medical literature--a bibliometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan W Glynn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There exists a lack of knowledge regarding the quantity and quality of scientific yield in relation to individual cancer types. We aimed to measure the proportion, quality and relevance of oncology-related articles, and to relate this output to their associated disease burden. By incorporating the impact factor(IF and Eigenfactor™(EF into our analysis we also assessed the relationship between these indices and the output under study. METHODS: All publications in 2007 were retrieved for the 26 most common cancers. The top 20 journals ranked by IF and EF in general medicine and oncology, and the presence of each malignancy within these titles was analysed. Journals publishing most prolifically on each cancer were identified and their impact assessed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 63260 (PubMed and 126845 (WoS entries were generated, respectively. 26 neoplasms accounted for 25% of total output from the top medical publications. 5 cancers dominated the first quartile of output in the top oncology journals; breast, prostate, lung, and intestinal cancer, and leukaemia. Journals associated with these cancers were associated with much higher IFs and EFs than those journals associated with the other cancer types under study, although these measures were not equivalent across all sub-specialties. In addition, yield on each cancer was related to its disease burden as measured by its incidence and prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Oncology enjoys disproportionate representation in the more prestigious medical journals. 5 cancers dominate yield, although this attention is justified given their associated disease burden. The commonly used IF and the recently introduced EF do not correlate in the assessment of the preeminent oncology journals, nor at the level of individual malignancies; there is a need to delineate between proxy measures of quality and the relevance of output when assessing its merit. These results raise significant questions regarding the best

  9. Combining generative and discriminative representation learning for lung CT analysis with convolutional restricted Boltzmann machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tulder, Gijs; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    unlabeled data, but does not necessarily produce features that are optimal for classification. In this paper we propose the convolutional classification restricted Boltzmann machine, which combines a generative and a discriminative learning objective. This allows it to learn filters that are good both......The choice of features greatly influences the performance of a tissue classification system. Despite this, many systems are built with standard, predefined filter banks that are not optimized for that particular application. Representation learning methods such as restricted Boltzmann machines may...... outperform these standard filter banks because they learn a feature description directly from the training data. Like many other representation learning methods, restricted Boltzmann machines are unsupervised and are trained with a generative learning objective; this allows them to learn representations from...

  10. Graphical representation of projective analysis of the requirements used in the process design of assistive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Luis Smythe Jr.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphic representation is a little explored technique in the development of assistive products, despite being helpful in the visualization of conceptual aspects, which are then made tangible. This improves the understanding of the process phases by the whole team, which includes practitioners from different areas. Thus, the characterization of graphic symbols used in assistive technology development processes are presented. A literature review was carried out to select: graphic symbols and pictorial images used in health care area; and the design of new proposed methods for assistive products that had some graphic representantion of its processes. From this point the authors developed a preliminar hybrid characterization model based on symbolization of graphical representations (verbal, schematic, and pictorial and approaches for pictogram design (geons, silhouettes and observation. The results of the characterization were discussed using as reference the hybrid model and the gaps. The assessment showed low use of graphic symbols for design processes representations, even when the authors were designers.

  11. Plant macrofossils analysis from Steregoiu NW Romania: taphonomy, representation, and comparison with pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of macrofossil analysis from the Steregoiu sequence in the Gutaiului Mountains covering the last 8,000 cal BP. The studied peat deposit is characterized by abundant macrofossils. Their diversity is, however, low with most macrofossils coming from plants that grew on the mire and in the forest surrounding the basin (Carex spp., Cyperus sp., Urtica dioica, Potentilla erecta, Filipendula ulmaria, Rubus idaeus, Lycopus europaeus. The concentration of Picea abies macrofossils correlates partially well with its pollen percentages, and only when it has been present on the bog surface. The absence of macrofossils from deciduous trees, which were abundant in the surrounding vegetation according to the pollen data, suggests that these deciduous trees were not growing on the bog or around its margins. The combined macrofossil and the pollen results assists in the understanding of the differences between the local and regional flora.

  12. Advancing health-related cluster analysis methodology: quantification of pairwise activity cluster similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia; Maher, Carol; Petkov, John; Olds, Tim

    2015-03-01

    To date, most health-related time-use research has investigated behaviors in isolation; more recently, however, researchers have begun to conceptualize behaviors in the form of multidimensional patterns or clusters. The study employed 2 techniques: radar graphs and centroid vector length, angles and distance to quantify pairwise time-use cluster similarities among adolescents living in Australia (N = 1853) and in New Zealand (N = 679). Based on radar graph shape, 2 pairs of clusters were similar for both boys and girls. Using vector angles (VA), vector length (VL) and centroid distances (CD), 1 pair for each sex was considered most similar (boys: VA = 63°, VL = 44 and 50 units, and CD = 48 units; girls: VA = 23°, VL = 65 and 85 units, and CD = 36 units). Both methods employed to determine similarity had strengths and weaknesses. The description and quantification of cluster similarity is an important step in the research process. An ability to track and compare clusters may provide greater understanding of complex multidimensional relationships, and in relation to health behavior clusters, present opportunities to monitor and to intervene.

  13. A Network Analysis of Minority Representation in the British Local Government: Tower Hamlets Council (2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is densely populated with ethnic minority groups such as Bengalis. Due to its diverse and vibrant borough population, Tower Hamlets Council presents interesting political dynamics. In this paper, we apply a combination of network analysis methods and interview data to understand the role of gender, party affiliation, race/ethnicity, and religious background in building effective minority representation in the Tower Hamlets Council. The network analysis results show that party affiliation is a major attribute in building alliances on minority-related issue voting. In addition, interview data of Council members reveals that effective minority representation is common in the City Council. Although interview data presents individual opinions of Council members, the network analysis displays a different perspective while studying group dynamics in the Council. A detailed comparison of voting network results and transcripts of interview data exposes the role of a strong party whip system on the effective representation of minority interests in Tower Hamlets.

  14. Concept Representation Analysis in the Context of Human-Machine Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    paradigm. I will focus on (i) humans’ conceptual representations in the framework of constructivism (as an educational theory of learning and model of knowing) and constructionism (as a theory for conceptualising learning) and (ii) concept representations in the framework of inductive concept learning (as...... an inductive machine learning paradigm). The results will support figuring out the most significant key points for constructing a conceptual linkage between a human learning theory and a machine learning paradigm. Accordingly, I will construct a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts...

  15. Using Similarities and Differences: A Meta-Analysis of Its Effects and Emergent Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Helen S.; Igel, Charles; Dean, Ceri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to update previous meta-analytic findings on the effectiveness of using similarities and differences as an instructional strategy. The strategy includes facilitating student comparison, classification, use of analogies, and use of metaphors. Previously, Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock reported a mean effect size of…

  16. Balancing uniqueness and similarity: a content analysis of textual characteristics in Dutch corporate stories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Suzanne; Dalfsen, van K.A.; Van Hoof, Joris J.; Vuuren, van Mark

    2012-01-01

    Writing corporate stories to articulate identity is challenging because one must balance between the recognizable similarities with other companies (e.g., core activities, type of industry) and the company's own uniqueness. In the present study, we propose a conceptualization of corporate stories in

  17. Using Similarities and Differences: A Meta-Analysis of Its Effects and Emergent Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Helen S.; Igel, Charles; Dean, Ceri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to update previous meta-analytic findings on the effectiveness of using similarities and differences as an instructional strategy. The strategy includes facilitating student comparison, classification, use of analogies, and use of metaphors. Previously, Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock reported a mean effect size of…

  18. Patterns of multiple representation use by experts and novices during physics problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Kohl

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students should use multiple representations in solving certain physics problems, and earlier work in PER has begun to outline how experts and novices differ in their use of multiple representations. In this study, we build on this foundation by interviewing expert and novice physicists as they solve two types of multiple representation problems: those in which multiple representations are provided for them and those in which the students must construct their own representations. We analyze in detail the types of representations subjects use and the order and manner in which they are used. Expert and novice representation use is surprisingly similar in some ways, especially in that both experts and novices make significant use of multiple representations. Some significant differences also emerge. Experts are more flexible in terms of starting point and move between the available representations more quickly, and novices tend to move between more representations in total. In addition, we find that an examination of how often and when multiple representations are used is inadequate to fully characterize a problem-solving episode; one must also consider the purpose behind the use of the available representations. This analysis of how experts and novices use representations sharpens the differences between the two groups, demonstrates analysis techniques that may be useful in future work, and suggests possible paths for instruction.

  19. Combining Generative and Discriminative Representation Learning for Lung CT Analysis With Convolutional Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Tulder (Gijs); M. de Bruijne (Marleen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe choice of features greatly influences the performance of a tissue classification system. Despite this, many systems are built with standard, predefined filter banks that are not optimized for that particular application. Representation learning methods such as restricted Boltzmann ma

  20. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptor subtypes and their role in representational memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messer, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution of muscarinic receptors in rat brain slices. Agonist and selective antagonist binding were examined by measuring the ability for unlabeled ligands to inhibit (/sup 3/H)-1-QNB labeling of muscarinic receptors. The distribution of high affinity pirenzepine binding sites (M/sub 1/ subtype) was distinct from the distribution of high affinity carbamylcholine sites, which corresponded to the M/sub 2/ subtype. In a separate assay, the binding profile for pirenzepine was shown to differ from the profile for scopolamine, a classical muscarinic antagonist. Muscarinic antagonists, when injected into the Hippocampus, impaired performance of a representational memory task. Pirenzepine, the M/sub 1/ selective antagonist, produced representational memory deficits. Scopolamine, a less selective muscarinic antagonist, caused increases in running times in some animals which prevented a definitive interpretation of the nature of the impairment. Pirenzepine displayed a higher affinity for the hippocampus and was more effective in producing a selective impairment of representational memory than scopolamine. The data indicated that cholinergic activity in the hippocampus was necessary for representation memory function.

  1. Combining Generative and Discriminative Representation Learning for Lung CT Analysis With Convolutional Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Tulder (Gijs); M. de Bruijne (Marleen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe choice of features greatly influences the performance of a tissue classification system. Despite this, many systems are built with standard, predefined filter banks that are not optimized for that particular application. Representation learning methods such as restricted Boltzmann

  2. A Gatekeeper Final Boss: An Analysis of MOGAI Representation in Video Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Talbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been MOGAI characters since near the beginning of video games, but their representation has been something of debate and controversy. This paper looks at not only the history of representing MOGAI characters, but the dynamics of how these populations are represented within video games, and analyses how players feel regarding this subject.

  3. A simultaneous analysis of turnout and voting under proportional representation: Theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamm, A.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    In a system of proportional representation, we study the interaction between a voter’s turnout decision and her party choice, and how these relate to party polarization. Quantal response equilibria predict such interaction effects. In particular they predict (i) a Polarization Effect: reduced

  4. Representations of the Moon in Children's Literature: An Analysis of Written and Visual Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.; Pritchard, T. Gail

    2008-01-01

    This review focused on the written and visual representation of the moon in 80 children's books, including Caldecott Medal and Honor books over the past 20 years. Results revealed that many of these books misrepresent the moon and even reinforce misconceptions about lunar phases. Teachers who use children's literature that misrepresents the moon…

  5. Potts Model with Invisible Colors : Random-Cluster Representation and Pirogov–Sinai Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, Aernout C.D. van; Iacobelli, Giulio; Taati, Siamak

    We study a recently introduced variant of the ferromagnetic Potts model consisting of a ferromagnetic interaction among q “visible” colors along with the presence of r non-interacting “invisible” colors. We introduce a random-cluster representation for the model, for which we prove the existence of

  6. An Analysis of Elementary School Children's Fractional Knowledge Depicted with Circle, Rectangle, and Number Line Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunç-Pekkan, Zelha

    2015-01-01

    It is now well known that fractions are difficult concepts to learn as well as to teach. Teachers usually use circular pies, rectangular shapes and number lines on the paper as teaching tools for fraction instruction. This article contributes to the field by investigating how the widely used three external graphical representations (i.e., circle,…

  7. Do women really have more bilateral language representation than men? A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Iris E C; Aleman, André; Bouma, Anke; Kahn, René S

    2004-08-01

    Sex differences in cognition are consistently reported, men excelling in most visuospatial tasks and women in certain verbal tasks. It has been hypothesized that these sex differences in cognition results from a more bilateral pattern of language representation in women than in men. This bilateral pattern of language representation in women is thought to interfere with visuospatial functions in the right hemisphere. To test whether language representation is indeed more bilateral in the female than in the male brain, a meta-analysis was performed on studies that assessed language activity with functional imaging in healthy men and women. Effect sizes were weighted for sample size and the meta-analytic method was applied to obtain a combined effect size. Fourteen studies were included, providing data on 377 men and 442 women. Meta-analysis yielded a mean weighted effect d of 0.21 with a 95% confidence interval of -0.05 to 0.48, indicating no significant difference in language lateralization between men and women. This implies that the putative sex difference in language lateralization may be absent at the population level, or may be observed only with some, as yet not defined, language tasks. It is therefore not likely that differences in language lateralization underlie the general sex differences in cognitive performance, and the neuronal basis for these cognitive sex differences remains elusive.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphological representation assigned to a complex word must provide the formal structure .... This brings us to the cases where, on Williams's (1981a:258) analysis, the compositional notion ...... Die en moda Ii tei t . Kaaps tad: Ba 1 kema.

  9. New product forecasting demand by using neural networks and similar product analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso T. Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación presenta una metodología para pronosticar productos nuevos que combina el pronóstico de productos similares. La parte cuantitativa del método usa una red neuronal artificial para calcular el pronóstico de cada producto similar. Estos pronósticos individuales son combinados usando una técnica cualitativa basada en un factor que mide la similaridad entre los productos análogos y el producto nuevo. Para ilustrar la metodología se presenta un caso de estudio de dos grandes compañías multinacionales en el sector de alimentos. Los resultados de este estudio mostraron en el 86 por ciento de los casos analizados pronósticos más exactos usando el método propuesto.

  10. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potas, Jason Robert; de Castro, Newton Gonçalves; Maddess, Ted; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for studying evoked compound

  11. Analysis of eco-oriented types of tourism: their distinguishing and similar features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Shulgina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The definitions of the eco-oriented types of tourism, similar and differential characteristics are analyzed and total integrated definition is offered. The classification of tourism types according to the nature environment by the level of ecological orientation and individualization of tourist products is built. The necessity of dividing the terminology (green and rural tourism is defined. The sense of green tourism and its three main types by the level of the consumers activity are characterized.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Representations of Nature of Science in Nordic Upper Secondary School Textbooks Using Framework of Analysis Based on Philosophy of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Veli-Matti; Aksela, Maija; Lavonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how the different aspects of nature of science (NOS) were represented in Finnish and Swedish upper secondary school chemistry textbooks. The dimensions of NOS were analyzed from five popular chemistry textbook series. The study provides a quantitative method for analysis of representations of NOS in chemistry…

  13. Feature-enhanced spectral similarity measure for the analysis of hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Niu, Chunyang

    2015-01-01

    In hyperspectral remote sensing, the surface compositional material can be identified by means of spectral matching algorithms. In many cases, the importance of each spectral band to measure spectral similarity is different, whereas the traditional spectral matching algorithms implicitly assume all wavelength-dependent absorption features are equal. This may yield an unsatisfactory performance for spectral matching. To remedy this deficiency, we propose methods called feature-enhanced spectral similarity measures. They are hybrids of the spectral matching algorithms combined with a feature-enhanced space projection, termed feature-enhanced spectral angle measure, feature-enhanced Euclidean distance measure, feature-enhanced spectral correlation measure, and feature-enhanced spectral information divergence. The proposed methods creatively project the original spectra into spectral feature-enhanced space, in which important features for measuring the spectral similarity will be increased to a high degree, whereas features of low importance will be suppressed. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches, performances are compared on real hyperspectral image data from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer. The proposed methods are found to possess significant improvements over the original four spectral matching algorithms.

  14. Uncertainty analysis in 3D global models: Aerosol representation in MOZART-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasore, J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM) has been proven to be an efficient general method of uncertainty analysis in atmospheric models (Tatang et al 1997, Cohen&Prinn 2011). However, its application has been mainly limited to urban- and regional-scale models and chemical source-sink models, because of the drastic increase in computational cost when the dimension of uncertain parameters increases. Moreover, the high-dimensional output of global models has to be reduced to allow a computationally reasonable number of polynomials to be generated. This dimensional reduction has been mainly achieved by grouping the model grids into a few regions based on prior knowledge and expectations; urban versus rural for instance. As the model output is used to estimate the coefficients of the polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), the arbitrariness in the regional aggregation can generate problems in estimating uncertainties. To address these issues in a complex model, we apply the probabilistic collocation method of uncertainty analysis to the aerosol representation in MOZART-4, which is a 3D global chemical transport model (Emmons et al., 2010). Thereafter, we deterministically delineate the model output surface into regions of homogeneous response using the method of Principal Component Analysis. This allows the quantification of the uncertainty associated with the dimensional reduction. Because only a bulk mass is calculated online in Mozart-4, a lognormal number distribution is assumed with a priori fixed scale and location parameters, to calculate the surface area for heterogeneous reactions involving tropospheric oxidants. We have applied the PCM to the six parameters of the lognormal number distributions of Black Carbon, Organic Carbon and Sulfate. We have carried out a Monte-Carlo sampling from the probability density functions of the six uncertain parameters, using the reduced PCE model. The global mean concentration of major tropospheric oxidants did not show a

  15. Correspondence analysis: a method for classifying similar patterns of violence against women

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Jurema Corrêa da; Vasconcelos, Ana Gloria Godoi; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Violence against woman has received relatively little debate in society. It includes physical, psychological, and sexual abuse that jeopardizes the victim's health. Multivariate correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were applied to crimes reported to the Integrated Women's Aid Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to investigate associations between injury and define criteria for classifying the aggressions. Three groups of abuse were identified, differing according to the nature (physical...

  16. Modeling and analysis of self-similar traffic source based on fractal-binomial-noise-driven Poisson process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Di; ZHANG Min; YE Pei-da

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the short-range dependence (SRD) and the long-range dependence (LRD) of self-similar traffic generated by the fractal-binomial-noise-driven Poisson process (FBNDP) model and lays emphasis on the former. By simulation, the SRD decaying trends with the increase of Hurst value and peak rate are obtained, respectively. After a comprehensive analysis of accuracy of self-similarity intensity,the optimal range of peak rate is determined by taking into account the time cost, the accuracy of self-similarity intensity,and the effect of SRD.

  17. A similarity based learning framework for interim analysis of outcome prediction of acupuncture for neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Liang, Zhaohui; Yin, Jian; Fu, Wenbin; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common morbid disorder in modern society. Acupuncture has been administered for treating chronic pain as an alternative therapy for a long time, with its effectiveness supported by the latest clinical evidence. However, the potential effective difference in different syndrome types is questioned due to the limits of sample size and statistical methods. We applied machine learning methods in an attempt to solve this problem. Through a multi-objective sorting of subjective measurements, outstanding samples are selected to form the base of our kernel-oriented model. With calculation of similarities between the concerned sample and base samples, we are able to make full use of information contained in the known samples, which is especially effective in the case of a small sample set. To tackle the parameters selection problem in similarity learning, we propose an ensemble version of slightly different parameter setting to obtain stronger learning. The experimental result on a real data set shows that compared to some previous well-known methods, the proposed algorithm is capable of discovering the underlying difference among different syndrome types and is feasible for predicting the effective tendency in clinical trials of large samples.

  18. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard Allen; Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon; Suttle, Curtis A

    2015-01-01

    Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid, and chlorophyll biosynthesis) and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase). The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R (2) Mexico, but are more similar to polar Arctic mats (R (2) > 0.900). These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale.

  19. QoS Analysis of a Storage System with Self-similar Input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAOYunhua; ZOUXuecheng

    2004-01-01

    Packet delay, jitter and loss rate of a storage system with self-similar traffic input is analyzed, which is related to QoS (Quality of service). At first, the storage model with First in first out (FIFO) service discipline and Fractional autoregressive integrated moving average(FARIMA) traffic input which comprises Long-range dependence (LRD) and Short-range dependence (SRD) simultaneity is proposed. Then based on large deviation technique, analytic overflow probability formula of this storage model is obtained, which is related to traffic time scale. Meanwhile, packet delay and jitter analytic formulas are also obtained. Studies show that both SRD and LRD traffic will influence QoS parameters. The effect of traffic SRD on system performance at small time scales is related to storage system parameters. And when the time scale of aggregated traffic is large enough, LRD character of traffic begins to dominate the impaction on system QoS.Monte-Carlo simulations confirm the validity of the above results. Because of self-similarity in network traffic, the performance of storage system can be influenced greatly,which is quite different from that of Markov model and must be considered in network QoS provision.

  20. Knowledge representation model for systems-level analysis of signal transduction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yup; Zimmer, Ralf; Lee, Sang-Yup; Hanisch, Daniel; Park, Sunwon

    2004-01-01

    A Petri-net based model for knowledge representation has been developed to describe as explicitly and formally as possible the molecular mechanisms of cell signaling and their pathological implications. A conceptual framework has been established for reconstructing and analyzing signal transduction networks on the basis of the formal representation. Such a conceptual framework renders it possible to qualitatively understand the cell signaling behavior at systems-level. The mechanisms of the complex signaling network are explored by applying the established framework to the signal transduction induced by potent proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha The corresponding expert-knowledge network is constructed to evaluate its mechanisms in detail. This strategy should be useful in drug target discovery and its validation.

  1. Spectral analysis of generators of representations of the group U(3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenblyum, A.V.

    1988-06-01

    In the space of an irreducible unitary representation of the group U(3) a basis consisting of eigenvectors of the generator of the Wigner d functions is constructed. The eigenvectors of the generator are described in terms of a certain class of orthogonal polynomials of two discrete variables; these generalize the Kravchuk polynomials. An expansion of the d functions with respect to exponential functions is obtained.

  2. Representation of Health Conditions on Facebook: Content Analysis and Evaluation of User Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Timothy M; Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Zan, Shiyi; Jethwani, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background A sizable majority of adult Internet users report looking for health information online. Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook represent a common place to seek information, but very little is known about the representation and use of health content on SNS. Objective Our goal in this study was to understand the role of SNS in health information seeking. More specifically, we aimed to describe how health conditions are represented on Facebook Pages and how users interact with t...

  3. Ontology-based representation and analysis of host-Brucella interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical ontologies are representations of classes of entities in the biomedical domain and how these classes are related in computer- and human-interpretable formats. Ontologies support data standardization and exchange and provide a basis for computer-assisted automated reasoning. IDOBRU is an ontology in the domain of Brucella and brucellosis. Brucella is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes brucellosis, the most common zoonotic disease in the world. In this stu...

  4. Graphical representation of projective analysis of the requirements used in the process design of assistive products

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Luis Smythe Jr.; Gheysa Caroline Prado; Kelli Cristine Assis da Silva Smythe

    2016-01-01

    Graphic representation is a little explored technique in the development of assistive products, despite being helpful in the visualization of conceptual aspects, which are then made tangible. This improves the understanding of the process phases by the whole team, which includes practitioners from different areas. Thus, the characterization of graphic symbols used in assistive technology development processes are presented. A literature review was carried out to select: graphic symbols and p...

  5. Social Representations of Protest and Police after the Genoa G8 Summit: A Qualitative Analysis of Activist Accounts of Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamperini, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Genoa G8 Summit of 2001 was marred by violence and conflicts between police and activists. Afterwards, these different groups constructed clashing discourses about the events. In turn, these discourses sustained different types of social representations about the nature of the conflict. Earlier analyses of hegemonic social representations examining the Italian press suggested that non-violent activists were subject to processes of delegitimisation and that they were identified with black bloc activists (Cristante, 2003; Juris, 2005; Zamperini & Botticini, 2006. Conversely, in this study we analyze activists' accounts of the protest and of the violent police repression. We examine a collection of published texts (N= 223 posted on a 'cyber-wall' online as part of a collaborative project from three Italian media outlets: Il Manifesto, Radio Popolare, Carta. These texts represent a form of 'counter-narrative' produced by a stigmatized group to contest the dominant discourse, creating a tripartite of relations between non-violent activists, police and the black bloc. The analysis of these texts shows that activists represent the protest as a battle between two groups. Activists describe police as coercive, incompetent, and as the enemy. While the black bloc was perceived to have damaged the protest, they were not depicted as the enemy. Cognitive, emotive and behavioural factors associated with these representations are highlighted and discussed, together with the implications for future intergroup relations between activists and the police.

  6. Combining Generative and Discriminative Representation Learning for Lung CT Analysis With Convolutional Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tulder, Gijs; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2016-05-01

    The choice of features greatly influences the performance of a tissue classification system. Despite this, many systems are built with standard, predefined filter banks that are not optimized for that particular application. Representation learning methods such as restricted Boltzmann machines may outperform these standard filter banks because they learn a feature description directly from the training data. Like many other representation learning methods, restricted Boltzmann machines are unsupervised and are trained with a generative learning objective; this allows them to learn representations from unlabeled data, but does not necessarily produce features that are optimal for classification. In this paper we propose the convolutional classification restricted Boltzmann machine, which combines a generative and a discriminative learning objective. This allows it to learn filters that are good both for describing the training data and for classification. We present experiments with feature learning for lung texture classification and airway detection in CT images. In both applications, a combination of learning objectives outperformed purely discriminative or generative learning, increasing, for instance, the lung tissue classification accuracy by 1 to 8 percentage points. This shows that discriminative learning can help an otherwise unsupervised feature learner to learn filters that are optimized for classification.

  7. A Multi-Model Stereo Similarity Function Based on Monogenic Signal Analysis in Poisson Scale Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stereo similarity function based on local multi-model monogenic image feature descriptors (LMFD is proposed to match interest points and estimate disparity map for stereo images. Local multi-model monogenic image features include local orientation and instantaneous phase of the gray monogenic signal, local color phase of the color monogenic signal, and local mean colors in the multiscale color monogenic signal framework. The gray monogenic signal, which is the extension of analytic signal to gray level image using Dirac operator and Laplace equation, consists of local amplitude, local orientation, and instantaneous phase of 2D image signal. The color monogenic signal is the extension of monogenic signal to color image based on Clifford algebras. The local color phase can be estimated by computing geometric product between the color monogenic signal and a unit reference vector in RGB color space. Experiment results on the synthetic and natural stereo images show the performance of the proposed approach.

  8. Sir Francis Galton, epigenetic rules, genetic similarity theory, and human life-history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J P

    1990-03-01

    In this article, an evolutionary perspective is applied to individual differences. Among the issues discussed are (a) the seminal contributions of Francis Galton and the subsequent ideological reaction, (b) the distal proximal continuum for understanding levels of explanation in social behavior, (c) consistent patterns of group differences in behavior (age, sex, social class,and race), (d) the heritability of personality and the role epigenetic rules play in guiding development in one direction over alternatives, (e) the genetic similarity theory perspective on friendship and mate choice, and (f) the view that personality is part of an r-K reproductive strategy involving a compensatory exchange between the production of gametes and parental care. It is suggested in conclusion that personality traits be considered aspects of a coordinated life cycle deeply embedded m evolutionary history.

  9. Massive problem reports mining and analysis based parallelism for similar search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya; Hu, Cailin; Xiong, Han; Wei, Xiafei; Li, Ling

    2017-05-01

    Massive problem reports and solutions accumulated over time and continuously collected in XML Spreadsheet (XMLSS) format from enterprises and organizations, which record a series of comprehensive description about problems that can help technicians to trace problems and their solutions. It's a significant and challenging issue to effectively manage and analyze these massive semi-structured data to provide similar problem solutions, decisions of immediate problem and assisting product optimization for users during hardware and software maintenance. For this purpose, we build a data management system to manage, mine and analyze these data search results that can be categorized and organized into several categories for users to quickly find out where their interesting results locate. Experiment results demonstrate that this system is better than traditional centralized management system on the performance and the adaptive capability of heterogeneous data greatly. Besides, because of re-extracting topics, it enables each cluster to be described more precise and reasonable.

  10. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards.

  11. Web Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale fr

  12. A flexible representation of omic knowledge for thorough analysis of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demura Taku

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand microarray data reasonably in the context of other existing biological knowledge, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the data utilizing every aspect of available omic knowledge libraries. So far, a number of bioinformatics tools have been developed. However, each of them is restricted to deal with one type of omic knowledge, e.g., pathways, interactions or gene ontology. Now that the varieties of omic knowledge are expanding, analysis tools need a way to deal with any type of omic knowledge. Hence, we have designed the Omic Space Markup Language (OSML that can represent a wide range of omic knowledge, and also, we have developed a tool named GSCope3, which can statistically analyze microarray data in comparison with the OSML-formatted omic knowledge data. Results In order to test the applicability of OSML to represent a variety of omic knowledge specifically useful for analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, we have constructed a Biological Knowledge Library (BiKLi by converting eight different types of omic knowledge into OSML-formatted datasets. We applied GSCope3 and BiKLi to previously reported A. thaliana microarray data, so as to extract any additional insights from the data. As a result, we have discovered a new insight that lignin formation resists drought stress and activates transcription of many water channel genes to oppose drought stress; and most of the 20S proteasome subunit genes show similar expression profiles under drought stress. In addition to this novel discovery, similar findings previously reported were also quickly confirmed using GSCope3 and BiKLi. Conclusion GSCope3 can statistically analyze microarray data in the context of any OSML-represented omic knowledge. OSML is not restricted to a specific data type structure, but it can represent a wide range of omic knowledge. It allows us to convert new types of omic knowledge into datasets that can be

  13. Correspondence analysis: a method for classifying similar patterns of violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jurema Corrêa da; Vasconcelos, Ana Gloria Godoi; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2008-06-01

    Violence against women has received relatively little debate in society. It includes physical, psychological, and sexual abuse that jeopardizes the victim's health. Multivariate correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were applied to crimes reported to the Integrated Women's Aid Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to investigate associations between injury and define criteria for classifying the aggressions. Three groups of abuse were identified, differing according to the nature (physical, psychological, or sexual) and severity of the crimes. Less serious crimes consisted of threats and moderate physical injuries. The intermediate severity group included serious physical assault and threats. More serious crimes included death threats, rape, and sexual assault. The method thus allowed classification of the crimes in three groups according to severity.

  14. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals similarities and dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains response to nitrogen availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Barbosa

    Full Text Available Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23, under low (67 mg/L and high nitrogen (670 mg/L regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12 h, 24 h and 96 h. Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12 h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this

  15. Surgical instrument similarity metrics and tray analysis for multi-sensor instrument identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bernhard; Schellenberg, Tobias; Franke, Stefan; Dänzer, Stefan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A robust identification of the instrument currently used by the surgeon is crucial for the automatic modeling and analysis of surgical procedures. Various approaches for intra-operative surgical instrument identification have been presented, mostly based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) or endoscopic video analysis. A novel approach is to identify the instruments on the instrument table of the scrub nurse with a combination of video and weight information. In a previous article, we successfully followed this approach and applied it to multiple instances of an ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedure and the surgical tray used therein. In this article, we present a metric for the suitability of the instruments of a surgical tray for identification by video and weight analysis and apply it to twelve trays of four different surgical domains (abdominal surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics and urology). The used trays were digitized at the central sterile services department of the hospital. The results illustrate that surgical trays differ in their suitability for the approach. In general, additional weight information can significantly contribute to the successful identification of surgical instruments. Additionally, for ten different surgical instruments, ten exemplars of each instrument were tested for their weight differences. The samples indicate high weight variability in instruments with identical brand and model number. The results present a new metric for approaches aiming towards intra-operative surgical instrument detection and imply consequences for algorithms exploiting video and weight information for identification purposes.

  16. Similar familial underpinnings for full and subsyndromal pediatric bipolar disorder: A familial risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Janet; Uchida, Mai; Faraone, Stephen V; Fitzgerald, Maura; Vaudreuil, Carrie; Carrellas, Nicholas; Davis, Jacqueline; Wolenski, Rebecca; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    To examine the validity of subthreshold pediatric bipolar I disorder (BP-I), we compared the familial risk for BP-I in the child probands who had either full BP-I, subthreshold BP-I, ADHD, or were controls that neither had ADHD nor bipolar disorder. BP-I probands were youth aged 6-17 years meeting criteria for BP-I, full (N=239) or subthreshold (N=43), and also included were their first-degree relatives (N=687 and N=120, respectively). Comparators were youth with ADHD (N=162), controls without ADHD or bipolar disorder (N=136), and their first-degree relatives (N=511 and N=411, respectively). We randomly selected 162 non-bipolar ADHD probands and 136 non-bipolar, non-ADHD control probands of similar age and sex distribution to the BP-I probands from our case-control ADHD family studies. Psychiatric assessments were made by trained psychometricians using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiological Version (KSADS-E) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) structured diagnostic interviews. We analyzed rates of bipolar disorder using multinomial logistic regression. Rates of full BP-I significantly differed between the four groups (χ(2)3 =32.72, P<.001): relatives of full BP-I probands and relatives of subthreshold BP-I probands had significantly higher rates of full BP-I than relatives of ADHD probands and relatives of control probands. Relatives of full BP-I, subthreshold BP-I, and ADHD probands also had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to relatives of control probands. Our results showed that youth with subthreshold BP-I had similarly elevated risk for BP-I and major depressive disorder in first-degree relatives as youth with full BP-I. These findings support the diagnostic continuity between subsyndromal and fully syndromatic states of pediatric BP-I disorder. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Immunophenotypic analysis of histiocytes involved in AIDS-associated Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection: similarities with lepromatous lepra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabie, J; De Wolf-Peeters, C; Bobbaers, H; Bilbe, G; Desmet, V J

    1991-08-01

    The present study reports a rare case of systemic M. scrofulaceum infection in an AIDS patient and analyses the inflammatory infiltrate in a lymph node by immunohistochemistry. Special emphasis is put on the histiocytes. The diffuse infiltrate consists mainly of large histiocytes that contain numerous bacilli. These cells display the phenotype of mature histiocytes and in addition coexpress the antigens recognized by RFD7 and RFD9, both markers of different subsets of histiocytes which have been reported to be co-expressed by the infected histiocytes in the infiltrate of lepromatous lepra. Interdigitating reticulum cells are rare as well as T cells which are mainly of the suppressor/cytotoxic type. These findings are similar to those reported for lepromatous lepra and might indicate common deficiencies in T cell-macrophage interactions in both conditions. Superimposed on the diffuse infiltrate of large histiocytes we observed 'monocytic granulomas', the presence of which might be related to a reactional state comparable to erythema nodosum leprosum, a reactional state of lepromatous lepra.

  18. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Allen White III

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase. The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R2 0.900. These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale.

  19. Visual Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems: Chaos, Fractals, Self-Similarity and the Limits of Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Boeing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all nontrivial real-world systems are nonlinear dynamical systems. Chaos describes certain nonlinear dynamical systems that have a very sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems are always deterministic and may be very simple, yet they produce completely unpredictable and divergent behavior. Systems of nonlinear equations are difficult to solve analytically, and scientists have relied heavily on visual and qualitative approaches to discover and analyze the dynamics of nonlinearity. Indeed, few fields have drawn as heavily from visualization methods for their seminal innovations: from strange attractors, to bifurcation diagrams, to cobweb plots, to phase diagrams and embedding. Although the social sciences are increasingly studying these types of systems, seminal concepts remain murky or loosely adopted. This article has three aims. First, it argues for several visualization methods to critically analyze and understand the behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems. Second, it uses these visualizations to introduce the foundations of nonlinear dynamics, chaos, fractals, self-similarity and the limits of prediction. Finally, it presents Pynamical, an open-source Python package to easily visualize and explore nonlinear dynamical systems’ behavior.

  20. Similarity Analysis of EEG Data Based on Self Organizing Map Neural Network

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    Ibrahim Salem Jahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Electroencephalography (EEG is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. This recorded data are very complex. EEG has a big role in several applications such as in the diagnosis of human brain diseases and epilepsy. Also, we can use the EEG signals to control an external device via Brain Computer Interface (BCI by our mind. There are many algorithms to analyse the recorded EEG data, but it still remains one of the big challenges in the world. In this article, we extended our previous proposed method. Our extended method uses Self-organizing Map (SOM as an EEG data classifier. The proposed method we can divide in following steps: capturing EEG raw data from the sensors, applying filters on this data, we will use the frequencies in the range from 0.5~Hz to 60~Hz, smoothing the data with 15-th order of Polynomial Curve Fitting, converting filtered data into text using Turtle Graphic, Lempel-Ziv complexity for measuring similarity between two EEG data trials and Self-Organizing Map Neural Network as a final classifiers. The experiment results show that our model is able to detect up to 96% finger movements correctly.

  1. Behavioral Analysis of Dopaminergic Activation in Zebrafish and Rats Reveals Similar Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Fredrik; Malo, Marcus; Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Wedding, Christoffer; Kronborg, Joel; Svensson, Peder; Waters, Susanna; Petersson, Per; Olsson, Roger

    2016-05-18

    Zebrafish is emerging as a complement to mammals in behavioral studies; however, there is a lack of comparative studies with rodents and humans to establish the zebrafish as a predictive translational model. Here we present a detailed phenotype evaluation of zebrafish larvae, measuring 300-3000 variables and analyzing them using multivariate analysis to identify the most important ones for further evaluations. The dopamine agonist apomorphine has previously been shown to have a complex U-shaped dose-response relationship in the variable distance traveled. In this study, we focused on breaking down distance traveled into more detailed behavioral phenotypes for both zebrafish and rats and identified in the multivariate analysis low and high dose phenotypes with characteristic behavioral features. Further analysis of single parameters also identified an increased activity at the lowest concentration indicative of a U-shaped dose-response. Apomorphine increased the distance of each swim movement (bout) at both high and low doses, but the underlying behavior of this increase is different; at high dose, both bout duration and frequency increased whereas bout max speed was higher at low dose. Larvae also displayed differences in place preference. The low dose phenotype spent more time in the center, indicative of an anxiolytic effect, while the high-dose phenotype had a wall preference. These dose-dependent effects corroborated findings in a parallel rat study and previous observations in humans. The translational value of pharmacological zebrafish studies was further evaluated by comparing the amino acid sequence of the dopamine receptors (D1-D4), between zebrafish, rats and humans. Humans and zebrafish share 100% of the amino acids in the binding site for D1 and D3 whereas D2 and D4 receptors share 85-95%. Molecular modeling of dopamine D2 and D4 receptors indicated that nonconserved amino acids have limited influence on important ligand-receptor interactions.

  2. Identification of similar regions of protein structures using integrated sequence and structure analysis tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiland Randy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding protein function from its structure is a challenging problem. Sequence based approaches for finding homology have broad use for annotation of both structure and function. 3D structural information of protein domains and their interactions provide a complementary view to structure function relationships to sequence information. We have developed a web site http://www.sblest.org/ and an API of web services that enables users to submit protein structures and identify statistically significant neighbors and the underlying structural environments that make that match using a suite of sequence and structure analysis tools. To do this, we have integrated S-BLEST, PSI-BLAST and HMMer based superfamily predictions to give a unique integrated view to prediction of SCOP superfamilies, EC number, and GO term, as well as identification of the protein structural environments that are associated with that prediction. Additionally, we have extended UCSF Chimera and PyMOL to support our web services, so that users can characterize their own proteins of interest. Results Users are able to submit their own queries or use a structure already in the PDB. Currently the databases that a user can query include the popular structural datasets ASTRAL 40 v1.69, ASTRAL 95 v1.69, CLUSTER50, CLUSTER70 and CLUSTER90 and PDBSELECT25. The results can be downloaded directly from the site and include function prediction, analysis of the most conserved environments and automated annotation of query proteins. These results reflect both the hits found with PSI-BLAST, HMMer and with S-BLEST. We have evaluated how well annotation transfer can be performed on SCOP ID's, Gene Ontology (GO ID's and EC Numbers. The method is very efficient and totally automated, generally taking around fifteen minutes for a 400 residue protein. Conclusion With structural genomics initiatives determining structures with little, if any, functional characterization

  3. HPOSim: an R package for phenotypic similarity measure and enrichment analysis based on the human phenotype ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue; Gao, Lin; Wang, Bingbo; Guo, Xingli

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic features associated with genes and diseases play an important role in disease-related studies and most of the available methods focus solely on the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database without considering the controlled vocabulary. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) provides a standardized and controlled vocabulary covering phenotypic abnormalities in human diseases, and becomes a comprehensive resource for computational analysis of human disease phenotypes. Most of the existing HPO-based software tools cannot be used offline and provide only few similarity measures. Therefore, there is a critical need for developing a comprehensive and offline software for phenotypic features similarity based on HPO. HPOSim is an R package for analyzing phenotypic similarity for genes and diseases based on HPO data. Seven commonly used semantic similarity measures are implemented in HPOSim. Enrichment analysis of gene sets and disease sets are also implemented, including hypergeometric enrichment analysis and network ontology analysis (NOA). HPOSim can be used to predict disease genes and explore disease-related function of gene modules. HPOSim is open source and freely available at SourceForge (https://sourceforge.net/p/hposim/).

  4. The Ideological, Structural Analysis of the Russian Image Representation in the Cold War Times’ Film ‘White Nights’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article included the ideological, structural analysis of the Russian image representation in the “cold war” times’ film ‘White nights’ (USA, 1985. Following the methodology developed by U. Eco the author selected three systems which are significant in a product: the author’s ideology, market conditions which determined the plot, the creating process and success of media text (or, at least, promoted the first, the second and the third; narrative techniques, ideological and social trends, stereotypes

  5. SSR ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY OF BARLEY CULTIVARS

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    O. R. Lakhneko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to develop an evaluation system of the genetic polymorphism for barley cultivars of Ukrainian and foreign origin based on the analysis of simple sequence repeats and valuable agricultural trait loci as well as to compose the molecular genetic passports for those cultivars. PCRs with the following separation of amplification products by agarose and polyacrylamide electrophoresis were performed to find out genetic polymorphism. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean was used for phylogenetic relationship detection. The dandrogram of phylogenetic relationships of 55 barley cultivars was constructed and molecular genetic passports were developed. Molecular genetic passports can be involved in verification for the compliance with standards cultivars, stability and seed purity.

  6. Variability and similarity of gait as evaluated by joint angles: implications for forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle. Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can assess gait data from an actual case.

  7. Self-similarity in a General Aggregation-Fragmentation Problem ; Application to Fitness Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Calvez, Vincent; Gabriel, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We consider the linear growth and fragmentation equation with general coefficients. Under suitable conditions, the first eigenvalue represents the asymptotic growth rate of solutions, also called \\emph{fitness} or \\emph{Malthus coefficient} in population dynamics ; it is of crucial importance to understand the long-time behaviour of the population. We investigate the dependency of the dominant eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvector on the transport and fragmentation coefficients. We show how it behaves asymptotically as transport dominates fragmentation or \\emph{vice versa}. For this purpose we perform suitable blow-up analysis of the eigenvalue problem in the limit of small/large growth coefficient (resp. fragmentation coefficient). We exhibit possible non-monotonic dependency on the parameters, conversely to what would have been conjectured on the basis of some simple cases.

  8. Representational difference analysis reveals genomic differences between Q. robur and Q. suber: implications for the study of genome evolution in the genus Quercus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoldos, V; Siljak-Yakovlev, S; Papes, D; Sarr, A; Panaud, O

    2001-04-01

    Very similar genome sizes, similar karyotypes and heterochromatin organisation, and identical number/position of ribosomal loci characterise the common oak (Q. robur) and the cork oak (Q. suber), two distantly related oak species. Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) was used to subtract the genome of Q. suber from the genome of Q. robur in order to search for genome differentiation. A library of 400 clones (bearing RDA fragments) representing genome differences between the two species was obtained. Seven Q. robur-specific DNA sequences were analysed with respect to their molecular and chromosome organisation. All belong to the dispersed repetitive component of the genome, as revealed by Southern hybridisation and in situ hybridisation. They are present in the Q. robur genome in between 100 and 700 copies, and are distributed along the length of almost all chromosomes. A search for homologies between RDA fragments and sequences in Genbank revealed similarities of all RDA fragments with known retrotransposons. The RDA fragments were also tested for their presence/absence in the genomes of six additional oak species belonging to different phylogenetic groups, in order to examine the evolutionary dynamics of these DNA sequences.

  9. Proximity sounding analysis for derechos and supercells: an assessment of similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, Charles A.; Evans, Jeffry S.

    Proximity soundings (within 2 h and 167 km) of derechos (long-lived, widespread damaging convective windstorms) and supercells have been obtained. More than 65 derechos, accompanied by 115 proximity soundings, are identified during the years 1983 to 1993. The derechos have been divided into categories according to the synoptic situation: strong forcing (SF), weak forcing (WF), and "hybrid" cases (which are neither weakly nor strongly forced). Nearly 100 supercell proximity soundings have been found for the period 1998 to 2001, subdivided into nontornadic and tornadic supercells; tornadic supercells were further subdivided into those producing significant (>F1 rating) tornadoes and weak tornadoes (F0-F1 rating). WF derecho situations typically are characterized by warm, moist soundings with large convective available potential instability (CAPE) and relatively weak vertical wind shear. SF derechos usually have stronger wind shears, and cooler and less moist soundings with lower CAPE than the weakly forced cases. Most derechos exhibit strong storm-relative inflow at low levels. In WF derechos, this is usually the result of rapid convective system movement, whereas in SF derechos, storm-relative inflow at low levels is heavily influenced by relatively strong low-level windspeeds. "Hybrid" cases collectively are similar to an average of the SF and WF cases. Supercells occur in environments that are not all that dissimilar from those that produce SF derechos. It appears that some parameter combining instability and deep layer shear, such as the Energy-Helicity Index (EHI), can help discriminate between tornadic and nontornadic supercell situations. Soundings with significant tornadoes (F2 and greater) typically show high 0-1 km relative humidities, and strong 0-1 km shear. Results suggest it may not be easy to forecast the mode of severe thunderstorm activity (i.e., derecho versus supercell) on any particular day, given conditions that favor severe thunderstorm activity

  10. An introduction to the use of representation analysis for studying magnetoelectrics and multiferroics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapon L.C.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This lecture is an introduction to the theory of representations applied to the study of magnetoelectric and multiferroic materials. It is intended for students or newcomers in the field and explains the key concepts required to understand phenomenologically the coupling between magnetic phase transitions in crystals and dielectric properties. Symmetry properties of some prototypal magnetoelectrics and multiferroics are analysed, including the treatment of incommensurate spin-driven ferroelectrics. It is deliberately written with a minimal use of mathematical formulation or a strict group theoretical approach.

  11. Parental and God Representations Among Individuals with Psychosis: A Grounded Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, Tracy A; Ottaviano, Patricia; Taveras, Alexa; Sepulveda, Carolyn; Torres, Julian

    2016-12-01

    Religiousness, spirituality, and social support have all been identified as having a positive impact on overall mental health outcomes. The current study describes quantitative and qualitative assessment of parental and God representations among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 46). Six salient themes emerged; participants described the importance of caregiver love and nurturance, need for God, loss of family members, love of God, concrete support provided by parents, and the ability to tolerate ambivalent feelings toward parents. Participants linked their relationships with parents and God to their process of recovery. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  12. An introduction to the use of representation analysis for studying magnetoelectrics and multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapon, L. C.

    2012-03-01

    This lecture is an introduction to the theory of representations applied to the study of magnetoelectric and multiferroic materials. It is intended for students or newcomers in the field and explains the key concepts required to understand phenomenologically the coupling between magnetic phase transitions in crystals and dielectric properties. Symmetry properties of some prototypal magnetoelectrics and multiferroics are analysed, including the treatment of incommensurate spin-driven ferroelectrics. It is deliberately written with a minimal use of mathematical formulation or a strict group theoretical approach.

  13. [The trajectory towards alternative medicines: an analysis of health professionals' social representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, M S

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on social representations of alternative medicines by a group of professors from the School of Medicine and health professionals from the public health system in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, basically physicians and nurses. The article also emphasizes personal trajectories by which these health professionals opted for a dissident theoretical and practical perspective vis-à-vis the hegemonic positivist scientific medical paradigm. The research methods were mainly ethnographic, from a phenomenological perspective. The article concludes by sustaining (in theoretical terms) the importance of these dissident perspectives for scientific development.

  14. Analysis of factors inducing different type of landslide in apparently similar environmental contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busnardo, Enrico; Secco, Michele; Salbego, Giorgio; Toaldo, Miriam; Lampo, Chiara; Artioli, Gilberto; Floris, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Landslides frequently hit the hilly region of the Vicenza province (North-Eastern Italian Alps) exposing human activities to damage. The region includes Lessini Mountains and Marostica hills. These two areas are separated by a portion of the upper Vicenza plain. They have the same lithological framework, with the predominance of Tertiary volcanic rocks (Basalts and Tuffs) and most of landslides are earth slides and earth flows which affect the altered volcanic bedrock. At first glance, only considering these two type of movements, it seems that the predisposing conditions, as well as triggering factors (i.e. rainfall) are the same. The aim of this work is to find the factors that determine earth slides rather than earth flows. In other words, we checked if there are any anomalies due to particular lithological and morphological constraints attributable to a type of movement. The research was performed both at large and small scale. At large scale, we decide to perform spatial analysis of four numerical and seven categorical factors. Numerical factors are elevation, provided by the Veneto Region, slope gradient, slope aspect and surface curvature, derived from elevation. Categorical data are: soils map and land-use map, both provided by the Veneto Region; lithological map provided by the Vicenza province; IFFI (Inventory of Landslide Phenomena in Italy) project data. We also consider factors such as roads, rivers network and civil buildings. Spatial analysis was performed using a simple probabilistic method that compares spatial distribution of landslides with numerical and categorical factors. At small-scale, we performed mineralogical and geotechnical analyses of samples collected from an earth slide and an earth flow. In order to define the mineralogical phases we use x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) of whole sample and of thin portion. Geotechnical indexes were obtained by Atterber Limits and sieve analyses. We also determined the rheological and swelling

  15. Penicillium glabrum cork-colonising isolates - preliminary analysis of their genomic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Maria Carmo; Gaspar, Ricardo; Silva Pereira, Cristina; San Romão, Maria Vitória

    2006-09-01

    The cork stopper manufacturing process includes an operation, known as stabilisation, by which humid cork slabs are extensively colonised by fungi. The effects of fungal growth on cork are not completely understood although they are considered to be involved in the so-called "cork taint" of wine. It is essential to (a) identify environmental constraints which define the appearance of the colonising fungal species and (b) trace their origin to the forest and/or the manufacturing space. The present article correlates two sets of data, from consecutive years and the same season, of systematic sampling of two manufacturing units, located in the North and South of Portugal. Chrysonilia sitophila dominance was confirmed, followed by a high diversity of Penicillium species. Penicillium glabrum, which was found in all samples, was the most frequently isolated species. P. glabrum intra-species variability was investigated using DNA fingerprinting techniques revealing highly discriminative polymorphic markers in the genome. Cluster analysis of P. glabrum data was discussed in relation to the geographical location of strains, and results suggest that P. glabrum arise from predominantly the manufacturing space, although cork specific fungi can contribute.

  16. Assessing similarity analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of Cyclopia subternata extracts as potential screening tool for in vitro glucose utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Alexandra E; De Beer, Dalene; Mazibuko, Sithandiwe E; Muller, Christo J F; Roux, Candice; Willenburg, Elize L; Nyunaï, Nyemb; Louw, Johan; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Similarity analysis of the phenolic fingerprints of a large number of aqueous extracts of Cyclopia subternata, obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was evaluated as a potential tool to screen extracts for relative bioactivity. The assessment was based on the (dis)similarity of their fingerprints to that of a reference active extract of C. subternata, proven to enhance glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. In vitro testing of extracts, selected as being most similar (n = 5; r ≥ 0.962) and most dissimilar (n = 5; r ≤ 0.688) to the reference active extract, showed that no clear pattern in terms of relative glucose uptake efficacy in C2C12 myocytes emerged, irrespective of the dose. Some of the most dissimilar extracts had higher glucose-lowering activity than the reference active extract. Principal component analysis revealed the major compounds responsible for the most variation within the chromatographic fingerprints, as mangiferin, isomangiferin, iriflophenone-3-C-β-D-glucoside-4-O-β-D-glucoside, iriflophenone-3-C-β-D-glucoside, scolymoside, and phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-D-glucoside. Quantitative analysis of the selected extracts showed that the most dissimilar extracts contained the highest mangiferin and isomangiferin levels, whilst the most similar extracts had the highest scolymoside content. These compounds demonstrated similar glucose uptake efficacy in C2C12 myocytes. It can be concluded that (dis)similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of extracts of unknown activity to that of a proven bioactive extract does not necessarily translate to lower or higher bioactivity.

  17. Slavery, the Civil War Era, and African American Representation in U.S. History: An Analysis of Four States' Academic Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.; Metzger, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods text analysis of African American representation within K-12 U.S. History content standards treating the revolutionary era, the early U.S. republic, the Civil War era, and Reconstruction. The states included in the analysis are Michigan, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia. The analysis finds that the reviewed…

  18. Comparison of similarity coefficients used for cluster analysis based on SSR markers in sister line wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compared fourteen different similarity coefficients and their influence in sister line wheat cultivars clustering. Seventeen sister cultivars developed from two crosses were used and fingerprinted with 19 wheat microsatellite markers. Comparisons among the similarity coefficients were made using the Sperman correlation analysis, dendogram evaluation (visual inspection and consensus fork index - CIc, projection efficiency in a two-dimensional space, and groups formed by the Tocher optimization procedure. The Sperman correlation coefficients among the fourteen similarity coefficients were all high showing a strong association between them. The correlation coefficient between Dice and Kulczinski and Ochiai I as well as between Hamann and Simple matching and between Kulczinski and Ochiai I was equal to 1. Although visual estimation of the dendograms shows almost identical clustering structures, CIc indexes indicate that all coefficients are not identical. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  19. Multi-objective analysis of a component-based representation within an interactive evolutionary design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machwe, A. T.; Parmee, I. C.

    2007-07-01

    This article describes research relating to a user-centered evolutionary design system that evaluates both engineering and aesthetic aspects of design solutions during early-stage conceptual design. The experimental system comprises several components relating to user interaction, problem representation, evolutionary search and exploration and online learning. The main focus of the article is the evolutionary aspect of the system when using a single quantitative objective function plus subjective judgment of the user. Additionally, the manner in which the user-interaction aspect affects system output is assessed by comparing Pareto frontiers generated with and without user interaction via a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA). A solution clustering component is also introduced and it is shown how this can improve the level of support to the designer when dealing with a complex design problem involving multiple objectives. Supporting results are from the application of the system to the design of urban furniture which, in this case, largely relates to seating design.

  20. Comparative analysis of the quasi-similar structures on the dynamic spectra of the Sun and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, G.; Konovalenko, A.; Zakharenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Dorovsky, V.; Melnik, V.; Brazhenko, A.; Shaposhnikov, V.; Rucker, H. O.; Zarka, Ph.

    2014-04-01

    In many literary sources planet Jupiter called the Sun, which is not fully developed. It should be partially confirmed by the experimental fact that the quasisimilar in shape features appear in the dynamic spectra both in the Sun and the Jovian radio emission. The comparative analysis of the similar properties in the emission spectra of Jupiter and the Sun and analogy between the plasma processes in the solar corona and magnetosphere of Jupiter can allow also define the similar features in the radiation mechanisms of these cosmic objects. One of the promising approaches to investigating features of the Jovian DAM emission and the decameter solar radiation is application of novel experimental techniques with a further detailed analysis of the obtained data.

  1. Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianrui Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD combined with similarity analysis (SA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA. Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs of the relative retention times (RRT and relative peak areas (RPA of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent.

  2. Bimbo or boffin? Women in science: an analysis of media representations and how female scientists negotiate cultural contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimba, Mwenya; Kitzinger, Jenny

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines the gendered representations of scientists in the UK media. Our analysis reveals the asymmetrical ways in which men and women working in science, engineering and technology are portrayed, in particular through the emphasis on women's appearance and a focus on their exceptional status. It also highlights the way female scientists may be used to "sex up" the discipline in the context of increasing concern about the (un)popularity of science. This media analysis is contextualized by drawing on data from 86 scientists examining how women themselves experience press and television coverage and address the cultural contradictions surrounding their role. The research highlights the challenges facing women working in these fields and the dilemmas for those seeking to develop a "human" face for science and promote a positive image for women.

  3. Sensitivity analysis and probabilistic re-entry modeling for debris using high dimensional model representation based uncertainty treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Piyush M.; Kubicek, Martin; Minisci, Edmondo; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Well-known tools developed for satellite and debris re-entry perform break-up and trajectory simulations in a deterministic sense and do not perform any uncertainty treatment. The treatment of uncertainties associated with the re-entry of a space object requires a probabilistic approach. A Monte Carlo campaign is the intuitive approach to performing a probabilistic analysis, however, it is computationally very expensive. In this work, we use a recently developed approach based on a new derivation of the high dimensional model representation method for implementing a computationally efficient probabilistic analysis approach for re-entry. Both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties that affect aerodynamic trajectory and ground impact location are considered. The method is applicable to both controlled and un-controlled re-entry scenarios. The resulting ground impact distributions are far from the typically used Gaussian or ellipsoid distributions.

  4. Quiver representations

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a textbook for a course in Representation Theory of Algebras at the beginning graduate level. The text has two parts. In Part I, the theory is studied in an elementary way using quivers and their representations. This is a very hands-on approach and requires only basic knowledge of linear algebra. The main tool for describing the representation theory of a finite-dimensional algebra is its Auslander-Reiten quiver, and the text introduces these quivers as early as possible. Part II then uses the language of algebras and modules to build on the material developed before. The equivalence of the two approaches is proved in the text. The last chapter gives a proof of Gabriel’s Theorem. The language of category theory is developed along the way as needed.

  5. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  6. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a Danish research project with young people in vulnerable positions. Young people are involved throughout the research process, including the interpretation of material produced through interviews, and discussions on how reflections and conclusions from the research should......, and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...

  7. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  8. Time-frequency representation based on time-varying autoregressive model with applications to non-stationary rotor vibration analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Long Zhang; Guoliang Xiong; Hesheng Liu; Huijun Zou; Weizhong Guo

    2010-04-01

    A parametric time-frequency representation is presented based on timevarying autoregressive model (TVAR), followed by applications to non-stationary vibration signal processing. The identification of time-varying model coefficients and the determination of model order, are addressed by means of neural networks and genetic algorithms, respectively. Firstly, a simulated signal which mimic the rotor vibration during run-up stages was processed for a comparative study on TVAR and other non-parametric time-frequency representations such as Short Time Fourier Transform, Continuous Wavelet Transform, Empirical Mode Decomposition, Wigner–Ville Distribution and Choi–Williams Distribution, in terms of their resolutions, accuracy, cross term suppression as well as noise resistance. Secondly, TVAR was applied to analyse non-stationary vibration signals collected from a rotor test rig during run-up stages, with an aim to extract fault symptoms under non-stationary operating conditions. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that TVAR is an effective solution to non-stationary signal analysis and has strong capability in signal time-frequency feature extraction.

  9. Ontology-based representation and analysis of host-Brucella interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies are representations of classes of entities in the biomedical domain and how these classes are related in computer- and human-interpretable formats. Ontologies support data standardization and exchange and provide a basis for computer-assisted automated reasoning. IDOBRU is an ontology in the domain of Brucella and brucellosis. Brucella is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes brucellosis, the most common zoonotic disease in the world. In this study, IDOBRU is used as a platform to model and analyze how the hosts, especially host macrophages, interact with virulent Brucella strains or live attenuated Brucella vaccine strains. Such a study allows us to better integrate and understand intricate Brucella pathogenesis and host immunity mechanisms. Different levels of host-Brucella interactions based on different host cell types and Brucella strains were first defined ontologically. Three important processes of virulent Brucella interacting with host macrophages were represented: Brucella entry into macrophage, intracellular trafficking, and intracellular replication. Two Brucella pathogenesis mechanisms were ontologically represented: Brucella Type IV secretion system that supports intracellular trafficking and replication, and Brucella erythritol metabolism that participates in Brucella intracellular survival and pathogenesis. The host cell death pathway is critical to the outcome of host-Brucella interactions. For better survival and replication, virulent Brucella prevents macrophage cell death. However, live attenuated B. abortus vaccine strain RB51 induces caspase-2-mediated proinflammatory cell death. Brucella-associated cell death processes are represented in IDOBRU. The gene and protein information of 432 manually annotated Brucella virulence factors were represented using the Ontology of Genes and Genomes (OGG) and Protein Ontology (PRO), respectively. Seven inference rules were defined to capture the knowledge of host

  10. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  11. A Study of Wavelet Analysis and Data Extraction from Second-Order Self-Similar Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Estrada Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical analysis and synthesis of self-similar discrete time signals are presented. The analysis equation is formally defined through a special family of basis functions of which the simplest case matches the Haar wavelet. The original discrete time series is synthesized without loss by a linear combination of the basis functions after some scaling, displacement, and phase shift. The decomposition is then used to synthesize a new second-order self-similar signal with a different Hurst index than the original. The components are also used to describe the behavior of the estimated mean and variance of self-similar discrete time series. It is shown that the sample mean, although it is unbiased, provides less information about the process mean as its Hurst index is higher. It is also demonstrated that the classical variance estimator is biased and that the widely accepted aggregated variance-based estimator of the Hurst index results biased not due to its nature (which is being unbiased and has minimal variance but to flaws in its implementation. Using the proposed decomposition, the correct estimation of the Variance Plot is described, as well as its close association with the popular Logscale Diagram.

  12. Fathers’ Representation in Observational Studies on Parenting and Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevic, Selma; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Ganter, Claudia; Simon, Christine L.; Newlan, Sami; Manganello, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The involvement of fathers in caregiving has increased substantially over the past 30 years. Yet in child and adolescent psychopathology, few studies include fathers as research participants and few present results for fathers separate from those for mothers. We test for the first time whether a similar pattern exists in research on parenting and childhood obesity. Objectives. To conduct a systematic review and quantitative content analysis of observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity to (1) document the inclusion of fathers, relative to mothers, as research participants and (2) examine characteristics of studies that did and did not include fathers. This study presents new data on the number and gender of parent research participants. Search methods. We searched title, abstract, and Medical Subject Headings term fields in 5 research databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Academic Search Premier, PsycINFO, and CINAHL) using terms combining parents or parenting (e.g., mother, father, caregiver, parenting style, food parenting) and obesity (e.g., obesity, body weight, overweight) or obesity-related lifestyle behaviors (e.g., diet, snacking, physical activity, outdoor play, exercise, media use). Selection criteria. We identified and screened studies as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) published between January 2009 and December 2015, examining links between parenting and childhood obesity, including parents or caregivers as research participants, and written in English. We excluded interventions, nonhuman studies, dissertations, conference abstracts, and studies on youths with specific medical conditions. Of 5557 unique studies, 667 studies were eligible. Data collection and analysis. For each of the 667 studies, 4 coders were trained to code characteristics of the study (e.g., publication year, geographic region, journal, study focus) and parent research participants (e.g., parent gender, demographic

  13. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and state space representation of a manipulator under viscoelastic material conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the VoigtKelvin constitutive model, nonlinear dynamic modelling and state space representation of a viscoelastic beam acting as a flexible robotic manipulator is investigated. Complete nonlinear dynamic modelling of a viscoelastic beam without premature linearisation of dynamic equations is developed. The adopted method is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as beam stiffening due to centrifugal and Coriolis forces induced by rotation of the joints. Structural damping effects on the models dynamic behaviour are also shown. A reliable model for a viscoelastic beam is subsequently presented. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons principle, and using the finite difference method, nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations. For the purpose of flexible manipulator control, the standard form of state space equations for the viscoelastic link and the actuator is obtained. Simulation results indicate substantial improvements in dynamic behaviour, and a parameter sensitivity study is carried out to investigate the effect of structural damping on the vibration amplitude.

  14. An analysis of the educational value of low-fidelity anatomy models as external representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Cheng, Maurice M W

    2011-01-01

    Although high-fidelity digital models of human anatomy based on actual cross-sectional images of the human body have been developed, reports on the use of physical models in anatomy teaching continue to appear. This article aims to examine the common features shared by these physical models and analyze their educational value based on the literature on cognition, learning, and external representations. A literature search on these physical models in three popular anatomy journals published over a 10-year period from 2001 to 2010 found that all of them have low fidelity: they oftentimes do not closely resemble the regions of the human body they are representing. They include only a small number of the structures that exist in these regions of the human body and do not accurately represent the shape and surface details of these structures. However, these models strongly correspond to the human body in the spatial relationship of the represented structures, which is crucial to achieving their educational purpose of teaching three-dimensional comprehension and anatomical reasoning. The educational value of these models includes acting as memory aids, reducing cognitive overload, facilitating problem solving, and arousing students' enthusiasm and participation. Because these models often lack a close resemblance to the human body, their use in anatomy teaching should always be accompanied by adequate explanations to the students to establish the correspondence between the models and the parts of the human body they are representing. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Representational Practices by the Numbers: How kindergarten and first-grade students create, evaluate, and modify their science representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Joshua Adam; Phelps, David

    2011-10-01

    A productive approach to studying the role of representations in supporting students' learning of science content is to examine their actions from a practice perspective. The current study examines kindergarten and first-grade students' representational practices across a consistent context-the creation of storyboards-both before and after a curricular intervention in order to highlight those aspects of their practices that changed regardless of a superficially similar task. Analysis of the students' storyboards reveals considerable improvement in the number of included features after the intervention. Analysis of the students' practices as they changed over time is also presented by examining the students' discourse, with a focus on their discussions of the science content and the representations themselves. We demonstrate an increase in accuracy and relevance of the features being discussed, as well as an increase in requesting and providing assessments of students' representations, particularly between students and their peers.

  16. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization and interspecies representational difference analysis reveal gross DNA differences between humans and great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toder, R; Xia, Y; Bausch, E

    1998-09-01

    Comparative chromosome G-/R-banding, comparative gene mapping and chromosome painting techniques have demonstrated that only few chromosomal rearrangements occurred during great ape and human evolution. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization (CGH), used here in this study, between human, gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee revealed species-specific regions in all three species. In contrast to the human, a far more complex distribution of species-specific blocks was detected with CGH in gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee. Most of these blocks coincide with already described heterochromatic regions on gorilla and chimpanzee chromosomes. Representational difference analysis (RDA) was used to subtract the complex genome of gorilla against human in order to enrich gorilla-specific DNA sequences. Gorilla-specific clones isolated with this technique revealed a 32-bp repeat unit. These clones were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the telomeric regions of gorilla chromosomes that had been shown by interspecies CGH to contain species-specific sequences.

  17. Simplification and shift in cognition of political difference: applying the geometric modeling to the analysis of semantic similarity judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Junko; Okada, Kensuke

    2011-01-01

    Perceiving differences by means of spatial analogies is intrinsic to human cognition. Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis based on Minkowski geometry has been used primarily on data on sensory similarity judgments, leaving judgments on abstractive differences unanalyzed. Indeed, analysts have failed to find appropriate experimental or real-life data in this regard. Our MDS analysis used survey data on political scientists' judgments of the similarities and differences between political positions expressed in terms of distance. Both distance smoothing and majorization techniques were applied to a three-way dataset of similarity judgments provided by at least seven experts on at least five parties' positions on at least seven policies (i.e., originally yielding 245 dimensions) to substantially reduce the risk of local minima. The analysis found two dimensions, which were sufficient for mapping differences, and fit the city-block dimensions better than the Euclidean metric in all datasets obtained from 13 countries. Most city-block dimensions were highly correlated with the simplified criterion (i.e., the left-right ideology) for differences that are actually used in real politics. The isometry of the city-block and dominance metrics in two-dimensional space carries further implications. More specifically, individuals may pay attention to two dimensions (if represented in the city-block metric) or focus on a single dimension (if represented in the dominance metric) when judging differences between the same objects. Switching between metrics may be expected to occur during cognitive processing as frequently as the apparent discontinuities and shifts in human attention that may underlie changing judgments in real situations occur. Consequently, the result has extended strong support for the validity of the geometric models to represent an important social cognition, i.e., the one of political differences, which is deeply rooted in human nature.

  18. Time course of information representation of macaque AIP neurons in hand manipulation task revealed by information analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Ishida, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Takashi; Murata, Akira

    2010-12-01

    We used mutual information analysis of neuronal activity in the macaque anterior intraparietal area (AIP) to examine information processing during a hand manipulation task. The task was to reach-to-grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object after presentation of a go signal. Mutual information was calculated between the spike counts of individual neurons in 50-ms-wide time bins and six unique shape classifications or 15 one-versus-one classifications of these shapes. The spatiotemporal distribution of mutual information was visualized as a two-dimensional image ("information map") to better observe global profiles of information representation. In addition, a nonnegative matrix factorization technique was applied for extracting its structure. Our major finding was that the time course of mutual information differed significantly according to different classes of task-related neurons. This strongly suggests that different classes of neurons were engaged in different information processing stages in executing the hand manipulation task. On the other hand, our analysis revealed the heterogeneous nature of information representation of AIP neurons. For example, "information latency" (or information onset) varied among individual neurons even in the same neuron class and the same shape classification. Further, some neurons changed "information preference" (i.e., shape classification with the largest amount of information) across different task periods. These suggest that neurons encode different information in the different task periods. Taking the present result together with previous findings, we used a Gantt chart to propose a hypothetical scheme of the dynamic interactions between different types of AIP neurons.

  19. BUGS in the analysis of biodiversity experiments: species richness and composition are of similar importance for grassland productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hector

    Full Text Available The idea that species diversity can influence ecosystem functioning has been controversial and its importance relative to compositional effects hotly debated. Unfortunately, assessing the relative importance of different explanatory variables in complex linear models is not simple. In this paper we assess the relative importance of species richness and species composition in a multilevel model analysis of net aboveground biomass production in grassland biodiversity experiments by estimating variance components for all explanatory variables. We compare the variance components using a recently introduced graphical Bayesian ANOVA. We show that while the use of test statistics and the R² gives contradictory assessments, the variance components analysis reveals that species richness and composition are of roughly similar importance for primary productivity in grassland biodiversity experiments.

  20. A Survey of Binary Similarity and Distance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Seok Choi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The binary feature vector is one of the most common representations of patterns and measuring similarity and distance measures play a critical role in many problems such as clustering, classification, etc. Ever since Jaccard proposed a similarity measure to classify ecological species in 1901, numerous binary similarity and distance measures have been proposed in various fields. Applying appropriate measures results in more accurate data analysis. Notwithstanding, few comprehensive surveys on binary measures have been conducted. Hence we collected 76 binary similarity and distance measures used over the last century and reveal their correlations through the hierarchical clustering technique.

  1. ElAM: A computer program for the analysis and representation of anisotropic elastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmier, Arnaud; Lethbridge, Zoe A. D.; Walton, Richard I.; Smith, Christopher W.; Parker, Stephen C.; Evans, Kenneth E.

    2010-12-01

    The continuum theory of elasticity has been used for more than a century and has applications in many fields of science and engineering. It is very robust, well understood and mathematically elegant. In the isotropic case elastic properties are easily represented, but for non-isotropic materials, even in the simple cubic symmetry, it can be difficult to visualise how properties such as Young's modulus or Poisson's ratio vary with stress/strain orientation. The ElAM ( Elastic Anisotropy Measures) code carries out the required tensorial operations (inversion, rotation, diagonalisation) and creates 3D models of an elastic property's anisotropy. It can also produce 2D cuts in any given plane, compute averages following diverse schemes and query a database of elastic constants to support meta-analyses. Program summaryProgram title: ElAM1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEHB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 43 848 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 498 882 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 Computer: Any Operating system: Linux, Windows (XP, Vista) RAM: Depends chiefly on the size of the arrays representing elastic properties in 3D Classification: 7.7 Nature of problem: Representation of elastic moduli and ratios, and of wave velocities, in 3D; automatic discovery of unusual elastic properties. Solution method: Stiffness matrix (6×6) inversion and conversion to compliance tensor (3×3×3×3), tensor rotation, dynamic matrix diagonalisation, simple optimisation, postscript and VRML output preparation. Running time: Dependent on angular accuracy and size of elastic constant database (from a few seconds to a few hours). The tests provided take from a

  2. A comprehensive analysis of earthquake damage patterns using high dimensional model representation feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkin Kaya, Gülşen

    2013-10-01

    Recently, earthquake damage assessment using satellite images has been a very popular ongoing research direction. Especially with the availability of very high resolution (VHR) satellite images, a quite detailed damage map based on building scale has been produced, and various studies have also been conducted in the literature. As the spatial resolution of satellite images increases, distinguishability of damage patterns becomes more cruel especially in case of using only the spectral information during classification. In order to overcome this difficulty, textural information needs to be involved to the classification to improve the visual quality and reliability of damage map. There are many kinds of textural information which can be derived from VHR satellite images depending on the algorithm used. However, extraction of textural information and evaluation of them have been generally a time consuming process especially for the large areas affected from the earthquake due to the size of VHR image. Therefore, in order to provide a quick damage map, the most useful features describing damage patterns needs to be known in advance as well as the redundant features. In this study, a very high resolution satellite image after Iran, Bam earthquake was used to identify the earthquake damage. Not only the spectral information, textural information was also used during the classification. For textural information, second order Haralick features were extracted from the panchromatic image for the area of interest using gray level co-occurrence matrix with different size of windows and directions. In addition to using spatial features in classification, the most useful features representing the damage characteristic were selected with a novel feature selection method based on high dimensional model representation (HDMR) giving sensitivity of each feature during classification. The method called HDMR was recently proposed as an efficient tool to capture the input

  3. Analysis of Self Similar Scaling in Kinetic and Magnetic Energy Density as a Function of Distance From Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A.; Coplan, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field data to study scaling properties of kinetic and magnetic energy density as a function of solar cycle and distance from the sun. In his original theory on turbulence, Kolmogorov predicted that in the inertial range the fluctuations in velocity differences should be self-similar. Analysis of solar wind data showed this not to be the case. On the other hand B. Hnat et.al.(Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (10), 1446, 2002) and J.J Podesta (J. Geophys. Res., 111, A09105, 2006) showed that fluctuations in kinetic and magnetic energy density are approximately self-similar. We extend this analysis using data from the SWE and MFI experiments on the WIND spacecraft (at 1AU) during solar minimum (2006) and solar maximum (2001) and VHM/FGM experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft (1AU to 5AU). We calculate the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the time delayed differences in kinetic and magnetic energy density and present a method through which the scaling exponent can be reliably calculated from the CDFs, instead of using structure functions which are very sensitive to large fluctuations. We compare the scaling exponents derived from the CDFs to the ones calculated from structure functions and study the rescaling properties of CDFs.

  4. Use of a similarity index based on microbial fatty acid (MFA) analysis to monitor biological wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, K S; Hall, E R

    2003-09-01

    Estimating the stability of microbial community structures may be useful in advanced biological wastewater treatment system design and operation. In this research, a monitoring method using fatty acid profiles was evaluated for detecting changes in microbial community structures. For the evaluation, the operating parameters such as pH, organic loading, and chlorine addition were varied in two identical laboratory scale conventional activated sludge systems. A similarity index based on microbial fatty acid analysis was used to express the stability of microbial community structures in the systems. Experiments using a model microbial community showed that microbial compositions changed daily even under constant operating conditions and that the rate of change increased under dynamic operating conditions. Substrate changes brought about a relatively large change in a microbial community structure, eventually resulting in a very different microbial community. After only 7 days following a substrate change in a lab-scale bioreactor, the biomass exhibited only 45% similarity to the original structure. The analysis of microbial fatty acids conveys additional information, in that it could be used for the calculation of biomass concentrations in a wastewater treatment system if microbial fatty acid analyses are executed on a routine basis as a monitoring tool for biological wastewater treatment systems. The total fatty acid concentrations were about 0.61% of the biomass concentration as mixed liquor volatile suspended solid concentrations in this research.

  5. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis reveals similar substrate consensus motif for human Mps1 kinase and Plk1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Dou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the Mps1 kinase family play an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, a surveillance mechanism that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. Human Mps1 (hMps1 is highly phosphorylated during mitosis and many phosphorylation sites have been identified. However, the upstream kinases responsible for these phosphorylations are not presently known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we identify 29 in vivo phosphorylation sites in hMps1. While in vivo analyses indicate that Aurora B and hMps1 activity are required for mitotic hyper-phosphorylation of hMps1, in vitro kinase assays show that Cdk1, MAPK, Plk1 and hMps1 itself can directly phosphorylate hMps1. Although Aurora B poorly phosphorylates hMps1 in vitro, it positively regulates the localization of Mps1 to kinetochores in vivo. Most importantly, quantitative mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that at least 12 sites within hMps1 can be attributed to autophosphorylation. Remarkably, these hMps1 autophosphorylation sites closely resemble the consensus motif of Plk1, demonstrating that these two mitotic kinases share a similar substrate consensus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: hMps1 kinase is regulated by Aurora B kinase and its autophosphorylation. Analysis on hMps1 autophosphorylation sites demonstrates that hMps1 has a substrate preference similar to Plk1 kinase.

  6. Mechanical design, analysis, and laboratory testing of a dental implant with axial flexibility similar to natural tooth with periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektaş, Ömer; Tönük, Ergin

    2014-11-01

    At the interface between the jawbone and the roots of natural teeth, a thin, elastic, shock-absorbing tissue, called the periodontal ligament, forms a cushion which provides certain flexibility under mechanical loading. The dental restorations supported by implants, however, involve comparatively rigid connections to the jawbone. This causes overloading of the implant while bearing functional loading together with neighboring natural teeth, which leads to high stresses within the implant system and in the jawbone. A dental implant, with resilient components in the upper structure (abutment) in order to mimic the mechanical behavior of the periodontal ligament in the axial direction, was designed, analyzed in silico, and produced for mechanical testing. The aims of the design were avoiding high levels of stress, loosening of the abutment connection screw, and soft tissue irritations. The finite element analysis of the designed implant revealed that the elastic abutment yielded a similar axial mobility with the natural tooth while keeping stress in the implant at safe levels. The in vitro mechanical testing of the prototype resulted in similar axial mobility predicted by the analysis and as that of a typical natural tooth. The abutment screw did not loosen under repeated loading and there was no static or fatigue failure.

  7. An Analysis of Female Representation and Marines Performance in Aviation and Logistics Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    1970s, and women have been relatively overrepresented in this occfield. Our findings about Marine officers in the aviation and logistics occfields are...eligible for technical occupations, such as aviation PMOSs.  E4-E6 promotion probabilities are similar for men and women within an occfield, but...indicate that enlisted women in ground logistics and aviation occupations are just as qualified as enlisted men, if not more qualified.  Enlisted

  8. Integral geometry and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gel'fand, I M; Vilenkin, N Ya

    1966-01-01

    Generalized Functions, Volume 5: Integral Geometry and Representation Theory is devoted to the theory of representations, focusing on the group of two-dimensional complex matrices of determinant one.This book emphasizes that the theory of representations is a good example of the use of algebraic and geometric methods in functional analysis, in which transformations are performed not on the points of a space, but on the functions defined on it. The topics discussed include Radon transform on a real affine space, integral transforms in the complex domain, and representations of the group of comp

  9. Identification of variations of gene expression of visceral adipose and renal tissue in type 2 diabetic rats using cDNA representational difference analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨架林; 李果; 张芳林; 刘优萍; 张迪; 周文中; 许光武; 杨义生; 罗敏

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To identify differences in gene expression in renal and visceral adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic rats using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) and to explore the molecular pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its chronic vascular complications.Methods A rat model of type 2 diabetes was generated by administration of a high fat and calorie diet combined with a low dose of streptozocin (STZ) injected into the tail vein. The difference bands were generated by cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA RDA). The final difference products were ligated into the pUC-18 vector and sequenced. A bioformatics analysis was performed on the obtained expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and then the expression levels of known and novel genes were verified by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). At the same time, full-length cDNA of a novel gene was cloned in silico.Results The type 2 diabetic rats in this experiment experienced hyperglycemia, lipidemia, lower insulin sensitivity and normal body weight. We obtained 9 novel ESTs and 2 novel genes from renal tissue of rats and 6 novel ESTs and 1 known gene, the rat lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene from their visceral adipose tissue. The 2 novel genes (RS91 and RS2) from the renal tissue were both very similar to serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade F and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 and subunit 5 (EIF-3 epsilon). The expression of both novel genes and the LPL gene were upregulated in renal and visceral adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic and fat-enriched rats. Full-length cDNA of the novel gene RS91 was cloned in silico.Conclusions① The rat model of type 2 diabetes generated in this study was ideal because the disease in the animals closely mimicked type 2 diabetic patients ② cDNA RDA is a flexible, inexpensive, more accurate, sensitive and highly effective technique for identifying differences in gene expression ③ Six novel ESTs and 1 known gene were obtained

  10. An analysis of South African Grade 9 natural sciences textbooks for their representation of nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh; Chanetsa, Tarisai

    2016-04-01

    This article reports on an analysis and comparison of three South African Grade 9 (13-14 years) Natural Sciences textbooks for the representation of nature of science (NOS). The analysis was framed by an analytical tool developed and validated by Abd-El-Khalick and a team of researchers in a large-scale study on the high school textbooks in the USA. The three textbooks were scored on targeted NOS aspects on a scale of -3 to +3 that reflected the explicitness with which these aspects were addressed. The analysis revealed that the textbooks poorly depict NOS, and in particular, there was scant attention given to the social dimension of science, science versus pseudoscience and the 'myth of the scientific method'. The findings of this study are incommensurate with the strong emphasis in a reformed school science curriculum that underlies the need for learners to understand the scientific enterprise, and how scientific knowledge develops. In view of this, the findings of this research reinforce the need for a review on the mandate given to textbook publishers and writers so that a stronger focus be placed on the development of materials that better represent the tenets of NOS.

  11. Time domain measurement representation in computer system diagnostics and performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wideł

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time analysis is a common approach for testing and detecting methods for the performance analysis of computer systems. In the article it is shown, that measuring and identifying performances based on a benchmark is not sufficient for the proper analysis of the computer systems behavior. The response time of the process is often composed of the execution of many subprocesses or many paths of execution. Under this assumption, it is presented, that both convolution and deconvolution methods can be helpful in obtaining time distributions and modeling of complex processes. In such a modeling the analysis of measurement errors is very important and was taken into consideration. The example of using the methods in buffering process is also discussed.

  12. A phase transition between localist and distributed representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Bifurcation analysis of a real-time implementation of an ART network, which is functionally similar to the generalized localist model discussed in Page's manifesto shows that it yields a phase transition from local to distributed representation owing to continuous variation of the range of inhibitor

  13. Representation of health conditions on Facebook: content analysis and evaluation of user engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Timothy M; Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Zan, Shiyi; Jethwani, Kamal

    2014-08-04

    A sizable majority of adult Internet users report looking for health information online. Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook represent a common place to seek information, but very little is known about the representation and use of health content on SNS. Our goal in this study was to understand the role of SNS in health information seeking. More specifically, we aimed to describe how health conditions are represented on Facebook Pages and how users interact with these different conditions. We used Google Insights to identify the 20 most searched for health conditions on Google and then searched each of the resulting terms on Facebook. We compiled a list of the first 50 Facebook "Pages" results for each health condition. After filtering results to identify pages relevant to our research, we categorized pages into one of seven categories based on the page's primary purpose. We then measured user engagement by evaluating the number of "Likes" for different conditions and types of pages. The search returned 50 pages for 18 of the health conditions, but only 48 pages were found for "anemia" and 5 pages were found for "flu symptoms", yielding a total of 953 pages. A large number of pages (29.4%, 280/953) were irrelevant to the health condition searched. Of the 673 relevant pages, 151 were not in English or originated outside the United States, leaving 522 pages to be coded for content. The most common type of page was marketing/promotion (32.2%, 168/522) followed by information/awareness (20.7%, 108/522), Wikipedia-type pages (15.5%, 81/522), patient support (9.4%, 49/522), and general support (3.6%, 19/522). Health conditions varied greatly by the primary page type. All health conditions had some marketing/promotion pages and this made up 76% (29/38) of pages on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The largest percentage of general support pages were cancer (19%, 6/32) and stomach (16%, 4/25). For patient support, stroke (67%, 4/6), lupus (33%, 10

  14. Representation of Health Conditions on Facebook: Content Analysis and Evaluation of User Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Zan, Shiyi; Jethwani, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background A sizable majority of adult Internet users report looking for health information online. Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook represent a common place to seek information, but very little is known about the representation and use of health content on SNS. Objective Our goal in this study was to understand the role of SNS in health information seeking. More specifically, we aimed to describe how health conditions are represented on Facebook Pages and how users interact with these different conditions. Methods We used Google Insights to identify the 20 most searched for health conditions on Google and then searched each of the resulting terms on Facebook. We compiled a list of the first 50 Facebook “Pages” results for each health condition. After filtering results to identify pages relevant to our research, we categorized pages into one of seven categories based on the page’s primary purpose. We then measured user engagement by evaluating the number of “Likes” for different conditions and types of pages. Results The search returned 50 pages for 18 of the health conditions, but only 48 pages were found for “anemia” and 5 pages were found for “flu symptoms”, yielding a total of 953 pages. A large number of pages (29.4%, 280/953) were irrelevant to the health condition searched. Of the 673 relevant pages, 151 were not in English or originated outside the United States, leaving 522 pages to be coded for content. The most common type of page was marketing/promotion (32.2%, 168/522) followed by information/awareness (20.7%, 108/522), Wikipedia-type pages (15.5%, 81/522), patient support (9.4%, 49/522), and general support (3.6%, 19/522). Health conditions varied greatly by the primary page type. All health conditions had some marketing/promotion pages and this made up 76% (29/38) of pages on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The largest percentage of general support pages were cancer (19%, 6/32) and stomach (16%, 4/25). For

  15. Building scientific literacy/(ies): A cross-case analysis of how multimodal representations are used to make meaning during scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Christa L.

    This study used a Social Semiotic framework to describe the nature of multimodal textual representations created by fourth grade students in a small rural Texas school district south of Dallas in order to answer the question: What is the nature of the multimodal textual representations created by fourth grade students during the scientific inquiry process? Results of the cross case-analysis of the students' digitally recorded reflections, their multimodal representations, and my field notes and personal reflections as a teacher-researcher were indicative of five major themes. Representations created by the students: (a) were supported by scientific learning communities; (b) demonstrated varying abilities to collect both qualitative and quantitative observations; (c) utilized a variety of graphic organizers to communicate/represent scientific information; (d) were influenced by previous instruction and experience; and (e) showed development over time. These findings suggested the need for changes in the learning environment and pedagogy of science as teachers provide environments that support the development of learning communities; provide multiple opportunities for students to make both qualitative and quantitative observations during scientific inquiry; provide explicit instruction into the semiotic tools used by professional scientists to communicate/represent meaning; and allow students the opportunity to reflect, critique, and discuss their representations so that they can learn to be more competent and fluent representors of scientific knowledge. Recommendations for future research included: learning more about the way learning communities scaffold the learning process during scientific inquiry; understanding the best practices for helping students to learn how to make qualitative and quantitative observations of the world around them; describing the best practices for teaching students to be multimodal designers of scientific knowledge;examining the effect

  16. Graphical analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data in Bode and Nyquist representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Li, Zhe; Liaw, Bor Yann; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-03-01

    Though it becomes a routine to fit impedance data to an equivalent electric circuit model (EECM) using complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) to extract physical parameters from impedance data, two formidable challenges still remain: to build a physically meaningful EECM and to find good initial estimates for model parameters. In this study, combining graphical analysis of impedance data in both Bode and Nyquist plots, a two-step procedure is proposed to address the challenges: (1) a frequency derivative phase angle method is developed in Bode plot to identify the number of time constants (or electrochemical processes); (2) graphical analysis of impedance data in Nyquist plot is used sequentially for initial parameter determination. Major graphical analysis methods are compared in terms of frequency resolution, accuracy and complexity using synthetic data. The superiority of the proposed procedure is illustrated using the experimental data of a three-electrode lithium-ion cell.

  17. Social Representations of the Development of Intelligence, Parental Values and Parenting Styles: A Theoretical Model for Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Isabel; Valentim, Joaquim Pires; Carugati, Felice

    2013-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of social representations theory, a substantial body of literature has advocated and shown that, as interpretative systems and forms of knowledge concurring in the construction of a social reality, social representations are guides for action, influencing behaviours and social relations. Based on this assumption,…

  18. Social Representations of the Development of Intelligence, Parental Values and Parenting Styles: A Theoretical Model for Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Isabel; Valentim, Joaquim Pires; Carugati, Felice

    2013-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of social representations theory, a substantial body of literature has advocated and shown that, as interpretative systems and forms of knowledge concurring in the construction of a social reality, social representations are guides for action, influencing behaviours and social relations. Based on this assumption,…

  19. Do Women Really have More Bilateral Language Representation than Men?: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Iris E. C.; Aleman, Andre; Bouma, Anke; Kahn, Rene S.

    2004-01-01

    Sex differences in cognition are consistently reported, men excelling in most visuospatial tasks and women in certain verbal tasks. It has been hypothesized that these sex differences in cognition results from a more bilateral pattern of language representation in women than in men. This bilateral pattern of language representation in women is…

  20. Do Women Really have More Bilateral Language Representation than Men?: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Iris E. C.; Aleman, Andre; Bouma, Anke; Kahn, Rene S.

    2004-01-01

    Sex differences in cognition are consistently reported, men excelling in most visuospatial tasks and women in certain verbal tasks. It has been hypothesized that these sex differences in cognition results from a more bilateral pattern of language representation in women than in men. This bilateral pattern of language representation in women is…

  1. Objects, Signs, and Representations in the Semio-Cognitive Analysis of the Processes Involved in Teaching and Learning Mathematics: A Duvalian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, Maura

    2017-01-01

    In mathematical activities and in the analysis of mathematics teaching-learning processes, "objects," "signs", and "representations" are often mentioned, where the meaning assigned to those words is sometimes very broad, sometimes limited, other times intuitive, allusive, or not completely clear. On the other hand, as…

  2. Objects, Signs, and Representations in the Semio-Cognitive Analysis of the Processes Involved in Teaching and Learning Mathematics: A Duvalian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, Maura

    2017-01-01

    In mathematical activities and in the analysis of mathematics teaching-learning processes, "objects," "signs", and "representations" are often mentioned, where the meaning assigned to those words is sometimes very broad, sometimes limited, other times intuitive, allusive, or not completely clear. On the other hand, as…

  3. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.

  4. Longitudinal pathways from early maternal depression to children's dysregulated representations: a moderated mediation analysis of harsh parenting and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting.

  5. Multi-dimensional digital human models for ergonomic analysis based on natural data representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital human models are often used for ergonomic analysis of product designs, before physical prototypes are available. However, existing digital human models cannot be used to simultaneously: 1) consider the tissue loads and the physiological effects of the tissue loads; 2) optimise the product pr

  6. The Representation of Latinos and the Use of Spanish: A Critical Content Analysis of "Skippyjon Jones"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Roldan, Carmen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates the presence of Mock Spanish in some English-based picture books and the ways this usage misrepresents Latino people, language, and culture. The author conducted a critical content analysis of five Skippyjon Jones books. Her guiding question was, How is language used, particularly Spanish, in these English texts, and what…

  7. Combining Time Frequency Representation and Parametric Analysis for the Enhancement of Transients in Sleep EEG Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    du Sommeil , Nice, FRANCE Abstract - The study of the electroencephalographic (EEG) sig- nal contributes to sleep analysis. In the...lis, 1999, France. [2] O.Meste, A. Amargos, G. Suisse, H. Rix, “Détection automatique de fuseaux de sommeil à l’aide de représentations temps

  8. Everybody Counts, but Usually Just to 10! A Systematic Analysis of Number Representations in Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R.; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Teachers and parents often use trade books to introduce or reinforce mathematics concepts. To date, an analysis of the early numeracy content of trade books has not been conducted. Consequently, this study evaluated the properties of numbers and counting within trade books. We coded 160 trade books targeted at establishing early…

  9. Everybody Counts, but Usually Just to 10! A Systematic Analysis of Number Representations in Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R.; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Teachers and parents often use trade books to introduce or reinforce mathematics concepts. To date, an analysis of the early numeracy content of trade books has not been conducted. Consequently, this study evaluated the properties of numbers and counting within trade books. We coded 160 trade books targeted at establishing early…

  10. Distorted Pattern Recognition and Analysis with the Help of IEf Graph Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sedziwy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for distorted pattern recognition is presented. lt's generalization of M Flasinski results (Pattern Recognition, 27, 1-16, 1992. A new formalism allows to make both qualitative and quantitive distortion analysis. It also enlarges parser flexibility by extending the set of patterns which may be recognized.

  11. Multi-dimensional digital human models for ergonomic analysis based on natural data representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital human models are often used for ergonomic analysis of product designs, before physical prototypes are available. However, existing digital human models cannot be used to simultaneously: 1) consider the tissue loads and the physiological effects of the tissue loads; 2) optimise the product

  12. The Representation of Latinos and the Use of Spanish: A Critical Content Analysis of "Skippyjon Jones"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Roldan, Carmen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates the presence of Mock Spanish in some English-based picture books and the ways this usage misrepresents Latino people, language, and culture. The author conducted a critical content analysis of five Skippyjon Jones books. Her guiding question was, How is language used, particularly Spanish, in these English texts, and what…

  13. LEGO: a novel method for gene set over-representation analysis by incorporating network-based gene weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinran; Hao, Yun; Wang, Xiao; Tian, Weidong

    2016-01-11

    Pathway or gene set over-representation analysis (ORA) has become a routine task in functional genomics studies. However, currently widely used ORA tools employ statistical methods such as Fisher's exact test that reduce a pathway into a list of genes, ignoring the constitutive functional non-equivalent roles of genes and the complex gene-gene interactions. Here, we develop a novel method named LEGO (functional Link Enrichment of Gene Ontology or gene sets) that takes into consideration these two types of information by incorporating network-based gene weights in ORA analysis. In three benchmarks, LEGO achieves better performance than Fisher and three other network-based methods. To further evaluate LEGO's usefulness, we compare LEGO with five gene expression-based and three pathway topology-based methods using a benchmark of 34 disease gene expression datasets compiled by a recent publication, and show that LEGO is among the top-ranked methods in terms of both sensitivity and prioritization for detecting target KEGG pathways. In addition, we develop a cluster-and-filter approach to reduce the redundancy among the enriched gene sets, making the results more interpretable to biologists. Finally, we apply LEGO to two lists of autism genes, and identify relevant gene sets to autism that could not be found by Fisher.

  14. Sequence Similarity of Clostridium difficile Strains by Analysis of Conserved Genes and Genome Content Is Reflected by Their Ribotype Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, Hedwig; Ehrenreich, Armin; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Monot, Marc; Rupnik, Maja; Barbut, Frederic; Indra, Alexander; Dupuy, Bruno; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    PCR-ribotyping is a broadly used method for the classification of isolates of Clostridium difficile, an emerging intestinal pathogen, causing infections with increased disease severity and incidence in several European and North American countries. We have now carried out clustering analysis with selected genes of numerous C. difficile strains as well as gene content comparisons of their genomes in order to broaden our view of the relatedness of strains assigned to different ribotypes. We analyzed the genomic content of 48 C. difficile strains representing 21 different ribotypes. The calculation of distance matrix-based dendrograms using the neighbor joining method for 14 conserved genes (standard phylogenetic marker genes) from the genomes of the C. difficile strains demonstrated that the genes from strains with the same ribotype generally clustered together. Further, certain ribotypes always clustered together and formed ribotype groups, i.e. ribotypes 078, 033 and 126, as well as ribotypes 002 and 017, indicating their relatedness. Comparisons of the gene contents of the genomes of ribotypes that clustered according to the conserved gene analysis revealed that the number of common genes of the ribotypes belonging to each of these three ribotype groups were very similar for the 078/033/126 group (at most 69 specific genes between the different strains with the same ribotype) but less similar for the 002/017 group (86 genes difference). It appears that the ribotype is indicative not only of a specific pattern of the amplified 16S–23S rRNA intergenic spacer but also reflects specific differences in the nucleotide sequences of the conserved genes studied here. It can be anticipated that the sequence deviations of more genes of C. difficile strains are correlated with their PCR-ribotype. In conclusion, the results of this study corroborate and extend the concept of clonal C. difficile lineages, which correlate with ribotypes affiliation. PMID:24482682

  15. Ideology and Translation: A Critical Discourse Analysis Approach towards the Representation of Political News in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Aslani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently the impact of ideology of the powerful agents namely- Political Parties, News Agencies and even the translators- on the translation has been considered significantly among the translation scholars. This study investigates the role of ideology in translating news media. To this end, we utilize Norman Fairclough's assumptions in critical discourse analysis, claiming that "ideologies reside in texts" that "it is not possible to read off' ideologies from texts" and that "texts are open to diverse interpretations" (Fairclough, 1995a It also follows Lefevere’s (1992a, 1992b Patronage theory. In this paper, we will compare the news texts with their translations in order to reveal the role of ideology in the translation process. Keywords: Ideology, Critical Discourse Analysis, Patronage

  16. Representation of cancer in the medical literature--a bibliometric analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2010-11-01

    There exists a lack of knowledge regarding the quantity and quality of scientific yield in relation to individual cancer types. We aimed to measure the proportion, quality and relevance of oncology-related articles, and to relate this output to their associated disease burden. By incorporating the impact factor(IF) and Eigenfactor™(EF) into our analysis we also assessed the relationship between these indices and the output under study.

  17. statnet: Software Tools for the Representation, Visualization, Analysis and Simulation of Network Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Handcock

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available statnet is a suite of software packages for statistical network analysis. The packages implement recent advances in network modeling based on exponential-family random graph models (ERGM. The components of the package provide a comprehensive framework for ERGM-based network modeling, including tools for model estimation, model evaluation, model-based network simulation, and network visualization. This broad functionality is powered by a central Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm. The coding is optimized for speed and robustness.

  18. Application of symbolic representation method to the analysis of machine errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cha'o.-Kuang; Wu, Tzong-Mou

    1993-09-01

    jSYlIJIJOliC FepVCSCIltaLiOfl of rnachiiie errors for the opetied loop chain aJl(1 closed J():)fJ Cllaifl iii positioii and orientation is presented. i]iis representatioL1 (foes away with CtJJ11l)CrSOUC natrix rnuitiplicaiioiis and is able tO Ofilit 1ie zero value of multiplication of matrix. A program is also (leVeIolJC(I by I''iogran syrti holic rcj:ncseii lation method which is apjilicable to the analysis of nialiiiie Crrors. An example is given to illustrate the use of this prograiii for the analysis of machue errors. it is hoped that the itietliod presented if! this study will provide an easy and powerful tool for the analysis of machine errors. In iroduc Lion lfoclianism are commonly used in . i specified pOSitiOfl and orienLation in two or Ldimensional space. In accuracies introduced by clearances in the mechanism connections and errors j manufacturing are one of the prin SP1E Vol. 2101 Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (1993)! 155

  19. The Representation of a Broadband Vector Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunyan Ren; Jean Pierre Hermand; Shengchun Piao

    2011-01-01

    Compared to a scalar pressure sensor,a vector sensor can provide a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)signal and more detailed information on the sound field.Study on vector sensors and their applications have become a hot topic.Research on the representation of a vector field is highly relevant for extending the scope of vector sensor technology.This paper discusses the range-frequency distribution of the vector field due to a broadband acoustic source moving in a shallow-water waveguide as the self noise of a surface ship,and the vector extension of the waveguide impulse response measured over a limited frequency range using an active source of known waveform.From theory analysis and numerical simulation,the range-frequency representation of a vector field exhibits an interference structure qualitatively similar to that of the corresponding pressure field but,being quantitatively different,provides additional information on the waveguide,especially through the vertical component.For the range-frequency representation,physical quantities that can better exhibit the interference characteristics of the waveguide are the products of pressure and particle velocity and of the pressure and pressure gradient.An image processing method to effectively detect and isolate the individual striations from an interference structure was reviewed briefly.The representation of the vector impulse response was discussed according to two different measurement systems,also known as particle velocity and pressure gradient.The vector impulse response representation can not only provide additional information from pressure only but even more than that of the range-frequency representation.

  20. Digital representation of meso-geomaterial spatial distribution and associated numerical analysis of geomechanics:methods,applications and developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Zhongqi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the author's efforts in the past decade for the establishment of a practical approach of digital representation of the geomaterial distribution of different minerals,particulars,and components in the meso-scale range(0.1 to 500 mm).The primary goal of the approach is to provide a possible solution to solve the two intrinsic problems associated with the current main-stream methods for geomechanics.The problems are (1) the constitutive models and parameters of soils and rocks cannot be given accurately in geomechanical prediction;and (2) there are numerous constitutive models of soils and rocks in the literature.The problems are possibly caused by the homogenization or averaging method in analyzing laboratory test results for establishing the constitutive models and parameters.The averaging method employs an assumption that the test samples can be represented by a homogeneous medium.Such averaging method ignores the fact that the geomaterial samples are also consisted of a number of materials and components whose properties may have significant differences.In the proposed approach,digital image processing methods are used as measurement tools to construct a digital representation for the actual spatial distribution of the different materials and components in geomaterial samples.The digital data are further processed to automatically generate meshes or grids for numerical analysis.These meshes or grids can be easily incorporated into existing numerical software packages for further mechanical analysis and failure prediction of the geomaterials under external loading.The paper presents case studies to illustrate the proposed approach.Further discussions are also made on how to use the proposed approach to develop the geomechanics by taking into account the geomaterial behavior at micro-scale,meso-scale and macro-scale levels.A literature review of the related developments is given by examining the SCI papers in the database of Science Citation

  1. Automatic Indexing for Content Analysis of Whale Recordings and XML Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Glotin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the robust indexing of sperm whale hydrophone recordings based on a set of features extracted from a real-time passive underwater acoustic tracking algorithm for multiple whales using four hydrophones. Acoustic localization permits the study of whale behavior in deep water without interfering with the environment. Given the position coordinates, we are able to generate different features such as the speed, energy of the clicks, Inter-Click-Interval (ICI, and so on. These features allow to construct different markers which allow us to index and structure the audio files. Thus, the behavior study is facilitated by choosing and accessing the corresponding index in the audio file. The complete indexing algorithm is processed on real data from the NUWC (Naval Undersea Warfare Center of the US Navy and the AUTEC (Atlantic Undersea Test & Evaluation Center-Bahamas. Our model is validated by similar results from the US Navy (NUWC and SOEST (School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology Hawaii university labs in a single whale case. Finally, as an illustration, we index a single whale sound file using the extracted whale's features provided by the tracking, and we present an example of an XML script structuring it.

  2. Automatic Indexing for Content Analysis of Whale Recordings and XML Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénard Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper focuses on the robust indexing of sperm whale hydrophone recordings based on a set of features extracted from a real-time passive underwater acoustic tracking algorithm for multiple whales using four hydrophones. Acoustic localization permits the study of whale behavior in deep water without interfering with the environment. Given the position coordinates, we are able to generate different features such as the speed, energy of the clicks, Inter-Click-Interval (ICI, and so on. These features allow to construct different markers which allow us to index and structure the audio files. Thus, the behavior study is facilitated by choosing and accessing the corresponding index in the audio file. The complete indexing algorithm is processed on real data from the NUWC (Naval Undersea Warfare Center of the US Navy and the AUTEC (Atlantic Undersea Test & Evaluation Center-Bahamas. Our model is validated by similar results from the US Navy (NUWC and SOEST (School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology Hawaii university labs in a single whale case. Finally, as an illustration, we index a single whale sound file using the extracted whale's features provided by the tracking, and we present an example of an XML script structuring it.

  3. Representation of ideal figure size in Ebony magazine: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boisseau, Christina L; St Paul, Michelle S

    2011-09-01

    Studies examining trends over time in mainstream magazines observe decreases in women's figure size, and increases in figure exposure and amount of diet/exercise content. Little is known, however, regarding the content of African American magazines. Utilizing methods from classic studies, this investigation examined content in Ebony, a magazine with wide African American readership, from 1969 to 2008. We included the full content of N=462 issues, with a total of N=539 cover images of women, of which N=208 were full-body shots. Analyses indicated a curvilinear relationship between time and figure exposure, with a recent trend toward more full-body shots, similar to mainstream magazines. Contrary to previous studies, however, the majority of figures across time were average size, and a curvilinear relationship between time and diet/exercise content showed peak content in the early 1990s. Results are considered in context of research indicating African American women show less body dissatisfaction than other racial/ethnic groups.

  4. The analysis of initial Juno magnetometer data using a sparse magnetic field representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Kimberly M.; Bloxham, Jeremy; Connerney, John E. P.

    2017-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft, now in polar orbit about Jupiter, passes much closer to Jupiter's surface than any previous spacecraft, presenting a unique opportunity to study the largest and most accessible planetary dynamo in the solar system. Here we present an analysis of magnetometer observations from...... Juno's first perijove pass (PJ1; to within 1.06 RJ of Jupiter's center). We calculate the residuals between the vector magnetic field observations and that calculated using the VIP4 spherical harmonic model and fit these residuals using an elastic net regression. The resulting model demonstrates how...

  5. S-F graphic representation analysis of photoelectric facula focometer poroo-plate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yilin; Han, Xuecai

    2016-10-01

    Optical system focal length is usually based on the magnification method with focal length measurement poroo-plate glass is used as base element measuring focal length of focometer. On the basis of using analysis of magnification method to measure the accuracy of optical lens focal length, an expression between the ruling span of poroo-plate glass and the focal length of measured optical system was deduced, an efficient method to work out S-F graph with AUTOCAD was developed, the selecting principle of focometer parameter was analyzed, and Applied examples for designing poroo-plate glass in S-F figure was obtained.

  6. Global proteomic analysis of Chelidonium majus and Corydalis cava (Papaveraceae) extracts revealed similar defense-related protein compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert; Zauber, Henrik; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2014-04-01

    Chelidonium majus and Corydalis cava are phylogenetically closely related (Papaveraceae family). The medicinal and pharmaceutical interest in these plants is based on their synthesis of pharmaceutically important compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and proteins. C. majus shoot and C. cava tuber extracts have been used in traditional folk medicine to treat many diseases, such as fungal, bacterial and viral infections, liver disorders, fever, post-traumatic, colic, abdominal and menstrual pains and even cancer. This study attempts to perform a global comparative proteomic analysis of pharmacologically important extracts from these two closely related unsequenced plant species to gain insights into the protein basis of these plant organs and to compare their common and specific proteomic compositions. We used a shotgun proteomic approach combined with label-free protein quantitation according to the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI). In total, a mean number of 228 protein identification results were recorded in C. cava tuber extracts and about 1240 in C. majus shoot extracts. Comparative analysis revealed a similar stress and defense-related protein composition of pharmacologically active plant species and showed the presence of different pathogenesis-related and low molecular inducible antimicrobial peptides. These findings could form the basis for further elucidation of the mechanism of the strong pharmacological activities of these medicinal plant extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel method for condition monitoring of rotating machinery based on statistical linguistic analysis and weighted similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshan; Dou, Chunhong

    2017-03-01

    Defective rotating machinery generally produces complex fluctuations due to non-stationary and nonlinear properties of dynamical systems. Consequently, dynamical structures of vibration data from rotating machinery are hard to disclose. As a result, condition monitoring of rotating machinery is fairly challenging. In this paper, statistical linguistic analysis (SLA), a novel tool for time series analysis, was introduced to analyze dynamical mechanisms hidden in vibration data of rotating machinery. SLA maps original vibration data from rotating machinery to a binary symbolic sequence by exploiting potential of increase and decreases of time intervals. Next, by sliding a window and identifying the elements in each window as a ;word;, a group of words is created. Then, by counting the occurrence of each word type, the binary symbolic sequence can be converted into a word frequency sequence. Next, a weighted similarity measure (WSM) defined in this paper serves to detect a change of running conditions of rotating machinery. As a result, this paper proposed a novel method for condition monitoring of rotating machinery based on SLA and WSM. Afterwards, the performance of the proposed method was validated using vibration data from both gearboxes and rolling bearings. Also, the proposed method was compared with conventional temporal statistical parameters, Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy. The results indicate that the proposed method performs better than the other methods in condition monitoring of rotating machinery. Also, compared with either of Correlation Coefficients and Standardized Euclidean Distances, the WSM gives a somewhat better performance in reflecting a change of dynamical structures.

  8. Analysis and Modeling of Time-Correlated Characteristics of Rainfall-Runoff Similarity in the Upstream Red River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a similarity model (based on Euclidean distance between rainfall and runoff to study time-correlated characteristics of rainfall-runoff similar patterns in the upstream Red River Basin and presented a detailed evaluation of the time correlation of rainfall-runoff similarity. The rainfall-runoff similarity was used to determine the optimum similarity. The results showed that a time-correlated model was found to be capable of predicting the rainfall-runoff similarity in the upstream Red River Basin in a satisfactory way. Both noised and denoised time series by thresholding the wavelet coefficients were applied to verify the accuracy of model. And the corresponding optimum similar sets obtained as the equation solution conditions showed an interesting and stable trend. On the whole, the annual mean similarity presented a gradually rising trend, for quantitatively estimating comprehensive influence of climate change and of human activities on rainfall-runoff similarity.

  9. News media representations of electronic cigarettes: an analysis of newspaper coverage in the UK and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) have recently been attracting interest for their potential as a less harmful alternative to smoking, their rising popularity and the regulatory issues they raise. The news media can play an important role in shaping public perceptions of new technologies. It is, therefore, important to understand the ways the news media present ENDS. This paper examines how ENDS are represented in the UK and in the Scottish press. Twelve national UK and Scottish newspapers and the three most popular online news sources were searched between 2007 and 2012. A thematic analysis was conducted to explore how the meanings, uses and users of ENDS are presented, and whether and how this has changed. Newspaper coverage of ENDS increased substantially over this period. Five key themes emerged from the analysis: getting around smokefree legislation; risk and uncertainty; healthier choice; celebrity use; price. Drawing on the diffusion of innovations theory, we suggest that newspaper constructions of ENDS provide readers with important information about what ENDS are for, how they work, and their relative advantages. These themes, and dominance of more positive meanings, raise a number of issues for tobacco control, including concerns around celebrity use and promotion; the impact of increasing ENDS use on social norms around smoking; their potential to undermine smokefree legislation; and their promotion as effective cessation aids. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Compact Graph Representations and Parallel Connectivity Algorithms for Massive Dynamic Network Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madduri, Kamesh; Bader, David A.

    2009-02-15

    Graph-theoretic abstractions are extensively used to analyze massive data sets. Temporal data streams from socioeconomic interactions, social networking web sites, communication traffic, and scientific computing can be intuitively modeled as graphs. We present the first study of novel high-performance combinatorial techniques for analyzing large-scale information networks, encapsulating dynamic interaction data in the order of billions of entities. We present new data structures to represent dynamic interaction networks, and discuss algorithms for processing parallel insertions and deletions of edges in small-world networks. With these new approaches, we achieve an average performance rate of 25 million structural updates per second and a parallel speedup of nearly28 on a 64-way Sun UltraSPARC T2 multicore processor, for insertions and deletions to a small-world network of 33.5 million vertices and 268 million edges. We also design parallel implementations of fundamental dynamic graph kernels related to connectivity and centrality queries. Our implementations are freely distributed as part of the open-source SNAP (Small-world Network Analysis and Partitioning) complex network analysis framework.

  11. Localization of brain activities using multiway analysis of EEG tensor via EMD and reassigned TF representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryazdian, Saeed; Beheshti, Soosan; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely used for monitoring, diagnosis purposes and also for study of brain's physiological, mental and functional abnormalities. Processing of information by the brain is reflected in dynamical changes of the electrical activity in time, frequency, and space. EEG signal processing tends to describe and quantify these variations in such a way that they are localized in temporal, spectral and spatial domain. Here we use multi-way (Tensor) analysis for localizing the EEG events. We used EMD process for decomposing EEG into distinct oscillatory modes, which are then mapped to TF plane using the near optimal Reassigned Spectrogram. Temporal, Spatial and Spectral information of the Multichannel EEG are then used to generate a three-way Frequency-Time-Space EEG tensor. Exploiting EMD also enables us to detrend the EEG recordings. Simulation results on both synthetic and real EEG data show that tensor analysis greatly improve separation and localization of overlapping events in EEG and it could be effectively exploited for detecting and characterizing the evoked potentials.

  12. Spectral Representation and Analysis of the KBR Precision Based on the Earth Gravity Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jia; NING Jinsheng; LUO Zhicai

    2005-01-01

    Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking in low-low model (SST-ll) is a new technique to resolve the series of problems met in the determination of the earths gravity field. As the key technique of SST-ll, KBR canget SST-ll measurements directly. So the KBR performance analysis is the first step in SST-ll design. In this paper, assuming that the satellite pairs of SST-ll are in near circle polar orbits, the spectrum relationship between the earth gravity field and KBR is established using analytic method. And then some examples are analyzed, the suggestions and conclusions are drawn from these examples. The research results could be taken as a reference for future satellite gravity project of China.

  13. Representation of autism in leading newspapers in china: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Bijie; Tang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The public's lack of understanding and the public's misconceptions about autism in China contribute to the underdiagnosis and undertreatment of the disorder and the stigma associated with it. Mass media are the primary channel through which people learn about autism. This article examines how leading newspapers in China covered autism in the 10-year period of 2003 through 2012 through a framing analysis. It finds that while autism has received increased media attention, it is increasingly framed as a family problem-family members are cited or quoted more than any other sources and the responsibility of dealing with autism is ultimately assigned to families. Autistic people are largely silenced unless they are autistic savants with special talents. The use of the scientific discourse and the human-interest discourse both decrease over time in percentage, while the use of other discourses such as the public relations discourse becomes more dominant.

  14. An investigation of the motivations driving the online representation of self-injury: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodham, K; Gavin, J; Lewis, S P; St Dennis, J M; Bandalli, P

    2013-01-01

    The objetive of the study was to identify a) the motivations for communicating about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a publicly accessible online forum, b) The significance (if any) of the "publicness" of the behavior. Using a Thematic Analysis of 423 text-based posts from an online NSSI forum, 5 motivations for using the site were identified: confessional, marking a turning point, acting as a deterrent, dispelling myths and offering or seeking support. Motivations for using the site differ markedly from motivations for engaging in NSSI and tend to be more outwardly focused. The publicness of the site therefore seems to be significant in terms of bearing witness, providing the opportunity to confront negative stereotypes, and the ability to seek and offer support to like-minded individuals.

  15. The Matrix Method of Representation, Analysis and Classification of Long Genetic Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Stepanyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a matrix method of comparative analysis of long nucleotide sequences by means of presenting each sequence in the form of three digital binary sequences. This method uses a set of symmetries of biochemical attributes of nucleotides. It also uses the possibility of presentation of every whole set of N-mers as one of the members of a Kronecker family of genetic matrices. With this method, a long nucleotide sequence can be visually represented as an individual fractal-like mosaic or another regular mosaic of binary type. In contrast to natural nucleotide sequences, artificial random sequences give non-regular patterns. Examples of binary mosaics of long nucleotide sequences are shown, including cases of human chromosomes and penicillins. The obtained results are then discussed.

  16. Representation of the Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance Using Motion Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience changes in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. To understand how changes in physiological function influence functional performance, a testing procedure has been developed that evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. Astronauts complete seven functional and physiological tests. The objective of this project is to use motion tracking and digitizing software to visually display the postflight decrement in the functional performance of the astronauts. The motion analysis software will be used to digitize astronaut data videos into stick figure videos to represent the astronauts as they perform the Functional Tasks Tests. This project will benefit NASA by allowing NASA scientists to present data of their neurological studies without revealing the identities of the astronauts.

  17. Towards a Discourse for Criticism in Language Teaching: Analysis of Sociocultural Representations in Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Torres Margarita Rosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a discourse for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines. As illustrated inside, the source and objective of analysis by means of which this discourse can be contextualized in language teaching is the language of mass media and all the sociocultural and signifying practices that it invokes. We conclude that through the analysis of mass media it is possible to educate students with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to interact critically in the world. El artículo plantea que, con el propósito de ejercer su ciudadanía, los maestros de lenguas deben popularizar un discurso para la crítica en el cual los estudiantes y los profesores trasciendan el conocimiento tácito y el sentido común mediante la argumentación y la metacognición, y alcancen conocimiento y procedimientos sistemáticos planteados por expertos en las diferentes disciplinas. Como se ilustra en el texto, la fuente y objeto de análisis mediante el cual se contextualiza este discurso en la enseñanza de la lengua es el lenguaje de los medios de comunicación y las prácticas socioculturales y de significación que este provoca. Concluimos que a través del análisis de los medios es posible educar a los estudiantes con conocimientos y habilidades básicas necesarias para interactuar en el mundo.

  18. A content analysis of the representation of statins in the British newsprint media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, Julia; Marshall, Tom; Hyde, Chris; Zhelev, Zhivko; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-08-21

    This study reviewed the news media coverage of statins, seeking to identify specific trends or differences in viewpoint between media outlets and examine common themes. The study is a content analysis of the frequency and content of the reporting of statins in a selection of the British newsprint media. It involved an assessment of the number, timing and thematic content of articles followed by a discourse analysis examining the underlying narratives. The sample was the output of four UK newspapers, covering a broad-spectrum readership, over a six month timeframe 1 October 2013 to 31 March 2014. A total of 67 articles included reference to statins. The majority (39, 58%) were reporting or responding to publication of a clinical study. The ratio of negative to positive coverage was greater than 2:1 overall. In the more politically right-leaning newspapers, 67% of coverage was predominantly negative (30/45 articles); 32% in the more left-leaning papers (7/22 articles). Common themes were the perceived 'medicalisation' of the population; the balance between lifestyle modification and medical treatments in the primary prevention of heart disease; side effects and effectiveness of statins; pharmaceutical sponsorship and implications for the reliability of evidence; trust between the public and government, institutions, research organisations and the medical profession. Newsprint media coverage of statins was substantially influenced by the publication of national guidance and by coverage in the medical journals of clinical studies and comment. Statins received a predominantly negative portrayal, notably in the more right-leaning press. There were shared themes: concern about the balance between medication and lifestyle change in the primary prevention of heart disease; the adverse effects of treatment; and a questioning of the reliability of evidence from research institutions, scientists and clinicians in the light of their potential allegiances and funding. © Article

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri by representational difference analysis of cDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a phytopathogenic bacterium responsible for citrus canker, a serious disease which causes severe losses in citriculture around the world. In this study we report the differential expression of X. axonopodis pv. citri in response to specific treatments by using Representational Difference Analysis of cDNA (cDNA RDA. cDNAs from X. axonopodis pv. citri cultured in the presence of leaf extract of the host plant (Citrus sinensis, in vivo, as well as in the complex medium were hybridized against cDNA of the bacterium grown in the minimal medium. Sequencing of the difference products obtained after the second and third hybridizations revealed a total of 37 distinct genes identified by homology searches in the genome of X. axonopodis pv. citri. These genes were distributed in different functional categories, including genes that encode hypothetical proteins, genes involved in metabolism, cellular processes and pathogenicity, and mobile genetic elements. Most of these genes are likely related to growth and/or acquisition of nutrients in specific treatments whereas others might be important for the bacterium pathogenicity.

  20. Ad hoc supervision of general practice registrars as a 'community of practice': analysis, interpretation and re-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, T; Brown, J; Morrison, J; Nestel, D

    2016-05-01

    General practice registrars in Australia undertake most of their vocational training in accredited general practices. They typically see patients alone from the start of their community-based training and are expected to seek timely ad hoc support from their supervisor. Such ad hoc encounters are a mechanism for ensuring patient safety, but also provide an opportunity for learning and teaching. Wenger's (Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998) social theory of learning ('communities of practice') guided a secondary analysis of audio-recordings of ad hoc encounters. Data from one encounter is re-presented as an extended sequence to maintain congruence with the theoretical perspective and enhance vicariousness. An interpretive commentary communicates key features of Wenger's theory and highlights the researchers' interpretations. We argue that one encounter can reveal universal understandings of clinical supervision and that the process of naturalistic generalisation allows readers to transfer others' experiences to their own contexts. The paper raises significant analytic, interpretive, and representational issues. We highlight that report writing is an important, but infrequently discussed, part of research design. We discuss the challenges of supporting the learning and teaching that arises from adopting a socio-cultural lens and argue that such a perspective importantly captures the complex range of issues that work-based practitioners have to grapple with. This offers a challenge to how we research and seek to influence work-based learning and teaching in health care settings.

  1. Man-Machine Interaction Design and Analysis System (MIDAS): Memory Representation and Procedural Implications for Airborne Communication Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Pisanich, Gregory M.; Lebacqz, Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The Man-Machine Interaction Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) has been under development for the past ten years through a joint US Army and NASA cooperative agreement. MIDAS represents multiple human operators and selected perceptual, cognitive, and physical functions of those operators as they interact with simulated systems. MIDAS has been used as an integrated predictive framework for the investigation of human/machine systems, particularly in situations with high demands on the operators. Specific examples include: nuclear power plant crew simulation, military helicopter flight crew response, and police force emergency dispatch. In recent applications to airborne systems development, MIDAS has demonstrated an ability to predict flight crew decision-making and procedural behavior when interacting with automated flight management systems and Air Traffic Control. In this paper we describe two enhancements to MIDAS. The first involves the addition of working memory in the form of an articulatory buffer for verbal communication protocols and a visuo-spatial buffer for communications via digital datalink. The second enhancement is a representation of multiple operators working as a team. This enhanced model was used to predict the performance of human flight crews and their level of compliance with commercial aviation communication procedures. We show how the data produced by MIDAS compares with flight crew performance data from full mission simulations. Finally, we discuss the use of these features to study communications issues connected with aircraft-based separation assurance.

  2. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current......Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... by ‘professionals’ to ‘laypeople’. The thesis articulates problems in VR’s current application, specifically the CAVE and Panorama theatres, and seeks an understanding of how these problems may be addressed. The central questions that have motivated this research project are thus: What is architectural VR...

  3. Sparse representation of signals: from astrophysics to real-time data analysis for fusion plasmas and system optimization analysis for ITER and TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, D.; Carfantan, H.; Albergante, M.; Blanchard, P.; Bourguignon, S.; Fasoli, A.; Goodyear, A.; Klein, A.; Lister, J. B.; Panis, T.; Contributors, JET

    2016-12-01

    Efficient, real-time and automated data analysis is one of the key elements for achieving scientific success in complex engineering and physical systems, two examples of which include the JET and ITER tokamaks. One problem which is common to these fields is the determination of the pulsation modes from an irregularly sampled time series. To this end, there are a wealth of signal processing techniques that are being applied to post-pulse and real-time data analysis in such complex systems. Here, we wish to present a review of the applications of a method based on the sparse representation of signals, using examples of the synergies that can be exploited when combining ideas and methods from very different fields, such as astronomy, astrophysics and thermonuclear fusion plasmas. Examples of this work in astronomy and astrophysics are the analysis of pulsation modes in various classes of stars and the orbit determination software of the Pioneer spacecraft. Two examples of this work in thermonuclear fusion plasmas include the detection of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities, which is now performed routinely in JET in real-time on a sub-millisecond time scale, and the studies leading to the optimization of the magnetic diagnostic system in ITER and TCV. These questions have been solved by formulating them as inverse problems, despite the fact that these applicative frameworks are extremely different from the classical use of sparse representations, from both the theoretical and computational point of view. The requirements, prospects and ideas for the signal processing and real-time data analysis applications of this method to the routine operation of ITER will also be discussed. Finally, a very recent development has been the attempt to apply this method to the deconvolution of the measurement of electric potential performed during a ground-based survey of a proto-Villanovian necropolis in central Italy.

  4. Cosine Similarity Measure of Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define a new cosine similarity between two interval valued neutrosophic sets based on Bhattacharya’s distance [19]. The notions of interval valued neutrosophic sets (IVNS, for short will be used as vector representations in 3D-vector space. Based on the comparative analysis of the existing similarity measures for IVNS, we find that our proposed similarity measure is better and more robust. An illustrative example of the pattern recognition shows that the proposed method is simple and effective.

  5. A Modeling Technique and Representation of Failure in the Analysis of Triaxial Braided Carbon Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-static tests have been performed on triaxially braided carbon fiber composite materials with large unit cell sizes. The effects of different fibers and matrix materials on the failure mode were investigated. Simulations of the tests have been performed using the transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA. However, the wide range of failure modes observed for the triaxial braided carbon fiber composites during tests could not be simulated using composite material models currently available within LS-DYNA. A macroscopic approach has been developed that provides better simulation of the material response in these materials. This approach uses full-field optical measurement techniques to measure local failures during quasi-static testing. Information from these experiments is then used along with the current material models available in LS-DYNA to simulate the influence of the braided architecture on the failure process. This method uses two-dimensional shell elements with integration points through the thickness of the elements to represent the different layers of braid along with a new analytical method for the import of material stiffness and failure data directly. The present method is being used to examine the effect of material properties on the failure process. The experimental approaches used to obtain the required data will be described, and preliminary results of the numerical analysis will be presented.

  6. KEGG for representation and analysis of molecular networks involving diseases and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, Minoru; Goto, Susumu; Furumichi, Miho; Tanabe, Mao; Hirakawa, Mika

    2010-01-01

    Most human diseases are complex multi-factorial diseases resulting from the combination of various genetic and environmental factors. In the KEGG database resource (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/), diseases are viewed as perturbed states of the molecular system, and drugs as perturbants to the molecular system. Disease information is computerized in two forms: pathway maps and gene/molecule lists. The KEGG PATHWAY database contains pathway maps for the molecular systems in both normal and perturbed states. In the KEGG DISEASE database, each disease is represented by a list of known disease genes, any known environmental factors at the molecular level, diagnostic markers and therapeutic drugs, which may reflect the underlying molecular system. The KEGG DRUG database contains chemical structures and/or chemical components of all drugs in Japan, including crude drugs and TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) formulas, and drugs in the USA and Europe. This database also captures knowledge about two types of molecular networks: the interaction network with target molecules, metabolizing enzymes, other drugs, etc. and the chemical structure transformation network in the history of drug development. The new disease/drug information resource named KEGG MEDICUS can be used as a reference knowledge base for computational analysis of molecular networks, especially, by integrating large-scale experimental datasets.

  7. Improving Representation of Convective Transport for Scale-Aware Parameterization, Part II: Analysis of Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi-Chin; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Guang J.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Ghan, Steven J.

    2015-04-27

    Following Part I, in which 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complex in the mid-latitude continental and the tropical regions are conducted and evaluated, we examine the scale-dependence of eddy transport of water vapor, evaluate different eddy transport formulations, and improve the representation of convective transport across all scales by proposing a new formulation that more accurately represents the CRM-calculated eddy flux. CRM results show that there are strong grid-spacing dependencies of updraft and downdraft fractions regardless of altitudes, cloud life stage, and geographical location. As for the eddy transport of water vapor, updraft eddy flux is a major contributor to total eddy flux in the lower and middle troposphere. However, downdraft eddy transport can be as large as updraft eddy transport in the lower atmosphere especially at the mature stage of 38 mid-latitude continental convection. We show that the single updraft approach significantly underestimates updraft eddy transport of water vapor because it fails to account for the large internal variability of updrafts, while a single downdraft represents the downdraft eddy transport of water vapor well. We find that using as few as 3 updrafts can account for the internal variability of updrafts well. Based on evaluation with the CRM simulated data, we recommend a simplified eddy transport formulation that considers three updrafts and one downdraft. Such formulation is similar to the conventional one but much more accurately represents CRM-simulated eddy flux across all grid scales.

  8. Region Templates: Data Representation and Management for High-Throughput Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, George; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Kong, Jun; Cooper, Lee; Klasky, Scott; Saltz, Joel

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a region template abstraction and framework for the efficient storage, management and processing of common data types in analysis of large datasets of high resolution images on clusters of hybrid computing nodes. The region template abstraction provides a generic container template for common data structures, such as points, arrays, regions, and object sets, within a spatial and temporal bounding box. It allows for different data management strategies and I/O implementations, while providing a homogeneous, unified interface to applications for data storage and retrieval. A region template application is represented as a hierarchical dataflow in which each computing stage may be represented as another dataflow of finer-grain tasks. The execution of the application is coordinated by a runtime system that implements optimizations for hybrid machines, including performance-aware scheduling for maximizing the utilization of computing devices and techniques to reduce the impact of data transfers between CPUs and GPUs. An experimental evaluation on a state-of-the-art hybrid cluster using a microscopy imaging application shows that the abstraction adds negligible overhead (about 3%) and achieves good scalability and high data transfer rates. Optimizations in a high speed disk based storage implementation of the abstraction to support asynchronous data transfers and computation result in an application performance gain of about 1.13×. Finally, a processing rate of 11,730 4K×4K tiles per minute was achieved for the microscopy imaging application on a cluster with 100 nodes (300 GPUs and 1,200 CPU cores). This computation rate enables studies with very large datasets.

  9. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  10. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  11. Visible Boys, Invisible Girls: The Representation of Gender in Learn English with Tito (A Critical Discourse Analysis of English Language Textbooks for Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Tiara Antiksari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study, entitled “Visible Boys, Invisible Girls: The Representation of Gender in Learn English with Tito (A Critical Discourse Analysis of English Language Textbooks for Primary School”, is aimed at revealing the representation of gender in a series of Indonesian primary school English textbooks which are published by PT. Mutiara Permata Bangsa, Yogyakarta in 2007. The study is also aimed at gaining information about the editor’s perspective upon the issue and investigating the underlying ideology behind the representation. This research employs the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. The main data are six textbooks for primary school. This study also conduts an inteview with the book editor. The text analysis utilizes transitivity system of Halliday which focuses on investigating Participants, Processes, and Circumstances of a clause. It is supported by lexical choise analysis of the text and a qualitative analysis of the interview. The findings show that the books favor males than females. Male characters are more visible in that they occur dominantly and they appear to hold more important roles of Participant. In terms of Gender stereotyping, males are perpetually associated with a more well-paid jobs i.e. ‘doctor’ and ‘pilot’ for male characters and ‘teacher’ for females’. Meanwhile, females are more likely valued by their physical appearance and personality i.e. ‘slim’, ‘fair-skinned’, ‘beautiful’, ‘kind’, and diligent’. At the end of the research,  the editor admitted the lack of concern on the issue of gender in composing her textbooks. These seem to indicate male domination as the underlying ideology behind the representation.

  12. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brito Lopes

    Full Text Available This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs. Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA, back-fat thickness (BF, and rump fat thickness (RF, registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3 (P < 0.001. Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1 were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs. Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  13. High Scale 3d Modelling and Orthophoto of Curved Masonries for a Multipurpose Representation, Analysis and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2017-05-01

    It is important nowadays to underline some relevant topics concerning the effective contribution of 3D high detailed products derived from innovation and integration of Geomatics technologies, allowing a remarkable development in descriptive metric capabilities, supporting and improving the material recording, representation, analysis and characterization about alteration of the constructive systems. Considering the relevance of the complex interdisciplinary research of these issues that move around the Cultural Heritage safeguard and due to its extreme vulnerability, these models must give a response to different problems. Primarily they has to provide complete models on which to pursue accurate morpho-dimensional documentation, and to base structural assessment, decay investigations, and consequently to underpin restoration practices and support operational workflow in CH assets monitoring. Some peculiarities of new methods for semi-automatic processing algorithms are thus evidenced, advantaging their proficiency to behave as tools for a more sustainable approach in the general process of preservation and protection. Specifically about the ancient masonries documentation, the chance of using digital products derived from very high scale models, as the detailed orthoimages projection and surfaces development offers many opportunities. Here, a late-medieval stratified dovecote tower in Verolengo (TO) with a particular trunk-conical shape had been analysed in order to reconstruct an identity and a historical and architectural framework, de facto not recognized yet. A 3D reconstruction by dense matching techniques will be presented, in the complex context that are the vertical high buildings, presenting one of the highest level of vulnerability. The importance of the 3D model availability, closely connected to dense radiometric information, has been particularly expressed in two main direction for the diagnosis both of volumetric structure assessment and the material

  14. HIGH SCALE 3D MODELLING AND ORTHOPHOTO OF CURVED MASONRIES FOR A MULTIPURPOSE REPRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sammartano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is important nowadays to underline some relevant topics concerning the effective contribution of 3D high detailed products derived from innovation and integration of Geomatics technologies, allowing a remarkable development in descriptive metric capabilities, supporting and improving the material recording, representation, analysis and characterization about alteration of the constructive systems. Considering the relevance of the complex interdisciplinary research of these issues that move around the Cultural Heritage safeguard and due to its extreme vulnerability, these models must give a response to different problems. Primarily they has to provide complete models on which to pursue accurate morpho-dimensional documentation, and to base structural assessment, decay investigations, and consequently to underpin restoration practices and support operational workflow in CH assets monitoring. Some peculiarities of new methods for semi-automatic processing algorithms are thus evidenced, advantaging their proficiency to behave as tools for a more sustainable approach in the general process of preservation and protection. Specifically about the ancient masonries documentation, the chance of using digital products derived from very high scale models, as the detailed orthoimages projection and surfaces development offers many opportunities. Here, a late-medieval stratified dovecote tower in Verolengo (TO with a particular trunk-conical shape had been analysed in order to reconstruct an identity and a historical and architectural framework, de facto not recognized yet. A 3D reconstruction by dense matching techniques will be presented, in the complex context that are the vertical high buildings, presenting one of the highest level of vulnerability. The importance of the 3D model availability, closely connected to dense radiometric information, has been particularly expressed in two main direction for the diagnosis both of volumetric structure

  15. "It's not healthy and it's decidedly not masculine": a media analysis of UK newspaper representations of eating disorders in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-05-29

    Recent qualitative research found young men reporting that an expectation that eating disorders (EDs) mainly affect young women led them, and others, to only recognise their symptoms when their ED had become entrenched. This raises questions about how these stereotypes persist. We therefore explored how EDs in males were represented in articles published in UK newspapers over a 10-year period (7.12.2002-7.12.2012), specifically attending to whether newsprint media represent EDs in males as 'gender appropriate', 'gender anomalous' or 'gender neutral'. A qualitative thematic analysis of UK newspaper articles. We searched two databases, Newsbank and LexisNexis, for newspaper articles including ED and male terms in the lead/first paragraph. Following de-duplication, 420 articles were scrutinised; 138 met inclusion criteria for detailed textual analysis and were imported into NVivo10. The number of articles peaked in 2008 when a UK politician announced that he had experienced bulimia nervosa. Analysis of how the articles portrayed male ED-related characterisations and experiences revealed that they conveyed ambiguous messages about EDs in males. Despite apparently aiming to dispel stereotypes that only young women experience EDs and to address stigma surrounding EDs in males, many aspects of the articles, including repetition of phrases such as 'a young woman's illness', serve to reinforce messages that EDs are inherently 'female' and so 'anomalous' for men. Newspaper articles represent men with EDs as atypical of men, as a result of having an ED (and any feminising or demasculinising characteristics associated with this), and as atypical of people with EDs, who are still usually portrayed as teenage girls. Such media representations frame a cultural paradigm in which there is an expectation that men may feel shame about or strive to conceal EDs, potentially contributing to men with EDs delaying help-seeking, gaining late access to treatments and reducing chances of

  16. Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada

    2016-09-06

    This the final report for the DE-SC0007096 - Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales - PI: Pavlos Kollias. The final report outline the main findings of the research conducted using the aforementioned award in the area of cloud research from the cloud scale (10-100 m) to the mesoscale (20-50 km).

  17. Evaluation of land surface model representation of phenology: an analysis of model runs submitted to the NACP Interim Site Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.; Nacp Interim Site Synthesis Participants

    2010-12-01

    Phenology represents a critical intersection point between organisms and their growth environment. It is for this reason that phenology is a sensitive and robust integrator of the biological impacts of year-to-year climate variability and longer-term climate change on natural systems. However, it is perhaps equally important that phenology, by controlling the seasonal activity of vegetation on the land surface, plays a fundamental role in regulating ecosystem processes, competitive interactions, and feedbacks to the climate system. Unfortunately, the phenological sub-models implemented in most state-of-the-art ecosystem models and land surface schemes are overly simplified. We quantified model errors in the representation of the seasonal cycles of leaf area index (LAI), gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP), and net ecosystem exchange of CO2. Our analysis was based on site-level model runs (14 different models) submitted to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Interim Synthesis, and long-term measurements from 10 forested (5 evergreen conifer, 5 deciduous broadleaf) sites within the AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada networks. Model predictions of the seasonality of LAI and GEP were unacceptable, particularly in spring, and especially for deciduous forests. This is despite an historical emphasis on deciduous forest phenology, and the perception that controls on spring phenology are better understood than autumn phenology. Errors of up to 25 days in predicting “spring onset” transition dates were common, and errors of up to 50 days were observed. For deciduous sites, virtually every model was biased towards spring onset being too early, and autumn senescence being too late. Thus, models predicted growing seasons that were far too long for deciduous forests. For most models, errors in the seasonal representation of deciduous forest LAI were highly correlated with errors in the seasonality of both GPP and NEE, indicating the importance of getting the underlying

  18. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2016-12-28

    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships.

  19. The Concept of Happiness as Conveyed in Visual Representations: Analysis of the Work of Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila; Segel, Sarit

    2014-01-01

    This research was designed to examine how early-childhood educators pursuing their graduate degrees perceive the concept of happiness, as conveyed in visual representations. The research methodology combines qualitative and quantitative paradigms using the metaphoric collage, a tool used to analyze visual and verbal aspects. The research…

  20. Analysis of Peer Learning Behaviors Using Multiple Representations in Virtual Reality and Their Impacts on Geometry Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Hu, Shih-Shin

    2013-01-01

    Learning geometry emphasizes the importance of exploring different representations such as virtual manipulatives, written math formulas, and verbal explanations, which help students build math concepts and develop critical thinking. Besides helping individuals construct math knowledge, peer interaction also plays a crucial role in promoting an…

  1. Representing Turkey : An Analysis of the Power and Politics of Turkey’s Representation in British Lifestyle News

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hamid-Turksoy (Nilyufer)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A remarkably rich body of literature analyses the political representation of Turkey. The scholarly debate is, still limited to scrutinizing the dominant media discourse on Turkey’s potential European Union membership. In Representing Turkey, the research moves beyond t

  2. Representing Turkey : An Analysis of the Power and Politics of Turkey’s Representation in British Lifestyle News

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hamid-Turksoy (Nilyufer)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A remarkably rich body of literature analyses the political representation of Turkey. The scholarly debate is, still limited to scrutinizing the dominant media discourse on Turkey’s potential European Union membership. In Representing Turkey, the research moves beyond t

  3. Representation and Analysis of Chemistry Core Ideas in Science Education Standards between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanlan; Bi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry core ideas play an important role in students' chemistry learning. On the basis of the representations of chemistry core ideas about "substances" and "processes" in the Chinese Chemistry Curriculum Standards (CCCS) and the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we conduct a critical comparison of chemistry…

  4. Do women really have more bilateral language representation than men? A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, IEC; Aleman, A; Bouma, A; Kahn, RS

    Sex differences in cognition are consistently reported, men excelling in most visuospatial tasks and women in certain verbal tasks. It has been hypothesized that these sex differences in cognition results from a more bilateral pattern of language representation in women than in men. This bilateral

  5. Do women really have more bilateral language representation than men? A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, IEC; Aleman, A; Bouma, A; Kahn, RS

    2004-01-01

    Sex differences in cognition are consistently reported, men excelling in most visuospatial tasks and women in certain verbal tasks. It has been hypothesized that these sex differences in cognition results from a more bilateral pattern of language representation in women than in men. This bilateral p

  6. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  7. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  8. Method for assessing the similarity and distance between curves/trials and its applications in gait analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijie; Ming Dong; Wan Baikun

    2008-01-01

    In clinical assessment or sports exercise.it is common that a subject is required to repeat a specific per-formance so that a stable movement pattern is obtained and analysed.In practice,however,the trials done by a sub-ject vary more or less,depending on the psychological or physical conditions.Some of the trials can be used as rep-resentatives of the stable movement pattern,and some not.Therefore,there is a demand for a new method to identify which trials/curves are similar.The traditional methods used to assess curve similarity are not perfecfly suitable for the case where there are only a few of trials available.This study proposes a similarity-distance coefficient to assess the similarity of curves/trials.A group of designed curves are used to validate the coefficient.The results show that given joint kinematic data during gait as examples,tlle proposed coefficient call be used to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of trials,and thus find which trials would be representative(S)for the gait investigated.The proposed method could be applied in various situations where repeat movements have to be measured and analysed.

  9. Analysis of the internal representations developed by neural networks for structures applied to quantitative structure--activity relationship studies of benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, A; Sperduti, A; Starita, A; Bianucci, A M

    2001-01-01

    An application of recursive cascade correlation (CC) neural networks to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies is presented, with emphasis on the study of the internal representations developed by the neural networks. Recursive CC is a neural network model recently proposed for the processing of structured data. It allows the direct handling of chemical compounds as labeled ordered directed graphs, and constitutes a novel approach to QSAR. The adopted representation of molecular structure captures, in a quite general and flexible way, significant topological aspects and chemical functionalities for each specific class of molecules showing a particular chemical reactivity or biological activity. A class of 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones is analyzed by the proposed approach. It compares favorably versus the traditional QSAR treatment based on equations. To show the ability of the model in capturing most of the structural features that account for the biological activity, the internal representations developed by the networks are analyzed by principal component analysis. This analysis shows that the networks are able to discover relevant structural features just on the basis of the association between the molecular morphology and the target property (affinity).

  10. A 2-D graphical representation of protein sequences based on nucleotide triplet codons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fenglan; Wang, Tianming

    2005-09-01

    Graphical representation of DNA provides a simple way of viewing, sorting and comparing various gene structures. A 2-D graphical representation of protein sequences based on nucleotide triplet codons has been derived for similarity analysis of protein sequences. This approach is based on a graphical representation of triplets of DNA in which the interior of the left half plane of the complex plane is used to accommodate 64 sites for the 64 codons. We associate a directed curve, numerical value, or matrix with a protein as a descriptor. The approach is illustrated on the Homo sapiens X-linked nuclear protein (ATRX) gene.

  11. A quantum molecular similarity analysis of changes in molecular electron density caused by basis set flotation and electric field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sílvia; Duran, Miquel

    1997-08-01

    Quantum molecular similarity (QMS) techniques are used to assess the response of the electron density of various small molecules to application of a static, uniform electric field. Likewise, QMS is used to analyze the changes in electron density generated by the process of floating a basis set. The results obtained show an interrelation between the floating process, the optimum geometry, and the presence of an external field. Cases involving the Le Chatelier principle are discussed, and an insight on the changes of bond critical point properties, self-similarity values and density differences is performed.

  12. The Similarities and Differences Between“Phoenix”and“Fenghuang”--and The Comparative Analysis of Their Cultural Connotations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文佳

    2014-01-01

    Fenghuang is a mascot in ancient China. The word “Phoenix” symbolizes a bird which is immortal. This paper focus on the differences and similarities between“fenghuang”and phoenix. At the same time, we wil make a slight inquiry about the reasons of the differences’ generation.

  13. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  14. Pioneers of representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Charles W

    1999-01-01

    The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductor...

  15. Mathematical representations in science: a cognitive-historical case history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweney, Ryan D

    2009-10-01

    The important role of mathematical representations in scientific thinking has received little attention from cognitive scientists. This study argues that neglect of this issue is unwarranted, given existing cognitive theories and laws, together with promising results from the cognitive historical analysis of several important scientists. In particular, while the mathematical wizardry of James Clerk Maxwell differed dramatically from the experimental approaches favored by Michael Faraday, Maxwell himself recognized Faraday as "in reality a mathematician of a very high order," and his own work as in some respects a re-representation of Faraday's field theory in analytic terms. The implications of the similarities and differences between the two figures open new perspectives on the cognitive role of mathematics as a learned mode of representation in science.

  16. (Self)-representations on youtube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    This paper examines forms of self-representation on YouTube with specific focus on Vlogs (Video blogs). The analytical scope of the paper is on how User-generated Content on YouTube initiates a certain kind of audiovisual representation and a particular interpretation of reality that can...... be distinguished within Vlogs. This will be analysed through selected case studies taken from a representative sample of empirically based observations of YouTube videos. The analysis includes a focus on how certain forms of representation can be identified as representations of the self (Turkle 1995, Scannell...... 1996, Walker 2005) and further how these forms must be comprehended within a context of technological constrains, institutional structures and social as well as economical practices on YouTube (Burgess and Green 2009, Van Dijck 2009). It is argued that these different contexts play a vital part...

  17. SURVEY, REPRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF A WAR I COMPLEX SYSTEM OF SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND FORTIFICATIONS IN THE GRESTA VALLEY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salvador

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" – APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino, a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the

  18. Survey, Representation and Analysis of a War i Complex System of Surface and Underground Fortifications in the Gresta Valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, I.; Vitti, A.

    2011-09-01

    This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" - APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino), a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the practical advantage of

  19. Toward a brain-based componential semantic representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R; Conant, Lisa L; Humphries, Colin J; Fernandino, Leonardo; Simons, Stephen B; Aguilar, Mario; Desai, Rutvik H

    2016-01-01

    Componential theories of lexical semantics assume that concepts can be represented by sets of features or attributes that are in some sense primitive or basic components of meaning. The binary features used in classical category and prototype theories are problematic in that these features are themselves complex concepts, leaving open the question of what constitutes a primitive feature. The present availability of brain imaging tools has enhanced interest in how concepts are represented in brains, and accumulating evidence supports the claim that these representations are at least partly "embodied" in the perception, action, and other modal neural systems through which concepts are experienced. In this study we explore the possibility of devising a componential model of semantic representation based entirely on such functional divisions in the human brain. We propose a basic set of approximately 65 experiential attributes based on neurobiological considerations, comprising sensory, motor, spatial, temporal, affective, social, and cognitive experiences. We provide normative data on the salience of each attribute for a large set of English nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and show how these attribute vectors distinguish a priori conceptual categories and capture semantic similarity. Robust quantitative differences between concrete object categories were observed across a large number of attribute dimensions. A within- versus between-category similarity metric showed much greater separation between categories than representations derived from distributional (latent semantic) analysis of text. Cluster analyses were used to explore the similarity structure in the data independent of a priori labels, revealing several novel category distinctions. We discuss how such a representation might deal with various longstanding problems in semantic theory, such as feature selection and weighting, representation of abstract concepts, effects of context on semantic retrieval, and

  20. Representation-independent manipulations with Dirac spinors

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, P B

    2007-01-01

    Dirac matrices, also known as gamma matrices, are defined only up to a similarity transformation. Usually, some explicit representation of these matrices is assumed in order to deal with them. In this article, we show how it is possible to proceed without any such assumption. Various important identities involving Dirac matrices and spinors have been derived without assuming any representation at any stage.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE REPRESENTATION OF THE INTERSECTIONS OF POLYHEDRA IN VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF REPRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBINTA Dorin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the intersection between two polyhedra in various systems of representation: the orthogonal projection on two planes of projection, the axonometric projection and the projection with elevations. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages produced by the representation in the three mentioned systems of representation is also performed. Then, suggestions as to the selection of one or another system of representation are also made, in view of finding a clearer spatial visual perception of the unit.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Representations of Nature of Science in Nordic Upper Secondary School Textbooks Using Framework of Analysis Based on Philosophy of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Veli-Matti; Aksela, Maija; Lavonen, Jari

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how the different aspects of nature of science (NOS) were represented in Finnish and Swedish upper secondary school chemistry textbooks. The dimensions of NOS were analyzed from five popular chemistry textbook series. The study provides a quantitative method for analysis of representations of NOS in chemistry textbooks informed by domain-specific research on the philosophy of chemistry and chemical education. The selection of sections analyzed was based on the four themes of scientific literacy: knowledge of science, investigate nature of science, science as a way of thinking, and interaction of science, technology and society. For the second round of analysis the theme of science as a way of thinking was chosen for a closer inspection. The units of analysis in this theme were analyzed using seven domain specific dimensions of NOS: tentative, empirical, model-based, inferential, technological products, instrumentation, and social and societal dimensions. Based on the inter-rater agreement, the procedure and frameworks of analysis presented in this study was a reliable way of assessing the emphasis given to the domain specific aspects of NOS. All textbooks have little emphasis on the theme science as a way of thinking on a whole. In line with the differences of curricula, Swedish textbooks emphasize the tentative dimension of NOS more than Finnish textbooks. To provide teachers with a sufficiently wide variety of examples to discuss the different dimensions of NOS changes to the national core curricula are needed. Although changing the emphasis of the curricula would be the most obvious way to affect the emphasis of the textbooks, other efforts such as pre- and in-service courses for developing teachers understanding of NOS and pedagogic approaches for NOS instruction to their classroom practice might also be needed.

  3. On the similarity of the Coleman and Lyapunov-Floquet transformations for modal analysis of bladed rotor structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldan, P.F.; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    Structures with isotropic bladed rotors can be modally analyzed by eigenvalue analysis of time-invariant Coleman transformed equations of motion related to the inertial frame or by Floquet analysis of the periodic equations of motion. The Coleman transformation is here shown to be a special case ...

  4. Advancing cloud lifecycle representation in numerical models using innovative analysis methods that bridge arm observations over a breadth of scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tselioudis, George [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-04

    From its location on the subtropics-midlatitude boundary, the Azores is influenced by both the subtropical high pressure and the midlatitude baroclinic storm regimes, and therefore experiences a wide range of cloud structures, from fair-weather scenes to stratocumulus sheets to deep convective systems. This project combined three types of data sets to study cloud variability in the Azores: a satellite analysis of cloud regimes, a reanalysis characterization of storminess, and a 19-month field campaign that occurred on Graciosa Island. Combined analysis of the three data sets provides a detailed picture of cloud variability and the respective dynamic influences, with emphasis on low clouds that constitute a major uncertainty source in climate model simulations. The satellite cloud regime analysis shows that the Azores cloud distribution is similar to the mean global distribution and can therefore be used to evaluate cloud simulation in global models. Regime analysis of low clouds shows that stratocumulus decks occur under the influence of the Azores high-pressure system, while shallow cumulus clouds are sustained by cold-air outbreaks, as revealed by their preference for post-frontal environments and northwesterly flows. An evaluation of CMIP5 climate model cloud regimes over the Azores shows that all models severely underpredict shallow cumulus clouds, while most models also underpredict the occurrence of stratocumulus cloud decks. It is demonstrated that carefully selected case studies can be related through regime analysis to climatological cloud distributions, and a methodology is suggested utilizing process-resolving model simulations of individual cases to better understand cloud-dynamics interactions and attempt to explain and correct climate model cloud deficiencies.

  5. 词语相似度计算方法分析%Analysis of Word Similarity Computing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔韬世; 麦范金

    2012-01-01

    词语相似度计算是自然语言处理、智能检索、文档聚类、文档分类、自动应答、词义排歧和机器翻译等很多领域的基础研究课题。词语相似度计算在理论研究和实际应用中具有重要意义。本文对词语相似度进行总结,分别阐述了基于大规模语料库的词语相似度计算方法和基于本体的词语相似度计算方法,重点对后者进行详细分析。最后对两类方法进行简单对比,指出各自优缺点。%Word Similarity computing is basic research of natural language processing,intelligent information retrieval,document clustering,document classification,automatic answering,word sense disambiguation and machine translation.Word similarity computing has an important significance in theoretical research and practical applications.In this paper,described the large scale corpus-based word similarity calculation method and ontology-based word similarity calculation method,pay attention to the latter.Comparison of the two types of methods,pointed out the respectively advantages and disadvantages.

  6. A theoretical Appliance in the analysis of the representation of the public issues in Young university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando García Leguizamón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical and methodological approaches that guide the research entitled “An approach to social representations of public issues in students of the University Los Libertadores, through their interpretation of images”, advanced in 2010. It presents philosophical and sociological conceptions of the public sphere as a general frame of reference and contrast for the investigation. It is proposed heuristically a “topology” of the public sphere, to visualize their locations and levels of constitution. Tackling the question of the constitution of the public sphere some observations are made about the role played by communication technologies. Finally, we make explicit the methodological elements to be used in this qualitative investigation: the theory of social representations, with the specific technique of images interpretation.

  7. Hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit: I. General formalism and perturbations analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Suárez, Abril

    2015-01-01

    Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a $\\lambda|\\varphi|^4$ potential. We study the evolution of the homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while pertubations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model ...

  8. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  9. “Without love you can not develop a good work”: analysis of social representation of teachers inclusion on school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednéia Rodrigues Albuquerque

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The educational legislation, and the National Policy on Education in Brazil highlight the Special Education as a means of education, offered, preferably in the regular school network, whose guiding principle is the inclusion. This article presents the results of a study of social representations to include school teachers between the public network developed in the Graduate Program in Education at the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. Participants in the survey are 43 teachers of students with disabilities in the municipal network of Jaboatao of Exmouth-EP. Data were collected through the free association of words and the results indicate that the inclusion in school social representation of teachers is an act of love. The character of the emotional evocations excels is in the social representations of students with disabilities affecting the meaning of inclusion as a right of a student with disabilities. Thus, the Special Education, despite its merits and achievements, such as social right constitutionally guaranteed to persons with disabilities continues to be denied.

  10. Mexsyco project: representation of power plan control-instrumentation functions. Bibliographical analysis and conclusions; Projet Mexsyco: representation des fonctions de controle-commande des centrales. Analyse bibliographique et conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, M.

    1994-03-01

    The study covered in this paper is designed to review the current situation in terms of functional analysis, in order to find a functional analysis method for mechanical parts able to serve as a substrate for expressing operating safety constraints, time-related performance or any other tag of function description. This paper comprises three parts: The first is devoted to general notions of the formats used by the various functional analyses. It attempts to explain the three types of format: behavioural, structural and functional. It tackles the notions of trees and bottom-up and top-down approaches. It proposes examining the link between the expected functions of the systems and the hardware supporting these functions. It attempts to make a distinction between ``operators`` and ``operands`` enabling the notion of object to be linked to that of the three types of format seen above. It ends with a reminder of the distinction between semi-formal and formal. The second part analyses the current situation of functional analysis of the mechanical and control-instrumentation parts of power production plants, through a bibliographical search. The results of this second part are however disappointing. The purpose of the third part of the study is a prototype format built up from the considerations of the first two parts. This format meets our requirements better than those of the bibliographical analysis, but it could doubtless be improved: application of this format to RCV highlights its advantages, but also underlines the improvements needed. Given the deadlines of the Mexsyco project, the decision was taken to suspend development of this format for the time being and use a method currently being produced and based on use of the current functional breakdown (basic plant systems) and of a modular tree-structure representation of the control-instrumentation of a basic plant system. (author). 12 refs., 4 annexes.

  11. Similarities and differences in signal transduction by interleukin 4 and interleukin 13: analysis of Janus kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Johnston, J A; Tortolani, P J; McReynolds, L J; Kinzer, C; O'Shea, J J; Paul, W E

    1995-08-15

    The cytokines interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 induce many of the same biological responses, including class switching to IgE and induction of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and CD23 on human B cells. It has recently been shown that IL-4 induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kDa protein, a substrate called 4PS, and of the Janus kinase (JAK) family members JAK1 and JAK3. Because IL-13 has many functional effects similar to those of IL-4, we compared the ability of IL-4 and IL-13 to activate these signaling molecules in the human multifactor-dependent cell line TF-1. In this report we demonstrate that both IL-4 and IL-13 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS and JAK1. Interestingly, although IL-4 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3, we did not detect JAK3 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. These data suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 signal in similar ways via the activation of JAK1 and 4PS. However, our data further indicate that there are significant differences because IL-13 does not activate JAK3.

  12. Multidimensional representation of odors in the human olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, A; Ferdenzi, C; Sezille, C; Rouby, C; Bensafi, M

    2016-06-01

    What is known as an odor object is an integrated representation constructed from physical features, and perceptual attributes mainly mediated by the olfactory and trigeminal systems. The aim of the present study was to comprehend how this multidimensional representation is organized, by deciphering how similarities in the physical, olfactory and trigeminal perceptual spaces of odors are represented in the human brain. To achieve this aim, we combined psychophysics, functional MRI and multivariate representational similarity analysis. Participants were asked to smell odors diffused by an fMRI-compatible olfactometer and to rate each smell along olfactory dimensions (pleasantness, intensity, familiarity and edibility) and trigeminal dimensions (irritation, coolness, warmth and pain). An event-related design was implemented, presenting different odorants. Results revealed that (i) pairwise odorant similarities in anterior piriform cortex (PC) activity correlated with pairwise odorant similarities in chemical properties (P physical, olfactory and trigeminal features is based on specific fine processing of similarities between odorous stimuli in a distributed manner in the olfactory system. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2161-2172, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Wavelet analysis method for detection of DDoS attack on the basis of Self-similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xunyi; WANG Ruchuan; WANG Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    As the waditional methods were not suitable for the detection of small distribute denial of service(DDoS)attack and identification of busy traffc.on the basis of the influence of DDoS attack,one wavelet analysis method was proposed.Wavelet method of toefficient variance analysis was deduced and a software model for the method was designed.In addition.key issues of the choice of wavelet and calculation of Hurst were resolved.The experimental results show that the proposed method has more advantages in accurately identilying busy traffic and detection of small DDoS attack.

  14. Compositionality and the angular gyrus: A multi-voxel similarity analysis of the semantic composition of nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive and neural systems that enable conceptual processing must support the ability to combine (and recombine) concepts to form an infinite number of ideas. Two candidate neural systems for conceptual combination-the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and the left angular gyrus (AG)-have been characterized as "semantic hubs" due to both functional and anatomical properties; however, these two regions likely support different aspects of composition. Here we consider two hypotheses for the role of AG in conceptual combination, both of which differ from a putative role for the ATL in "feature-based" combinatorics (i.e., meaning derived by combining concepts' features). Firstly, we examine whether AG is more sensitive to function-argument relations of the sort that arise when a predicate is combined with its arguments. Secondly, we examine the non-mutually exclusive possibility that AG represents information carried on a verb in particular, whether this be information about event composition or about thematic relations denoted uniquely by verbs. We identified voxels that respond differentially to two-word versus one-word stimuli, and we measured the similarity of the patterns in these voxels evoked by (1) pairs of two-word phrases that shared a noun that was an argument, thus sharing function-argument composition (e.g. eats meat and with meat), in comparison with two-word phrases that shared only a noun, not an argument (e.g., eats meat and tasty meat); and (2) stimulus pairs that shared only an event (operationalized here as sharing a verb; e.g. eats meat and eats quickly), in comparison to both of the above. We found that activity patterns in left AG tracked information relating to the presence of an event-denoting verb in a pair of two-word phrases. We also found that the neural similarity in AG voxel patterns between two phrases sharing a verb correlated with subjects' ratings of how similar the meanings of those two verb phrases were. These findings

  15. An Analysis of the Reading Strategies Used by Deaf and Hearing Adults: Similarities and Differences in Phonological Processing and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    This study is a mixed methods analysis of reading processes and language experiences of deaf and hearing readers. The sample includes four groups each with fifteen adults--identified as: deaf/high-achieving readers, deaf/struggling/non-academic readers, hearing/high-achieving readers, and hearing/non-academic readers. The purpose of this study is…

  16. Hi-C analysis in Arabidopsis identifies the KNOT, a structure with similarities to the flamenco locus of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Stefan; Schmid, Marc W; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-09-04

    Chromosomes are folded, spatially organized, and regulated by epigenetic marks. How chromosomal architecture is connected to the epigenome is not well understood. We show that chromosomal architecture of Arabidopsis is tightly linked to the epigenetic state. Furthermore, we show how physical constraints, such as nuclear size, correlate with the folding principles of chromatin. We also describe a nuclear structure, termed KNOT, in which genomic regions of all five Arabidopsis chromosomes interact. These KNOT ENGAGED ELEMENT (KEE) regions represent heterochromatic islands within euchromatin. Similar to PIWI-interacting RNA clusters, such as flamenco in Drosophila, KEEs represent preferred landing sites for transposable elements, which may be part of a transposon defense mechanism in the Arabidopsis nucleus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioinformatics analysis and prediction for structure and function of nitric oxide synthase and similar proteins from Plasmodium berghei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Fan; Gang Lv; Lingmin Zhang; Xiufeng Gan; Qiang Wu; Saifeng Zhong; Guogang Yan; Guifen Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To search and analyze nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and similar proteins fromPlasmodium berghei(Pb). Methods: The structure and function of nitric oxide synthase and similar proteins from Plasmodium berghei were analyzed and predicted by bioinformatics. Results: PbNOS were not available, but nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2’-phosphate reduced tetrasodium (NADPH)-cytochrome p450 reductase(CPR) were gained. PbCPR was in the nucleus of Plasmodium berghei, while 134aa-229aa domain was localize in nucleolar organizer. The amino acids sequence of PbCPR had the closest genetic relationship with Plasmodium vivax showing a 73% homology. The tertiary structure of PbCPR displayed the forcep-shape with wings, but no wings existed in the tertiary structure of its’ host, Mus musculus(Mm). 137aa-200aa, 201aa-218aa, 220aa-230aa, 232aa-248, 269aa-323aa, 478aa-501aa and 592aa-606aa domains of PbCPR showed no homology with MmCPRs’, and all domains were exposed on the surface of the protein. Conclusions: NOS can’t be found in Plasmodium berghei and other Plasmodium species. PbCPR may be a possible resistance site of antimalarial drug, and the targets of antimalarial drug and vaccine. It may be also one of the mechanisms of immune evasion. This study on Plasmodium berghei may be more suitable to Plasmodium vivax. And137aa-200aa, 201aa-218aa, 220aa-230aa, 232aa-248, 269aa-323aa, 478aa-501aa and 592aa-606aa domains ofPb CPR are more ideal targets of antimalarial drug and vaccine.

  18. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  19. Beyond natural numbers: negative number representation in parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Kristen P; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M; Schwartz, Daniel L; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference 6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation.

  20. Representation as the representation of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, FR

    This essay deals, mainly, with the notion of representation. Representation is associated with texts and, as such, is contrasted to the true singular statement. It is argued that the relationship between the text and what the text represents can never be modeled on the relationship between the true

  1. Ridge extraction from the time-frequency representation (TFR) of signals based on an image processing approach: application to the analysis of uterine electromyogram AR TFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Jérémy; Marque, Catherine; Germain, Guy

    2008-05-01

    Time-frequency representations (TFRs) of signals are increasingly being used in biomedical research. Analysis of such representations is sometimes difficult, however, and is often reduced to the extraction of ridges, or local energy maxima. In this paper, we describe a new ridge extraction method based on the image processing technique of active contours or snakes. We have tested our method on several synthetic signals and for the analysis of uterine electromyogram or electrohysterogram (EHG) recorded during gestation in monkeys. We have also evaluated a postprocessing algorithm that is especially suited for EHG analysis. Parameters are evaluated on real EHG signals in different gestational periods. The presented method gives good results when applied to synthetic as well as EHG signals. We have been able to obtain smaller ridge extraction errors when compared to two other methods specially developed for EHG. The gradient vector flow (GVF) snake method, or GVF-snake method, appears to be a good ridge extraction tool, which could be used on TFR of mono or multicomponent signals with good results.

  2. The Role of Surface Similarity and Shared Label Knowledge in Quantities Representation of Children with Intellectual Disability%表面相似性与共享标签知识对智障儿童数量表征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳笛

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the role of surface similarity and shared label knowledge in quantities representation of children with intellectual disability. A total of 96 children with intellectual disability ranged from 7 to 16 years old participated in this study. The results showed: 1) the ability of quantities representation of children with in-tellectual disability enhanced with age. The 11-13 years old and 14-16 years old children with intellectual dis-abilities performed significantly better on numerical comparison task than 7-10 years old children did. 2) when surface similarity was congruent (i.e., all sets contained the same objects) , children performed significantly better than they did on the incongruent condition of numerical comparison. 3) children with intellectual disability in the proficient group performed significantly better than children in the non-proficient group in the comparisons task.%采用给数取物任务和数量比较任务,考察表面相似性与共享标签知识对96名7~16岁智障儿童数量表征的影响。研究结果表明:(1)智障儿童数量表征能力随着年龄增长而提高,11~13岁和14~16岁智障儿童完成数量比较任务的正确率显著高于7~10岁;(2)智障儿童在高表面相似物体下完成数量比较任务的正确率显著高于低表面相似物体下的正确率;(3)擅长使用数字标签的智障儿童,在数量比较任务的表现显著优于不擅长组。

  3. Neural Similarity Between Encoding and Retrieval is Related to Memory Via Hippocampal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; Wing, Erik A.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental principle in memory research is that memory is a function of the similarity between encoding and retrieval operations. Consistent with this principle, many neurobiological models of declarative memory assume that memory traces are stored in cortical regions, and the hippocampus facilitates the reactivation of these traces during retrieval. The present investigation tested the novel prediction that encoding–retrieval similarity can be observed and related to memory at the level of individual items. Multivariate representational similarity analysis was applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected during encoding and retrieval of emotional and neutral scenes. Memory success tracked fluctuations in encoding–retrieval similarity across frontal and posterior cortices. Importantly, memory effects in posterior regions reflected increased similarity between item-specific representations during successful recognition. Mediation analyses revealed that the hippocampus mediated the link between cortical similarity and memory success, providing crucial evidence for hippocampal–cortical interactions during retrieval. Finally, because emotional arousal is known to modulate both perceptual and memory processes, similarity effects were compared for emotional and neutral scenes. Emotional arousal was associated with enhanced similarity between encoding and retrieval patterns. These findings speak to the promise of pattern similarity measures for evaluating memory representations and hippocampal–cortical interactions. PMID:22967731

  4. Neural similarity between encoding and retrieval is related to memory via hippocampal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; Wing, Erik A; LaBar, Kevin S; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    A fundamental principle in memory research is that memory is a function of the similarity between encoding and retrieval operations. Consistent with this principle, many neurobiological models of declarative memory assume that memory traces are stored in cortical regions, and the hippocampus facilitates the reactivation of these traces during retrieval. The present investigation tested the novel prediction that encoding-retrieval similarity can be observed and related to memory at the level of individual items. Multivariate representational similarity analysis was applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected during encoding and retrieval of emotional and neutral scenes. Memory success tracked fluctuations in encoding-retrieval similarity across frontal and posterior cortices. Importantly, memory effects in posterior regions reflected increased similarity between item-specific representations during successful recognition. Mediation analyses revealed that the hippocampus mediated the link between cortical similarity and memory success, providing crucial evidence for hippocampal-cortical interactions during retrieval. Finally, because emotional arousal is known to modulate both perceptual and memory processes, similarity effects were compared for emotional and neutral scenes. Emotional arousal was associated with enhanced similarity between encoding and retrieval patterns. These findings speak to the promise of pattern similarity measures for evaluating memory representations and hippocampal-cortical interactions.

  5. From nucleotides to DNA analysis by a SERS substrate of a self similar chain of silver nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, M L

    2015-11-01

    In this work we realized a device of silver nanostructures designed so that they have a great ability to sustain the surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect. The nanostructures were silver self-similar chains of three nanospheres, having constant ratios between their diameters and between their reciprocal distances. They were realized by electron beam lithography, to write the pattern, and by silver electroless deposition technique, to fill it with the metal. The obtained device showed the capability to increase the Raman signal coming from the gap between the two smallest nanospheres (whose size is around 10 nm) and so it allows the detection of biomolecules fallen into this hot spot. In particular, oligonucleotides with 6 DNA bases, deposited on these devices with a drop coating method, gave a Raman spectrum characterized by a clear fingerprint coming from the hot spot and, with the help of a fitting method, also oligonucleotides of 9 bases, which are less than 3 nm long, were resolved. In conclusion the silver nanolens results in a SERS device able to measure all the molecules, or part of them, held into the hot spot of the nanolenses, and thus it could be a future instrument with which to analyze DNA portions.

  6. Design and analysis of small wind turbine blades with wakes similar to those of industrial scale turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    A new design approach has been developed for wind turbine blades to be used in wind tunnel experiments that study wind turbine wakes. The approach allows wakes of small scale (2 m diameter) wind turbine rotors to simulate the important physics of wakes generated by a "parent" industrial scale wind turbine rotor despite the difference in size. The design approach forces the normalized normal and tangential force distributions of the small scale wind turbine blades to match those of the "parent" industrial scale wind turbine blades. The wake arises from the interaction between the flow and the blade, which imparts a momentum deficit and rotation to the flow due to the forces created by the blade on the flow. In addition, the wake dynamics and stability are affected by the load distribution across the blade. Thus, it is expected that matching normalized force distributions should result in similar wake structure. To independently assess the blades designed using this approach, the "parent" industrial scale and small scale wind turbine rotors are modeled using a free vortex wake method to study the generation and evolution of the two wakes. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award # DE-SC0012671.

  7. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Type Synthesis Products: Are they Similar to Organics in Chondritic Meteorites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Locke, Darren R.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis of organic compounds has been hypothesized to occur in the early solar nebula that formed our Solar System. FTT is a collection of abiotic chemical reactions that convert a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen over nano-catalysts into hydrocarbons and other more complex aromatic compounds. We hypothesized that FTT can generate similar organic compounds as those seen in chondritic meteorites; fragments of asteroids that are characteristic of the early solar system. Specific goals for this project included: 1) determining the effects of different FTT catalyst, reaction temperature, and cycles on organic compounds produced, 2) imaging of organic coatings found on the catalyst, and 3) comparison of organic compounds produced experimentally by FTT synthesis and those found in the ordinary chondrite LL5 Chelyabinsk meteorite. We used Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (PY-GCMS) to release organic compounds present in experimental FTT and meteorite samples, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to take images of organic films on catalyst grains.

  8. Linear recursive distributed representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtlin, Thomas; Dominey, Peter F

    2005-09-01

    Connectionist networks have been criticized for their inability to represent complex structures with systematicity. That is, while they can be trained to represent and manipulate complex objects made of several constituents, they generally fail to generalize to novel combinations of the same constituents. This paper presents a modification of Pollack's Recursive Auto-Associative Memory (RAAM), that addresses this criticism. The network uses linear units and is trained with Oja's rule, in which it generalizes PCA to tree-structured data. Learned representations may be linearly combined, in order to represent new complex structures. This results in unprecedented generalization capabilities. Capacity is orders of magnitude higher than that of a RAAM trained with back-propagation. Moreover, regularities of the training set are preserved in the new formed objects. The formation of new structures displays developmental effects similar to those observed in children when learning to generalize about the argument structure of verbs.

  9. The development of human behavior analysis techniques - A study on knowledge representation methods for operator cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Tack [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The main objective of this project is modeling of human operator in a main control room of Nuclear Power Plant. For this purpose, we carried out research on knowledge representation and inference method based on Rasmussen`s decision ladder structure. And we have developed SACOM(Simulation= Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) using G2 shell on Sun workstations. SACOM consists of Operator Model, Interaction Analyzer, Situation Generator. Cognitive model aims to build a more detailed model of human operators in an effective way. SACOM is designed to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators more easily. The followings are main research topics carried out this year. First, in order to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators, more detailed scenarios are constructed. And, knowledge representation and inference methods are developed to support the scenarios. Second, meta knowledge structures are studied to support human operators 4 types of diagnoses. This work includes a study on meta and scheduler knowledge structures for generate-and-test, topographic, decision tree and case-based approaches. Third, domain knowledge structure are improved to support meta knowledge. Especially, domain knowledge structures are developed to model topographic diagnosis model. Fourth, more applicable interaction analyzer and situation generator are designed and implemented. The new version is implemented in G2 on Sun workstations. 35 refs., 49 figs. (author)

  10. Language and gender: A critical discourse analysis on gender representation in a series of international ELT textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Amerian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to explore the representation of gender in an international ELT series, i.e., American Headway Student Textbooks. Fairclough’s (2001 three-dimensional model was selected and adopted as the model of study. Effectively, different parts of American Headway Student Textbooks were investigated systematically vis-à-vis eight factors, i.e. female and male's characters, female and male’s social roles, female and male’s domestic roles, female and male’s semantic roles, female and male’s titles, order of appearance, masculine generic construction, activities females and males engaged in, and finally the pictorial representation of both genders. The findings of the study revealed that the series are suffering from two types of sexism—overt and covert ones—the overt one discriminates against females in a vivid way and the covert one exploits the women as an instrument for advertising in order to promote selling. This study suggests that the series are instilling capitalism economy as ideology.

  11. Hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit: General formalism and perturbations analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2015-07-01

    Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a λ |φ |4 potential. We study the evolution of the spatially homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding Universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schrödinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit c →+∞. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while perturbations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model is substantially faster than in the cold dark matter model. When the wavelength of the perturbations approaches the cosmological horizon (Hubble length), a relativistic treatment is mandatory. In that case, we find that relativistic effects attenuate or even prevent the growth of perturbations. This paper exposes the general formalism and provides illustrations in simple cases. Other applications of our formalism will be considered in companion papers.

  12. Analysis of the similar epicenter earthquakes on 22 January 2013 and 01 June 2013, Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Mostafa; Barth, Andreas; Ali, Sherif M.; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-09-01

    On 22 January 2013 an earthquake with local magnitude ML 4.1 occurred in the central part of the Gulf of Suez. Six months later on 1 June 2013 another earthquake with local magnitude ML 5.1 took place at the same epicenter and different depths. These two perceptible events were recorded and localized by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) and additional networks in the region. The purpose of this study is to determine focal mechanisms and source parameters of both earthquakes to analyze their tectonic relation. We determine the focal mechanisms by applying moment tensor inversion and first motion analysis of P- and S-waves. Both sources reveal oblique focal mechanisms with normal faulting and strike-slip components on differently oriented faults. The source mechanism of the larger event on 1 June in combination with the location of aftershock sequence indicates a left-lateral slip on N-S striking fault structure in 21 km depth that is in conformity with the NE-SW extensional Shmin (orientation of minimum horizontal compressional stress) and the local fault pattern. On the other hand, the smaller earthquake on 22 January with a shallower hypocenter in 16 km depth seems to have happened on a NE-SW striking fault plane sub-parallel to Shmin. Thus, here an energy release on a transfer fault connecting dominant rift-parallel structures might have resulted in a stress transfer, triggering the later ML 5.1 earthquake. Following Brune's model and using displacement spectra, we calculate the dynamic source parameters for the two events. The estimated source parameters for the 22 January 2013 and 1 June 2013 earthquakes are fault length (470 and 830 m), stress drop (1.40 and 2.13 MPa), and seismic moment (5.47E+21 and 6.30E+22 dyn cm) corresponding to moment magnitudes of MW 3.8 and 4.6, respectively.

  13. Use of the discourse analysis method to study current political practice (by the example of representation of the political leader image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities in the application of the discourse analysis method to study a political discourse as a current political practice are shown. The authors, using the Foucault methodology, offer a sociological definition for the political discourse. It is the authors’ opinion that the approach mentioned allows investigating a political discourse as a practice for the formation of a certain reality, specific agents, institutions and organizations. A political discourse is a simulative dynamic model of political area where various subdiscourses interact, thus creating their own ideas of policy, symbols and images. Subdiscourses of political leaders become dominating. Inasmuch as a political discourse in a current political system is carried out with the aid of mass media, it could be considered as a media discourse of policy. The authors consider the representation as a basic mechanism for the formation of a political discourse, by the example of the representation of the image of V.V. Putin, the President of the Russian Federation. The representation of a political leader image in a political discourse has a number of peculiarities. It is carried out on the basis of certain principles with the aid of the system of political codes. Empiric investigations allowed making a conclusion that the main symbolic image for the Russian President is an image of a super-hero. It is the authors’ opinion, the image of V.V. Putin as a leader super-hero is determined by the specificity of the Russian political culture within the limits of which a leader is a center of power establishing an authoritarian style of ruling. The authors show the process of the political legitimacy displacement from the institutional level to the personal one by means of mass media. A political leader gains a status of a subject establishing moral, social and value reference points for the whole of the society.

  14. Cultural representations of environmental activism: A comparative press analysis of Indian and American newspaper coverage of hydropower debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Charu

    Our perception of and relationship with our natural environment is shaped by the dominant cultural perspectives held toward the environment. This comparative study is based on the assumption that there is a marked difference between these cultural perspectives in India and the United States, and because journalists carry cultural notions to the newsroom, these differences are likely to surface in media coverage of environmental issues. Considering environmental activism opposing large hydroelectric projects as one example of environmental news, this study examines the emergence of cultural differences in the print media in India and the United States. Contextual analysis was used to analyze two Indian newspapers (The Times of India and The Hindu) and two U.S. newspapers (The New York Times and The Buffalo News) in the environmental cultural context of their respective countries. Environmental activism was measured by examining two aspects of the news coverage: mobilizing information and appeals. Provision of mobilizing information was considered an indication of newspapers' emphasis on citizen involvement. The study demonstrates that there indeed is a difference in the way environmental news, as it relates to the hydroelectric projects is covered in the United States and in India. Some of the key findings of the study are: (1) Indian newspapers provided much more detailed and frequent coverage of the struggle against hydroelectric projects than their U.S. counterparts, (2) Mobilizing information was provided often and at varied levels, which could potentially cater to audiences with diverse political orientations. The study revealed varying kinds of mobilizing information not discussed in earlier research on mobilizing information. Two previously unidentified types of MI were labeled invitational and empowering. Invitational mobilizing information seemed more useful for motivating the audience to get involved. Empowering MI was mainly useful for those who were

  15. Building Hierarchical Representations for Oracle Character and Sketch Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Guo; Changhu Wang; Roman-Rangel, Edgar; Hongyang Chao; Yong Rui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study oracle character recognition and general sketch recognition. First, a data set of oracle characters, which are the oldest hieroglyphs in China yet remain a part of modern Chinese characters, is collected for analysis. Second, typical visual representations in shape- and sketch-related works are evaluated. We analyze the problems suffered when addressing these representations and determine several representation design criteria. Based on the analysis, we propose a novel hierarchical representation that combines a Gabor-related low-level representation and a sparse-encoder-related mid-level representation. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed representation in both oracle character recognition and general sketch recognition. The proposed representation is also complementary to convolutional neural network (CNN)-based models. We introduce a solution to combine the proposed representation with CNN-based models, and achieve better performances over both approaches. This solution has beaten humans at recognizing general sketches.

  16. Quantitative representation of fiber-and sheet-texture in metals of cubic system. I. Computer programs for texture analysis. [TXFIB and TXSHT codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.C.; Chun, B.C. (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Lee, C.Y. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1983-05-01

    This is the first article of a series dealing with studies on the quantitative representation of fiber-and sheet-type textures in metals of cubic crystal system. Texture measurements by neutron diffraction method are analyzed using Bunge's series expansion method and the effect of series truncation is studied for samples of various texture sharpness. The present article describes two computer programs, TXFIB and TXSHT, develped for the analysis of the respective fiber-and sheet-type texture. Using these computer programs, the orientation distribution function can be expanded in the series of generalized spherical harmonics up to 58th term from 6 experimental pole figures as input. Estimations of various errors involved in the texture analysis and texture sharpness index are also included in the programs.

  17. 基于API依赖关系的代码相似度分析%Code Similarity Analysis Based on API Dependence Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚新磊; 庞建民; 岳峰; 余勇

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of API feature obfuscation caused by API noise and API rearrangement which traditional System Call Dependence Graph(SCDG) can not eliminate, this paper presents a malicious code similarity analysis method based on API dependence. The method uses a program behavior description based on SCDG composed of control dependence and four types of data dependence between APIs. API noise and API rearrangement are eliminated through data dependence analysis and control dependence normalization. Experimental results show that, compared with API sequence similarity analysis method, this method significantly improves the accuracy of the similarity analysis of malicious code.%针对传统系统调用依赖图(SCDG)不能很好地消除API噪声、API重排等API特征混淆的问题,提出一种基于API依赖关系的恶意代码相似度分析方法.采用由API控制依赖关系和4类数据依赖关系组成的SCDG程序行为描述方式,通过数据依赖关系分析和控制依赖关系归一化,消除SCDG中的API噪声和API重排.实验结果表明,与API序列相似度分析方式相比,该方法能提高恶意代码相似度分析的准确性.

  18. From Parts to Identity: Invariance and Sensitivity of Face Representations to Different Face Halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzellotti, Stefano; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Recognizing the identity of a face is computationally challenging, because it requires distinguishing between similar images depicting different people, while recognizing even very different images depicting a same person. Previous human fMRI studies investigated representations of face identity in the presence of changes in viewpoint and in expression. Despite the importance of holistic processing for face recognition, an investigation of representations of face identity across different face parts is missing. To fill this gap, we investigated representations of face identity and their invariance across different face halves. Information about face identity with invariance across changes in the face half was individuated in the right anterior temporal lobe, indicating this region as the most plausible candidate brain area for the representation of face identity. In a complementary analysis, information distinguishing between different face halves was found to decline along the posterior to anterior axis in the ventral stream.

  19. ABJM Wilson Loops in Arbitrary Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.

  20. ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honda, Masazumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-06-15

    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.