WorldWideScience

Sample records for repository sfl 3-5

  1. On the flow of groundwater in closed tunnels. Generic hydrogeological modelling of nuclear waste repository, SFL 3-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, J.G.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose is to study the flow of groundwater in closed tunnels by use of mathematical models. The calculations were based on three dimensional models, presuming steady state conditions. The stochastic continuum approach was used for representation of a heterogeneous rock mass. The size of the calculated flow is given as a multiple of an unknown regional groundwater flow. The size of the flow in a tunnel has been studied, as regards: Direction of the regional groundwater flow, Tunnel length, width and conductivity; Heterogeneity of the surrounding rock mass; Flow barriers and encapsulation inside a tunnel. The study includes a model of the planned repository for nuclear waste (SFL 3-5). The flow through the tunnels is estimated for different scenarios. The stochastic continuum approach has been investigated, as regards the representation of a scale dependent heterogeneous conductivity. An analytical method is proposed for the scaling of measured conductivity values, the method is consistent with the stochastic continuum approach. Some general conclusions from the work are: The larger the amount of heterogeneity, the larger the expected flow; The effects of the heterogeneity will decrease with increased tunnel length; If the conductivity of the tunnel is smaller than a threshold value, the tunnel conductivity is the most important parameter; If the tunnel conductivity is large and the tunnel is long, the most important parameter is the direction of the regional flow; Given a heterogeneous rock mass, if the tunnel length is shorter than about 500 m, the heterogeneity will be an important parameter, for lengths shorter than about 250 m, probably the most important; The flow through an encapsulation surrounded by a flow barrier is mainly dependent on the conductivity of the barrier. 70 refs, 110 figs, 10 tabs

  2. On the flow of groundwater in closed tunnels. Generic hydrogeological modelling of nuclear waste repository, SFL 3-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, J.G. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences]|[Golder Associates AB (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The purpose is to study the flow of groundwater in closed tunnels by use of mathematical models. The calculations were based on three dimensional models, presuming steady state conditions. The stochastic continuum approach was used for representation of a heterogeneous rock mass. The size of the calculated flow is given as a multiple of an unknown regional groundwater flow. The size of the flow in a tunnel has been studied, as regards: Direction of the regional groundwater flow, Tunnel length, width and conductivity; Heterogeneity of the surrounding rock mass; Flow barriers and encapsulation inside a tunnel. The study includes a model of the planned repository for nuclear waste (SFL 3-5). The flow through the tunnels is estimated for different scenarios. The stochastic continuum approach has been investigated, as regards the representation of a scale dependent heterogeneous conductivity. An analytical method is proposed for the scaling of measured conductivity values, the method is consistent with the stochastic continuum approach. Some general conclusions from the work are: The larger the amount of heterogeneity, the larger the expected flow; The effects of the heterogeneity will decrease with increased tunnel length; If the conductivity of the tunnel is smaller than a threshold value, the tunnel conductivity is the most important parameter; If the tunnel conductivity is large and the tunnel is long, the most important parameter is the direction of the regional flow; Given a heterogeneous rock mass, if the tunnel length is shorter than about 500 m, the heterogeneity will be an important parameter, for lengths shorter than about 250 m, probably the most important; The flow through an encapsulation surrounded by a flow barrier is mainly dependent on the conductivity of the barrier. 70 refs, 110 figs, 10 tabs.

  3. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste in Sweden (SFL 3-5): An international peer review of SKB 's preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.; Apted, M.; Glasser, F.; Voss, C.

    2000-10-01

    The SKB safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repository (the planned deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate level waste) can be read in two contexts: as a preliminary evaluation of the performance and design options for a repository that will not be required for perhaps forty years; or as an evaluation of a repository that might need to be sited together with the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, and whose nature and performance might thus need to be understood to a level that can be used to make wider programmatic decisions during the next five years. These two 'assessment contexts' are quite different, and an overarching issue is the fact that it was not clear to the review team which view to take. Apparently, SKB would tend towards the first context. However, it is not at all apparent to the reviewers why the second context should not be the predominant driver in the near future. The review team notes that the SFL 3-5 repository, as modelled by SKB, gives rise to potentially perceptible radionuclide releases to the environment on a timescale of hundreds of years after closure. This is in contrast to the SR 97 assessment for the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, which base scenario predicts no releases over a million year timescale. It is clear that according to SKB's SR97 and SFL3-5 analyses, for co-located facilities, it is this repository that has the potential for real radiological impacts in the immediate future. An initial recommendation from the review, is that SKB and the regulatory authorities consider which context is appropriate to the current status of the Swedish programme. This is important, because an overall impression of the reviewers is that the analysis would not be 'fit for purpose' if it were needed to assist with decision-making by SKB or the regulatory agencies. There are too many unanswered questions, and the overall impression of the safety concept is one of some fragility. Because there is no real design basis presented, no thorough

  4. Evolution of geochemical conditions in SFL 3-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Fred; Lindgren, M.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Engkvist, I.

    1999-12-01

    The evolution of geochemical conditions in the repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5, and in the vicinity of the repository are important when predicting the retention of radionuclides and the long-term stability of engineered barriers. In this study the initial conditions at different repository sites at 300 - 400 m depth, the influence of repository construction and operation, the expected conditions after repository closure and saturation, and the evolution in a long-term perspective are discussed. Groundwaters that are found at these depths have near-neutral pH and are reducing in character, but the composition can vary from saline to non-saline water. The water chemistry in the near-field will mainly be influenced by the composition of the groundwater and by the large amounts of cementitious material that can be found in the repository. Disturbances caused during construction and operation are not expected to be permanent. Studies of old concrete indicate that leaching of concrete is a slow process. The geochemical conditions in the repository are therefore expected to be stable and prevail for hundreds of thousand years. However, the evolution of the surrounding environment may influence the conditions in long-term perspective

  5. Evolution of geochemical conditions in SFL 3-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindgren, M.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Engkvist, I. [Barsebaeck Kraft AB (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The evolution of geochemical conditions in the repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5, and in the vicinity of the repository are important when predicting the retention of radionuclides and the long-term stability of engineered barriers. In this study the initial conditions at different repository sites at 300 - 400 m depth, the influence of repository construction and operation, the expected conditions after repository closure and saturation, and the evolution in a long-term perspective are discussed. Groundwaters that are found at these depths have near-neutral pH and are reducing in character, but the composition can vary from saline to non-saline water. The water chemistry in the near-field will mainly be influenced by the composition of the groundwater and by the large amounts of cementitious material that can be found in the repository. Disturbances caused during construction and operation are not expected to be permanent. Studies of old concrete indicate that leaching of concrete is a slow process. The geochemical conditions in the repository are therefore expected to be stable and prevail for hundreds of thousand years. However, the evolution of the surrounding environment may influence the conditions in long-term perspective.

  6. Comments on SKB's SFL 3-5 preliminary performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Crawford, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recently introduced regulations in Sweden have established an individual risk criterion ( -6 per year) for the long-term performance of repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. SKB has not focused its assessment of SFL 3-5 on demonstrating compliance with this regulation. Instead, SKB has calculated individual dose and provided a comparison with an annual individual dose of 14 iSv (derived from the risk criteria using the ICRP's dose-risk conversion factor of 0.073 per Sv). The justification of this approach is that probabilities do not need to be determined if doses are less than the dose equivalent to the risk criterion. However, there is insufficient information regarding uncertainty provided in the documentation of the SFL 3-5 assessment to determine whether this approach is reasonable. SKB's parallel assessment of a repository for spent fuel using the KBS-3 concept (SR 97) accounts for uncertainty by specifying a 'reasonable' and a 'pessimistic' value for uncertain parameters in the assessment calculations. Although there are problems with the way probabilities have been assigned to these values, this approach does indicate where there are significant uncertainties. The SFL 3-5 PA does not include a structured approach to defining uncertainty, although a number of assumptions and parameter values are stated to be conservative. As a preliminary assessment, there is insufficient information to identify key uncertainties or sensitivities, or to determine where further work should be focused. Any assessment requires the use of expert judgement to determine how the assessment is conducted, what modelling approach to use, what features, events and processes (FEPs) could potentially affect the disposal system, which FEPs should be included in the conceptual models, and which scenarios should be assessed. Judgements are also required in determining how to parameterize the models, and this may extend to formal expert elicitation for particular parameter

  7. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste in Sweden (SFL 3-5): An international peer review of SKB 's preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, N. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Apted, M. [Monitor Scientific, Denver, CO (United States); Glasser, F. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Kessler, J. [EPRI, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Voss, C. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The SKB safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repository (the planned deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate level waste) can be read in two contexts: as a preliminary evaluation of the performance and design options for a repository that will not be required for perhaps forty years; or as an evaluation of a repository that might need to be sited together with the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, and whose nature and performance might thus need to be understood to a level that can be used to make wider programmatic decisions during the next five years. These two 'assessment contexts' are quite different, and an overarching issue is the fact that it was not clear to the review team which view to take. Apparently, SKB would tend towards the first context. However, it is not at all apparent to the reviewers why the second context should not be the predominant driver in the near future. The review team notes that the SFL 3-5 repository, as modelled by SKB, gives rise to potentially perceptible radionuclide releases to the environment on a timescale of hundreds of years after closure. This is in contrast to the SR 97 assessment for the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, which base scenario predicts no releases over a million year timescale. It is clear that according to SKB's SR97 and SFL3-5 analyses, for co-located facilities, it is this repository that has the potential for real radiological impacts in the immediate future. An initial recommendation from the review, is that SKB and the regulatory authorities consider which context is appropriate to the current status of the Swedish programme. This is important, because an overall impression of the reviewers is that the analysis would not be 'fit for purpose' if it were needed to assist with decision-making by SKB or the regulatory agencies. There are too many unanswered questions, and the overall impression of the safety concept is one of some fragility. Because there is no real design basis

  8. Gas generation in SFL 3-5 and effects on radionuclide release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K.; Lindgren, M.; Pers, K. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    A deep repository, SFL 3-5, is presently planned for disposing of long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. In this study the amounts of gas that can be generated in the waste packages and in the vaults are estimated. The potential gas pressure build-up, the displacement of contaminated water and the consequences on radionuclide release from the engineered barriers in the repository are also addressed. The study is focussed on the repository design and waste inventory that was defined for the prestudy of SFL 3-5. Since the reporting of the prestudy the design of the repository has been modified and the waste inventory has been updated and a preliminary safety assessment of the repository has been carried outbased on the new design and updated waste inventory. The implications on gas generation and release of these modifications in design and waste inventory are briefly addressed in this study.

  9. Gas generation in SFL 3-5 and effects on radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Lindgren, M.; Pers, K.

    1999-12-01

    A deep repository, SFL 3-5, is presently planned for disposing of long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. In this study the amounts of gas that can be generated in the waste packages and in the vaults are estimated. The potential gas pressure build-up, the displacement of contaminated water and the consequences on radionuclide release from the engineered barriers in the repository are also addressed. The study is focussed on the repository design and waste inventory that was defined for the prestudy of SFL 3-5. Since the reporting of the prestudy the design of the repository has been modified and the waste inventory has been updated and a preliminary safety assessment of the repository has been carried out based on the new design and updated waste inventory. The implications on gas generation and release of these modifications in design and waste inventory are briefly addressed in this study

  10. Compilation of data for the analysis of radionuclide migration from SFL 3-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Pettersson, Michael; Wiborgh, M.; Albinsson, Yngve; Holgersson, Stellan

    1999-12-01

    A preliminary safety assessment of the deep repository for long-lived, low and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5, has been made. This report contains a compilation of data selected for the calculations of the migration of radionuclides and toxic metals from the waste to the biosphere. It also contains the data needed for the next step, which is to calculate dose to man from the far-field release figures. In the preliminary safety assessment it is assumed that SFL 3-5 is located in connection to the deep repository for spent fuel. This makes it possible to utilise site-specific information derived within the safety assessment of the deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, for the sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. When information from SR 97 is utilised, the values selected are as far as possible those proposed as a 'reasonable estimate' for the migration calculations in SR 97. The selection of values for parameters specific for the calculation of migration from the SFL 3-5 repository is in general on the pessimistic side. The uncertainty in the selected values is discussed and if possible also quantified

  11. Compilation of data for the analysis of radionuclide migration from SFL 3-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K.; Pettersson, Michael; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Albinsson, Yngve; Holgersson, Stellan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1999-12-01

    A preliminary safety assessment of the deep repository for long-lived, low and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5, has been made. This report contains a compilation of data selected for the calculations of the migration of radionuclides and toxic metals from the waste to the biosphere. It also contains the data needed for the next step, which is to calculate dose to man from the far-field release figures. In the preliminary safety assessment it is assumed that SFL 3-5 is located in connection to the deep repository for spent fuel. This makes it possible to utilise site-specific information derived within the safety assessment of the deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, for the sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. When information from SR 97 is utilised, the values selected are as far as possible those proposed as a 'reasonable estimate' for the migration calculations in SR 97. The selection of values for parameters specific for the calculation of migration from the SFL 3-5 repository is in general on the pessimistic side. The uncertainty in the selected values is discussed and if possible also quantified.

  12. Opinions on SKB's Safety Assessments SR 97 and SFL 3-5. A Review by SKI Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has presented their safety assessment 'Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SR 97 - Post-closure safety'. SKB's report is part of the documentation that has been required by the Government before the start of site investigations. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is reviewing SR 97 according to earlier Government decisions. In its review work SKI has asked several consultants, that recently have been performing research work for SKI, to give their opinions on SR 97. SKI and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) have used these reports from the consultants as one complementary basis for the formulation of the SKI/SSI review report. This is a compilation of the reports from the different consultants, and therefore the different contributions vary in length, style and language. Included are also two consultant reports, giving comments on SKB's preliminary safety assessment for SFL 3-5 (deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste). The 17 contributions have all been separately indexed.

  13. Opinions on SKB's Safety Assessments SR 97 and SFL 3-5. A Review by SKI Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has presented their safety assessment 'Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SR 97 - Post-closure safety'. SKB's report is part of the documentation that has been required by the Government before the start of site investigations. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is reviewing SR 97 according to earlier Government decisions. In its review work SKI has asked several consultants, that recently have been performing research work for SKI, to give their opinions on SR 97. SKI and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) have used these reports from the consultants as one complementary basis for the formulation of the SKI/SSI review report. This is a compilation of the reports from the different consultants, and therefore the different contributions vary in length, style and language. Included are also two consultant reports, giving comments on SKB's preliminary safety assessment for SFL 3-5 (deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste). The 17 contributions have all been separately indexed.

  14. Opinions on SKB's Safety Assessments SR 97 and SFL 3-5. A Review by SKI Consultants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has presented their safety assessment 'Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SR 97 - Post-closure safety'. SKB's report is part of the documentation that has been required by the Government before the start of site investigations. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is reviewing SR 97 according to earlier Government decisions. In its review work SKI has asked several consultants, that recently have been performing research work for SKI, to give their opinions on SR 97. SKI and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) have used these reports from the consultants as one complementary basis for the formulation of the SKI/SSI review report. This is a compilation of the reports from the different consultants, and therefore the different contributions vary in length, style and language. Included are also two consultant reports, giving comments on SKB's preliminary safety assessment for SFL 3-5 (deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste). The 17 contributions have all been separately indexed

  15. Dicty_cDB: SFL220 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SFL220 (SFL220Q) /CSM/SF/SFL2-A/SFL220Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXGTCCANATTTCCATANA...end seq. - 3' end seq. ID SFL220Z 3' end seq. >SFL220Z.Seq ----------GTCCANATTTCCATANATGTGTTTAAAAACGTGGNGGNA

  16. Review of SFL 3-5 performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This 'performance assessment' report has 1) several logical flaws and 2) is not scientifically objective. There is a lot of good work done by individual SKB consultants. The problem is that the report does not consider all the available research that has been conducted, both by SKB consultants and by other scientists. The report only seems to select evidence/research pieces that fit preconceived notions supporting SKB's ultimate objectives. This is done rather poorly, which is why one can easily pick out inconsistencies and logical flaws

  17. High sorption materials for SFL - A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krall, Lindsay [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-05-15

    This literature survey is part of a project called the SFL Concept Study, carried out at SKB during the years 2011 to 2013, which investigates possible repository concepts for long-lived, low and intermediate level waste. The addition of a high sorption material has been proposed as a means through which releases may be limited from the near-field. In the previous repository concept from 1999 (SFL 3-5), the transport of cationic nuclides was expected to be reduced by their adsorption to the cement, gravel, and bedrock, However, in the preliminary safety assessment of that previous concept, it was found that the key radionuclides are mainly anions. Thus, this literature survey has placed special emphasis on the adsorption of anions. Due to their high release and dose rates from the far field, Cl-36, Mo-93, C-14, and I-129 were of particular interest. Ion exchange and surface complexation are the main adsorption mechanisms. Ion exchange is theoretically reversible and involves the isomorphic substitution of either (a) cation(s) or anion(s) in a mineral structure. The ions exchanged do not need to have the same charge, but the exchange should be stoichiometric. Surface complexation is more dependent on pH, and the strength of the bond formed (and thus the reversibility of the reaction) is partially dependent on the type of complex formed. A material's adsorption mechanism and efficiency is a function of its structure and charge density, but it will also vary as a function of pH, the type and amount of competing ions, and the concentration of the solute in solution. A substantial body of work exists that investigates the application of materials that can remediate groundwater through the adsorptive removal of the contaminant(s). Application of such a function in the future SFL repository will differ from remediation applications in that the system will be more complex and heterogeneous than most of the contaminated waters studied, the adsorption processes must be

  18. High sorption materials for SFL - A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, Lindsay

    2012-05-01

    This literature survey is part of a project called the SFL Concept Study, carried out at SKB during the years 2011 to 2013, which investigates possible repository concepts for long-lived, low and intermediate level waste. The addition of a high sorption material has been proposed as a means through which releases may be limited from the near-field. In the previous repository concept from 1999 (SFL 3-5), the transport of cationic nuclides was expected to be reduced by their adsorption to the cement, gravel, and bedrock, However, in the preliminary safety assessment of that previous concept, it was found that the key radionuclides are mainly anions. Thus, this literature survey has placed special emphasis on the adsorption of anions. Due to their high release and dose rates from the far field, Cl-36, Mo-93, C-14, and I-129 were of particular interest. Ion exchange and surface complexation are the main adsorption mechanisms. Ion exchange is theoretically reversible and involves the isomorphic substitution of either (a) cation(s) or anion(s) in a mineral structure. The ions exchanged do not need to have the same charge, but the exchange should be stoichiometric. Surface complexation is more dependent on pH, and the strength of the bond formed (and thus the reversibility of the reaction) is partially dependent on the type of complex formed. A material's adsorption mechanism and efficiency is a function of its structure and charge density, but it will also vary as a function of pH, the type and amount of competing ions, and the concentration of the solute in solution. A substantial body of work exists that investigates the application of materials that can remediate groundwater through the adsorptive removal of the contaminant(s). Application of such a function in the future SFL repository will differ from remediation applications in that the system will be more complex and heterogeneous than most of the contaminated waters studied, the adsorption processes must be

  19. Dicty_cDB: SFL482 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFL482 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15494-1 SFL482P (Link... to Original site) SFL482F 434 SFL482Z 394 SFL482P 828 - - Show SFL482 Library SF (Link to library) Clone ID SFL482 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15494-1 Original site URL http://dict...cftclww*qmcqmcp*qnrscfln*rtknr*nclqeatkrfkt ker*EIIQINVVININHFLLIKKK--- ---ICTHIEKMVQRLTYRRRLSYRTTSNATKIVKTP...KQQK DLKQKKDKKSSK*m Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: icthiekmvqrltyrrrlsyrttsnatkivktpgg

  20. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36 Cl and 93 Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  1. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  2. Joint SKI and SSI review of SKB preliminary safety assessment of repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    SKI and SSI find that SKB's first proper safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repositories provides a valuable springboard for continued efforts in this field. Even though the safety assessment is relatively limited in scope, it has numerous merits. The specific problems associated with the chosen repository concept for SFL 3-5 are discussed in a generally transparent manner. On the other hand, the authorities consider that SKB have only partly achieved the expressed goal of studying the significance of the current repository design and the choice of site. The greatest deficiency consists in that neither internal disturbances (such as considerable cracking or degradation of concrete structures) nor external disturbances (such as the effects of climate changes and glaciation) have been addressed in a thorough manner. A coherent report justifying the design choice from a long-term safety perspective is, in large part, not found here. SKI and SSI recommend that SKB provide a comparison with other possible SFL 3-5 repository designs. Depending upon, among other factors, what geospheric and biospheric conditions are assumed, SKB have shown that the calculated dose values could be relatively high for certain cases. More realistic assessments would be needed to draw reasonable comparisons between different sites, and to evaluate the importance of different nuclides in different contexts. Our review of SKBs preliminary safety assessment indicates that a great deal of research and development work remains to be done before the level of knowledge in this field is comparable with that associated with the final repository for spent fuel. This is reflected with unanimity in the international expert committee's review, and in the consultants' reviews. SKI and SSI wish to point out in particular the fact that comparison with SFR is of limited value, since the safety associated with SFL 3- 5 must be assessed on a much longer time scale. SKI and SSI find it remarkable that SKB have

  3. Joint SKI and SSI review of SKB preliminary safety assessment of repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    SKI and SSI find that SKB's first proper safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repositories provides a valuable springboard for continued efforts in this field. Even though the safety assessment is relatively limited in scope, it has numerous merits. The specific problems associated with the chosen repository concept for SFL 3-5 are discussed in a generally transparent manner. On the other hand, the authorities consider that SKB have only partly achieved the expressed goal of studying the significance of the current repository design and the choice of site. The greatest deficiency consists in that neither internal disturbances (such as considerable cracking or degradation of concrete structures) nor external disturbances (such as the effects of climate changes and glaciation) have been addressed in a thorough manner. A coherent report justifying the design choice from a long-term safety perspective is, in large part, not found here. SKI and SSI recommend that SKB provide a comparison with other possible SFL 3-5 repository designs. Depending upon, among other factors, what geospheric and biospheric conditions are assumed, SKB have shown that the calculated dose values could be relatively high for certain cases. More realistic assessments would be needed to draw reasonable comparisons between different sites, and to evaluate the importance of different nuclides in different contexts. Our review of SKBs preliminary safety assessment indicates that a great deal of research and development work remains to be done before the level of knowledge in this field is comparable with that associated with the final repository for spent fuel. This is reflected with unanimity in the international expert committee's review, and in the consultants' reviews. SKI and SSI wish to point out in particular the fact that comparison with SFR is of limited value, since the safety associated with SFL 3- 5 must be assessed on a much longer time scale. SKI and SSI find it remarkable

  4. The Methodology of Investigation of Intercultural Rhetoric applied to SFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Heredero Zorzo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural rhetoric is a discipline which studies written discourse among individuals from different cultures. It is a very strong field in the Anglo-Saxon scientific world, especially referring to English as a second language, but in Spanish as a foreign language it is not as prominent. Intercultural rhetoric has provided applied linguistics with important methods of investigation, thus applying this to SFL could introduce interesting new perspectives on the subject. In this paper, we present the methodology of investigation of intercultural rhetoric, which is based on the use of different types of corpora for analysing genders, and follows the precepts of tertium comparationis. In addition, it uses techniques of ethnographic investigation. The purpose of this paper is to show the applications of this methodology to SFL and to outline future investigations in the same field.

  5. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivars Neretnieks, Ivars [Chemima AB, Taeby (Sweden); Moreno, Luis [LMQuimica, Vaarby (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  6. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivars Neretnieks, Ivars; Moreno, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  7. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL as Sociolinguistic and Sociological Conception: Possibilities and Limits of Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Rubtcova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining possibilities and limits of Systemic functional linguistics theoretical framework. Ideologically SFL concept was associated with the ideas of social justice and equality, the building of the society of equal opportunities through the educational system. The most interesting ideas arose when the SFL representatives thought about the development of English as a native language and were connected with the overcoming of class distinctions. The current version - genre-based approach – has serious limits. The desire of a genre-based approach to the systematization of genres carries a risk of cultural contradictions and conflict of cultures. However, the basic theoretical SFL principles are still in the stage of formation, as SFL researchers seek to avoid some rigidity of the classical institutional (genre approach, which is in contradiction with the principles of diversity. The founder M. Halliday offered ideas for the organization of a flexible approach based on International English that may become World Englishes, developing in order to adapt to the meanings of other cultures.  Therefore, an SFL approach still needs some alterations to spread outside the Western world and conform to the new culture for it. Besides, we can think about proposals of Halliday’s supporters to develop the own version of English for non-Western countries, considering its culture and mentality.

  8. Photograms of a city: a didactic sequency to avanced level in SFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Portes-Fernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows a designed proposal with the objective of contributing with the teaching learning process of Spanish as Foreign Language (SFL in Santiago of Cuba. It takes into consideration the relevance, practicality and impact of the audiovisual materials –but only those that are considered authentic materials- in education, with a particular emphasis on language classrooms. In this sense, it focuses on the utility of the aforementioned materials to deal with the cultural component, for which a didactic sequence has been elaborated of the short film Cuando vuelvo. The proposal is particularly targeted towards the advanced level.

  9. Repositories; Repositorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: cbf@cdtn.br; tellocc@cdtn.br

    2007-11-15

    The use of the nuclear energy is increasing in all areas. Then the radioactive waste management is in continuous development to comply the national and international established requirements. The final objective is to assure that it will not have any contamination of the public or the environmental, and that the exposition doses will be lower than the radiological protection limits. The multi barrier concept for the repository is internationally recognized. Among the repository types, the most used are: near surface, geological formations and of deposition in rock cavities. This article explains the concept and the types of repository and gives some examples of them. (author)

  10. Comparative transcript profiling of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis identifies SFL2, a C. albicans gene required for virulence in a reconstituted epithelial infection model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spiering, Martin J

    2010-02-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are closely related species displaying differences in virulence and genome content, therefore providing potential opportunities to identify novel C. albicans virulence genes. C. albicans gene arrays were used for comparative analysis of global gene expression in the two species in reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHE). C. albicans (SC5314) showed upregulation of hypha-specific and virulence genes within 30 min postinoculation, coinciding with rapid induction of filamentation and increased RHE damage. C. dubliniensis (CD36) showed no detectable upregulation of hypha-specific genes, grew as yeast, and caused limited RHE damage. Several genes absent or highly divergent in C. dubliniensis were upregulated in C. albicans. One such gene, SFL2 (orf19.3969), encoding a putative heat shock factor, was deleted in C. albicans. DeltaDeltasfl2 cells failed to filament under a range of hypha-inducing conditions and exhibited greatly reduced RHE damage, reversed by reintroduction of SFL2 into the DeltaDeltasfl2 strain. Moreover, SFL2 overexpression in C. albicans triggered hyphal morphogenesis. Although SFL2 deletion had no apparent effect on host survival in the murine model of systemic infection, DeltaDeltasfl2 strain-infected kidney tissues contained only yeast cells. These results suggest a role for SFL2 in morphogenesis and an indirect role in C. albicans pathogenesis in epithelial tissues.

  11. Repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C M

    1982-01-01

    Various technical issues of radioactive waste design are addressed in this paper. Two approaches to repository design considered herein are: (1) design to minimize the disturbance of the hot rock; and (2) designs that intentionally modify the hot rock to insure better containment of the wastes. The latter designs range from construction of a highly impermeable barrier around a spherical cavern to creating a matrix of tunnels and boreholes to form a cage within which the hydraulic pressure is nearly constant. Examples of these design alternatives are described in some detail. It is concluded that proposed designs for repositories illustrate that performance criteria considered acceptable for such facilities can be met by appropriate site selection and repository engineering. With these technically feasible design concepts, it is also felt that socioeconomic and institutional issues can be better resolved. (BLM)

  12. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  13. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  14. Which User of technology? Perspectivising the UTAUT model by application of the SFL language Pronoun System towards a systems perspective of technology acceptance and use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Marie Cordeiro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study applies systemic functional linguistics (SFL as complementary framework of analysis of technology acceptance models (TAMs. The purpose is to bridge research methodology language in international business (IB studies and engineering management science. Currently TAMs and its consolidated version, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT provides for a typology of one user in one context scenario. The need for the UTAUT model to account for multiple users in multiple work contexts in a single framework of analysis was foregrounded in the study of the workflow processes of a remote services business model of a European founded multinational business enterprise (MBE with regards to its (i intra-firm improvements in managing remote services cases, and its (ii extra-firm selling of life cycle management remote services contracts. The Enterprise has global operations in over 100 countries, of which this study focused on its European operations of improving the quality of remote services for the marine industry. Through an application of SFL unto UTAUT, this study illustrates how multiple users in multiple contexts can be analysed simultaneously, and whose behaviours can be accounted for in a single framework of analysis. The combined SFL UTAUT model addresses the initial statisticity of the UTAUT model, whilst at the same time, expands upon current theoretical perspectives of technology use and acceptance that can be applied in practice.

  15. Process mining software repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poncin, W.; Serebrenik, A.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Software developers' activities are in general recorded in software repositories such as version control systems, bug trackers and mail archives. While abundant information is usually present in such repositories, successful information extraction is often challenged by the necessity to

  16. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  17. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appropriate use. 3.5 Section 3.5 National... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional Defense...

  18. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must be...

  19. Repository Rodeo Redux

    CERN Document Server

    Anez, Melissa; Donohue, Tim; Fyson, Will; Simko, Tibor; Wilcox, David

    2017-01-01

    You’ve got more repository questions and we’ve got more answers! Last year’s Repository Rodeo panel was a huge success, so we’re taking the show on the road to Brisbane for OR2017. Join representatives from the DSpace, Eprints, Fedora, Hydra, and Islandora communities as we (briefly) explain what each of our repositories actually does. We'll also talk about the directions of our respective technical and community developments, and related to the conference theme of Open: Innovation Knowledge Repositories, offer brief observations about the latest, most promising and/or most surprising innovations in our space. This panel will be a great opportunity for newcomers to Open Repositories to get a crash course on the major repository options and meet representatives from each of their communities. After a brief presentation from each representative, we'll open the session up for questions from the audience.

  20. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and...

  1. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  2. Vectorization of DOT3.5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomiya, Iwao; Ishiguro, Misako; Tsutsui, Tsuneo

    1990-07-01

    In this report, we describe the vectorization of two-dimensional Sn-method radiation transport code DOT3.5. Vectorized codes are not only the NEA original version developed at ORNL but also the versions improved by JAERI: DOT3.5 FNS version for fusion neutronics analyses, DOT3.5 FER version for fusion reactor design, and ESPRIT module of RADHEAT-V4 code system for radiation shielding and radiation transport analyses. In DOT3.5, input/output processing time amounts to a great part of the elapsed time when a large number of energy groups and/or a large number of spatial mesh points are used in the calculated problem. Therefore, an improvement has been made for the speedup of input/output processing in the DOT3.5 FNS version, and DOT-DD (Double Differential cross section) code. The total speedup ratio of vectorized version to the original scalar one is 1.7∼1.9 for DOT3.5 NEA version, 2.2∼2.3 fro DOT3.5 FNS version, 1.7 for DOT3.5 FER version, and 3.1∼4.4 for RADHEAT-V4, respectively. The elapsed times for improved DOT3.5 FNS version and DOT-DD are reduced to 50∼65% that of the original version by the input/output speedup. In this report, we describe summary of codes, the techniques used for the vectorization and input/output speedup, verification of computed results, and speedup effect. (author)

  3. 3,5-bis(acylamino) benzamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Certain 3,5-disubstituted, 2,4,6-triiodoanilides of polyhydroxymonobasic acids have recently been found useful as non-ionic x-ray contrast agents. The 3-(lower acylamino)-5-amino-2,4,6-triiodobenzamides are prepared by hydrogenation of a 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, acylation of the resulting diamino compound to the bis-(acylamino) level and iodination of the acylamino compound

  4. 3' : 5'-Cyclic AMP-dependent 3'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mato, José M.; Krens, Frans A.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Konijn, Theo M.

    1977-01-01

    Suspensions of 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-sensitive cells of Dictyostelium discoideum responded to a cAMP pulse with increased 3':5'-cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels. Under the assay conditions used (2 × 10^8 cells per ml in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.0) cAMP (5 × 10-8 M final concentration) increased cGMP

  5. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  6. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  7. Radiological risks due to intrusion into a deep bedrock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlinder, S.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1999-01-01

    The Swedish concept for disposal of high-level waste is a deep (500 m) bedrock repository (SFL) protected by multiple barriers that isolate the waste from the environment for such a long time that the physical decay will cause a substantial reduction of the radioactivity. The aim of concentration and isolation of high-level waste is to reduce the radiation risk. Intrusion in the repository may introduce a small residual risk to individuals. A risk analysis was performed comprising dose assessment and probabilities of occurrence. Intrusions may be considered to take place either due to conscious actions or by actions without any knowledge about the repository. For conscious intrusion it may be assumed that there will be enough knowledge to manage the radiation situation in a professional manner. Several reasons for making inadvertent intrusion are possible. Independently of the purpose, the most probable initial way of coming into contact with the radioactive material is by deep drilling. Examples of causes for drilling could be general scientific purposes or exploitation of geothermal energy. Dose assessments were made for intrusion due to inclined drilling directly into a canister, and drilling near an initially malfunctioning canister from which radionuclides have leaked into the groundwater. For the former case, external pathways were considered due to exposure from a core of the canister with fuel and contaminated bore dust. The most common drilling method is with water flushing for removal of bore dust, which will not cause any substantial transfer of radionuclides to air. For the second case, it was assumed that there was a well in the vicinity. The only pathway considered was therefore consumption of water because it dominates the exposure. The highest dose rates to man were, as expected, obtained by drilling into the canister. Dose rates decrease with time after closure. During the first time the relatively short-lived radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 give

  8. Gas generation in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.; McGahan, D.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1987-09-01

    The nature and quantities of gases likely to be produced by various processes in repositories for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes are examined in this preliminary study. Many simplifying assumptions are made where published or experimental data is unavailable. The corrosion of the canisters and metallic components in wastes is likely to be the major gas production process in both types of repository. A significant contribution from microbiological activity is expected to occur in low level repositories, predominantly where no cement grouting of the cans has been carried out. A number of areas for further research, required before a more comprehensive study could be carried out, have been identified. (author)

  9. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  10. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  11. Prestudy of final disposal of long-lived low and intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiborgh, M [ed.; Kemakta Konsult AB., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    The repository for long-lived low and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5, is foreseen to be located adjacent to the deep repository for spent encapsulated fuel, SFL 2. The SFL 3-5 repository comprises of three repository parts which will be used for the different categories of waste. In this report the work performed within a pre-study of the SFL 3-5 repository concept is summarised. The aim was to make a first preliminary and simplified assessment of the near-field as a barrier to radionuclide dispersion. A major task has been to compile information on the waste foreseen to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The waste comprises of; low and intermediate level waste from Studsvik, operational waste from the central interim storage for spent fuel, CLAB, and the encapsulation plant, decommissioning waste from these facilities, and core components and internal parts from the reactors. The total waste volume has been estimated to about 25000 m{sup 3}. The total activity content at repository closure is estimated to be about 1 {center_dot}10{sup 17} Bq in SFL 3-5. At repository closure the short-lived radionuclides, for example Co-60 and Fe-55, have decayed considerably and the activity is dominated by nickel isotopes in the metallic waste from the reactors, to be disposed of in SFL 5. However, other radionuclides may be more or equally important from a safety point of view, e.g cesium-isotopes and actinides which are found in largest amounts in the SFL 3 waste. A first evaluation of the long term performance or the SFL 3-5 repository has been made. A systematic methodology for scenario formulation was tested. The near-field release of contaminants was calculated for a selected number of radionuclides and chemo-toxic elements. The radionuclide release calculations revealed that Cs-137 and Ni-63 would dominate the annual release from all repository parts during the first 1000 years after repository closure and that Ni-59 would dominate at longer times.

  12. Prestudy of final disposal of long-lived low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiborgh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The repository for long-lived low and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5, is foreseen to be located adjacent to the deep repository for spent encapsulated fuel, SFL 2. The SFL 3-5 repository comprises of three repository parts which will be used for the different categories of waste. In this report the work performed within a pre-study of the SFL 3-5 repository concept is summarised. The aim was to make a first preliminary and simplified assessment of the near-field as a barrier to radionuclide dispersion. A major task has been to compile information on the waste foreseen to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The waste comprises of; low and intermediate level waste from Studsvik, operational waste from the central interim storage for spent fuel, CLAB, and the encapsulation plant, decommissioning waste from these facilities, and core components and internal parts from the reactors. The total waste volume has been estimated to about 25000 m 3 . The total activity content at repository closure is estimated to be about 1 ·10 17 Bq in SFL 3-5. At repository closure the short-lived radionuclides, for example Co-60 and Fe-55, have decayed considerably and the activity is dominated by nickel isotopes in the metallic waste from the reactors, to be disposed of in SFL 5. However, other radionuclides may be more or equally important from a safety point of view, e.g cesium-isotopes and actinides which are found in largest amounts in the SFL 3 waste. A first evaluation of the long term performance or the SFL 3-5 repository has been made. A systematic methodology for scenario formulation was tested. The near-field release of contaminants was calculated for a selected number of radionuclides and chemo-toxic elements. The radionuclide release calculations revealed that Cs-137 and Ni-63 would dominate the annual release from all repository parts during the first 1000 years after repository closure and that Ni-59 would dominate at longer times

  13. National Radwaste Repository Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce (Repository) is described. The Mochovce National Radioactive Waste Repository is a surface multi-barrier type storage facility for solid and treated solidified radioactive wastes generated from the Slovak Republic nuclear power plants operation and decommissioning, research institutes, laboratories and hospitals. The Repository comprises a system of single- and double-row storage boxes. The first double-row is enclosed by a steel-structure building. The 18 x 6 x 5.5 m storage boxes are made of reinforced concrete. The wall thickness is 600 mm. Two-double-rows, i.e. 80 storage boxes were built as part of Stage I (1 row = 20 storage boxes). Each storage box has a storage capacity of 90 fibre concrete containers of 3.1 m 3 volume. The total storage capacity is 7200 containers with the overall storage volume of 22320 m 3

  14. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  15. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  16. Managing and Evaluating Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccala, Alesia; Oppenheim, Charles; Dhiensa, Rajveen

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: We examine the role of the digital repository manager, discuss the future of repository management and evaluation and suggest that library and information science schools develop new repository management curricula. Method: Face-to-face interviews were carried out with managers of five different types of repositories and a Web-based…

  17. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  18. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

    1997-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS)

  19. Repository simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The repository simulation experiments described in this paper are designed to assess the performance of SRP waste glass under the most realistic repository conditions that can be obtained in the laboratory. These tests simulate the repository environment as closely as possible and introduce systematically the variability of the geology, groundwater chemistry, and waste package components during the leaching of the waste glass. The tests evaluate waste form performance under site-specific conditions, which differ for each of the geologic repositories under consideration. Data from these experiments will aid in the development of a realistic source term that can describe the release of radionuclides from SRP waste glass as a component of proposed waste packages. Hence, this information can be useful to optimize waste package design for SRP waste glass and to provide data for predicting long-term performance and subsequent conformance to regulations. The repository simulation tests also help to bridge the gap in interpreting results derived from tests performed under the control of the laboratory to the uncertainity and variability of field tests. In these experiments, site-specific repository components and conditions are emphasized and only the site specific materials contact the waste forms. An important feature of these tests is that both actual and simulated waste glasses are tested identically. 7 figures, 2 tables

  20. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  1. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    , controlled, and interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8)

  2. Trust in Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ISO 16363:2012, Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories (ISO TRAC, outlines actions a repository can take to be considered trustworthy, but research examining whether the repository’s designated community of users associates such actions with trustworthiness has been limited. Drawing from this ISO document and the management and information systems literatures, this paper discusses findings from interviews with 66 archaeologists and quantitative social scientists. We found similarities and differences across the disciplines and among the social scientists. Both disciplinary communities associated trust with a repository’s transparency. However, archaeologists mentioned guarantees of preservation and sustainability more frequently than the social scientists, who talked about institutional reputation. Repository processes were also linked to trust, with archaeologists more frequently citing metadata issues and social scientists discussing data selection and cleaning processes. Among the social scientists, novices mentioned the influence of colleagues on their trust in repositories almost twice as much as the experts. We discuss the implications our findings have for identifying trustworthy repositories and how they extend the models presented in the management and information systems literatures.

  3. Sellafield repository design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1997, UK Nirex Ltd carried out a programme of investigations to evaluate the potential of a site adjacent to the BNFL Sellafield works to host a deep repository for the United Kingdom's intermediate-level and certain low-level radioactive waste. The programme of investigations was wound down following the decision in March 1997 to uphold the rejection of the Company's planning application for the Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF), an underground laboratory which would have allowed further investigations to confirm whether or not the site would be suitable. Since that time, the Company's efforts in relation to the Sellafield site have been directed towards documenting and publishing the work carried out. The design concept for a repository at Sellafield was developed in parallel with the site investigations through an iterative process as knowledge of the site and understanding of the repository system performance increased. This report documents the Sellafield repository design concept as it had been developed, from initial design considerations in 1991 up to the point when the RCF planning application was rejected. It shows, from the context of a project at that particular site, how much information and experience has been gained that will be applicable to the development of a deep waste repository at other potential sites

  4. Socioeconomic impacts of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Federal and state decision makers, community leaders, and residents must know how communities will be changed by the impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This chapter identifies the factors affecting an assessment of socioeconomic impacts and the types of impacts (economic, demographic, fiscal, community service, and social) likely to occur as a result of repository development. Each of these types can be divided into standard (those which typically results from any large-scale development) and special impact categories (those which result from the fact that radioactive materials will be handled). 3 tables

  5. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories is a recognised option for closing nuclear fuel cycles. Geological repositories are at present in stages of development in a number of countries and are expected to be built and operated early next century. A State usually has an obligation to safely store any nuclear material, which is considered unsuitable to re-enter the nuclear fuel cycle, isolated from the biosphere. In conjunction with this, physical protection has to be accounted for to prevent inadvertent access to such material. In addition to these two criteria - which are fully under the State's jurisdiction - a third criterion reflecting international non-proliferation commitments needs to be addressed. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements a State concedes verification of nuclear material for safeguards purposes to the IAEA. The Agency can thus provide assurance to the international community that such nuclear material has been used for peaceful purposes only as declared by the State. It must be emphasised that all three criteria mentioned constitute a 'unit'. None can be sacrificed for the sake of the other, but compromises may have to be sought in order to make their combination as effective as possible. Based on comprehensive safeguards agreements signed and ratified by the State, safeguards can be terminated only when the material has been consumed or diluted in such a way that it can no longer be utilised for any nuclear activities or has become practicably irrecoverable. As such safeguards for nuclear material in geological repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been back-filled and sealed. The effective application of safeguards must assure continuity-of-knowledge that the nuclear material in the repository has not been diverted for an unknown purpose. The nuclear material disposed in a geological repository may eventually have a higher and long term proliferation risk because the inventory is

  6. P - aminobenzoic - 3,5 - T acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaila, V.; Corol, Delia

    1999-01-01

    The p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and dermatological diseases. The tritium labelling of PABA leads to the elucidation of essential biomedical aspects concerning the collagen behavior. The process of tritium introduction into the PABA molecule consists of two steps: 1. Bromination of PABA with elemental bromine in 3 and 5 positions; 2. Replacement of bromine with tritium by a substitution catalytic reaction.. PABA - 3,5 - T is purified by thin layer preparative chromatography and is characterized radiochemically by radioactivity measurements carried out by liquid scintillators. The chemical concentration is determined by UV spectrophotometry. The quenching is estimated using a calibration curve of the pure product. The specific activities (about 50-60 Ci/mM) allow very sensitive biomedical studies to be performed. (authors)

  7. Integration of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle with cAMP signaling and Sfl2 pathways in the regulation of CO2 sensing and hyphal development in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological transitions and metabolic regulation are critical for the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to adapt to the changing host environment. In this study, we generated a library of central metabolic pathway mutants in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, and investigated the functional consequences of these gene deletions on C. albicans biology. Inactivation of the TCA cycle impairs the ability of C. albicans to utilize non-fermentable carbon sources and dramatically attenuates cell growth rates under several culture conditions. By integrating the Ras1-cAMP signaling pathway and the heat shock factor-type transcription regulator Sfl2, we found that the TCA cycle plays fundamental roles in the regulation of CO2 sensing and hyphal development. The TCA cycle and cAMP signaling pathways coordinately regulate hyphal growth through the molecular linkers ATP and CO2. Inactivation of the TCA cycle leads to lowered intracellular ATP and cAMP levels and thus affects the activation of the Ras1-regulated cAMP signaling pathway. In turn, the Ras1-cAMP signaling pathway controls the TCA cycle through both Efg1- and Sfl2-mediated transcriptional regulation in response to elevated CO2 levels. The protein kinase A (PKA catalytic subunit Tpk1, but not Tpk2, may play a major role in this regulation. Sfl2 specifically binds to several TCA cycle and hypha-associated genes under high CO2 conditions. Global transcriptional profiling experiments indicate that Sfl2 is indeed required for the gene expression changes occurring in response to these elevated CO2 levels. Our study reveals the regulatory role of the TCA cycle in CO2 sensing and hyphal development and establishes a novel link between the TCA cycle and Ras1-cAMP signaling pathways.

  8. Integration of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with cAMP signaling and Sfl2 pathways in the regulation of CO2 sensing and hyphal development in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Zhang, Yulong; Fan, Shuru; Nobile, Clarissa J; Guan, Guobo; Huang, Guanghua

    2017-08-01

    Morphological transitions and metabolic regulation are critical for the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to adapt to the changing host environment. In this study, we generated a library of central metabolic pathway mutants in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and investigated the functional consequences of these gene deletions on C. albicans biology. Inactivation of the TCA cycle impairs the ability of C. albicans to utilize non-fermentable carbon sources and dramatically attenuates cell growth rates under several culture conditions. By integrating the Ras1-cAMP signaling pathway and the heat shock factor-type transcription regulator Sfl2, we found that the TCA cycle plays fundamental roles in the regulation of CO2 sensing and hyphal development. The TCA cycle and cAMP signaling pathways coordinately regulate hyphal growth through the molecular linkers ATP and CO2. Inactivation of the TCA cycle leads to lowered intracellular ATP and cAMP levels and thus affects the activation of the Ras1-regulated cAMP signaling pathway. In turn, the Ras1-cAMP signaling pathway controls the TCA cycle through both Efg1- and Sfl2-mediated transcriptional regulation in response to elevated CO2 levels. The protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit Tpk1, but not Tpk2, may play a major role in this regulation. Sfl2 specifically binds to several TCA cycle and hypha-associated genes under high CO2 conditions. Global transcriptional profiling experiments indicate that Sfl2 is indeed required for the gene expression changes occurring in response to these elevated CO2 levels. Our study reveals the regulatory role of the TCA cycle in CO2 sensing and hyphal development and establishes a novel link between the TCA cycle and Ras1-cAMP signaling pathways.

  9. Process model repositories and PNML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Post, R.D.J.; Somers, L.J.A.M.; Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Kindler, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bringing system and process models together in repositories facilitates the interchange of model information between modelling tools, and allows the combination and interlinking of complementary models. Petriweb is a web application for managing such repositories. It supports hierarchical process

  10. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  11. CRIS and Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asserson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CRIS (Current Research Information Systems provide researchers, research managers, innovators, and others with a view over the research activity of a domain. IRs (institutional repositories provide a mechanism for an organisation to showcase through OA (open access its intellectual property. Increasingly, organizations are mandating that their employed researchers deposit peer-reviewed published material in the IR. Research funders are increasingly mandating that publications be deposited in an open access repository: some mandate a central (or subject-based repository, some an IR. In parallel, publishers are offering OA but replacing subscription-based access with author (or author institution payment for publishing. However, many OA repositories have metadata based on DC (Dublin Core which is inadequate; a CERIF (Common-European Research Information Format CRIS provides metadata describing publications with formal syntax and declared semantics thus facilitating interoperation or homogeneous access over heterogeneous sources. The formality is essential for research output metrics, which are increasingly being used to determine future funding for research organizations.

  12. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  13. Repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.W.; Pentz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of candidate repository sites has a number of programmatic objectives. Principal among these is the acquisition of data: a) to determine the suitability of a site relative to the DOE repository siting guidelines, b) to support model development and calculations to determine the suitability of a site relative to the post closure criteria of the NRC and EPA, c) to support the design of a disposal system, including the waste package and the engineered barrier system, as well as the shafts and underground openings of the repository. In meeting the gaols of site characterization, the authors have an obligation to conduct their investigations within an appropriate budget and schedule. This mandates that a well-constructed and systematic plan for field investigations be developed. Such a plan must fully account for the mechanisms which will control the radiologic performance in the repository. The plan must also flexibly and dynamically respond to the results of each step of field investigation, responding to the spatial variability of earth as well as to enhanced understandings of the performance of the disposal system. Such a plan must ensure that sufficient data are available to support the necessary probabilistic calculations of performance. This paper explores the planning for field data acquisition with specific reference to requirements for demonstrations of the acceptable performance for disposal systems

  14. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)

  15. Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David

    , different abstraction levels and enables users to analyze their own results, and allows to share data with collaborators. The approach of the Computational Materials Repository (CMR) is to convert data to an internal format that maintains the original variable names without insisting on any semantics...

  16. The Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David D.; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Nestorov, Svetlozar

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities for designing new materials based on quantum physics calculations are rapidly growing, but these design efforts lead to a significant increase in the amount of computational data created. The Computational Materials Repository (CMR) addresses this data challenge and provides...

  17. Consortial routes to effective repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Moyle, M.; Proudfoot, R.

    2009-01-01

    A consortial approach to the establishment of repository services can help a group of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to share costs, share technology and share expertise. Consortial repository work can tap into existing structures, or it can involve new groupings of institutions with a common interest in exploring repository development. This Briefing Paper outlines some of the potential benefits of collaborative repository activity, and highlights some of the technical and organisation...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  19. Publishers and repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The impact of self-archiving on journals and publishers is an important topic for all those involved in scholarly communication. There is some evidence that the physics arXiv has had no impact on physics journals, while 'economic common sense' suggests that some impact is inevitable. I shall review recent studies of librarian attitudes towards repositories and journals, and place this in the context of IOP Publishing's experiences with arXiv. I shall offer some possible reasons for the mis-match between these perspectives and then discuss how IOP has linked with arXiv and experimented with OA publishing. As well as launching OA journals we have co-operated with Cornell and the arXiv on Eprintweb.org, a platform that offers new features to repository users. View Andrew Wray's biography

  20. Distributed Web Service Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Nawrocki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability and popularity of computer systems has resulted in a demand for new, language- and platform-independent ways of data exchange. That demand has in turn led to a significant growth in the importance of systems based on Web services. Alongside the growing number of systems accessible via Web services came the need for specialized data repositories that could offer effective means of searching of available services. The development of mobile systems and wireless data transmission technologies has allowed the use of distributed devices and computer systems on a greater scale. The accelerating growth of distributed systems might be a good reason to consider the development of distributed Web service repositories with built-in mechanisms for data migration and synchronization.

  1. Shared Medical Imaging Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebre, Rui; Bastião, Luís; Costa, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a solution for the integration of ownership concept and access control over medical imaging resources, making possible the centralization of multiple instances of repositories. The proposed architecture allows the association of permissions to repository resources and delegation of rights to third entities. It includes a programmatic interface for management of proposed services, made available through web services, with the ability to create, read, update and remove all components resulting from the architecture. The resulting work is a role-based access control mechanism that was integrated with Dicoogle Open-Source Project. The solution has several application scenarios like, for instance, collaborative platforms for research and tele-radiology services deployed at Cloud.

  2. Czech Republic. Dukovany repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The repository at the Dukovany site is a structure located above the land surface. It consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults. Each double-row has dimensions 38x160x6 meters and contains 2x28 vaults. The internal dimensions of each vault are 18x6x5.4 meters. The repository serves for reactor wastes from the Dukovany and Temelin nuclear power plants (NPPs). Its capacity is 55,000 m 3 or 130,000 drums. The repository is a fully engineered facility with multiple barriers. The first engineered barrier is the waste form (in the case of waste from the Dukovany NPP, the waste form is mainly bitumen, but concrete and glass are also considered as suitable solidification products). The second barrier is the container (a 200 litre steel drum or a HIC container), whereas the third consists of cut-off reinforced concrete walls with asphalt-based hydro-insulation. The fourth barrier is a cap which should protect the vaults against infiltration of rainwater and should serve also as an intrusion and erosion barrier. The fifth barrier is a drainage system around the repository which is composed of layers of gravel and sand. The void space in drums around the waste is filled with specially composed grout. Such waste packages are emplaced into the disposal vault, which is covered by pre-fabricated panels. Thereafter, joints between the panels are sealed and a provisional coverage added; the final cover, however, will be constructed only over the whole row of 28 vaults, until all vaults are filled with waste. The final cover will encompass the following components: reinforced concrete pre-fabricated panels (500 mm); cement overcoat (30 mm); insulation foil; concrete layer for cap levelling (5-150 mm); layer of asphalto-propylene concrete (150 mm); soil (450 mm); geotextile foil with topsoil (top surface vegetation). (author)

  3. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  4. Evaluation of repository safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  5. Evaluation of repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S.

    2002-01-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  6. Repository performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the

  7. Repository simulation model: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report documents the application of computer simulation for the design analysis of the nuclear waste repository's waste handling and packaging operations. The Salt Repository Simulation Model was used to evaluate design alternatives during the conceptual design phase of the Salt Repository Project. Code development and verification was performed by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWL). The focus of this report is to relate the experience gained during the development and application of the Salt Repository Simulation Model to future repository design phases. Design of the repository's waste handling and packaging systems will require sophisticated analysis tools to evaluate complex operational and logistical design alternatives. Selection of these design alternatives in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) and License Application Design (LAD) phases must be supported by analysis to demonstrate that the repository design will cost effectively meet DOE's mandated emplacement schedule and that uncertainties in the performance of the repository's systems have been objectively evaluated. Computer simulation of repository operations will provide future repository designers with data and insights that no other analytical form of analysis can provide. 6 refs., 10 figs

  8. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  9. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  10. INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY: EMPLOYMENT IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the concept of «institutional repository» and determined the aspects of institutional repositories in higher education. Institutional Repositories are information systems that allow preserving, storing and disseminating scientific knowledge produced in higher education and scientific research institutions. This study presented the main aspects using institutional repositories in educational process (such as storage of scientific and educational information, means of organization activity of students, object of studying. This article produced the structure of communities and collections of the institutional. It is described the experience of implementing of DSpace in the learning process.

  11. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica (IMBIV-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Passeggi, Mario C.G. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Ferron, Julio [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Baruzzi, Ana M. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Brunetti, Veronica [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina)], E-mail: brunetti@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO{sub 2}) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO{sub 2} layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO{sub 2} adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+}/Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 2+} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-}/Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-}. Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  12. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C.; Passeggi, Mario C.G.; Ferron, Julio; Baruzzi, Ana M.; Brunetti, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO 2 ) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO 2 layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO 2 adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ /Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ and Fe(CN) 6 3- /Fe(CN) 6 4- . Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  13. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  14. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  15. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; Bellodi, G; Benedetto, E; Dorda, U; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, G; Schmidt, F; Todesco, E; Zotter, Bruno W; Payet, J; Bartolini, R; Farvacque, L; Sen, T; Chin, Y H; Ohmi, K; Oide, K; Furman, M; Qiang, J; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A; Vay, J L; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Cousineau, S M; Danilov, V; Holmes, J A; Shishlo, A; Kim, E S; Cai, Y; Pivi, M; Kaltchev, D I; Abell, D T; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Franchetti, G; Hofmann, I; Machida, S; Wei, J

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic acceleratorphysics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  16. Safety analysis in subsurface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The development of mathematical models to represent the repository-geosphere-biosphere system, and the development of a structure for data acquisition, processing, and use to analyse the safety of subsurface repositories, are presented. To study the behavior of radionuclides in geosphere a laboratory to determine the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient was constructed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Granite-repository - geochemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Some geochemical data of importance for a radioactive waste repository in hard rock are reviewed. The ground water composition at depth is assessed. The ground water chemistry in the vicinity of uranium ores is discussed. The redox system in Swedish bedrock is described. Influences of extreme climatic changes and of repository mining and construction are also evaluated

  18. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  19. Technology overview of mined repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimera, R.; Thirumalai, K.

    1982-01-01

    Mined repositories present an environmentally viable option for permanent disposal of nuclear waste. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art mining technologies and identifies technological issues and developments necessary to mine a repository in basalt. The thermal loading, isolation, and retrieval requirements of a repository present unique technological challenges unknown to conventional mining practice. The technology issues and developments required in the areas of excavation, roof and ground support, equipment development, instrumentation development, and sealing are presented. Performance assessment methods must be developed to evaluate the adequacies of technologies developed to design, construct, operate, and decommission a repository. A stepwise test-and-development approach is used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to develop cost-effective technologies for a repository

  20. Influence analysis of Github repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Bai, Xiaomei; Yu, Shuo; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    With the support of cloud computing techniques, social coding platforms have changed the style of software development. Github is now the most popular social coding platform and project hosting service. Software developers of various levels keep entering Github, and use Github to save their public and private software projects. The large amounts of software developers and software repositories on Github are posing new challenges to the world of software engineering. This paper tries to tackle one of the important problems: analyzing the importance and influence of Github repositories. We proposed a HITS based influence analysis on graphs that represent the star relationship between Github users and repositories. A weighted version of HITS is applied to the overall star graph, and generates a different set of top influential repositories other than the results from standard version of HITS algorithm. We also conduct the influential analysis on per-month star graph, and study the monthly influence ranking of top repositories.

  1. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-01-01

    that present preliminary concepts for integrating the diverse set of control systems to be used within the subsurface repository facility (Presented in Section 7.3). (5) Develop initial concepts for an overall subsurface data communication system that can be used to integrate critical and data-intensive control systems (Presented in Section 7.4). (6) Discuss technology trends and control system design issues (Presented in Section 7.5)

  2. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    present preliminary concepts for integrating the diverse set of control systems to be used within the subsurface repository facility (Presented in Section 7.3). (5) Develop initial concepts for an overall subsurface data communication system that can be used to integrate critical and data-intensive control systems (Presented in Section 7.4). (6) Discuss technology trends and control system design issues (Presented in Section 7.5).

  3. 28 CFR 3.5 - Forfeiture of gambling devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forfeiture of gambling devices. 3.5 Section 3.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.5 Forfeiture of gambling devices. For purposes of seizure and forfeiture of gambling devices see section 8 of this chapter. [Order...

  4. Repository for fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    A repository for holding and storing fissile or other hazardous materials either under or above the ground is provided by enclosing one or more inner containers, such as standard steel drums, in a larger, corrosion-resistant outer shell, with a layer of foamed polyurethane occupying the space therebetween. The polyurethane foam is free of voids at its interfaces with the inner container and outer shell, and adheres to and reinforces same to provide a stress skin structure. Protection is afforded by the chemical and physical characteristics of the polyurethane foam against destructive influences such as water vapor intrusion, package leakage and damaging effects of the environment, such as freezing, electrolysis, chemical and bacterial action. The outer shell is shaped to conform generally to the shape of the inner container and is made of a tube of bituminized fiber material with endcaps of exterior grade plywood treated with wood preservative. A quantity of fluorescein dye is positioned within the inner container for monitoring each package for leakage

  5. Biospecimen repositories and cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Savitri

    2015-03-01

    Biospecimen repositories are important for the advancement of biomedical research. Literature on the potential for biobanking of fine-needle aspiration, gynecologic, and nongynecologic cytology specimens is very limited. The potential for biobanking of these specimens as valuable additional resources to surgically excised tissues appears to be excellent. The cervicovaginal specimens that can be used for biobanking include Papanicolaou-stained monolayer preparations and residual material from liquid-based cytology preparations. Different types of specimen preparations of fine-needle aspiration and nongynecologic specimens, including Papanicolaou-stained and Diff-Quik-stained smears, cell blocks. and dedicated passes/residual material from fine-needle aspiration stored frozen in a variety of solutions, can be used for biobanking. Because of several gaps in knowledge regarding the standard of operative procedures for the procurement, storage, and quality assessment of cytology specimens, further studies as well as national conferences and workshops are needed not only to create awareness but also to facilitate the use of cytopathology specimens for biobanking. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  6. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  7. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  8. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  9. Conceptual design of repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Engelmann, H.J.; Souquet, G.; Mayence, M.; Hamstra, J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the European Economic Communities programme of research into underground disposal of radioactive wastes repository design studies have been carried out for application in salt deposits, argillaceous formations and crystalline rocks. In this paper the design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual designs are presented in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Emphasis has been placed on the disposal of vitrified high level radioactive wastes although consideration has been given to other categories of radioactive waste

  10. Tools for Managing Repository Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Banker, Rajiv D.; Isakowitz, Tomas; Kauffman, Robert J.; Kumar, Rachna; Zweig, Dani

    1993-01-01

    working Paper Series: STERN IS-93-46 The past few years have seen the introduction of repository-based computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools which may finally enable us to develop software which is reliable and affordable. With the new tools come new challenges for management: Repository-based CASE changes software development to such an extent that traditional approaches to estimation, performance, and productivity assessment may no longer suffice - if they ever...

  11. Business models for digital repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Bjørnshauge, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Those setting up, or planning to set up, a digital repository may be interested to know more about what has gone before them. What is involved, what is the cost, how many people are needed, how have others made the case to their institution, and how do you get anything into it once it is built? I have recently undertaken a study of European repository business models for the DRIVER project and will present an overview of the findings.

  12. SEAscan 3.5: A simulator performance analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, T.; Eisenmann, S.

    1990-01-01

    SEAscan 3.5 is a personal computer based tool developed to analyze the dynamic performance of nuclear power plant training simulators. The system has integrated features to provide its own human featured performance. In this paper, the program is described as a tool for the analysis of training simulator performance. The structure and operating characteristics of SEAscan 3.5 are described. The hardcopy documents are shown to aid in verification of conformance to ANSI/ANS-3.5-1985

  13. 39 CFR 3.5 - Delegation of authority by Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of authority by Board. 3.5 Section 3.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.5 Delegation of authority by Board. As authorized by 39 U.S.C. 402, these bylaws...

  14. IAEA safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In September. 1988, the IAEA held its first formal meeting on the safeguards requirements for the final disposal of spent fuel and nuclear material-bearing waste. The consensus recommendation of the 43 participants from 18 countries at this Advisory Group Meeting was that safeguards should not terminate of spent fuel even after emplacement in, and closure of, a geologic repository.' As a result of this recommendation, the IAEA initiated a series of consultants' meetings and the SAGOR Programme (Programme for the Development of Safeguards for the Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geologic Repositories) to develop an approach that would permit IAEA safeguards to verify the non-diversion of spent fuel from a geologic repository. At the end of this process, in December 1997, a second Advisory Group Meeting, endorsed the generic safeguards approach developed by the SAGOR Programme. Using the SAGOR Programme results and consultants' meeting recommendations, the IAEA Department of Safeguards issued a safeguards policy paper stating the requirements for IAEA safeguards at geologic repositories. Following approval of the safeguards policy and the generic safeguards approach, the Geologic Repository Safeguards Experts Group was established to make recommendations on implementing the safeguards approach. This experts' group is currently making recommendations to the IAEA regarding the safeguards activities to be conducted with respect to Finland's repository programme. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.; Barinov, A.; Prozorov, L.

    2000-01-01

    With the purpose to construct a radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety and reliable containment, MosNPO 'Radon' specialists have developed an advanced type repository - large diameter well (LBD) one. A project is started for the development of a technology for LDW repository construction and pilot operation of the new repository for 25-30 years. The 2 LDW repositories constructed at the 'Radon' site and the developed monitoring system are described

  16. Demystifying the institutional repository for success

    CERN Document Server

    Buehler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Institutional repositories remain key to data storage on campus, fulfilling the academic needs of various stakeholders. Demystifying the Institutional Repository for Success is a practical guide to creating and sustaining an institutional repository through marketing, partnering, and understanding the academic needs of all stakeholders on campus. This title is divided into seven chapters, covering: traditional scholarly communication and open access publishing; the academic shift towards open access; what the successful institutional repository looks like; institutional repository collaboratio

  17. Virtual patient repositories--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küfner, Julia; Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Hege, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Patients (VPs) are an important component of medical education. One way to reduce the costs for creating VPs is sharing through repositories. We conducted a literature review to identify existing repositories and analyzed the 17 included repositories in regards to the search functions and metadata they provide. Most repositories provided some metadata such as title or description, whereas other data, such as educational objectives, were less frequent. Future research could, in cooperation with the repository provider, investigate user expectations and usage patterns.

  18. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. © 2014 The authors.

  19. Biological Web Service Repositories Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdidiales-Nieto, David; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2017-05-01

    Web services play a key role in bioinformatics enabling the integration of database access and analysis of algorithms. However, Web service repositories do not usually publish information on the changes made to their registered Web services. Dynamism is directly related to the changes in the repositories (services registered or unregistered) and at service level (annotation changes). Thus, users, software clients or workflow based approaches lack enough relevant information to decide when they should review or re-execute a Web service or workflow to get updated or improved results. The dynamism of the repository could be a measure for workflow developers to re-check service availability and annotation changes in the services of interest to them. This paper presents a review on the most well-known Web service repositories in the life sciences including an analysis of their dynamism. Freshness is introduced in this paper, and has been used as the measure for the dynamism of these repositories. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  3. Harvesting NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D.; Mitchell, A. E.; Durbin, C.; Norton, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) stores metadata for over 30,000 datasets from both NASA and international providers along with over 300M granules. This metadata enables sub-second discovery and facilitates data access. While the CMR offers a robust temporal, spatial and keyword search functionality to the general public and international community, it is sometimes more desirable for international partners to harvest the CMR metadata and merge the CMR metadata into a partner's existing metadata repository. This poster will focus on best practices to follow when harvesting CMR metadata to ensure that any changes made to the CMR can also be updated in a partner's own repository. Additionally, since each partner has distinct metadata formats they are able to consume, the best practices will also include guidance on retrieving the metadata in the desired metadata format using CMR's Unified Metadata Model translation software.

  4. Overly Honest Data Repository Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Fallaw

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After a year of development, the library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has launched a repository, called the Illinois Data Bank (https://databank.illinois.edu/, to provide Illinois researchers with a free, self-serve publishing platform that centralizes, preserves, and provides persistent and reliable access to Illinois research data. This article presents a holistic view of development by discussing our overarching technical, policy, and interface strategies. By openly presenting our design decisions, the rationales behind those decisions, and associated challenges this paper aims to contribute to the library community's work to develop repository services that meet growing data preservation and sharing needs.

  5. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  6. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations

  7. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  8. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  9. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  10. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud and a biosorbent (Lemna minor were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L−1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 % was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  11. Rock support for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, L.W.; Schmidt, B.

    1984-01-01

    The design of rock support for underground nuclear waste repositories requires consideration of special construction and operation requirements, and of the adverse environmental conditions in which some of the support is placed. While repository layouts resemble mines, design, construction and operation are subject to quality assurance and public scrutiny similar to what is experienced for nuclear power plants. Exploration, design, construction and operation go through phases of review and licensing by government agencies as repositories evolve. This paper discusses (1) the various stages of repository development; (2) the environment that supports must be designed for; (3) the environmental effects on support materials; and (4) alternative types of repository rock support

  12. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r -vector ,r -vector ′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r -vector ,r -vector ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ SL (ρ(r -vector ),∇ρ(r -vector ),r -vector −r -vector ′). γ SL depends on the electron density ρ(r -vector ) at reference point r -vector , and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r -vector −r -vector ′ dependence of γ SL in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ SL yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms

  13. Number & operations task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  14. Urinary excretion of unconjugated and conjugated 3,5-diiodothyronine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Faber, J; Kirkegaard, C

    1985-01-01

    was 276 pmol/d, whereas the median excretion of glucuronidated and sulfated 3,5-T2 in 7 healthy subjects was 448 and 451 pmol/d, respectively. The median excretion of 154 pmol/d in 9 hypothyroid patients did not differ from that found in controls. In contrast 12 patients with hyperthyroidism had...

  15. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency and indemnity compensation. This term means a monthly payment made by...

  16. Coupled processes in repository sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.; Kelsall, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The significance of coupled processes in repository sealing is evaluated. In most repository designs, shaft seals will be located in areas of relatively low temperature perturbation, in which case the coupling of temperature with stress and permeability may be less significant than the coupling between stress and permeability that occurs during excavation. Constitutive relationships between stress and permeability are reviewed for crystalline rock and rocksalt. These provide a basis for predicting the development of disturbed zones near excavations. Field case histories of the degree of disturbance are presented for two contrasting rock types - Stripa granite and Southeastern New Mexico rocksalt. The results of field investigations in both rock types confirm that hydraulic conductivity or permeability is stress dependent, and that shaft seal performance may be related to the degree that stresses are perturbed and restored near the seal

  17. University digital repositories and authors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Keefer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Open Access movement offers two strategies for making scientific information available without economic, technical or legal obstacles: the publication of articles in OA journals and the deposit by authors of their Works in stable institutional or discipline-based repositories. This article explores the implementation of the second “route” on the part of authors, because it is the strategy that offers the greatest possibility of attaining OA in the short term. However, it does require repositories to exert great effort in informing the authors of the advantages of self-archiving and of the procedures for depositing their work and, even helping them to do so – through services and promotional activities.

  18. Repository development status in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, Alvaro; Zuloaga, Pablo [ENRESA (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The paper describes the status of repository development for the different waste categories. Low and Intermediate Waste Disposal facility of El Cabril was commissioned in 1992 and is in normal operation. The major modifications and activities during the last years are the adaptation to waste streams not initially foreseen such as some decommissioning waste or waste from steel industry, and the improvement of its performance assessment, supported by a R and D and refined models. As part of this facility, a new disposal facility specifically intended for very low activity waste has been constructed and commissioned in July 2008. Its design is based on the European Directive for hazardous waste disposal. National policy for Nuclear Spent Fuel and High-Level waste is focused on the development of a centralized storage facility of the vault type, whose site location would be selected through a volunteering process. Meanwhile, with the aim of solving specific problems, three individual storage facilities are in different status at reactor sites. Research on final solution, including some repository aspects as well as separation and transmutation are being carried out in accordance to ENRESA's R and D program. ENRESA has developed conceptual designs for non site specific repositories, both in granite and clay, and has carried out their corresponding performance assessment exercises. (authors)

  19. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts

  20. Higgs at 3.5 seconds into the melody

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Listen to the music… at 3.5 into the recording you will be able to “hear” the sound of the newly discovered boson. That’s the beauty of sonification, a technique that translates dry data into beautiful melodies.   Image edit by Katarina Anthony. Sonification is a computational technique that requires enormous amounts of networking and processing power to produce results. The sonification of data presented on 4 July by the ATLAS collaboration was performed using the pan-European GÉANT network and the Grid infrastructure. The result is a melody that at 3.5 seconds reproduces the bump corresponding to the new particle. “This sonification was carried out on the same grid infrastructure used by researchers to reconstruct their data and plot their graphs,” says Domenico Vicinanza of DANTE, who led the Higgs sonification project, collaborating with Mariapaola Sorrentino of ASTRA Project (Cambridge), who contributed to the sonific...

  1. 3.5 TeV : a good start!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    To the pessimists out there, the 3.5 TeV starting energy of the LHC will be like a half-empty glass. However, the thousands of physicists working at the experiments certainly do not share these feelings. On the contrary, they are as excited as ever since they will be the first to observe what happens to matter in these (still) unprecedented conditions.

  2. Number & operations task & drill sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  3. Hydrothermal conditions around a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.; Braester, C.

    1981-12-01

    Numerical solutions for the hydrothermal conditions around a hard rock repository for nuclear fuel waste are presented. The objective of the present investigation is to illustrate in principle the effect of heat released from a hypothetical radioactive waste repository with regard to anisotropy in the rock permeability. Permeability and porosity are assumed to be constant or to decrease exponentially with depth. The hypothetical repository is situated below a horizontal ground surface or below the crest of a hill, and it is assumed that the water table follows the topography. Major interest in the analysis is directed towards the influence of anisotropy in the permeability on the flow patterns and travel times for water particles, being traced from the repository to the ground surface. The presented results show that anisotropy in the permeability may have a significant influence on the flow conditions around the repository and subsequently also on the travel times from the repository. (Authors)

  4. People's perception of LILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Polic, Marko

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Social acceptability of the radioactive waste repository presents a great problem in every country with such a waste. Even if people agree with the need for its construction, the chosen location should be far from their homes (NIMBY). The reasons for such attitudes were attributed to different causes: uneducated public, differences in understanding of radioactivity and risk by experts and lay public, risk communication problems, lack of credibility and social trust, etc. While in earlier days public was blamed for its irrationality, and need for education and information was emphasized, today it is realized that public trust is extremely important if effective risk communication is to be achieved. It is also recognized that it is not so much the content of the risk message itself, as the lack of trust to those responsible for provision of information that is behind this opposition. Perhaps we could apply here Petty and Caciopo's elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, with credibility as a factor in peripheral route of persuasion. Nevertheless also general lowering of social trust should explain social non-agreement. This lack of trust in experts and political institutions is perhaps caused by outwitting public in earlier years, its bad experiences with responsible officials, dangerous accidents (e.g. TMI, Chernobyl), increased influence that professions have over people's welfare, a greater value placed on equality and better educated public, etc. In 1996 the ARAO re-initiated the search for a LILW repository location with a new, so-called combined approach to the site selection, where the technical, geologically led process is combined with participation of local community. In order to get information on people's perception of the LILW repository construction, their willingness to accept it and factors that influence the acceptability, several surveys have been conducted. Groups of experts and lay persons answered the questionnaires. The results of

  5. Pb chains on ordered Si(3 3 5) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisiel, M.; Skrobas, K.; Zdyb, R.; Mazurek, P.; Jalochowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The electronic band structure of the Si(3 3 5)-Au surface decorated with Pb atoms was studied with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) in ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The photoemission spectra were measured in two perpendicular directions, along and across the steps. In the direction parallel to the step edges the ARPES spectra show strongly dispersive electron energy band while in the perpendicular direction there is no electronic dispersion at all. This confirms one-dimensional character of the system. The theoretical band dispersion calculated within a tight-binding model was fitted to that obtained from the experiment

  6. Poly[diaqua(μ5-pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylatostrontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, [Sr(C7H3NO4(H2O2]n, the SrII cation is eight-coordinated in form of a distorted dodecahedron by two water O atoms and by five O atoms and one N atom from five pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate anions. The bridging mode of the anions leads to the formation of a layered network parallel to (100. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the coordinating water molecules and the carboxylate groups of adjacent layers consolidates the crystal packing. Weak C—H...O interactions are also observed.

  7. The critical boundary RSOS M(3,5) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Deeb, O.

    2017-12-01

    We consider the critical nonunitary minimal model M(3, 5) with integrable boundaries and analyze the patterns of zeros of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and then determine the spectrum of the critical theory using the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz ( TBA) equations. Solving the TBA functional equation satisfied by the transfer matrices of the associated A 4 restricted solid-on-solid Forrester-Baxter lattice model in regime III in the continuum scaling limit, we derive the integral TBA equations for all excitations in the ( r, s) = (1, 1) sector and then determine their corresponding energies. We classify the excitations in terms of ( m, n) systems.

  8. 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubas, Michal Szymon

    RNA synthesis and degradation are key steps in the regulation of gene expression in all living organisms. During the course of his PhD studies, Michal Lubas centred his research on the nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA turnover of both noncoding and coding RNAs in human cells. His proteomic studies...... revealed the interaction network of the main 3'-5' RNA degradation machinery – the RNA exosome complex. One of the key findings was the identification and characterisation of the Nuclear Exosome Targeting (NEXT) complex, important for nuclear functions of the exosome. Michal Lubas also studied the role...

  9. An Academic Response to Basel 3.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Embrechts

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent crises in the financial industry have shown weaknesses in the modeling of Risk-Weighted Assets (RWAs. Relatively minor model changes may lead to substantial changes in the RWA numbers. Similar problems are encountered in the Value-at-Risk (VaR-aggregation of risks. In this article, we highlight some of the underlying issues, both methodologically, as well as through examples. In particular, we frame this discussion in the context of two recent regulatory documents we refer to as Basel 3.5.

  10. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  11. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S. [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Perkins, Edward J. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Meyer, Sharon A., E-mail: meyer@ulm.edu [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  12. Spin Caloritronic Transport of 1,3,5-Triphenylverdazyl Radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiu-Hua; Zhao Peng; Liu De-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin caloritronic transport properties of a stable 1,3,5-triphenylverdazyl (TPV) radical sandwiched between Au electrodes through different connection fashions. Obvious spin Seebeck effect can be observed in the para-connection fashion. Furthermore, a pure spin current and a completely spin-polarized current can be realized by tuning the gate voltage. Furthermore, a 100% spin polarization without the need of gate voltage can be obtained in the meta-connection fashion. These results demonstrate that TPV radical is a promising material for spin caloritronic and spintronic applications. (paper)

  13. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  14. Groundwater movements around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.

    1977-10-01

    Based on regional models of groundwater flow, the regional hydraulic gradient at depth is equal to the regional topographic gradient. As a result, the equipotentials are near vertical. The permeability distribution with depth influences the groundwater flow patterns. A zone of sluggish flows, the quiescent zone is developed when the permeability decreases with depth. This feature is accentuated when horizontal anisotropy, with the horizontal permeability higher then the vertical permeability, is included. The presence of an inactive zone will be a prerequesite for a satisfactory repository site. The effect of an inclined discontinuity representing a singular geological feature such as a fault plane or shear zone has been modelled. The quiescent zone does not appear to be unduly disturbed by such a feature. However, meaningful quantitative predictions related to the flows in a typical singular feature cannot be made without more specific data on their hydraulic properties. Two dimensional analysis has been made for a site specific section of a candidate repository site at Forsmark, Sweden. The lateral extent of the model was defined by major tectonic features, assumed vertical. Potential gradients and pore velocities have been computed for a range of boundary conditions and assumed material properties. The potential gradients for the model with anisotropic permeability approach the average potential gradient between the boundaries. The result of this study of the initial groundwater conditions will be used as input data for the analyses of the thermomechanical perturbations of the groundwater regime. In the long term, the groundwater flow will return to the initial conditions. The residual effects of the repository on the flow will be discussed in part 2 of this report. (author)

  15. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  16. National radioactive wasterRepository Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the scheme of the Mochovce National radioactive waste repository for the Slovak Republic is presented. The National radioactive waste repository in Mochovce is a surface type storage facility. It is intended for final disposal of solid and solidified low and intermediate radioactive waste produced during the operation of nuclear power plants and institutions located within the territory of the Slovak Republic. The Repository site is situated about 2 km northwest to the Mochovce NPP

  17. Performance assessment of Mochovce repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrskova, A; Hanusik, V [Dept. of Accident Management and Risk Assessment, Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2000-07-01

    The near-surface disposal site at Mochovce is designed for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste. It is a vault-type concrete structure housing the reinforced concrete containers as the final waste packages. This paper shortly presents the long-term safety analysis methods applied for the post-closure phase of the repository. The main aim of paper is description of the philosophy of analysis, development of the scenarios, their modeling and comparing of the results of normal evolution scenario, alternative scenario and intruders scenario for some radionuclides. (author)

  18. Performance assessment of Mochovce repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrskova, A.; Hanusik, V.

    2000-01-01

    The near-surface disposal site at Mochovce is designed for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste. It is a vault-type concrete structure housing the reinforced concrete containers as the final waste packages. This paper shortly presents the long-term safety analysis methods applied for the post-closure phase of the repository. The main aim of paper is description of the philosophy of analysis, development of the scenarios, their modeling and comparing of the results of normal evolution scenario, alternative scenario and intruders scenario for some radionuclides. (author)

  19. Office of Geologic Repositories quality assurance plan for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This document sets forth geologic repository program-wide quality assurance program requirements and defines management's quality assurance responsibilities for the Office of Geologic Repositories and its projects. (LM)

  20. The European Repository Landscape 2008 Inventory of Digital Repositories for Research Output

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Graaf, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that a common knowledge base for European research is necessary. Research repositories are an important innovation to the scientific information infrastructure. In 2006, digital repositories in the 27 countries of the European we

  1. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.

    2016-11-08

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later, thousands of universities and other institutions have answered this call, but many more have not due to gaps in budgets, awareness and, most of all, practical guidance on creating an institutional repository. This workshop provides you with an essential primer on what it takes to establish a fully-functioning institutional repository. Every aspect of the process will be covered, including policies, procedures, staffing guidelines, workflows and repository technologies.

  2. Center for Leadership Development (CLD) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Center for Leadership Development Repository stores various data including policies, procedures, governance, guidance, security, and financial documents of the...

  3. Nuclear waste repository design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlke, B.M.; Monsees, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive underground excavation will be required for construction of a mined geologic repository for nuclear waste. Hundreds of thousands of feet of drift will be required based on the conceptual layout design for each candidate nuclear waste repository. Comparison of boring and blasting excavation methods are discussed, as are special design and construction requirements (e.g., quality assurance procedures and performance assessment) for the nuclear waste repository. Comparisons are made between boring and blasting construction methods for the repository designs proposed for salt, volcanic tuff, and basalt

  4. Biosphere in 3.5 Ga submarine hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yuichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Science and Astronomy

    2003-04-01

    Abundant organic matter (kerogen) was identified in {approx}3.5 Ga hydrothermal silica dikes from the North Pole area in the Pilbara craton, Western Australia. The silica dikes developed in the uppermost 1000 m of the ancient oceanic crust. Thus, they would have been deposited in the 3.5 Ga sub-seafloor hydrothermal system. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of the kerogen were analyzed in this study. Their highly {sup 13}C-depleted isotopic compositions ({delta}{sup 13}C = -38 to -33 per mille) strongly suggest that they are originally derived from biologically produced organic matter. The remarkable similarity of the {delta}{sup 13}C values between the kerogen and modern hydrothermal vent organisms may suggest that the kerogen was derived from chemoautotrophic organisms. This idea is also consistent with their nitrogen isotopic compositions ({delta}{sup 15}N = -4 to +4 per mille). The silica dikes consist mainly of fine-grained silica with minor pyrite and sphalerite. These mineral assemblages indicate that the silica dike was deposited from relatively low-temperature (probably less than 150degC) reducing hydrothermal fluid. Thus, anaerobic thermophilic/hyperthermophilic organisms could have survived in the hydrothermal fluid, which formed the silica dikes. Therefore, it is plausible that a chemoautotrophic-based biosphere (possibly methanogenesis) probably existed in the Early Archean sub-seafloor hydrothermal system. (author)

  5. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  6. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  7. INIS: Nuclear Grey Literature Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić, Dobrica

    2016-01-01

    As one of the world's largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, INIS represents an extraordinary example of world cooperation. Currently, as INIS members, 130 countries and 24 international organizations share and allow access to their valuable nuclear information resources, preserving them for future generations and offering a freely available nuclear knowledge repository. Since its creation in 1970, INIS has collected and provided access to more than 3.8 million bibliographic references to publications, documents, technical reports, non-copyrighted documentation, and other grey literature, as well as over a million full texts. Public interest throughout the years in accessing the INIS Collection has been remarkable. This paper deals with the challenges faced by INIS in its endeavour to increase the use, accessibility, usability and expandability of its on-line repository. It also describes document collection, the features and characteristics of implementing a new search engine, as well as the lessons learned. (author)

  8. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1986-12-01

    This document is the third joint annual report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that are in progress at the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This Government supported mine serves as an underground test facility for research and development (R and D)-work in the field of nuclear waste repository research and simulation experiments. The tests are designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. This document covers the following sections: Issues and test objectives: This section presents issues that are investigated by the Brine Migration Test, and the test objectives derived from these issues; test site: This section describes the test site location and geology in the Asse mine; test description: A description of the test configuration, procedures, equipment, and instrumentation is given in this section; actual test chronology: The actual history of the test, in terms of the dates at which major activities occured, is presented in this section. Test results: This section presents the test results observed to data and the planned future work that is needed to complete the test; conclusions and recommendations: This section summarizes the conclusions derived to date regarding the Brine Migration Test. Additional work that would be useful to resolve the issues is discussed. (orig.)

  9. A simplified radioimmunoassay of adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yoshiki; Takezawa, Junichi; Suzuki, Morio; Kuninaka, Akira; Yoshino, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    Dextran-coated charcoal was proved to be able to separate free adenosine-3':5'monophosphate (cAMP) from antibody-bound cAMP. Only free cAMO was adsorbed on dextran-coated charcoal within 1 min after contacting the charcoal. In a reaction mixture of cAMP and anti-cAMP-plasma, most of antibody-bound cAMP had not been adsorbed 4 min after contacting. The data obtained were found to be almost the same as the data of another experiment using cellulose ester filter separation technique. Thus, dextran-coated charcoal could be employed to simplify the radioimmunoassay of cAMP. (author)

  10. A new version of the DOT 3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbaffoni, M.M.; Abbate, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The use of code DOT 3.5 in calculations that involve neutron thermalization processes in systems with a strong upscattering effect, has shown several problems, i.e. arise of negative fluxes, instability of the solutions, and random convergence. Because of these undesirable results, a new version of the code was developed, which maintains the possibilites of the former one and adds, as option, the utilization of a new upscattering acceleration method, called 'differential method' or 'group by group'. It is more adequate for this kind of cases and solves, with the addition of a few other minor modifications, the above mentioned problems. Since this new version includes the original one, the modifications described in this report, in particular those of input and output features, are an addendum to the corresponding user's manual. (author) [es

  11. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  12. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  13. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  14. Analisis Konten dan Kebijakan Akses Institutional Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2016-07-01

    Abstract; Institutional repository has become a major concern of higher education in Indonesia. The number of institutional respository was increased, one of the reason is the ranking web of repositories has been conducted by the Cybermetrics Lab in 2008. At that time, many institutions started to build institutional repository in order to manage the scientific work and also trying to reach the better ranks. Meanwhile, it is an achievement of institution performance which can be promote and increase visibility for the institution. University of Surabaya has also developed the institutional repository and managed by the library. The aims of this study is to analyze the content availability and access policies defined by the University of Surabaya repository  providing services to the academic community and external users. The method used in this study by using observations of the institutional repository University of Surabaya with a literature review to clarify the analysis of the content and access policies. The results of this study indicate that the library's role is has the authority to manage the scientific work of academic community can be done through the institutional repository. However there is still need for library to be proactive to communicate regulations on mandatory deposit of scientific work and create intensive promotion of the institutional repository.

  15. Electronic Repository of Russian Historical Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhonov, Vyacheslav; Kessler, Gijs; Markevich, Andrei; de Vries, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Electronic Repository for Russian Historical Statistics brings together data extracted from various published and unpublished sources in one place. Its principal focus is Russian economic and social history of the last three centuries (18th-21st). The repository caters to the needs of the

  16. Decompression of magma into repository tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Woods, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    It is nontrivial to find and design safe repository sites for nuclear waste. It appears common sense to drill tunnels as repository sites in a mountain in remote and relatively dry regions. However, erosion of the waste canisters by naturally abundant chemicals in the mountains water cycle remains a

  17. Numerical modeling of magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno

    2001-01-01

    This report explains the numerical programs behind a comprehensive modeling effort of magma-repository interactions. Magma-repository interactions occur when a magma dike with high-volatile content magma ascends through surrounding rock and encounters a tunnel or drift filled with either a magmatic

  18. Asset Reuse of Images from a Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    According to Markus's theory of reuse, when digital repositories are deployed to collect and distribute organizational assets, they supposedly help ensure accountability, extend information exchange, and improve productivity. Such repositories require a large investment due to the continuing costs of hardware, software, user licenses, training,…

  19. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood

  20. Towards Content Development For Institutional Digital Repository ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth in Information and Communication Technology has lead to the emergence of Institutional Digital Repository, a digital archive for the preservation and dissemination of institutional research outputs. Institutional Digital Repositories make possible global dissemination of research outputs through the use of the ...

  1. EEI/UWASTE oversight of the DOE Repository Program by the Repository Information Exchange Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, C.J.; Supko, E.M.; Schwartz, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Utility Nuclear Waste and Transportation Program of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI/UWASTE) has conducted reviews of the US DOE's repository program through its Repository Information Exchange Team (RIET or Team). Eight such reviews have been conducted since 1985 covering topics that include repository program management and control; repository schedule; repository budget; quality assurance; site characterization; repository licensing; environmental issues; and institutional and public information activities. The utility industry has used these repository program reviews as a forum for providing DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with comments on the direction of the repository program, advice for future actions regarding quality assurance activities and repository licensing, and suggestions for management and control of the Repository Program. The most significant recommendations made by the utility industry through the RIET are discussed along with any subsequent action by OCRWM in response to or subsequent to utility industry recommendations. The process used by the RIET to develop its recommendations to OCRWM regarding the repository program is also discussed

  2. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, ''Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 ''Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work

  3. A global nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wunan

    As a concerned scientist, I think that having a global nuclear waste repository is a reachable goal for human beings. Maybe through this common goal, mankind can begin to treat each other as brothers and sisters. So far, most human activities are framed by national boundaries, which are purely arbitrary. Breaking through these national boundaries will be very beneficial to human beings.Formation of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program in 1986 indicates a growing awareness on the part of scientists regarding Earth as a system. The Apollo missions gave us a chance to look back at Earth from space. That perspective emphasized that our Earth is just one system: our only home. It is in deed a lonely boat in the high sea of dark space. We must take good care of our “boat.”

  4. Hydrologic issues in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remson, I.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Extrapolation of Darcy's law to the transport of water an solutes in unfractured poorly permeable rocks being studied for nuclear waste disposal is questioned. The hydrologic literature includes numerous references to both non-Darcian flow in dense materials devoid of macrofractures and microfractures and to threshold gradients below which no flow occurs. For such situations to occur, the pore-size range must be small enough so that all pore water is sufficiently close to mineral surfaces to be affected by the surficial forces. Then the flow will be non-Newtonian and non-Darcian, and solute transport will be by molecular diffusion. If fluid transport in very dense unfractured rocks is non-Darcian, useful methods of testing candidate host rocks become apparent. In situ nondestructive pressure testing of canister waste emplacement boreholes in a mined repository can verify the absence of both fracture flow and Darcian flow. 18 references

  5. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS v.3.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I. [FB Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. It is a description of RVS version 3.5. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples; Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system.

  7. 3.5 TeV: Patience pays dividends

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

    In my message this week, I’d like to congratulate the LHC team on accelerating two beams to 3.5 TeV in the early hours of this morning. The timing could not have been better. Coming during a week of CERN Council meetings, it allowed us to show delegates the great progress we’re making. The occasion also gave us the opportunity to set out again the prudent step-by-step approach that we’re taking to get the LHC up and running, and it was refreshing to hear one member of the Scientific Policy Committee declare on Monday that we should never forget that the LHC is not a turnkey machine.With the progress the LHC is making, that simple fact would be easy to overlook. The figures coming back from this first run are already quite remarkable. In Week 10, the LHC’s availability for the operators was over 65%: it usually takes a new accelerator years to reach that level. And over the last few weeks, operation of the LHC at 450 GeV has become routinely reproducible, which i...

  8. The radioprotective potential of 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Mary Judith Q.; Gomez, Marlyn O.

    1999-03-01

    The radioprotective potential of 3,5,4'trihydroxystilbene or resveratrol, a compound abundant in grapes, was investigated using the micronucleus test. Gamma radiation (6 Gy) was used to induce micronucleus formation in 12-week old Swiss-Webster mice. Five groups with five mice each were used. Three groups were given corresponding treatments (low, normal, high doses of reservatrol) via oral gavage for one week. The negative control group was not given any radiation nor any compound while the positive control group was exposed to radiation but was not given any compound. The mean micronucleus frequencies arranged from highest to lowest are as follows: low dose, positive control, normal dose, high dose and negative control. Using the analysis of variance-complete random design followed by the Duncan multiple range test, it was proven that resveratrol was able to inhibit micronucleus formation in polychromatic erythrocytes of 12-week old Swiss-Webster mice at the normal (60 micrograms) and high (120 micrograms) concentrations assigned. This suggests that its radioprotective potential may follow a dose-dependent pattern. (Author)

  9. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS v.3.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I.

    2004-03-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. It is a description of RVS version 3.5. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples; Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system

  10. Effects of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine on microglial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yuki; Tomonaga, Daichi; Kalashnikova, Anastasia; Furuya, Fumihiko; Akimoto, Nozomi; Ifuku, Masataka; Okuno, Yuko; Beppu, Kaoru; Fujita, Kyota; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Churilov, Leonid P; Noda, Mami

    2015-05-01

    L-tri-iodothyronine (3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine; T3) is an active form of the thyroid hormone (TH) essential for the development and function of the CNS. Though nongenomic effect of TH, its plasma membrane-bound receptor, and its signaling has been identified, precise function in each cell type of the CNS remained to be investigated. Clearance of cell debris and apoptotic cells by microglia phagocytosis is a critical step for the restoration of damaged neuron-glia networks. Here we report nongenomic effects of T3 on microglial functions. Exposure to T3 increased migration, membrane ruffling and phagocytosis of primary cultured mouse microglia. Injection of T3 together with stab wound attracted more microglia to the lesion site in vivo. Blocking TH transporters and receptors (TRs) or TRα-knock-out (KO) suppressed T3-induced microglial migration and morphological change. The T3-induced microglial migration or membrane ruffling was attenuated by inhibiting Gi /o -protein as well as NO synthase, and subsequent signaling such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibitors for Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, reverse mode of Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), and small-conductance Ca(2+) -dependent K(+) (SK) channel also attenuated microglial migration or phagocytosis. Interestingly, T3-induced microglial migration, but not phagocytosis, was dependent on GABAA and GABAB receptors, though GABA itself did not affect migratory aptitude. Our results demonstrate that T3 modulates multiple functional responses of microglia via multiple complex mechanisms, which may contribute to physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of the CNS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. How many geologic repositories will be needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.J.; Halstead, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    DOE's postponement of site-specific work on the second repository program had rekindled debate over the number of geologic repositories needed for disposal of high level radioactive waste. The multiple repository approach grew out of the March, 1979 IRG report, which recommended co-disposal of civilian and defense HLW in a system of regional repositories. The multiple repository approach was adopted by DOE, and incorporated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act passed by Congress in December, 1982. Since the late 1970's, the slower than anticipated growth of the nuclear power industry has substantially reduced earlier estimates of the amount of civilian spent fuel which will require geologic disposal. Reactors currently in operation (78.5 GWe) and reactors in the construction pipeline (28 GWe) are expected to discharge about 103,200 MTU of spent fuel by the year 2036, assuming no increase in fuel burnup rate. By the year 2020, defense high level radioactive wastes equivalent to as much as 27,000 MTU could require geologic disposal. Small amounts of high level waste from other sources will also require geologic disposal. Total disposal requirements appear to be less than 140,000 MTU. The five sites nominated for the first repository, as well as hypothetical sites in granite, the host rock under primary consideration for the second repository, all appear capable of accommodating up to 140,000 MTU

  12. Learning frameworks as an alternative to repositories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of ‘learning frameworks’. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and question collections of digital learning objects in large repositories and to argue for large learning frameworks which organise a number of thematically related digital learning materials. Whereas...... a learning object repository contains all kinds of materials, a learning framework consists of an organisation of materials related to a common theme. Further, a repository consists of single, self-contained objects, whereas a learning framework is an open-ended environment which presents a number...

  13. Durability of cemented waste in repository and under simulated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Nicu, M.; Lungu, L.; Turcanu, C.; Rotarescu, Gh.

    2000-01-01

    simulated disposal conditions for reference samples; - emplacement of reference samples in Baita Bihor Repository for real disposal characterization. All samples were positioned in five locations of Baita-Bihor repository where they will be kept for 1, 3, 5 and 10 years before mechanical and structural characterization. These locations have different humidity values, decreasing from location 1 to 5. The results will be compared with those obtained for the same type of samples kept in laboratory conditions. The mechanical performances of the matrix with cement-mineral additives are not influenced if bentonite or volcanic tuff concentration is is lower than 10%. The very good mechanical behaviour of the samples, drives at the conclusion that the additive cement-mineral mixture could be used in the disposal procedure, with good results, if the future structure characterization would prove the role as engineered barrier. Complexing reagents reduce drastically the mechanical performances. The chemical nature of the complexing agent plays an important role, the damaging effect being more pregnant for tartaric and citric acid than for oxalic acid. In any case there is a maximum limit of concentration which is acceptable from mechanical point of view. The mechanical resistance observed in all samples, after one year disposal, are within the accepted limits for the matrix durability. Thus, disposal conditions has not influence the mechanical properties of the cement matrix after one year disposal. The presented results, showed that bentonite seems to have a positive influence on the quality of the examined matrices . These results are preliminary. The data obtained so far will be completed with those to be obtained after three year disposal. XRD initial investigation of waste samples showed complex changes in the structure and components. To understand the systems, series of different compositions need to be characterized. In the next years the durability of samples kept for times

  14. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-11-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 m g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great as those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  15. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-07-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 ml g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great at those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland Cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  16. Andra's geologic repository monitoring strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschaert, S.; Lesoille, S.; Bertrand, J.; Landais, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After having concluded a feasibility study of deep geological disposal for high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in 2005, Andra was charged by the Planning Act no. 2006-739 to design and create an industrial site for geological disposal called Cigeo which must be reversible for at least a century-long period. The French Safety Guide recommends that Andra develop a monitoring program to be implemented at repository construction and conducted until closure, and possibly after closure, with the aim to confirming prior expectations and enhancing knowledge of relevant processes. This abstract focuses on underground structure monitoring. The monitoring system is based on a combination of in-situ instrumentation and nondestructive methods to obtain the required level of reliable performance. To optimize the device distribution, we take into account both the repetitive design of disposal cells and the homogeneity of the rock properties. This resulted in distinguishing pilot disposal cells that are highly instrumented and standard disposal cells where the instrumentation density could be reduced; monitoring will rely mostly on robotic nondestructive evaluations. If monitoring technologies do not comply with all monitoring objectives, real withdrawal tests of high level wastes in some pilot disposal cells are also planned to provide the possibility of carrying out visual inspection, destructive analyses and samplings on construction materials. Such cells are planned to be dismantled because of the potential disturbance of their component performances from the testing process. Based on this overall strategy, Andra has analyzed the technical requirements that must be met by its monitoring equipment. First, these must be able to provide information on key THMCR (Thermal- Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical and Radiological) processes, to provide a three-dimensional image of a disposal component's behavior and thus to understand

  17. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-01-01

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data

  18. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-09-12

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data.

  19. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities

  20. Economics of mined geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Dippold, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    During 1982, Congress considered legislation to provide for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The result of this legislative effort was the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), PL 97-425, signed into law January 7, 1983. An important part of the NWPA was the establishment of special funds in the US Treasury for Waste Disposal and Interim Storage to be financed by user fees to pay for all costs of the program. An initial fee of 1.0 mill per kilowatt-hour was specified. The Secretary was asked to annually review the amount of the fees established... to evaluate whether collection of the fee will provide sufficient revenues to offset the costs... In the event of a prospective fee cost mismatch, the Secretary was asked to propose an adjustment to the fee to insure full cost recovery. A series of studies were sponsored by DOE in 1982 to estimate program costs, to calculate the necessary fees to assure cost recovery, and to address uncertainties that could affect future program costs and consequent fee schedules. A brief summary of the 1982 cost estimates is presented. Sources of key cost uncertainties are discussed and the bases for the cost recovery fee calculations are summarized. 17 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  1. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  2. Building the repositories to serve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The project to design and build the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory also includes the exciting opportunity to implement client/server information systems. Lab technologists were eager to take advantage of the cost savings inherent in the open systems and a distributed, client server environment and, at the same time, conscious of the need to provide secure repositories for sensitive data as well as a schedule sensitive acquisition strategy for mission critical software. During the first year of project activity, micro-based project management and business support systems were acquired and implemented to support a small study project of less than 400 people allocating contracts of less than $1 million. The transition to modern business systems capable of supporting more than 10,000 participants (world wide) who would be researching and developing the new technologies that would support the world's largest scientific instrument, a 42 Tevatron, superconducting, super collider became a mission critical event. This paper will present the SSC Laboratory's strategy to balance its commitment to open systems, structured query language (SQL) standards and its success with acquiring commercial off the shelf software to support immediate goals. Included will be an outline of the vital roles played by other labs (Livermore, CERN, Brookhaven, Fermi and others) and a discussion of future collaboration potentials to leverage the information activities of all Department of Energy funded labs

  3. Building the repositories to serve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersch, D.

    1993-04-01

    The project to design and build the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory also includes the exciting opportunity to implement client/server information systems. Lab technologists were eager to take advantage of the cost savings inherent in the open systems and a distributed, client server environment and, at the same time, conscious of the need to provide secure repositories for sensitive data as well as a schedule sensitive acquisition strategy for mission critical software. During the first year of project activity, micro-based project management and business support systems were acquired and implemented to support a small study project of less than 400 people allocating contracts of less than $1 million. The transition to modern business systems capable of supporting more than 10,000 participants (world wide) who would be researching and developing the new technologies that would support the world's largest scientific instrument, a 42 Tevatron, superconducting, super collider became a mission critical event. This paper will present the SSC Laboratory's strategy to balance our commitment to open systems, structured query language (SQL) standards and our success with acquiring commercial off the shelf software (COTS) to support our immediate goals. Included will be an outline of the vital roles played by other labs (Livermore, CERN, Brookhaven, Fermi and others) and a discussion of future collaboration potentials to leverage the information activities of all Department of Energy (DOE) funded labs

  4. Shaft placement in a bedded salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasi, M.L.

    1982-10-01

    Preferred shaft pillar sizes and shaft locations were determined with respect to the induced thermal stresses in a generic bedded salt repository at a depth of 610 m with a gross thermal loading of 14.8 W/m 2 . The model assumes isotropic material properties, plane strain and linear elastic behavior. Various shaft locations were analyzed over a 25 year period. The thermal results show that for this time span, the stratigraphy is unimportant except for the region immediately adjacent to the repository. The thermomechanical results show that for the given repository depth of 610 m, a minimum central shaft pillar radius of 244 m is required to equal the material strength in the barrier pillar. An assumed constant stress and constant temperature distribution creep model of the central shaft region adjacent to the repository conservatively overestimates a creep closure of 310 mm in a 6.1 m diameter centrally-located shaft

  5. Preliminary design of the repository, stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  6. Decision theory applied to radioactive repository construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present, through the presentation of an example, the applicability of the decision theory on the selection and construction of a repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste. (author)

  7. Preliminary design of the repository. Stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-04-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  8. Biospecimen Repository Access and Data Sharing (BRADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BRADS is a repository for data and biospecimens from population health research initiatives and clinical or interventional trials designed and implemented by NICHD’s...

  9. NIMH Repository and Genomics Resources (RGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIMH Repository and Genomics Resource (RGR) stores biosamples, genetic, pedigree and clinical data collected in designated NIMH-funded human subject studies. The...

  10. Evaluasi Website Repositori Institusi Universitas Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The  development  of  institutional  repositories  (IRs  in Indonesia within the broader framework of open access has significant impact on preserving intellectual capital and scholarly communication. Institutional  repositories  play  a  fundamental  role  in  centralizing, preserving,  and  making  accessible  institution’s  intellectual  capital. Evaluation of the system is to determine the functionality the system to meet the users need. Using a descriptive analysis this study wants to evaluate institutional repositories of University of Surabaya. The result is usefull for institution to develop the repository systems.

  11. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.; Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later

  12. 48 CFR 227.7108 - Contractor data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repositories. 227.7108 Section 227.7108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Technical Data 227.7108 Contractor data repositories. (a) Contractor data repositories may be established when permitted by agency procedures. The contractual instrument establishing the data repository must...

  13. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  14. Memory provisions for the Manche Surface Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Jean-Noel; Espiet-Subert, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The French La Manche repository site received its last radioactive waste package in 1994. In 2003, the official surveillance phase of the closed repository started under the supervision of Andra (the national industrial operator), the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and society (e.g. the local municipalities). Florence Espiet explained that information on the existence of the repository, its content, how it was operated and how it works needs to be preserved. It also is planned to review the information periodically for a minimum of 300 years. She described the creation of two documents on memory (a detailed and a summary one), both on permanent paper, and the preservation of the land registration. The latter constitutes 'passive' provisions for preserving memory. In addition, a number of 'active' provisions are and will be put in place: guided visits, exhibitions, partnerships with organisations dealing with memory preservation, and the creation of a think tank. The latter consists of local citizens and politicians, retired employees from Andra and artists that meet several times a year and reflect on memory preservation from the perspective of, for instance, local history, education, arts and rituals. Finally, two types of markers will be used to preserve the repository's memory: i) three herbaria cataloguing the plants growing on the site of the repository, including a very short description of the repository, will be stored at different sites in France; ii) a stele indicating the main characteristics of the repository, potentially linked to an art work, will be erected at the repository

  15. Impact of retrievability of repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Gaag, J. v.d.; Prij, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the retrievability on the design of the repository will be handled. Retrievability of radioactive waste from a repository in geological formations has received increasing attention during recent years. It is obvious that this retrievability will have consequences in terms of mining engineering, safety and cost. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate cost consequences by comparing two extreme options for retrievable storage. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. Transfer systems in an underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Ehrlich, D.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to logistic problem definitions taking into account the waste types of the wastes to be disposed of and the mining conditions, transport and handling of radioactive wastes in a repository, particularly require the keeping of safety technological marginal conditions mainly resulting from the accident analyses carried out. The realization of these safety technological aspects is described taking the planned Konrad repository as an example. (author)

  17. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  18. The development of safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research and development on geological repositories for High Level Waste (HLW) focuses on the short- and long-term safety aspects of the repository. If the repository will also be used for the disposal of spent fuel, safeguards aspects have to be taken into account. Safety and safeguards requirements may be contradictory; the safety of a geological repository is based on the non-intrusion of the geological containment, while safeguards require regular inspections of position and amount of the spent fuel. Examples to reconcile these contradictory requirements are the use of information required for the safety assessment of the geological repository for safeguards purposes and the adaptation of the safeguards approach to use non-intrusive inspection techniques. The principles of an inspection approach for a geological repository are now generally accepted within the IAEA. The practical applicability of the envisaged inspection techniques is still subject to investigation. It is specifically important for the Belgian situation that an inspection technique can be used in clay, the geological medium in which Belgium intends to dispose its HLW and spent fuel. The work reported in this chapter is the result of an international cooperation in the framework of the IAEA, in which SCK-CEN participates

  19. The Role of Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress in 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) Induced Nephrotoxicity in Isolated Renal Cortical Cells from Male Fischer 344 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Christopher R.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O.

    2016-01-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (~4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0 mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0 mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5 mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0 mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  20. CCDC 1006896: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 1,3,5-tris(4-(2,4-Diamino-1,3,5-triazin-6-yl)phenyl)benzene unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng; He, Yabing; Zhao, Yunfeng; Weng, Linhong; Wang, Hailong; Krishna, Rajamani; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wei; O'Keeffe, Michael; Han, Yu; Chen, Banglin

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  1. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  2. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-01-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed. PMID:196595

  3. Fons antic i repositoris universitaris a Espanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Morillas, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Es mostra la presència de col·leccions de fons antic en els repositoris de les biblioteques universitàries espanyoles després d'analitzar tots els repositoris. Per a aquesta anàlisi, com a part de la metodologia emprada, s'ha elaborat un model o llista que consta d'onze elements. Del conjunt de les universitats espanyoles, seixanta tenen repositoris, vint-i-vuit dels quals (16,8 % disposen de col·leccions de fons antic. Com que del concepte de repositori institucional no sembla desprendre's que tingui com a finalitat incloure aquest tipus de col·leccions, es reflexiona sobre la peculiaritat que una part dels repositoris universitaris espanyols inclogui col·leccions d'aquestes característiques.Se muestra la presencia de colecciones de fondo antiguo en los repositorios de las bibliotecas universitarias españolas después de analizar todos los repositorios. Para este análisis, como parte de la metodología empleada, se ha elaborado un modelo o lista que consta de once elementos. Del conjunto de las universidades españolas, sesenta cuentan con repositorios y, de estos, veintiocho (16,8 % disponen de colecciones de fondo antiguo. Debido a que del concepto de repositorio institucional no parece desprenderse que tenga como finalidad albergar este tipo de colecciones, se hace una reflexión sobre la peculiaridad de que parte de los repositorios universitarios españoles incluya colecciones de estas características.This paper uses an analysis of the repositories of Spanish universities to identify which institutions contain rare book and manuscript collections. The method used in this analysis involved examining each university on the basis of a list comprising eleven elements. A total of 60 universities were found to have repositories but only 28 (16.8 % of these contained rare book and manuscript collections. In the light of these figures, which suggest that Spanish university repositories do not generally consider the preservation of rare

  4. Coupling fuel cycles with repositories: how repository institutional choices may impact fuel cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; Miller, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The historical repository siting strategy in the United States has been a top-down approach driven by federal government decision making but it has been a failure. This policy has led to dispatching fuel cycle facilities in different states. The U.S. government is now considering an alternative repository siting strategy based on voluntary agreements with state governments. If that occurs, state governments become key decision makers. They have different priorities. Those priorities may change the characteristics of the repository and the fuel cycle. State government priorities, when considering hosting a repository, are safety, financial incentives and jobs. It follows that states will demand that a repository be the center of the back end of the fuel cycle as a condition of hosting it. For example, states will push for collocation of transportation services, safeguards training, and navy/private SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) inspection at the repository site. Such activities would more than double local employment relative to what was planned for the Yucca Mountain-type repository. States may demand (1) the right to take future title of the SNF so if recycle became economic the reprocessing plant would be built at the repository site and (2) the right of a certain fraction of the repository capacity for foreign SNF. That would open the future option of leasing of fuel to foreign utilities with disposal of the SNF in the repository but with the state-government condition that the front-end fuel-cycle enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities be located in that state

  5. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.

  6. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  7. Determination and thermodynamic modeling of solid–liquid phase equilibrium for 3,5-dichloroaniline in pure solvents and ternary 3,5-dichloroaniline + 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene + toluene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rongrong; Du, Cunbin; Meng, Long; Han, Shuo; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of 3,5-dichloroaniline in seven organic solvents were determined. • Solid–liquid phase equilibrium for ternary system was measured. • The binary and ternary phase diagrams were constructed. • The phase diagrams were correlated with thermodynamic models. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase equilibrium data for 3,5-dichloroaniline in n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, isobutanol, toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone at (283.15 to 308.15) K were determined experimentally by gas chromatography under 101.3 kPa. The solubility of 3,5-dichloroaniline in these solvents decreased according to the following order: ethyl acetate > (acetone, toluene) for the solvents of ethyl acetate, acetone, and toluene; and for the other solvents, (isopropanol, n-butanol) > n-propanol > isobutanol. According to the solubility of 3,5-dichloroaniline in pure solvents, the solid–liquid phase equilibrium for the ternary mixture of 3,5-dichloroaniline + 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene + toluene were measured by using an isothermal saturation method at three temperatures of 283.15, 293.15, and 303.15 K under 101.3 kPa, and the corresponding isothermal phase diagrams were constructed. Two pure solids were formed in the ternary system at a fixed temperature, which were pure 3,5-dichloroaniline and pure 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and were identified by Schreinemakers’ method of wet residue. The temperature dependence of 3,5-dichloroaniline solubility in pure solvents was correlated by the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, Wilson model and NRTL model; and the ternary solid–liquid phase equilibrium of 3,5-dichloroaniline + 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene + toluene were described by the Wilson model and NRTL model. Results showed that calculated solubility values with these models agreed well with the experimental ones for the studied binary and ternary systems. The solid–liquid equilibrium and the thermodynamic models for the binary and ternary systems can offer the

  8. Planning the rad waste repository - Croatian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lokner, V.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in Croatia from various nuclear applications as well as from the Krsko NPP (Slovenian and Croatian joint venture facility). The national programme on radioactive waste management is aimed at straightening existing infrastructure, establishing new (more transparent) system of responsibilities and development of new legislation. The siting of LL/ILW repository is important segments of the whole radioactive waste management cycle. The status and efficiency of the rad waste management infrastructure in the country have the significant influence on all the activities related to the project of repository construction - from the very first phases of preliminary planning and background preparations to advanced phases of the project development. The present status of the Croatian national radioactive waste infrastructure and its influence on the repository project are presented. The role of national legislation and institutional framework are specially discussed. (author)

  9. Augmenting interoperability across repositories architectural ideas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The aDORe digital repository architecture designed and implemented by the Los Alamos Research Library is fully standards-based and highly modular, with the various components of the architecture interacting in a protocol-driven manner. Although aDORe was designed for use in the context of the Los Alamos Library, its modular and standards-based design has led to interesting insights regarding possible new levels of interoperability in a federation of heterogeneous repositories. The presentation will discuss these insights, and will illustrate that attractive federations of repositories can be built by introducing rather basic interoperability requirements. The presentation will also show that, once these requirements are met, a powerful service framework that overlays the federation can emerge.

  10. Reducing Psychological Resistance to Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Quinn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential value of digital repositories is dependent on the cooperation of scholars to deposit their work. Although many researchers have been resistant to submitting their work, the literature on digital repositories contains very little research on the psychology of resistance. This article looks at the psychological literature on resistance and explores what its implications might be for reducing the resistance of scholars to submitting their work to digital repositories. Psychologists have devised many potentially useful strategies for reducing resistance that might be used to address the problem; this article examines these strategies and how they might be applied.

  11. A Repository of Semantic Open EHR Archetypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a repository of openEHR archetypes that have been translated to OWL. In the work presented here, five different CKMs (Clinical Knowledge Managers have been downloaded and the archetypes have been translated to OWL. This translation is based on an existing translator that has been improved to solve programming problems with certain structures. As part of the repository a tool has been developed to keep it always up-to-date. So, any change in one of the CKMs (addition, elimination or even change of an archetype will involve translating the changed archetypes once more. The repository is accessible through a Web interface (http://www.openehr.es/.

  12. Initial design process of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the final disposal of high level wastes is to isolate the waste from the biosphere for extremely long periods of time by emplacement of wastes into deep stable geological formations. Several geological formations have been considered as candidate host environments for high level waste disposal and several techniques have been developed for repository design. In this study, interrelationships of main parameters of a general repository design have been defined and effective parameters are shown at each step. Initial design process is based on the long term stability of underground openings as disposal galleries. For this reason, this design process includes two main analyses: mechanical analysis and thermal analysis. Each of the analysis systems is directly related to each other by technical precautions. As a result of this design process, general information about the acceptable depth of the repository, layout and emplacement pattern can be taken. Final design study can be established on the result of initial design process. (author)

  13. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This Paper describes a mathematical model design to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  14. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1992-07-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This paper describes a mathematical model designed to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (Author)

  15. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  16. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  17. Alternative measure for performance of HLW geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhang, Ahn; Chambre, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    A repository performance model that can show effects of canister multiplicity and repository configuration has been developed. Masses of a radionuclide in the repository and in the far field are proposed as performance measures. Canister multiplicity has significant effects on the release of long-lived radionuclides from the repository. As more canisters are included in the same water stream, the radionuclide concentration in the stream increases, but becomes independent of the number of canisters for sufficiently many canisters. Effects of reduction of radionuclide mass in the repository on the repository performance are clearly observed if the canister multiplicity is taken into account and the mass-based measures are applied. (author)

  18. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  19. The Morsleben radwaste repository. Preparing for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, M.; Schmitt, R.

    2001-06-01

    The publication is intended to illustrate with a brief chronology the history and the present situation of the Morsleben radwaste repository, including specific aspects such as the geology of the site and construction and engineering activities, the particulars of waste form emplacement and log-term storage conditions, topical issues relating to radiological safety during operation and after decommissioning. The brochure is designed for the general audience interested in background information on all aspects of the uses, operation and decommissioning of a radwaste repository in Germany. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Overview of the current CRWMS repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.B.; Teraoka, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current design for a potential geologic repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of the paper is to present the key design features of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface facilities and MGDS subsurface facilities. The paper describes the following: surface layout; waste handling operations design; subsurface design; and the underground transport and emplacement design. A more detailed presentation of key features is provided in the ''Reference design description for a geologic repository'' which is located on the YMP Homepage at www.ymp.gov

  1. GreyGuide Forum and Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    We present the GreyGuide: an online forum and repository of good practice in the field of grey literature. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices are underway. The GreyGuide as an online forum is currently in a developmental stage and is influenced by the changes that have taken place in GreyNet's new infrastructure commencing in J...

  2. Citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.E.; Olsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    The following study presents a proposed strategy for citizen participation during the planning stages of nuclear waste repository siting. It discusses the issue from the general perspective of citizen participation in controversial issues and in community development. Second, rural institutions and attitudes toward energy development as the context for developing a citizen participation program are examined. Third, major citizen participation techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach for resolving public policy issues are evaluated. Fourth, principles of successful citizen participation are presented. Finally, a proposal for stimulating and sustaining effective responsible citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting and management is developed

  3. 1,3,5-Triethylbenzene Transformation Reactions Compared to Its Transalkylation Reaction with Ethylbenzene

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, M. Naseem

    2009-08-20

    The transalkylation of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (1,3,5-TEB) with ethylbenzene (EB) has been studied over USYtype catalysts using a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The reaction mixture EB and 1,3,5-TEB was used at a molar ratio of 1:1, which is equivalent to 40:60 wt % of EB/1,3,5-TEB, respectively. The reaction temperature was varied from 350 to 500 °C with a time on stream ranging from 3-15 s. The effect of reaction conditions on 1,3,5-TEB conversion, DEB selectivity, and isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is reported. The transalkylation of 1,3,5-TEB with EB has been compared to the transformation reaction of pure 1,3,5-TEB and EB. The experimental results have revealed that reactivity of 1,3,5-TEB and selectivity of DEB is increased during the transalkylation reaction (EB + 1,3,5-TEB) as compared to the transformation reaction of pure EB or 1,3,5-TEB. The 1,3,5-TEB undergoes isomerization and a cracking reaction to produce DEB and EB but does not undergo any appreciable disproportionation reaction. The isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is more active at low temperatures, while cracking is more active at high temperatures. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. 1,3,5-Triethylbenzene Transformation Reactions Compared to Its Transalkylation Reaction with Ethylbenzene

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, M. Naseem; Sulaiman, Al Khattaf

    2009-01-01

    The transalkylation of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (1,3,5-TEB) with ethylbenzene (EB) has been studied over USYtype catalysts using a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The reaction mixture EB and 1,3,5-TEB was used at a molar ratio of 1:1, which is equivalent to 40:60 wt % of EB/1,3,5-TEB, respectively. The reaction temperature was varied from 350 to 500 °C with a time on stream ranging from 3-15 s. The effect of reaction conditions on 1,3,5-TEB conversion, DEB selectivity, and isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is reported. The transalkylation of 1,3,5-TEB with EB has been compared to the transformation reaction of pure 1,3,5-TEB and EB. The experimental results have revealed that reactivity of 1,3,5-TEB and selectivity of DEB is increased during the transalkylation reaction (EB + 1,3,5-TEB) as compared to the transformation reaction of pure EB or 1,3,5-TEB. The 1,3,5-TEB undergoes isomerization and a cracking reaction to produce DEB and EB but does not undergo any appreciable disproportionation reaction. The isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is more active at low temperatures, while cracking is more active at high temperatures. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. The Interactive Class of SFL for seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Pérez-Naranjo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to reflect on the potential of the interactive class for E/LE (Spanish as Foreign Language learning by older adults, inserted in the courses offered by the Universidad de Oriente. Older people request the service mainly as an instrumental need: to learn the language in order to cover basic communication needs in personal, educational and public areas. Teaching programs are designed from the guidelines of the Common European Framework of Reference for Language, the Curricular Plan of Cervantes Institute and the contributions of Cuban pedagogy. Interactive class is assumed for the prospects it offered to enhance learning, being a developer process through which cooperation and empathy is encouraged, participation is energized and the tension is reduced when errors take place. This purpose is achieved gradually and patiently, attending to the psychosocial characteristics of the person concerned and the psychopedagogical intervention.

  6. Biological stereoselective reduction of 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone by Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, S; Kameoka, H; Miyazawa, M

    2001-01-01

    The microbial transformation of 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone was investigated using the plant pathogenic fungus, Glomerella cingulata. With this organism 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone gave the corresponding cis- and trans-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanols with the ratio of 20:1 forming the cis-isomer highly stereoselectively, upon 5 days incubation together with 3,3,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (isophrone) as a minor product.

  7. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally false...

  8. Radioactive waste disposal: Recommendations for a repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Orlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guidebook on recommendations for site selection of radioactive waste repository, based on a consensus in european community. This report describes particularly selection criteria and recommendations for radioactive waste disposal in underground or ground repositories. 14 refs

  9. Open DOAR the Directory of Open Access Repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The last year has seen wide-spread growth in the idea of using open access repositories as a part of a research institution's accepted infrastructure. Policy development from institutions and funding bodies has also supported the growth of the repository network. The next stage of expansion will be in the provision of services and cross-repository facilities and resources. Of course, it is hoped that these will then establish a feed-back loop to encourage repository population and further repository establishment, as the potential of open access to research materials is realised. The growth of repositories has been organic, with a variety of different repositories based in departments, institutions, funding agencies or subject communities, with a range of content, both in type and subject. Existing repositories are expanding their holdings, from eprints to associated research data-sets, or with learning objects and multimedia material. This presentation will look at the development of the Directory of Open Ac...

  10. The Vital Role of Free Access in Supporting Digital Repositories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... the scientific research forward, stressing that the free access to the scientific .... links in the digital repositories for the scientific journals publishers not to mention .... psychology, physics and encryption. Moreover, repositories.

  11. Visual querying and analysis of large software repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alexandru

    We present a software framework for mining software repositories. Our extensible framework enables the integration of data extraction from repositories with data analysis and interactive visualization. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by presenting several case studies performed on

  12. Geohydrological simulation of a deep coastal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, S.

    1995-12-01

    This conceptual-numerical study treats the dewatering and resaturation phases associated with the construction, use and closure of a coastal nuclear waste repository located at depth in sparsely fractured Baltic Shield rocks. The main objective is to simulate the extent and duration of saline intrusion for a reasonable set of geohydrological assumptions. Long-term changes in the chemical environment associated with saline intrusion may affect the properties of the buffer zone material (bentonite). The first part of the study deals with history matching of a simple model geometry and the second part treats the dewatering and resaturation phases of the simulated repository. The history matching supports the standpoint that the occurrence of saline ground water reflects an ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing of the Baltic Shield. The drawdown after fifty years of dewatering is highly dependent on the permeability of the excavated damaged zone. If the permeability close the repository is unaltered the entire region between the top side of the model and the repository is more or less partially saturated at the end of the simulation period. The simulations of a fifty year long recovery period suggest that the distribution between fresh and saline ground waters may be quite close to the conditions prior to the dewatering phase already after fifty years of closure despite an incomplete pressure recovery, which is an interesting result considering the objective of the study. 12 refs

  13. Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prause, Christian; Ternier, Stefaan; De Jong, Tim; Apelt, Stefan; Scholten, Marius; Wolpers, Martin; Eisenhauer, Markus; Vandeputte, Bram; Specht, Marcus; Duval, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Prause, C., Ternier, S., De Jong, T., Apelt, S., Scholten, M., Wolpers, M., et al. (2007). Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE. In D. Massart, J.-N. Colin & F. V. Assche (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Learning Object Discovery & Exchange (LODE'07). September,

  14. Repository Services for Outcome-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totschnig, Michael; Derntl, Michael; Gutiérrez, Israel; Najjar, Jad; Klemke, Roland; Klerkx, Joris; Duval, Erik; Müller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Totschnig, M., Derntl, M., Gutiérrez, I., Najjar, J., Klemke, R., Klerkx, J., Duval, E., & Müller, F. (2010). Repository Services for Outcome-based Learning. Fourth International Workshop on Search and Exchange of e-le@rning Materials (SE@M’10). September, 27-28, 2010, Barcelona, Spain.

  15. Design of repository sealing systems - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, R.D.; Shukla, D.K.; Kelsall, P.C.; D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers, Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Isolating nuclear waste in geologic repositories will require the sealing of penetrations such as access shafts and tunnels, disposal rooms, and exploration boreholes. This paper discusses seal designs developed for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. Designs are based on a multiple component concept whereby individual components are designed for a specific function and location. For a repository in salt the major function of the seals is to exclude groundwater inflow. Two main types of component are included for this purpose: (1) bulk-heads are dense concrete structures keyed into the walls of the penetration and are intended to reduce flow at the interface between the seal and the salt; (2) backfills are granular materials compacted in place in the penetration. In the repository the major backfill material is crushed salt, which is expected to consolidate and recrystallize as the rooms close in response to salt creep. Densely compacted clays will be used as backfill in the shafts closer to potential sources of water inflow. 22 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  16. Grey Guide Repository: presentation and demo

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Schopfel, Joachim; Farace, Dominic; Frantzen, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an open source repository of good practices in the field of grey literature. That which originated in monographic form will now open and expand to include content from the global grey literature community. Such practices will range from the production and processing of grey literature through to its distribution, uses, and preservation.

  17. The Sellafield repository project information programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curd, P J [United Kingdom Nirex Limited (United Kingdom)

    1993-07-01

    The Sellafield Repository Project Information programme has been guided by formal research and by feedback through members of the team. Progress has been made and a significant majority of local people support the project and feel it will benefit the area. (author)

  18. The Sellafield repository project information programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Sellafield Repository Project Information programme has been guided by formal research and by feedback through members of the team. Progress has been made and a significant majority of local people support the project and feel it will benefit the area. (author)

  19. Local groundwater depression around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.

    1978-01-01

    Local Groundwater Depression around a Repository. A two-dimensional flow analysis was made to study the effect on the groundwater table due to drainage of the storage tunnels during the construction resp. operation period. The net accretion to the phreatic surface was assumed evenly distributed in space and time. Numerical examples with equipotentials and consecutive positions of the phreatic surface are presented

  20. Data deposit into the ASEP repository

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelařová, Zdeňka; Doleželová, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 14, Special winter issue (2018), s. 44-49 ISSN 1574-1796 Institutional support: RVO:67985971 Keywords : data repositories * ASEP * Library of the Czech Academy of Sciences * Czech Academy of Sciences Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies

  1. Business process model repositories : framework and survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Large organizations often run hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Managing such large collections of business processes is a challenging task. Intelligent software can assist in that task by providing common repository functions such as storage, search and version management. They can

  2. A framework for business process model repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Muehlen, zur M.; Su, J.

    2010-01-01

    Large organizations often run hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Managing such large collections of business processes is a challenging task. Intelligent software can assist in that task by providing common repository functions such as storage, search and version management. They can

  3. The repository ecology an approach to understanding repository and service interactions

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Hagemann, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of university institutions and other organisations are deciding to deploy repositories and a growing number of formal and informal distributed services are supporting or capitalising on the information these repositories provide. Despite reasonably well understood technical architectures, early majority adopters may struggle to articulate their place within the actualities of a wider information environment. The idea of a repository ecology provides developers and administrators with a useful way of articulating and analysing their place in the information environment, and the technical and organisational interactions they have, or are developing, with other parts of such an environment. This presentation will provide an overview of the concept of a repository ecology and examine some examples from the domains of scholarly communications and elearning.

  4. The repository ecology: an approach to understanding repository and service interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of university institutions and other organisations are deciding to deploy repositories and a growing number of formal and informal distributed services are supporting or capitalising on the information these repositories provide. Despite reasonably well understood technical architectures, early majority adopters may struggle to articulate their place within the actualities of a wider information environment. The idea of a repository ecology provides developers and administrators with a useful way of articulating and analysing their place in the information environment, and the technical and organisational interactions they have, or are developing, with other parts of such an environment. This presentation will provide an overview of the concept of a repository ecology and examine some examples from the domains of scholarly communications and elearning. View John Robertson's biography

  5. Desiderata for healthcare integrated data repositories based on architectural comparison of three public repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2013-01-01

    Integrated data repositories (IDRs) are indispensable tools for numerous biomedical research studies. We compare three large IDRs (Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2), HMO Research Network's Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) and Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) repository) in order to identify common architectural features that enable efficient storage and organization of large amounts of clinical data. We define three high-level classes of underlying data storage models and we analyze each repository using this classification. We look at how a set of sample facts is represented in each repository and conclude with a list of desiderata for IDRs that deal with the information storage model, terminology model, data integration and value-sets management.

  6. Towards a Swedish repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.-E.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power is producing electricity for the benefit of society but is also leaving radioactive residues behind. It is our responsibility to handle these residues in a safe and proper manner. The development of a system for handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants has proceeded in steps. The same is true for the actual construction of facilities and will continue to be the case for the final repository for spent fuel and other types of long-lived wastes. The primary objective in constructing the repository will be to isolate and contain the radioactive waste. In case the isolation fails for some reason the multibarrier system should retain and retard the radionuclides that might come into contact with the groundwater. A repository is now planned to be built in two steps where the first step will include deposition of about 400 canisters with spent fuel. This first step should be finished in about 20 years from now and be followed by an extensive evaluation of the results from not only this particular step but also from the development of alternative routes before deciding on how to proceed. A special facility to encapsulate the spent fuel is also required. Such an encapsulation plant is proposed to be constructed as an extension of the existing interim storage CLAB. Finding a site for the repository is a critical issue in the implementation of any repository. The siting process started a few years ago and made some progress but is by no means yet completed. It will go on at least into the early part of the next decade. When the present nuclear power plants begin to be due for retirement there should also be some facilities in place to take permanent care of the long-lived radioactive residues. Progress in siting will be a prerequisite for success in our responsibility to make progress towards a safe permanent solution of the waste issue. (orig.)

  7. Investigative study of standards for Digital Repositories and related services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulonneau, Muriel; André, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and

  8. Prestudy Oskarshamn. Tourism in Oskarshamn with or without a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordblom, C.J.; Foghagen, C.

    1998-11-01

    Consequences for the tourism at Oskarshamn from siting a spent fuel repository in the community are studied. Four questionnaire/interview enquires were performed, and the analysis of the results show that no noticeable effects are expected. Still, an uncertainty about the impact of a repository is felt by the public, and more thorough information about the repository and its components is needed

  9. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories... information concerning geologic repositories. (a) In lieu of an environmental report, the Department of Energy... connection with any geologic repository developed under Subtitle A of Title I, or under Title IV, of the...

  10. Semantic Linking of Learning Object Repositories to DBpedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Manuel; Vidal, Juan C.; Otero-Garcia, Estefania; Bugarin, Alberto; Barro, Senen

    2012-01-01

    Large-sized repositories of learning objects (LOs) are difficult to create and also to maintain. In this paper we propose a way to reduce this drawback by improving the classification mechanisms of the LO repositories. Specifically, we present a solution to automate the LO classification of the Universia repository, a collection of more than 15…

  11. Institutional Repositories in Indian Universities and Research Institutes: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M.; Kemparaju, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the institutional repositories (IRs) in use in Indian universities and research institutes. Design/methodology/approach: Repositories in various institutions in India were accessed and described in a standardised way. Findings: The 20 repositories studied covered collections of diverse…

  12. The Use of Digital Repositories for Enhancing Teacher Pedagogical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Kalimi, Sharon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the usage of local learning material repositories at school, as well as related teachers' attitudes and training. The study investigates the use of these repositories for enhancing teacher performance and assesses whether the assimilation of the local repositories increases their usage of and contribution to by teachers. One…

  13. 48 CFR 227.7207 - Contractor data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repositories. 227.7207 Section 227.7207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7207 Contractor data repositories. Follow 227.7108 when it is in the Government's interests to have a data repository include computer software or to...

  14. Institutional Repositories as Infrastructures for Long-Term Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Helena; Gamalielsson, Jonas; Lundell, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The study describes the conditions for long-term preservation of the content of the institutional repositories of Swedish higher education institutions based on an investigation of how deposited files are managed with regards to file format and how representatives of the repositories describe the functions of the repositories.…

  15. The Lincoln Repository presentation: ten reasons why you should put a copy of your work in the Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Stainthorp, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Slideshow presentation created to promote the Lincoln Repository to staff at the University of Lincoln. Consists of ten reasons why academic authors should consider depositing copies of their work in the Repository.

  16. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Baohong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Freitag, Christina M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Cheng Qiuqiong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC{sub 2}, EC{sub 5}, and EC{sub 95} were 47, 128, and 247 {mu}g/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 {mu}g/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 {mu}g/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 {mu}g/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching.

  17. Effect of two major N-nitroso hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on earthworm reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Cox, Stephen B.; McMurry, Scott T.; Jackson, W. Andrew; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil and topical tests were employed to investigate the effect of two N-nitroso metabolites of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) on earthworm reproduction. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for cocoon production and hatching was 50 mg/kg for both hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in soil. MNX and TNX also significantly affected cocoon hatching in soil (p 20 values for MNX were 8.7 and 8.8 mg/kg for cocoon and juvenile production, respectively, compared to 9.2 and 9.1 mg/kg for TNX, respectively. The EC 20 values for the total number of cocoon hatchlings were 3.1 and 4.7 mg/kg for MNX and TNX, respectively, in soil and 4.5 and 3.1 mg/L in the topical test. Both MNX and TNX inhibited cocoon production and hatching, suggesting that they may have a negative affect on soil ecosystems at contaminated sites. - RDX metabolites affect earthworm cocoon production and hatching

  18. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Freitag, Christina M.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Cheng Qiuqiong; Anderson, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC 2 , EC 5 , and EC 95 were 47, 128, and 247 μg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 μg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 μg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 μg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching

  19. Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2005-01-01

    This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the

  20. Design aspects of the alpha repository. II. Conceptual layouts of underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Five conceptual repository layouts are presented: linear repository, 1 panel; bow tie repository, 2 panels; maltese cross repository, 4 panels; snowflake repository; 5 panels, and sash window repository, 8 panels. The layouts are compared with respect to excavation requirements, haulage distances, ventilation flow path designs, and safety features

  1. Thermal analyses of spent nuclear fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2003-06-01

    This report contains the temperature dimensioning of the KBS-3V type 1- or 2-panel repository based on the rock properties measured from the Olkiluoto investigations. The report describes first the development of a calculation methodology for the thermal analysis of a repository for nuclear fuel. The disposed canisters produce residual heat due to decay (or disintegration) of radioactive products. The decay heat is conducted to surrounding rock mass. The methods were applied to determine the effect of different parameters on the highest canister temperature and to support the planning, dimensioning and operation of the repository. The thermal diffusivity of the rock is low and the heat released from the canisters is spread into the surrounding rock volume quite slowly causing thermal gradient in the rock close to canisters and the canister temperature is increased remarkably. The maximum temperature on the canister surface is limited to the design temperature of +100 deg C. However, due to uncertainties in thermal analysis parameters (like scattering in rock conductivity) the allowable calculated maximum canister temperature is set to 90 deg C causing a safety margin of 10 deg C. The allowable temperature is controlled by the spacing between adjacent canisters, adjacent tunnels and the distance between separate panels of the repository and the pre-cooling time affecting power of the canisters. Because of the fact that the disposal operation takes several decades, the moment of disposal of an individual canister in addition to the location has an influence on the maximum temperature in the canister. Also, a second disposal panel in the repository has a thermal interaction with the other panel. This interaction is expressed after a few decades at the strongest. It became apparent that the temperature of canister surfaces can be determined by analytic line heat source model much more efficiently than by numerical analysis, if the analytic model is first verified and

  2. Safety analysis of the VLJ repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Nordman, H.

    1991-05-01

    The VLJ repository is an underground disposal facility for the low and medium level waste generated at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The repository is located within 1 km from TVO I and TVO II (2 x 710 MWe) BWR's on the Olkiluoto island at the west coast of Finland. It contains two rock silos excavated at the depth of 60...100 meters in the bedrock. Low level waste will be disposed of in a shotcreted rock silo. For bituminized medium level waste, a separate silo of reinforced concrete has been built inside the shotcreted rock silo. The post-closure safety analysis has been done for the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of the VLJ repository. In addition to the normal evolution scenario, several disturbed evolution and accident scenarios have been analysed. In the reference scenario, radio-nuclides are assumed to be released from the bituminized waste within 500 years, the concrete silo is assumed to gradually disintegrate and finally to collapse at 5 000 years, all concrete in the silo is assumed to be also chemically depleted within 6 000 years, and all the seals of the repository are assumed to deteriorate within 12 000 years. The ability of alone natural barriers to restrict the release of radionuclides into the biosphere has been evaluated by means of scenarios where the degradation of engineered barriers has been assumed to take place at a still faster rate. In one of the disturbed evolution scenarios it has been assumed that the concrete silo for medium level waste is severely impaired immediately after sealing of the repository. Effects of gas generation and consequences of human intrusion have been evaluated, too. The results of the safety analysis show that radiation doses of any significance are caused only if a well is bored in the vicinity of the repository or if the groundwater discharge spot is inhabited and used for cultivation. In the reference scenario the maximum expectation value of the individual dose rate is 0.3 mSv/a

  3. What do we mean by a cold repository?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of thermal loading of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada has been the subject of intense discussion within the project technical community. While terms such as ''Hot Repository'' and ''Cold Repository'' are frequently used, they have not been clearly defined. In particular, the definition of a cold repository has remained the opinion of each individual. This has led to confusion and misunderstanding. In this paper, a number of observed definitions for a cold repository are discussed along with the technical implications, assumptions and inconsistencies. Finally, a common language is suggested

  4. Ventilation System Strategy for a Prospective Korean Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki

    2005-01-01

    In the stage of conceptual design for the construction and operation of the geologic repository for radioactive wastes, it is important to consider a repository ventilation system which serves the repository working environment, hygiene and safety of the public at large, and will allow safe maintenance like moisture content elimination in repository for the duration of the repositories life, construction/operation/closure, also allowing safe waste transportation and emplacement. This paper describes the possible ventilation system design criteria and requirements for the prospective Korean radioactive waste repositories with emphasis on the underground rock cavity disposal method in the both cases of low and medium-level and high-level wastes. It was found that the most important concept is separate ventilation systems for the construction (development) and waste emplacement (storage) activities. In addition, ventilation network system modeling, natural ventilation, ventilation monitoring systems and real time ventilation simulation, and fire simulation and emergency system in the repository are briefly discussed.

  5. Digital Repository of Research Institutes – RCIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kaczyńska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the project of Digital Repository of Scientific Institutes RCIN and presents opportunities for promoting science by digitization and sharing them on the Internet. The Repository has been created by the 16 Scientific Institutes in Warsaw, Krakow and Bialowieza to modernize the science-research and IT infrastructure, to increase digital resources of mathematical, technical, natural and medical sciences, and to popularize and promote of Polish science. That dissemination and popularization of science affects its development and competitiveness in the international arena and it allows transfer of research results to the economy. In addition, Institutes of RCIN providing contemporary and archival materials of science, support the intellectual capital of Polish science and raise awareness of professional literature of search on the Internet. Project RCIN is implemented in the years 2010–2014 and financing is provided by the funds of the European Fund of Regional Development.

  6. Geological study of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Kitano, Koichi

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the stability and the barrier efficiency of the deep underground radioactive waste repositories become a subject of great concern. The purpose of this paper is to gather informations on the geology, engineering geology and hydrogeology in deep galleries in Japan. Conclusion can be summarised as follows: (1) The geological structure of deep underground is complicated. (2) Stress in deep underground is greatly affected by crustal movement. (3) Rock-burst phenomena occur in the deep underground excavations. (4) In spite of deep underground, water occasionally gush out from the fractured zone of rock mass. These conclusion will be useful for feasibility study of underground waste disposal and repositories in Japan. (author)

  7. The German quality system for waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS)--Federal Office for Radiation protection--has to guarantee that the requirements resulting from different regulations concerning planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a waste repository are fulfilled. In addition, the results of the safety assessments lead to nuclear-specific requirements on the design of the plant as well as to requirements on the radioactive waste packages intended to be disposed of. Therefore, the implementation of a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) system is an essential task in order to ensure that the designed quality is achieved so that the necessary precaution against damage is taken. In this paper, a detailed description of QA and QC to be applied to the planned Konrad repository as well as the basic principles and the present status of the waste package QC are indicated and discussed

  8. Summary of repository siting models. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.; Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports that will provide critical reviews and summaries of computer programs that can be used to analyze the potential performance of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The computer programs identified address the following phenomena: saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow, heat transport, solute transport, surface water runoff, geomechanical interactions, and geochemical interactions. The report identifies 183 computer programs that can be used to analyze a repository site and provides a summary description of 31 computer programs. The summary descriptions can be used: to assist in code evaluation, to facilitate code comparison, to determine applicability of codes to specific problems, to identify code deficiencies, and to provide a screening mechanism for code selection

  9. Numerical modeling capabilities to predict repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This report presents a summary of current numerical modeling capabilities that are applicable to the design and performance evaluation of underground repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. The report includes codes that are available in-house, within Golder Associates and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories; as well as those that are generally available within the industry and universities. The first listing of programs are in-house codes in the subject areas of hydrology, solute transport, thermal and mechanical stress analysis, and structural geology. The second listing of programs are divided by subject into the following categories: site selection, structural geology, mine structural design, mine ventilation, hydrology, and mine design/construction/operation. These programs are not specifically designed for use in the design and evaluation of an underground repository for nuclear waste; but several or most of them may be so used

  10. Use of modeling in repository licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, J.M. III; Echols, F.S.

    1995-01-01

    A review of the regulatory history of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations applicable to the licensing of a geologic repository, as well as a review of NRC administrative (licensing) decisions and federal case law, support the NRC's use of simplified models, in appropriate circumstances, which provide well-documented and reasonably conservative bounding assumptions, together with the use of expert judgement, natural analogues, and other aids to supplement available information, in reaching its reasonable assurance determination whether the public health and safety will be adequately protected if the Yucca Mountain, Nevada site should be licensed for development as a geologic repository. Specific examples are provided to assist the reader to better understand how such qualitative concepts as open-quote reasonable assurance close-quote, open-quote reasonably conservative close-quote, and open-quote adequate close-quote protection are used in an administrative context to resolve technical issues

  11. Analysis of Turkey’s Institutional Open Repositories: An Example of Dokuz Eylül University Institutional Open Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Levent Ertürk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the declaration of the Budapest Open Access Initiative in 2001, institutional open repositories are known as the most important tool of the self archiving, which is also known as green road. There are 26 institutional repositories, which are all compatible to international standards. All the institutional open repositories of Turkey mentioned before are listed in international open archive directories. In this study institutional open repository of Dokuz Eylül University is examined and institutional open repositories of Turkey are discussed.

  12. Geoscience Digital Data Resource and Repository Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Schuster, D.; Hou, C. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The open availability and wide accessibility of digital data sets is becoming the norm for geoscience research. The National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted a data management planning requirement in 2011, and many scientific publishers, including the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society, have recently implemented data archiving and citation policies. Many disciplinary data facilities exist around the community to provide a high level of technical support and expertise for archiving data of particular kinds, or for particular projects. However, a significant number of geoscience research projects do not have the same level of data facility support due to a combination of several factors, including the research project's size, funding limitations, or topic scope that does not have a clear facility match. These projects typically manage data on an ad hoc basis without limited long-term management and preservation procedures. The NSF is supporting a workshop to be held in Summer of 2018 to develop requirements and expectations for a Geoscience Digital Data Resource and Repository Service (GeoDaRRS). The vision for the prospective GeoDaRRS is to complement existing NSF-funded data facilities by providing: 1) data management planning support resources for the general community, and 2) repository services for researchers who have data that do not fit in any existing repository. Functionally, the GeoDaRRS would support NSF-funded researchers in meeting data archiving requirements set by the NSF and publishers for geosciences, thereby ensuring the availability of digital data for use and reuse in scientific research going forward. This presentation will engage the AGU community in discussion about the needs for a new digital data repository service, specifically to inform the forthcoming GeoDaRRS workshop.

  13. Benchmark problems for repository siting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.; Thomas, S.D.; Lester, B.H.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes benchmark problems to test computer codes used in siting nuclear waste repositories. Analytical solutions, field problems, and hypothetical problems are included. Problems are included for the following types of codes: ground-water flow in saturated porous media, heat transport in saturated media, ground-water flow in saturated fractured media, heat and solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated fractured media, and solute transport in unsaturated porous media

  14. Waste repository planned for Bruce Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2004-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and Kincardine, the municipality nearest the Bruce site, have agreed in principal to the construction of a deep geologic repository for low and medium level radioactive waste on the site. The two parties signed the 'Kincardine Hosting Agreement' on October 13, 2004 to proceed with planning, seek regulatory approval and further public consultation of the proposed project. A construction Licence is not expected before 2013. (author)

  15. Repository-based software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    1992-01-01

    The activities performed during September 1992 in support of Tasks 01 and 02 of the Repository-Based Software Engineering Program are outlined. The recommendations and implementation strategy defined at the September 9-10 meeting of the Reuse Acquisition Action Team (RAAT) are attached along with the viewgraphs and reference information presented at the Institute for Defense Analyses brief on legal and patent issues related to software reuse.

  16. Repository waste-handling operations, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottam, A.E.; Connell, L.

    1986-04-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Mission Plan and the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geologic Disposal System state that beginning in 1998, commercial spent fuel not exceeding 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, or a quantity of solidified high-level radioactive waste resulting from the reprocessing of such a quantity of spent fuel, will be shipped to a deep geologic repository for permanent storage. The development of a waste-handling system that can process 3000 metric tons of heavy metal annually will require the adoption of a fully automated approach. The safety and minimum exposure of personnel will be the prime goals of the repository waste handling system. A man-out-of-the-loop approach will be used in all operations including the receipt of spent fuel in shipping casks, the inspection and unloading of the spent fuel into automated hot-cell facilities, the disassembly of spent fuel assemblies, the consolidation of fuel rods, and the packaging of fuel rods into heavy-walled site-specific containers. These containers are designed to contain the radionuclides for up to 1000 years. The ability of a repository to handle more than 6000 pressurized water reactor spent-fuel rods per day on a production basis for approximately a 23-year period will require that a systems approach be adopted that combines space-age technology, robotics, and sophisticated automated computerized equipment. New advanced inspection techniques, maintenance by robots, and safety will be key factors in the design, construction, and licensing of a repository waste-handling facility for 1998

  17. Towards an Open Repository of Teaching Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Millard, David; Howard, Yvonne; Wills, Gary; Watson, Julie; Arrebola, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe our work to create a set of usability tools for CLARE, an EPrints installation storing Learning Objects. These tools include Web 2.0 style presentation and comments, and a concept map browser. Although the evaluation of our tools was broadly positive, through workshops with the language teaching community we discovered that a Learning Object repository is too heavyweight to be used as an everyday tool for sharing learning resources. In this paper we present the new r...

  18. Using neural networks in software repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Srinivas, Kankanahalli; Boetticher, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first topic is an exploration of the use of neural network techniques to improve the effectiveness of retrieval in software repositories. The second topic relates to a series of experiments conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using adaptive neural networks as a means of deriving (or more specifically, learning) measures on software. Taken together, these two efforts illuminate a very promising mechanism supporting software infrastructures - one based upon a flexible and responsive technology.

  19. Geologic environments for nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleologos Evan K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level radioactive waste (HLW results from spent reactor fuel and reprocessed nuclear material. Since 1957 the scientific consensus is that deep geologic disposal constitutes the safest means for isolating HLW for long timescales. Nuclear power is becoming significant for the Arab Gulf countries as a way to diversify energy sources and drive economic developments. Hence, it is of interest to the UAE to examine the geologic environments currently considered internationally to guide site selection. Sweden and Finland are proceeding with deep underground repositories mined in bedrock at depths of 500m, and 400m, respectively. Equally, Canada’s proposals are deep burial in the plutonic rock masses of the Canadian Shield. Denmark and Switzerland are considering disposal of their relative small quantities of HLW into crystalline basement rocks through boreholes at depths of 5,000m. In USA, the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada lies at a depth of 300m in unsaturated layers of welded volcanic tuffs. Disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as well as the German HLW repository favour structurally-sound layered salt stata and domes. Our article provides a comprehensive review of the current concepts regarding HLW disposal together with some preliminary analysis of potentially appropriate geologic environments in the UAE.

  20. Salt repository project closeout status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE's) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Hydrothermal evolution of repository groundwaters in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters in the near field of a radioactive waste repository in basalt will change their chemical composition in response to reactions with the basalt. These reactions will be promoted by the heat generated by the decaying waste. It is important to predict both the rate and the extent of these reactions, and the secondary minerals produced, because the alteration process controls the chemical environment affecting the corrosion of the canister, the solubility and complexation of migrating radionuclides, the reactivity of the alteration products to radionuclides sorption, and the porosity and permeability of the host rock. A comprehensive review of the literature leads to the preliminary finding that hydrothermally altering basalts in geothermal regions such as Iceland lead to a secondary mineralogy and groundwater composition similar to that expected to surround a repository. Furthermore, laboratory experiments replicating the alteration conditions approximate those observed in the field and expected in a repository. Preliminary estimates were made of the rate of hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass and the zero-order dissolution rate of basaltic materials. The rates were compared with those for rhyolitic glasses and silicate minerals. Preliminary calculations made of mixed process alteration kinetics, involving pore diffusion and surface reaction suggest that at temperatures greater than 150 0 C, alteration proceeds so rapidly as to become pervasive in normally fractured basalt exposed to higher temperatures in the field. 70 references

  2. Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay

  3. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R and D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''

  4. Stress-corrosion-cracking studies on candidate container alloys for the Tuff Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, J.A.; Durr, C.L.

    1992-05-01

    Cortest Columbus Technologies, Inc. (CC Technologies) investigated the long-term performance of container materials used for high-level waste package as part of the information needed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the Department of Energy's application to construct to geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. At the direction of the NRC, the program focused on the Tuff Repository. This report summarizes the results of Stress-Corrosion-Cracking (SCC) studies performed in Tasks 3, 5, and 7 of the program. Two test techniques were used; U-bend exposures and Slow-Strain-Rate (SSR) tests. The testing was performed on two copper-base alloys (Alloy CDA 102 and Alloy CDA 175) and two Fe-Cr-Ni alloys (Alloy 304L and Alloy 825) in simulated J-13 groundwater and other simulated solutions for the Tuff Repository. These solutions were designed to simulate the effects of concentration and irradiation on the groundwater composition. All SCC testing on the Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys was performed on solution-annealed specimens and thus issues such as the effect of sensitization on SCC were not addressed

  5. Information about activity, status and radiation conditions of Republic radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidumarov, P.

    2000-01-01

    All radioactive wastes in the Republic of Uzbekistan are stored in the Republic Radioactive Waste Repository in Parkent district of Tashkent region. In the facility there are 2 tanks for solid radioactive waste, each of 800 m 3 , one of them is full, second is in operation; 2 tanks for liquid radioactive waste each tank of 200 m 3 , both of them are empty; 6 storages, each of 3 m 3 all of them are empty; 3 storages for spent radioactive sources, one of them is full, 2 of them are in operation; 4 storages for high level radioactive waste, each storage of 3.5 m 3 , one of them is in operation, 3 are empty; one sealed storage containing 135 m 3 of concrete blocks with waste from electronic industry. According to conclusions of a few competent examinations RRWR does not cause damage to the environment. Geographic location and technical conditions of the repository are satisfactory. Low deposition of underground water (62 m) excludes penetration of radioisotopes. There were no radiation accidents during the repository operation

  6. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  7. New Roles, New Responsibilities: Examining Training Needs of Repository Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Simons

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories play a critical role in the research lifecycle. Funding agencies are increasingly seeking an improved return on their investment in research. Repositories facilitate this process by providing storage of, and access to, institutional research outputs and, more recently, research data. While repositories are generally managed within the academic library, repository staff require different skills and knowledge compared with traditional library roles. This study reports on a survey of Australasian institutional repository staff to identify skills and knowledge sets. METHODS Institutional repository staff working at universities in Australia and New Zealand were invited to participate in an online survey which incorporated both open and closed-ended question types. RESULTS The survey found significant gaps in the current provision of formal training and coursework related to institutional repositories, which echoed findings in the United Kingdom, Italy, and the United States. DISCUSSION There is clearly a need for more and varied training opportunities for repository professionals. Repository work requires a specific set of skills that can be difficult to find and institutions will benefit from investing in training and ongoing development opportunities for repository staff. CONCLUSION The data from this study could be used to facilitate staff recruitment, development, training, and retention strategies.

  8. Data repositories for medical education research: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan; Pappas, Cleo; Sandlow, Leslie J

    2010-05-01

    The authors explore issues surrounding digital repositories with the twofold intention of clarifying their creation, structure, content, and use, and considering the implementation of a global digital repository for medical education research data sets-an online site where medical education researchers would be encouraged to deposit their data in order to facilitate the reuse and reanalysis of the data by other researchers. By motivating data sharing and reuse, investigators, medical schools, and other stakeholders might see substantial benefits to their own endeavors and to the progress of the field of medical education.The authors review digital repositories in medicine, social sciences, and education, describe the contents and scope of repositories, and present extant examples. The authors describe the potential benefits of a medical education data repository and report results of a survey of the Society for Directors of Research in Medicine Education, in which participants responded to questions about data sharing and a potential data repository. Respondents strongly endorsed data sharing, with the caveat that principal investigators should choose whether or not to share data they collect. A large majority believed that a repository would benefit their unit and the field of medical education. Few reported using existing repositories. Finally, the authors consider challenges to the establishment of such a repository, including taxonomic organization, intellectual property concerns, human subjects protection, technological infrastructure, and evaluation standards. The authors conclude with recommendations for how a medical education data repository could be successfully developed.

  9. Resonance Raman investigation of the radical cation of 1,3,5-hexatriene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keszhelyi, T.; Wilbrandt, R.; Cave, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of the 1,3,5-hexatriene radical cation generated by gamma-irradiation in a Freon glass is reported. The spectrum is excited at 395 nm in resonance with the second absorption band. Identical spectra are obtained from ionized (E)- and (Z)-1,3,5-hexatriene. The presence...

  10. Synthesis and inhibitory effect on photosynthetic electron transport of 1,3,5-triazinylcarboxylic acid derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujimori, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Okano, R.; Hiraki, M.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Boger, P.; Kohno, H.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study relates to the modification of 2-benzylamino-4-methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-1,3,5-triazine. New 1,3,5-triazine compounds with an electron-withdrawing carboxyl group, e.g. ester group, substituted for the trifluoromethyl group, were synthesized and assayed for activity to inhibit

  11. 3',5'-diiodothyronine in health and disease: studies by a radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, I.J.; Geola, F.; Solomon, D.H.; Maciel, R.M.B.

    1978-01-01

    An RIA has been developed for 3'5'-diiiodothyronine (3',5'-T 2 ) in unextracted serum. Interference in binding of radioactive 3',5'-T 2 to anti-3',5'-T 2 was minimized by using phosphate buffer and merthiolate. The detection threshold of the RIA was 2.5 ng/dl. Recovery of nonradioactive 3',5'-T 2 averaged 99%. T 4 , T 3 , and rT 3 cross-reacted with anti-3',5'-T 2 antibody 0.0025, 2 concentrations in ng/dl were 2.4 in 53 normal subjects, 4.2 in 7 hypothyroid patients, 14.9 in 34 hyperthyroid patients, 13.5 in 25 patients with hepatic cirrhosis, and 14.3 in 31 newborns' cord blood serum. The values for the latter four groups were significantly different from normal. The serum 3',5'-T 2 concentration of 7.7 ng/dl in eight subjects in the third trimester of pregnancy did not differ from normal when serum T 4 and T 3 were elevated. Oral administration of 300 μg rT 3 to 9 normal subjects led to an increase in serum 3'5'-T 2 concentration of 45% at 1h. Total fasting in 3 obese subjects was associated with an increase in serum 3',5'-T 2 from 8.6 to 16.3 ng/dl at 6 to 8 days; rT 3 increased similarly, while T 3 decreased and T 4 did not change. Administration of dexamethasone to 4 hyperthyroid patients was associated with nearly parallel increases in serum 3',5'-T 2 and rT 3 and a decrease in T 3 . The 3',5'-T 2 concentrations in amniotic fluids were 15.2 ng/dl at 15 to 20 weeks gestation and 5.8 ng/dl at 33 to 40 weeks. Pronase hydrolysates of 9 normal thyroid glands contained 350 μgT 4 and 0.24 μg 3',5'-T 2 /g wet wt. It was estimated that thyroidal secretion contributes 2 in serum of normal man. The data suggest that 3',5'-T 2 is a normal component of human serum and almost all 3',5'-T 2 in serum derives from extrathyroidal sources

  12. Measurement of free thyroxine or free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in a liquid sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertl, W.; Ward, F.B.; Weetall, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoassay method is described for the direct measurement of free thyroxine or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in a liquid sample in which the thyroxine or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine is present in both free and combined states. The sample is combined with a labelled thyroxine- or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate which does not significantly interact with thyroxine-binding globulin, thyroxine-binding prealbumin and immobilised antibody which is specific for thyroxine or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine. After incubation, the solid phase is separated from the liquid phase and the amount of labelled thyroxine- or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate present in either phase is measured by determining the activity of the label. (author)

  13. Microbial biodegradation and toxicity of vinclozolin and its toxic metabolite 3,5-dichloroaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Bok; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sik; Jo, Min-Sub; Jeon, Chun-Pyo; Jang, Jong-Ok; Kim, Jang-Eok; Kwon, Gi-Seok

    2008-02-01

    Vinclozolin, an endocrine disrupting chemical, is a chlorinated fungicide widely used to control fungal diseases. However, its metabolite 3,5-dichloroaniline is more toxic and persistent than the parent vinclozolin. For the biodegradation of vinclozolin, vinclozolin- and/or 3,5-dichloroaniline-degrading bacteria were isolated from pesticide-polluted agriculture soil. Among the isolated bacteria, a Rhodococcus sp. was identified from a 16S rDNA sequence analysis and named Rhodococcus sp. T1-1. The degradation ratios for vinclozolin or 3,5- dichloroaniline in a minimal medium containing vinclozolin (200 microg/ml) or 3,5-dichloroaniline (120 microg/ml) were 90% and 84.1%, respectively. Moreover, Rhodococcus sp. T1-1 also showed an effective capability to biodegrade dichloroaniline isomers on enrichment cultures in which they were contained. Therefore, these results suggest that Rhodococcus sp. T1-1 can bioremediate vinclozolin as well as 3,5-dichloroaniline.

  14. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate-Rich Membrane Domains in Endosomes and Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho; Tatematsu, Tsuyako; Cheng, Jinglei; Matsumoto, Jun; Akano, Takuya; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2 ) has critical functions in endosomes and lysosomes. We developed a method to define nanoscale distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 using freeze-fracture electron microscopy. GST-ATG18-4×FLAG was used to label PtdIns(3,5)P2 and its binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) was blocked by an excess of the p40(phox) PX domain. In yeast exposed to hyperosmotic stress, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was concentrated in intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient domains in the vacuolar membrane, which made close contact with adjacent membranes. The IMP-deficient domain was also enriched with PtdIns(3)P, but was deficient in Vph1p, a liquid-disordered domain marker. In yeast lacking either PtdIns(3,5)P2 or its effector, Atg18p, the IMP-deficient, PtdIns(3)P-rich membranes were folded tightly to make abnormal tubular structures, thus showing where the vacuolar fragmentation process is arrested when PtdIns(3,5)P2 metabolism is defective. In HeLa cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was significantly enriched in the vesicular domain of RAB5- and RAB7-positive endosome/lysosomes of the tubulo-vesicular morphology. This biased distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 was also observed using fluorescence microscopy, which further showed enrichment of a retromer component, VPS35, in the tubular domain. This is the first report to show segregation of PtdIns(3,5)P2 -rich and -deficient domains in endosome/lysosomes, which should be important for endosome/lysosome functionality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Post-closure radiation dose assessment for Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Mingyan; Zhang Xiabin; Yang Chuncai

    2006-01-01

    A brief introduction of post-closure long-term radiation safety assessment results was represented for the yucca mountain high-level waste geographic disposal repository. In 1 million years after repository closure, for the higher temperature repository operating mode, the peak annual dose would be 150 millirem (120 millirem under the lower-temperature operating mode) to a reasonably maximally exposed individual approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) from the repository. The analysis of a drilling intrusion event occurring at 30,000 years indicated a peak of the mean annual dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) downstream of the repository would be 0.002 millirem. The analysis of an igneous activity scenario, including a volcanic eruption event and igneous intrusion event indicated a peak of the mean annual dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual approximately 18 kilometers downstream of the repository would be 0.1 millirem. (authors)

  16. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-01-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking

  17. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  18. An open data repository and a data processing software toolset of an equivalent Nordic grid model matched to historical electricity market data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Vanfretti

    2017-04-01

    This Nordic 44 equivalent model was also used in iTesla project (iTesla [3] to carry out simulations within a dynamic security assessment toolset (iTesla, 2016 [4], and has been further enhanced during the ITEA3 OpenCPS project (iTEA3 [5]. The raw, processed data and output models utilized within the iTesla platform (iTesla, 2016 [4] are also available in the repository. The CIM and Modelica snapshots of the “Nordic 44” model for the year 2015 are available in a Zenodo repository.

  19. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE POTENTIAL REPOSITORY HORIZON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. BEAN

    2004-09-27

    The primary purpose of this report is to assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of bulk thermal conductivity in the host horizon for the repository at Yucca Mountain. More specifically, the lithostratigraphic units studied are located within the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) and consist of the upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul), the middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn), the lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll), and the lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln). Design plans indicate that approximately 81 percent of the repository will be excavated in the Tptpll, approximately 12 percent in the Tptpmn, and the remainder in the Tptul and Tptpln (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168370]). This report provides three-dimensional geostatistical estimates of the bulk thermal conductivity for the four stratigraphic layers of the repository horizon. The three-dimensional geostatistical estimates of matrix and lithophysal porosity, dry bulk density, and matrix thermal conductivity are also provided. This report provides input to various models and calculations that simulate heat transport through the rock mass. These models include the ''Drift Degradation Analysis, Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model, Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms, Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'', and ''Drift Scale THM Model''. These models directly or indirectly provide input to the total system performance assessment (TSPA). The main distinguishing characteristic among the lithophysal and nonlithophysal units is the percentage of large-scale (centimeters-meters) voids within the rock. The Tptpul and Tptpll, as their names suggest, have a higher percentage of lithophysae than the Tptpmn and the Tptpln. Understanding the influence of the lithophysae is of great importance to understanding bulk thermal conductivity.

  20. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (YMP 2000a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6)

  1. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, P.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (CRWMS M and O 2000b) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) engineering design basis in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The engineering design basis documented in the PDD is to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the engineering design basis from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the engineering design basis captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 2-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1),the Engineering Design Bases (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6)

  2. Institutional Repository Sebagai Sarana Komunikasi Ilmiah Yang Sustainable Dan Reliable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizuddin Harliansyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract; Institutional repositories development has drawn the attention of many scholars throughout the world. Using the keywords ‘institutional repositories’, there are over 300 peer-reviewed articles related on the topic has been indexed in Library, Information Science, & Technology Abstracts (LISTA and SCOPUS. There are also hundreds of theses, dissertations, and websites dedicated on this blooming trends. These are proofs that the importance of IR in higher education has been acknowledged by many professionals in the field. This paper aims at clarifying the role of repositories in strengthening scholarly communication in higher education and research institution and explaining some basic repositories concepts (types of repositories and their characteristics, as well as exploring its relations with open access movement, the development ideas, and resources that could be kept in repositories and deposit policies. Abstrak; Pengembangan institutional repositories telah banyak menyita perhatian dari kalangan ilmiah di seluruh dunia. Melalui kata kunci ‘institutional repositories’, ada lebih dari 300 artikel terulas mitra bestari yang berhubungan dengan topik ini, yang telah terindeks di Library, Information Science, & Technology Abstracts (LISTA, dan SCOPUS. Terdapat juga ratusan tesis, disertasi, dan website yang mengulas trend ini. Inilah bukti bahwa pentingnya institutional repositories (IR telah dipahami oleh para profesional di bidangnya. Tulisan ini akan menjelaskan aturan-aturan repository dalam memperkuat komunikasi ilmiah di perguruan tinggi dan lembaga riset, menjelaskan konsep-konsep dasar repositories, termasuk tipe-tipe repository dan karakteristiknya. Tulisan ini juga akan memperdalam konsep repositories dalam hubungannya dengan gerakan open access, pengembangan ide-ide, sumber-sumber ilmiah yang dapat disimpan di repositories, serta kebijakan penyimpanan di dalamnya.

  3. Radionuclide getters in the near-field chemistry of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, T.R.; Lee, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The ultimate release of radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository will depend upon the natural and man-made barriers surrounding the site. An opportunity exists to enhance natural radionuclide retention through improved sorption, by the use of suitable additives applied to the repository backfill material. This programme of work was designed to identify problem isotopes, to search for suitable materials to enhance their retention and ultimately to provide, through experimental studies, an understanding of their effectiveness under repository conditions. (Author)

  4. United States Crystalline Repository Project - key research areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patera, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Crystalline Repository Project is responsible for siting the second high-level nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock for the US Department of Energy. A methodology is being developed to define data and information needs and a way to evaluate that information. The areas of research the Crystalline Repository Project is involved in include fluid flow in a fractured network, coupled thermal, chemical and flow processes and cooperation in other nations and OECD research programs

  5. Multinational/regional repository - an illusion or solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.

    2006-01-01

    The concept and current status of multinational and regional repositories are presented in the paper. Particular emphasis is given to the results and findings of the recent EU project SAPIERR, investigating the feasibility of regional repository concepts in Europe. Prospects for further development of multinational repositories are also brought forward and the impact and potential benefits of this approach to our national disposal programme are discussed as well. (author)

  6. Novel Reaction of N,N'-Bisarylmethanediamines with Formaldehyde. Synthesis of Some New 1,3,5-Triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Olyaei

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2- pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa- hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino- pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyldimethylenetriamine (7a as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated.

  7. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  8. Thermal dimensioning of spent fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2009-09-01

    This report contains the temperature dimensioning of the KBS-3V type nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto for the BWR, VVER and EPR fuel canisters, which are disposed at vertical position in the horizontal tunnels in a rectangular geometry according to the preliminary Posiva plan. This report concerns only the temperature dimensioning of the repository and does not take into account the possible restrictions caused by the stresses induced in the rock. The maximum temperature on the canister-bentonite interface is limited to the design temperature of +100 deg C. However, due to uncertainties in thermal analysis parameters (like scattering in rock conductivity or in predicted decay power) the allowable calculated maximum canister temperature is set to 90 deg C causing a safety margin of 10 deg C. The allowable temperature is controlled by adjusting the space between adjacent canisters, adjacent tunnels and the pre-cooling time affecting on power of the canisters. The temperature of canister surfaces can be determined by superposing analytic line heat source models much more efficiently than by numerical analysis, if the analytic model is first calibrated by numerical analysis (by control volume method). This was done by comparing the surface temperatures of a single canister calculated numerically and analytically. For the Olkiluoto repository of one panel having 900 canisters of BWR, VVER and EPR spent fuel was analyzed. The analyses were performed with an initial canister power of 1 700 W, 1 370 W and 1 830 W, respectively. These decay heats are obtained when the pre-cooling times of the fuels are 32.9, 29.6 and 50.3 years (the burn-up values 40, 40 and 50 MWd/kgU, respectively). The analyses gave as a result the canister spacing (6.0-10.8 m), when the tunnel spacing was 25 m, 30 m or 40 m. On the edge areas of the panel with constant canister spacing the temperatures of the canisters are lower than in the middle area of the repository. Thus it is possible to pack

  9. Digital Repository as Instrument for Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakopov, Zaven N.

    2016-03-01

    In the modern technologically advanced world, implicit knowledge, but also certain manifestations of tacit knowledge, is accumulated primarily in digital form, increasing the dependence of Knowledge Management (KM) on tools and specifically on digital content management platforms and repositories. The latter, powered by subject classification system such as a thesaurus or an ontology, can form a complete Knowledge Organization System (KOS). The purpose of this paper is to describe and (re)define the role of these systems as an integral part of KM, and present an example of such a KOS, including its major role in knowledge preservation. (author)

  10. Zircaloy cladding degradation under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, L.; Raghavan, S.; Chin, B.A.

    1990-12-01

    Creep, a potential degradation mechanism of Zircaloy cladding after repository disposal of spent nuclear fuel, has been investigated. The deformation and fracture map methodology has been used to predict maximum allowable initial storage temperatures to achieve a thousand year life without rupture as a function of spent-fuel history. Maximum allowable temperatures are 340 degree C (613 K) for typically stressed rods (70--100 MPa) and 300 degree C (573 K) for highly stressed rods (140--160 MPa). 10 refs., 2 figs

  11. Microbial processes in a clay repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canniere, Pierre de [Federal Agency of Nuclear Control (FANC), Brussels (Belgium); Meleshyn, Artur [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The safety of a deep geologic repository (DGR) for nuclear waste must be ensured for geological times exceeding human imagination taking into account large uncertainties. The long-term effects of complex biogeochemical processes potentially affecting the integrity and the long-term safety of engineered barriers might still be unknown. The aim of this presentation is to give a general overview of some microbial processes which have contributed to shape the Earth since probably billions of years and whose unexpected consequences for nuclear waste disposal should be appropriately tackled. (orig.)

  12. Gas evolution and migration in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.H.

    1989-05-01

    Significant volumes of gas will be formed in a repository due to corrosion of metallic wastes and microbial degradation of certain organic wastes. This review sets out the progress that has been made over the last year in understanding the extent of formation of gas and its migration through the near and far fields and the effects these could give rise to. Topics where information is still required are also identified. This paper updates the Current Status review prepared in early 1988 and published as NSS/G104. (author)

  13. Situation concerning the HLW repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempert, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste has been defined in Germany as: maintenance-free, safe emplacement of radioactive waste, time unlimited and no intention of retrievability. The responsibility for final disposal lies in the hands of the German Federal Government, which has assigned a federal authority to plan, erect and operate the federal facilities for long-term storage of nuclear waste. The federal authority has in lack of industrial experience contracted my company DBE which is responsible for the engineering, erection and operation of all German nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  14. Hydrogen modelling for vitrified wastes repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinis, S.; Breton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Safety assessments for High Level Wastes (HLW) have led ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs) to study the occurrence of a gas production rate in a repository. This paper deals with the description of an analytical model used for the gas production rate assessment and brings us the first results. The geometry used is restrained to a single borehole associated with a drift in a crystalline formation. Different concepts were studied in this assessment. First results have been obtained. For example, in the case of a permeable plug, the saturation time of the borehole is about 300 years. 5 refs., 5 figs

  15. Strategic management of HLW repository projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to strategic management of HLW repository projects based on the premise that a primary objective of project activities is resolution of issues. The approach would be implemented by establishing an issues management function with responsibility to define the issues agenda, develop and apply the tools for assessing progress toward issue resolution, and develop the issue resolution criteria. A principal merit of the approach is that it provides a defensible rationale for project plans and activities. It also helps avoid unnecessary costs and schedule delays, and it helps assure coordination between project functions that share responsibilities for issue resolution

  16. A Framework for Integrating Oceanographic Data Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Fox, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanographic research covers a broad range of science domains and requires a tremendous amount of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Advances in cyberinfrastructure are making it easier to share data across disciplines through the use of web services and community vocabularies. Best practices in the design of web services and vocabularies to support interoperability amongst science data repositories are only starting to emerge. Strategic design decisions in these areas are crucial to the creation of end-user data and application integration tools. We present S2S, a novel framework for deploying customizable user interfaces to support the search and analysis of data from multiple repositories. Our research methods follow the Semantic Web methodology and technology development process developed by Fox et al. This methodology stresses the importance of close scientist-technologist interactions when developing scientific use cases, keeping the project well scoped and ensuring the result meets a real scientific need. The S2S framework motivates the development of standardized web services with well-described parameters, as well as the integration of existing web services and applications in the search and analysis of data. S2S also encourages the use and development of community vocabularies and ontologies to support federated search and reduce the amount of domain expertise required in the data discovery process. S2S utilizes the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to describe the components of the framework, including web service parameters, and OpenSearch as a standard description for web services, particularly search services for oceanographic data repositories. We have created search services for an oceanographic metadata database, a large set of quality-controlled ocean profile measurements, and a biogeographic search service. S2S provides an application programming interface (API) that can be used to generate custom user interfaces, supporting data and application

  17. Safeguarding Structural Data Repositories against Bad Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Wladek; Dauter, Zbigniew; Helliwell, John R; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2016-02-02

    Structural biology research generates large amounts of data, some deposited in public databases or repositories, but a substantial remainder never becomes available to the scientific community. In addition, some of the deposited data contain less or more serious errors that may bias the results of data mining. Thorough analysis and discussion of these problems is needed to ameliorate this situation. This perspective is an attempt to propose some solutions and encourage both further discussion and action on the part of the relevant organizations, in particular the PDB and various bodies of the International Union of Crystallography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Complex geologic characterization of the repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, T R [British Petroleum Research Center, Sunberry, England; Szymanski, J S

    1982-01-01

    The present basis for characterizing geological environments is identified in this paper, and the additional requirements imposed by the need to isolate high-level waste safely are discussed. Solutions to these additional requirements are proposed. The time scale of concern and the apparent complexity of the required multidisciplinary approach are identified. It is proposed that an increased use of the geologic record, together with a recognition that all geologic processes operate within an interdependent system, be a key feature in geologic characterization of deep repositories.

  19. New content in digital repositories the changing research landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Research institutions are under pressure to make their outputs more accessible in order to meet funding requirements and policy guidelines. Libraries have traditionally played an important role by exposing research output through a predominantly institution-based digital repository, with an emphasis on storing published works. New publishing paradigms are emerging that include research data, huge volumes of which are being generated globally. Repositories are the natural home for managing, storing and describing institutional research content. New Content in Digital Repositories explores the diversity of content types being stored in digital repositories with a focus on research data, creative works, and the interesting challenges they pose.

  20. Effects of repository conditions on environmental impact reduction by recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts (EI) of high-level wastes (HLW) disposed of in a water-saturated repository (WSR) and in the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) for various fuel cycle cases have been evaluated and compared to observe the difference in the recycling effects for differing repository conditions. With the impacts of direct spent fuel disposal in each repository as the reference level, separation of actinides by Urex+ and borosilicate vitrification clearly reduces the environmental impacts of YMR, while separation by Purex and borosilicate vitrification would not necessarily reduce the environmental impact of WSR. (authors)

  1. Oceanographic Data Repositories: An Analysis of the International Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Couto Corrêa da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The preservation and organization of oceanographic research data enables the scientific community to consult and reuse information of different kinds, and this is made possible by the repositories, meaning the services that facilitate data storage and dissemination. This paper reviews the current situation of oceanographic data repositories across different countries and evaluates them according to a series of indicators. The writers propose that although interest in storing and reusing oceanographic data has increased in recent years, the repositories are still in the process of developing their systems for processing, disseminating and reusing data. The repositories also differ in terms of architecture and the organizational level of the content they offer.

  2. Preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles and isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, hydrazines, and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, Ryo; Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Togo, Hideo

    2014-03-07

    The reaction of terminal alkynes with n-BuLi, and then with aldehydes, followed by the treatment with molecular iodine, and subsequently hydrazines or hydroxylamine provided the corresponding 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles or isoxazoles in good yields with high regioselectivity, through the formations of propargyl secondary alkoxides and α-alkynyl ketones. The present reactions are one-pot preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydrazines, and 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydroxylamine.

  3. Preparation of folic acid specifically labeled with deuterium at the 3',5'-positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, J.F. III; Toth, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    A method was devised for the synthesis of 3', 5'-[ 2 H 2 ]folic acid (d 2 -folic acid) for use in studies of folate metabolism in human beings. Labeling was accomplished by catalytic dehalogenation of 3', 5'-dibromofolate with deuterium gas and palladium/carbon catalyst. d 2 -Folic acid was separated from reduced forms and residual 3'-monobromofolate by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. Analysis by proton NMR and mass spectrometry indicated 70-75% deuteration of the 3',5'-positions and lack of deuteration at other carbons. (author)

  4. SFR 1 Vault Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, David; Stenhouse, Mike

    2002-04-01

    SKB is carrying out a safety assessment of the operational SFR 1 repository under the auspices of the 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste) project. SKI in turn, is carrying out its own review of SFR 1. The work presented here is a compilation of physical and chemical data for the SFR 1 repository which will be used in radionuclide transport and assessment calculations by SKI. This compilation has focused on the repository itself (engineered barriers plus near-field rock). Data have been compiled for the following: Physical properties (porosity, hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, effective diffusivity); Sorption of radionuclides (on concrete, sand, bentonite, sand-bentonite, and rock); Radionuclide solubility. In addition, issues affecting gas generation at SFR I have been reviewed and placed in context with research conducted for the SFL 3-5 repository

  5. Digital Repositories An investigation of best practices for content recruitment to academic digital repositories and the conditions for their livelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Reidun Anette

    2009-01-01

    A digital repository is a web accessible database, aimed at preserving the research material of an institution or scientific community. A digital repository serves as a tool for dissemination of research material and can increase the impact of the research by making it freely accessible. Digital repositories are often mentioned as a possible aid in relation to the Open Access debate; how research material should be freely accessible to anyone, anywhere at any time. However, for a digital repository to fully unleash its potential as a crucial component of Open Access, it is reliant on the ability to successfully collect and organize content. To a large extent this involves initiating self-archiving of research material by scientists throughout the academic world. This is not a trivial task, and many current repositories are inadequate in this respect, remaining empty, unvisited shelves. This thesis explores best practices for content recruitment to digital repositories, through the review of literature, and an...

  6. The Ec prototype repository project: implications of assessments for refining repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svemar, C.

    2004-01-01

    The most important issue in the evaluation of the repository performance is the long term safety of the repository. Analyses for this issue focuses on the 'steady state' conditions which start at the time when the repository has been saturated and the groundwater table returned to its normal level. The bentonite buffer around the canisters is saturated and homogeneous, and the canister is located exactly in the centre of the buffer. The backfill in the tunnel has been saturated as well and fills the earlier open spaces in the tunnel completely. The task of the activities taking places prior to the start of the 'steady state' conditions, like excavation, deposition, backfilling and sealing, with due consideration to the processes a consequences they may cause in the long run, is to provide for these 'ideal' conditions, as close as possible. While studying these activities in detail it has become obvious that development of methods and techniques needs to be carefully addressed before the decision is made on how to apply them in the repository. One general finding is that the situation in engineering of details is not that much different from the situation in geological characterisation of a site in detail; one more detail of engineering and the consequences it brings often complicates the situation rather than supports the solution prioritized so far. Many of the practical issues have been studied in the Prototype Repository project in the AEspoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Pusch et al., 2000). The Prototype Repository consists of two sections with four respectively two deposition holes with bentonite buffer and canister, the latter holding electrical heaters. The sections are separated by a concrete plug, and the whole test is to be separated from the rest of the laboratory by an outer plug. The project has two objectives: 1. To demonstrate the integrated function of tile deep repository components under realistic conditions and to compare results with models and

  7. Technical basis for high-level waste repository land control requirements for Palo Duro Basin, Paradox Basin, and Richton Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.P.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-02-01

    Three sites, the Palo Duro Basin in Texas, the Paradox Basin in Utah, and the Richton Dome in Mississippi, are being investigated by the US Department of Energy for high-level radioactive-waste disposal in mined, deep geologic repositories in salt. This report delineates the use of regulatory, engineering, and performance assessment information to establish the technical basis for controlled area requirements. Based on the size of the controlled area determined, plus that of the geologic repository operations area, recommendations of possible land control or ownership area requirements for each locale are provided. On a technical basis, the following minimum land control or ownership requirements are recommended, assuming repository operations area of 2240 ac (907 ha), or 3.5 mi 2 (9.1 km 2 ): Palo Duro Basin - 4060 ac (1643 ha), or 6.3 mi 2 (16.4 km 2 ); Paradox Basin - 4060 ac (1643 ha), or 6.3 mi 2 (16.4 km 2 ); and Richton Dome - 5000 ac (2024 ha), or 7.8 mi 2 (20.2 km 2 ). Of the factors used to determine the technically based recommendations, one was found to dominate each locale. For the Palo Duro and Paradox Basins, the dominant factor was the need to limit potential radionuclide release by ground-water flow to the accessible environment. For the Richton Dome, the dominant factor was the need to limit the potential effects of solution mining on dome and repository integrity

  8. DOG -II input generator program for DOT3.5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Koubun; Kamogawa, Susumu; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Koizumi, Kouichi; Seki, Yasushi

    1992-01-01

    DOT3.5 is widely used for radiation transport analysis of fission reactors, fusion experimental facilities and particle accelerators. We developed the input generator program for DOT3.5 code in aim to prepare input data effectively. Formar program DOG was developed and used internally in Hitachi Engineering Company. In this new version DOG-II, limitation for R-Θ geometry was removed. All the input data is created by interactive method in front of color display without using DOT3.5 manual. Also the geometry related input are easily created without calculation of precise curved mesh point. By using DOG-II, reliable input data for DOT3.5 code is obtained easily and quickly

  9. Spent fuel performance in geologic repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    The performance assessment of the waste package is a current area of study in the United States program to develop a geologic repository for nuclear waste isolation. The waste package is presently envisioned as the waste form and its surrounding containers and possibly a packing material composed of crushed host rock or mixtures of that rock with clays. This waste package is tied to performance criteria set forth in recent legislation. It is the goal of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to obtain the necessary information on the waste package, in several geologic environments, to show that the waste package provides reasonable assurance of meeting established performance criteria. This paper discusses the United States program directed toward managing high-level radioactive waste, with emphasis on the current effort to define the behavior of irradiated spent fuel in repository groundwaters. Current studies are directed toward understanding the rate and nature (such as valence state, colloid form if any, solid phase controlling solubility) of radionuclide release from the spent fuel. Due to the strong interactive effect of radiation, thermal fields, and waste package components on this release, current spent fuel studies are being conducted primarily in the presence of waste package components over a wide range of potential environments

  10. Monitored Geologic Repository Concept of Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This updated document provides the top level guidance for development of the individual systems for the MGR which will be further developed in the System Description Documents. This document will serve as guidance for the development of functional interface and operational requirements. However, the data and engineering values presented in Monitored Geologic Repository Concept of Operations are provided as estimates or summaries of the current design. The original analyses or supporting documents must be utilized if the data or engineering values are used for design inputs. The concepts presented will be utilized as inputs for the development of operational concepts for the individual systems. It is recognized that the references listed may contain existing data or data which are to be verified. However, the data and engineering values presented will not impact the concepts presented in this technical document. As such, the data and engineering values are not being tracked as To Be Verified data. This revision was created to incorporate changes resulting from Enhanced Design Alternative II and Revision 3, DCN 01, of the Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements (YMP 1999)

  11. Learning object repositories as knowledge management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Sampson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, a number of international initiatives that recognize the importance of sharing and reusing digital educational resources among educational communities through the use of Learning Object Repositories (LORs have emerged. Typically, these initiatives focus on collecting digital educational resources that are offered by their creators for open access and potential reuse. Nevertheless, most of the existing LORs are designed more as digital repositories, rather than as Knowledge Management Systems (KMS. By exploiting KMSs functionalities in LORs would bare the potential to support the organization and sharing of educational communities’ explicit knowledge (depicted in digital educational resources constructed by teachers and/or instructional designers and tacit knowledge (depicted in teachers’ and students’ experiences and interactions of using digital educational resources available in LORs. Within this context, in this paper we study the design and the implementation of fourteen operating LORs from the KMSs’ perspective, so as to identify additional functionalities that can support the management of educational communities’ explicit and tacit knowledge. Thus, we propose a list of essential LORs’ functionalities, which aim to facilitate the organization and sharing of educational communities’ knowledge. Finally, we present the added value of these functionalities by identifying their importance towards addressing the current demands of web-facilitated educational communities, as well as the knowledge management activities that they execute.

  12. Commercial nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Patricio, J.G.; Heley, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is an ongoing research and engineering effort being conducted by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell), which is under contract to the US Department of Energy. The objectives of this program are to assess the feasibility of and to provide the technology needed to design and construct a licensed commercial nuclear waste repository in the deep basalt formations underlying the Hanford Site. An extensive preconceptual design effort was undertaken during 1979 to develop a feasible concept that could serve as a reference design for both surface and underground facilities. The preconceptual design utilized existing technology to the greatest extent possible to offer a system design that could be utilized in establishing schedule and cost baseline data, recommend alternatives that require additional study, and develop basic design requirements that would allow evolution of the design process prior to the existence of legislated criteria. This paper provides a description of the concept developed for the subsurface aspects of this nuclear waste repository

  13. Environmentally assisted cracking mechanisms in repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1987-02-01

    This paper assesses how environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) mechanisms in candidate container materials can be identified to enhance the accuracy of long-term projections of performance in the repository. In low and intermediate strength steels, the role of the two principal mechanisms, slip dissolution/film rupture (SD/FR) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), is a very complex and controversial issue. No unanimity exists concerning the operative cracking mechanisms, and there is no unique or rigorous approach that would be persuasive in selecting an appropriate model. Both of the proposed mechanisms have common rate controlling processes such as surface adsorption rate, passivation rate, and oxidation rupture rate, which makes it difficult to identify the operative mechanism. Development of a quantitative model for predicting environmental effects for low-carbon steels in repository environments would provide a theoretical basis for assuring the long-term structural integrity of waste-package containment. To date, only one quantitative model has been developed. The agreement between predicted and observed behavior suggests that SD/FR processes control the environmental acceleration in crack growth rates for this class of materials. Deviations from predicted behavior due to HE effects should be uncovered experimentally. 59 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Salt Repository Project transportation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.L.; Greenberg, A.H.; Anderson, T.L.; Yates, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs

  15. Sample management implementation plan: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Sample Management Implementation Plan is to define management controls and building requirements for handling materials collected during the site characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. This work will be conducted for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO). The plan provides for controls mandated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Salt Repository Project (SRP) Sample Management will interface with program participants who request, collect, and test samples. SRP Sample Management will be responsible for the following: (1) preparing samples; (2) ensuring documentation control; (3) providing for uniform forms, labels, data formats, and transportation and storage requirements; and (4) identifying sample specifications to ensure sample quality. The SRP Sample Management Facility will be operated under a set of procedures that will impact numerous program participants. Requesters of samples will be responsible for definition of requirements in advance of collection. Sample requests for field activities will be approved by the SRPO, aided by an advisory group, the SRP Sample Allocation Committee. This document details the staffing, building, storage, and transportation requirements for establishing an SRP Sample Management Facility. Materials to be managed in the facility include rock core and rock discontinuities, soils, fluids, biota, air particulates, cultural artifacts, and crop and food stuffs. 39 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate binding proteins in Hartmannella culbertsoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, A.K.; Krishna Murti, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    When 100, 000 g supernatant fractions of homogenates of Hartmannella culbertsoni were incubated with ('- 3 H)-cyclic adenosine 3 : 5 monophosphate and passed through a sephadex G-100 column, radioactivity appeared with protein fractions eluted after the void colume. About 75% radioactivity bound to these fractions was recovered as cyclic adenosine 3 : 5 monophosphate. Unlabelled cAMP diluted the amount of radioactivity bound. Adenosine, deoxyadenosine, 5-AMP, 3-AMP, ADP and ATP did not inhibit binding. (author)

  17. G3.5 PAMAM dendrimers enhance transepithelial transport of SN38 while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Deborah S; Vijayalakshmi, Nirmalkumar; Swaan, Peter W; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-03-30

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown promise in oral drug delivery. Conjugation of SN38 to PAMAM dendrimers has the potential to improve its oral absorption while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity. In this work we evaluated G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer-SN38 conjugates with ester-linked glycine and β-alanine spacers for their suitability in oral therapy of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was mostly stable while G3.5-Glycine-SN38 showed 10%, 20%, and 56% SN38 release in simulated gastric, intestinal and liver environments for up to 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with G3.5-SN38 conjugates did not reduce cell viability, while comparable concentrations of SN38 caused significant cytotoxicity. G3.5-Glycine-SN38 and G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 showed IC₅₀ values of 0.60 and 3.59 μM, respectively, in HT-29 cells treated for 48 h, indicating the efficacy of the drug delivery system in colorectal cancer cells with longer incubation time. Both conjugates increased SN38 transepithelial transport compared to the free drug. Transport of G3.5-Glycine-SN38 was highly concentration-dependent whereas transport of G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was concentration-independent, highlighting the influence of drug loading and spacer chemistry on transport mechanism. Together these results show that PAMAM dendrimers have the potential to improve the oral bioavailability of potent anti-cancer drugs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  19. Reversal of Trimethyltin-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits by 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiamnesic effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA as the main phenolic compound in Artemisia argyi H. extract on cognitive dysfunction induced by trimethyltin (TMT (7.1 μg/kg of body weight; intraperitoneal injection was investigated in order to assess its ameliorating function in mice. In several behavioral tests, namely, the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM test, 3,5-diCQA significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits. After the behavioral tests, brain tissues from the mice were analyzed to characterize the basis of the neuroprotective effect. Acetylcholine (ACh levels increased, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE decreased upon administration of 3,5-diCQA. In addition, 3,5-diCQA effectively protected against an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content, an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSH ratio, and a decline of total superoxide dismutase (SOD level. 3,5-diCQA may prevent neuronal apoptosis through the protection of mitochondrial activities and the repression of apoptotic signaling molecules such as p-Akt, BAX, and p-tau (Ser 404.

  20. Haloaniline-induced in vitro nephrotoxicity: effects of 4-haloanilines and 3,5-dihaloanilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S K; Anestis, D K; Henderson, T T; Rankin, G O

    2000-04-03

    Haloanilines are widely used as chemical intermediates in the manufacture of pesticides, dyes and drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro nephrotoxic effects of the four 4-haloaniline and four 3,5-dihaloaniline isomers using renal cortical slices obtained from the kidneys of untreated, male Fischer 344 rats. Renal cortical slices were incubated with a haloaniline hydrochloride (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mM, final concentration) or vehicle for 2 h, and toxicity determined by monitoring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and changes in tissue gluconeogenesis capacity. At the concentrations tested, none of the 4-haloanilines increased LDH release. 4-Bromoaniline reduced gluconeogenesis at the lowest concentration (0.1 mM), but 4-iodoaniline 2.0 mM induced the largest decrease in gluconeogenesis (92% downward arrow). Among the 3,5-dihaloanilines, 3,5-dibromoaniline proved to be the most potent nephrotoxicant and 3,5-difluoroaniline the least potent nephrotoxicant. LDH release was increased by the dibromo (1.0 and 2. 0 mM), dichloro (2.0 mM) and diiodo (2.0 mM) derivatives, but not by 3,5-difluoroaniline. These results demonstrate that 3, 5-dihaloanilines are generally more potent nephrotoxicants in vitro than the 4-haloaniline isomers, and that bromo and iodo substitutions enhanced the nephrotoxic potential of aniline to the greatest degree.

  1. Gabbro as a host rock for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.; Smellie, J.; Liedholm, M.

    1992-09-01

    As an alternative to granitic rocks, gabbro and other basic rock types have been investigated with respect to their suitability to host a nuclear waste repository. The present report summarizes and examines existing geoscientific knowledge of relevance in assessing the potential merits of gabbro as a repository host rock. Implications in terms of site selection, repository construction and post-closure repository performance are also discussed. The objective of the study is to provide a basis for decisions as regards future consideration of the gabbro alternative. It is found that there are rather few gabbro bodies in Sweden, that are potentially of sufficient size to host a repository. Thus, gabbro offers little latitude as regards site selection. In comparison to siting a repository in granitic rocks, this is a major disadvantage, and it may in fact remove gabbro from further consideration. The potential advantages of gabbro refer to repository performance, and include low hydraulic conductivity and a chemical environment promoting efficient radionuclide retardation. However, results from field investigations show that groundwater flow in gabbro bodies is largely controlled by intersecting heterogeneities, in particular granitic dykes, that are significantly more conductive to water than the gabbro. In the far-field scale significant to repository performance, this may reduce or eliminate the potential effects of favourable hydraulic and chemical characteristics of the gabbro itself. In conclusion, there are apparent difficulties associated with siting a repository in gabbro, due to lack of sufficiently large gabbro bodies. On the basis of the present state of knowledge, no decisive differences can be demonstrated when comparing gabbro with granitic rocks, neither with respects to repository construction, nor as regards repository performance. (au)

  2. Optimizing Resources for Trustworthiness and Scientific Impact of Domain Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K.

    2017-12-01

    Domain repositories, i.e. data archives tied to specific scientific communities, are widely recognized and trusted by their user communities for ensuring a high level of data quality, enhancing data value, access, and reuse through a unique combination of disciplinary and digital curation expertise. Their data services are guided by the practices and values of the specific community they serve and designed to support the advancement of their science. Domain repositories need to meet user expectations for scientific utility in order to be successful, but they also need to fulfill the requirements for trustworthy repository services to be acknowledged by scientists, funders, and publishers as a reliable facility that curates and preserves data following international standards. Domain repositories therefore need to carefully plan and balance investments to optimize the scientific impact of their data services and user satisfaction on the one hand, while maintaining a reliable and robust operation of the repository infrastructure on the other hand. Staying abreast of evolving repository standards to certify as a trustworthy repository and conducting a regular self-assessment and certification alone requires resources that compete with the demands for improving data holdings or usability of systems. The Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA), a data facility funded by the US National Science Foundation, operates repositories for geochemical, marine Geoscience, and Antarctic research data, while also maintaining data products (global syntheses) and data visualization and analysis tools that are of high value for the science community and have demonstrated considerable scientific impact. Balancing the investments in the growth and utility of the syntheses with resources required for certifcation of IEDA's repository services has been challenging, and a major self-assessment effort has been difficult to accommodate. IEDA is exploring a partnership model to share

  3. The Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 Conversion (PIPTC) Regulates Metabolic Reprogramming from Glycolysis to Gluconeogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:23733183

  4. The phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC) regulates metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D

    2013-07-12

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans.

  5. Trinuclear Lanthanoid Complexes of 1,3,5-Triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol with a Unique, Sandwich-Type Cage Structure(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedinger, Roman; Ghisletta, Michele; Hegetschweiler, Kaspar; Tóth, Eva; Merbach, André E.; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante; Gramlich, Volker

    1998-12-28

    A variety of trinuclear complexes [M(3)(H(-)(3)L)(2)](3+) [M = Y, La, Eu, Gd, Dy; L = 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci) and 1,3,5-trideoxy-1,3,5-tris(dimethylamino)-cis-inositol (tdci)] was prepared as solid materials of the composition M(3)(H(-)(3)L)(2)X(3).pH(2)O.qEtOH (X = Cl, NO(3); 2.5

  6. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  7. Creating Complex Repository Collections, Such as Journals, with Manakin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jack; Mikeal, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a devised method of collection organisation within a DSpace repository using a Manakin theme and descriptive metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Using a Manakin theme, a user interface for a repository collection containing the contents of a serial was created to divide the collection into…

  8. Building a repository on European colonial architecture and town planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    During the past two years the TU Delft Library has developed a repository to store data about architecture and town planning in the former Dutch colonies. Historical images, books, journals and archives coming from libraries and museums are scanned and stored into the repository. Information about

  9. Microsoft Repository Version 2 and the Open Information Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Bergstraesser, Thomas; Carlson, Jason; Pal, Shankar; Sanders, Paul; Shutt, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes the programming interface and implementation of the repository engine and the Open Information Model for Microsoft Repository, an object-oriented meta-data management facility that ships in Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server. Discusses Microsoft's component object model, object manipulation, queries, and information…

  10. Collaboration Nation: The Building of the Welsh Repository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to disseminate information about the Welsh Repository Network (WRN), innovative work being undertaken to build an integrated network of institutional digital repositories. A collaborative approach, in particular through the provision of centralised technical and organisational support, has demonstrated…

  11. Management of radioactive waste at Novi Han Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.G.; Mateeva, M.D.; Milanov, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The Novi Han Repository is the only existing repository in Bulgaria for the disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. The repository was constructed in the early sixties according to the existing requirements. It was operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy for more than thirty years without any accident or release of radioactivity to the environment, but without any investment for upgrading. As a consequence, the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority temporarily stopped the operation of the repository in 1994. The measures for upgrading the Novi Han Repository, supported by the IAEA under TC Project BUL/4/005 'Increasing Safety of Novi Han Repository', are presented in this paper. They comprise: assessment of radionuclide inventory and future waste arisings, characterisation of disposal vaults, characterisation of the site, safety assessment, upgrading of the monitoring system, option study for the selection of treatment and conditioning processes and the development of a conceptual design for low and intermediate level waste processing and storage facility, immediate measures for improvement of the existing disposal vaults and infrastructure, construction of above-ground temporary storage structures, and resuming the operation of the Novi Han Repository. The necessary activities for re-licensing of the Novi Han Repository, construction of a waste processing and storage facility and a disposal facility for spent sealed sources are discussed. (author)

  12. Digital Preservation in the Context of Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockx-Yu, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the issues and challenges of digital preservation facing institutional repositories and to illustrate the Joint Information Systems Committee's (JISC) view on institutional repositories and its key initiatives in helping UK institutions address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: A combination of published work and JISC…

  13. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described

  14. Data vaults: a database welcome to scientific file repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.; Kargın, Y.; Kersten, M.; Manegold, S.; Zhang, Y.; Datcu, M.; Espinoza Molina, D.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient management and exploration of high-volume scientific file repositories have become pivotal for advancement in science. We propose to demonstrate the Data Vault, an extension of the database system architecture that transparently opens scientific file repositories for efficient in-database

  15. Upgrading of radon's type near surface repository in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1959, the Soviet government decided to construct the near surface radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' near the Baldone city. It was put in operation in 1962. The changes in the development of the repository were induced by the necessarily to upgrade it for disposal of radioactive wastes from the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The safety assessment of repository was performed during 2000-2001 under the PHARE project for necessary upgrades of repository. The outline design for new vaults and interim storage for long lived radioactive wastes was elaborated during 2003-2004 years. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for upgrade of Baldone repository was performed during 2004-2005 years. It was found, that additional efforts must be devoted for solution of social aspects o for successful operation and upgrade of repository. It was shown by EIA, that the local population has a negative opinion against the upgrade of repository in Latvia. The main recommendations for upgrades were connected with increasing the safety of repository, increasing of PR activities for education of society and developing of compensation mechanism for local municipality. (author)

  16. Exploring the Coming Repositories of Reproducible Experiments: Challenges and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire, Juliana; Bonnet, Philippe; Shasha, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Computational reproducibility efforts in many communities will soon give rise to validated software and data repositories of high quality. A scientist in a field may want to query the components of such repositories to build new software workflows, perhaps after adding the scientist’s own algorithms...

  17. Neural network-based retrieval from software reuse repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David A.; Srinivas, Kankanahalli

    1992-01-01

    A significant hurdle confronts the software reuser attempting to select candidate components from a software repository - discriminating between those components without resorting to inspection of the implementation(s). We outline an approach to this problem based upon neural networks which avoids requiring the repository administrators to define a conceptual closeness graph for the classification vocabulary.

  18. Development of the SIOPE DIPG network, registry and imaging repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Sophie E M; Baugh, Joshua; Chaney, Brooklyn

    2017-01-01

    was developed, The SIOPE DIPG Registry and Imaging Repository, to centrally collect data of DIPG patients. As for April 2016, clinical data as well as MR-scans of 694 patients have been entered into the SIOPE DIPG Registry/Imaging Repository. The median progression free survival is 6.0 months (95% Confidence...

  19. Digital Libraries and Repositories in India: An Evaluative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rekha; Mahesh, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the collections within digital libraries and repositories in India available in the public domain. Design/methodology/approach: The digital libraries and repositories were identified through a study of the literature, as well as internet searching and browsing. The resulting digital…

  20. Structure, Features, and Faculty Content in ARL Member Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Holly; Koenig, Jay; McGeachin, Robert B.; Tucker, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Questions about the optimal way to present repository content to authors, submitters, and end-users, prompted this study. The authors examined, through an observation and a survey, the institutional repositories of peer institutions in the ARL for good practices related to the presentation and organization of faculty-authored institutional…

  1. Science is the first step to siting nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    As Shaw [2014] notes, U.S. research on shale as a repository host was halted before expending anything close to the effort devoted to studying crystalline rock, salt, and - most notably - tuff at Yucca Mountain. The new political reality regarding Yucca Mountain may allow reconsideration of the decision to abandon research on shale as a repository host.

  2. On the low pressure shock initiation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine based plastic bonded explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Tarver, Craig M.; Garcia, Frank; Chidester, Steven K.

    2010-05-01

    In large explosive and propellant charges, relatively low shock pressures on the order of 1-2 GPa impacting large volumes and lasting tens of microseconds can cause shock initiation of detonation. The pressure buildup process requires several centimeters of shock propagation before shock to detonation transition occurs. In this paper, experimentally measured run distances to detonation for lower input shock pressures are shown to be much longer than predicted by extrapolation of high shock pressure data. Run distance to detonation and embedded manganin gauge pressure histories are measured using large diameter charges of six octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) based plastic bonded explosives (PBX's): PBX 9404; LX-04; LX-07; LX-10; PBX 9501; and EDC37. The embedded gauge records show that the lower shock pressures create fewer and less energetic "hot spot" reaction sites, which consume the surrounding explosive particles at reduced reaction rates and cause longer distances to detonation. The experimental data is analyzed using the ignition and growth reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives. Using minimum values of the degrees of compression required to ignite hot spot reactions, the previously determined high shock pressure ignition and growth model parameters for the six explosives accurately simulate the much longer run distances to detonation and much slower growths of pressure behind the shock fronts measured during the shock initiation of HMX PBX's at several low shock pressures.

  3. Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic moduli and pressure-volume-temperature equation of state for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, Thomas D.; Bennett, Carl M.

    2000-01-01

    Isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo calculations were used to obtain predictions of the elastic coefficients and derived engineering moduli and Poisson ratios for crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The elastic coefficients were computed using the strain fluctuation formula due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2662 (1982)]. Calculations were performed as a function of temperature (218 K≤T≤333 K) and hydrostatic pressure (0 GPa≤p≤4 GPa). The predicted values of the moduli and Poisson ratios under ambient conditions are in accord with general expectations for molecular crystals and with a very recent, unpublished determination for RDX. The moduli exhibit a sensitive pressure dependence whereas the Poisson ratios are relatively independent of pressure. The temperature dependence of the moduli is comparable to the precision of the results. However, the crystal does exhibit thermal softening for most pressures. An additional product of the calculations is information about the pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) equation of state. We obtain near-quantitative agreement with experiment for the case of hydrostatic compression and reasonable, but not quantitative, correspondence for thermal expansion. The results indicate a significant dependence of the thermal expansion coefficients on hydrostatic pressure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  5. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-06

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment.

  6. Characterization of polymorphic states in energetic samples of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Erik D; Farrell, Mikella E; Holthoff, Ellen L; Tripathi, Ashish; Green, Norman; Moon, Raphael P; Guicheteau, Jason A; Christesen, Steven D; Pellegrino, Paul M; Fountain, Augustus W

    2012-06-01

    The United States Army and the first responder community are evaluating optical detection systems for the trace detection of hazardous energetic materials. Fielded detection systems must be evaluated with the appropriate material concentrations to accurately identify the residue in theater. Trace levels of energetic materials have been observed in mutable polymorphic phases and, therefore, the systems being evaluated must be able to detect and accurately identify variant sample phases observed in spectral data. In this work, we report on the novel application of drop-on-demand technology for the fabrication of standardized trace 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) samples. The drop-on-demand sample fabrication technique is compared both visually and spectrally to the more commonly used drop-and-dry technique. As the drop-on-demand technique allows for the fabrication of trace level hazard materials, concerted efforts focused on characterization of the polymorphic phase changes observed with low concentrations of RDX commonly used in drop-on-demand processing. This information is important when evaluating optical detection technologies using samples prepared with a drop-on-demand inkjet system, as the technology may be "trained" to detect the common bulk α phase of the explosive based on its spectral features but fall short in positively detecting a trace quantity of RDX (β-phase). We report the polymorphic shifts observed between α- and β-phases of this energetic material and discuss the conditions leading to the favoring of one phase over the other.

  7. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Chunjiang; He Yanling; Huang Guohe; Liu Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1 g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater.

  8. Design and production of the KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Lena

    2010-12-15

    The report contains the common basis for a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report presents the role of the Production reports within the safety report and their common purposes and objectives. An important part of the report is to present the background and sources to the principles to be applied in the design, the functions of the KBS-3 repository and the barrier functions the engineered barriers and rock. Further, the methodology to substantiate detailed design premises for the engineered barriers, underground openings and other parts of the KBS-3 repository is presented. The report also gives an overview of the KBS-3 system and its facilities and the production lines for the spent fuel, the engineered barriers and underground openings. Finally, an introduction to quality management, safety classification and their application is given

  9. Design and production of the KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, Lena

    2010-12-01

    The report contains the common basis for a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report presents the role of the Production reports within the safety report and their common purposes and objectives. An important part of the report is to present the background and sources to the principles to be applied in the design, the functions of the KBS-3 repository and the barrier functions the engineered barriers and rock. Further, the methodology to substantiate detailed design premises for the engineered barriers, underground openings and other parts of the KBS-3 repository is presented. The report also gives an overview of the KBS-3 system and its facilities and the production lines for the spent fuel, the engineered barriers and underground openings. Finally, an introduction to quality management, safety classification and their application is given

  10. Analysis of the seismic hazard to an underground waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Conclusions are: The consequence associated with intense vibratory shaking of a well-designed repository is essentially negligible. The specification of an appropriate seismic vibratory design criteria could best be accomplished with a Bayesian seismic hazard assessment, using geologic slip rates as input. The consequence associated with fault displacement is very site specific and dependent on the host geologic media and its permeability changes in response to fault displacement. The probability of faulting through a repository in its million year design life is rather high, principally because of a high probability of primary or secondary faulting on undetected faults. The faulting probability can be minimized by deploying sophisticated site certification programs. High resolution microseismic surveillance seems to be most appropriate. The author's judgement is that the repository simulation program can neglect consequences associated with shaking of the repository, but that the probability of significant fault displacement through the repository during its design life should be conservatively taken as one

  11. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  12. Repository-analog experiments of nuclear waste leaching and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for radionuclide migration from a breached nuclear-waste repository depends on the leaching and subsequent interaction of the leached radionuclides with materials in the groundwater flow path. An attempt is made to consider all interactions using experiments that integrate repository materials. Results of a repository-analog experiment using borosilicate glass, fissured granite, and flowing water suggest: (1) plutonium was immobile possibly because of its low solubility; (2) caesium migrated down slowly because of sorption; and (3) neptunium remained oxidized even in water of low oxidation potential. By summing the effects of all interactions, not just sorption, the repository-analog experiment produced radionuclide migration that could be expected from a breached repository. (author)

  13. Understanding large scale groundwater flow to aid in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Brown, A.; Gascoyne, M.; Stevenson, D.R.; Ophori, D.U.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) with support from Ontario Hydro has developed a concept for the safe disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste in a deep (500 to 1000 m) mined repository in plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept involves the use of multiple engineered and natural barriers to ensure long-term safety. The geosphere, comprised of the enclosing rock mass and the groundwater which occurs in cracks and pores in the rock, is expected to serve as an important natural barrier to the release and migration of wastes from the engineered repository. Although knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the rock at potential repository sites is needed to help design the engineered barriers of the repository it can also be used to aid in repository siting, to take greater advantage of natural conditions in the geosphere to enhance its role as a barrier in the overall disposal system

  14. Exploring Characterizations of Learning Object Repositories Using Data Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Alejandra; Vidal, Christian; Menendez, Victor; Zapata, Alfredo; Prieto, Manuel

    Learning object repositories provide a platform for the sharing of Web-based educational resources. As these repositories evolve independently, it is difficult for users to have a clear picture of the kind of contents they give access to. Metadata can be used to automatically extract a characterization of these resources by using machine learning techniques. This paper presents an exploratory study carried out in the contents of four public repositories that uses clustering and association rule mining algorithms to extract characterizations of repository contents. The results of the analysis include potential relationships between different attributes of learning objects that may be useful to gain an understanding of the kind of resources available and eventually develop search mechanisms that consider repository descriptions as a criteria in federated search.

  15. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation, in order to use their resources for preservation in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing institutions technical and organisational requirements for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined by the OAIS...... Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements e.g. for bit safety, accessibility...

  16. [The subject repositories of strategy of the Open Access initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Guimarães, M C; da Silva, C H; Horsth Noronha, I

    2012-11-01

    The subject repositories are defined as a set of digital objects resulting from the research related to a specific disciplinary field and occupy a still restricted space in the discussion agenda of the Free Access Movement when compared to amplitude reached in the discussion of Institutional Repositories. Although the Subject Repository comes to prominence in the field, especially for the success of initiatives such as the arXiv, PubMed and E-prints, the literature on the subject is recognized as very limited. Despite its roots in the Library and Information Science, and focus on the management of disciplinary collections (subject area literature), there is little information available about the development and management of subject repositories. The following text seeks to make a brief summary on the topic as a way to present the potential to develop subject repositories in order to strengthen the initiative of open access.

  17. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation in order to use their resources for preservation n in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing the technical and organizational requirements of institutions for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions’ repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined...... by the OAIS Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements, such as for bit safety, accessibility...

  18. Creation of Data Repositories to Advance Nursing Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Joseph; Rodriguez, Margaret; Currie, Jackson; Salata, Robert; Webel, Allison R

    2017-12-01

    Data repositories are a strategy in line with precision medicine and big data initiatives, and are an efficient way to maximize data utility and form collaborative research relationships. Nurse researchers are uniquely positioned to make a valuable contribution using this strategy. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the benefits and challenges associated with developing data repositories, and to describe the process we used to develop and maintain a data repository in HIV research. Systematic planning, data collection, synthesis, and data sharing have enabled us to conduct robust cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses with more than 200 people living with HIV. Our repository building has also led to collaboration and training, both in and out of our organization. We present a pragmatic and affordable way that nurse scientists can build and maintain a data repository, helping us continue to make to our understanding of health phenomena.

  19. Site investigation requirements for a deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, I.W.

    1992-03-01

    Techniques currently available for measuring geotechnical parameters needed in the design, construction and assessment of a deep underground repository have been critically examined. These techniques have been considered under four main areas: definition of the rock discontinuity structure, definition of the in-situ stress distribution in the rock mass, estimation of the geomechanical characteristics of the rock mass, and estimation of flow and transport characteristics of the rock mass. The review concludes that generally rocks and rock masses are not well characterised by tests from cores or from boreholes and gives reason to support this view. The only parameters which can be measured accurately are laboratory index properties which are useful only in a comparative assessment of different rock types. Finally the review concludes that the only way to obtain useful data on rock behaviour is through large pilot scale tests with appropriate and controlled boundary conditions conducted preferably in the potential host strata. (author)

  20. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M and O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents

  1. SRP [Salt Repository Project] configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This configuration management plan describes the organization, policies, and procedures that will be used on the Salt Repository Project (SRP) to implement the configuration management disciplines and controls. Configuration management is a part of baseline management. Baseline management is defined in the SRP Baseline Procedures Notebook and also includes cost and schedule baselines. Configuration management is a discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of an item, to control changes to those characteristics, to record and report change processing and implementation status, and to audit the results. Configuration management is designed as a project management tool to determine and control baselines, and ensure and document all components of a project interface both physically and functionally. The purpose is to ensure that the product acquired satisfies the project's technical and operational requirements, and that the technical requirements are clearly defined and controlled throughout the development and acquisition process. 5 figs

  2. Repository design sensitivity study: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary sensitivity study of the salt repository design has been performed to identify critical site and design parameters to help guide future site characterization and design optimization activities. The study considered the SCP-conceptual design at the Deaf Smith County site in Texas with the horizontal waste package emplacement mode as the base case. Relative to this base case, parameter variations were compared. Limited studies were performed which considered the vertical emplacement mode geometry. The report presents the reference data base and design parameters on which the study was based (including the range of parameters that might be expected). Detailed descriptions of the numerical modeling methods and assumptions are included for the thermal, thermomechanical and hydrogeological analyses. The impacts of parameter variations on the sensitivity of the rock mass response are discussed. Recommendations are provided to help guide site characterization activities and advanced conceptual design optimization activities. 47 refs., 119 refs., 22 tabs

  3. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  4. Environmental impact of Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2005-01-01

    Environmental impact of the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) has been quantitatively evaluated in terms of the radiotoxicity of transuranic (TRU) and fission-product radionuclides existing in the environment after released from failed packages. Inventory abstraction has been made based on the data published in Final Environmental Impact Statement published by US DOE. Mathematical model and computation code have been developed based on analytical solutions. Environmental impact from the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) packages is about 90% of the total impact including the contribution from defense waste (DW) packages. Impacts due to isotopes of Cm, Am, Pu and Np, and their decay daughters are dominant, compared with those from fission-product nuclides. Numerical results show that reduction of the TRU nuclides by a factor of 100 makes the impact from CSNF smaller than that from DW. (author)

  5. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  6. Informing future societies about nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990 a working group of the NKS (the Nordic nuclear safety program) was formed and give the task of established a basis for a common Nordic view of the need for information conservation for nuclear waste repositories. The Group investigated what tipy of information should be conserved; in what form the information should be kept; the quality of the information; and the problems of future retrieval of information, including retrieval after very long periods of time. Topics covered include the following: scientific aspects including social context of scientific solutions; information management; systems for conservation and retrieval of information including the problems of prediction; archives, markers, archives vs. markers, and continuing processes in society; Archive media including paper documents, microfilm, digital media, media lifetimes; and finally conclusions and recommendations

  7. Repository Waste Package Transporter Shielding Weight Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.E. Sanders; Shiaw-Der Su

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository requires the use of a waste package (WP) transporter to transport a WP from a process facility on the surface to the subsurface for underground emplacement. The transporter is a part of the waste emplacement transport systems, which includes a primary locomotive at the front end and a secondary locomotive at the rear end. The overall system with a WP on board weights over 350 metric tons (MT). With the shielding mass constituting approximately one-third of the total system weight, shielding optimization for minimal weight will benefit the overall transport system with reduced axle requirements and improved maneuverability. With a high contact dose rate on the WP external surface and minimal personnel shielding afforded by the WP, the transporter provides radiation shielding to workers during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. This paper presents the design approach and optimization method used in achieving a shielding configuration with minimal weight

  8. Canister transfer into repository in shaft alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, H.; Kukkola, T.; Autio, J.

    2005-09-01

    In this report, a study of lift transportation of a massive canister for spent nuclear fuel is considered. The canister is transferred from ground level to repository, which lies in the depth of 400 to 500 m in the bedrock. The canister is a massive metal vessel, whose weight is 19 to 29 tons, and which is strongly irradiant (gamma and neutrons), and which contains 1.4 to 2.2 tons of very strongly radio-active material, the activity of the fuel should not be spread in the environment even during postulated accidents. The study observes that the lift alternative is possible to be built and through good design practices and good maintenance procedures its safety, reliability and usability can be kept on such high level that canister transport is estimated to be licensable. (orig.)

  9. PA/SA for Slovenian LILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    1999-01-01

    The RAO Agency started with a new site selection procedure in 1996. As part of the preparational work for the new disposal facility, tools for assessment of the specific disposal concept influence on the environment and human has to be developed. Therefore the Slovenian assessment team that has been organized, joined the IAEAs ISAM programme, in which different approaches to performance and safety assessment were applied to safety cases. As part of the ISAM individual (national) safety cases. The RAO Agency, together with other Slovenian Inst.ions, performed the preliminary performance assessment of the Slovenian LILW repository for generic site location. The method and the results of the safety case are presented in this paper.(author)

  10. Extreme scenarios for nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M J [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Div. of Applied Sciences; Crouch, E [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Energy and Environmental Policy Center

    1982-09-01

    Two extreme scenarios for release of radioactive waste have been constructed. In the first, a volcanic eruption releases 1 km/sup 2/ of an underground nuclear waste repository, while in the second, waste enters the drinking water reservoir of a major city. With pessimistic assumptions, upper bounds on the number of cancers due to radiation are calculated. In the volcano scenario, the effects of the waste are smaller than the effects of natural radioactivity in the volcanic dust if the delay between emplacement and eruption exceeds 2000 yr. The consequences of the waste in drinking water depend on the survival time of the canisters and the rate of leaching of the nuclides from the waste matrix. For a canister life of 400 yr and a leach time of 6300 yr the cancer rate in the affected area would increase by 25%.

  11. Extreme scenarios for nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M J; Crouch, E

    1982-09-01

    Two extreme scenarios for release of radioactive waste have been constructed. In the first, a volcanic eruption releases 1 km2 of an underground nuclear waste repository, while in the second, waste enters the drinking water reservoir of a major city. With pessimistic assumptions, upper bounds on the number of cancers due to radiation are calculated. In the volcano scenario, the effects of the water are smaller than the effects of natural radioactivity in the volcanic dust if the delay between emplacement and eruption exceeds 2000 yr. The consequences of the waste in drinking water depend on the survival time of the canisters and the rate of leaching of the nuclides from the waste matrix. For a canister life of 400 yr and a leach time of 6300 yr the cancer rate in the affected area would increase by 25%.

  12. Salt Repository Project transportation system interface requirements: Transportation system/repository receiving facility interface requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Insalaco, J.W.; Trainer, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is a preliminary review of the interface between the transportation system and the repository receiving facility for a nuclear waste mined geologic disposal system in salt. Criteria for generic cask and facility designs are developed. These criteria are derived by examining the interfaces that occur as a result of the operations needed to receive nuclear waste at a repository. These criteria provide the basis for design of a safe, operable, practical nuclear waste receiving facility. The processing functions required to move the shipping unit from the gate into the unloading area and back to the gate for dispatch are described. Criteria for a generic receiving facility are discussed but no specific facility design is presented or evaluated. The criteria are stated in general terms to allow application to a wide variety of cask and facility designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Nuclear waste in a repository: amount as a factor in risk duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, E.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between the amount of nuclear waste in a nuclear repository and the safety of the repository is examined. It is shown that the amount of a given hazardous nuclide that is potentially leachable depends on the initial amount of waste in the repository and the time that has elapsed since the repository was put into operation. Nuclear repository safety can be enhanced if repositories are designed as modular units with leach-resistant watertight compartments

  14. The Open Data Repositorys Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D.; Bristow, T.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-01-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of researcher's workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity.

  15. Repository tunnel construction in deep clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, B.G.; Mair, R.J.; Taylor, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    One of the objects of the Hades project at Mol, Belgium has been to evaluate the feasibility of construction of a deep repository in the Boom clay formation at depth of approximately 225 metres. The main objective of the present project was to analyse and interpret the detailed geotechnical measurements made around the Hades trial shaft and tunnel excavations and evaluate the safety of radioactive waste disposal in a repository facility in deep clay formations. Plasticity calculations and finite element analyses were used which gave results consistent with the in-situ measurements. It was shown that effective stress analysis could successfully predict the observed field behaviour. Correct modelling of the small-strain stiffness of the Boom clay was essential if reasonable predictions of the pore pressure response due to construction are to be made. The calculations undertaken indicated that, even in the long term, the pressures on the test drift tunnel lining are likely to be significantly lower than the overburden pressure. Larger long-term tunnel lining pressures are predicted for impermeable linings. A series of laboratory stress path tests was undertaken to determine the strength and stiffness characteristics of the Boom clay. The tests were conducted at appropriate effective stress levels on high-quality samples retrieved during construction of the test drift. The apparatus developed for the testing is described and the results discussed. The development of a self boring retracting pressure-meter is described. This novel in-situ testing device was specifically designed to determine from direct measurements the convergence/confinement curve relevant to tunnelling in clay formations. 44 refs., 60 figs., 3 tabs

  16. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Bristow, T.; Blake, D. F.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-12-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of research workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software (http://www.opendatarepository.org) strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity. We gratefully acknowledge the support for this study by the Science-Enabling Research Activity (SERA), and NASA NNX11AP82A

  17. Assessment of cement durability in repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.A.; Vicente, R.; Isiko, V.L.K.; Miyamoto, H.; Marumo, J.T.; Gobbo, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed at investigating the durability of cement paste under nuclear waste repository conditions using accelerated tests. Cement paste samples are examined after being exposed to the environmental conditions that are expected to prevail in the repository environment and the results are compared with those obtained with unexposed specimens or specimens exposed to reference conditions. The following exposure conditions were selected: a) Immersion in salt solution, distilled water, or kept in dry storage; b) Room temperature (20 C. degrees) or high temperature (60 C. degrees); c) Immersion time of 30 days or 60 days (not for dry storage); d) Irradiation to a dose of (400 kGy) or background radiation (0 kGy). After exposure to the stressing conditions, the effects of each factor on the cement paste samples were observed by changes in their characteristics. Compressive strength tests were performed on all samples and some of them were investigated in terms of changes in mineralogy by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). With the results obtained so far it was possible to point out the following conclusions. First, after a period of immersion in water, cement paste samples further hydrated and presented higher mechanical resistance, as expected. Secondly, dry storage did not allow a complete hydration as a consequence of pore water evaporation. High temperatures intensified this process and led to the ettringite decomposition to meta-ettringite. Thirdly, higher temperature accelerated hydration kinetics and promoted higher mechanical resistance in samples kept under immersion. Fourthly, the irradiation dose applied was unable to change the mineralogy of cement paste samples and fifthly, no statistically significant differences were observed between 30 or 60 days exposure time, for the test conditions

  18. The PBase Scientific Workflow Provenance Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Cuevas-Vicenttín

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific workflows and their supporting systems are becoming increasingly popular for compute-intensive and data-intensive scientific experiments. The advantages scientific workflows offer include rapid and easy workflow design, software and data reuse, scalable execution, sharing and collaboration, and other advantages that altogether facilitate “reproducible science”. In this context, provenance – information about the origin, context, derivation, ownership, or history of some artifact – plays a key role, since scientists are interested in examining and auditing the results of scientific experiments. However, in order to perform such analyses on scientific results as part of extended research collaborations, an adequate environment and tools are required. Concretely, the need arises for a repository that will facilitate the sharing of scientific workflows and their associated execution traces in an interoperable manner, also enabling querying and visualization. Furthermore, such functionality should be supported while taking performance and scalability into account. With this purpose in mind, we introduce PBase: a scientific workflow provenance repository implementing the ProvONE proposed standard, which extends the emerging W3C PROV standard for provenance data with workflow specific concepts. PBase is built on the Neo4j graph database, thus offering capabilities such as declarative and efficient querying. Our experiences demonstrate the power gained by supporting various types of queries for provenance data. In addition, PBase is equipped with a user friendly interface tailored for the visualization of scientific workflow provenance data, making the specification of queries and the interpretation of their results easier and more effective.

  19. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  20. From the repository to the deep geological repository - and back to the Terrain surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodynsky, R.

    2011-01-01

    How deep is 'safe'? How long is long-term? How and for how long will something be isolated? Which rock, which formation and which location are suitable? A repository constructed for the safekeeping of radioactive or highly toxic wastes can be erected either on the surface, near the surface or underground. Radioactive waste is currently often stored at near-surface locations. The storage usually takes place nearby of a nuclear power plant in pits or concrete tombs (vaults). However, repositories can also be found in restricted areas, e.g. near nuclear weapon production or reprocessing plants (WAA) or nuclear weapons test sites (including Tomsk, Russia, Hanford and Nevada desert, USA), or in extremely low rainfall regions (South Africa). In addition there are disused mines which are now used as underground repositories. Low-level and medium-active (SMA) but also high-level waste (HAA) are stored at these types of sites (NPP, WAA, test areas, former mines). In Russia (Tomsk, Siberia) liquid radioactive waste has been injected into deep geological formations for some time (Minatom, 2001). However, all these locations are not the result of a systematic, scientific search or a holistic process for finding a location, but the result of political decisions, sometimes ignoring scientific findings. Why underground storage is given preference over high-security landfill sites (HSD) often has economic reasons. While a low safety standard can significantly reduce the cost of an above-ground high-security landfill as a waste disposal depot, spending remains high, especially due to the need for capital formation to cover operating expenses after filling the HSD. In the case of underground storage, on the other hand, no additional expenses are required for the period after backfilling. The assumption of lower costs for a deep repository runs through the past decades and coincides with the assumption that the desired ideal underground conditions actually exist and will

  1. The deep geologic repository technology programme: toward a geoscience basis for understanding repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Within the Deep Geologic Repository Technology Programme (DGRTP) several Geoscience activities are focused on advancing the understanding of groundwater flow system evolution and geochemical stability in a Canadian Shield setting as affected by long-term climate change. A key aspect is developing confidence in predictions of groundwater flow patterns and residence times as they relate to the safety of a deep geologic repository for used nuclear fuel waste. This is being achieved through a coordinated multi-disciplinary approach intent on: i) demonstrating coincidence between independent geo-scientific data; ii) improving the traceability of geo-scientific data and its interpretation within a conceptual descriptive model(s); iii) improving upon methods to assess and demonstrate robustness in flow domain prediction(s) given inherent flow domain uncertainties (i.e. spatial chemical/physical property distributions, boundary conditions) in time and space; and iv) improving awareness amongst geo-scientists as to the utility of various geo-scientific data in supporting a safety case for a deep geologic repository. This multi-disciplinary DGRTP approach is yielding an improved understanding of groundwater flow system evolution and stability in Canadian Shield settings that is further contributing to the geo-scientific basis for understanding and communicating aspects of DGR safety. (author)

  2. Searches for 3.5 keV Absorption Features in Cluster AGN Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Joseph P.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate possible evidence for a spectral dip around 3.5 keV in central cluster AGNs, motivated by previous results for archival Chandra observations of the Perseus cluster and the general interest in novel spectral features around 3.5 keV that may arise from dark matter physics. We use two deep Chandra observations of the Perseus and Virgo clusters that have recently been made public. In both cases, mild improvements in the fit (Δχ2 = 4.2 and Δχ2 = 2.5) are found by including such a dip at 3.5 keV into the spectrum. A comparable result (Δχ2 = 6.5) is found re-analysing archival on-axis Chandra ACIS-S observations of the centre of the Perseus cluster.

  3. Observation of vibronic emission spectrum of jet-cooled 3,5-difluorobenzyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Woon; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2010-09-02

    We applied the technique of corona-excited supersonic expansion using a pinhole-type glass nozzle to observe the vibronic emission spectrum of jet-cooled benzyl-type radicals from the corona discharge of precursor 3,5-difluorotoluene seeded in a large amount of inert helium carrier gas. The vibronically well-resolved emission spectrum was recorded with a long-path monochromator in the visible region. After subtracting the vibronic bands originating from isomeric difluorobenzyl radicals from the observed spectrum, we identified for the first time the bands belonging to the 3,5-difluorobenzyl radical, from which the electronic energy and vibrational mode frequencies of the 3,5-difluorobenzyl radical were accurately determined in the ground electronic state by comparison with those of the precursor and with those from an ab initio calculation.

  4. Determination of "1"3"5Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.M.; Charles, C.R.J.; Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W.E.; Cornett, R.J.; Litherland, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of anthropogenic "1"3"5Cs and "1"3"7Cs isotopes is characteristic of a uranium fission source. This research evaluates the technique of isotope dilution (yield tracing) for the purpose of quantifying "1"3"5Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry with on-line isobar separation. Interferences from Ba, Zn_2, and isotopes of equal mass to charge ratios were successfully suppressed. However, some sample crosstalk from source contamination remains. The transmission and di-fluoride ionization efficiencies of Cs isotopes were found to be 8 × 10"−"3 and 1.7 × 10"−"7 respectively. This quantification of "1"3"5Cs using yield tracing by accelerator mass spectrometry shows promise for future environmental sample analysis once the issues of sample crosstalk and low efficiency can be resolved.

  5. Long-range-corrected Rung 3.5 density functional approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Proynov, Emil; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    Rung 3.5 functionals are a new class of approximations for density functional theory. They provide a flexible intermediate between exact (Hartree-Fock, HF) exchange and semilocal approximations for exchange. Existing Rung 3.5 functionals inherit semilocal functionals' limitations in atomic cores and density tails. Here we address those limitations using range-separated admixture of HF exchange. We present three new functionals. LRC-ωΠLDA combines long-range HF exchange with short-range Rung 3.5 ΠLDA exchange. SLC-ΠLDA combines short- and long-range HF exchange with middle-range ΠLDA exchange. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC incorporates a combination of HF, semilocal, and Rung 3.5 exchange in the short range, based on an adiabatic connection. We test these in a new Rung 3.5 implementation including up to analytic fourth derivatives. LRC-ωΠLDA and SLC-ΠLDA improve atomization energies and reaction barriers by a factor of 8 compared to the full-range ΠLDA. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC brings further improvement approaching the accuracy of standard long-range corrected schemes LC-ωPBE and SLC-PBE. The new functionals yield highest occupied orbital energies closer to experimental ionization potentials and describe correctly the weak charge-transfer complex of ethylene and dichlorine and the hole-spin distribution created by an Al defect in quartz. This study provides a framework for more flexible range-separated Rung 3.5 approximations.

  6. Laser ignition of DAAF, DHT and DAATO{sub 3.5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Arif N.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Oschwald, David M.; Moore, Kevin M.; Son, Steven F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    CO{sub 2} laser ignition experimental results are reported for the high-nitrogen materials 3,6-dihydrazino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DHT), 3,3'-diamino-4,4'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF), and mixed N-oxides of 3,3'-azo-bis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) (DAATO{sub 3.5}, where the ''3.5'' indicates the average oxide content) at a maximum irradiance level of approximately 140 W/cm{sup 2}. Diagnostics include a photodiode, indium antimonide (InSb) IR detector, high speed (HS) video and a CO{sub 2} photodetector. ''First light'' is measured for DAATO{sub 3.5} and DAAF, however, due to the low visible light emission of the gas phase, thermal runaway, as measured by the InSb, is used as the ignition criterion for DHT. Ignition in the gas phase is captured by the high speed camera. It is observed that an increase in laser irradiance results in an increase in ignition and flame stand-off distance for DAATO{sub 3.5}. The high-nitrogen material laser ignition results are compared to the common nitramine explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). Laser ignition delays for the different high-nitrogen materials are also compared in the context of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) data. It is determined that DSC onset temperature, while a rough indicator of ignition delay trends, is not the equivalent of a direct measure of ignition temperature. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Estructura cristalina del N-isopropil-2-ciano-3(5'-nitrofurilacrilamida Crystal structure of N-isopropyl-2-cyano-3(5'-nitrofurylacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pomés Hernandéz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available C11H11N3O4 , Mr = 249.23, triclinic, , a = 5.453(1, b = 22.873(5, c = 4.893(1 Å, a = 94.47(3, b = 96.36(3, g = 86.27(3º, V = 603.7(8ų,Z = 2, Dx = 1.371 Mg/m-3,l(Cu Ka1 = 1.54178Å, m = 0.86mm-1, room temperature. The crystal structure of N-isopropyl-2-cyano-3(5'-nitrofuryl - acrylamide has been determined by Direct Methods and refined to R = 0.086 for 797 observed reflections. The molecules in the crystal are packed at normal van der Waals forces and by an hydrogen bond between N1-H1...02i (N1...02i: 2.910(1Å, with i=x,y,z+1.

  8. Industrial complementarities between interim storage and reversible geological repository - 59237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoorelbeke, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The French Act voted in 2006 made the choice of deep geological disposal as the reference option for the long term management of high level (HLW) and intermediate level long-lived waste. The CIGEO repository project aims at avoiding or limiting burden to future generations, which could not be achieved by the extension in time of interim storage. The reversibility as provided by the Act will maintain a liberty of choice for waste management on a duration which is comparable to new storage facility. Interim storage is required to accommodate waste as long as the repository is not available. The commissioning of the repository in 2025 will not suppress needs for interim storage. The paper describes the complementarities between existing and future interim storage facilities and the repository project: repository operational issues and planning, HLW thermal decay, support for the reversibility, etc. It shows opportunities to prepare a global optimization of waste management including the utilization at best of storage capacities and the planning of waste emplacement in the repository in such a way to facilitate operational conditions and to limit cost. Preliminary simulations of storage-disposal scenarios are presented. Thanks to an optimal use of the waste management system, provision can be made for a progressive increase of waste emplacement flow during the first operation phase of the repository. It is then possible to stabilize the industrial activity level of the repository site. An optimal utilization of interim storage can also limit the diversity of waste packages emplaced simultaneously, which facilitates the operation of the repository. 60 years minimum interim storage duration is generally required with respect to HLW thermal output. Extending this interim storage period may reduce the underground footprint of the repository. Regarding reversibility, the capability to manage waste packages potentially retrieved from the repository should be analyzed. The

  9. pHresh 3.5: a new low pH liquid skin cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellow, W V

    1981-01-01

    pHresh 3.5, a new low pH liquid skin cleanser, was evaluated for safety and efficacy in four clinical studies. In 5- and 21-day predictive patch tests the cleanser was rated mild compared to four other widely used cleansers. As a degreasing agent it was found effective during a 4-week study period, especially in subjects with severe facial oiliness. Daily use of the product for a month in tretinoin-treated acne patients failed to indicate any lack of compatability of the two agents. Resolution of pre-existing skin irritation was not impaired by pHresh 3.5 usage.

  10. Study and application of Dot 3.5 computer code in radiation shielding problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.C.; Mendonca, A.G.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of nuclear transportation code S sub(N), Dot 3.5, to radiation shielding problems is revised. Aiming to study the better available option (convergence scheme, calculation mode), of DOT 3.5 computer code to be applied in radiation shielding problems, a standard model from 'Argonne Code Center' was selected and a combination of several calculation options to evaluate the accuracy of the results and the computational time was used, for then to select the more efficient option. To illustrate the versatility and efficacy in the application of the code for tipical shielding problems, the streaming neutrons calculation along a sodium coolant channel is ilustrated. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Isolation and antisense suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase modifies flower pigments and colour in cyclamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Deepa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclamen is a popular and economically significant pot plant crop in several countries. Molecular breeding technologies provide opportunities to metabolically engineer the well-characterized flavonoid biosynthetic pathway for altered anthocyanin profile and hence the colour of the flower. Previously we reported on a genetic transformation system for cyclamen. Our aim in this study was to change pigment profiles and flower colours in cyclamen through the suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase, an enzyme in the flavonoid pathway that plays a determining role in the colour of anthocyanin pigments. Results A full-length cDNA putatively identified as a F3'5'H (CpF3'5'H was isolated from cyclamen flower tissue. Amino acid and phylogeny analyses indicated the CpF3'5'H encodes a F3'5'H enzyme. Two cultivars of minicyclamen were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an antisense CpF3'5'H construct. Flowers of the transgenic lines showed modified colour and this correlated positively with the loss of endogenous F3'5'H transcript. Changes in observed colour were confirmed by colorimeter measurements, with an overall loss in intensity of colour (C in the transgenic lines and a shift in hue from purple to red/pink in one cultivar. HPLC analysis showed that delphinidin-derived pigment levels were reduced in transgenic lines relative to control lines while the percentage of cyanidin-derived pigments increased. Total anthocyanin concentration was reduced up to 80% in some transgenic lines and a smaller increase in flavonol concentration was recorded. Differences were also seen in the ratio of flavonol types that accumulated. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report of genetic modification of the anthocyanin pathway in the commercially important species cyclamen. The effects of suppressing a key enzyme, F3'5'H, were wide ranging, extending from anthocyanins to other branches of the flavonoid pathway. The results

  12. High dynamic range emission measurements of shocked energetic materials: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    A new emission apparatus with high time resolution and high dynamic range was used to study shock-induced ignition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in the form of ultrafine powder (4 ± 3 μm particle size), over a range of impact velocities (0.8-4.3 km s-1) and impact durations (2.5-16 ns). A graybody model was used to extract graybody emissivities and time-dependent temperatures from a few ns to 100 μs. The emission transients consisted of three parts: a 6700 K nanosecond burst during the shocks, a 4000-4500 K temperature spike near 0.3 μs followed by a ˜3300 K tail extending out to ˜100 μs. These temperatures varied remarkably little with impact velocity and duration, while the emission intensities and emissivities changed by over an order of magnitude. The emissivity changes were interpreted with a hot spot model, where hot spot temperatures reached a maximum of 6700 K and the hot spot volume fractions increased from 5% to 100% as impact velocity increased from 1 to 3 km s-1. Changing shock durations in the 2.5-16 ns range had noticeable effects on the microsecond emission. The 0.3 μs temperature spike was much smaller or absent with 2.5 ns shocks, but prominent with longer durations. An explanation for these effects was put forth that invoked the formation of carbon-rich clusters during the shock. In this view, cluster formation was minimal with 2.5 ns shocks, but longer-duration shocks produced increasingly larger clusters, and the 0.3 μs temperature spikes represented cluster ignition.

  13. The little-studied cluster Berkeley 90. I. LS III +46 11: a very massive O3.5 If* + O3.5 If* binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Negueruela, I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Pellerin, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sota, A.; Marco, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; Sanchez Bermudez, J.; Gamen, R. C.; Lorenzo, J.

    2015-07-01

    Context. It appears that most (if not all) massive stars are born in multiple systems. At the same time, the most massive binaries are hard to find owing to their low numbers throughout the Galaxy and the implied large distances and extinctions. Aims: We want to study LS III +46 11, identified in this paper as a very massive binary; another nearby massive system, LS III +46 12; and the surrounding stellar cluster, Berkeley 90. Methods: Most of the data used in this paper are multi-epoch high S/N optical spectra, although we also use Lucky Imaging and archival photometry. The spectra are reduced with dedicated pipelines and processed with our own software, such as a spectroscopic-orbit code, CHORIZOS, and MGB. Results: LS III +46 11 is identified as a new very early O-type spectroscopic binary [O3.5 If* + O3.5 If*] and LS III +46 12 as another early O-type system [O4.5 V((f))]. We measure a 97.2-day period for LS III +46 11 and derive minimum masses of 38.80 ± 0.83 M⊙ and 35.60 ± 0.77 M⊙ for its two stars. We measure the extinction to both stars, estimate the distance, search for optical companions, and study the surrounding cluster. In doing so, a variable extinction is found as well as discrepant results for the distance. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that LS III +46 12 may be a hidden binary system where the companion is currently undetected.

  14. An open data repository and a data processing software toolset of an equivalent Nordic grid model matched to historical electricity market data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanfretti, Luigi; Olsen, Svein H; Arava, V S Narasimham; Laera, Giuseppe; Bidadfar, Ali; Rabuzin, Tin; Jakobsen, Sigurd H; Lavenius, Jan; Baudette, Maxime; Gómez-López, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    This article presents an open data repository, the methodology to generate it and the associated data processing software developed to consolidate an hourly snapshot historical data set for the year 2015 to an equivalent Nordic power grid model (aka Nordic 44), the consolidation was achieved by matching the model׳s physical response w.r.t historical power flow records in the bidding regions of the Nordic grid that are available from the Nordic electricity market agent, Nord Pool. The model is made available in the form of CIM v14, Modelica and PSS/E (Siemens PTI) files. The Nordic 44 model in Modelica and PSS/E were first presented in the paper titled "iTesla Power Systems Library (iPSL): A Modelica library for phasor time-domain simulations" (Vanfretti et al., 2016) [1] for a single snapshot. In the digital repository being made available with the submission of this paper (SmarTSLab_Nordic44 Repository at Github, 2016) [2], a total of 8760 snapshots (for the year 2015) that can be used to initialize and execute dynamic simulations using tools compatible with CIM v14, the Modelica language and the proprietary PSS/E tool are provided. The Python scripts to generate the snapshots (processed data) are also available with all the data in the GitHub repository (SmarTSLab_Nordic44 Repository at Github, 2016) [2]. This Nordic 44 equivalent model was also used in iTesla project (iTesla) [3] to carry out simulations within a dynamic security assessment toolset (iTesla, 2016) [4], and has been further enhanced during the ITEA3 OpenCPS project (iTEA3) [5]. The raw, processed data and output models utilized within the iTesla platform (iTesla, 2016) [4] are also available in the repository. The CIM and Modelica snapshots of the "Nordic 44" model for the year 2015 are available in a Zenodo repository.

  15. Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in New Zealand children at 3.5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, D J; Thompson, J M D; Clark, P M; Robinson, E; Black, P N; Wild, C J; Mitchell, E A

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing in Western societies. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that this is due to reduced exposure to environmental allergens and infections during early life. To examine factors associated with a diagnosis of AD at 3.5 years of age, especially those factors implicated by the hygiene hypothesis. The Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study is a case-control study of risk factors for small for gestational age babies. Cases were born at term with birthweight 10th centile. The infants were assessed at birth, 1 year and 3.5 years of age. Data were collected by parental interview and examination of the child. AD was defined as the presence of an itchy rash in the past 12 months with three or more of the following: history of flexural involvement; history of generally dry skin; history of atopic disease in parents or siblings; and visible flexural dermatitis as per photographic protocol. Statistical analyses took into account the disproportionate sampling of the study population. Analysis was restricted to European subjects. Eight hundred and seventy-one children were enrolled at birth, 744 (85.4%) participated at 1 year, and 550 (63.2%) at 3.5 years. AD was diagnosed in 87 (15.8%) children seen at 3.5 years. The prevalence of AD did not differ by birthweight. AD at 3.5 years was associated with raised serum IgE > 200 kU L(-1), and wheezing, asthma, rash or eczema at 1 year. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for parental atopy and breastfeeding, AD at 3.5 years was associated with atopic disease in the parents: maternal atopy only, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-12.23; paternal atopy only, adjusted OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.09-11.75; both parents atopic, adjusted OR 6.12, 95% CI 2.02-18.50. There was a higher risk of AD with longer duration of breastfeeding: or = 6 months, adjusted OR 9.70, 95% CI 2.47-38.15 compared with never breastfed. These findings remained significant after adjusting for

  16. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  17. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockgaard, Niclas

    2010-12-01

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  18. Study of nuclear waste storage capacity at Yucca mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Apted, M.; Kessler, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository is applying license for storing 70000 MTHM nuclear waste including commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The 70000 MTHM is a legal not the technical limit. To study the technical limit, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) carried out a systematic study to explore the potential impact if the repository will accept more waste. This paper describes the model and results for evaluating the spent-fuel disposal capacity for a repository at Yucca Mountain from the thermal and hydrological point of view. Two proposed alternative repository designs are analyzed, both of which would fit into the currently well-characterized site and, therefore, not necessitating any additional site characterization at Yucca Mountain. The two- and three-dimensional models for coupled thermo-hydrological analysis extends from the surface to the water table, covering all the major and subgroup rock layers of the planned repository, as well as formations above and below the repository horizon. A dual-porosity and dual-permeability approach is used to model coupled heat and mass transfer through fracture formations. The waste package heating and ventilation are all assumed to follow those of the current design. The results show that the repository is able to accommodate three times the amount of spent fuel compared to the current design, without extra spatial expansion or exceeding current thermal and hydrological constraints. (authors)

  19. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  20. Poly[tetraaqua-μ3-pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylato-strontium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Daneshvar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of strontium(II nitrate with the proton-transfer compound (pdaH2(py-3,5-dc·H2O (where pda = propane-1,3-diamine and py-3,5-dcH2 = pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid leads to the formation of the title polymeric compound, [Sr(C7H3NO4(H2O4]n. The propane-1,3-diaminium cation is not incorporated in this crystal structure. The SrII atom lies on an inversion centre and is eight-coordinated by four O atoms from three py-3,5-dc ligands and four O atoms from four coordinated water molecules. The coordination polyhedron of the SrII atom is a distorted dodecahedron. These binuclear units are connected via the carboxylate O atoms to build a one-dimensional polymeric chain. In the crystal structure, non-covalant interactions consisting of hydrogen bonds (X—H...O, with X = O and C and π–π stacking interactions [3.4604 (19 Å] connect the various components to form a supramolecular structure.

  1. Speaking a Tone Language Enhances Musical Pitch Perception in 3-5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D.; Lee, Kang

    2018-01-01

    Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared…

  2. Design, synthesis and characterization of 1H-pyridin-4-yl-3,5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. 1H-pyridin-4-yl-3,5-disubstituted indazoles; Suzuki reaction; Akt kinase activity. 1. Introduction. In organic synthesis, Palladium-catalysed new carbon– carbon bond formation from aryl halides with organo boronic acids via Suzuki coupling reaction has been proved to be an important method. The 2010 Nobel.

  3. Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation of 3,5-disubstituted analogues of paracetamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, J.G.M.; Koppele, J.M. te; Dijk, P.A. van; Stee, L.L.P. van; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    1. The cytochrome P450-dependent binding of paracetamol and a series of 3,5-disubstituted paracetamol analogues (R = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -C(H)3, -C2H5, -iC3H7) have been determined with β-naphthoflavone (βNF)-induced rat liver microsomes and produced reverse type I spectral changes. K(s,app) varied

  4. Synthesis and fungicidal properties of 2,4-diaza-1,3,5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preparation of 2,4-diaza-1,3,5-pentanetrione compounds were described. The fungicidal effects of these compounds on the mycelial growth of the isolate, Phoma eupyrena were carried out by in vitro experiment. The results show that the response to treatment depended not only on the concentration of the compounds ...

  5. Rethinking the demarcation of Malachi 2:17-3:5 | Snyman | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emarcating a unit remains important for the interpretation and understanding of the particular unit in a (Biblical) book. In the case of the book of Malachi, the majority of scholars adhere to the traditional demarcation of the fourth unit in the book of Malachi (2:17-3:5). Closer investigation reveals that the matter is not as settled ...

  6. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Regions 3 & 5 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Columbus, Ohio on June 12 and 13, 2013. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with the Region 3 & 5 Local...

  7. Chemistry of the pyrazolidines. 26. Alkylation of 4-benzyliden-1-phenyl-3,5-dioxopyrazolidines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldarev, B.L.; Aronzon, M.E.; Adanin, V.M.; Zyakun, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The reaction of 4-benzyliden-1-phenyl-3,5-dioxopyrazolidines with alkyl halides in the presence of sodium alkoxide gave 1-phenyl-2-alkyl-4-benzyliden- and 1-phenyl-2,4-dialkyl-4-(α-alkoxybenzyl)-3,4-dioxopyrazolines. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by UV, IR, and PMR spectroscopy, and by mass-spectrometry

  8. Oxidative coupling polymerization in a Langmuir monolayer of octadecyl 3,5-diaminobenzoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimkes, P.; Sohling, U.; Oostergetel, G.T.; Schouten, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    In a Langmuir monolayer of the surface active monomer octadecyl 3,5-diaminobenzoate (ODDB), stabilized at a surface pressure of 10 mN/m and a temperature of 23.7 degrees C at the air-water interface, oxidative coupling polymerization occurs when copper(II) chloride was added or already was present

  9. New liquid crystals in the series of 1, 3, 5-triazine compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Series of compounds were prepared by nucleophilic addition of the primary amino nucleophile to 1,3,5-triazine electrophilic ring via alkyl spacers in presence of potassium carbonate as hydrochloride acceptor. Differencial scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed Smectic ...

  10. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  11. A 3-5GHz UWB CMOS Receiver with Digital Control Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Liu, Mengmeng; Ge, Ning

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a CMOS receiver that works for 3-5GHz low band SC-UWB. The receiver contains PLL, Mixer, and VGA. Double down conversion is adopted in the receiver to overcome the orthogonal clock design difficulty; digital assisted RF control method is used to increase the stability...

  12. Synthesis 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5-isopropyl-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LEFRADA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of an isopropylamine and an 4-bromoaniline with formaline in basic solution to give 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5- (isopropyl- 1, 3, 5- triazicyaclohexane. Through the interaction of rapid Schiff base, Structures of this compound have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods; IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR. Their purities were confirmed by elemental analyses.

  13. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melamine reacted with chlorosufonic acid (ClSO3H) to form a new sulfamic-type acid, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA). Both nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles were accomplished by using TTSA/NaNO2 system under mild and heterogeneous conditions with good to excellent yields.

  14. The industrial organization of the repository. Pitfall or logical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frostenson, Magnus

    2010-11-01

    From a systems perspective the organization of the Swedish final repository project for nuclear waste is studied. Different aspects of organization are identified in the report, covering dimensions of geographical, operative, structural, responsibility and contextual organization. Following SKB's site selection for the applications for the final repository for spent nuclear system and the closing of the surplus value agreement, issues concerning operative, structural and contextual organization tend to become particularly pressing, which is reflected in three research questions: - How will the final repository project be organized operatively and structurally over time? - Why is the final repository project organized in this way by SKB? - What kind of contextual organization takes place in the final repository project and what are the consequences of these activities? How the different industrial units of the final repository project should be run and within which structure, for example concerning ownership and integration of units, is established in the report. SKB's reasons for choosing this kind of organization are also highlighted. Apart from legal and safety-related demands that must be met together with the demands of the owners, SKB's strategic preference for insourcing conditions organizational choices. The traditional task centred operative and structural organization of SKB is also reflected in the organizational choices for the present and future units of the final depository system. Contextual organization implies deepened actor relationships between SKB's owners and SKB on the one side and the municipalities Oesthammar and Oskarshamn on the other. Through active organizing, the final repository arena 'narrows down' and the final repository issue turns into an in many respects local issue. There is a clear tendency that the roles of SKB are multiplied in order to handle the demands that central stakeholders - in particular the municipalities - place on

  15. Thermodynamic study of 1,2,3-triphenylbenzene and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Lima, Luis M. Spencer S.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic study of 1,2,3-triphenylbenzene (1,2,3-TPhB) and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (1,3,5-TPhB) isomers was carried out by making use of the mini-bomb combustion calorimetry and Knudsen mass-loss effusion techniques. The mini-bomb combustion calorimetry technique was used to derive the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state from the measured standard molar energies of combustion for both isomers. The Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique was used to measure the dependence with the temperature of the vapour pressure of crystalline 1,2,3-TPhB, which allowed the derivation of the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, by application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The sublimation study of 1,3,5-TPhB had been performed previously. From the combination of data obtained by both techniques, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous state, for both isomers, at T = 298.15 K, were calculated. The results indicate a higher stability of the 1,3,5-TPhB isomer relative to 1,2,3-TPhB, similarly to the terphenyls. Nevertheless, the 1,2,3-TPhB isomer is not as energetically destabilized as one might expect, supporting the existence of a π-π displacive stacking interaction between both pairs of outer phenyl rings. The volatility difference between the two isomers is ruled by the enthalpy of sublimation. The volatility of the 1,2,3-TPhB is two orders of magnitude higher than the 1,3,5-TPhB isomer, at T = 298.15 K.

  16. Radioactive Waste Repositories and Incentives to Local Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste (RW) repository depends on various and often community-specific factors. Although radiological risk from a properly constructed low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository is practically negligible, routine safety considerations will favor low populated areas and therefore probably underdeveloped communities. Repository acceptance in such communities is more likely to be facilitated by prospective benefits to local economy, such as infrastructure development and increased employment, as well as by dedicated financial incentives to the community. Direct financial compensation to the local community for acceptance of the repository has been considered in some documents in countries experienced in RW management, but it has not become a widely accepted practice. In Croatia, a possibility for such compensation is mentioned in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository site. In Slovenia, the government has already specified the annual amount of 2.33 million euro as a compensation for 'limited land use' to be shared by local communities in the vicinity of the planned LILW repository during its operation. Applicability of the Slovenian compensations to the prospective joint Slovenian-Croatian repository is not yet clear, at least in the aspect of joint funding. The joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 did conservatively include the compensations into the repository cost estimates, but that might not be retained in subsequent revisions of the Program. According to the agreement between governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the Nuclear power plant Krsko, Croatian side has no obligations to participate in 'public expenditures' introduced after the agreement, as would be the case of community compensations for LILW repository in Slovenia. Before further decisions on joint NPP Krsko waste management are made, including the issue of LILW

  17. Building Scientific Data's list of recommended data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufton, A. L.; Khodiyar, V.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.

    2016-12-01

    When Scientific Data launched in 2014 we provided our authors with a list of recommended data repositories to help them identify data hosting options that were likely to meet the journal's requirements. This list has grown in size and scope, and is now a central resource for authors across the Nature-titled journals. It has also been used in the development of data deposition policies and recommended repository lists across Springer Nature and at other publishers. Each new addition to the list is assessed according to a series of criteria that emphasize the stability of the resource, its commitment to principles of open science and its implementation of relevant community standards and reporting guidelines. A preference is expressed for repositories that issue digital object identifiers (DOIs) through the DataCite system and that share data under the Creative Commons CC0 waiver. Scientific Data currently lists fourteen repositories that focus on specific areas within the Earth and environmental sciences, as well as the broad scope repositories, Dryad and figshare. Readers can browse and filter datasets published at the journal by the host repository using ISA-explorer, a demo tool built by the ISA-tools team at Oxford University1. We believe that well-maintained lists like this one help publishers build a network of trust with community data repositories and provide an important complement to more comprehensive data repository indices and more formal certification efforts. In parallel, Scientific Data has also improved its policies to better support submissions from authors using institutional and project-specific repositories, without requiring each to apply for listing individually. Online resources Journal homepage: http://www.nature.com/scientificdata Data repository criteria: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/data-policies#repo-criteria Recommended data repositories: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/repositories Archived copies of the list: https

  18. Earthquakes - a danger to deep-lying repositories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at geological factors concerning earthquakes and the safety of deep-lying repositories for nuclear waste. The geological processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes are briefly looked at and the definitions for magnitude and intensity of earthquakes are discussed. Examples of damage caused by earthquakes are given. The earthquake situation in Switzerland is looked at and the effects of earthquakes on sub-surface structures and deep-lying repositories are discussed. Finally, the ideas proposed for deep-lying geological repositories for nuclear wastes are discussed

  19. Stream-simulation experiments for waste-repository investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    The potential for radionuclide migration by groundwater flow from a breached-water repository depends on the leaching process and on chemical changes that might occur as the radionuclide moves away from the repository. Therefore, migration involves the interactions of leached species with (1) the waste and canister, (2) the engineered barrier, and (3) the geologic materials surrounding the repository. Rather than attempt to synthesize each species and study it individually, another approach is to integrate all species and interactions using stream-simulation experiments. Interactions identified in these studies can then be investigated in detail in simpler experiments

  20. Safety case for Slovenian LILW near-surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viršek, Sandi; Špiler, Janja; Žagar, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: • Repository provides the fulfillment of international and national legal requirements regarding treatment and disposal of LILW; • Repository improves the conditions for life extension for NPP Krško and offers synergetic effects for the second unit of NPP Krško; • Repository provides a basis for safe, economic and reliable use of radioactive sources in science, medicine and industry in Slovenia; • All economic calculations and comparisons show a clear advantage in case of a joint Slovenian and Croatian solution

  1. Post-closure resaturation of a deep radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, I.C.S.; Rodwell, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    The post-closure resaturation of a deep radioactive waste repository has been modelled for a number of generic disposal concepts. A combination of numerical ground water flow simulations and analytical calculations has been used to investigate the variation of repository fluid pressure and degree of water saturation with time, and to determine the factors influencing resaturation times. The host rock permeability was found to be the most important determining factor. For geological environments regarded as likely for a waste repository, resaturation is predicted to be a short term process compared with gas generation and contaminant migration timescales. (author)

  2. Accelerator assisted repositories, technical issue identification and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, T.; Favale, A.; Berwald, D. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An investigation (technical and economic) is presented to quantify the impact of accelerator assisted repository (AAR) system on the US national nuclear repository strategy. An overview of US spent fuel policy is presented which provides a means to comparatively assess competing spent fuel disposition technologies under investigation. The advantages of an AAR system are highlighted and discussed. A companion economic analysis is presented. The results indicate that although a US geologic waste repository will continue to be required, waste partitioning and accelerator transmutation of selected actinides, and long-lived fission products, can result in substantial benefits. (author) 18 refs.

  3. Spent fuel stability under repository conditions - final report of the european project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Ferry, C.; Kelm, M.; Cavedon, J.M.; Corbel, C.; Jegou, Ch.; Lovera, P.; Miserque, F.; Poulesquen, A.; Grambow, B.; Andriambololona, Z.; Martinez-Esparza, A.; Kelm, M.; Loida, A.; Rondinella, V.; Wegen, D.; Spahiu, K.; Johnson, L.; Cachoir, Ch.; Lemmens, K.; Quinones, J.; Bruno, J.; Christensen, H.; Grambow, B.; Pablo, J. de

    2005-01-01

    This report is the final report of the European Project 'Spent Fuel Stability under Repository Conditions' (FIKW-CT-2001-00192 SFS) funded by the European Commission from Nov.2000 to Oct.2004. Gathering the work performed by 13 partners from 6 countries, it aims to specifically focus on the spent nuclear fuel long term alteration in deep repository and the subsequent radionuclides release rate as a function of time. This report synthesised the wide experimental work performed within this project and enlightens the major outcomes, which can be summarised as follow: - A new model for defining the Instant Release Fraction was developed in order to consider the potential fuel evolution before the water penetrates the canister. Quantitative assessment has been produced and shows a significant contribution to the long term dose; - Based on new experimental data, kinetic radiolytic scheme have been upgraded and are used to determine the amount of oxidants produced at the fuel/water interface; - The existence of a dose threshold below which the water radiolysis does not influence the fuel alteration has been demonstrated and occurs between 3.5 and 33 MBq.g UO21. Above the threshold, the fuel alteration rates is directly related to the dose rate. - Hydrogen was experimentally demonstrated to be an efficient oxidants scavenger preventing therefore the fuel oxidation. Molecular mechanism still need to be understood. - Finally, a new Matrix Alteration Model integrating most of the SFS results (apart of the hydrogen effect) has been developed and used to assess the fuel long tern stability in representative conditions of deep repository in salt, clay-rock and granite. The breadth of the results and the significance of the conclusions testify of the success of the collaboration within the project. (authors)

  4. Computational prediction of probabilistic ignition threshold of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seokpum; Miller, Christopher; Horie, Yasuyuki; Molek, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Zhou, Min

    2016-09-01

    The probabilistic ignition thresholds of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine explosives with average grain sizes between 70 μm and 220 μm are computationally predicted. The prediction uses material microstructure and basic constituent properties and does not involve curve fitting with respect to or prior knowledge of the attributes being predicted. The specific thresholds predicted are James-type relations between the energy flux and energy fluence for given probabilities of ignition. Statistically similar microstructure sample sets are computationally generated and used based on the features of micrographs of materials used in actual experiments. The predicted thresholds are in general agreement with measurements from shock experiments in terms of trends. In particular, it is found that grain size significantly affects the ignition sensitivity of the materials, with smaller sizes leading to lower energy thresholds required for ignition. For example, 50% ignition threshold of the material with an average grain size of 220 μm is approximately 1.4-1.6 times that of the material with an average grain size of 70 μm in terms of energy fluence. The simulations account for the controlled loading of thin-flyer shock experiments with flyer velocities between 1.5 and 4.0 km/s, constituent elasto-viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact and friction along interfaces, bulk inelastic heating, interfacial frictional heating, and heat conduction. The constitutive behavior of the materials is described using a finite deformation elasto-viscoplastic formulation and the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The ignition thresholds are determined via an explicit analysis of the size and temperature states of hotspots in the materials and a hotspot-based ignition criterion. The overall ignition threshold analysis and the microstructure-level hotspot analysis also lead to the definition of a macroscopic ignition parameter (J) and a microscopic

  5. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  6. A Climate Statistics Tool and Data Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Kuiper, J. A.; Orr, A.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory and collaborating organizations have generated regional scale, dynamically downscaled climate model output using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) version 3.3.1 at a 12km horizontal spatial resolution over much of North America. The WRF model is driven by boundary conditions obtained from three independent global scale climate models and two different future greenhouse gas emission scenarios, named representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The repository of results has a temporal resolution of three hours for all the simulations, includes more than 50 variables, is stored in Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) files, and the data volume is nearly 600Tb. A condensed 800Gb set of NetCDF files were made for selected variables most useful for climate-related planning, including daily precipitation, relative humidity, solar radiation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and wind. The WRF model simulations are conducted for three 10-year time periods (1995-2004, 2045-2054, and 2085-2094), and two future scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). An open-source tool was coded using Python 2.7.8 and ESRI ArcGIS 10.3.1 programming libraries to parse the NetCDF files, compute summary statistics, and output results as GIS layers. Eight sets of summary statistics were generated as examples for the contiguous U.S. states and much of Alaska, including number of days over 90°F, number of days with a heat index over 90°F, heat waves, monthly and annual precipitation, drought, extreme precipitation, multi-model averages, and model bias. This paper will provide an overview of the project to generate the main and condensed data repositories, describe the Python tool and how to use it, present the GIS results of the computed examples, and discuss some of the ways they can be used for planning. The condensed climate data, Python tool, computed GIS results, and documentation of the work are shared on the Internet.

  7. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Simpevarp, Layout D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    4,500. However, in order to accommodate the uncertainty entailed by possible future extensions of the operating periods of the nuclear power plants, the deposition area should, according to SKB, be designed for a capacity of 6,000 canisters. The strategy for answering the question 'Can the repository be accommodated within the assigned area' is to build an appropriate risk model. The most important results obtained from the calculations are: There is a very high (> 99%) probability that 6,000 canisters can be accommodated within the studied area at a depth of 500 m. Total deposition hole loss is 13% on average. The average area needed to host the 6,000 canisters at a depth of 500 m is 3.5 km{sup 2}, with a range of 2-5.6 km{sup 2}. This is within the limits of what was found in the layout studies in Chapter 5, where an area of 4.5 km{sup 2} was found to be needed. It should be noted that the layout study was not optimized. The three factors that have the greatest impact on uncertainty are: Hole spacing due to thermal properties; Loss percentage due to fractures with R > 100 m; and Dip of external boundary deformation zone.

  8. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Over the Mars, height (800-50 Pascal pressure coordinate) profiles of temperature (K), measured by radio occultation technique during the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor) mission, obtained for the period of 1-10 January 2006 at the Martian latitude of ~63N in almost all the longitudes are analyzed to study the characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. To avoid significant data gaps in a particular longitude sector, we selected a set of 7 Mars longitude regions with ranges of 0-30E, 35-60E, 65-95E, 190-230E, 250-280E, 290-320E, and 325-360E to study the global characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. The 3.5-day oscillation is not selected as a-priori but observed as a most significant oscillation during this period of 1-10 January 2006. It is observed that in the longitude of 0-30E, the 3.5-day oscillation shows statistically significant power (above the 95% confidence level white noise) from the lowest height (800 Pascal, 8 hPa) itself and up to the height of 450 Pascal level with the maximum power of ~130 K^2 at the 600 & 650 Pascal levels. It started to grow from the power of ~ 50 K^2 at the lowest height of 800 Pascal level and reached the maximum power in the height of 600-650 Pascal level and then it started to get lessened monotonously up to the height of 450 Pascal level where its power is ~ 20 K^2. Beyond this height and up to the height of 50 Pascal level, the wave amplitude is below the white noise level. As the phase of the wave is almost constant at all the height levels, it seems that the observed 3.5-day oscillation is a stationary wave with respect to the height. In the 35-60 E longitude sector, the vertical structure of the 3.5-day oscillation is similar to what observed for the 0-30 E longitude region but the power is statistically insignificant at all the heights. However in the 65-95E longitude sector, the wave grows from the lowest level (70 K^2) of 800 Pascal to its maximum power of 280 K^2 in the height of 700 Pascal level and then it started

  9. Thermo-mechanical effects from a KBS-3 type repository. Performance of pillars between repository tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, E.; Olofsson, Stig-Olof

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate how the rock mass, in the near field of a KBS-3 type repository, will be affected by the excavation of tunnels and deposition holes and the thermal load from the deposited waste. The three-dimensional finite difference program FLAC 3D was used to perform numerical simulation of the rock mass behaviour. The rock mass was modelled as a homogeneous and isotropic continuum. The initial area heat intensity of the repository was assumed to be 10 W/m 2 in all models. The results show that in the middle of the pillar between the repository tunnels the temperature reaches a maximum of about 70 deg C after 55 years of deposition. The extent of areas where the rock is predicted to yield depends on the assumed quality of the rock mass and the initial in-situ stress field. The volume of yielded rock reaches a maximum after about 200 years after deposition. For a rock mass with internal friction angle of 45 deg and cohesion of 5 MPa (using a Mohr-Coulomb material model), the extent of yielded rock is limited to about 1.5 m behind the excavation periphery. The largest rock displacements are found in the tunnel floor at the upper part of the deposition holes. Tension and shear failure in the periphery of the excavations is predicted to occur during the rock excavation, with a depth extension depending on the magnitude and orientation of the in-situ stresses, as well as on the rock mass quality. Both the excavation effects and the then-no-mechanical effects are smallest when the major principal stress is oriented parallel with the deposition tunnels. The maximum convergence between tunnel walls was calculated to occur after 200 years and be about 9 mm, in the model assuming a rock mass with 5 MPa cohesion, 45 deg internal friction angle and maximum horizontal stress perpendicular to the tunnel. In this study confining effects from the buffer and backfill material was neglected. The effective stress concept was used in most of the models

  10. Mass transfer and transport in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    Salt is a unique rock isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and nearly impermeable. In this paper we summarize some mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. First we analyses brine migration. Heating by high-level waste can cause brine in grain boundaries to move due to pressure-gradients. We analyze brine migration treating salt as a thermoelastic solid and found that brine migration is transient and localized. We use previously developed techniques to estimate release rates from waste packages by diffusion. Interbeds exist in salt and may be conduits for radionuclide migration. We analyze steady-state migration due to brine flow in the interbed, as a function of the Peclet number. Then we analyze transient mass transfer, both into the interbed and directly to salt, due only to diffusion. Finally we compare mass transfer rates of a waste cylinder in granite facing a fracture and in salt facing an interbed. In all cases, numerical illustrations of the analytic solution are given. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities.

  12. Data sharing, small science and institutional repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragin, Melissa H; Palmer, Carole L; Carlson, Jacob R; Witt, Michael

    2010-09-13

    Results are presented from the Data Curation Profiles project research, on who is willing to share what data with whom and when. Emerging from scientists' discussions on sharing are several dimensions suggestive of the variation in both what it means 'to share' and how these processes are carried out. This research indicates that data curation services will need to accommodate a wide range of subdisciplinary data characteristics and sharing practices. As part of a larger set of strategies emerging across academic institutions, institutional repositories (IRs) will contribute to the stewardship and mobilization of scientific research data for e-Research and learning. There will be particular types of data that can be managed well in an IR context when characteristics and practices are well understood. Findings from this study elucidate scientists' views on 'sharable' forms of data-the particular representation that they view as most valued for reuse by others within their own research areas-and the anticipated duration for such reuse. Reported sharing incidents that provide insights into barriers to sharing and related concerns on data misuse are included.

  13. Traits and types of health data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D

    2014-01-01

    We review traits of reusable clinical data and offer a typology of clinical repositories with a range of known examples. Sources of clinical data suitable for research can be classified into types reflecting the data's institutional origin, original purpose, level of integration and governance. Primary data nearly always come from research studies and electronic medical records. Registries collect data on focused populations primarily to track outcomes, often using observational research methods. Warehouses are institutional information utilities repackaging clinical care data. Collections organize data from more organizations than a data warehouse, and more original data sources than a registry. Therefore even if they are heavily curated, their level of internal integration, and thus ease of use, can be less than other types. Federations are like collections except that physical control over data is distributed among donor organizations. Federations sometimes federate, giving a second level of organization. While the size, in number of patients, varies widely within each type of data source, populations over 10 K are relatively numerous, and much larger populations can be seen in warehouses and federations. One imagined ideal structure for research progress has been called an "Information Commons". It would have longitudinal, multi-leveled (environmental through molecular) data on a large population of identified, consenting individuals. These are qualities whose achievement would require long term commitment on the part of many data donors, including a willingness to make their data public.

  14. An evaluation of repository-induced disturbances for a KBS-3 type repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D.; McLeod, R.; McEwen, T. [QuantiSci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    1998-03-01

    This report considers the potential physical and chemical perturbations caused by the excavation, operation and backfilling and sealing of a KBS-3 type repository for spent fuel in Sweden. Parts of the underground excavations are likely to remain open to the atmosphere for up to several decades. Time-dependent changes to the chemical environment and the properties of the geological formation will be occurring as well as the initial disturbance of construction and subsequent changes after backfilling. In addition, this report also discusses issues that arise from the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level waste. The processes which are likely to act during each stage of a repository from construction through to backfilling and sealing have been reviewed and the degree to which these processes are understood and represented within the performance assessment is discussed. The areas of particular interest are: The coupling of thermal, hydrogeological and mechanical processes with particular reference to the development of the near-field; Understanding the transient process of re-saturation with particular reference to the buffer material surrounding the waste canisters, including chemical changes to the material; The impact of accidental events during the construction and operational phases of work and their possible consequence on the long term performance of the repository; Chemical issues relating to the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level wastes within a single facility. When consideration of transient processes and coupling is discussed, it is apparent that numerical tools and a complete understanding to provide quantitative information is lacking. The importance of the engineered barrier system within the performance assessment for spent fuel disposal is recognised and the emphasis is placed on the understanding of the coupled processes in the evolution in the near-field of the geosphere 45 refs, 4 fig, 2 tabs

  15. An evaluation of repository-induced disturbances for a KBS-3 type repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.; McLeod, R.; McEwen, T.

    1998-03-01

    This report considers the potential physical and chemical perturbations caused by the excavation, operation and backfilling and sealing of a KBS-3 type repository for spent fuel in Sweden. Parts of the underground excavations are likely to remain open to the atmosphere for up to several decades. Time-dependent changes to the chemical environment and the properties of the geological formation will be occurring as well as the initial disturbance of construction and subsequent changes after backfilling. In addition, this report also discusses issues that arise from the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level waste. The processes which are likely to act during each stage of a repository from construction through to backfilling and sealing have been reviewed and the degree to which these processes are understood and represented within the performance assessment is discussed. The areas of particular interest are: The coupling of thermal, hydrogeological and mechanical processes with particular reference to the development of the near-field; Understanding the transient process of re-saturation with particular reference to the buffer material surrounding the waste canisters, including chemical changes to the material; The impact of accidental events during the construction and operational phases of work and their possible consequence on the long term performance of the repository; Chemical issues relating to the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level wastes within a single facility. When consideration of transient processes and coupling is discussed, it is apparent that numerical tools and a complete understanding to provide quantitative information is lacking. The importance of the engineered barrier system within the performance assessment for spent fuel disposal is recognised and the emphasis is placed on the understanding of the coupled processes in the evolution in the near-field of the geosphere

  16. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs.

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs

  18. Test case for a near-surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Jones, C.; Nilsson, L.B.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.

    1998-01-01

    A test case is presented for assessment of a near-surface disposal facility for radioactive waste. The case includes waste characterization and repository design, requirements and constraints in an assessment context, scenario development, model description and test calculations

  19. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Biospecimen Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Repository is the biospecimen bank of the SWAN study. All stored specimens are from the 3,302 SWAN participants, collected across the 14 clinic visits...

  20. SBOLme: a Repository of SBOL Parts for Metabolic Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Cui, Xuefeng; Umarov, Ramzan; Grunberg, Raik; Myers, Chris J.; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) is a community-driven open language to promote standardization in synthetic biology. To support the use of SBOL in metabolic engineering, we developed SBOLme, the first open-access repository of SBOL 2

  1. Mining knowledge from text repositories using information extraction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Information extraction (IE); text mining; text repositories; knowledge discovery from .... general purpose English words. However ... of precision and recall, as extensive experimentation is required due to lack of public tagged corpora. 4. Mining ...

  2. Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BioGRID is an online interaction repository with data on raw protein and genetic interactions from major model organism species. All interaction data are freely...

  3. Corrosion phase formation on container alloys in basalt repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lutton, J.M.; Rivera, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is evaluating the suitability of basalt in southeastern Washington State as a possible location for a nuclear waste repository. The performance of the waste package, which includes the waste form, container, and surrounding packing material, will be affected by the stability of container alloys in the repository environment. Primary corrosion phases and altered packing material containing metals leached from the container may also influence subsequent reactions between the waste form and repository environment. Copper- and iron-based alloys were tested at 50 0 to 300 0 C in an air/steam environment and in pressure vessels in ground-water-saturated basalt-bentonite packing material. Reaction phases formed on the alloys were identified and corrosion rates were measured. Changes in adhering packing material were also evaluated. The observed reactions and their possible effects on container alloy durability in the repository are discussed

  4. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. DRIVER: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The acronym DRIVER stands for “Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research”. Ten partners from eight countries have entered into an international partnership, to connect and network as a first step more than 50 physically distributed institutional repositories to one, large-scale, virtual Knowledge Base of European research. Universities and research organisations around the world currently build repositories, whose overall number is estimated to exceed 600 by far. As the academic information landscape is already highly fragmented, DRIVER is the trans-national catalyst to overcome local, isolated efforts and to stop fragmentation by offering one harmonised, virtual knowledge resource. DRIVER currently builds a production quality test-bed to assist the development of a knowledge infrastructure across Europe. DRIVER as a project, funded by the “Research Infrastructure” unit of the European Commission, is also preparing for the future expansion and upgrade of the Digital Repository in...

  6. Environmental assessment overview, Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs

  7. On-line repository of audiovisual material feminist research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a collection of audiovisual material available in the repository of the Interdisciplinary Seminar of Feminist Research Methodology SIMReF (http://www.simref.net.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel for disposal in the KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, Per; Moren, Lena; Wiborgh, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input to the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site as well as to the operational safety report, SR-Operation. The report presents the spent fuel to be deposited, and the requirements on the handling and selection of fuel assemblies for encapsulation that follows from that it shall be deposited in the KBS-3 repository. An overview of the handling and a simulation of the encapsulation and the resulting canisters to be deposited are presented. Finally, the initial state of the encapsulated spent nuclear fuel is given. The initial state comprises the radionuclide inventory and other data required for the assessment of the long-term safety

  9. Preliminary postclosure risk assessment: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Elwood, D.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Reimus, P.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Doctor, P.G.; Engel, D.W.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Strenge, D.L.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, to estimate the postclosure risk, in terms of population health effects, of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The risk estimates cover a time span of 1 million years following repository closure. Representative disruptive and intrusive events were selected and evaluated in addition to expected conditions. The estimates were generated assuming spent fuel as the waste form and included all important nuclides from inventory, half-life and dose perspectives. The base case results yield an estimate of 36 health effects over the first million years of repository operation. The doses attributed to the repository corresponds to about 0.1 percent of the doses received from natural background radiation. 16 refs., 1 fig

  10. Executive-style briefings on selected repository design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This document is a collection of executive-style briefings on selected repository design issues. Most of the briefings discuss differences between the US repository design bases presented in US Working Draft on Repository Physical Descriptions in a Salt Formation, prepared in support of INFCE discussions of May 1978 and the FRG-Netherlands design bases, presented in Design Study of a Radioactive Waste Repository to be Mined in a Medium-Size Salt Dome by Hamstra and Velzeboer, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, January 1978. Advantages and disadvantages of the two sets of design bases are discussed, and the impacts of adopting either of these bases on the other's programs and positions are identified

  11. Suprabasalt stratigraphy within and adjacent to the reference repository location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    This data-package contains six detailed stratigraphic correlations and structure cross sections of suprabasalt sediments in the area adjacent to and including the Reference Repository Location. 4 refs., 1 fig

  12. Tunnel Boring Machine for nuclear waste repository research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzon, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    A description is presented of a Tunnel Boring Machine and its intended use on a research project underway in Sweden for demonstrating and testing methods for rock investigation at a suitable depth for a deep repository for nuclear waste

  13. DRIVER Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Hagemann, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    The acronym DRIVER stands for “Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research”. Ten partners from eight countries have entered into an international partnership, to connect and network as a first step more than 50 physically distributed institutional repositories to one, large-scale, virtual Knowledge Base of European research. Universities and research organisations around the world currently build repositories, whose overall number is estimated to exceed 600 by far. As the academic information landscape is already highly fragmented, DRIVER is the trans-national catalyst to overcome local, isolated efforts and to stop fragmentation by offering one harmonised, virtual knowledge resource. DRIVER currently builds a production quality test-bed to assist the development of a knowledge infrastructure across Europe. DRIVER as a project, funded by the “Research Infrastructure” unit of the European Commission, is also preparing for the future expansion and upgrade of the Digital Repository inf...

  14. Spent nuclear fuel for disposal in the KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, Per; Moren, Lena; Wiborgh, Maria

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input to the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site as well as to the operational safety report, SR-Operation. The report presents the spent fuel to be deposited, and the requirements on the handling and selection of fuel assemblies for encapsulation that follows from that it shall be deposited in the KBS-3 repository. An overview of the handling and a simulation of the encapsulation and the resulting canisters to be deposited are presented. Finally, the initial state of the encapsulated spent nuclear fuel is given. The initial state comprises the radionuclide inventory and other data required for the assessment of the long-term safety

  15. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Monitoring of geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Geological repositories for disposal of high level radioactive waste are designed to provide isolation of the waste from human environment for many thousands of years. This report discusses the possible purposes for monitoring geological repositories at the different stages of a repository programme, the use that may be made of the information obtained and the techniques that might be applied. This report focuses on the different objectives that monitoring might have at various stages of a programme, from the initiation of work on a candidate site, to the period after repository closure. Each objective may require somewhat different types of information, or may use the same information in different ways. Having evaluated monitoring requirements, the report concludes with a brief evaluation of available monitoring techniques

  17. Hydrologic effects of natural disruptive events on nuclear repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.N.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes some possible hydrogeologic effects of disruptive events which may affect repositories for nuclear waste. The report concentrates on the effects of natural events which are judged to be most probable

  18. An open repositories network development for medical teaching resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Gérard; Darmoni, Stefan; Le Beux, Pierre; Renard, Jean-Marie; Dahamna, Badisse; Fieschi, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The lack of interoperability between repositories of heterogeneous and geographically widespread data is an obstacle to the diffusion, sharing and reutilization of those data. We present the development of an open repositories network taking into account both the syntactic and semantic interoperability of the different repositories and based on international standards in this field. The network is used by the medical community in France for the diffusion and sharing of digital teaching resources. The syntactic interoperability of the repositories is managed using the OAI-PMH protocol for the exchange of metadata describing the resources. Semantic interoperability is based, on one hand, on the LOM standard for the description of resources and on MESH for the indexing of the latter and, on the other hand, on semantic interoperability management designed to optimize compliance with standards and the quality of the metadata.

  19. Online Repositories of Learning Designs: Pipedreams and Possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2013-01-01

    McKenney, S. (2013, 28 January-1 February). Online Repositories of Learning Designs: Pipedreams and Possibilities. Position paper for the Alpine Rendezvous Workshop on Teacher-led inquiry and learning design, Villard‐de‐Lans, Vercors, France.

  20. Process mining software repositories: do developers work as expected?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poncin, W.; Serebrenik, A.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern software development commonly makes use of a multitude of software repositories. How can these help us to understand the on-going development process? Researchers of Eindhoven University of Technology design new methods revealing how software has been developed.