WorldWideScience

Sample records for repository investigation sites

  1. Site investigation requirements for a deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, I.W.

    1992-03-01

    Techniques currently available for measuring geotechnical parameters needed in the design, construction and assessment of a deep underground repository have been critically examined. These techniques have been considered under four main areas: definition of the rock discontinuity structure, definition of the in-situ stress distribution in the rock mass, estimation of the geomechanical characteristics of the rock mass, and estimation of flow and transport characteristics of the rock mass. The review concludes that generally rocks and rock masses are not well characterised by tests from cores or from boreholes and gives reason to support this view. The only parameters which can be measured accurately are laboratory index properties which are useful only in a comparative assessment of different rock types. Finally the review concludes that the only way to obtain useful data on rock behaviour is through large pilot scale tests with appropriate and controlled boundary conditions conducted preferably in the potential host strata. (author)

  2. Repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.W.; Pentz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of candidate repository sites has a number of programmatic objectives. Principal among these is the acquisition of data: a) to determine the suitability of a site relative to the DOE repository siting guidelines, b) to support model development and calculations to determine the suitability of a site relative to the post closure criteria of the NRC and EPA, c) to support the design of a disposal system, including the waste package and the engineered barrier system, as well as the shafts and underground openings of the repository. In meeting the gaols of site characterization, the authors have an obligation to conduct their investigations within an appropriate budget and schedule. This mandates that a well-constructed and systematic plan for field investigations be developed. Such a plan must fully account for the mechanisms which will control the radiologic performance in the repository. The plan must also flexibly and dynamically respond to the results of each step of field investigation, responding to the spatial variability of earth as well as to enhanced understandings of the performance of the disposal system. Such a plan must ensure that sufficient data are available to support the necessary probabilistic calculations of performance. This paper explores the planning for field data acquisition with specific reference to requirements for demonstrations of the acceptable performance for disposal systems

  3. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository

  4. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository.

  5. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  6. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository.

  7. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  8. Planning for investigation and evaluation of potential repository sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Stroem, A.

    1998-01-01

    The present stage of siting of the Swedish Deep Repository for spent nuclear fuel involves general siting studies on national and regional scales and feasibility studies on a municipal scale. Based on these studies, two areas will be selected for surface-based site investigations. The geoscientific site information will be used in the site evaluation process, in which performance and safety assessments and design studies are the major activities, in combination with geoscientific characterization. The safety report and EIA document from the site investigation stage will be the most important documents in the application for the siting permit and the permit to construct the deep repository. Detailed characterization will then verify the suitability of the selected site. The programme for geoscientific site investigations is based on experience from more than 20 years of field studies in several SKB projects, such as the Study Site Investigations , the Stripa Project, and the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The strategies and methodologies developed, implemented and verified within the Aespoe HRL are a very important source of information and know-how for the development of the site investigation programme. The investigations will produce geoscientific models that include all information needed to analyze the long-term safety of a deep repository located in and adapted to the geological conditions of the rock. The type of geoscientific information needed for performance and safety assessment, layout and design, environmental studies and for fundamental geoscientific understanding has been specified and compiled in a 'parameter' report. The general strategy is that performance assessment, layout and design studies will be conducted in parallel with the geoscientific investigations. Information will be transferred at logical occasions, when decisions have to be taken and when feedback is desirable for new investigation steps. The role of the geoscientific evaluation is to

  9. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    SKB's goal is to be able to commence site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository. This report describes the investigation and evaluation programme, which is focused on a deep repository in accordance with the KBS-3 method for spent nuclear fuel. When areas for site investigations have been chosen, the programmes will be adapted to the site-specific conditions. The geoscientific work during the site investigation phase is supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for a deep repository. The material must be comprehensive enough to: show whether the selected site satisfies fundamental safety requirements; permit comparisons with other investigated sites; and serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the properties and characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. The work is being carried out in consultation with municipalities, regulatory authorities and nearby residents. The main product of the investigations is a site description, which presents collected data and interpreted parameters that are of importance both for the overall scientific understanding of the site and for the analyses and assessments that are made of design and safety assessment with respect to the deep repository's layout and construction as well as its long-term performance and radiological safety. The site description should furthermore present an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. A technical risk evaluation is carried out, by which is meant a description of uncertainties in calculations and the environmental impact of the civil engineering work. The main product of the safety assessment is a safety report, which analyzes whether long-term safety

  10. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    SKB's goal is to be able to commence site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository. This report describes the investigation and evaluation programme, which is focused on a deep repository in accordance with the KBS-3 method for spent nuclear fuel. When areas for site investigations have been chosen, the programmes will be adapted to the site-specific conditions. The geoscientific work during the site investigation phase is supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for a deep repository. The material must be comprehensive enough to: show whether the selected site satisfies fundamental safety requirements; permit comparisons with other investigated sites; and serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the properties and characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. The work is being carried out in consultation with municipalities, regulatory authorities and nearby residents. The main product of the investigations is a site description, which presents collected data and interpreted parameters that are of importance both for the overall scientific understanding of the site and for the analyses and assessments that are made of design and safety assessment with respect to the deep repository's layout and construction as well as its long-term performance and radiological safety. The site description should furthermore present an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. A technical risk evaluation is carried out, by which is meant a description of uncertainties in calculations and the environmental impact of the civil engineering work. The main product of the safety assessment is a safety report, which analyzes whether long

  11. Development of the web-based site investigation flow diagram in repository development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Ohuchi, Jin; Tsuboya, Takao; Ando, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    In siting a repository for high level radioactive wastes (HLW), it is essential for consensus building intelligibly and visually present why and how the area is selected as a suitable site. However 'information asymmetry' exists especially between society and an implementation body because various types of investigation, analysis and assessment are implemented in site characterization on the basis of a wide variety of advanced science and technology. Communication between experts (e.g. surveyors and modelers) is also important for efficient and reliable site investigation/ characterization. The Web-based Site Investigation Flow Diagram (SIFD) has been developed as a tool for information sharing among stake holders and society-jointed decision making. To test applicability of the SIFD, virtual site characterization ('dry run') is performed using the existing site investigation data. It is concluded that the web-based SIFD enhance traceability and transparency of the site investigation/ characterization, and therefore it would be a powerful communication tool among experts for efficient and reliable site investigation/characterization and among stake holders for consensus building

  12. Site study plan for Playa investigations, Deaf Smith County, Texas: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This plan defines the purpose and objectives of the Playa Investigation Study, presents a plan of work to provide the information necessary to resolve issues, and discusses the rationale for test method selection. The required information will be obtained from existing well drilling records, describing and testing of soil and rock samples recovered from project test holes, geophysical well logs, seismic surveys, and shallow test pits excavated at ground surface. There have been numerous, often conflicting, theories presented to explain the origin(s) of the playas of the Texas High Plains. The primary purpose of this study is to establish if existing playas and playa alignments are related to deeper subsurface structure, such as faulting or salt dissolution, the potential for future playa development, and the significance of existing and/or future playas on siting a repository in Deaf Smith County, Texas. 11 refs

  13. Hydrologic investigations to evaluate a potential site for a nuclear-waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, is being evaluated by the U.S. Department of Energy for its suitability as a site for a mined geologic respository for high-level nuclear wastes. The repository facility would be constructed in densely welded tuffs in the unsaturated zone. In support of the evaluation, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting hydrologic investigations of both the saturated and unsaturated zones, as well as paleohydrologic studies. Investigation in saturated-zone hydrology will help define one component of ground-water flow paths and travel times to the accessible environment. A two-dimensional, steady-state, finite-element model was developed to describe the regional hydrogeologic framework. The unsaturated zone is 450 to 700 meters thick at Yucca Mountain; precipitation averages about 150 millimeters per year. A conceptual hydrologic model of the unsaturated zone incorporates the following features: minimal net infiltration, variable distribution of flux, lateral flow, potential for perched-water zones, fracture and matrix flow, and flow along faults. The conceptual model is being tested primarily by specialized test drilling; plans also are being developed for in-situ testing in a proposed exploratory shaft. Quaternary climatic and hydrologic conditions are being evaluated to develop estimates of the hydrologic effects of potential climatic changes during the next 10,000 years. Evaluation approaches include analysis of plant macrofossils in packrat middens, evaluation of lake and playa sediments, infiltration tests, and modeling effects of potential increased recharge on the potentiometric surface

  14. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase[Planning for a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  15. Site investigations and conceptual design for the repository in the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Site investigations are planned to enable the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the other institutions involved to scrutinize the suitability of the Gorleben site and its salt dome as the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' repository, and to provide all data necessary for detailed site-specific planning and safe building and operation of the repository. The investigations include deep drillings and an extensive hydrogeological programme for exploring the general structure of the salt dome and its environment. The latter programme started on 17 April 1979. The Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Geological Survey) is in charge of the geoscientific side of the investigations. For the site-independent conceptual design the following requirements have been laid down: (1) for safety reasons retrievability is not to be considered; (2) standard mining techniques and the special experience gained at the Asse salt mine should be utilized as much as possible; (3) two shafts should be sufficient for the mine, for all transport and the ventilation system; (4) different forms of waste in terms of waste type and container shall be disposed of in different storage areas; (5) ventilated sections must permit the shutting off of each storage area from the rest of the mine; (6) the mining method of retreat working should be applied in order to explore the whole disposal area prior to the beginning of disposal, to enable an optimal fit of the mine to the structure of the salt dome, and to move away from the heat generated by heat-producing waste; (7) the mine works shall have a lateral safety distance to the cap rock of 200 m and a vertical safety zone of 300 m beneath the salt level. (8) all disposal areas shall be on one level; (9) salt and waste shall be transported in different drifts, mainly in a one-way system. (author)

  16. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  17. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared with the

  18. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R and D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''

  19. A summary of INSITE activities in tracking SKB's spent fuel repository site investigations from 2002-2009 and of advice provided to the regulatory authorities on the status of site understanding at the end of the surface-based investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Neil; Bath, Adrian; Geier, Joel; Ove Stephansson; Tiren, Sven; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2010-11-01

    SSM and its predecessor SKI employed a team of earth scientists who followed and reviewed SKB's investigations of the potential spent nuclear fuel repository sites at Forsmark and Laxemar. This group was named INSITE (INdependent Site Investigation Tracking and Evaluation) and began its work in 2002 and completed its task with the review of the final versions SKB's site descriptive models, SDM-Site, in 2009. This report is a summary of INSITE's work over the eight-and-a-half year period of the site investigations and the lead-in and the wind-down to the work. It is intended to provide an outline and a record of how INSITE has worked and how its advice was generated and provided to SKI and, latterly, to SSM. Together with all the other documentation generated by INSITE, this report is intended to support the regulatory review of SKB's licence application for a spent nuclear fuel repository

  20. Recent developments in the use of discrete fractures models for investigating the siting of an underground repository of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, D.; Guerin, F.; Riss, J.; Dewiere, L.; Fillion, E.

    2000-01-01

    The sitting of a nuclear waste repository in a geological medium involves, among other aspects, predicting water inflows in the shafts and drifts, and evaluating possible geometries for the waste handling and storage galleries. In sedimentary host rocks, porous medium hydrogeology can be used easily to provide water inflow estimates, while geology will describe the geometry of the various layers, as well as the limited number of faults that may cut them. However, crystalline rocks such as the Vienne site, may be cut by numerous faults and fractures. To deal with such host rocks, we need new concepts - which have been under development during the last 15 years - in order to describe properly the spatial arrangement of discontinuities, its consequences in terms of the site hydrogeology, and in terms of the geometry of volumes available between faults for designing the underground storage cavities. A starting point is building a model of the fractures, using the statistical description of the investigated fracture field, including dips, dip directions, sizes, and intensities noted in boreholes or on outcrops. Such a model can then be used to compute flows. It is based on idealizing fractures as planar objects, often disks, with statistical geometrical properties inferred from available data. The model realism can be improved by conditioning the geometry on data, either directly observed - by fixing in space observed fractures - or indirectly inferred - by integrating the results of hydraulic, or even tracer tests. Discrete fracture models can then be used for many treatments, well beyond simple flow and transport computations. We illustrate this through two studies applied to the crystalline Vienne massif. First, image analysis techniques that were first developed for two dimensions, and have been recently extended to three dimensions, help with describing the space available between discontinuities, in order to define the sound rock blocks available for the waste

  1. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  2. Ecosystem description of a drainage area - a strategy in biosphere descriptions during site investigations for a repository of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, T.; Lofgren, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the next few years the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) performs site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. Novel methods based on systems and landscape ecology are developed to understand and model the radionuclide flow in the biosphere using site specific data for a safety assessment. This work describes the strategy for development of a descriptive ecosystem model for the surface ecosystem. The site description is needed to: a) perform a safety assessment that describes and analyzes different scenarios for radionuclide releases into the ecosystem and possible pathways for dispersal or accumulation radionuclides in the ecosystem, b) detect changes caused by the construction of a repository, c) establish a baseline for detecting long-term effects of the repository. The description adopts a site-specific approach focusing on the quantification of the properties that will constitute the descriptive model. The aim is also to present the methodology for determining the properties, to describe the development of the framework for the descriptive ecosystem models by integrating use of different properties, and finally, to present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology. The safety assessment will use an approach, among other methods, where transport and accumulation of radionuclides will be modelled by quantifying biogeochemical pathways of matter. The descriptive ecosystem model applied to the site was therefore built to describe and quantify processes affecting i.e. turnover of matter in a drainage area. The conclusions from applying this approach was that by have estimating the flow of matter the ecological and physical constrains on the system reduces the potential variations in outcome of future states of the ecosystem and thus also reduces the uncertainties in estimating radionuclide flow and consequences to humans and the environment. (author)

  3. Evaluation of geological documents available for provisional safety analyses of potential sites for nuclear waste repositories - Are additional geological investigations needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    The procedure for selecting repository sites for all categories of radioactive waste in Switzerland is defined in the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories, which foresees a selection of sites in three stages. In Stage I, Nagra proposed geological siting regions based on criteria relating to safety and engineering feasibility. The Swiss Government (the Federal Council) is expected to decide on the siting proposals in 2011. The objective of Stage 2 is to prepare proposals for the location of the surface facilities within the planning perimeters defined by the Federal Council in its decision on Stage 1 and to identify potential sites. Nagra also has to carry out a provisional safety analysis for each site and a safety-based comparison of the sites. Based on this, and taking into account the results of the socio-economic-ecological impact studies, Nagra then has to propose at least two sites for each repository type to be carried through to Stage 3. The proposed sites will then be investigated in more detail in Stage 3 to ensure that the selection of the sites for the General Licence Applications is well founded. In order to realise the objectives of the upcoming Stage 2, the state of knowledge of the geological conditions at the sites has to be sufficient to perform the provisional safety analyses. Therefore, in preparation for Stage 2, the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan requires Nagra to clarify the need for additional investigations aimed at providing input for the provisional safety analyses. The purpose of the present report is to document Nagra's technical-scientific assessment of this need. The focus is on evaluating the geological information based on processes and parameters that are relevant for safety and engineering feasibility. In evaluating the state of knowledge the key question is whether additional information could lead to a different decision regarding the selection of the sites to be carried through to Stage 3

  4. Hydrologic issues in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remson, I.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Extrapolation of Darcy's law to the transport of water an solutes in unfractured poorly permeable rocks being studied for nuclear waste disposal is questioned. The hydrologic literature includes numerous references to both non-Darcian flow in dense materials devoid of macrofractures and microfractures and to threshold gradients below which no flow occurs. For such situations to occur, the pore-size range must be small enough so that all pore water is sufficiently close to mineral surfaces to be affected by the surficial forces. Then the flow will be non-Newtonian and non-Darcian, and solute transport will be by molecular diffusion. If fluid transport in very dense unfractured rocks is non-Darcian, useful methods of testing candidate host rocks become apparent. In situ nondestructive pressure testing of canister waste emplacement boreholes in a mined repository can verify the absence of both fracture flow and Darcian flow. 18 references

  5. Citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.E.; Olsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    The following study presents a proposed strategy for citizen participation during the planning stages of nuclear waste repository siting. It discusses the issue from the general perspective of citizen participation in controversial issues and in community development. Second, rural institutions and attitudes toward energy development as the context for developing a citizen participation program are examined. Third, major citizen participation techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach for resolving public policy issues are evaluated. Fourth, principles of successful citizen participation are presented. Finally, a proposal for stimulating and sustaining effective responsible citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting and management is developed

  6. Management strategy for site characterization at candidate HLW repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for HLW repository site characterization which is aimed at producing an optimal characterization trajectory for site suitability and licensing evaluations. The core feature of the strategy is a matrix of alternative performance targets and alternative information-level targets which can be used to allocate and justify program effort. Strategies for work concerning evaluation of expected and disrupted repository performance are distinguished, and the need for issue closure criteria is discussed

  7. Waste repository planned for Bruce Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2004-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and Kincardine, the municipality nearest the Bruce site, have agreed in principal to the construction of a deep geologic repository for low and medium level radioactive waste on the site. The two parties signed the 'Kincardine Hosting Agreement' on October 13, 2004 to proceed with planning, seek regulatory approval and further public consultation of the proposed project. A construction Licence is not expected before 2013. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste repository site selection in the Republic of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeran, M.

    1992-01-01

    The report shows the procedure for the low and intermediate level radwaste (LLW and ILW) repository site selection and the work performed up to the present. The procedure for the repository site selection is divided into four steps. In the first step the unsuitable areas are excluded by taking into consideration the rough exclusion criteria. In the second step, the remaining suitable areas are screened to identify the potential sites with respect to preference criteria. In the third step three to five candidate sites will be assessed and selected among the potential sites. In the final, the fourth step, detailed site investigation and confirmation of one or two most suitable sites will follow. In Slovenia the 1st and the 2nd step of site selection have been completed, while step 3 is now in its final stage. (author) [sl

  9. Investigations on site suitability for a final repository of low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Status report of phase I investigations for the feasible Bois de la Glaive site (community of Ollon, VD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    On 30 th September 1985, site suitability investigations with a view to disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste were licensed by the Federal Government at three locations - Bois de la Glaive (Canton Vaud), Oberbauenstock (Canton Uri) and Piz Pian Grand (Canton Graubuenden). This report presents the status of the investigations at Bois de la Glaive as at the end of 1987 and discusses the results of the programme. Because of the opposition of the community of Ollon, none of the investigations subject to authorization have been carried out, even though these investigations had been approved by the Federal Government on 30 th September 1985. Nevertheless, various investigations not requiring a license have provided a considerable store of data. The details of the work actually carried out are as follows: (1) Detailed geological mapping of the earth's surface over an area of 22.5 km 2 on a scale of 1:5000. This study included the first geological recording of the Galerie de Salin (Salin drift) which formed part of an 18 th -century mine. (2) The existing hydrogeological data on the area were compiled and provided a first impression of the overall hydrogeological conditions. (3) The provisional concept of a possible repository at Bois de la Glaive and of the corresponding exploration gallery was elaborated under the point of view of civil engineering and the long-term behaviour of the host rock was assessed qualitatively. To summarize, based on the present stage of the investigations and on rock- resp. site-specific knowledge of the anhydrite as a host rock, there are no real reasons for ruling out the site. 54 refs., 11 figs

  10. Benchmark problems for repository siting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.; Thomas, S.D.; Lester, B.H.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes benchmark problems to test computer codes used in siting nuclear waste repositories. Analytical solutions, field problems, and hypothetical problems are included. Problems are included for the following types of codes: ground-water flow in saturated porous media, heat transport in saturated media, ground-water flow in saturated fractured media, heat and solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated fractured media, and solute transport in unsaturated porous media

  11. Cost estimate of the Yucca Mountain repository based on the site characterization plan conceptual design: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruer, E.R.; Fowler, M.E.; Rocha, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    This report of the life-cycle costs of a mined repository in tuff is based on the site characterization conceptual design and contains estimates of two methods of waste emplacement - vertical and horizontal. The life cycle of the repository progresses from design and construction to emplacement operations that last 25 years. When emplacement has ended, a caretaker period begins and continues until 50 years from emplacement of the first waste. The life of the repository concludes with closure and decommissioning, which includes backfilling and sealing the repository, decontaminating and razing the surface facilities, restoring the land to as near its original condition as possible, and marking the site. The estimates, developed for each phase of the life cycle of the repository, are based on January 1986 constant (unescalated) dollars and include an allowance for contingency. This report mainly comprises explanations of design and operating assumptions, estimating methods, exclusions, definition of cost accounts, calculating procedures, data sources, staffing and other qualifying remarks. Cost estimates are approximations of value and should not be construed as exact. The cost and staffing detail provided in this estimate is commensurate with the detail in the conceptual design

  12. Siting guidelines and their role in repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The first requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act was for the Secretary of Energy to issue general guidelines for siting repositories. The guidelines were to specify detailed geologic considerations that would be the primary criteria for the selection of sites in various host rocks, as well as factors that would qualify or disqualify any site from development as a repository. These guidelines were clearly intended to provide not only the framework for the siting program but also the stimulus for establishing effective communication and consultation among the parties involved in the program. The Act further required that the guidelines be a factor in the development of all future decision documents of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, including the environmental assessments that would accompany the nomination of sites for characterization, the site-characterization plans that are to be prepared before the sinking of exploratory shafts at any candidate site, and the environmental impact statement that is to support the recommendation of a site for development as a repository. More than two years after its passage, the intention of the Act for the guidelines has been realized. Concurred in by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on June 22, 1984, and issued by the Department in November 1984, the guidelines include postclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the long-term performance of the repository system; preclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the siting, construction, operation, and closure of the repository; and system guidelines whose objective is to ensure that the regulatory requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are met

  13. Summary of repository siting models. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.; Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports that will provide critical reviews and summaries of computer programs that can be used to analyze the potential performance of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The computer programs identified address the following phenomena: saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow, heat transport, solute transport, surface water runoff, geomechanical interactions, and geochemical interactions. The report identifies 183 computer programs that can be used to analyze a repository site and provides a summary description of 31 computer programs. The summary descriptions can be used: to assist in code evaluation, to facilitate code comparison, to determine applicability of codes to specific problems, to identify code deficiencies, and to provide a screening mechanism for code selection

  14. Radioactive waste disposal: Recommendations for a repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Orlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guidebook on recommendations for site selection of radioactive waste repository, based on a consensus in european community. This report describes particularly selection criteria and recommendations for radioactive waste disposal in underground or ground repositories. 14 refs

  15. Palaeohydrogeological modelling for potential future repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In order to consider the future behaviour of a groundwater system over time scales of relevance to repository safety assessment, it is necessary to develop an understanding of how the groundwater system has changed over time. This can be done through studying the palaeohydrogeology of the groundwater system. The EQUIP project (Evidence from Quaternary Infills for Palaeohydrogeology) set out to develop and evaluate methodologies for obtaining palaeohydrogeological information from fracture infill minerals formed under past groundwater conditions. EQUIP was a collaborative project funded jointly by the European Commission and, in the UK, by the Environment Agency and UK Nirex Limited. The project also involved partners in Finland, France, Spain and Sweden. The fracture infill material chosen for this investigation was calcite, because its reactions in low temperature groundwater environments are fairly well understood and it is fairly ubiquitous in both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. In addition, geochemical modelling suggests that plausible time scales for growth of individual calcite crystals are in the range 10 to 10,000 years, so they may accumulate a record of groundwater evolution over periods of significant climate change. The project was based on four sites, having different climate histories and geological conditions, at which drillcore samples of the deep crystalline rocks, accompanied by hydrogeological and hydrochemical data for the current groundwater conditions, were already available. The principal study sites were Olkiluoto in Finland, Aspo/Laxemar in Sweden, Sellafield in the UK and Vienne in France. The results of the study focus on the morphology and bulk compositions of calcite, compositional zoning of calcite crystals and compositions of fluid inclusions. There are systematic variations in bulk compositions with depth and also in discrete compositional fluctuations (or zones) in individual calcite crystals. These are inferred to reflect

  16. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  17. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  18. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  19. Environmental assessment overview, Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs

  20. Deep geological repository: Starting communication at potentially suitable sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, Vera

    2001-01-01

    The siting of a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic is and will be a complicated process, since it is the first siting process of a nuclear facility designed from the start to be located at non-nuclear sites and to be organised under democratic conditions. This presentation describes the concept of radioactive waste and spent nuclear management in the Czech Republic, Communication activities of Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) with local representatives and lessons learned

  1. Understanding large scale groundwater flow to aid in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Brown, A.; Gascoyne, M.; Stevenson, D.R.; Ophori, D.U.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) with support from Ontario Hydro has developed a concept for the safe disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste in a deep (500 to 1000 m) mined repository in plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept involves the use of multiple engineered and natural barriers to ensure long-term safety. The geosphere, comprised of the enclosing rock mass and the groundwater which occurs in cracks and pores in the rock, is expected to serve as an important natural barrier to the release and migration of wastes from the engineered repository. Although knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the rock at potential repository sites is needed to help design the engineered barriers of the repository it can also be used to aid in repository siting, to take greater advantage of natural conditions in the geosphere to enhance its role as a barrier in the overall disposal system

  2. Identification of candidate sites for a near surface repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejunas, S.

    2004-01-01

    This Report comprises results of the area survey stage, which involves regional screening to define the regions of interest and identification of potential sites within suitable regions. The main goal was to define a few sites potentially suitable for constructing of the near surface repository. It was concluded that a vicinity of Ignalina NPP is among the best suitable regions for the near surface repository. At the present investigation level a ridge in Galilauke village has the most favorable conditions. However, Apvardai site is potentially suitable for the repository too

  3. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair and

  4. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  5. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites available for characterization.

  6. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  7. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites available for characterization

  8. Siting factors for the Swedish deep repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Ericsson, Lars O.; Svemar, C.; Almen, K.E.; Andersson, Johan

    1998-01-01

    A project entitled Siting factors and criteria for site evaluation was initiated at the SKB in 1997. The project comprises an important part of the work of siting and site selection that is being pursued within SKB. The purpose of the project is to create a logical structure for the continued siting work, and its results should also be able to be used to assist in evaluating sites. The project will thereby also provide a means - in accordance with the Government's decision regarding Research Programme 95 - to obtain more detailed and quantified siting factors and criteria than those previously presented in the supplement to Research Programme 92. The overall goals of the project are to identify and quantify requirements and preferences regarding the properties of the rock and the soil from the perspectives of long-term safety, performance and planning and design of the rock works, and to identify siting factors and criteria. The latter should be able to be used to determine whether requirements and preferences are satisfied, both when screening sites for site investigation and after completed site investigation. Presented requirements, preferences, factors and criteria must be acceptable to national and municipal authorities or others with influence over the siting work. To start with, requirements and preferences regarding the performance of the rock in a deep repository have been clarified. These requirements and preferences are based on many years of experience of safety assessments and construction analyses within SKB. What is new here is the structuring that has been done, where a classification is made into different geoscientific disciplines, and the formalism that has been developed for the concepts requirements, preferences and performance. This is a prerequisite for a consistent and hopefully comprehensive set of requirements from a functional perspective. Work has continued on siting factors with reference to a coming site investigation programme. A

  9. Characterization Plan for L/ILW Repository Candidate Sites in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.

    1998-01-01

    There have been four preferred sites for L/ILW repository selected in the siting program in Croatia so far. According to the accepted and verified site selection procedure, these sites are suitable for a more detailed characterization, including also site specific field investigations. The aim of these investigations is to measure and calculate all needed site specific parameters important for performance of safety assessment, aiming eventually with selection of the final disposal site. Both Croatian and IAEA regulations referring to radwaste repository siting procedure have been briefly discussed. Detailed site investigations foreseen to be done in order to perform a successful site characterization, refer to the following main topics: geomorphology, lithostratigraphy, tectonics, seismicity, rock mechanics, surface-water hydrology, aquifer features and groundwater hydrology, rock and groundwater chemistry, and radionuclide transport modeling. All these issues are listed in suggested site characterization format. (author)

  10. A summary of INSITE activities in tracking SKB's spent fuel repository site investigations from 2002-2009 and of advice provided to the regulatory authorities on the status of site understanding at the end of the surface-based investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Neil (Chapman Consulting (Switzerland)); Bath, Adrian (Intellisci Ltd, (United Kingdom)); Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting (United States)); Ove Stephansson (Steph Rock Consulting AB (Sweden)); Tiren, Sven (Geosigma (Sweden)); Tsang, Chin-Fu (Berkeley Geohydrophysics SP (United States))

    2010-11-15

    SSM and its predecessor SKI employed a team of earth scientists who followed and reviewed SKB's investigations of the potential spent nuclear fuel repository sites at Forsmark and Laxemar. This group was named INSITE (INdependent Site Investigation Tracking and Evaluation) and began its work in 2002 and completed its task with the review of the final versions SKB's site descriptive models, SDM-Site, in 2009. This report is a summary of INSITE's work over the eight-and-a-half year period of the site investigations and the lead-in and the wind-down to the work. It is intended to provide an outline and a record of how INSITE has worked and how its advice was generated and provided to SKI and, latterly, to SSM. Together with all the other documentation generated by INSITE, this report is intended to support the regulatory review of SKB's licence application for a spent nuclear fuel repository

  11. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, A.

    2009-09-01

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes

  12. Some geochemical considerations for a potential repository site in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdal, B.R.; Bish, D.L.; Crowe, B.M.; Daniels, W.R.; Ogard, A.E.; Rundberg, R.S.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, which is evaluating potential locations for a high-level waste repository at the Nevada Test Site and environs, is currently focusing its investigations on tuff, principally in Yucca Mountain, as a host rock. This paper discusses some of the geochemical investigations. Particular emphasis is placed on definition of some basic elements and necessary technical approaches for the geochemistry data acquisition and modeling program. Some site-specific tuff geochemical information that is important for site selection and repository performance will be identified and the current status of knowledge will then be discussed

  13. Understanding the evolution of the repository and the olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, K.; Pastina, B.

    2008-01-01

    Posiva Safety Case is organised in a portfolio including ten main reports: Site, Spent Fuel Characteristics and Inventories, Canister Design, Repository Design, Process, Evolution of the Repository and the Site, Biosphere Assessment, Radionuclide Transport, Complementary Evaluations of Safety, and Summary. This portfolio constitutes the basis of the Preliminary Safety Assessment Report, which will be presented to the authorities in 2012 as part of the repository construction license application. The Evolution report [1], which is the focus of this paper, is the main advance in the Safety Case portfolio since the implementation of the Safety Case plan [2] in 2005. The report provides the status of current knowledge with respect to the evolution of the site and the engineered barrier system and highlights areas where better understanding is needed. (authors)

  14. Geological status of NWTS repository siting activities in the paradox basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, N.A.; Conwell, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Emplacement of waste packages in mined geological repositories is one method being evaluated for isolating high-level nuclear wastes. Granite, dome salt, tuff, basalt and bedded salt are among the rock types being investigated. Described in this paper is the status of geological activities in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado, one region being explored as a part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program to site a geological repository in bedded salt

  15. Establishing a site for A Slovenian LILW repository - 16151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIRSEK, SANDI; SPILER, JANJA; VESELIC, MIRAN

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the practice and siting process for a LILW repository in Slovenia. Slovenia is a small country, and, consequently, its nuclear programme is small. It does include almost everything that large programmes have, but we still do not have a repository. In 2004, the Slovenian Radwaste management agency (ARAO) initiated a new procedure to find a proper location for a LILW repository. ARAO asked all Slovenian communities to participate. All communities have the option to withdraw from the process until they have approved the site. We received eight responses, and we prepared methodologies with different parameters to evaluate all potential sites. All sites were assessed by Slovenian experts, and determinations were based on using prepared methodologies. On the basis of their expert opinions, we prepared a pre-feasibility study and chose the three most suitable sites. With these three we continued the process. After that time, one of the communities withdrew from the procedure, and another one reversed its proposed site and proposed a new one. For the third site we continued with the programme, and we prepared a feasibility study with a Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment and preliminary safety calculations for the comparison of different concepts of disposal units. If everything goes according to the plan for this site and the concept, we expect site approval in the first half of 2009. After that, we will start preparing everything necessary for building permission. (authors)

  16. Approaches to gaining public acceptance of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numark, N.J.; Wonder, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    An eight-country survey reveals a diversity of strategies that have been followed for siting radioactive waste repositories, as well as a range of levels of public acceptance of siting efforts. Although the strategies are not necessarily interchangeable from country to country, certain inferences may be drawn from worldwide siting experience regarding ways to maximize public acceptance. Furthermore, waste management organizations in these countries have placed varying amounts of stock in technical review by outside experts and in a range of communications strategies as means of improving public acceptance. Our survey of worldwide experience also allows some general observations to be made regarding the effectiveness of these efforts. Combining a strategy that elevates public acceptance to part of the overall mission of siting a waste management facility with strategies for appropriate communications and external technical review may be necessary and sufficient for gaining improvements in public acceptance of proposed repository sites

  17. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  18. A new approach to the LILW repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Zeleznik, N.

    1998-01-01

    After the failure of site selection, which was performed between 1990-1993, the Agency for Radwaste Management was urged to start a new site selection process for low and intermediate level waste (LILW). Since this is the most sensitive and delicate phase of the whole disposal project extensive analyses of foreign and domestic experiences in siting were performed. Three different models were studied and discussed at a workshop on preparation of the siting procedure for LILW repository. The participants invited to the workshop supported the combined approach, to the site selection, which is presented in this paper.(author)

  19. SKI SITE-94, deep repository performance assessment project, summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    SITE-94 is a comprehensive performance assessment exercise for a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel at a real site in Sweden. SITE-94 was carried out to develop the capability and tools to enable Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to review fully the proposals for a deep repository which are expected to be made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB (the implementor). Sweden is one of the leading countries in the research and development of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The developed methodology for performance assessment has attracted interests from other countries. The Summary of the main report of the SITE-94 project is translated here into Japanese to allow to make the information on the methodology and the related issues available among Japanese concerned. (author)

  20. Public reactions to nuclear waste: Citizens' views of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents revised and updated papers from a panel of social scientists, at the 1989 AAAS meetings, that examined the public's reactions to nuclear waste disposal and the repository siting process. The papers report the results of original empirical research on citizens' views of nuclear waste repository siting. Topics covered include the following: content analysis of public testimony; sources of public concern about nuclear waste disposal in Texas agricultural communities; local attitudes toward high-level waste repository at Hanford; perceived risk and attitudes toward nuclear wastes; attitudes of Nevada urban residents toward a nuclear waste repository; attitudes of rural community residents toward a nuclear waste respository. An introductory chapter provides background and context, and a concluding chapter summarizes the implications of the reports. Two additional chapters cover important features of high-level waste disposal: long term trends in public attitudes toward nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy and assessment of the effects on the Los Vegas convention business if a high-level nuclear waste depository were sited in Nevada

  1. Conflict, location, and politics: Siting a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power and the management of high-level radioactive waste is examined with the goal of explaining the forces driving the formulation of the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and a subsequent decision to site a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study draws upon geographic, political, economic, and organizational factors to examine the commitment to dispose of spent fuel in a geologic repository located in Nevada or in Utah, Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana, or at Hanford Washington. Special attention is given to the impact of location, science and technology on the definition of the nuclear waste problem and political agendas, public participation, and the power of the nuclear establishment. The study finds that the choice of a Yucca Mountain Nevada as the preferred site for a repository was based more on technological precedent and political-economic expediency than on the demonstrated superiority of that site's geology. Conflict over a repository location is interpreted as a symptom of more fundamental conflicts concerning: the credibility of nuclear science, the legitimacy of federal authority and administration, and the priorities of environmental protection and a nuclear economy

  2. Ethical considerations surrounding nuclear waste repository siting and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The potential long-term health and safety effects of the nuclear materials stored in repositories, the extremely long periods of time over which such materials may be dangerous, and the equity implications of the siting of a repository in any given area are unlike the issues involved in other large-scale projects. They involve major philosophical issues basic to human perspectives on social relationships and on insuring the future of mankind. Safety and permanence are the two basic criteria for determining whether a waste proposal is satisfactory. This chapter takes the approach of public (or micro) ethics, whose task is to 1) articulate and clarify public values relevant to a problem, 2) identify and evaluate public options, and 3) rank alternatives in some order of ethical preferability. It addresses the four major repository-related issues: uncertainty and risks, geographic equity, intergenerational ethics, and implementation ethics

  3. Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    2000-10-01

    Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

  4. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m 3 brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs

  5. Development of site selection process for an LILW repository in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.; Mele, I.; Veselic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The activities regarding the LILW repository site selection in Slovenia are planned to meet the requirements of the Act on Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, especially the requirement that the site for a repository should be selected by 2008 and the repository should be in operation by 2013. In November 2004, the official administrative procedure for the siting of the repository started with the first spatial public conference on spatial planning procedure. It was carried out by the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning and ARAO. Immediately after the conference the Program for the preparation of the detailed plan of national importance for the LILW repository was accepted by the Ministry. At the beginning of December 2004, ARAO invited all Slovenian local communities to participate in the site selection process and volunteer a site or area in their local community for further investigation. At the beginning of April 2005 the first phase of the bidding process was concluded. ARAO received applications from eight local communities. A pre-feasibility study to define three of the most promising locations was conducted because only three locations are foreseen by the Program for the preparation of the detailed plan of national importance. Methodologies were prepared for assessment of different parameters of technical, financial, environmental and spatial suitability as well as public acceptability. Comparative, preferential and also exclusion criteria for the respective parameters were defined. The results of the cabinet and fieldwork research were compared and further assessed in order to obtain maximum three local communities with three potential sites in which the probability of siting the LILW repository seems to be the highest. Detailed plans of national importance will be prepared for these sites. (author)

  6. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis: Deaf Smith County site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Palo Duro Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities or remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.64 billion. Costs include those for the collocate WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region, the relatively easy access to the site, and the relatively weak nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7 to 7.5 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 62 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  7. A new methodology for repository site suitability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, I.; Kossik, R.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. The major portion of the software is the performance assessment model, which consists of a series of coupled component models for radionuclide transfer. The performance model itself is embedded within a decision analysis model which allows the user to evaluate alternative site characterization strategies. This paper provides an overview of the methodology, and summarizes the basic concepts of RIP

  8. Hydrological performance assessment on siting the high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Wang Ju; Wang Zhiming; Su Rui; Lv Chuanhe; Zong Zihua

    2007-01-01

    Based on the research experiences in China and some developed countries in the world, the processes and methods on hydrological performance assessment for the siting of high radioactive repository are discussed in this paper. The methods and contents of hydrological performance assessment are discussed respectively for region, area and site hydrological investigation stages. At the same time, the hydrological performance assessment of the potential site for high level radioactive waste in China is introduced. (authors)

  9. Plans for characterization of the potential geologic repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, D.C.; Blanchard, M.B.; Voegele, M.D.; Younker, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Site investigations in the vicinity of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have occurred for many years. Although information from previous site investigations was adequate to support preliminary evaluations by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the Environmental Assessment and to develop conceptual repository and waste package designs, this information is insufficient to proceed to the advanced designs and performance assessments required for the license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Therefore, intensive site characterization is planned, as described in the December 1988 Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The data acquisition activities described in the SCP are focused on obtaining information to allow evaluations of the natural and engineered barriers considered potentially relevant to repository performance. The site data base must be adequate to allow predictions of the range of expected variation in geologic conditions over the next 10,000 years, as well as predictions of the probabilities for catastrophic geologic events that could affect repository performance. 4 refs., 4 figs

  10. A radiological disadvantage for siting a repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.

    1996-01-01

    At Yucca mountain, the disposal of large amounts of U-238, U-234, and Pu-238 will result in a long term build-up of Rn-222. In time, because of erosion, the repository horizon will move closer to the surface and large amounts of Rn-222 gas will be able to leak into the atmosphere. The area surrounding Yucca Mountain will become a site of high radioactive background. Sullivan and Pescatore have brought the issue to the attention of the DOE

  11. Stream-simulation experiments for waste-repository investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    The potential for radionuclide migration by groundwater flow from a breached-water repository depends on the leaching process and on chemical changes that might occur as the radionuclide moves away from the repository. Therefore, migration involves the interactions of leached species with (1) the waste and canister, (2) the engineered barrier, and (3) the geologic materials surrounding the repository. Rather than attempt to synthesize each species and study it individually, another approach is to integrate all species and interactions using stream-simulation experiments. Interactions identified in these studies can then be investigated in detail in simpler experiments

  12. Uncertainty management in radioactive waste repository site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.f.; Martin, T.P.; Tocatlidou

    1994-01-01

    The problem of performance assessment of a site to serve as a repository for the final disposal of radioactive waste involves different types of uncertainties. Their main sources include the large temporal and spatial considerations over which safety of the system has to be ensured, our inability to completely understand and describe a very complex structure such as the repository system, lack of precision in the measured information etc. These issues underlie most of the problems faced when rigid probabilistic approaches are used. Nevertheless a framework is needed, that would allow for an optimal aggregation of the available knowledge and an efficient management of the various types of uncertainty involved. In this work a knowledge-based modelling of the repository selection process is proposed that through a consequence analysis, evaluates the potential impact that hypothetical scenarios will have on a candidate site. The model is organised around a hierarchical structure, relating the scenarios with the possible events and processes that characterise them, and the site parameters. The scheme provides for both crisp and fuzzy parameter values and uses fuzzy semantic unification and evidential support logic reference mechanisms. It is implemented using the artificial intelligence language FRIL and the interaction with the user is performed through a windows interface

  13. Basic repository environment assessment design basis, Cypress Creek Dome Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Gulf Interior Region at Cypress Creek Cone, Mississippi. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.66 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste from assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relatively easy access to the site. Construction would require an estimated 7 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 53 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Richton Dome site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Gulf Interior Region at Richton Dome in Perry County, Mississippi. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote-and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1,000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.49 billion. Costs include those for the WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively easy access to the site. Construction would require an estimated 6.25 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 52 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  15. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Davis Canyon site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Paradox Basin in Davis Canyon, Utah. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1,000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collected waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $5.49 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively sound nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7.75 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 50 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  16. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Lavender Canyon site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Paradox Basin in Lavender Canyon, Utah. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $5.51 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPP, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively sound nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7.75 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 51 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  17. Experiences of risk in connection with site selection for a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, A.; Dahlstrand, U.

    1991-03-01

    Describes an investigation of the experiences of risks the the Swedish inhabitants have in connection with site selection for a repository for radioactive waste. The attitudes show a rather complicated picture. It is influenced by such factors as: sex, education and distance to the facility. (KAE)

  18. Site selection for Canada's national repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Belfadhel, M.; Watts, B.; Facella, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The approach provides for containment and isolation of the material in a deep geological repository at a safe site with an informed and willing host. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is tasked through federal legislation with selecting the site and developing and managing all aspects of the plan. In May 2010, the organization published and initiated the site selection process that serves as a road map for decision making on the location for the deep geological repository. It continues to lead the site selection process for the repository and an associated Centre of Expertise. The screening process is advancing and, from an initial starting point of 22 communities expressing interest in learning about the project; as of September 2015, 9 communities are the focus of more detailed technical and community well-being studies. Preliminary Assessments, the third step in the 9-step site selection process are underway in these communities. The Assessments involve preliminary technical and social desktop and field assessments, engagement activities within and beyond each interested community, and involvement of Indigenous peoples and nearby municipalities in the planning and conduct of the work. This paper provides an update on the advancement of the site selection process. It describes the nature of the technical and social studies being conducted at this phase of work, including the progressively more detailed field studies that are the focus of technical work at the current stage, the approach to engagement and collaboration with communities to direct these studies, and the work underway to ensure the framework used for this assessment and engagement includes the range of priorities and perspectives of First Nations and Metis peoples and communities in the broader area. (author)

  19. Social impact mitigation and nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of the socioeconomic impacts of siting, constructing, and operating radioactive waste repositories in rural areas are discussed. These include public perceptions of high risk and uncertainty; limited benefits and no incentives; dissociations of costs and benefits; remoteness and inaccessibility of the decision making process for large energy facilities; no institutions to provide protection and accountability for those who may be affected by the siting; the fact that not all risks or impacts are fully mitigable; and constraints on DOE's present ability or authority to mitigate impacts

  20. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  1. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). The use of selected safety indicators (concentrations, fluxes) in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Report 7: Site-specific natural geochemical concentrations and fluxes at four repository investigation sites in Finland for use as indicators of nuclear waste repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Loefman, J.; Luukkonen, A.; Partamies, S.

    2003-01-01

    This report concerns site-specific data achieved during the studies of four Finnish candidate sites for nuclear fuel repository. The aims are to examine the level of radioactive concentrations (U, Rn, K, Rb, Cs, Ra, Th), their sources and their fluxes at different sites and at different depths, and whether differences in chemical conditions result from the geology or hydrogeology. The sites cover virtually the formation history of Finnish Precambrian bedrock and differ geochemically significantly. Romuvaara represents Archean basement gneisses with low K and U contents. Proterozoic migmatitic mica gneisses at Olkiluoto represent a very reducing geochemical environment with graphite and sulphides. Oxidising conditions have characterised the formation of early synkinematic granitoids at Kivetty and as well as anorogenic rapakivi granite Haestholmen. Particularly the rapakivi granite is enriched with incompatible elements such as K, Rb, U and Th. Hydrogeologically the sites differ as well. The inland sites, Romuvaara and Kivetty, have been above the highest shoreline since the retreat of the ice of the Weichselian glaciation, whereas the coastal sites have been below sea level. Hydraulic gradient is also higher inland than on shore. The contents of radioactive elements vary significantly between the sites and between deep and shallow groundwaters. Uranium concentrations at each site decrease mainly with the increasing depth, and they correlate relatively with bedrock contents between the sites. However, the observed exceptionally low contents are considered to result from a short water-rock interaction time in shallow groundwaters at Kivetty and from actively reducing groundwater conditions in deep groundwaters at Olkiluoto. Radon contents correlate mainly with U-concentrations, suggesting that Rn derives predominantly from dissolved U. Potassium and rubidium concentrations correlate with salinity, indicating that their main source is seawater or ancient brine

  2. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  3. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is neither a safety assessment nor a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The main report (SKI-R--96-36) gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project, while the present report presents a condensed summary of the main report. 46 refs

  4. VerSi - A Methodology for a Comparison of Potential Repository Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Wilhelm

    2010-09-01

    In the year 2000 the moratorium on the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as a potential repository for all kinds of radioactive waste became effective as a result of the consensus agreement between the Federal Government and the utilities about phasing out nuclear energy in Germany. All exploration activities were interrupted for at maximum ten years to clarify conceptual and safety relevant questions. A new set of safety requirements for the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep geological formations was established in July 2009 by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). As the BMU intended to carry out a comparison of potential repository sites it was necessary to initiate the development of a methodology for the identification of the site with the highest level of safety. A comparison of different repository sites requires a tool ensuring most confident and objective criteria for the comparison, whereas up to present long-term safety analyses were focused on confirming the suitability of sites by meeting the protection objectives by the measures of dose and risk. Within the 2006 established project VerSi a methodology for comparing different sites in different host rocks will be developed on the basis of long-term safety analyses taking into account geoscientific databases, inventory of radioactive waste, waste containers, corresponding disposal concepts and the feasibility of appropriate backfilling and closure concepts. The development of the method is aiming at providing measures other than dose and risk for the evaluation of the level of safety. For testing the tools a HLW-repository hosted in a salt dome (Gorleben) will be compared with a generic HLW-repository in consolidated clay as a host rock. As until now in Germany no clay stone site has been investigated for hosting a HLW repository, the required data are transferred from international research projects and repository concepts

  5. Proposals of geological sites for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Geological background. Text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    On April 2008, the Swiss Federal Council approved the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. The Plan sets out the details of the site selection procedure for geological repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW). It specifies that selection of geological siting regions and sites for repositories in Switzerland will be conducted in three stages, the first one (the subject of this report) being the definition of geological siting regions within which the repository projects will be elaborated in more detail in the later stages of the Sectoral Plan. The geoscientific background is based on the one hand on an evaluation of the geological investigations previously carried out by Nagra on deep geological disposal of HLW and L/ILW in Switzerland (investigation programmes in the crystalline basement and Opalinus Clay in Northern Switzerland, investigations of L/ILW sites in the Alps, research in rock laboratories in crystalline rock and clay); on the other hand, new geoscientific studies have also been carried out in connection with the site selection process. Formulation of the siting proposals is conducted in five steps: A) In a first step, the waste inventory is allocated to the L/ILW and HLW repositories; B) The second step involves defining the barrier and safety concepts for the two repositories. With a view to evaluating the geological siting possibilities, quantitative and qualitative guidelines and requirements on the geology are derived on the basis of these concepts. These relate to the time period to be considered, the space requirements for the repository, the properties of the host rock (depth, thickness, lateral extent, hydraulic conductivity), long-term stability, reliability of geological findings and engineering suitability; C) In the third step, the large-scale geological-tectonic situation is assessed and large-scale areas that remain under consideration are defined. For the L

  6. Siting, design and construction of underground repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Symposium were to provide a forum for exchange of information internationally on the various scientific, technological, engineering and safety bases for the siting, design and construction of underground repositories, and to highlight current important issues and identify possible approaches. Forty-nine papers were presented, covering general approaches and regulatory aspects, disposal in shallow ground and rock cavities, disposal in deep geological formations and safety assessments related to the subject of the Symposium. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these papers

  7. Site selection of radioactive waste repository in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saler, A.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive waste repository site-selection procedure in Croatia is divided into two stages: the first, related to the exclusionary screening of the national territory and comparison of potential areas in order to identify preferred sites, acceptable for inclusion into the Regional Plan; and the second, comprising all necessary field investigations as well as additional site-characterization tasks planned to be worked out at a preferred sites. Several potential areas, representing an intermediate goal of the first stage, are defined till now. (author) [hr

  8. The site selection process for a spent fuel repository in Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. [EnvirosQuantiSci (United Kingdom); Aeikaes, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    This Summary Report describes the Finnish programme for the selection and characterisation of potential sites for the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel and explains the process by which Olkiluoto has been selected as the single site proposed for the development of a spent fuel disposal facility. Its aim is to provide an overview of this process, initiated almost twenty years ago, which has entered its final phase. It provides information in three areas: a review of the early site selection criteria, a description of the site selection process, including all the associated site characterisation work, up to the point at which a single site was selected and an outline of the proposed work, in particular that proposed underground, to characterise further the Olkiluoto site. In 1983 the Finnish Government made a policy decision on the management of nuclear waste in which the main goals and milestones for the site selection programme for the deep disposal of spent fuel were presented. According to this decision several site candidates, whose selection was to be based on careful studies of the whole country, should be characterised and the site for the repository selected by the end of the year 2000. This report describes the process by which this policy decision has been achieved. The report begins with a discussion of the definition of the geological and environmental site selection criteria and how they were applied in order to select a small number of sites, five in all, that were to be the subject of the preliminary investigations. The methods used to investigate these sites and the results of these investigations are described, as is the evaluation of the results of these investigations and the process used to discard two of the sites and continue more detailed investigations at the remaining three. The detailed site investigations that commenced in 1993 are described with respect to the overall strategy followed and the investigation techniques applied. The

  9. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Geological surveys for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the aims involved in the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. Various methods involved in their implementation are described. These include 3D-seismology, deep probe drillings, shallow drillings as well as field studies, gravimetric measurements and the study of the electrical properties of the ground and rock involved. These factors are discussed in detail. Maps are presented of the locations that are to be surveyed and details of the selected perimeters are shown. Also, the layout of a sample drilling site is presented. A timescale for the various surveys and work to be done is presented

  10. Assessment of Public Acceptability in LILW Repository Site Selection Process in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.; Polic, M.; Kos, D.

    2006-01-01

    Slovenian national agency for radioactive waste management ARAO has after longer period of preparation activities started with the more direct work on the site selection process for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository. In November 2004, the official administrative procedure for the siting of the repository started with the First public conference on spatial planning issues carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning together with ARAO. Just after the conference the Program for the preparation of the Detailed plan of national importance for the LILW repository was accepted by the Ministry. ARAO invited in the beginning of December 2004 all local communities in Slovenia (except 3 of them which have already refused to cooperate) to participate and volunteer a site or area in their local community for further investigation. The invitation for the application of local communities provided clear instructions on how to participate in further determination of potentially suitable sites and under what conditions. By the beginning of April 2005 ARAO finished the bidding process with 8 applications of local communities which decided to participate in the further site selection for LILW repository. Due to the financial and other limitations (human resources, spatial planning procedure, etc.) only in maximum three local communities further characterization could be performed. Therefore prefeasibility study of all volunteer local communities was conducted in which besides technical, environmental and spatial availability also public acceptability should be assessed. For assessment of public acceptability the methodology has been prepared which includes objective parameters of local environment (such as demographic data, economy, infrastructure and social issues in relation to the repository) as well as subjective values (attitudes of individual groups - opinion makers, politicians and all residents - to the sitting and construction of LILW

  11. National radioactive waste repository site selection study. Phase 2. A report on public comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Agreement was reached in principle between State/Territory and the Commonwealth of Australia Governments that a suitable site for a radioactive wastes repository must be found. The discussion papers resulting from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the site selection study were released for public comment. The national repository will be for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes streaming from the medical, research and industrial use of radioisotopes in Australia. The purpose of this report is to summarise and respond in general terms to comment received on the discussion paper -Phase 2 of the study. Forty five submissions were received. Of these: 18 supported the Phase 2 study approach and the concept of a national repository; 13 did not state a clear position but either requested more information or provided constructive comment on the siting process; 7 supported the site selection approach and the repository concept but suggested that the repository should not be sited in a particular area; 3 opposed the siting of the repository in their vicinity but not necessarily the repository concept and site selection approach; 4 opposed the concept of a national repository. This compares with 124 submissions on Phase 1 of the study, of which 57 opposed the national repository concept (52 of these were from letters elicited by Greenpeace) and 48 supported the establishment of a national repository and the site selection approach proposed. 3 figs

  12. An evaluation of environmental effects of the DOE HLW repository siting and characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, M.F.; Ulland, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) environmental investigations in progress on the environmental effects of past and proposed activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Yucca Mountain repository. The environmental investigations refer to those studies specifically related to resource evaluation, impact assessment and mitigation planning for the repository program; it is defined to exclude consideration of technical suitability determinations, socioeconomics and transportation. This paper addresses the question of what are the disturbances created by past and proposed DOE activities related to repository siting and characterization at Yucca Mountain. It discusses considerations in linking disturbance to the potential for significant adverse environmental impacts

  13. Preliminary post-closure safety assessment of repository concepts for low level radioactive waste at the Bruce Site, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.H.; Penfold, J.S.S.; Egan, M.J.; Leung, H.

    2005-01-01

    The preliminary post-closure safety assessment of permanent repository concepts for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Bruce Site is described. The study considered the disposal of both short and long-lived LLW. Four geotechnically feasible repository concepts were considered (two near-surface and two deep repositories). An approach consistent with best international practice was used to provide a reasoned and comprehensive analysis of post-closure impacts of the repository concepts. The results demonstrated that the deep repository concepts in shale and in limestone, and the surface repository concept on sand should meet radiological protection criteria. For the surface repository concept on glacial till, it appears that increased engineering such as grouting of waste and voids should be considered to meet the relevant dose constraint. Should the project to develop a permanent repository for LLW proceed, it is expected that this preliminary safety assessment would need to be updated to take account of future site-specific investigations and design updates. (author)

  14. SR 97 - Waste, repository design and sites. Background report to SR 97 SKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    SR 97 is a comprehensive analysis of long-term safety of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The repository is assumed to be designed according to the KBS-3 method. Assessments are performed in SR 97 for three fictitious sites: Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. One premise is that data used for assessment of the fictitious sites are to be taken from sites that have previously been investigated. The spent nuclear fuel is enclosed in copper canisters with an insert of cast iron. The canisters are emplaced in bored holes in the floor of the deposition tunnels. Around each canister, bentonite blocks are stacked which, after absorbing water and swelling, will isolate the canister from groundwater, hold the canister in place and retard transport of radionuclides from the canister to the surrounding rock. The spent nuclear fuel will emit heat for a long time, due to the decay heat. The maximum permissible temperature on the canister surface has been chosen at 100 deg C. The spacing between the deposition holes and between the deposition tunnels is adjusted site-specifically to meet this requirement. The thermal properties of the rock and the buffer material are of importance for how closely the deposition holes and tunnels can be spaced. After deposition, the deposition tunnels are backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. SR 97 examines above all the consequences of various scenarios and the handling of various types of uncertainties. The different repository sites illustrate normal properties for Swedish bedrock which are of importance for safety. To facilitate the work, the repositories on the three sites are configured as similarly as possible, which means for example that they are located at roughly the same depth and are fitted into the bedrock in a relatively similar fashion. Apart from the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, the site may need to house a separate repository for other long-lived waste. This possibility has been considered in

  15. SR 97 - Waste, repository design and sites. Background report to SR 97 SKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    SR 97 is a comprehensive analysis of long-term safety of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The repository is assumed to be designed according to the KBS-3 method. Assessments are performed in SR 97 for three fictitious sites: Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. One premise is that data used for assessment of the fictitious sites are to be taken from sites that have previously been investigated. The spent nuclear fuel is enclosed in copper canisters with an insert of cast iron. The canisters are emplaced in bored holes in the floor of the deposition tunnels. Around each canister, bentonite blocks are stacked which, after absorbing water and swelling, will isolate the canister from groundwater, hold the canister in place and retard transport of radionuclides from the canister to the surrounding rock. The spent nuclear fuel will emit heat fora long time, due to the decay heat. The maximum permissible temperature on the canister surface has been chosen at 100 deg C. The spacing between the deposition holes and between the deposition tunnels is adjusted site-specifically to meet this requirement. The thermal properties of the rock and the buffer material are of importance for how closely the deposition holes and tunnels can be spaced. After deposition, the deposition tunnels are backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. SR 97 examines above all the consequences of various scenarios and the handling of various types of uncertainties. The different repository sites illustrate normal properties for Swedish bedrock which are of importance for safety. To facilitate the work, the repositories on the three sites are configured as similarly as possible, which means for example that they are located at roughly the same depth and are fitted into the bedrock in a relatively similar fashion. Apart from the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, the site may need to house a separate repository for other long-lived waste. This possibility has been considered in

  16. Siting of the Swedish deep geological repository - experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Backblom, G.; Thegerstrom, C.; Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.

    1996-01-01

    The paper provides a brief overview of the Swedish siting programme for a deep repository. A stepwise process is a key element in the planning and implementation of deep disposal of long-lived waste in Sweden. The local siting work is made in cooperation with the affected and concerned municipalities. The programs, decisions and results that so far have been reported and ongoing feasibility studies is a solid platform for the continuing siting work. It can be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. Careful considerations on how to proceed to develop the necessary background material must therefore be made. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process that has started in conjunction with feasibility studies are judged to play an important role in the future. In this process, with extensive local involvement, critical issues can be detected at an early stage and sound ideas on both the process itself and on technical issues can be incorporated. To facilitate information exchange and cooperation between the municipalities involved and to coordinate liaison between the municipalities and county administrative boards affected by the studies, the Swedish government has appointed a National Coordinator for nuclear waste disposal. The government also has decided to provide the concerned municipalities with funding for their participation in the process. (author)

  17. General guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    These guidelines were developed in accordance with the requirements of Section 112(a) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 for use by the Secretary of Energy in evaluating the suitability of sites for the development of repositories. The guidelines will be used for suitability evaluations and determinations made pursuant to Section 112(b) and any preliminary suitability determinations required by Section 114(f). The guidelines set forth in this Part are intended to complement the requirements set forth in the Act, 10 CFR Part 60, and 40 CFR Part 191. In applying these guidelines, the DOE will resolve any inconsistencies between these guidelines and the above documents in a manner determined by the DOE to most closely agree with the intent of the Act

  18. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A.; Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E.; Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T.; Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A.; Judd, B.R.; Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ''current information'' or ''available evidence.''

  19. Technology needs for selecting and evaluating high-level waste repository sites in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes properties and processes that govern the performance of the geological barrier in a nuclear waste isolation system in crystalline rock and the state-of-the-art in the understanding of these properties and processes. Areas and topics that require further research and development as well as technology needs for investigating and selecting repository sites are presented. Experiences from the Swedish site selection program are discussed, and a general investigation strategy is presented for an area characterization phase of an exploratory program in crystalline rocks. 255 refs., 65 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Method for screening the Nevada Test Site and contiguous areas for nuclear waste repository locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnock, S.; Fernandez, J.A.; Neal, J.T.; Stephens, H.P.; Hartway, B.L.; Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM)

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the general concepts of a technical method for systematic screening of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for potentially suitable nuclear waste repository locations. After a general discussion of the organization and the purpose of the current screening activity, the paper addresses the steps of the screening method. These steps include: hierarchically organizing technical objectives for repository performance (an objectives tree); identifying and mapping pertinent physical characteristics of a site and its setting (physical attributes); relating the physical conditions to the objectives (favorability curves); identifying alternative locations and numerically evaluating their relative merits; investigating the effects of subjective judgments on the evaluations (sensitivity analyses); documenting the assumptions, logic, and results of the method. 19 references, 10 figures

  1. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs

  2. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. General siting study 95. Siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    General Siting Study 95 is a detailed description of the work carried out to put the siting of a deep repository in a national and regional context. The report is based on SKB's siting factors, which have been applied on a national scale. Different factors of importance or of possible importance for the long-term radiological safety, technology, land and environment as well as society are described and evaluated. This report is the overall description on general siting studies which the government considered that SKB should report in connection with the RD and D Programme 95. 121 refs, 40 figs

  4. General siting study 95. Siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    General Siting Study 95 is a detailed description of the work carried out to put the siting of a deep repository in a national and regional context. The report is based on SKB`s siting factors, which have been applied on a national scale. Different factors of importance or of possible importance for the long-term radiological safety, technology, land and environment as well as society are described and evaluated. This report is the overall description on general siting studies which the government considered that SKB should report in connection with the RD and D Programme 95. 121 refs, 40 figs.

  5. The main demands and criteria for building site choice for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, R.; Sandul, G.A.; Sen'ko, T.Ya.

    2002-01-01

    There are considered the main demands of building site choice for RAW repositories. At this the accent is placed on geological repositories (underground repositories of geological type) and near surface repositories assigned to disposal of low- and intermediate-level short- and mediate-lived radionuclides. These demands are conditionally separated into two blocks: account of social development of the adjoining territories; account of natural factors characterizing building site. Further there are discussed the questions of anthropogenous influence on a safety functioning of RAW repositories and of urgency of stable development of the adjoining territories. In context of the Ukrainian and other states nuclear laws there is also considered the lawful aspect defining the building site choice for RAW repositories

  6. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Forsmark, Simpevarp and Tierp. Site investigations have started at Forsmark and Simpevarp. The municipal council of Tierp voted no to a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial site investigations are performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The initial site investigations are expected to take 1.5-2 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, complete site investigations will follow for an expected duration of 3.5-4 years. The purpose of the complete site investigations is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. A general programme in which the results from feasibility studies are summarized, the candidate sites presented and the framework of programme for the site investigation phase presented has been published. The general programme, and main references to the programme, specifies which data are required in order to design the repository and carry out a safety assessment, how the investigations should be carried out in order to provide these data, criteria with which the site must comply, as well as

  7. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Forsmark, Simpevarp and Tierp. Site investigations have started at Forsmark and Simpevarp. The municipal council of Tierp voted no to a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial site investigations are performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The initial site investigations are expected to take 1.5-2 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, complete site investigations will follow for an expected duration of 3.5-4 years. The purpose of the complete site investigations is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. A general programme in which the results from feasibility studies are summarized, the candidate sites presented and the framework of programme for the site investigation phase presented has been published. The general programme, and main references to the programme, specifies which data are required in order to design the repository and carry out a safety assessment, how the investigations should be carried out in order to provide these data, criteria with which the site must comply, as well as

  8. Science is the first step to siting nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    As Shaw [2014] notes, U.S. research on shale as a repository host was halted before expending anything close to the effort devoted to studying crystalline rock, salt, and - most notably - tuff at Yucca Mountain. The new political reality regarding Yucca Mountain may allow reconsideration of the decision to abandon research on shale as a repository host.

  9. SFR site investigation. Bedrock Hydrogeochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Smellie, John; Gimeno, Maria J.; Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F.; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Pedersen, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    There are plans that the final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, will be extended. Geoscientific studies to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository have been carried out from 2007 to 2011, and have included the drilling and evaluation of seven new core drilled and four percussion boreholes. These new data, together with existing data extending back to 1985, have been interpreted and modelled in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents the final hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site, and will constitute a background report for the integrated site description (the SFR Site Descriptive Model version 1.0) together with corresponding reports from the geological and hydrogeological disciplines. Most of the hydrogeochemical data from the field investigations consist of major ions and isotopes together with sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data. Despite the close proximity of the Forsmark site, few data from this source are of relevance because of the shallow nature of the SFR site, the fact that SFR is located beneath the Baltic Sea and also the drawdown/upconing impacts of its construction on the hydrogeochemistry. This artificially imposed dynamic flow system is naturally more prevalent along major deformation fracture zones of higher transmissivity, whilst lower transmissive fractures together with the less transmissive bedrock masses between major deformation zones, still retain some evidence of the natural groundwater mixing patterns established prior to the SFR construction. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a depth down to -250 m.a.s.l. with single sampling locations at -300 and -400 m.a.s.l. and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the δ 18 O values show a wide variation (-15.5 to -7.5 per mille V

  10. SFR site investigation. Bedrock Hydrogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria J.; Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F. [Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Sandstroem, Bjoern [WSP Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Pedersen, Karsten [Micans AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    There are plans that the final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, will be extended. Geoscientific studies to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository have been carried out from 2007 to 2011, and have included the drilling and evaluation of seven new core drilled and four percussion boreholes. These new data, together with existing data extending back to 1985, have been interpreted and modelled in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents the final hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site, and will constitute a background report for the integrated site description (the SFR Site Descriptive Model version 1.0) together with corresponding reports from the geological and hydrogeological disciplines. Most of the hydrogeochemical data from the field investigations consist of major ions and isotopes together with sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data. Despite the close proximity of the Forsmark site, few data from this source are of relevance because of the shallow nature of the SFR site, the fact that SFR is located beneath the Baltic Sea and also the drawdown/upconing impacts of its construction on the hydrogeochemistry. This artificially imposed dynamic flow system is naturally more prevalent along major deformation fracture zones of higher transmissivity, whilst lower transmissive fractures together with the less transmissive bedrock masses between major deformation zones, still retain some evidence of the natural groundwater mixing patterns established prior to the SFR construction. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a depth down to -250 m.a.s.l. with single sampling locations at -300 and -400 m.a.s.l. and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the {delta}{sup 18}O values show a wide variation (-15.5 to -7.5 per mille V

  11. Siting of a deep repository for spent fuel - how are we communicating the risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammarstroem, Monika

    2000-01-01

    During 1998 the strategy of the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company for the siting process was refined in order to strengthen the possibilities for implementing deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Our new organisation was formed to meet the demands of the strategy. The strategy implies focused activities in municipalities where we are performing so called feasibility studies. An important milestone for us is to be able to choose two sites for site investigations in 2001. The problem of waste exists and has to be taken care of in Sweden. The work is performed in steps to ensure dialogue and changes and modifications if needed. The method for solution is robust, a repository can be constructed in a reasonable time and ensure safety in a long-term perspective Our attitude shall be characterised by high quality and competence in all aspects.Honesty and openness are key words. The fear that people feels regarding radioactive waste shall be taken seriously. We are proud to be able to show one already existing waste management system and of our knowledge and experiences. The results so far from the various communication activities show that we are going in the right direction. The support we are gaining from various sectors in society together with our own motivation and clear objectives will, I'm sure, lead us to at least two sites for site investigations for a deep repository in Sweden by the end of 2001

  12. Draft environmental assessment: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the reference repository location at the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The reference repository location at Hanford is located in the Columbia Plateau, one of five distinct geohydrologic settings that are being considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the reference repository location at Hanford is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the reference repository location at Hanford as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Furthermore, having performed a comparative evaluation of the five sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the reference repository location at Hanford is one of three sites preferred for site characterization

  13. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  14. Development of rail access to the proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standish, P.N.; Seidler, P.E.; Andrews, W.B.; Shearin, G.

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendment Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the initial site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is considered desirable by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce (1) costs and (2) number of shipments, relative to highway transportation. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to determine (1) that there are alignments for a potential rail line from existing mainline railroads to Yucca Mountain and (2) that these are consistent with present rail design standards and are acceptable relative to environmental and land access considerations

  15. Preliminary postclosure risk assessment: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Elwood, D.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Reimus, P.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Doctor, P.G.; Engel, D.W.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Strenge, D.L.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, to estimate the postclosure risk, in terms of population health effects, of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The risk estimates cover a time span of 1 million years following repository closure. Representative disruptive and intrusive events were selected and evaluated in addition to expected conditions. The estimates were generated assuming spent fuel as the waste form and included all important nuclides from inventory, half-life and dose perspectives. The base case results yield an estimate of 36 health effects over the first million years of repository operation. The doses attributed to the repository corresponds to about 0.1 percent of the doses received from natural background radiation. 16 refs., 1 fig

  16. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Judd, B.R. [Decision Analysis Co., Portola Valley, CA (United States); Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D. [Weston Technical Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  17. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 1: Introduction and Site Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This first volume contains an introduction to the viability assessment, including the purpose, scope, waste forms, technical challenges, an historical perspective, regulatory framework, management of the repository, technical components, preparations for the license application, and repository milestones after the assessment. The second part of this first volume addresses characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  18. Evaluation of the Overall Costs for the Croatian Repository: Varying Site, Design and Financial Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lebegner, J.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary preparations for the construction of a LILW repository in Croatia included a number of activities and projects related to the siting process, safety assessment, disposal technology and repository design, and public acceptance issues. Costs evaluations have always been a part of the developing project documentation. However, only the estimates of the facility construction and equipment acquisition costs had been included, while other costs associated with the project development and management have not been considered up to now. For the first time the infrastructure status at the potential sites has been evaluated, and the costs of the repository operations as well as the post-closure management has been estimated. Cost parameters have been considered from both technical and fiscal points of view, comparing their relative influence on the overall repository costs. Assessment of the total project costs in eight cases for the four preferential sites and two repository designs gave a clearer picture of the development and management costs differences for the considered options. Without considerations of the operational and post-operational repository management expenses, the total project costs appear to have been heavily underestimated. Also, while the construction costs for the tunnel and the surface type repositories are significantly different, this influence of the repository type on the total project costs becomes far less important when the later phases management expenses are added. Finally, the role of fiscal parameters may further diminish the site and technology impacts on the overall costs. (author)

  19. Geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria and site selection for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I.; Tacheva, E.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of the complex structure of the Bulgarian lands and the engineering geological criteria for site selection of national repositories for high level radwastes is made. A detailed description of the following geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria's territory is given: genetic, lithological and engineering-geological types of rocks; physico-mechanical parameters of the most widespread rocky and semi-rocky engineering geological types; fissuring of the rocks; rock massifs; geodynamic processes. The number of promising variants for repositories have been classified according to the structure of the rock massif and the engineering-geological properties of the layers which are promising for the purpose. The following sites are investigated: 1) sites in one-type homogeneous rock massifs of high strength and elasticity; 2) sites of various type massifs with a promising layer of rocks with medium strength and elasticity; 3) sites in various type massifs with a promising layer of plastic rocks of low strength. It is concluded that the complexity of the geotechnical and other conditions in the territory of Bulgaria would predetermine the deficiency of the list of the properties required for the selected sites. The building up of engineering defence will be needed to offset that deficiency and their problems will be resolved after the specific site have been chosen. Geotechnical elements should be likewise envisaged within the general pattern of the monitoring needed. The designing, installing and putting into operation of the monitoring systems should be accomplished as early as the stage of the detailed investigation of the site selected. 19 refs., 2 suppls. (author)

  20. Investigative study of standards for Digital Repositories and related services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulonneau, Muriel; André, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and

  1. Assessing the demographic and public service impacts of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Hamm, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Demographic and public service impacts are likely to be among the most evident of those changes resulting from nuclear waste repository development. Knowledge of the characteristics of such impacts and of the means to assess them is critical. The first section of this chapter examines those likely to be unique to repositories. The second section describes the alternatives for assessing such impacts and the particular difficulties likely to affect the assessments. Given the state of development of techniques for assessing impacts and the range of factors that must be considered, perhaps their best use is as a means of sensitizing decision makers to the potential implications of their decisions. 2 tables

  2. Investigation of excavation stability in a finite repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    Two-dimensional thermal-mechanical analyses of a hypothetical repository in tuff were performed using a boundary-element computer code, with the objective of investigating the relative stability of several waste emplacement panel access drifts. The drifts were assumed to be located within a central shaft pillar, within a small pillar between adjacent panels, or at the repository perimeter. The results of analyses indicate that matrix failure is unlikely and that the extent of activation of pre-existing joints is influenced by the drift location and the initial state of stress. The results also show that several years after waste emplacement the influence of the initial State of Stress is small compared to the influence of thermally induced stresses. Regions of joint activation are seen to be most extensive around the drifts between adjacent panels. The predicted extent of such activation was small when it was assumed that the joints were vertical or near vertical. More extensive regions of activation of shallow dipping joints were noted. However, joints of such orientation are believed to occur relatively infrequently in the candidate horizon for waste emplacement and the activation of the shallow dipping joints does not necessarily lead to drift stability concerns. 3 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  4. Expert and non-expert groups perception of LILW repository site selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Polic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenia is now in the process of the site selection for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository. Earlier searches for the LILW repository site confronted the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) with a number of problems, mainly concerning the contacts with the local communities and their willingness to accept the repository. Therefore the Agency started with a new, so-called mixed mode approach to the site selection, where the special role of a mediator is introduced. The mediator represents the link between the investor and the local community, and facilitates the communication and negotiations between both. In this study we try to find out how people perceive the mediating process and conditions under which the LILW repository would be accepted in the local community. Therefore a special survey was conducted. The results showed some of the conditions under which participants would possibly accept the LILW repository. Differences in the perception between non-expert and expert groups were demonstrated and analysed, especially in the assessment of the consequences of LILW repository construction on the environment. Also the socio-psychological influences of the LILW repository were noted and examined. Consequences and recommendations for future work on the site selection procedure were prepared on the basis of the research results.(author)

  5. Estimation of expenses for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository project in Croatia up to site license acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Subasic, D.

    2003-01-01

    The expenses needed for development of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository project in Croatia include: (a) preliminary activities, (b) preparatory activities, and (c) preparing of environmental impact study. The first group of expenses are referring to the project leading activities, project plan updating, build-up of required infrastructure, preparing of licensing documentation, site investigations, data acquisition programme, pre-operational radio-ecological monitoring, modelling, safety analysis (first iteration) and public related activities. Preparatory activities are referring to purchasing of land for repository and preparatory activities for carrying out of on-site investigations, while third group of expenses are related to preparation and validation of Environmental impact study. It was found out that about 50 % of total expenses refer to build-up of infrastructure. Additional 25 % finances are related to radio-ecological monitoring, site investigations and development of calculations and models, while remaining 25 % of total estimated sum is expected to be spent for repository safety assessment, public relations, purchasing and preparing the on-site terrain for construction, etc. It was calculated 607 EUR per m3 of LILW to be needed up to site license acquisition. According to the world-wide practice, by extrapolating of additional expenses necessary for construction of the repository and acquisition of operational license, it comes out the cost of 1.723 EUR per m3 of LILW for shallow-ground and 2.412 EUR per m3 of LILW for tunnel repository. The estimated expenses for Croatia are within the span of expenses for the same purpose in the countries considered. Expected duration of the project performance up to acquisition of the site license is 4 years and 3 months. (author)

  6. Perceived risk, trust in government, and response to repository siting in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Conflicts over the siting of high-level radioactive waste repositories have been intense and unrelenting. Public and state opposition to implementation of the US Nuclear Waste Policy Act is tied closely to the perception of unacceptably high repository risks and to lack of trust and confidence in governmental agencies, particularly the DOE. This paper explores the relationship of perceived risk, trust in government, and opposition to repository siting in the US in an attempt to clarify the conditions of successful implementation of nuclear waste policy in the decades ahead

  7. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report

  8. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report.

  9. Usability Evaluation of a Research Repository and Collaboration Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Maron, Deborah J.; Charles, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports results from an empirical usability evaluation of Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative Central as part of the effort to develop an open access research repository and collaboration platform for human-animal bond researchers. By repurposing and altering key features of the original HUBzero system, Human-Animal Bond Research…

  10. Realities of site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.; Ben Benfahel, M.; Byrum, Ch.; Fedor, F.; Geier, J.; Nys, V.; Schelkes, K.; Selroos, J.O.; Szucs, I.; Whittaker, St.

    2007-01-01

    During the working session, Working Group C discussed the following questions proposed by the Scientific Programme Committee of AMIGO 2: - Provide a list of concrete examples of limitations and their reasons. In addressing these issues, consider the relation between what you can measure and what you would like to describe. - Can these limitations be handled by defensible uncertainty descriptions? - What has been your experience in predicting properties/responses and then making comparisons with subsequent measurements? How much 'after-fitting' was necessary? Did the exercise contribute to validation? What did it teach you about your abilities to characterise? - What are the realities of transferability of data between sites? What can actually be transferred (data, conceptual models, evaluation procedures) and what could not? - How have the experiences on possibilities and limitations influenced your investigation programme? - How are the limits in what can be achieved factored into safety assessment and engineering? (authors)

  11. Preliminary constitutive properties for salt and nonsalt rocks from four potential repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Senseny, P.E.

    1983-07-01

    Results are presented from laboratory strength and creep tests performed on salt and nonsalt specimens from the Richton Dome in Mississippi, the Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, the Permian Basin in Texas, and the Paradox Basin in Utah. The constititive properties obtained for salt are the elastic moduli and the failure envelope at 24 0 C and parameter values for the exponential-time creep law. Some additional data are presented to indicate how the elastic moduli and strength change with temperature. The nonsalt constitutive properties reported are the elastic moduli, the unconfined compressive strength and the tensile strength at 24 0 C. The properties given in this report will be used in subsequent numerical simulations that will provide information to assist in the screening and selection of site locations for a nuclear waste repository and to assist in the repository design at the selected site. The matrix of tests performed is the minimum effort required to obtain these constitutive properties. The preliminary values obtained will be supplemented by additional testing for sites that are selected for further investigation

  12. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  13. Social and economical aspects in the selection of the site for the final Goiania waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Tranjan Filho, A.; Rosenthal, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Site selection criteria for low and intermediate level waste repositories are usually well established as far as the technological and scientific bases are concerned. However, social, cultural and economical aspects need to be examined on a case by case basis because there are many situations to be faced before succeeding to convince the public and authorities that a waste repository is to be built at any chosen site. In the specific case of Goiania there is an ongoing process that started several years ago, to make the repository accepted by local, state and national authorities, and to answer legitimate questions raised by significant segments of the population. This paper will summarise those more relevant aspects concerning the site selection process for the Goiania repository. (author)

  14. Geographical information system (GIS) suitability analysis of radioactive waste repository site in Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Azrin Abd Razalim; Noraini Surip; Ahmad Hasnulhadi; Nazran Harun; Nurul Nadia Abd Malek; Roziah Che Musa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is to identify a suitable site for radioactive waste repository in Pahang using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) technologies. There are ten parameters considered in the analysis, which divided into Selection Criteria and Exclusion Criteria. The Selection Criteria parameters consists of land use, rainfall, lineament, slope, groundwater potential and elevation while Exclusion Criteria parameters consist of urban, protected land and island. Furthermore, all parameters were integrated, given weight age and ranked for site selection evaluation in GIS environment. At the first place, about twelve sites have been identified as suitable sites for radioactive waste repository throughout the study area. These sites were further analysed by ground checking on the physical setting including geological, drainage, and population density in order to finalise three most suitable sites for radioactive waste repository. (author)

  15. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment; was kommt auf die regionen zu? Auswirkungen geologischer tiefenlager auf gesellschaft, wirtschaft und lebensraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair

  16. Seismotectonic investigations for Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository: Rationale for defining scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Blackford, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The geologic, seismic, and engineering characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site and its environs need to be investigated in sufficient scope and detail to provide reasonable assurance that they are sufficiently well understood to permit an adequate evaluation of the proposed site for the development of a high-level waste repository. The paper examines the extent of seismotectonic investigations needed for proper evaluation of the geologic setting. At the Yucca Mountain site, a thorough understanding of tectonic phenomena such as seismicity and faulting is critical to the identification of potentially disqualifying conditions. Study of the tectonic movement, stress, or co-tectonic effects that could affect the performance of the waste-handling facilities, waste package, underground openings, shaft and borehole seals, and long-term alteration of geohydrology would be necessary. In addition, the uncertainties involved in evaluating the effect of seismotectonics on the radionuclide transport mechanism need to be thoroughly investigated. 8 refs., 1 fig

  17. Use of safety analysis to site comfirmation procedure in case of hard rock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, E.K.

    1984-02-01

    The role of safety analysis in a confirmation procedure of a candidate disposal site of radioactive wastes is discussed. Items dealt with include principle reasons and practical goals of the use of safety analysis, methodology of safety analysis and assessment, as well as usefulness and adequacy of the present safety analysis. Safety analysis is a tool, which enables one to estimate quantitatively the possible radiological impacts from the disposal. The results can be compared with the criteria and the suitability conclusions drawn. Because of its systems analytical nature safety analysis is an effective method to reveal, what are the most important factors of the disposal system and the most critical site characteristics inside the lumped parameters often provided by the experimental site investigation methods. Furthermore it gives information on the accuracy needs of different site properties. This can be utilized to judge whether the quality and quantity of the measurements for the characterization are sufficient as well as to guide the further site investigations. A more practical discussion regarding the applicability of the use of safety analysis is presented by an example concerning the assessment of a Finnish candidate site for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. (author)

  18. The projected environmental impacts of transportation of radioactive material to the first United States repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Reardon, P.C.; McNair, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The relative national environmental impacts of transporting spent fuel and other nuclear wastes to each of 9 candidate repository sites in the United States were analyzed for the 26-year period of repository operation. Two scenarios were examined for each repository: 1) shipment of 5-year-old spent fuel and Defence High-Level Waste (DHLW) directly from their points of origin to a repository (reference case); and 2) shipment of 5-year-old spent fuel to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and shipment (by dedicated rail) of 10-year-old consolidated spent fuel from the MRS to a repository. Transport by either all truck or all rail from the points of origin were analyzed as bounding cases. The computational system used to analyze these impacts included the WASTES II logistics code and the RADTRAN III risk analysis code. The radiological risks for the reference case increased as the total shipment miles to a repository increased for truck; the risks also increased with mileage for rail but at a lower rate. For the MRS scenario the differences between repository sites were less pronounced for both modal options, because of the reduction in total shipment miles possible with the large dedicated rail casks. All the risks reported are small in comparison to the radiological risks due to 'natural background'

  19. Site characterization information needs for a high-level waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Nataraja, M.S.; Justus, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    At each of the three candidate sites recommended for site characterization for High-Level Waste Geologic Repository development, the DOE has proposed to conduct both surface-based testing and in situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. The basic information needs and consequently the planned surface-based and in situ testing program will be governed to a large extent by the amount of credit taken for individual components of the geologic repository in meeting the performance objectives and siting criteria. Therefore, identified information to be acquired from site characterization activities should be commensurate with DOE's assigned performance goals for the repository system components on a site-specific basis. Because of the uncertainties that are likely to be associated with initial assignment of performance goals, the information needs should be both reasonably and conservatively identified

  20. Addressing concerns about the agricultural impacts of siting a nuclear waste repository in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.; Darrough, B.

    1986-01-01

    Public concerns related to the siting of a nuclear repository have included the potential impacts to specific economic sectors. In Texas, local residents have expressed concern about how a repository will affect agriculture. Several major questions have arisen with respect to this issue including: 1) how will a repository's requirements for land and water affect agriculture, 2) how will a repository affect agricultural land values, and 3) how will actual or perceived contamination of locally grown products affect their marketability? This paper describes the concerns raised by local residents and discusses the approach to analyzing the concerns identified. An evaluation of agricultural impacts has been prepared for the Department of Energy's Enviromental Assessment (EA) documents. In addition, activities needed to further evaluate these impacts are planned for site characterization. Both the current analysis and planned activities are described

  1. Construction of Basic Evaluation Criteria for Candidate HLW Repository Sites (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hun

    2009-08-01

    We constructed the preliminary site assessment system for selection of proper site as high level radioactive disposal repository with consideration of Korean geological characteristics and underground environments. And, site assessment factor and standard as a point of geologic aspect were suggested for decision of candidate radioactive disposal site in Korea. The results can be used to develop the geological information system for assessment of candidate disposal site

  2. Development of SKI's Regulatory Approach to the Siting of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is actively working with the siting of a spent nuclear fuel repository. Feasibility studies have been completed in a total of eight municipalities, and in December 2000 three municipalities (Oskarshamn, Tierp and Oesthammar) were proposed for further investigations. These site investigations include surface based site characterisation from deep bore holes but also further studies of infrastructure, land use, transportation etc. SKB's proposal was reviewed by SKI and about 60 other organisations, including municipalities, NGOs, government agencies etc. during the winter/spring 2000/2001. In June 2001 SKI reported the review findings to the Government. In parallel with SKI also the Swedish Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM) reviewed SKB's proposal and reported to the Government. In its decision in November 2001 the Government supported SKB's proposal to continue with site investigations. Based on SKB's material, the reviews and the Government's decision the municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn have agreed to site investigations while Tierp have decided no to continue. The site investigations in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn started during 2002. The siting process has meant that several new actors have been engaged in nuclear waste management in general and disposal of spent nuclear fuel in particular. This has meant that 'old' actors, particularly SKB, the regulators (the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI) have had to evaluate, develop and clarify their roles and strategies for dialogue. This paper presents reflections on the impacts on some of SKI's regulatory activities

  3. Long term effects on potential repository sites: climatic and geomorphological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, M.B.; Worsley, P.

    1985-05-01

    A study of the effects of climatic variability on the geomorphological processes operating on the landscape are important in the study of radioactive waste repository sites. The effects of glacial erosion and deposition are fundamental to an examination of repository safety, particularly in North Britain. Rates of climatic shift need to be examined. Predictive simulation models, based on a knowledge of past climatic events, for future global climates are proposed. (UK)

  4. Assessing the economic and fiscal effects of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, R.A.; Leistritz, F.L.; Halstead, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The development of high-level nuclear waste repositories can be expected to produce a substantial stimulus to the local economy, but the magnitude and speed of this stimulus may pose planning problems for nearby communities. The chapter is divided into two major sections: 1) a review of the major economic and fiscal effects likely to occur, and 2) a discussion of the methods and techniques which can be used to estimate the magnitude, timing, and distribution of such effects. The six categories of effects described are those on employment patterns and characteristics, income, local trade and service firms, community price structure changes, other basic economic sectors, and public sector costs and revenues

  5. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 metres below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time

  6. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 meters below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time.

  7. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Nagra’s proposals for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. The procedure proposed for the selection process is explained. The four sites for possible repositories of high-level radioactive waste as well as for low and intermediate-level wastes are described and rated with respect to the various safety factors involved. The reasons for the long-term safety measures proposed and the geological barriers involved are discussed. The four proposals for depository sites are looked at in more detail. The paper is well illustrated with several diagrams and tables

  9. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  10. Investigation on design of repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Boming; Zhang Ruixue; Wang Fengying

    2010-01-01

    The scheme design of the repository for radioactive waste is introduced according to the traits of radioactive waste in Jiangsu province, such as the style of the repository, lifting facilities, the step for preventing or controlling flood, the aseismatic measure, the pollution prevention and so on. This ensured the radioactive waste and the waste radioactive sources to be stored in security, the area environment not to be polluted. It can improve the use of nuclear technology in Jiangsu province. (authors)

  11. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  12. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  13. Site characterization plan overview: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington: Consultation draft: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of the process for siting the nation's first geologic repository for radioactive waste, the Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the Hanford site in Benton County, Washington. As a step in the preparation of that plan, the DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Washington, the affected Indian Tribes - the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Nez Perce Indian Tribe, and the Yakima Indian Nation - and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Hanford site is one of three sites that the DOE currently plans to characterize;the other sites are the Deaf Smith County site in Texas and the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. After site characterization has been completed and its results evaluated, the DOE will identify from among the three characterized sites the site that is preferred for the repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consulation draft of the site characterization plan;it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with breif descriptions of the dispoal system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Hanford site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization

  14. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?; Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Warum gerade hier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieser, A

    2009-09-15

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes.

  15. Regional groundwater chemical characteristics of Aqishan pre-selected site for high level radioactive waste repository and its hydrogeological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Dong Jiannan; Liu Shufen; Zhou Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Aqishan area located in Xinjiang Uygur Automonous Region is one of the main preselected site of disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Groundwater chemical feature is one of the most important consideration factors in the siting and site evaluation for high-level radioactive waste repository, From 2012 to 2013, the regional field hydrogeochemical investigation was carried out in study area and more than 30 groundwater samples were collected. According to the measurement data, the groundwater chemical features for different subareas are discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the location of discharge area of groundwater in Aqishan area was estimated according to the chemical features of different subareas. (authors)

  16. Central repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (ALMA) conceptual design, siting and safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellbert, N.; Haeggblom, H.; Cederstroem, M.; Lundgren, T.

    1980-07-01

    A generic design, siting and safety study of a proposed repository for low- and intermediate-level waste has been made. Special emphasis has been placed on safety characterostics. The conceptual design and the generic site, on which the study is based, are realistically chosen in accordance with present construction techniques and the existing geohydrological conditions in Sweden. (Auth.)

  17. Site specificity of biosphere parameter values in performance assessments of near-surface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, Th.; Volckaert, G.; Vandecasleele

    1993-01-01

    The contribution is dealing with the performance assessment model for near surface repositories in Belgium. It consists of four submodels called: site, aquifer, biosphere and dose. For some characteristic radionuclides, results of the study are shown for a typical site, and differences in doses assessed with the generic approach discussed. Shortcomings are indicated

  18. Bedrock Hydrogeology - Site investigation SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan [Geosigma AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Assoes AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). This report presents an integrated analysis and interpretation of the historic data from the existing SFR (1980 - 1986), as well as, from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008 - 2009). The primary objective is to establish a conceptual hydrogeological model of the bedrock for safety assessment and design analyses. Analyses and interpretations of all (old and new) hydraulic data are analysed with regard to the recently developed geological deformation zone model of the SFR model domain (Curtis et al. 2011). The methodology used by Curtis et al. (2011) has focussed on magnetic anomalies and deformation zone intercepts with ground surface greater than 300 m. In the hydrogeological modelling, however, it has been considered important to also explore the occurrence and characteristics of shallow horizontal to sub-horizontal structures (sheet joints) inside the SFR model domain. Such structures are of considerable importance for the hydrogeology in the uppermost c. 150 m of bedrock in SDM-Site Forsmark; hence the term Shallow Bedrock Aquifer was used to emphasise their hydraulic significance. In this study, the acronym SBA-structure is used for horizontal structures identified in the hydrogeological modelling. In addition to the predominantly steeply dipping geological deformation zones, eight so-called SBA-structures are modelled deterministically in the hydrogeological model. The SBA-structures are envisaged as hydraulically heterogeneous and composed of clusters of minor gently dipping to horizontal fractures rather than extensive single features. A type of structures that is partly included in the definition of the SBA-structures is the Unresolved Possible Deformations Zone (Unresolved PDZ) intercepts identified by Curtis et al. (2011). The Unresolved

  19. Evaluation Of Groundwater Pathways And Travel Times From The Nevada Test Site To The Potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.F. Pohlman; J. Zhu; M. Ye; J. Chapman; C. Russell; D.S. Shafer

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been recommended as a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If YM is licensed as a repository by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, it will be important to identify the potential for radionuclides to migrate from underground nuclear testing areas located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the hydraulically downgradient repository area to ensure that monitoring does not incorrectly attribute repository failure to radionuclides originating from other sources. In this study, we use the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate potential groundwater migration pathways and associated travel times from the NTS to the proposed YM repository area. Using results from the calibrated DVRFS model and the particle tracking post-processing package MODPATH, we modeled three-dimensional groundwater advective pathways in the NTS and YM region. Our study focuses on evaluating the potential for groundwater pathways between the NTS and YM withdrawal area and whether travel times for advective flow along these pathways coincide with the prospective monitoring timeframe at the proposed repository. We include uncertainty in effective porosity, as this is a critical variable in the determination of time for radionuclides to travel from the NTS region to the YM withdrawal area. Uncertainty in porosity is quantified through evaluation of existing site data and expert judgment and is incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulation. Since porosity information is limited for this region, the uncertainty is quite large and this is reflected in the results as a large range in simulated groundwater travel times

  20. EBS modelling for the development of repository concepts tailored to siting environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, K.; Ueda, H.; Wakasugi, K.; Sakabe, Y.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Takase, H.

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese siting approach for a HLW repository calls for volunteer host municipalities and thereby places particular emphasis on design flexibility. In particular, the repository concept needs to be tailored to the specific site characteristics. Starting from the H12 repository concept, NUMO has been examining a range of possible repository design options, including the EBS. In this paper. the requirements and strategy for the development of models for performance assessment and process understanding are discussed, taking into account the step-wise, iterative process of developing repository concepts. The areas requiring further development of models and databases in the long-term R and D programme have been identified as a 'wish list' that relates to the evaluation of a range of potential repository concepts, focusing on the near-field for the early stages of the development process. Among the issues on the list, NUMO has started the development of a flexible computer code for modelling three-dimensional mass transport to evaluate the impacts of various design options and components of the EBS. This tool has been applied to the analysis of the barrier effects of the tunnel plugs located in fractured rock. (authors)

  1. Fair rules for siting a high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, D.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic repositories are designed to resolve the ever-growing problem of high-level nuclear waste, but these facilities invite intense local opposition due to the perceived severity of the risks and the possibility of stigma effects. This analysis examines whether the perceived fairness of the siting process affects local residents' support for hosting a repository. In particular, a survey of 1,001 Nevada residents is used to test the hypothesis that an individual's willingness to accept a local repository will increase if he or she is convinced that this is the safest disposal option available. A logistic analysis indicates that beliefs regarding relative suitability have an independent effect on the acceptability of a local repository (i.e., Yucca Mountain). The article then considers the question of how to implement an optimizing strategy for siting facilities, comparing an idealized strategy against the original Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Amendments Act of 1987. Although choosing the safest site seems as if it could enhance public acceptance of the repository program, there is currently little prospect of identifying the best option to the high-level waste problem and, as a results, little chance of gaining the public support that is necessary to promote a successful siting outcome. 81 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  2. Strategy for safety case development: impact of a volunteering approach to siting a japanese HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitayama, K.; Ishiguro, K.; Takeuchi, M.; Tsuchi, H.; Kato, T.; Sakabe, Y.; Wakasugi, K.

    2008-01-01

    NUMO strategy for safety case development is constrained by a staged siting approach, which has been initiated by a call for volunteer municipalities to host the HLW repository. For each site, the safety case is an important factor to be considered at the selection steps which narrow down towards the preferred repository location. This is particularly challenging, however, as every site requires a tailored repository concept, with associated performance assessment and an individual site evaluation programme all of which evolve with gradually increasing understanding of the host environment. In order to maintain flexibility without losing focus, NUMO has developed a formalized tailoring procedure, termed the NUMO Structured Approach (NSA). The NSA guides the interaction of the key site characterisation, repository design and performance assessment groups and is facilitated by tools to help the decision making associated with the tailoring process (e.g. a requirements management system) and with comparison of siting and design options (e.g. multi-attribute analysis). Pragmatically, the post-closure safety case will initially emphasize near-field processes and a robust engineering barrier system, considering the limited geological information at early stages. This will be complemented by a more realistic assessment of total system performance, as needed to compare options. In addition, efforts to rigorously assess operational phase safety and the practicality of assuring quality of the constructed engineered barriers are components of the total safety case which are receiving particular attention now, as they may better discriminate between sites while information is still limited. (authors)

  3. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Technical safety factors: Suggestions for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the six sites for repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland which have been proposed in Stage 1 of the program concerning nuclear waste repositories. Three of these sites are proposed for both highly radioactive wastes as well as for low and medium-active wastes, the other three for low and medium-active wastes only. The evaluation of the sites is discussed. The sites are to be further evaluated in Stage 2 of the program. The work to be done in the further stages involved in the selection of the final site (or sites) is described. Along with definition of the regions where deep repositories could possibly be built, suggestions for the placing of the facilities required on the surface are discussed. Geological requirements on the repositories and safety-relevant characteristics of the various site options are discussed. The results of the assessments made are presented in tabular form. Maps and geological cross-sections of all the suggested areas are included

  4. Evaluation and modelling of a potential repository site - Olkiluoto case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Ahokas, H.; Loefman, J.; Pitkaenen, P.; Paulamaeki, S.; Snellman, M.

    1998-01-01

    The observations, interpretations and estimates resulting from site investigations were developed into conceptual bedrock model of the Olkiluoto area. Model development has been an interdisciplinary process and three major iterations have occurred. Geochemical sampling and a programme of electromagnetic and electrical soundings were carried out and interpreted to model occurrences of groundwater types. The parametrisation and modifications needed between geological models and ground-water flow simulation model is discussed. The latest groundwater flow modelling effort comprises the transient flow analysis taking into account the effects of density variations, the repository, post-glacial land uplift and global sea level rise. The main flow modeling result quantities (the amount, direction, velocity and routes as well as concentration of water) are used for evaluation of the investigation sites and of the preconditions for safe final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Integration of hydrological and hydrogeochemical methods and studies has provided the primary method for investigating the evolution. Testing of flow models with hydro-geochemical information is considered to improve the hydrogeological understanding of a site and increases confidence in conceptual hydrogeological models. Bedrock model allows also comparisons to be made between its time-varying versions. The evolution of fracture frequency, fracture zone structures and hydraulic conductivity has been studied. A prediction-outcome comparison was made in selected boreholes and showed that the rock type was the easiest parameter to predict

  5. Recharge-area nuclear waste repository in southeastern Sweden. Demonstration of hydrogeologic siting concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, A.M.; Voss, C.I.

    2001-11-01

    Nuclear waste repositories located in regional ground-water recharge ('upstream') areas may provide the safety advantage that potentially released radionuclides would have long travel time and path length, and large path volume, within the bedrock before reaching the biosphere. Nuclear waste repositories located in ground-water discharge ('downstream') areas likely have much shorter travel time and path length and smaller path volume. Because most coastal areas are near the primary discharge areas for regional ground-water flow, coastal repositories may have a lower hydrogeologic safety margin than 'upstream' repositories located inland. Advantageous recharge-area sites may be located through careful use of regional three-dimensional, variable-density, ground-water modeling. Because of normal limitations of site-characterization programs in heterogeneous bedrock environments, the hydrogeologic structure and properties of the bedrock will generally remain unknown at the spatial scales required for the model analysis, and a number of alternative bedrock descriptions are equally likely. Model simulations need to be carried out for the full range of possible descriptions. The favorable sites are those that perform well for all of the modeled bedrock descriptions. Structural heterogeneities in the bedrock and local undulations in water-table topography, at a scale finer than considered by a given model, also may cause some locations in favored inland areas to have very short flow paths (of only hundreds of meters) and short travel times, compromising the long times and paths (of many kilometers) predicted by the analysis for these sites. However, in the absence of more detailed modeling, the favored upstream sites offer a greater chance of achieving long times and paths than do downstream discharge areas, where times and paths are expected to be short regardless of the level of detail included in the model. As an example of this siting approach, potential repository

  6. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  7. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  8. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  9. The SocioEconomic analysis of repository siting (SEARS): Guide to data base preparation: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Kiel, B.; Parpia, B.

    1984-11-01

    This guide describes the data bases in the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. This model is a user-interactive, computerized model for projecting the economic, demographic, public service, and fiscal impacts of repository siting. This guide provides a description of the data bases, sources of data, data formats, and preprocessing programs for adapting and implementing the SEARS system and is seen as an essential reference for technical users of the model. It should be used in conjunction with reports describing the model's features and characteristics. 95 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  11. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  12. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-05-23

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive.

  13. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive

  14. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  15. Geochemical site-selection criteria for HLW repositories in Europe and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, David; Arthur, Randolph C.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical as well as socio-economic issues associated with the selection of potential sites to host a high-level nuclear waste repository have received considerable attention in repository programs in Europe (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K.) and North America (Canada and the United States). The objective of the present study is to summarize this international experience with particular emphasis on geochemical properties that factor into the adopted site-selection strategies. Results indicate that the geochemical properties of a site play a subordinate role, at best, to other geotechnical properties in the international site-selection approaches. In countries where geochemical properties are acknowledged in the site-selection approach, requirements are stated qualitatively and tend to focus on associated impacts on the stability of the engineered barrier system and on radionuclide transport. Site geochemical properties that are likely to control the long-term stability of geochemical conditions and radionuclide migration behavior are unspecified, however. This non-prescriptive approach may be reasonable for purposes of screening among potential sites, but a better understanding of site properties that are most important in controlling the long-term geochemical evolution of the site over a range of possible scenarios would enable the potential sites to be ranked in terms of their suitability to host a repository. (author)

  16. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    . Of primary importance is to identify any conditions at depth that cannot be accepted or are clearly unsuitable for the deep repository. A drilling and investigation programme comprising a few deep cored boreholes and a few additional percussion boreholes is carried out. The geological investigations focus on fractures and fracture zones. Above all, it is important to investigate whether any major gently-dipping fracture zone occurs at a depth unsuitable for the facility. The rock mechanical investigations will be focused on an overall picture of the initial rock stresses and the quality of the rock mass at the planned repository level within the chosen site. Rock stresses are measured in one or more of the cored boreholes. An initial assessment is made of whether there is a risk of serious stability problems at repository level. For the thermal programme, a check is made of possible unsuitable conditions such as high thermal gradient, high initial temperature at repository depth or inhomogeneous thermal properties, based on temperature measurements and rock composition of drill cores. The initial hydrogeological investigations of the site are mainly aimed at providing a general picture of the water-bearing properties of the rock from the ground surface down to a depth of approximately 1,000 m. Another purpose is to improve the description of the boundary conditions by continuing and expanding the monitoring programme within the regional area. Different pumping and flow tests are performed in the drilled holes. The limited number of holes that are drilled during this phase do not permit a complete determination of the variation of hydraulic conductivity within the site, but provide some idea of conditions at depth. The hydrogeochemical work is organized into the following main activities: sampling in all percussion boreholes after drilling, sampling during drilling of cored boreholes, hydrochemical logging in all cored boreholes, complete chemical characterization of

  17. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    conditions at depth. Of primary importance is to identify any conditions at depth that cannot be accepted or are clearly unsuitable for the deep repository. A drilling and investigation programme comprising a few deep cored boreholes and a few additional percussion boreholes is carried out. The geological investigations focus on fractures and fracture zones. Above all, it is important to investigate whether any major gently-dipping fracture zone occurs at a depth unsuitable for the facility. The rock mechanical investigations will be focused on an overall picture of the initial rock stresses and the quality of the rock mass at the planned repository level within the chosen site. Rock stresses are measured in one or more of the cored boreholes. An initial assessment is made of whether there is a risk of serious stability problems at repository level. For the thermal programme, a check is made of possible unsuitable conditions such as high thermal gradient, high initial temperature at repository depth or inhomogeneous thermal properties, based on temperature measurements and rock composition of drill cores. The initial hydrogeological investigations of the site are mainly aimed at providing a general picture of the water-bearing properties of the rock from the ground surface down to a depth of approximately 1,000 m. Another purpose is to improve the description of the boundary conditions by continuing and expanding the monitoring programme within the regional area. Different pumping and flow tests are performed in the drilled holes. The limited number of holes that are drilled during this phase do not permit a complete determination of the variation of hydraulic conductivity within the site, but provide some idea of conditions at depth. The hydrogeochemical work is organized into the following main activities: sampling in all percussion boreholes after drilling, sampling during drilling of cored boreholes, hydrochemical logging in all cored boreholes, complete chemical

  18. The Swedish approach to siting of a deep geological repository and interaction with the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1993-01-01

    The planned process for siting of a deep geological repository for encapsulated spent nuclear fuel in Sweden was presented in the 1992 SKB R and D programme. A first phase of the repository operation will be limited to disposal of a small amount of encapsulated spent nuclear fuel (approximately 800 tons). This phase will be followed by an evaluation of experiences as well as alternative options before deciding if, when and how to proceed with disposal of the remaining amounts of spent fuel. During the first phase it will be possible to retrieve the waste. Siting is planned to be done in stages. The field studies and safety assessments performed strongly indicate that it is possible to find geological suitable sites within many regions of Sweden. The potential for fulfilling safety requirements will be a crucial factor in site-selection. Local interest in, and attitude to a repository siting will play an important role in the siting process. It is important that an atmosphere of trust and openness can be established. Extensive geological site characterization work will be carried out at the sites selected and studies of other technical, social, economical or political matters will be equally important. Public communication and local participation will form an essential part of the siting programme from the outset. 3 refs., 3 figs

  19. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  20. Classification of methodologies in use for national repository siting programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Countries which possess nuclear power and/or weapons programs have already, or will in the near future, faced the problems associated with siting, developing and operating waste management and disposal facilities. Whereas management and conditioning facilities are generally seen as having a finite life, and have usually been co-located with an existing nuclear power plant, disposal facilities, for whatever category of waste, have consistently generated intense public debate, because of their unique long-term nature. Examination of siting programs around the world shows a wide range in degree of success. It is obvious that there has been a steady evolution from centralized, directed siting methods towards those in which public participation has become increasingly important. Many countries have begun to adopt a process of volunteer-siting, in which local communities or jurisdictions invite facility proponents to examine the potential suitability of their locale. Varying degrees of incentive, mostly financial, are offered in many cases

  1. Ambient air monitoring to support HLW repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransioli, P.M.; Dixon, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site includes an ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring program to provide information for environmental and site characterization issues. The program is designed to provide data for four basic purposes: Atmospheric dispersion calculations to estimate impacts of possible airborne releases of radiological material; Engineering design and extreme weather event characterization; Local climate studies for environmental impact analyses and climate characterization; and, Air quality permits required for site characterization work. The program is compiling a database that will provide the basis for analyses and reporting related to the purposes of the program. Except for reporting particulate matter and limited meteorological data to the State of Nevada for an air quality permit condition, the data have yet to be formally analyzed and reported

  2. Repository site data and information in bedded salt: Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, P.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.; Davis, P.A.; Guzowski, R.V.; Duda, L.E.; Hunter, R.L.

    1983-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from the literature on the Palo Duro Basin. The Palo Duro Basin is a structural basin, about 150 miles long and 80 miles wide, that is a part of the much larger Permian Basin. The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin as a potentially suitable area for the site of a repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Sediments overlying the Precambrian basement range from about 5000 to about 11,000 ft in thickness and from Cambrian to Holocene in age. The strata in the Palo Duro Basin that are of primary interest to the Department of Energy are the bedded salts of the Permian San Andres Formation. The total thickness of the bedded salts is about 2000 ft. The geology of the Palo Duro Basin is well understood. A great deal of information exists on the properties of salt, although much of the available information was not collected in the Palo Duro Basin. Mineral resources are not currently being exploited from the center of the Palo Duro Basin at depth, although the possibility of exploration for and development of such resources can not be ruled out. The continued existence of salts of Permian age indicates a lack of any large amount of circulating ground water. The hydrology of the pre-Tertiary rocks, however, is currently too poorly understood to carry out detailed, site-specific hydrologic modeling with a high degree of confidence. In general, ground water flows from west to east in the Basin. There is little or no hydraulic connection between aquifers above and below the salt sequences. Potable water is pumped from the Ogallala aquifer. Most of the other aquifers yield only nonpotable water. More extensive hydrological data are needed for detailed future modeling in support of risk assessment for a possible repository for high-level waste in the Palo Duro Basin. 464 references

  3. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  4. Siting of large diameter well type repositories for the central region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, A.S.; Tkachenko, A.V.; Prozorov, L.B.; Guskov, A.V.; Korneva, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    To date only 14 from 16 RADON facilities are in operation. Most of them have not more than about 10% of their repositories free and available for new upcoming radioactive waste. Construction of new repositories and selection of new perspective sites is very actual problem for RAW management in Russia now. Near surface repositories are considered to be acceptable for storage of wastes with low and intermediate activity levels (LILW), which decay to safe levels in some hundreds of years. However, the experience with LILW isolation in the near surface facilities in Russia has shown that a lot of operational and natural factors impact on the engineered barriers and may cause failure of the isolation. In addition, the exploitation of the old repositories and construction of new ones require more area. Significant increase in LILW isolation reliability and area saving may be achieved by wastes disposal/storage in Large Diameter Wells (LDW), drilled in homogeneous sediments with low permeable properties. It could be considered as an intermediate between near-surface and geological repositories, and its specific features should be taken into account when choosing new sites for RAW disposal or long-term storage. (author)

  5. Politics and technology in repository siting: military versus commercial nuclear wastes at WIPP 1972-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1970s, attempts by the federal government to develop a comprehensive system for disposing of nuclear wastes in geologic repositories were plagued by two related political problems; (1) whether or not military and commercial wastes should be buried together in the same repository, and (2) how to define the host state's role in the repository siting mechanism. This article explains why these two problems were connected by showing how they proved to be of decisive importance in the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Although WIPP was initially conceived as a wholly military facility, The Department of Energy triggered a three-year dispute over the project's scope by proposing in 1978 to include commercial wastes in the repository. The key issue in the dispute concerned the political legitimacy of decision-making mechanisms for repository siting, which depend upon the extent to which they both adequately represent the interests of affected groups and meet an indistinct technical/political criterion of acceptable safety. DOE's ill-fated proposal to mix military and commercial disposal at WIPP demonstrated that the two rely on somewhat different conditions for their legitimacy. The agency overlapped the legitimate authorities of the federal and state governments and gave itself the hopeless task of negotiating a new boundary between them. 50 references, 3 figures

  6. A methodology for evaluating alternative sites for a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.; Brownlow, S.A.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses the issue of constructing an evaluation procedure for a near-surface radioactive waste repository. It builds on earlier work of the authors, and describes a basis for a practicable methodology for assessing the relative merits of different sites. (author)

  7. To trace the water movements in the sites of nuclear waste repositories by chlorine-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhanxue

    1995-01-01

    Chlorine-36 tracing of the water movements in the potential high-level radioactive waste disposal repository sites has been briefly reviewed. The application of this method to the tracing of precipitation infiltration into the unsaturated zone and the water movement in the saturated zone, to the dating of groundwater and the study of solute migration rates have been discussed

  8. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in LILW Repository site:I. Groundwater flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Koung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyoung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Yeon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Based on the site characterization works in a low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository site, the numerical simulations for groundwater flow were carried out in order to understand the groundwater flow system of repository site. To accomplish the groundwater flow modeling in the repository site, the discrete fracture network (DFN) model was constructed using the characteristics of fracture zones and background fractures. At result, the total 10 different hydraulic conductivity(K) fields were obtained from DFN model stochastically and K distributions of constructed mesh were inputted into the 10 cases of groundwater flow simulations in FEFLOW. From the total 10 numerical simulation results, the simulated groundwater levels were strongly governed by topography and the groundwater fluxes were governed by locally existed high permeable fracture zones in repository depth. Especially, the groundwater table was predicted to have several tens meters below the groundwater table compared with the undisturbed condition around disposal silo after construction of underground facilities. After closure of disposal facilities, the groundwater level would be almost recovered within 1 year and have a tendency to keep a steady state of groundwater level in 2 year.

  9. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  10. Normal evolution of a spent fuel repository at the candidate sites in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D.

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel envisages burial of the fuel in a repository excavated at a depth of around 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Since 1983, a programme has been underway in Finland to select a potential site for such a repository. The programme is now in the final stages of selecting one site for further detailed characterisation from a list of four candidate sites at Kivetty, Romuvaara, Olkiluoto, and Haestholmen. Each stage of the site selection process has been supported by a major performance assessment (PA) exercise. The aim of this report is to describe the normal evolution of a repository system at the four candidate Finnish sites as input to development of the next PA, known as TILA-99. The report summarises the disposal concept and the present-day characteristics of each candidate site, and considers the most likely future changes in both the natural environment and the engineered components of the disposal system. The description concentrates on the key features, events and processes (FEPs) controlling behaviour and evolution of the disposal system. It is assumed that all the canisters are intact following emplacement and repository closure. FEPs that occur but which do not significantly affect system behaviour and evolution are only briefly described. FEPs with a low probability of occurrence are mentioned as appropriate. The report provides a map to the key Finnish reports and other work that underlies and supports the description of normal evolution. Differences between the four candidate sites in terms of their expected normal evolution are summarised. None of the differences are sufficient to prevent each site from behaving as a 'normal' site, the evolution of which is summarised over time in the final section of the report. (author)

  11. Normal evolution of a spent fuel repository at the candidate sites in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Limited, Rutland (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel envisages burial of the fuel in a repository excavated at a depth of around 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Since 1983, a programme has been underway in Finland to select a potential site for such a repository. The programme is now in the final stages of selecting one site for further detailed characterisation from a list of four candidate sites at Kivetty, Romuvaara, Olkiluoto, and Haestholmen. Each stage of the site selection process has been supported by a major performance assessment (PA) exercise. The aim of this report is to describe the normal evolution of a repository system at the four candidate Finnish sites as input to development of the next PA, known as TILA-99. The report summarises the disposal concept and the present-day characteristics of each candidate site, and considers the most likely future changes in both the natural environment and the engineered components of the disposal system. The description concentrates on the key features, events and processes (FEPs) controlling behaviour and evolution of the disposal system. It is assumed that all the canisters are intact following emplacement and repository closure. FEPs that occur but which do not significantly affect system behaviour and evolution are only briefly described. FEPs with a low probability of occurrence are mentioned as appropriate. The report provides a map to the key Finnish reports and other work that underlies and supports the description of normal evolution. Differences between the four candidate sites in terms of their expected normal evolution are summarised. None of the differences are sufficient to prevent each site from behaving as a `normal` site, the evolution of which is summarised over time in the final section of the report. (author) 155 refs.

  12. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Technical description: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Socioeconomic impacts must be assessed both for the near term and for the future. One means of addressing the need for the assessment of such impacts has been through the development of the computerized socioeconomic assessment model called the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) model. The SEARS model was developed for the Battelle Project Management Division. It was refined and adapted from state-of-the-art computerized projection models and thoroughly validated and is now available for use in projecting the likely socioeconomic impacts of a repository facility. This Technical Description is one of six major products that describe the SEARS modeling system. 61 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Long term effects on potential repository sites: occurrence and diagenesis of anhydrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, A.H.; George, I.A.; Milodowski, A.E.; Darling, W.G.

    1985-10-01

    The report deals with the long-term behaviour of anhydrite as a potential host rock for deep disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The principal long-term effect on the integrity of such a repository is the possibility of penetration of groundwater and consequent transformation to gypsum. Therefore, in order to assess the chydrological and geochemical processes of hydration in detail, mineralogical and geochemical analyses have been carried out on anhydrite samples in a drillcore taken near Darlington, United Kingdom. The results are discussed in terms of the long-term integrity of anhydrite as a repository site. (U.K.)

  14. Data base for site specific migration analysis of radioactive elements in repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadermann, J

    1982-01-01

    Migration analysis is of considerable importance in long-term safety aspects of radioactive waste repositories. The present work gives the data base for a selected part of a comprehensive geosphere transport calculation. We restrict ourselves to a critical evaluation of parameters pertinent to the migration analysis of the /sup 245/Cm chain. This includes the important nuclide /sup 237/Np. With these we are able to perform a site specific calculation for repositories planned in deep geologic formations in Switzerland. It is shown that the granitic basement induces strong time delays in nuclide migration. In contrast to that, the overlaying sedimentary layers cause primarily a dilution of the radionuclide concentrations.

  15. Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

    1980-02-01

    The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases

  16. Projected environmental impacts of radioactive material transportation to the first US repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Reardon, P.C.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; McNair, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the relative national environmental impacts of transporting nuclear wastes to each of the nine candidate repository sites in the United States. Several of the potential sites are closely clustered and, for the purpose of distance and routing calculations, are treated as a single location. These are: Cypress Creek Dome and Richton Dome in Mississippi (Gulf Interior Region), Deaf Smith County and Swisher County sites in Texas (Permian Basin), and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon site in Utah (Paradox Basin). The remaining sites are: Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; Yucca Mountain, Nevada; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. For compatibility with both the repository system authorized by the NWPA and with the MRS option, two separate scenarios were analyzed. In belief, they are (1) shipment of spent fuel and high-level wastes (HLW) directly from waste generators to a repository (Reference Case) and (2) shipment of spent fuel to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and then to a repository. Between 17 and 38 truck accident fatalities, between 1.4 and 7.7 rail accident fatalities, and between 0.22 and 12 radiological health effects can be expected to occur as a result of radioactive material transportation during the 26-year operating period of the first repository. During the same period in the United States, about 65,000 total deaths from truck accidents and about 32,000 total deaths from rail accidents would occur; also an estimated 58,300 cancer fatalities are predicted to occur in the United States during a 26-year period from exposure to background radiation alone (not including medical and other manmade sources). The risks reported here are upper limits and are small by comparison with the ''natural background'' of risks of the same type. 3 refs., 6 tabs

  17. Development of local partnership for siting of LILW repository in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralj, Metka; Zeleznik, Nadja

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Slovenia has only temporary storage facilities for radioactive waste. According to the legislation, a permanent LILW repository site should be authorized by 2008, and the repository has to acquire the operating licence by 2013. In 2006, ARAO, the general public and three municipalities established local partnerships in order to increase public acceptability of the LILW repository. Civil initiative groups opposed to the siting appeared in all three local communities. In one case they forced the municipality to withdraw, in one case they changed the siting location, and in one case they were integrated to local partnership. In the municipality of Krsko, the program of local partnership was publicly discussed. There is an NPP in Krsko, so the local partnership also demanded to discuss the power plant issues. Thematic committees were established that worked separately. They also discussed the issues of the spatial plan for the repository. In the municipality of Brezice, a steering committee was established to promote local partnership activities and organization of thematic committees. There was only one active thematic committee, but many activities for the general public were organised. In the municipality of Sevnica, the local partnership was soon cancelled. (authors)

  18. Design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation to site specific conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, J-P.; Reikkola, R.

    1995-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is responsible for the management of spent fuel produced by the Olkiluoto power plant. TVO's current programme of spent fuel management is based on the guidelines and time schedule set by the Finnish Government. TVO has studied a final disposal concept in which the spent fuel bundles are encapsulated in copper canisters and emplaced in Finnish bedrock. According to the plan the final repository for spent fuel will be in operation by 2020. TVO's updated technical plans for the disposal of spent fuel together with a performance analysis (TVO-92) were submitted to the authorities in 1992. The paper describes the design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation of the repository to site specific conditions. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs

  19. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar; Petersson, Jesper; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-12-01

    SKB is currently carrying out an assessment of the future extension of the final repository for low and middle level radioactive operational waste, SFR. The planned SFR extension lies at a relatively shallow depth (-50 to -200 masl) compared with the planned Forsmark facility for spent nuclear fuel (-400 to -500 masl). The main aim of the multidisciplinary modelling project involving geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanical modelling is to describe the rock volume for the planned extension of SFR that was presented in /SKB 2008a/. The results of the modelling project in the form of a forthcoming site descriptive model will supply the basis for site-adapted design including engineering characteristics, in addition to a general assessment of the site suitability. The current report presents the results of the geological work with the deterministic rock domain and deformation zone models (version 1.0) and forms a basis for the three other disciplines in the modelling work. The shallow depth of SFR and its proposed extension means that the facility lies partly within the rock volume affected by the effects of stress release processes during loading and unloading cycles, with an associated increased frequency of open sub-horizontal fractures in the near-surface realm (above -150 masl) compared with that observed at greater depths. The main report describes the data input to the modelling work, the applied modelling methodology and the overall results. More detailed descriptions of the individual modelled deformation zones and rock domains are included in the appendices. The geological modelling work during version 1.0 follows SKB's established methodology using the Rock Visualisation System (RVS). The deformation zone model version 1.0 is a further development of the previous version 0.1 /Curtis et al. 2009/. While the main input to deformation zone model version 0.1 was older geological data from the construction of SFR, including drawings of the

  20. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    SKB is currently carrying out an assessment of the future extension of the final repository for low and middle level radioactive operational waste, SFR. The planned SFR extension lies at a relatively shallow depth (-50 to -200 masl) compared with the planned Forsmark facility for spent nuclear fuel (-400 to -500 masl). The main aim of the multidisciplinary modelling project involving geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanical modelling is to describe the rock volume for the planned extension of SFR that was presented in /SKB 2008a/. The results of the modelling project in the form of a forthcoming site descriptive model will supply the basis for site-adapted design including engineering characteristics, in addition to a general assessment of the site suitability. The current report presents the results of the geological work with the deterministic rock domain and deformation zone models (version 1.0) and forms a basis for the three other disciplines in the modelling work. The shallow depth of SFR and its proposed extension means that the facility lies partly within the rock volume affected by the effects of stress release processes during loading and unloading cycles, with an associated increased frequency of open sub-horizontal fractures in the near-surface realm (above -150 masl) compared with that observed at greater depths. The main report describes the data input to the modelling work, the applied modelling methodology and the overall results. More detailed descriptions of the individual modelled deformation zones and rock domains are included in the appendices. The geological modelling work during version 1.0 follows SKB's established methodology using the Rock Visualisation System (RVS). The deformation zone model version 1.0 is a further development of the previous version 0.1 /Curtis et al. 2009/. While the main input to deformation zone model version 0.1 was older geological data from the construction of SFR, including drawings of

  1. Siting the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository: Social impacts for Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshansky, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States has been an issue of great controversy, particulary for the states under consideration. In addition to concerns expressed about the geological stability of the proposed sites, numerous social issues have been raised by the general public--most of which have been addressed by the draft environmental impact statements. Among the social impacts raised by the Department of Engery and the general public, those receiving the greatest attention were the potential influence of the repository on local economics, tourism, and the health status of the local residents. The major issues of interest in the present study include 1) the effects of respondent knowledge of nuclear waste disposal issues on opinions of health effects and tourism, particularly as they are affected by visitation patterns, and 2) the effects of occupation and education (in particular) on knowledge of nuclear waste disposal issues and opinions on technical and non-technical aspects of siting the repository. Preliminary results indicate that only about 40 percent of the respondents have visited the national parks in southeastern Utah, but over 70 percent feel they are informed about the issues associated with siting the repository. Over 60 percent of the respondents were very concerned about the possible negative effect the repository could have on jobs, tourism, health effects, and environmental quality. Cross-tabulations indicate that the respondents self rating on knowledge of nuclear disposal issues has a statistically significant influence on responses to socioeconomic issues, yet the same self rating scale is significantly influenced by the frequency with which respondents have visited the national parks in southeastern Utah

  2. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy; Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  3. Application of GIS in siting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao

    2010-01-01

    High level radioactive waste geo-disposal is directly related to environment protection and Sustainable Utilization of nuclear energy. To ensure both success and long-term safe disposal of the high level-radioactive waste, finding suitable sites is an important step in the research. Meanwhile, siting and evaluation the geo-disposal repository for high level-radioactive waste need a wide range of relevant information, including geology and geophysical surveys data, geochemistry data and other geoscience data in the field. At the same time, some of the data has its spatial property. Geographic information system (GIS) have a role to play in all geographic and spatial aspects of the development and management of the siting disposal repository. GIS has greatly enhanced our ability to store, analyze and communicate accounts of the information. This study was conducted to compare the more suitable sites for the repository using GIS -based on the data which belongs to the preselected area in BeiShan, Gansu Province, China. First, the data of the pre-selected site is captured by GIS and stored in the geoscience database. Then, according to the relevant guide line in the field, the analysis models based on GIS are build. There are some thematic layers of the sites character grouped into two basic type, namely social factors(town, traffic and nuclear plant) and natural factors (water, land and animals and plants).In the paper, a series of GIS models was developed to compare the pre-selected areas in order to make optimal decision. This study shows that with appropriate and enough information GIS used in modeling is a powerful tool for site selection for disposal repository. (authors)

  4. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  5. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  6. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Nazran Harun; Muhammad Fathi Sujan; Karuppiah, T.; Surip, N.; Malik, N.N.A.; Che Musa, R.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  7. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Simpevarp, Forsmark, and Tierp north. The site investigations have started at Simpevarp and Forsmark. The municipal council of Tierp rejected a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial Site Investigation is performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The Initial Site Investigation is expected to take about 3 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, Complete Site Investigation will follow for an expected duration of another 3 years. The purpose of the Complete Site Investigation is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. The site-specific programme gives an overview of the whole site investigation phase as well as a detailed description of the initial stage. The results of the initial investigations will determine whether Simpevarp is appropriate for further investigation, i.e. the Complete Site Investigation. This document summarizes the investigations that will be carried out at Simpevarp during the Initial Site Investigations. The document is a working document, which will be successively updated as

  8. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Simpevarp, Forsmark, and Tierp north. The site investigations have started at Simpevarp and Forsmark. The municipal council of Tierp rejected a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial Site Investigation is performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The Initial Site Investigation is expected to take about 3 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, Complete Site Investigation will follow for an expected duration of another 3 years. The purpose of the Complete Site Investigation is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. The site-specific programme gives an overview of the whole site investigation phase as well as a detailed description of the initial stage. The results of the initial investigations will determine whether Simpevarp is appropriate for further investigation, i.e. the Complete Site Investigation. This document summarizes the investigations that will be carried out at Simpevarp during the Initial Site Investigations. The document is a working document, which will be successively updated as

  9. Analysis for the siting of a repository in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Ciallella, N.; Matar, J.; Perucca, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    The first step in the selection of suitable geological formation for disposal of highly radioactive waste in Argentina was to analyse all the country's known occurrences of granite rock, on the basis of bibliographic material. For each occurrence, a determination was made of its petrographic and structural characteristics, the dimensions and specifications of the rock bodies, the seismic and hydrogeological characteristics of the region, its mining and oil-bearing potential, and the demographic, agricultural, cattle-breeding and industrial features of the areas under study. In this way, it was possible to identify something like 200 granite occurrences. In the second stage the following elimination criteria having been applied: (a) bodies located within seismic zones or areas in which mining or oil-drilling operations are carried on; (b) petrographic characteristics of rock indicating significant alterations, such as an advanced state of erosion or decomposition; and (c) bodies located in areas whose hydrogeological characteristics are known to be unfavourable. As a further selection criterion, account was taken of certain unfavourable characteristics from the point of view of the construction and operation of the storage facility. Sites within zones of dense population, tourism or difficult access were considered to be unfavourable. As a result of this second stage, seven formations were identified. A third stage, based on a survey of the preselected granite bodies led to the identificaton of the massifs of La Esperanza and Chasico in Rio Negro province and the Calcatapul and Medio ranges in Chubut province as the most suitable sites for continuing the detailed studies

  10. Ground-water travel time calculations for the potential nuclear repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, J.L.; Wilson, W.E.; Sinnock, S.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, ground-water travel times were calculated for flow paths in both the saturated and unsaturated zones at Yucca Mountain, a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada. The calculations were made through a combined effort by Science Applications International Corporation, Sandia National Laboratories, and the US Geological Survey. Travel times in the unsaturated zone were estimated by dividing the flow path length by the ground-water velocity, where velocities were obtained by dividing the vertical flux by the effective porosity of the rock types along assumed vertical flow paths. Saturated zone velocities were obtained by dividing the product of the bulk hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient by the effective porosity. Total travel time over an EPA-established 5-km flow path was then calculated to be the sum of the travel times in the two parts of the flow path. Estimates of ground water fluxes and travel times are critical for evaluating the favorability of the Yucca Mountain site because they provide the basis for estimating the potential for radionuclides to reach the accessible environment within certain time limits

  11. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  12. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  13. Estimated transportation routes to a candidate salt repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of possible highway and rail transportation routes within Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico for shipments of spent fuel to the candidate repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Two cases are examined for highway shipments. The initial case analyzes shipments following the Department of Transportation's HM-164 regulations for shipment of spent fuel. The second case analyzes normal commercial routes. Three rail cases are also examined. Each case analyzes potential routes that would be used based for different access spurs into the repository site. Two appendices are included which examine additional scenarios generated by restricting routes from passing through various metropolitan areas. The major finding is that most shipments to the Deaf Smith site will pass through Amarillo, Texas. There are few, if any, feasible alternative routes which would significantly reduce the amount of traffic passing through Amarillo

  14. What requirements does the KBS-3 repository make on the host rock? Geoscientific suitability indicators and criteria for siting and site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Stroem, Anders; Svemar, Christer; Almen, Karl-Erik; Ericsson, Lars O.

    2000-04-01

    This report gives an account of what requirements are made on the rock, what conditions in the rock are advantageous and how the fulfilment of requirements and preferences is to be judged prior to the selection of sites for a site investigation and during a site investigation. The conclusions and results of the report are based on the knowledge and experience acquired by SKB over many years of research and development. The results, and particularly the stipulated criteria, apply to a repository for spent fuel of the KBS-3 type, i.e. a repository where the fuel is contained in copper canisters embedded in bentonite clay at a depth of 400 - 700 m in the Swedish crystalline basement. The report analyzes how the rock's different geological conditions, mechanical, thermal, hydrogeological, chemical and transport properties influence the functions of the deep repository, and whether it is possible to determine requirements and preferences regarding the influence of these properties. Where possible, these requirements or preferences have then been translated into requirements or preferences regarding the individual properties. Criteria are formulated that are based on the quantities that can be measured or estimated at the relevant stage of the investigation. The following requirements are made on the rock: The rock in the repository's deposition zone may not have any ore potential. Regional plastic shear zones shall be avoided if it cannot be demonstrated that the properties of the zone do not deviate from those of the rest of the rock. There may, however, be so-called 'tectonic lenses' near regional plastic shear zones where the bedrock is homogeneous and relatively unaffected. Deposition tunnels and deposition holes for canisters may not pass through or be positioned too close to major regional and major local fracture zones. Deposition holes may not intersect identified local minor fracture zones. The rock's strength, fracture geometry and initial stresses may not be

  15. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Munier, Raymond; Stroem, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Almen, Karl-Erik; Olsson, Lars

    2004-04-01

    SKB has started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden. The investigations should provide necessary information for a licence application aimed at starting underground exploration. The investigations and analyses of them are supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to achieve the overall goals of the site investigation phase. The knowledge will be utilized to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for the deep repository and must be comprehensive enough to: Show whether the selected site satisfies requirements on safety and technical aspects. Serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. Permit comparisons with other investigated sites. Furthermore, the investigations are discontinued when the reliability of the site description has reached such a level that the body of data for safety assessment and design is sufficient, or until the body of data shows that the rock does not satisfy the requirements. These objectives are valid, but do not provide sufficient and concrete guidance. For this reason SKB has conducted this project which should acquire concrete guidance on how to judge when the surface based Site Investigation Phase does not need to continue. After a general assessment of the problem, the following specific objectives of the current work were identified: Demonstrate concretely how the assessed uncertainties in a Site Description based on a specific level of investigations, together with expected feedback from Safety Assessment and Engineering, can be used to decide whether the site investigations are sufficient - or need to continue. This demonstration will be based on a practical application of relevant aspects of decision analysis tools. Highlight and make concrete the type of feedback to be expected from Safety Assessment and Engineering and show how this feedback

  16. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded

  17. Screening methodology for site selection of a nuclear waste repository in shale formations in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoth, P.; Krull, P.; Wirth, H.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is based on the principle that all types of radioactive waste must be disposed of in deep geological formations. Because of the favourable properties of rock salt and the existence of thick rock salt formations in Germany, so far most of the research in the field of radioactive waste disposal sites was focused on the study of the use of rock salt. In addition, German research organisations have also conducted generic research and development projects in alternative geological formations (Wanner and Brauer, 2001), but a comprehensive evaluation of their utilisation has been only done for parts of the crystalline rocks in Germany. Research projects on argillaceous rocks started relatively late, so that German experience is mainly connected to German research work with the corresponding European Underground Research Laboratories and the exploration of the former Konrad iron mine as a potential repository site for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. The German Federal Government has signed in 2001 an agreement with national utility companies to end electricity generation by nuclear power. This decision affected the entire German radioactive waste isolation strategy and especially the repository projects. The utility companies agreed upon standstill of exploration at the Gorleben site and the Federal Ministry for the Environment tries to establish a new comprehensive procedure for the selection of a repository site, built upon well-founded criteria incorporating public participation. Step 3 of the planning includes the examination of further sites in Germany and the comparison with existing sites and concepts. Under these circumstances, argillaceous rock (clay and shale) formations are now a special area of interest in Germany and the development of a screening methodology was required for the evaluation of shales as host and barrier rocks for nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  18. Management of scientific and engineering data collected during site characterization of a potential high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, C.M.; Heitland, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository encompasses many diverse investigations to determine the nature of the site. Laboratory and on-site investigations are being conducted of the geology, hydrology, mineralogy, paleoclimate, geotechnical properties, and past use of the area, to name a few. Effective use of the data from these investigations requires development of a system for the collection, storage, and dissemination of those scientific and engineering data needed to support model development, design, and performance assessment. The time and budgetary constraints associated with this project make sharing of technical data within the geoscience community absolutely critical to the successful solution of the complex scientific problem challenging us

  19. Siting of repositories for high level nuclear waste geological and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahagen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Two studies have been conducted in Sweden under contract from SKN-National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The responsibilities of SKN has been transferred to SKI as of July 1, 1992. The first study is related to a compilation of experience and lessons learned from siting of nuclear waste repositories and other controversial facilities in seven countries. The second study is aimed at compiling examples of the state of knowledge related to the regional geological information with relevance to siting of a repository in Sweden. This paper is drawing the general combined conclusions from both these studies. The first study reviewed programs for siting of nuclear and hazardous waste disposal facilities in Canada, Finland, France, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA. The main topics reviewed are related to a/ The use of technical screening, b/ Legal framework and local veto, c/ Public involvement, d/ Interim storage and schedule flexibility, e/ Sequential vs. parallel characterization. The second study focused on the regional geological information available for Sweden and if this information allows for a ''grouping'' of tectonic regions in Sweden with significant differences in history and characteristics. Factors studied as potentially important for siting are bedrock properties, mineralizations, ground water conditions and available volume for a repository. The experience gained from these studies is aimed to be used as background information in the review of the program conducted for the Swedish nuclear utilities by SKB. SKB will according to current plans initiate siting for a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden during 1993. (author). 2 refs

  20. Nuclear waste repository siting and locational conflict analysis: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murauskas, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    This study develops and evaluates an alternative framework that is based on contextual variables. The premise is that differences in attitudes and perceptions regarding the local siting of nuclear wastes and differences in attitudes regarding siting decision-making procedures are influenced by local political, economic, and cultural variables. This framework articulates the nature of conflict in terms of the incongruence between the use-value individuals ascribe to their present situation and the anticipated exchange-value individuals associate with the local siting of a nuclear waste repository. In order to evaluate this conceptual framework a survey was conducted of residents in four communities representing distinct societal contexts: Richton, Mississippi; Peterborough, New Hampshire; Richland, Washington; and Antigo/Waupaca, Wisconsin. Data analyses indicate substantial differences in economic expectations associated with the local siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository and in perception regarding the impacts such a repository might have on the environment, local agriculture, personal health and safety, and the quality of life

  1. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  2. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  3. A Strategy for Describing the Biosphere at Candidate Sites for Repositories of Nuclear Waste: Linking Ecosystem and Landscape Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Loefgren, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Kautsky, Ulrik; Lindborg, Regina; Bradshaw, Clare

    2006-01-01

    To provide information necessary for a license application for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. has started site investigations at two sites in Sweden. In this paper, we present a strategy to integrate site-specific ecosystem data into spatially explicit models needed for safety assessment studies and the environmental impact assessment. The site-specific description of ecosystems is developed by building discipline-specific models from primary data and by identifying interactions and stocks and flows of matter among functional units at the sites. The conceptual model is a helpful initial tool for defining properties needed to quantify system processes, which may reveal new interfaces between disciplines, providing a variety of new opportunities to enhance the understanding of the linkages between ecosystem characteristics and the functional properties of landscapes. This type of integrated ecosystem-landscape characterization model has an important role in forming the implementation of a safety assessment for a deep repository

  4. A preliminary analysis of the risk of transporting nuclear waste to potential candidate commercial repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    In accordance with the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, environmental assessments for potential candidate sites are required to provide a basis for selection of the first site for disposal of commercial radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. A preliminary analysis of the impacts of transportation for each of the five potential sites will be described. Transportation was assumed to be entirely by truck or entirely by rail in order to obtain bounding impacts. This paper presents both radiological and nonradiological risks for the once-through fuel cycle

  5. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  6. A radioactive waste repository for Australia: methods for choosing the right site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This study has developed and used an open and objective approach to site selection. A geographic information system was used to assemble continental-scale information. The information was classified according to suitability criteria and processed to show how the most suitable areas for locating Australia's radioactive waste repository can be identified. The test results show that different regions are identified when different selection criteria are used. The results in this discussion paper are indicative only and are intended to provide a focus for more detailed studies at regional and local levels following public comment on the criteria and methodology. The methodology for identifying a suitable site for a national repository for radioactive wastes will be re-applied with more detailed information to areas identified in this study and on the basis of public comments. 6 figs

  7. Rhode Island crystalline repository siting project: Technical progress report, Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vild, B.

    1987-01-01

    A Nuclear Waste Fund established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provides financial support to affected states to participate in the high-level radioactive waste repository siting program of the US Department of Energy. In Rhode Island, that function was performed by a multidisciplinary Project Review Team consisting of staff from three State agencies. Members of the Review Team attended several meetings in 1986 to discuss mutual concerns with Federal, State and Tribal officials. Comments were developed on DOE's Draft Area Recommendation Report. Members of the Review Team also testified at a public hearing in Providence on the Draft ARR, and developed and distributed a public information booklet. In May, Secretary of Energy John Herrington announced the suspension of the crystalline repository siting program. The remainder of the year was spent monitoring litigation challenging that decision and pending legislation. Administrative phase-down of the program was essentially complete by the close of the calendar year

  8. The interpretation of remote sensing image on the stability of fault zone at HLW repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Linqing; Yu Yunxiang

    1994-01-01

    It is attempted to interpret the buried fault at the preselected HLW repository site in western Gansu province with a remote sensing image. The authors discuss the features of neotectonism of Shule River buried fault zone and its two sides in light of the remote sensing image, geomorphology, stream pattern, type and thickness difference of Quaternary sediments, and structural basin, etc.. The stability of Shule River fault zone is mainly dominated by the neotectonic movement pattern and strength of its two sides. Although there exist normal and differential vertical movements along it, their strengths are small. Therefore, this is a weakly-active passive fault zone. The east Beishan area north to Shule River fault zone is weakliest active and is considered as the target for further pre-selection for HLW repository site

  9. Feasibility study for siting of a deep repository within the Storuman municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    It is SKB's task to gather a broad body of information for the siting of a deep repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste. The criteria presented by SKB serve as guidelines for the siting studies. Overviews of siting factors are compiled in general siting studies of all or parts of Sweden. Feasibility studies examine the siting prospects in potentially suitable and interested municipalities. SKB plans to carry out feasibility studies in five to ten municipalities in different parts of the country. General studies and feasibility studies are primarily based on existing material. The feasibility study in Storuman is the first to be conducted. It began during the second half of 1993 with the conclusion of an agreement between the municipality and SKB. SKB has been in charge of the execution of the feasibility study. SKB has been responsible for the summary provided in a status report published in June 1994, as well as for the conclusions and evaluations in this final report. Altogether about 30 reports have been published within the framework of the feasibility study. The purpose of the various studies have been to describe, in as much detail as possible, the prospects for siting a deep repository in the municipality of Storuman, and to shed light on the possible positive and negative consequences of such a siting. The feasibility study has led to a discussion within the municipality and the region concerning the siting of a deep repository. In SKB's opinion, this gives all those concerned ample opportunity to become acquainted with the issues and to assert their interests and present their viewpoints at an early stage. 55 refs

  10. Feasibility study for siting of a deep repository within the Storuman municipality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    It is SKB`s task to gather a broad body of information for the siting of a deep repository for Sweden`s spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste. The criteria presented by SKB serve as guidelines for the siting studies. Overviews of siting factors are compiled in general siting studies of all or parts of Sweden. Feasibility studies examine the siting prospects in potentially suitable and interested municipalities. SKB plans to carry out feasibility studies in five to ten municipalities in different parts of the country. General studies and feasibility studies are primarily based on existing material. The feasibility study in Storuman is the first to be conducted. It began during the second half of 1993 with the conclusion of an agreement between the municipality and SKB. SKB has been in charge of the execution of the feasibility study. SKB has been responsible for the summary provided in a status report published in June 1994, as well as for the conclusions and evaluations in this final report. Altogether about 30 reports have been published within the framework of the feasibility study. The purpose of the various studies have been to describe, in as much detail as possible, the prospects for siting a deep repository in the municipality of Storuman, and to shed light on the possible positive and negative consequences of such a siting. The feasibility study has led to a discussion within the municipality and the region concerning the siting of a deep repository. In SKB`s opinion, this gives all those concerned ample opportunity to become acquainted with the issues and to assert their interests and present their viewpoints at an early stage. 55 refs.

  11. Repository sealing concepts for the Nevada nuclear waste storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1984-08-01

    This report describes concepts for sealing a nuclear waste repository in an unsaturated tuff environment. The repository site under consideration is Yucca Mountain, which is on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. The hydrogeology of Yucca Mountain, preliminary repository concepts, functional requirements and performance criteria for sealing, federal and state regulations, and hydrological calculations are considered in developing the sealing concepts. Water flow through the unsaturated zone is expected to be small and generally vertically downward with some potential to occur through discrete fault and fracture zones. These assumptions are used in developing sealing concepts for shafts, ramps, and boreholes. Sealing of discrete, water-producing faults and fracture zones encountered in horizontal emplacement holes and in access and emplacement drifts is also described. 49 references, 21 figures, 6 tables

  12. Salt Repository Project site study plan for seismographic monitoring: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study plan describes the seismographic monitoring activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field programs has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Sixteen new and three relocated seismographic stations will be added to the now existing network of 13 stations for a total of 32 stations in the network. The areal extent is being expanded and selected regions covered more densely to provide more accurate monitoring and location of microearthquakes. More sophisticated instruments are being used at selected locations to allow for more detailed analysis. A few seismographs are being installed at depth to provide a limited 3-D monitoring network in the area of the repository. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technique Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 32 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Analysis of the portfolio of sites to characterize for selecting a nuclear repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has selected three sites, from five nominated, to characterize for a nuclear repository to permanently dispose of nuclear waste. This decision was made without the benefit of an analysis of this portfolio problem. This paper analyzes different portfolios of three sites for simultaneous characterization and strategies for sequential characterization. Characterization of each site, which involves significant subsurface excavation, is now estimated to cost $1 billion. Mainly because of the high characterization costs, sequential characterization strategies are identified which are the equivalent of $1.7-2.0 billion less expensive than the selected DOE simultaneous characterization of the three sites. If three sites are simultaneously characterized, one portfolio is estimated to be the equivalent of $100-400 million better than the selected DOE portfolio. Because of these potential savings and several other complicating factors that may influence the relative desirability of characterization strategies, a thorough analysis of characterization strategies that addresses the likelihood of finding disqualifying conditions during site characterization, uncertainties, and dependencies in forecast site repository costs, preclosure and postclosure health and safety impacts, potential delays of both sequential and simultaneous characterization strategies, and the environmental, socioeconomic, and health and safety impacts of characterization activities is recommended

  14. Sequential evaluation of the potential geologic repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerstedt, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes that are planned for the characterization program at Yucca Mountain due to budget changes. Yucca Mountain is the only site being studied in the US for a geologic repository. Funding for the site characterization program at Yucca Mountain program was cut by roughly one half from the 1994 projected budget to complete three major milestones. These project milestones included: (1) a time-phased determination of site suitability, and if a positive finding, (2) completion of an Environmental Impact Statement, and (3) preparation of a License Application to the US NRC to authorize repository construction. In reaction, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has shifted from parallel development of these milestones to a sequenced approach with the site suitability evaluation being replaced with a management assessment. Changes to the regulatory structure for the disposal program are under consideration by DOE and the NRC. The possibility for NRC and Doe to develop a site-specific regulatory structure follows from the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 that authorized the US EPA to develop a site specific environmental standard for Yucca Mountain

  15. Site descriptive modelling during characterization for a geological repository for nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Andersson, J.; Skagius, K.; Winberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect to layout and construction, and safety assessment, with respect to long-term performance. The development of site-descriptive models involves a multi-disciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using input in the form of available data for the surface and from deep boreholes

  16. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Liliana; Shestopalov, Vyacheslav

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  17. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  18. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  19. Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office independent scientific investigations program annual report, May 1997 - April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO's on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment; identifying areas not being addressed adequately by the Department of Energy (DOE). Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues. This report summarizes the results of monitoring from two boreholes and the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel that have been instrumented by Nye County since March and April of 1995. The preliminary data and interpretations presented in this report do not constitute and should not be considered as the official position of Nye County. The ISIP presently includes borehole and tunnel instrumentation, monitoring, data analysis, and numerical modeling activities to address the concerns of Nye County

  20. Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office independent scientific investigations program annual report, May 1997--April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment; identifying areas not being addressed adequately by the Department of Energy (DOE). Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues. This report summarizes the results of monitoring from two boreholes and the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel that have been instrumented by Nye County since March and April of 1995. The preliminary data and interpretations presented in this report do not constitute and should not be considered as the official position of Nye County. The ISIP presently includes borehole and tunnel instrumentation, monitoring, data analysis, and numerical modeling activities to address the concerns of Nye County.

  1. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  2. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    2006-09-15

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  3. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  4. Site selection for Canada's national repository for used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Belfadhel, M.; Watts, B.; Facella, J., E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The approach provides for containment and isolation of the material in a deep geological repository at a safe site with an informed and willing host. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is tasked through federal legislation with selecting the site and developing and managing all aspects of the plan. In May 2010, the organization published and initiated the site selection process that serves as a road map for decision making on the location for the deep geological repository. It continues to lead the site selection process for the repository and an associated Centre of Expertise. The screening process is advancing and, from an initial starting point of 22 communities expressing interest in learning about the project; as of September 2015, 9 communities are the focus of more detailed technical and community well-being studies. Preliminary Assessments, the third step in the 9-step site selection process are underway in these communities. The Assessments involve preliminary technical and social desktop and field assessments, engagement activities within and beyond each interested community, and involvement of Indigenous peoples and nearby municipalities in the planning and conduct of the work. This paper provides an update on the advancement of the site selection process. It describes the nature of the technical and social studies being conducted at this phase of work, including the progressively more detailed field studies that are the focus of technical work at the current stage, the approach to engagement and collaboration with communities to direct these studies, and the work underway to ensure the framework used for this assessment and engagement includes the range of priorities and perspectives of First Nations and Metis peoples and communities in the broader area. (author)

  5. Siting the high level radioactive waste repository in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, J.

    1992-01-01

    For more than twenty-five years after the National Academy of Science issued its 1957 report recommending a Mined Geologic Disposal System (''MGDS'') for high level radioactive waste, no substantial progress was made in selecting and siting a repository. The United States Congress attempted to give substantive and procedural direction to the program in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Seeing that very little had been accomplished some five years later, Congress gave further direction and tentatively selected a single site, Yucca Mountain in Nevada, in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendments of 1987. Selection of the Yucca Mountain site created a political conflict between federal and state authorities. Until recently, that conflict stalled the site characterization and evaluation program. Standards development under a polycentric regulatory regime has also been slow and has created a number of technical, legal and policy controversies. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), charged with setting radiation protection rules, may be developing regulatory standards which are technically unachievable and, therefore, legally unprovable in a licensing proceeding. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), having the responsibility for licensing and setting performance objectives, may be taking an overly conservative approach. This approach could seriously impact the cost and may preclude the ability to reach an affirmative finding on license issuance. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for siting, construction and operation of the repository. In so doing, DOE must apply both EPA and NRC standards. To the extent that EPA and NRC standards are untimely, poorly defined, unrealistic, inconsistent, and technically or legally unsound, DOE may be forestalled from fulfilling its responsibilities. The US must rethink its approach to siting the high level radioactive waste repository and take realistic, timely action to preserve the nuclear option. (Author)

  6. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed

  7. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

  8. Site selection process for radioactive waste repository (radioactive facility) in Cuba as a fundamental safety criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital, Jose Luis Peralta; Castillo, Reinaldo Gil; Chales Suarez, Gustavo; Rodriguez Reyes, Aymee

    1999-01-01

    The paper show the process of search carried out for the selection of the safest site in the National territory, in order to sitting the Facility (Repository) that will disposal the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, as well as the possible Storage Facility for nuclear spent Fuel (radioactive wastes of high activity). We summarize the obtained Methodology and the Criterions of exclusion adopted for the development of the Process of site selection, as well as the current condition of the researches that will permit the obtaining of the nominative objectives. (author)

  9. Concentration ratios to great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) at Olkiluoto repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Haavisto, Fiia [FM Meri and Erae Oy, Seijaistentie 133a, 21230 Lemu (Finland); Salmi, Juhani A. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Itaeinen Pitkaekatu 3, 20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. The great cormorant was a common species in the Finnish coastal area and possibly also a resource for human uses before the decline of the cormorant population in the 18. century. During the last decade, the great cormorant has become again a relevant part of food web in the Bothnian Sea coastal area. Due to the regulatory requirements, the biosphere assessment demonstrating the long-term safety of the repository is developed into more and more site specific. As the adequate literature data on common waterfowl is sparse or in some cases lacking, samples of adult cormorants, eggs and guano together with water and fish samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area. This contribution will present concentration ratios of stable element based on these samples with focus on the elements of a high relevance to the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository together with discussion on the role of food (fish) versus the application of the water-to-bird concentration ratio. (authors)

  10. The recharge area concept: A strategy for siting nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Toth, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Recharge Area Concept is the proposition that in Canadian-Shield type natural environments recharge areas of regional groundwater flow systems are superior for high-level nuclear waste repositories to other types of groundwater flow regimes, especially to areas of groundwater discharge. This conclusion is reached from an analysis of basinal groundwater flow models. The calculations were made for a two-dimensional flank of a fully saturated topographic basin, 20 km long and 4 km deep, in which groundwater is driven by gravity. Variants of hydraulic-conductivity distributions were considered: 1) homogeneous; 2) stratified; and 3) stratified-faulted. The faults attitudes were changed by steps from vertical to horizontal for different variants. The model is assumed conceptually to represent the crystalline-rock environment of the Canadian Shield. The hydrogeologic performances of hypothetical repositories placed 500 m deep in the recharge and discharge areas were characterized by thirteen parameters. The principal advantages of recharge- over discharge-area locations are: 1) longer travel paths and return-flow times from repository to surface; 2) robustness of predicted values of performance parameters; 3) field-verifiability of favourable hydrogeologic conditions (amounting to an implicit validation of the calculated minimum values of return-flow times); 4) site acceptance based on quantifiable and observable flow-controlling parameters; and 5) simple logistics and favourable economics of site selection and screening. As a by-product of modeling, it is demonstrated that the presence of old water is not an indication of stagnancy. (author)

  11. Framework for evaluating the utility of incentive systems for radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.; Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Bjornstad, D.J.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in siting radioactive waste repositories has been recognized in recent years. Within this set of issues, the siting of repositories over the objections of members of potential host communities is viewed as especially problematic. Incentives to potential host communities have been suggested as a means of increasing local support for and offsetting local opposition to such facilities. Incentives are classified according to their function as mitigation, compensation or reward. Our analysis of results of a 1980 survey (conducted by John Kelly, Complex Systems Group, University of New Hampshire) of 420 rural Wisconsin residents indicates that incentives may achieve the purpose of increasing support for and decreasing opposition to accepting a repository. Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives are identified. They respond to four basic questions: (1) What is absolutely necessary. (2) Will the incentive work. (3) Can the incentive be understood. and (4) What are the consequences of implementing the incentive. It is suggested that meaningful evaluations of incentives can only be performed by members of potential host communities

  12. Evaluation of site-generated radioactive waste treatment and disposal methods for the Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Jardine, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies the sources of radioactive wastes that may be generated at the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, estimates the waste quantities and characteristics, compares technologies available for waste treatment and disposal, and develops recommended concepts for site-generated waste treatment and disposal. The scope of this study is limited to operations during the emplacement phase, in which 70,000 MTU of high-level waste will be received and emplaced at the proposed repository. The evaluations consider all radioactive wastes generated during normal operations in surface and underground facilities. Wastes generated as a result of accidents are not addressed; accidents that could result in large quantities of radioactive waste are expected to occur very infrequently and temporary, portable systems could be used for any necessary cleanup. The results of this study can be used to develop more definitive plans for managing the site-generated wastes and as a basis for the design of associated facilities at the proposed repository

  13. Use of an analog site near Raymond, California, to develop equipment and methods for characterizing a potential high-level, nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umari, A.M.J.; Geldon, A.; Patterson, G.; Gemmell, J.; Earle, J.; Darnell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, currently is being investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Planned hydraulic-stress and tracer tests in fractured, tuffaceous rocks below the water table at Yucca Mountain will require work at depths in excess of 1,300 feet. To facilitate prototype testing of equipment and methods to be used in aquifer tests at Yucca Mountain, an analog site was selected in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada near Raymond, California. Two of nine 250- to 300-feet deep wells drilled into fractured, granitic rocks at the Raymond site have been instrumented with packers, pressure transducers, and other equipment that will be used at Yucca Mountain. Aquifer tests conducted at the Raymond site to date have demonstrated a need to modify some of the equipment and methods conceived for use at Yucca Mountain

  14. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories: analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The responses from various discussion groups on site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories are presented. The consensus, principal concern, and minority opinion on each issue are given. The visual aids used in the workshop are included

  15. Problems of geologic survey of high level radioactive waste repositories illustrated on the testing site in the Melechov Massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlcoch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Major attention is paid to problems associated with the geologic maps of the prospective repository site, which lies within the Bohemian Massif. Structural geology, survey through boreholes, and primary database are also discussed briefly. (P.A.)

  16. Criteria and results from the analysis of the problem of site selection for the construction of high level RAW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Kozhoukharova, D.; Iliev, I.; Karagyuleva, J.

    1993-02-01

    The criteria for preliminary assessment of the Bulgarian territory and the results of the selection of prospective sites for future investigation concerning the choice of the suitable places for RAW repositories are presented. The selection of the prospective terrains has been performed in two stages: 1) Categorization of the country according to the prospective conditions for suitable sites and 2) Distinguishing and preliminary assessment of the suitable sites. The number of these sites was reduced to 20 by the method of successive screening. They are located in Northwest and Southeast Bulgaria and are built of marls, clays, granite, gneiss, serpentine and and volcanic rocks. The selected 20 sites has been subjected to preliminary investigation according to a programme specially worked out for the purpose. The investigation covers the analysis and summing up of the available geographical, geomorphological, geological, seismotectonic, hydrological, climatic, hydrogeological and geotechnical data, as well as a minimum of additional field research and laboratory tests. The results of the investigation of each site are presented and discussed. 1 ref

  17. Technical, normative and social aspects of the site selection process for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Otavio E.A.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Cota, Stela D.S.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Peres, Sueli S.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    In force since 2001, the Federal Law 10.308 states, in article 37, that the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN should start studies for the implementation of a final radioactive waste repository, 'in the shortest timeframe technically feasible'. Nevertheless, not only technical aspects have to be taken into account to accomplish with this schedule, but, also factors of political, economic and social nature. In this paper, the importance and impact of public acceptance aspects are discussed, as well as the methodology of site selection for radioactive wastes repositories, and proposals to accommodate the emanated criteria from the existing legislation. Additionally, practical results from the international experience in the implementation of such deposits are presented. (author)

  18. Draft environmental impact statement. High-level waste repository site suitability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of HLWRSSC is to present guidelines which will help in the development of safe waste management schemes. Current regulations require solidification of all high-level waste within 5 years of their generation and transfer to a Federal waste repository within 10 years. Development of the proposed HLWRSSC is part of the overall NRC program to close the ''back end'' of the commercial LWR fuel cycle. In this document, the need for the HLWRSSC is reviewed, and the national energy policy, the need for electrical energy, and the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Considerations for HLWRSSC are presented, including the nature of the repository, important site-related factors, and radiological risk assessment methodology. Radiological and nonradiological environment impacts associated with the HLWRSSC are defined. Alternatives to the criteria are presented, and the cost-benefit-risk evaluation is reviewed

  19. Geophysical survey aimed at selecting the radioactive waste repository site (Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Dostál

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available G IMPULS Praha has been executing a set of geophysical measurements for the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority of the Czech Republic from 2001 (the work continues to be carried out. The measurements are aimed at studying the behaviour of the rock massif, focusing on the Excavation Damaged or Disturbed Zone (EDZ and on selecting an appropriate area for the radioactive material repository site. The geophysical studies use a complex of methods as follows: Airborne geophysical measurement (regional studies, Seismic measurement (detailed studies, G.P.R. (detailed studies, Resistivity tomography (detailed studies, Geoelectric measurement and magnetic survey (stray earth currents. The paper informs about first results and conclusions. The airborne work was executed as a part of the complex study of „GEOBARIERA“ the group and the geophysical measurements of EDZ were executed in co-operation with the Czech Geological Survey.

  20. Data base for a site-specific migration analysis radioactive elements out of a waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadermann, J

    1981-11-01

    Migration analysis is of considerable importance in long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories. In a first step our plans are to calculate transport of radionuclides using data - as far as possible - for an undisturbed hydrogeology. Thereby a reference case is defined. In a later step, possible events and processes can be considered leading to a deviation from the reference case. The present work gives the data base for a selected part of a comprehensive geosphere transport calculation. We restrict ourselves to a critical evaluation of parameters pertinent to the migration analysis of the /sup 245/Cm chain. This includes the important nuclide /sup 237/Np. For the first time we are able to perform a site specific calculation for repositories planned in deep geologic formations in Switzerland. The well-known fact that the data basis is extremely sparse is pointed out once more and concretized in detail.

  1. Potential energy center site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    Past studies by the AEC, NRC, NSF and others have indicated that energy centers have certain advantages over dispersed siting. There is the need, however, to investigate such areas as possible weather modifications due to major heat releases, possible changes in Federal/state/local laws and institutional arrangements to facilitate implementation of energy centers, and to assess methods of easing social and economic pressures on a surrounding community due to center construction. All of these areas are under study by ERDA, but there remains the major requirement for the study of a potential site to yield a true assessment of the energy center concept. In this regard the Division of Nuclear Research and Applications of ERDA is supporting studies by the Southern and Western Interstate Nuclear Boards to establish state and utility interest in the concept and to carry out screening studies of possible sites. After selection of a final site for center study , an analysis will be made of the center including technical areas such as heat dissipation methods, water resource management, transmission methods, construction methods and schedules, co-located fuel cycle facilities, possible mix of reactor types, etc. Additionally, studies of safeguards, the interaction of all effected entities in the siting, construction, licensing and regulation of a center, labor force considerations in terms of local impact, social and economic changes, and financing of a center will be conducted. It is estimated that the potential site study will require approximately two years

  2. Modelling of nuclide migration for support of the site selection for near surface repository in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilda, R.; Poskas, P.; Ragaisis, V.

    2006-01-01

    Construction of the near surface repository (NSR) for disposal of short-lived low-and intermediate-level waste (LILW) is planned in Lithuania. Reference design of the repository was prepared. Site selection process is going on. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Program and Report were prepared and are under review by regulators. Releases of radionuclides to water pathway and potential human exposure after closure of the NSR have been assessed for support of the site selection for NSR installation. Two candidate sites were taken under consideration. The assessments have been performed following ISAM methodology recommended by IAEA for safety assessments of near surface disposal facilities. The conceptual design of NSR as well as peculiarities of geological and hydro-geological environment relevant to each candidate site is taken into account. The results of the analysis as part of EIA Report are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that estimated impact of potential radionuclide migration for both candidate sites is below dose constrain established by regulations of Lithuania. (author)

  3. Digital Repositories An investigation of best practices for content recruitment to academic digital repositories and the conditions for their livelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Reidun Anette

    2009-01-01

    A digital repository is a web accessible database, aimed at preserving the research material of an institution or scientific community. A digital repository serves as a tool for dissemination of research material and can increase the impact of the research by making it freely accessible. Digital repositories are often mentioned as a possible aid in relation to the Open Access debate; how research material should be freely accessible to anyone, anywhere at any time. However, for a digital repository to fully unleash its potential as a crucial component of Open Access, it is reliant on the ability to successfully collect and organize content. To a large extent this involves initiating self-archiving of research material by scientists throughout the academic world. This is not a trivial task, and many current repositories are inadequate in this respect, remaining empty, unvisited shelves. This thesis explores best practices for content recruitment to digital repositories, through the review of literature, and an...

  4. FFSM, Long-Term Nuclear Waste Repository Site Simulation by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, L.R.; Hellstrom, D.I.; Mikulis, M.J.B.; Little, A.D.; Golis, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FFSM (Far Field State Model) predicts the approximate geologic and climatic state of a site for a nuclear waste repository over relatively long periods of time. The purpose of FFSM is to represent quantitatively certain events and processes that could alter the effectiveness of one or more natural barriers in a waste isolation system. The barriers treated by the model are primarily components of the geologic environment surrounding the repository, although biosphere components (e.g. climate parameters) that could affect the impact of radionuclide releases are also considered. These components are treated outside the realm of wastes or repository-induced effects, which is indicated by use of the term f ar field . The model treats both natural and man-induced changes in these barriers within a probabilistic framework, and it accounts for cumulative and interactive effects of multiple phenomena. 2 - Method of solution: Fifteen submodels are included in FFSM to account for phenomena that may be of importance individually or in combination in evaluating sites for repositories. These submodels include: undetected features, climate, worldwide glaciation, local glaciation, folding, salt dispersion, magmatic events, faulting, biosphere state, regional deformation, geomorphic processes, dissolution fronts, localized dissolution (breccia pipes), solution mining, and drilling. FFSM can be used in both a deterministic mode, to evaluate interactions or to calculate point values, and a probabilistic mode, to make statistical estimates of future changes. In the probabilistic mode, Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate output probabilities, based on user-supplied input, largely in the form of probability density functions for variable or uncertain parameters

  5. Preliminary assessment of nuclear waste transportation cost and risk for operation of the first repository at candidate sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.W.; McSweeney, T.I.; Varadarajan, R.V.; Wilmot, E.L.; Cashwell, J.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    To support the selection of the first commercial nuclear waste repository site in 1987, environmental analyses of five candidate site locations are currently being performed. The five locations are in the Gulf Interior Region, the Permian Basin, the Paradox Basin, Yucca Mountain and the Hanford reservation. Costs and operational risks associated with the transportation of nuclear wastes to a single repository located in these regions have been calculated for a life-cycle of 26 years

  6. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  7. Building trust with the public in site selection of radioactive waste repository in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerskov Klika, Mirjana; Schaller, Antun

    1995-01-01

    It should be emphasised that the Republic of Croatia ought to find a solution to dispose not only radioactive waste generated on its own territory, i.e. waste derived from diverse medical, industrial and scientific nuclear applications which does not exceed some 70 cubic metres: in total. It is also obliged to find acceptable solutions for disposal of a half of total radioactive waste accumulating in the Krsko NPP which is situated in Slovenia, but is a joint venture facility of both countries, Slovenia and Croatia. Therefore, one of essential duties of the APO - Hazardous Waste Management Agency is just performance of these activities in Croatia. The site selection process of low- and intermediate radioactive waste disposal in Croatia started in 1988. The site selection process itself is organized in two stages: (1) site survey stage; and 2) site evaluation stage. The first stage, being currently in progress, is related to all activities directed to inclusion of preferred sites into the Regional Plan of Croatia, whilst the second stage includes a necessary on-field investigations at few preferred sites and identification of the most suitable one, i.e. the final repository site. Eight potential areas containing even 42 potential sites have been determined so far. Promotion of several preferred sites is expected to be done until July 1995. Official announcement of preferred sites will be followed by public debate on their acceptance at a level of political-territorial organization, including local communities. The people working in APO - Hazardous Waste Management Agency have been aware of considerable public resistance to most of activities the Agency is dealing with since the very beginning of its operation. Consequently, permanent education and honest information to the public have been taken as the Agency's high priority tasks. Namely, if the public is treated as a competent participant in decision making process then it gets obvious that publicity of work is

  8. Review of institutional and socioeconomic issues for radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Carnes, S.A.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of radioactive waste management repositories has been recognized. This study deals with the possibility of using incentives to assist in siting repositories and outlines some of their uses, limitations, and preconditions. Limited survey data and other studies indicate that incentives may help encourage people to formulate positive positions on radioactive waste repositories. In an overall siting strategy, incentives are just one part of a structured process involving the creation of a mutually acceptable set of arrangements that make certain guarantees and confer certain benefits in exchange for the acceptance of the proposed facility. Because the range of needs to be fulfilled is varied, a package of incentives is likely to be more acceptable than any one single incentive. The purpose of incentives is to encourage local approval by minimizing and redressing costs and providing missing benefits. Most previous discussions of incentives have emphasized mitigation mechanisms only. This paper also identifies compensation, incentives, and criteria by which compensation or an incentive system can be evaluated. The study provides the means by which incentives can be identified, assessed, negotiated, and implemented by affected parties and attempts to show where incentives fit into an overall siting strategy by developing a classification scheme and an analytical framework that capture: (1) the preconditions that must exist before any incentive system can be considered; (2) the objective features of an incentive; such as adequacy and ease of administration; (3) community perceptions of an incentive, such as interpretability and relevance; and (4) the consequences of implementing an incentive, such as distributional effects and conflict and consensus. 38 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  9. The status of siting activities for a low level waste repository in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Visitacion, M.; Palattao, B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Venida, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    The process of site selection for a low level waste repository was initiated in 1976 when the Philippine Government decided to go nuclear and constructed the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant in the Bataan Peninsula. However, all siting activities were suspended when the nuclear power plant was mothballed and the final decision was made to convert the plant into a combined cycle power plant. In 1995, an inter-agency committee was created under the Nuclear Power Steering Committee and mandated to conduct studies on siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities, and at the same time, perform R and D activities in support of the project. This paper describes the various siting activities carried out to date. (author)

  10. Sellafield repository design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1997, UK Nirex Ltd carried out a programme of investigations to evaluate the potential of a site adjacent to the BNFL Sellafield works to host a deep repository for the United Kingdom's intermediate-level and certain low-level radioactive waste. The programme of investigations was wound down following the decision in March 1997 to uphold the rejection of the Company's planning application for the Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF), an underground laboratory which would have allowed further investigations to confirm whether or not the site would be suitable. Since that time, the Company's efforts in relation to the Sellafield site have been directed towards documenting and publishing the work carried out. The design concept for a repository at Sellafield was developed in parallel with the site investigations through an iterative process as knowledge of the site and understanding of the repository system performance increased. This report documents the Sellafield repository design concept as it had been developed, from initial design considerations in 1991 up to the point when the RCF planning application was rejected. It shows, from the context of a project at that particular site, how much information and experience has been gained that will be applicable to the development of a deep waste repository at other potential sites

  11. Salt Repository Project site study plan for stratigraphic boreholes: Revision 1, December 18, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study describes the Stratigraphic Boreholes field work to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Four Stratigraphic Holes will be drilled near the perimeter of the site to document the subsurface geologic conditions in that area and to provide data necessary for design and construction of the Exploratory Shaft Facilities. Continuous samples will be recovered from the ground surface to the total depth of each sell. Geophysical well logs will provide additional coverage of the stratigraphic section. In-situ down hole testing will include short term hydrologic tests and hydraulic fracture tests to provide information on deep groundwater characteristics and regional stress patterns, respectively. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule which the program will operate. The Technical Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 30 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information

  13. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information.

  14. Role of mine ventilation in site selection for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The application of mine ventilation practice and theory to the measurement of groundwater flow for the purpose of the selection of sites for underground storage of nuclear spent fuel is described. The discipline of mine ventilation has an important part to play not only in the design and operation of an underground nuclear waste repository but also during the early stages of potential site characterization. One of the most vital factors in the selection of a suitable site is the rate at which groundwater can flow through the native rock. The effects of repository heat on groundwater migration are highlighted and a description of a major experiment in an underground test site is included. Detailed monitoring of airflow and its psychrometric properties enabled quantification of very low rates of water seepage into an isolated heading. The results indicated the relationship between permeability of a fractured rock and temperature. The transient phenomena that govern evaporation of water from fissured rock surfaces in the test chamber are also examined. (author)

  15. Public opposition to the siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository: The importance of trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines several dimensions of public opposition to the proposed siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. In order to provide a context for the public's views of the repository in metropolitan Clark County, both governmental studies of the repository siting process are analyzed, as well as elements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This analysis suggests that one potentially key component of the public's opposition to the siting, as well as their perceptions of risk of the facility, may be the result of a lack of trust in the Department of Energy. Empirical analysis of survey data collected in Nevada in 1988 confirms the strong relationship between political trust and repository risk perceptions

  16. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2006-01-01

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality now matched

  17. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Matti [Univ. of Tampere (Finland). Dept. of Political Science and International Relations

    2006-09-15

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality

  18. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J.

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent 'chaotic' processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: 'to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study'. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  19. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent `chaotic` processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: `to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study`. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  20. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part I; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  1. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part II; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  2. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  3. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories: analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the views and recommendations of invited State officials and legislators participating in a workshop concerned with preliminary site suitability criteria for high level radioactive waste repositories. The workshops were open to the public and were conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during September 1977 in three regional locations across the United States. This contractor report is the second of two reports and consolidates the discussion by State officials on the role of a State in siting a repository, NRC's waste management program, the transportation of high level wastes, the number and location of repositories and concerns with the socio-economic impacts of siting a repository in a community. The recommendations to the NRC can be categorized into four areas. These were: (1) general recommendations, (2) procedural recommendations, (3) recommendations for improving communications, and (4) specific recommendations on the preliminary siting criteria. The recommendations emphasized the need for early State involvement in the siting process, the need for an impacted State to assess repository operations, the need for early solution of waste transportation concerns, and the requirement that any repository developed insure the protection of the public health and safety as its most important characteristic. Other participant recommendations are included in the body of the report

  4. What requirements does the KBS-3 repository make on the host rock? Geoscientific suitability indicators and criteria for siting and site evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [Golder Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stroem, Anders; Svemar, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, Karl-Erik [KEA Geo-Konsult AB, Naessjoe (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    This report gives an account of what requirements are made on the rock, what conditions in the rock are advantageous and how the fulfilment of requirements and preferences is to be judged prior to the selection of sites for a site investigation and during a site investigation. The conclusions and results of the report are based on the knowledge and experience acquired by SKB over many years of research and development. The results, and particularly the stipulated criteria, apply to a repository for spent fuel of the KBS-3 type, i.e. a repository where the fuel is contained in copper canisters embedded in bentonite clay at a depth of 400 - 700 m in the Swedish crystalline basement. The report analyzes how the rock's different geological conditions, mechanical, thermal, hydrogeological, chemical and transport properties influence the functions of the deep repository, and whether it is possible to determine requirements and preferences regarding the influence of these properties. Where possible, these requirements or preferences have then been translated into requirements or preferences regarding the individual properties. Criteria are formulated that are based on the quantities that can be measured or estimated at the relevant stage of the investigation. The following requirements are made on the rock: The rock in the repository's deposition zone may not have any ore potential. Regional plastic shear zones shall be avoided if it cannot be demonstrated that the properties of the zone do not deviate from those of the rest of the rock. There may, however, be so-called 'tectonic lenses' near regional plastic shear zones where the bedrock is homogeneous and relatively unaffected. Deposition tunnels and deposition holes for canisters may not pass through or be positioned too close to major regional and major local fracture zones. Deposition holes may not intersect identified local minor fracture zones. The rock's strength, fracture geometry and

  5. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - site selection process update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository, located in an informed and willing host. The process of site selection is an important milestone in this program. The NWMO describes its approach to working collaboratively with communities which expressed interest in exploring the project, as well as Aboriginal communities in the area and other surrounding communities. The project is designed to be implemented through a long-term partnership involving the interested community, Aboriginal communities and surrounding communities working with the NWMO. (author)

  6. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a 'future repository site environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amcoff, Oe.; Holenyi, K.

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs

  7. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a `future repository site environment`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Oe; Holenyi, K

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs.

  8. Salt Repository Project site study plan for background environmental radioactivity: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Background Environmental Radioactivity describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management, and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 43 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Local negotiation on compensation siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the local negotiation process between the Municipality of Eurajoki and the nuclear power company Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) and the nuclear waste management company Posiva Oy. The aim of the negotiations was to find an acceptable form of compensation for siting a spent nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto, Finland. The paper includes background information on the siting process in Finland, the local political setting in the Municipality of Eurajoki and a description of the negotiation process. The analysis of the negotiations on compensation is important for better understanding the progress of the Finnish siting process. The paper describes the picture of the contest to host the spent nuclear fuel repository. It also provides more information on the relationship between the Municipality of Eurajoki and the power company TVO. The negotiations on compensation and the roles of various players in the negotiations have not been studied in detail because the minutes of the Vuojoki liaison group were not available before the decision of the Supreme Administrative Court in May 2006. (author)

  10. Symposium on the development of nuclear waste policy: Siting the high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) attempted to formulate a viable national policy for managing the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The NWPA authorized the selection of two repository sites: the first to be constructed in the West and a second site developed in the eastern United States. A detailed process for site selection was outlined in the NWPA. In addition, the NWPA authorized open-quotes the development of a waste transportation system; required the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit a proposal to construct a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) after conducting a study of the need for, and feasibility of such a facility; and required the President to evaluate the use of the repositories ... for the disposal of high-level waste resulting from defense activitiesclose quotes (DOE, 1988, p. 1). A series of provisions granting oversight participation to states and Indian tribes, as well as a compensation package for the ultimate host state were also included. Responsibility for implementing the NWPA was assigned to DOE

  11. Evaluation of kriging techniques for high level radioactive waste repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    Kriging is a statistical method for estimating functions that describe spatially distributed phenomena such as groundwater elevation and depth to basalt. It produces a contour model of the geologic formation of a potential site with an associated measure of uncertainty, and it can be used to optimize the selection of additional sampling locations. Kriging was applied to water potential data and top-of-basalt elevations from the Hanford site; the computer code BLUEPACK was used to perform the computations. The water potential contours were in close agreement with a hand-drawn contour map which is used as a standard. It is concluded that kriging can be a useful tool for geologic waste repository site characterization

  12. Use of geostatistics in high level radioactive waste repository site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, P G [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA)

    1980-09-01

    In evaluating and characterizing sites that are candidates for use as repositories for high-level radioactive waste, there is an increasing need to estimate the uncertainty in hydrogeologic data and in the quantities calculated from them. This paper discusses the use of geostatistical techniques to estimate hydrogeologic surfaces, such as the top of a basalt formation, and to provide a measure of the uncertainty in that estimate. Maps of the uncertainty estimate, called the kriging error, can be used to evaluate where new data should be taken to affect the greatest reduction in uncertainty in the estimated surface. The methods are illustrated on a set of site-characterization data; the top-of-basalt elevations at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington.

  13. Hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Lv Chuanhe

    2005-01-01

    Based on the research experiences of our country and some developed countries in the world, the purpose, process and methods, as well as the function of hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high radioactive waste are discussed. Meanwhile, the topic related to the acquisition of hydrogeological parameters is described as well, aiming at providing reference for the future study. (authors)

  14. Geological investigations for the South African nuclear waste repository facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Levin, M.; Andersen, N.J.B.; Brynard, H.J.; Toens, P.D.

    1984-02-01

    The selection of the Vaalputs site on the arid Bushmanland Plateau in the northwestern Cape of the Republic of South Africa for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was based on a national screening phase program involving socio-economic and geological criteria. Regional geohydrological studies over an area of 27,000 km 2 and a detailed study over 1,300 km 2 indicated that in general the groundwater is saline and that Vaalputs and environs was the most favourable area. The groundwater table lies between 30 and 45 m below the surface, with 14 C ages between 2,500 and 9,000 years old in the immediate vicinity. The geology of Vaalputs consists of Proterozoic granites, gneisses, metasediments, and noritoids of the 1,050 Ma Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. Upper cretaceous kimberlitic and basaltic intrusions occur locally. Overlying these basement rocks surficial upper Tertiary to Recent argillaceous sediments occur in the Vaalputs basin. The sediments consist of aeolian sand, calcrete, fluvial sandy to gritty clay, white kaolinised clay and very weathered basement rocks. It is in these rocks that the low-level waste trenches will be located. Extensive airborne geophysical surveys, such as aeromagnetics, INPUT, and infrared thermal line scanning, were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the regional and local subsurface geology. Ground geophysical surveys included refraction seismics, electromagnetics, magnetics, borehole radiometrics and resistivity. Geohydrological modelling of the unsaturated and saturated zones is in progress

  15. Investigation of the behaviour of a LILW superficial repository under aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Frano, Rosa; Stefanini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Safety assessment of a LILW superficial repository. • Investigation of the consequences of an aircraft impact with fuel burning. • Experimental material properties. • Numerical simulation of aircraft impact with fuel burning accident by MSC.MARC"© code. • Demonstration that the overall integrity resulted is guaranteed. - Abstract: Safety and security are the two fundamental aspects to guarantee when designing a LILW superficial repository. Because of its safety concern, we have to prove, and build confidence in, the primary and secondary consequences of the crashing will be acceptable. These goals are obtained generally by means of safety assessment supported by calculations. This study is intended to investigate the performance of a superficial repository subjected to aircraft impact and fuel burning. To the purpose a superficial repository similar to that of El Cabril has been considered. Moreover to be confident the facility is safe and that the consequences of such a type of accident on the environment and humans are negligible, an appropriate safety assessment was carried out. The potential damage that aircraft impact could bring into the repository has been therefore analysed and discussed. To attain the intent load functions, calculated according to the Riera approach, and the maximum temperature reached by fuel during its combustion have been considered. FEM (thermo-mechanical) simulations have been done, by MSC"© Marc code, assuming damaging phenomena of concrete and material properties variation with the temperature. The obtained results showed that an empty superficial repository with a wall thickness, ranging from 0.7 to 1 m, is not sufficient to avoid penetration. Nevertheless even in presence of a reduced strength and of (cone) cracking and plugging, the overall integrity resulted guaranteed.

  16. Investigation of the behaviour of a LILW superficial repository under aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it; Stefanini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Safety assessment of a LILW superficial repository. • Investigation of the consequences of an aircraft impact with fuel burning. • Experimental material properties. • Numerical simulation of aircraft impact with fuel burning accident by MSC.MARC{sup ©} code. • Demonstration that the overall integrity resulted is guaranteed. - Abstract: Safety and security are the two fundamental aspects to guarantee when designing a LILW superficial repository. Because of its safety concern, we have to prove, and build confidence in, the primary and secondary consequences of the crashing will be acceptable. These goals are obtained generally by means of safety assessment supported by calculations. This study is intended to investigate the performance of a superficial repository subjected to aircraft impact and fuel burning. To the purpose a superficial repository similar to that of El Cabril has been considered. Moreover to be confident the facility is safe and that the consequences of such a type of accident on the environment and humans are negligible, an appropriate safety assessment was carried out. The potential damage that aircraft impact could bring into the repository has been therefore analysed and discussed. To attain the intent load functions, calculated according to the Riera approach, and the maximum temperature reached by fuel during its combustion have been considered. FEM (thermo-mechanical) simulations have been done, by MSC{sup ©} Marc code, assuming damaging phenomena of concrete and material properties variation with the temperature. The obtained results showed that an empty superficial repository with a wall thickness, ranging from 0.7 to 1 m, is not sufficient to avoid penetration. Nevertheless even in presence of a reduced strength and of (cone) cracking and plugging, the overall integrity resulted guaranteed.

  17. Long term effects on potential repository sites: the alteration of the Lower Oxford Clay during weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milowdowski, A.E.; Bloodworth, A.J.; Wilmot, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The report is one of a short series describing work carried out to investigate the long-term effects of various geological processes on the performance of both shallow and deep repositories for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the alteration as a result of weathering of the Lower Oxford Clay, a potential host rock for shallow disposal of wastes. A description of the Lower Oxford Clay is given, along with the weathering of argillaceous rocks. Investigations of the weathering at the Elstow Storage Depot are described, as well as the implications for radioactive waste disposal. (U.K.)

  18. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - the geoscientific site evaluation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfadhel, M.B.; Blyth, A.; Desroches, A.; Hirschorn, S.; Mckelvie, J.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Parmenter, A.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A., E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host the project. This paper describes the approach, methods and criteria being used to assess the geoscientific suitability of communities currently involved in the site selection process. The social, cultural and economic aspects of the assessment are discussed in a companion paper. (author)

  19. Salt repository project site study plan for water resources: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Water Resources describes a field program consisting of surface-water and ground-water characterization. The surface-water studies will determine the drainage basin characteristics (i.e., topography, soils, land use), hydrometeorology, runoff to streams and playas, and surface-water quality (i.e., offsite pollution sources in playa lakes and in streams). The environmental ground-water studies will focus on ground-water quality characterization. The site study plan describes for each study the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Projects Requirements Document. 78 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  20. ILK statement on the recommendations by the working group on procedures for the selection of repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The Working Group on Procedures for the Selection of Repository Sites (AkEnd) had been appointed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) to develop procedures and criteria for the search for, and selection of, a repository site for all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations in Germany. ILK in principle welcomes the attempt on the part of AkEnd to develop a systematic procedure. On the other hand, ILK considers the two constraints imposed by BMU inappropriate: AkEnd was not to take into account the two existing sites of Konrad and Gorleben and, instead, work from a so-called white map of Germany. ILK recommends to perform a comprehensive safety analysis of Gorleben and define a selection procedure including the facts about Gorleben and, in addition, to commission the Konrad repository as soon as possible. The one-repository concept established as a precondition by BMU greatly restricts the selection procedure. There are no technical or scientific reasons for such concept. ILK recommends to plan for separate repositories, which would also correspond to international practice. The geoscientific criteria proposed by AkEnd should be examined and revised. With respect to the site selection procedure proposed, ILK feels that procedure is unable to define a targeted approach. Great importance must be attributed to public participation. The final site selection must be made under the responsibility of the government or the parliament. (orig.) [de

  1. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, Simone

    2010-09-01

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  2. Strategies for the decision process of siting radioactive waste repositories concerning communication and interaction with the society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the strategies to be followed in the siting and construction process of radioactive waste repositories considering the communication and relationship with the society. The paper analyzes the prospective advantages and disadvantages of each type of strategy. The strategies can be classified under three different types: 'define, announce and defend' strategy (also called DAD), participative strategy and spontaneous candidacy of host community. Up to the 90s the most common way of construct repositories was the DAD strategy. This type of strategy, despite of some cases of success, is gradually facing opposition in democratic regimes. Examples of failure are the first attempt to construct the Hungarian repository from 1982 to 1990; the French attempt of the construction of high and intermediate waste repository from 1987 to 1989 (both cancelled and substituted by the participative approach) and even the recent discussion to freeze the implantation of the Yucca Mountain repository in United States. The participative strategy has been preferred currently by most of the new repositories projects. Examples are the second attempt in Hungary, the construction of a repository in Slovenia and in the United Kingdom. The participative strategy has the disadvantage of greater expenses at the beginning of the process until the site of the repository is defined. This occurs because the body responsible for the construction has to deal with several potential candidates and spend time and money in the communication and participation process until the definition of the site by technical, economical and social criteria. On the other hand, this process decreases the risk of rejection by the local population. The spontaneous candidacy strategy was also analyzed and it is shown it has some similarities with the participative strategy but hides new risks in the process. (author)

  3. Long-term safety for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. Main report of the SR-Site project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    The central conclusion of the safety assessment SR-Site is that a KBS-3 repository that fulfils long-term safety requirements can be built at the Forsmark site. This conclusion is reached because the favourable properties of the Forsmark site ensure the required long-term durability of the barriers of the KBS-3 repository. In particular, the copper canisters with their cast iron inserts have been demonstrated to provide a sufficient resistance to the mechanical and chemical loads to which they may be subjected in the repository environment. The conclusion is underpinned by: - The reliance of the KBS-3 repository on i) a geological environment that exhibits long-term stability with respect to properties of importance for long-term safety, i.e. mechanical stability, low groundwater flow rates at repository depth and the absence of high concentrations of detrimental components in the groundwater, and ii) the choice of naturally occurring materials (copper and bentonite clay) for the engineered barriers that are sufficiently durable in the repository environment to provide the barrier longevity required for safety. - The understanding, through decades of research at SKB and in international collaboration, of the phenomena that affect long-term safety, resulting in a mature knowledge base for the safety assessment. - The understanding of the characteristics of the site through several years of surface-based investigations of the conditions at depth and of scientific interpretation of the data emerging from the investigations, resulting in a mature model of the site, adequate for use in the safety assessment. - The detailed specifications of the engineered parts of the repository and the demonstration of how components fulfilling the specifications are to be produced in a quality assured manner, thereby providing a quality assured initial state for the safety assessment. The detailed analyses demonstrate that canister failures in a one million year perspective are rare

  4. Long-term safety for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. Main report of the SR-Site project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The central conclusion of the safety assessment SR-Site is that a KBS-3 repository that fulfils long-term safety requirements can be built at the Forsmark site. This conclusion is reached because the favourable properties of the Forsmark site ensure the required long-term durability of the barriers of the KBS-3 repository. In particular, the copper canisters with their cast iron inserts have been demonstrated to provide a sufficient resistance to the mechanical and chemical loads to which they may be subjected in the repository environment. The conclusion is underpinned by: - The reliance of the KBS-3 repository on i) a geological environment that exhibits long-term stability with respect to properties of importance for long-term safety, i.e. mechanical stability, low groundwater flow rates at repository depth and the absence of high concentrations of detrimental components in the groundwater, and ii) the choice of naturally occurring materials (copper and bentonite clay) for the engineered barriers that are sufficiently durable in the repository environment to provide the barrier longevity required for safety. - The understanding, through decades of research at SKB and in international collaboration, of the phenomena that affect long-term safety, resulting in a mature knowledge base for the safety assessment. - The understanding of the characteristics of the site through several years of surface-based investigations of the conditions at depth and of scientific interpretation of the data emerging from the investigations, resulting in a mature model of the site, adequate for use in the safety assessment. - The detailed specifications of the engineered parts of the repository and the demonstration of how components fulfilling the specifications are to be produced in a quality assured manner, thereby providing a quality assured initial state for the safety assessment. The detailed analyses demonstrate that canister failures in a one million year perspective are rare

  5. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  6. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.

    2010-09-01

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  7. Closure of the Spent Fuel Repository in Forsmark - Studies of alternative concepts for sealing of ramp, shafts and investigation boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, Bjoern [SKB AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Luterkort, David [SGI, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Roland [Miljoe- och Energikonsult AB, Ekeroe (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    In March 2011, SKB submitted applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for the construction and operation of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark. An important supporting document for the application under the Nuclear Activities Act was the SR-Site safety assessment. As a part of the work with the application and as background material for SR-Site, SKB prepared production reports, including the closure production report. The closure production report presented definitions, requirements and design premises, a reference design and the initial state for repository closure. SR-Site evaluated the reference design and related design premises that were presented in the closure production report. SR-Site thereby concluded that the design premises on which the reference design were based are adequate. Relaxing the requirements would require additional sensitivity analyses focusing on the hydraulic properties of the access, main and transport tunnels. SR-Site further concluded that the reference design could likely be simplified without violating the current design premises. Furthermore, additional simplifications could probably be made if the design premises could be revised. This has been studied in the project 'Closure - concept studies', whose results are presented in this report. SR-Site also evaluated the reference design for investigation boreholes that is presented in the production report. The evaluation showed that the impact of improper borehole seals is very moderate. Further, SR-Site concludes that the current design premises are appropriate but possibly too strict, since even open boreholes seem to have a limited impact on the groundwater flow in the repository. Since it might be difficult to inspect the outcome of the current design of borehole sealing, it could be of interest to assess whether a solution that may result in higher effective permeability of the borehole seals would provide sufficiently

  8. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2002, SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has been conducting a site investigation in Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar for siting of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is also being conducted at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn Municipality. SKB's goal is to submit an application under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act for siting of the deep repository at one of these sites by the end of 2008/beginning of 2009. When the application is submitted, everything of importance for the deep repository's safety, constructability and environmental impact shall have been investigated and analyzed. The investigations shall also provide data as a basis for selecting a site and configuring the facility to suit conditions on the site.SKB submitted a programme for the initial site investigation in Forsmark at the end of 2001. The investigations described there have now been completed. This report describes the programme that has now been prepared for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, the data needed for evaluation of the site, plus experience and results from the work to date. The programme has been prepared with the support of investigation data as of August 2004. The investigations described here will, as before, be conducted with great consideration given to residents, property owners and natural and cultural values so that they are not unnecessarily exposed to impact or disturbances. Just as before, the programme will be continuously adapted to the knowledge that is gradually accumulated on the site. All important changes will be reported to the authorities and other concerned parties. The investigations that have been conducted (as of August 2004) and their results can be summarized in the following points: The surface characterization

  9. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2002, SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has been conducting a site investigation in Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar for siting of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is also being conducted at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn Municipality. SKB's goal is to submit an application under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act for siting of the deep repository at one of these sites by the end of 2008/beginning of 2009. When the application is submitted, everything of importance for the deep repository's safety, constructability and environmental impact shall have been investigated and analyzed. The investigations shall also provide data as a basis for selecting a site and configuring the facility to suit conditions on the site.SKB submitted a programme for the initial site investigation in Forsmark at the end of 2001. The investigations described there have now been completed. This report describes the programme that has now been prepared for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, the data needed for evaluation of the site, plus experience and results from the work to date. The programme has been prepared with the support of investigation data as of August 2004. The investigations described here will, as before, be conducted with great consideration given to residents, property owners and natural and cultural values so that they are not unnecessarily exposed to impact or disturbances. Just as before, the programme will be continuously adapted to the knowledge that is gradually accumulated on the site. All important changes will be reported to the authorities and other concerned parties. The investigations that have been conducted (as of August 2004) and their results can be summarized in the following points: The surface characterization of the

  10. Qualified public involvement in the decision making process of siting a waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify the most important characteristics required for the qualification of local communities for participating in the process of defining a specific site for a radioactive waste repository. It also compares the strategies used by Hungary, United Kingdom and Belgium to stimulate the public participation in the decision-making process of building and operating a radioactive waste repository, considering both the stepwise process and the spontaneous candidacy. Two main aspects are discussed as prerequisites to constitute a qualified public. The first aspect is how well the person or entity can be considered an effective representative of the community affected by the repository. This means the conditions the representative has to speak on behalf of the community and participate in the decision making process as its voice. The second characteristic is the level and quality of the information that the community and its representatives must have to participate actively in the decision-making process and what can be done to improve this status. Referring to the strategy to public involvement, this paper discusses the importance of transparency in the process, aiming the credibility of the entrepreneur as the first pace to gaining the confidence of the public affected by the project. Implementing an open dialog and listening to the needs and claims of the population are the first steps to being accepted as a true partner of the community. Preliminary discussions and explanations are important to introduce the subject and to reduce beliefs of false threats in the affected community. The constitution of a local committee is suggested, to act as a legal and formal channel to facilitate the partnership between local community, neighbors and the entrepreneur in order to achieve a positive result in the whole process. (author)

  11. Status of siting studies for a near surface repository site for radioactive wastes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Palattao, M.V.B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Caseria, E.S.; Venida, L.L.; Cruz, J.M. dela

    2002-01-01

    The Philippines, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), decided to conduct a study on siting a low level radioactive waste disposal facility. The infrastructure set up for this purpose, the radioactive waste disposal concept, the overall siting process, the methodology applied and preliminary results obtained are described in this paper. (author)

  12. Nye County nuclear waste repository project office independent scientific investigations program. Summary annual report, May 1996--April 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc. (MET) on behalf of Nye County Nuclear Waste Project Office, summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1996 to April 30, 1997. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO's on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: (1) Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment. (2) Identifying areas not being addressed adequately by DOE Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues

  13. Regional and site geological frameworks : proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Bruce County, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, K.; Sterling, S.; Gaines, S.; Wigston, A. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Frizzell, R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is conducting geoscientific studies on behalf of Ontario Power Generation into the proposed development of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L and ILW) at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario. This paper presented a regional geological framework for the site that was based on a review of regional drilling; structural geology; paleozoic stratigraphy and sedimentology; a 3D geological framework model; a DGR geological site characterization model; bedrock stratigraphy and marker beds; natural fracture frequency data; and formation predictability. The studies have shown that the depth, thickness, orientation and rock quality of the 34 rock formations, members or units that comprise the 840 m thick Paleozoic bedrock sequence at the Bruce site are very uniform and predictable over distances of several kilometres. The proposed DGR will be constructed as an engineered facility comprising a series of underground emplacement rooms at a depth of 680 metres below ground within argillaceous limestones. The geoscientific studies are meant to provide a basis for the development of descriptive geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical models of the DGR site that will facilitate environmental and safety assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project Volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry`s R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is not a safety assessment or a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The report gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project. As a general conclusion it is noted that the SITE-94 project has significantly advanced SKI`s capability of reviewing performance assessments and has led to the development of a tool-kit for carrying out assessment calculations, both in terms of numerical and scoping analyses. The study has highlighted a number of key issues for safety assessment (and consequently for disposal system design): Canister performance; Derived parameters of geosphere retention properties; Spatial variability of groundwater flow and geochemistry of migration paths; Time dependency (more emphasis on transient, time-dependent processes); Buffer evolution over long time. 488 refs.

  15. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is not a safety assessment or a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The report gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project. As a general conclusion it is noted that the SITE-94 project has significantly advanced SKI's capability of reviewing performance assessments and has led to the development of a tool-kit for carrying out assessment calculations, both in terms of numerical and scoping analyses. The study has highlighted a number of key issues for safety assessment (and consequently for disposal system design): Canister performance; Derived parameters of geosphere retention properties; Spatial variability of groundwater flow and geochemistry of migration paths; Time dependency (more emphasis on transient, time-dependent processes); Buffer evolution over long time. 488 refs

  16. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.

    2008-01-01

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  17. Safety Report within the licence application for the siting of a radioactive waste repository/disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.; Sinaglova, R.

    2004-01-01

    The initial safety specification report, which is submitted to the licensing authority as one of the application documents, is the basic document assessing the planned repository/disposal facility with respect to the suitability of the chosen site for this purpose. The following topics are covered: General information; Description and evidence of suitability of the site chosen; Description and tentative assessment of the repository/disposal facility design; Tentative assessment of impacts of running the facility on the employees, general public and environment (radionuclide inventory, transport routes, radionuclide release in normal, abnormal and emergency situations); Proposed concept of repository/disposal facility shutdown; and Assessment of quality assurance in the site selection, in preparatory work for the construction of the facility and in the subsequent stages. (P.A.)

  18. Conference report: 2012 Repository Symposium. Final storage in Germany. New start - ways and consequences of the site selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettler, John

    2012-01-01

    The Aachen Institute for Nuclear Training invited participants to the 3-day '2012 Repository Symposium - Final Storage in Germany' held in Bonn. The subtitle of the event, 'New Start - Ways and Consequences of the Site Selection Procedure,' expressed the organizers' summary that the Repository Finding Act currently under discussion did not give rise to any expectation of a repository for high-level radioactive waste before 2080. The symposium was attended by more than 120 persons from Germany and abroad. They discussed the basic elements of the site selection procedure and its consequences on the basis of the draft so far known to the public. While extensive public participation is envisaged for the stage of finding a repository, this does not apply to the draft legislation in the same way. The legal determinations are negotiated in a small circle by the political parties and the state governments. Michael Sailer (Oeko-Institut e.V.) holds that agreement on a repository finding act is urgent. Prof. Dr. Bruno Thomauske (RWTH Aachen) arrives at the conclusion mentioned above, that no repository for high-level radioactive waste can start operation before 2080 on the basis of the Repository Finding Act. Dr. Bettina Keienburg, attorney at law, in her paper drew attention to the points of dispute in the draft legislation with regard to changes in competency of public authorities. The draft law indicated a clear shift of competency for finding a repository from the Federal Office for Radiation Protection to a federal agency yet to be set up. Prof. Dr. Christoph Moench outlined the deficiencies of the draft legislation in matters of refinancing and the polluter-pays principle. Among the tentative solutions discussed it was above all the Swedish model which was acclaimed most widely. (orig.)

  19. Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs

  20. Estimating and coping with public response to radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    The siting, construction, and operation of a radioactive waste repository is likely to be controversial in the communities being considered and at the state and national levels as well. Public response can be conceptualized at two levels: individual and group or organizational. At the individual level, public response is the behavior of people motivated by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of radioactive waste and its hazards and risks. Groups or organizations provide a structure to public response through which to pool resources and talents, set up a division of labor, hire experts, develop a skilled leadership, take legal action, and so on. A broad range of organizations is possible: ad hoc, existing community groups with an added purpose, nationally-recognized organizations, or government offices and agencies. Two cases of response to radioactive waste disposal sites illustrate these sources and kinds of response and suggest indicators to estimate the nature and level of response. Specific coping strategies take different forms, depending on the nature and level of response (either supporting or opposing) to the proposed siting, the past experience of community members with similar projects, with federal agencies, and with citizens' action groups, and sources and accuracy of information individuals and groups have. All strategies are based on a policy of honesty and straight-forwardness, with a sincere effort on the part of site evaluators and decision-makers to be attentive and responsive to the public's concerns

  1. Detection of environmental change using hyperspectral remote sensing at Olkiluoto repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, J.; Lipping, T.

    2011-03-01

    In this report methods related to hyperspectral monitoring of Olkiluoto repository site are described. A short introduction to environmental remote sensing is presented, followed by more detailed description of hyperspectral imaging and a review of applications of hyperspectral remote sensing presented in the literature. The trends of future hyperspectral imaging are discussed exploring the possibilities of long-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging. A detailed description of HYPE08 hyperspectral flight campaign at the Olkiluoto region in 2008 is presented. In addition, related pre-processing and atmospheric correction methods, necessary in monitoring use, and the quality control methods applied, are described. Various change detection methods presented in the literature are described, too. Finally, a system for hyperspectral monitoring is proposed. The system is based on continued hyperspectral airborne flight campaigns and precisely defined data processing procedure. (orig.)

  2. Geologic nuclear waste repository site selection studies in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.H.; Conwell, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    During Phase I regional-level studies, a literature review was conducted to ascertain geologic characteristics pertinent to repository siting factors. On the basis of the regional screening results, four areas in southeastern Utah were selected as being suitable for more detailed study in Phase II: Elk Ridge and Gibson Dome, containing nearly horizontal bedded salt deposits; Salt Valley, containing a diapiric salt anticline; and Lisbon Valley, containing a non-diapiric salt anticline. During current Phase II area studies, the four study areas are being characterized in greater detail than in Phase I. Phase II will culminate in the identification of a potentially suitable location(s), if any, that will be recommended for study in still greater detail in a subsequent phase of work. 5 refs

  3. Societal and Political Issues of Site Selection Process Development for the LILW Repository in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polic, Marko; KoS, Drago [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zeleznik, Nadja [ARAO, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-09-15

    The siting of the radioactive waste repository, even the low and intermediate level radioactivity waste (LILW), presents a great problem in almost every country that produces these materials. Attempts to locate a disposal facility in Slovenia have until now proven unsuccessful. After the failure of the first 'technocratic' approach it became evident that the main problem was not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the public acceptability of any radioactive waste disposal facility (RWD). In general people strongly oppose to any kind of such a facility in their vicinity and exhibit a 'Not in my Backyard' (NIMBY) attitude even if they are aware of its necessity. However there are slight signs of changes especially in argumentation supporting the public denial of LIL RWD. The main LILW producer in Slovenia is nuclear power plant in Krsko (NEK). The project for the construction of this plant did not include consideration of the LIL RWD while at that time plans for new NPP's in Yugoslavia with a centralized LILW repository were present. The search for possible locations of LILW repository started only after the beginning of its commercial operation in 1983. The general development of radioactive waste management (RWM) issue in Slovenia was similar to the development in other developed countries, while its details and context differ in smaller or greater degree due to different cultural, political, social and economic backgrounds. The RWM process was following the same general course: technological approach neglecting public issues - public reactance - move toward public involvement. All this was accompanied by the relevant public attitudes: neutrality - rejection - eventual conditional public acceptance. The procedure to find a LILW repository is proposed and established, but the processes leading to final solution are going on without being completely foreseen yet. The general underlying view is connected to the fear of

  4. Societal and Political Issues of Site Selection Process Development for the LILW Repository in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polic, Marko; KoS, Drago; Zeleznik, Nadja

    2006-01-01

    The siting of the radioactive waste repository, even the low and intermediate level radioactivity waste (LILW), presents a great problem in almost every country that produces these materials. Attempts to locate a disposal facility in Slovenia have until now proven unsuccessful. After the failure of the first 'technocratic' approach it became evident that the main problem was not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the public acceptability of any radioactive waste disposal facility (RWD). In general people strongly oppose to any kind of such a facility in their vicinity and exhibit a 'Not in my Backyard' (NIMBY) attitude even if they are aware of its necessity. However there are slight signs of changes especially in argumentation supporting the public denial of LIL RWD. The main LILW producer in Slovenia is nuclear power plant in Krsko (NEK). The project for the construction of this plant did not include consideration of the LIL RWD while at that time plans for new NPP's in Yugoslavia with a centralized LILW repository were present. The search for possible locations of LILW repository started only after the beginning of its commercial operation in 1983. The general development of radioactive waste management (RWM) issue in Slovenia was similar to the development in other developed countries, while its details and context differ in smaller or greater degree due to different cultural, political, social and economic backgrounds. The RWM process was following the same general course: technological approach neglecting public issues - public reactance - move toward public involvement. All this was accompanied by the relevant public attitudes: neutrality - rejection - eventual conditional public acceptance. The procedure to find a LILW repository is proposed and established, but the processes leading to final solution are going on without being completely foreseen yet. The general underlying view is connected to the fear of radioactivity and general negative

  5. Applying system engineering methods to site characterization research for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear research and engineering projects can benefit from the use of system engineering methods. This paper is brief overview illustrating how system engineering methods could be applied in structuring a site characterization effort for a candidate nuclear waste repository. System engineering is simply an orderly process that has been widely used to transform a recognized need into a fully defined system. Such a system may be physical or abstract, natural or man-made, hardware or procedural, as is appropriate to the system's need or objective. It is a way of mentally visualizing all the constituent elements and their relationships necessary to fulfill a need, and doing so compliant with all constraining requirements attendant to that need. Such a system approach provides completeness, order, clarity, and direction. Admittedly, system engineering can be burdensome and inappropriate for those project objectives having simple and familiar solutions that are easily held and controlled mentally. However, some type of documented and structured approach is needed for those objectives that dictate extensive, unique, or complex programs, and/or creation of state-of-the-art machines and facilities. System engineering methods have been used extensively and successfully in these cases. The scientific methods has served well in ordering countless technical undertakings that address a specific question. Similarly, conventional construction and engineering job methods will continue to be quite adequate to organize routine building projects. Nuclear waste repository site characterization projects involve multiple complex research questions and regulatory requirements that interface with each other and with advanced engineering and subsurface construction techniques. There is little doubt that system engineering is an appropriate orchestrating process to structure such diverse elements into a cohesive, well defied project

  6. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs

  7. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, P J [Geosciences for Development and the Environment (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs.

  8. Iterative performance assessments as a regulatory tool for evaluating repository safety: How experiences from SKI Project-90 were used in formulating the new performance assessment project SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, regulatory research program has to prepare for the process of licensing a repository for spent nuclear fuel, by building up the necessary knowledge and review capacity. SKIs main strategy for meeting this demand is to develop an independent performance assessment capability. SKIs first own performance assessment project, Project-90, was completed in 1991 and is now followed by a new project, SITE-94. SITE-94 is based on conclusions reached within Project-90. An independent review of Project-90, carried out by a NEA team of experts, has also contributed to the formation of the project. Another important reason for the project is that the implementing organization in Sweden, SKB, has proposed to submit an application to start detailed investigation of a repository candidate site around 1997. SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process, and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. This will be addressed by exploring multiple interpretations, conceptual models, and parameters consistent with the site data. The site evaluation will strive for consistency between geological, hydrological, rock mechanical, and geochemical descriptions. Other important elements of SITE-94 are the development of a practical and defensible methodology for defining, constructing and analyzing scenarios, the development of approaches for treatment of uncertainties, evaluation of canister integrity, and the development and application of an appropriate quality assurance plan for performance assessments

  9. Microbiologically mediated processes in a repository sited in a clay host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwyn, B.; Leupin, O. X.; Bagnoud, A.; Bernier-Latmani, R.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Because of their favourable retention properties for radionuclides, clay-rich sediments are being considered in Switzerland as host rocks for the geological disposal of high, intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste. Compacted bentonite is foreseen as backfill material in the high level waste repository whereas for intermediate- and low-level waste the near field will mainly consist of cementitious material. The evolution of both types of repositories, which includes re-saturation, heat generation (only high level waste), near field degradation, gas production and radionuclide release may be impacted by microbial activity and vice versa. In this respect questions arise such as: - Are microorganisms present in a repository and its host rock? - Under which condition are microorganisms active in and around a repository? - In which processes are microorganisms involved? Various in situ experiments in a wide range of geological environments have evidenced the presence of microorganisms. Whether the microorganisms found in these in situ experiments are indigenous or introduced by drilling or/and excavation activities is still controversial. However, recent findings suggest the presence of indigenous microorganisms in Opalinus Clay. To conclusively answer the question about the origin of microorganisms, an international investigation programme has been launched to probe rock samples from the Underground Rock Laboratory at Mont Terri. So far, no metabolic activity has been observed in undisturbed clay rocks. Such activity may have ceased during diagenetic compaction of the sediment as suggested by the pore water composition measured in the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation of Bure (France). For the safety case of a repository the origin of microorganisms is of minor importance compared to the understanding of the conditions under which they might be metabolically active. Pore size distribution and connectivity can

  10. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Munier, Raymond; Stroem, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, Karl-Erik [KEA Geo-konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    SKB has started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden. The investigations should provide necessary information for a licence application aimed at starting underground exploration. The investigations and analyses of them are supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to achieve the overall goals of the site investigation phase. The knowledge will be utilized to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for the deep repository and must be comprehensive enough to: Show whether the selected site satisfies requirements on safety and technical aspects. Serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. Permit comparisons with other investigated sites. Furthermore, the investigations are discontinued when the reliability of the site description has reached such a level that the body of data for safety assessment and design is sufficient, or until the body of data shows that the rock does not satisfy the requirements. These objectives are valid, but do not provide sufficient and concrete guidance. For this reason SKB has conducted this project which should acquire concrete guidance on how to judge when the surface based Site Investigation Phase does not need to continue. After a general assessment of the problem, the following specific objectives of the current work were identified: Demonstrate concretely how the assessed uncertainties in a Site Description based on a specific level of investigations, together with expected feedback from Safety Assessment and Engineering, can be used to decide whether the site investigations are sufficient - or need to continue. This demonstration will be based on a practical application of relevant aspects of decision analysis tools. Highlight and make concrete the type of feedback to be expected from Safety Assessment and Engineering and show how this feedback

  11. Surveys for desert tortoise on the proposed site of a high-level nuclear waste repository at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; Sauls, M.L.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1983-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage Program is a national search for suitable sites to isolate commercial spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste. The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office, was initiated to study the suitability of a portion of Yucca Mountain on the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a location for such a repository. EG and G was contracted to provide information concerning the ecosystems encountered on the site. A comprehensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the status and completeness of the existing biological information for the previously undisturbed area. Site specific studies were begun in 1981 when preliminary field surveys confirmed the presence of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizi) within the project area FY82 studies were designed to determine the overall distribution and abundance of the tortoise within the area likely to be impacted by NNWSI activities. The Yucca Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site is situated close to the northern range limit of the desert tortoise. Prior to the 1982 surveys, the desert tortoise was reported from only nine locations on NTS. A known population had been under study in Rock Valley about 25 miles southeast of the project area. However, the distribution and population densities of tortoise in the southwest portion of NTS were virtually unknown. Results of our surveys indicate that desert tortoise can be expected, albeit in small numbers, in a wide range of Mojavean and Transitional habitats

  12. Assessing the potentialities of integrated modelling during early phases of siting and design of a geological repository: the REGIME exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genty, A.; Certes, C.; Serres, C.; Besnus, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Fischer-Appelt, K.; Baltes, B.; Rohlig, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the safety assessment exercise 'REGIME' (Repository Evaluation performed by GRS and IRSN through a Modelling Exercise) performed jointly by GRS and IRSN. The main objective of the project is to test the ability of integrated modelling to contribute to site selection and repository conception in the context of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The project is divided in two parts. Phase 1 consisted in studying different flow patterns in a given geological context. The selected hydrogeological contexts and three site locations potentially favourable for hosting a repository are described. Phase 2, under progress, aims at evaluating the rote of limitation of releases played by the different components of the disposal system taking into account possible dysfunctions. The main issues to be addressed in phase 2, the modelling outline and the scenarios to be studied are presented. (authors)

  13. Forsmark site investigation. Interpretation of topographic lineaments 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans

    2003-04-01

    SKB performs site investigations for localization of a deep repository for high level radioactive waste. The site investigations are performed in two municipalities; Oesthammar and Oskarshamn. The Forsmark investigation area is situated in Oesthammar, close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. The purpose of interpretation of lineaments from topographic data is to identify linear features (lineaments), which may correspond to deformation zones in the bedrock. The data will be combined with interpretations of lineaments from airborne geophysical data in order to produce an integrated lineament interpretation for the Forsmark area. This integrated interpretation will be combined with geological data in order to establish a bedrock geological map of the Forsmark area. The area for the lineament interpretation is the same as that selected for the bedrock mapping activities during 2002, i.e. the land area around Forsmark

  14. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  15. Implementation of hearings in the Swedish process for siting a spent nuclear fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, Magnus; Wiklund, Aasa

    2001-01-01

    treat all types of questions with equal, non-judgmental interest; Working groups to formulate questions gave the participants time for reflection and discussions without dominance by e.g. the implementer or the authorities. It is likely that many participants appreciated the possibility to be anonymous and channel questions through the moderators; Well defined scope of the hearings developed in dialogue with the municipalities; It was clear that the authorities were the owners of the hearings and that the outcome would be included in their review of SKB's programme; The early involvement of the municipalities in the planning process was essential since the hearings were held in the areas proposed for site investigations. In the further development of hearings in the Swedish nuclear waste programme a number of issues will have to be considered. The now completed hearings were essentially based on the public's questions and concerns. In the future it may be considered to also arrange hearings on an 'expert level'. It should however be kept in mind that the municipalities are experts on local conditions and must be involved since the immediate impact of a repository is local. It could also be advantageous to have hearings in two phases. The first phase should then be focussed on the implementer, e.g. on material submitted to the authorities for review. In this phase the authorities should present criteria for the review. Following this hearing the authorities should review the implementers material and present a preliminary review report. The second phase of hearings should then focus on the authorities' review report and possible supplementing submissions from the implementer. It is believed that this could be particular relevant in situations where important municipal decisions are to be made. Another and perhaps the most challenging issue, which is not unique to nuclear waste management, is how to involve the public and concerned citizens in hearings and decision making

  16. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T&MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document.

  17. Review of a site developer's geo-scientific data and site-characterisation information to support repository certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, R.T.; Byrum, C.; Ghose, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico is a first-of-a-kind deep geologic facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from weapons production in the United States. In 1993, Congress authorised the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and implement WIPP-site-specific compliance criteria based on the general safety and environmental standards in EPA's high-level and transuranic radioactive waste regulations [1]. EPA published its site-specific regulations [2] in 1996 and certified WIPP to open in 1998. This regulatory framework set the stage for balancing diverse input data, provided a structure for document development, provided a mechanism for interaction between EPA and the Department of Energy (DOE), and provided a guide to support our review of WIPP's safety assessment. EPA's involvement continues during WIPP's operational phase. Confidence in repository site geo-scientific data enhances the regulator's ability to make a credible and defensible certification (licensing) decision and to communicate the basis for the decision to the public. Lack of confidence in the data can lead to lack of credibility about site suitability. Clear regulations and specific quality standards can enhance the quality of site-characterisation documentation and assist the regulator in its approval process of the site. In EPA's regulations, documentation is required on numerous issues, and EPA supplemented this with guidance. High-quality documentation is essential, especially for EPA. In the certification process for WIPP, the documentation in the record and our written interpretation of the record was what was used in legal proceedings that followed EPA's certification of WIPP. EPA and DOE had frequent and generally open communication. During formal regulatory proceedings, all communication had to be documented. Some decisions were made at the staff level, but major decisions were typically addressed and resolved through correspondence

  18. The situation on the site of closed Maisiagala repository. Modelling and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeika, J.; Baltrunas, D.; Butkus, D.; Duskesas, G.; Remeikis, V.

    2001-01-01

    The safety of RADON type RMI disposal facility was investigated by means of the computer modelling and by measurements of concentrations of radionuclides in the water samples taken from the control wells. The repository was built on the top of the sandy hill in 1963. The dimensions of the monolithic reinforced concrete vault are 5 m x 15 m x 3 m, the thickness of the sidewalls is about 0.25 m and the thickness of the bottom is about 0.2 m. The sidewalls are covered from inside and outside with cement and sodium aluminate coatings 0.02 m thick. From outside they were also covered with two layers of hot bitumen. The bottom of the vault is covered with bitumen and two layers of rubberoid. During the exploitation time the vault was filled with radioactive waste (in a chaotic way and sources were buried together with their biological shielding). In the course of burial radioactive waste was constantly interlaid with concrete. When the disposal facility was closed in 1988 only three fifths of its volume was filled; the total activity of 3 H, 239 Pu and Pu-Be neutron sources was 4.18 10 15 Bq, 2.4 10 11 Bq, and 12.5 10 9 n/s, respectively (according the documentation). Empty two fifths of the vault was filled with concrete, then with sand, then with the concrete (0.01 m), hot bitumen and the 0.05 m asphalt layers. Monolithic concrete that was covered with bitumen and 0.05 m thick layer of asphalt closed the vault. Sand layer the thickness of which was not less than 1.2 m formed the cap. Four wells - one on each side - near the repository and four wells in the anticipated direction of ground water flow were drilled with the purpose to control the radiological situation around the repository. The volume activity of 3 H in the wells was measured with the liquid scintillator detector Tri-Carb. The highest volume activity was found in the same nearest well in all years with the exception of the year 2000. The activity of other radionuclides was measured with the Canberra

  19. High level waste repository site suitability criteria. Environmental impact statement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The approach (methodology) which has been developed for the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) is described. A suggested outline is presented for the High Level Waste Repository Site Suitability Criteria EIS together with a detailed description of the approach to be used in preparing the EIS. In addition, a methodology is presented by which the necessary cost/benefit/risk comparisons of alternative sets of site suitability criteria can be made. The TERA environmental research data bank, a computerized data bank which contained information on current and historical licensing activities for power plants was modified to include information on generic or programmatic EIS related issues. The content of the modified data bank was utilized to develop the EIS outline presented in this report. The report recommends that a modified matrix evaluation approach be used to make the cost/benefit/risk comparisons. The suggested matrix is designed to facilitate between criteria comparative analyses of economic, environmental, sociological and radiological risk factors. The quantitative compositing of dollar cost and benefits, environmental and sociological impacts, and radiological risks is to be performed using a semi-analytical, semi-visual procedure based on the concept of ''decision surfaces.''

  20. Bedrock Hydrogeology-Site investigation SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, Johan; Bockgaard, Niclas; Follin, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). This report presents an integrated analysis and interpretation of the historic data from the existing SFR (1980 - 1986), as well as, from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008 - 2009). The primary objective is to establish a conceptual hydrogeological model of the bedrock for safety assessment and design analyses. Analyses and interpretations of all (old and new) hydraulic data are analysed with regard to the recently developed geological deformation zone model of the SFR model domain (Curtis et al. 2011). The methodology used by Curtis et al. (2011) has focussed on magnetic anomalies and deformation zone intercepts with ground surface greater than 300 m. In the hydrogeological modelling, however, it has been considered important to also explore the occurrence and characteristics of shallow horizontal to sub-horizontal structures (sheet joints) inside the SFR model domain. Such structures are of considerable importance for the hydrogeology in the uppermost c. 150 m of bedrock in SDM-Site Forsmark; hence the term Shallow Bedrock Aquifer was used to emphasise their hydraulic significance. In this study, the acronym SBA-structure is used for horizontal structures identified in the hydrogeological modelling. In addition to the predominantly steeply dipping geological deformation zones, eight so-called SBA-structures are modelled deterministically in the hydrogeological model. The SBA-structures are envisaged as hydraulically heterogeneous and composed of clusters of minor gently dipping to horizontal fractures rather than extensive single features. A type of structures that is partly included in the definition of the SBA-structures is the Unresolved Possible Deformations Zone (Unresolved PDZ) intercepts identified by Curtis et al. (2011). The Unresolved

  1. Site specific statutory compliance planning for the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Requirements, strategy, and status: Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This document and the requirements and actions it presents are addressed to the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas. The proposed actions upon which the plan is based are those described in Chapters 4 and 5 of the final EA for the site. Similarly, the environmental and health and safety requirements covered in the plan are those identified in the EA as being potentially applicable to the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith site. 12 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when

  3. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when the investigation

  4. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The present report and its annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful discussion

  5. Suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative of underground repository for HLW geological disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing; Fu Bingjun; Fan Xianhua; Chen Shi; Sun Donghui

    2006-01-01

    Site selection for the underground repository is a vital problem with respect to the HLW geological disposal. Over the past decades, we have been focusing our attention on granite as a priority in China. However, there are some problems have to be discussed on this matter. In this paper, both experiences gained and lessons learned in the international community regarding the site selection are described. And then, after analyzing a lot of some key factors affecting the site selection, some comments and suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative before final decision making in China are presented. (authors)

  6. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Site Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site and conducting site investigation.

  7. Investigation of modern methods of probalistic sensitivity analysis of final repository performance assessment models (MOSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiessl, Sabine; Becker, Dirk-Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a mathematical means for analysing the sensitivities of a computational model to variations of its input parameters. Thus, it is a tool for managing parameter uncertainties. It is often performed probabilistically as global sensitivity analysis, running the model a large number of times with different parameter value combinations. Going along with the increase of computer capabilities, global sensitivity analysis has been a field of mathematical research for some decades. In the field of final repository modelling, probabilistic analysis is regarded a key element of a modern safety case. An appropriate uncertainty and sensitivity analysis can help identify parameters that need further dedicated research to reduce the overall uncertainty, generally leads to better system understanding and can thus contribute to building confidence in the models. The purpose of the project described here was to systematically investigate different numerical and graphical techniques of sensitivity analysis with typical repository models, which produce a distinctly right-skewed and tailed output distribution and can exhibit a highly nonlinear, non-monotonic or even non-continuous behaviour. For the investigations presented here, three test models were defined that describe generic, but typical repository systems. A number of numerical and graphical sensitivity analysis methods were selected for investigation and, in part, modified or adapted. Different sampling methods were applied to produce various parameter samples of different sizes and many individual runs with the test models were performed. The results were evaluated with the different methods of sensitivity analysis. On this basis the methods were compared and assessed. This report gives an overview of the background and the applied methods. The results obtained for three typical test models are presented and explained; conclusions in view of practical applications are drawn. At the end, a recommendation

  8. Investigation of modern methods of probalistic sensitivity analysis of final repository performance assessment models (MOSEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiessl, Sabine; Becker, Dirk-Alexander

    2017-06-15

    Sensitivity analysis is a mathematical means for analysing the sensitivities of a computational model to variations of its input parameters. Thus, it is a tool for managing parameter uncertainties. It is often performed probabilistically as global sensitivity analysis, running the model a large number of times with different parameter value combinations. Going along with the increase of computer capabilities, global sensitivity analysis has been a field of mathematical research for some decades. In the field of final repository modelling, probabilistic analysis is regarded a key element of a modern safety case. An appropriate uncertainty and sensitivity analysis can help identify parameters that need further dedicated research to reduce the overall uncertainty, generally leads to better system understanding and can thus contribute to building confidence in the models. The purpose of the project described here was to systematically investigate different numerical and graphical techniques of sensitivity analysis with typical repository models, which produce a distinctly right-skewed and tailed output distribution and can exhibit a highly nonlinear, non-monotonic or even non-continuous behaviour. For the investigations presented here, three test models were defined that describe generic, but typical repository systems. A number of numerical and graphical sensitivity analysis methods were selected for investigation and, in part, modified or adapted. Different sampling methods were applied to produce various parameter samples of different sizes and many individual runs with the test models were performed. The results were evaluated with the different methods of sensitivity analysis. On this basis the methods were compared and assessed. This report gives an overview of the background and the applied methods. The results obtained for three typical test models are presented and explained; conclusions in view of practical applications are drawn. At the end, a recommendation

  9. Distribution coefficients of different soil types at Olkiluoto repository site and its surroundings, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, FI-00420 Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, the Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for the spent nuclear fuel. Due to shallow sea areas around the island, the post-glacial crustal rebound (around 6 mm/y) is changing the landscape significantly; during the next thousands of years new soil types are emerging, the present bays will narrow and form future lakes and mires assumedly similar to those farther inland at present. The effects of terrain development are important in long-term safety assessments for the repository, especially in the biosphere assessments addressing radiation exposure of people and biota in scenarios of radionuclide releases. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of radionuclides of concern from nuclear waste. These radionuclides have very long half-lives and long interaction times with soils, ranging from centuries to millennia. By measuring the desorption K{sub d} values of the indigenous stable elements (Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr) from field moist samples are a valid description of slow retention processes. The 'in situ' K{sub d} desorption values are calculated for humus, peat and different mineral soil samples taken from the Olkiluoto Island and the Reference Area used as an analogue of the future terrain. The solids are extracted alternatively by HNO{sub 3}-HF and NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). The K{sub d} values are highly dependent on environmental factors, including but not limited to pH, soil type, soil horizon, soil body, texture, element chemical form, organic matter, carbon content and biological activity. This is discussed in the contribution; e.g., for several elements pH and K{sub d} values correlate - the finer the soil or sediment, the higher the K{sub d} values - and humus and peat samples have a clear correlation with the organic matter and carbon contents. The contribution also compares the 'in situ' K{sub d} values to

  10. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Davis Canyon Repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Davis Canyon, Utah environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to the report and include summary equipment lists for the repository (December, 1984) and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft (June and July, 1985). Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollutant emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 19 refs., 18 tabs

  11. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Deaf Smith County repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Deaf Smith County, Texas environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to this report and include summary equipment lists for the repository and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft. Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollution emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 18 refs., 15 tabs

  12. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, S.H.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; Lodha, G.S.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL's strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB's R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL's investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL's Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL's strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL's R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs

  13. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, S H; Brown, A; Davison, C C; Gascoyne, M; Lodha, G S; Stevenson, D R; Thorne, G A; Tomsons, D [AECL Research, Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL`s strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB`s R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL`s investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL`s strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL`s R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs.

  14. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine [WIBERA/PWIBERA/PriceWaterhouseCoopers Deutsche Rev., Hannover (Germany); Nies, Alexander [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The 1998 election of the Federal Parliament led to a significant reorientation of German energy policy. In June 2000, the Federal Government (FG) has achieved an agreement with the utility companies in which they respect the decision of the FG to put an orderly end to nuclear power generation by prohibiting the erection of new, and limiting the operational period of existing power plants. The agreement also contains cornerstones of a new radioactive waste management policy: New interim storage facilities will be built at reactor sites in order to minimise transports to the existing central interim storage facilities at Ahaus and Gorleben; The utilities will use all acceptable contractual possibilities with their international partners to end reprocessing as soon as possible. By mid 2005 at the latest, spent fuel management in Germany will be limited to direct disposal; The exploration of the salt dome at Gorleben will be interrupted for at least three, and at most ten years, to clarify conceptual and safety questions. Correspondingly, the FG has initiated an amendment of the atomic energy act and the development of a new plan for radioactive waste management. In the field of radioactive waste disposal, the Federal Government pursues two new objectives: For the disposal of all kinds and amounts of radioactive waste, one single repository in deep geologic formations shall be erected around 2030; The suitability of further sites in different host formations shall be examined. Feasibility and consequences of the first objective have still to be carefully examined in detail. Development of a new disposal concept and final decisions on both the existing disposal projects as well as on new potential sites are therefore an ambitious challenge for the coming years. The second objective brings up a key question which several leading countries presently attempt to successfully address: how to select sites which are both suitable for safe disposal and accepted in the public

  15. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine; Nies, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 election of the Federal Parliament led to a significant reorientation of German energy policy. In June 2000, the Federal Government (FG) has achieved an agreement with the utility companies in which they respect the decision of the FG to put an orderly end to nuclear power generation by prohibiting the erection of new, and limiting the operational period of existing power plants. The agreement also contains cornerstones of a new radioactive waste management policy: New interim storage facilities will be built at reactor sites in order to minimise transports to the existing central interim storage facilities at Ahaus and Gorleben; The utilities will use all acceptable contractual possibilities with their international partners to end reprocessing as soon as possible. By mid 2005 at the latest, spent fuel management in Germany will be limited to direct disposal; The exploration of the salt dome at Gorleben will be interrupted for at least three, and at most ten years, to clarify conceptual and safety questions. Correspondingly, the FG has initiated an amendment of the atomic energy act and the development of a new plan for radioactive waste management. In the field of radioactive waste disposal, the Federal Government pursues two new objectives: For the disposal of all kinds and amounts of radioactive waste, one single repository in deep geologic formations shall be erected around 2030; The suitability of further sites in different host formations shall be examined. Feasibility and consequences of the first objective have still to be carefully examined in detail. Development of a new disposal concept and final decisions on both the existing disposal projects as well as on new potential sites are therefore an ambitious challenge for the coming years. The second objective brings up a key question which several leading countries presently attempt to successfully address: how to select sites which are both suitable for safe disposal and accepted in the public

  16. Workshop material for state review of USNRC site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing criteria on which to judge whether a proposed site for a geologic repository is suitable for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. To aid in its analysis and assessment, NRC is planning three early independent reviews of the site suitability criteria development effort: a peer review by experts outside of NRC; a review by the National Academy of Sciences; and a review by State officials. This document has been prepared to aid workshop participants in understanding the Preliminary Site Suitability Criteria and to prepare them to contribute to an evaluation of those criteria

  17. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  18. Groundwater age and lifetime expectancy modelling approach for site characterization and performance assessment of radwaste repository in clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornaton, F.; Perrochet, P.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A deep geological repository of high level and long lived radwaste requires an understanding of the far field and near field groundwater flow and of the transport properties, at actual and future climatic conditions. Andra, French National radioactive waste management Agency, is developing since last 15 years an integrated multi-scale hydrogeological model of whole Paris basin of 200000 km 2 of area (regional scale) to produce a regional flow field associated to groundwater behavior. It includes locally the Meuse/Haute Marne clay site of about 250 km 2 of area in the eastern part of the Paris basin that was chosen for the emplacement of a repository. The Callovo-Oxfordian host formation is a clay layer characterized by a very low permeability of the order 10 -14 m/s, a mean thickness of 130 m at about 500 m depth, and is embedded by calcareous aquifer formations (Dogger and Oxfordian). The hydrogeological conceptual model is based on stratigraphic and petro-physic modeling of the Paris basin and is accounting for the structural, geological, hydrogeological and geochemical data in an integrated way. This model represents 27 hydrogeological units at the scale of the Paris Basin, and it is refined at the scale of the sector to represent 27 different layers that range in age from the Trias to the Portlandian. The finite element flow and transport simulator Ground Water (GW) is used to solve for groundwater flow at steady-state in a 3 Million elements model, considering current climatic conditions. The model is calibrated against about 1250 hydraulic head measurements, and results in maximum absolute hydraulic head differences of 20 meters at the regional scale and 3 meters at the local scale. The calibrated reference model includes transmissive major faults as well as structures acting as barrier to flow. Groundwater age (the time elapsed since recharge) and lifetime expectancy (the time remaining prior to exit) are

  19. Findings and recommendations of the ONWI peer review of the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bjornstad, D.; DeVeny, G.; Ellis, C.B.; Goldstone, S.E.; Ritchey, P.N.; Winter, R.

    1985-12-01

    A Peer Review Group was convened by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) of the Battelle Project Management Division (BPMD) to provide an outside professional assessment of the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. The SEARS model is intended to provide detailed, site-specific projections by jurisdiction and political subdivision of the economic, demographic, infrastructure, and fiscal effects of constructing, operating, and decommissioning a geologic repository for the isolation of nuclear waste in one or more locations. In addition, it is expected to aid in the indentification of appropriate local correction actions and to aid in monitoring socioeconomic changes. The SEARS model will address program-related issues, local concerns, and statutory requirements relating to economic-demographic impacts; employ technically defensible methods and procedures; be adequately and appropriately documented, verified, and validated; and provide results that are consistent and replicable

  20. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - update on the site evaluation process and interweaving of aboriginal traditional knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, B.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Facella, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR) in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to seek an informed and willing community to host Canada's deep geological repository. As of April 2015, twenty-two communities expressed interest in learning more about the project. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria used in the assessments, focusing on geological and community well-being studies. Engagement and field activities to interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge with western science are also discussed. (author)

  1. Law no. 10.308 of 20th November, 2001 on radioactive waste repositories siting, construction, licensing, operation, inspection, costs, indemnity, civil liability and guarantees concerning to the radioactive wastes repositories and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Act was published on November 20, 2001 and set forth regulations on the final disposal of radioactive wastes produced in Brazil, including siting, construction, licensing, operation, inspection, costs, indemnities, civil liability and guarantees concerning to the radioactive wastes repositories. This act allows for installation and operation of initial, intermediary and final repositories in accordance with the criteria established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN. The person or organization granted with CNEN authorization for operation of the initial repositories shall be liable for personal, patrimony and environmental radiological damages. The civil liability of CNEN is concerned to the radioactive waste intermediary and final disposals and transportation

  2. Thermal Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan

    2003-04-01

    Site investigations are in progress for the siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the planning work, strategies are developed for site descriptive modelling regarding different disciplines, amongst them the thermal conditions. The objective of the strategy for a thermal site descriptive model is to guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the site investigations. It is understood that further development may be needed. The model describes the thermal properties and other thermal parameters of intact rock, fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The methodology is based on estimation of thermal properties of intact rock and discontinuities, using both empirical and theoretical/numerical approaches, and estimation of thermal processes using mathematical modelling. The methodology will be used and evaluated for the thermal site descriptive modelling at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

  3. Site investigations for final disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, T.; Laine, T.

    1982-12-01

    Research concerning disposal of high-level nuclear waste of the Industrial Power Company Ltd has focused on deep underground disposal in Finnish precambrian bedrock. The present target is to have a repository for high-level waste in operation by 2020. Selection of the repository site is based on site investigations. In addition to geosciences, selection of appropriate site includes many branches of studies; engineering, safety analysis, ecology, transport, demography etc. The investigations required for site selection for high-level waste have been arranged in a sequence of four phases. The aim of the phases is that investigations become more and more detailed as the selection process continues. Phase I of the investigations is the characterization of potential areas. This comprises establishment of criteria for site selection and identification of areas that meet selection criteria. Objective of these studies is to determine areas for phase II field investigations. The studies are largely made by reviewing existing data and remote-sensing techniques. Phase II field investigations will be undertaken between 1986-1992. The number of potential candidates for repository site is reduced to few preferred areas by preceeding generic study. The site selection process culminates in phase III in site confirmation studies carried out at 2...3 most suitable sites during 1992-2010. This is then followed by phase IV, which comprises very detailed investigations at the selected site. An alternative for these investigations is to undertake them by using pilot shaft and drifts. Active development is taking place in all phases concerning investigation methods, criteria, parameters, data processing and modelling. The applicability of the various investigation methods and techniques is tested in a deep borehole in phase I. The co-operation with countries with similar geological conditions makes it possible to compare results obtained by different techniques

  4. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost

  5. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.; Belfadhel, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking high-level screenings of site suitability. The paper provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The paper will outline how NWMO sought to develop a socially-acceptable site selection process as a firm foundation for future decisions on siting. Through a two-year collaborative process, NWMO sought to understand the expectations of

  6. Site descriptions for preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, W.E.; Jones, C.H.; Sumerling, T.J.; Ashton, J.

    1988-07-01

    The environmental contexts of four sites, previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. as potential locations for low-level waste disposal facilities, are described. Information on geographical setting, climate, surface hydrology, land use, agriculture, fisheries, geology and hydrogeology is presented. The geological and hydrogeological data are interpreted with the support of deterministic modelling of groundwater conditions. The routes by which radionuclides may migrate from the site are identified and reduced to 1D statistical descriptions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments. Additional data required to improve the assessment of the performance of the site are identified. (author)

  7. Studies relating to human intrusion into a repository. Report pertaining to work package 11. Preliminary safety case of the Gorleben site (VSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuth, Thomas; Buhmann, Dieter; Fischer-Appelt, Klaus; Moenig, Joerg; Ruebel, Andre; Wolf, Jens [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Filbert, Wolfgang [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Charlier, Frank [international nuclear safety engineering gmbh (nse), Aachen (Germany); Baltes, Bruno

    2014-10-15

    The question of the long-term safety of a repository system is inseparably linked with the intensive technical examination of the possible future evolution of the site and the repository system e. g. as a result of climatic, geologic, waste-related and repository-related processes. Here, the possible evolutions to be considered are those that have the potential to have a negative impact on the intended, furthest-possible, immediate, and lasting isolation of the radioactive waste in a defined area around the underground workings of the repository mine in salt rock, which is referred to as the containment-providing rock zone (CPRZ).

  8. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Technical Documentation: Volume 1, Description of code and files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiel, B.; Parpia, B.; Murdock, S.; Hamm, R.; Fannin, D.; Ransom-Nelson, W.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1985-05-01

    The SEARS Model is a comprehensive, highly flexible, user-oriented system for projecting economic, demographic, public service and fiscal impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository siting. Both baseline and project-related impact projections may be performed for regions, counties, municipalities, and school districts. It is an interactive APL model requiring comprehensive data bases and parameters to generate the outputs desired. 75 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs

  9. Investigation on long-term safety aspects of a radioactive waste repository in a diagenic clay formation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Gazul, R. [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Fluegge, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); and others

    2017-03-28

    The report presents the sealing concept developed for a Russian near surface low/intermediate level (LILW) waste repository at the ''radon site'' in the lower Cambrian ''blue clay'' formation. The radioactive wastes will be transported to the repository through a tunnel that will connect the underground disposal areas with the surface facilities. Two ventilation shafts for fresh and exhaust air will also connect the underground facilities with the surface. Specific characteristics of the flow regime in the studied area have been simulated. For the construction of a potential repository site it is necessary to know the possible contaminant transport paths to the surface and the biosphere. Due to the lack of sufficient data the calculation can only indicate tendencies that can trigger future explorations. Simulations of the radionuclide (C-14, Cl-36, Se-79, I-129) release from the repository in the liquid phase show a similar behavior as for other repositories in clay. Probabilistic simulations show a large variation of obtained results as a result of the parameter uncertainty.

  10. Site descriptive modeling as a part of site characterization in Sweden - Concluding the surface based investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Winberg, Anders; Skagius, Kristina; Stroem, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is currently finalizing its surface based site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in the municipalities of Oestharmnar (the Forsmark area) and Oskarshamn (the Simpevar/Laxemar area). The investigation data are assessed into a Site Descriptive Model, constituting a synthesis of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, transport properties and a surface system description. Site data constitute a wide range of different measurement results. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modeling. The three-dimensional modeling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space) is made in a sequence where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological models and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modeling. These disciplines in turn are partly interrelated, and also provide feedback to the geological modeling, especially if the geological description appears unreasonable when assessed together with the other data. Procedures for assessing the uncertainties and the confidence in the modeling have been developed during the course of the site modeling. These assessments also provide key input to the completion of the site investigation program. (authors)

  11. Methods for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments: implications for nuclear repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1983-03-01

    An overview of the major methods presently available for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments and includes discussion of the implications and applications of such methods for nuclear-waste-repository siting are provided. The report: (1) summarizes conceptual approaches underlying, and methodological alternatives for, the conduct of impact assessments in each substantive area, and then enumerates advantages and disadvantages of each alternative; (2) describes factors related to the impact-assessment process, impact events, and the characteristics of rural areas that affect the magnitude and distribution of impacts and the assessment of impacts in each area; (3) provides a detailed review of those methodologies actually used in impact assessment for each area, describes advantages and problems encountered in the use of each method, and identifies the frequency of use and the general level of acceptance of each technique; and (4) summarizes the implications of each area of projection for the repository-siting process, the applicability of the methods for each area to the special and standard features of repositories, and makes general recommendations concerning specific methods and procedures that should be incorporated in assessments for siting areas

  12. SKI's engagement in the process for siting a spent nuclear fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeivioe Jonsson, Josefin; Westerlind, Magnus [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    preferred location for the encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel was in the municipality of Oskarshamn (in connection to the central interim storage for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB). This led the municipality to initiate a forum for consultations between the municipality, County Administration Board, SKI and SSI (the so-called MKB-Forum in Kalmar County). They emphasised that active regulators, with clear roles and positions, were a prerequisite for the municipality's involvement in the siting process. In 1996 a feasibility study for a repository was launched by SKB and was included in the MKB-Forum's work. SKI's RandD in the field of nuclear waste management aims at maintaining and developing the competence needed for independent assessments of safety. In recent years the research also includes risk communication and decision-making processes. The co-ordination of EIA and decision making processes according to different acts, in particular the Act on Nuclear Activities and the Environmental Code is one big challenge for all actors involved in process for siting a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Many actors will be involved in the parallel licensing process and it requires good planning and good cooperation. The application for construction of an encapsulation plant will be submitted already in 2006 (addressing mainly technical basis and operational safety), but will be updated in 2008 (e.g. coverage of long-term safety for the sealed waste canisters produced in the plant). These applications must be approved according to the Environmental Code and the Act of Nuclear Activities before construction licenses can be given. A final decision from the Swedish Government will most probably address the whole concept of disposal, simultaneously covering both facilities. With an estimated period covering at least two years for technical review by SKI, SSI and the Swedish Environmental Court (for approval according to Environmental Code) and at least one year for

  13. Compliance status summaries for federal and state statutory directives that apply to the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This document contains statutory summaries, checklists of compliance requirements, status summaries, and lists of information needs for the environmental and health and safety statutory directives at Federal and State levels that apply to the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas. Statutes that apply in general to any repository project but not specifically to the Deaf Smith are not included. The information herein supplements the Salt Repository Project Statutory Compliance Plan and the Salt Repository Project Permitting Management Plan by providing lengthy details on statutory directives, compliance requirements, information needs, and the overall status of the environmental and health and safety compliance program for the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

  14. Site selection of a deep repository of HLRW in relation to geological conditions of Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, M.; Kovacikova, M.; Madaras, J.; Vandlikova, M.

    1996-01-01

    All countries which use nuclear energy to generate electricity face the problem of high level radioactive waste (HLRW) and spent fuel. Until 1987, this problem was addressed in Czechoslovakia by transferring the material to the former USSR. After the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989 and the division of Czechoslovakia into two states in 1993, Slovakia independently faced the complex problem of creating its own deep repository. Although Slovakia has begun to solve the problem of HLRW and spent fuel only recently, it can take advantage of the theoretical and practical knowledge of other countries in this field. The geological aspects of the setting of the deep repository of HLRW have been studied within the project R epositories of radioactive and hazardous wastes in geological environment. The assessment of the Slovak Republic for creating a repository of HLRW was based on the application of internationally determined and applied criteria

  15. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [OeEo-Institute e.V., Inst. for Applied Ecology, Darmstadt (Germany); Arens, Georg [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are

  16. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Arens, Georg

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are under consideration

  17. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  18. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric

    2010-09-01

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  19. Sites and projects for the disposal of radioactive waste and repositories in Russia and other states of the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.; Herzog, C.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Russia and other states of the former USSR contents the whole nuclear fuel cycle - Uranium mining, fuel element production, nuclear power and research reactors, nuclear powered ships and reprocessing of nuclear fuel. High amounts of radioactive waste are already disposed at the sites of these industrial centers and further radioactive waste is arising in production, reprocessing and decommissioning processes. Spent fuel elements are reprocessed or stored onsite. Solid and liquid wastes are disposed near surface at the sites of nuclear power plants, radiochemical plants, 'Radon'- and other sites. High volumes of high-, medium- and low-level liquid waste with high radioactivity has been injected into deep geologic formations at the sites of radiochemical plants. In Russia perspective all spent fuel elements shall be reprocessed and dry storage facilities are planned for long term storage until reprocessing. Repositories for solid waste are foreseen in deep geological formations (e.g. salt, granite) at several sites. (author)

  20. Near Regional and Site Investigations of the Temelin NPP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachar, Ivan; Vacek, Jiri; Heralecky, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The Temelin NPP is worldwide through heated discussion with nuclear energetic opposition. In addition this discussion goes beyond a border of the Czech Republic. On the other side, results of several international supervisions shown that Temelin NPP is fully comparable with the safest nuclear power plants in the world regarding its technical design and safety functions. This presentation deals with the near regional and site investigations of the Temelin NPP Site. It must be noted that although the Temelin site is situated in the area with low seismicity, item of seismicity is a basic argument against Temelin NPP and therefore a detail seismic hazard assessment was performed

  1. Assessing Contractor Capabilities for Streamlined Site Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize and encourage brownfields decision makers to investigate and employ innovative methods for characterizing their sites, to assist brownfields decision makers in assessing contractors' capabilities.

  2. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloninger, M.O.; Cole, C.R.; Washburn, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated

  3. Association of actinides with microorganisms and clay: Implications for radionuclide migration from waste-repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A.; Kozai, N.; Sakamoto, F.; Ozaki, T.; Nankawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a series of basic studies on the microbial accumulation of actinides to elucidate their migration behavior around backfill materials used in the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. We explored the interactions of U(VI) and Pu(VI) with Bacillus subtilis, kaolinite clay, and within a mixture of the two, directly analyzing their association with the bacterium in the mixture by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The accumulation of U by the mixture rose as the numbers of B. subtilis cells increased. Treating the kaolinite with potassium acetate (CH 3 COOK) removed approximately 80% of the associated uranium while only 65% was removed in the presence of B. subtilis. TEM-EDS analysis confirmed that most of the U taken from solution was associated with B. subtilis. XANES analyses revealed that the oxidation state of uranium associated with B. subtilis, kaolinite, and with the mixture containing both was U(VI). The amount of Pu sorbed by B. subtilis increased with time, but did not reach equilibrium in 48 h; in kaolinite alone, equilibrium was attained within 8 h. After 48 h, the oxidation state of Pu in the solutions exposed to B. subtilis and to the mixture had changed to Pu(V), whereas the oxidation state of the Pu associated with both was Pu(IV). In contrast, there was no change in the oxidation state of Pu in the solution nor on kaolinite after exposure to Pu(VI). SEM-EDS analysis indicated that most of the Pu in the mixture was associated with the bacteria. These results suggest that U(VI) and Pu(VI) preferentially are sorbed to bacterial cells in the presence of kaolinite clay, and that the mechanism of accumulation of U and Pu differs. U(VI) is sorbed directly to the bacterial cells, whereas Pu(VI) first is reduced to Pu(V) and then to Pu(IV), and the latter is associated with the cells. These results have important implications on the migrations of radionuclides around the repository sites of

  4. Ecosystem characterization strategy at a repository site - Olkiluoto as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pere, Tuomas [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, 27160 Eurajoki (Finland); Kangasniemi, Ville [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Aro, Lasse [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kaironiementie 15, 39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Posiva Oy is constructing an underground research facility ONKALO in Olkiluoto, located in the municipality of Eurajoki, Finland. This is part of the plan for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel produced by Posiva's owners: Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oyj. Posiva has applied for construction license for an underground repository, which is planned to start its operation around the year 2020. The final disposal of high-level radioactive waste poses questions of long-term safety and possible processes of radionuclide release in the EBS (Engineered Barrier System) and the geosphere are also modelled as well as possible transport routes in the bedrock. Posiva has also established a monitoring program for the environment and is also conducting modelling of the surface environment and biosphere in Olkiluoto and the surrounding reference area. These serve the purpose of both, site description and modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment and biosphere. The process of modelling used by Posiva requires the division of the surface environment and biosphere into several categories. In Posiva's classification, ecosystems are divided to two categories: terrestrial and aquatic with terrestrial divided to forests and agricultural areas. These categories are further divided to ecosystem types which include: lake, river, forest, cropland and sea (with coastal sea as a separate type). These types are even further divided to 14 ecosystem sub-types and behind these sub-types, a total of 24 biotopes exist. Soil and sediment types are also classified to 7 classes. The methodology behind the selection of these biotopes and their connection to the modelling of radionuclide transport in the surface environment is further described in the text. Some of the ecosystem types and biotopes are absent in present-day Olkiluoto area, which necessitates the use of reference targets, such as lakes, rivers

  5. Site investigations for the disposal of spent fuel - investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, Timo

    1985-11-01

    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is making preparations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel into the Finnish bedrock. The revised site investigation program for the years 1986-2010 is presented in this report. The objectives and activities in the near future are described in more detail. The main objectives and frame programs for the investigations in the more distant future are described. The program planning of these investigations are being developed in the preceding site investigations. The investigations for the site selection are divided into four phases: 1983-1985 selection of the investigation areas, preparations for the field investigations, drilling and investigations in a deep test borehole; 1986-1992 preliminary site investigations in 5-10 investigation areas; 1993-2000 detailed site investigations in 2-3 investigation areas. Site selection in the year 2000; 2001-2010 complementary investigations on the selected site. The first investigation phase will be carried out as planned. In this phase a 1001 m deep test borehole was drilled at Lavia in western Finland. With the investigations in the borehole and related development work, preparations were made for the future field investigations. The equipment and investigation methods are being developed during the site investigations. The equipment for taking groundwater samples and the unit for hydraulic testing have been developed. In the future the emphasis in the work will be in developing equipment for monitoring of the hydraulic head and measuring the volumetric flow. In groundwater sampling the present procedure can be improved by adding the test for the in-situ measurements. The results of the field investigations will be stored and processed in a centralized data base. The data base will transmit the results for the interpretation and then the interpreted results transmitted for model calculations and reporting. The cost estimate for the investigations in 1986-2010 is 110-125 million

  6. Engineering rock mass classification of the Olkiluoto investigation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeikaes, K. [ed.; Hagros, A.; Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-06-01

    Olkiluoto in Eurajoki is being investigated as a possible site for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The selection of the depth, placement and layout of the repository is affected by the constructability of the bedrock. The constructability, in turn, is influenced by several properties of the host rock, such as its Ethology, the extent of fracturing, its hydrogeological properties and rock engineering characteristics and also by the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stresses and the chemistry of the groundwater. The constructability can be evaluated by the application of a rock classification system in which the properties of the host rock are assessed against common rock engineering judgements associated with underground construction. These judgements are based partly on measurements of in situ stresses and the properties of the bedrock determined from rock samples, but an important aspect is also the practical experience which has been gained during underground excavation in similar conditions and rock types. The aim of the engineering rock mass classification was to determine suitable bedrock volumes for the construction of the repository and has used data from the site characterisation programme carried out at Olkiluoto, which consisted of both surface studies and borehole investigations. The classification specifies three categories of constructability - normal, demanding and very demanding. In addition, rock mass quality has also been classified according to the empirical Q-system to enable a comparison to be made. The rock mass parameters that determine the constructability of the bedrock at Olkiluoto depend primarily on the depth and the Ethology, as well as on whether construction takes place in intact or in fractured rock. The differences in the characteristics of intact rock within a single rock type have been shown to be small. The major lithological unit at Olkiluoto, the mica gneiss, lies in the

  7. SKI's and SSI's experiences from their participation in the siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, M.; Hedberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises some experiences gained by the SKI and SSI during the ongoing process for siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The focus is on activities in the municipalities involved in the siting process. In order to give the proper context some basic elements in the legislation, which are important for public participation and confidence in the siting process, are outlined. The importance of clearly defined responsibilities and early participation of the regulators in the siting process are emphasised. It should be pointed out that this paper is not a comprehensive review of the Swedish situation but only contains a few selected issues and personal remarks from the authors. Thus, the views and opinions do not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. (authors)

  8. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions

  9. Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; proposed general guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-425), hereinafter referred to as the Act, the Department of Energy is proposing general guidelines for the recommendation of sites for repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in geologic formations. These guidelines are based on the criteria that the Department has used in its National Waste Terminal Storage program, the criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the environmental standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency. These guidelines establish the performance requirements for a geologic repository system, specify how the Department will implement its site-selection program, and define the technical qualifications that candidate sites must meet in the various steps of the site-selection process mandated by the Act. After considering comments from the public; consulting with the Council on Environmental Quality, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Director of the Geological Survey, and interested Governors; and obtaining NRC concurrence, the Department will issue these guidelines in final form as a new Part 960 to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 960)

  10. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  11. Heat propagation in and around the deep repository. Thermal calculations applied to three hypothetical sites: Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageskog, L.; Jansson, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the modelling of the thermal process in and around the deep repository for spent fuel. The model was developed in the general finite element program ANSYS and applied to the three hypothetical sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg included in the SR 97 analyse system. The canister emplacement in the repository was analysed based on certain criteria regarding the temperature on the canister surface. This was done with consideration to natural deviations in various thermal parameters as well as to the risk of a gap opening up between the canister surface and the bentonite buffer. The consequence of the latter was analysed separately as part of the study. The heat load in the model was applied stepwise, following an assumed time schedule for the actual deposition work. The calculations were extended to 1,000 years after the commencement of the deposition work. The outcome of the calculation is presented as coloured prints of isotherms in and around the repository at certain time intervals

  12. Why is variability important for performance assessment and what are its consequences for site characterisation and repository design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Smith, P.A.; Zuidema, P.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of spatial variability is discussed in terms of its consequences for site characterisation and for repository design and safety. Variability is described in terms of various scales of discrete structural features and a pragmatic classification is proposed according to whether the features are: feasibility-determining (i.e. features within which repository construction and operation is not practical and which preclude long-term safety); layout-determining (i.e. features which, if avoided, would enhance long-term safety); safety-determining features (i.e. features which cannot be shown to be avoidable and which strongly influence the calculated long-term safety of the repository system). The significance with respect to the geosphere-transport barrier of small-scale pore structure within the various classes of feature is also discussed. The practical problems of characterising variability and modelling its effects on radionuclide transport are described. Key factors affecting groundwater flow and radionuclide transport are identified, models that incorporate spatial variability are described and the estimation of appropriate parameters for these models is discussed. (author)

  13. Repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C M

    1982-01-01

    Various technical issues of radioactive waste design are addressed in this paper. Two approaches to repository design considered herein are: (1) design to minimize the disturbance of the hot rock; and (2) designs that intentionally modify the hot rock to insure better containment of the wastes. The latter designs range from construction of a highly impermeable barrier around a spherical cavern to creating a matrix of tunnels and boreholes to form a cage within which the hydraulic pressure is nearly constant. Examples of these design alternatives are described in some detail. It is concluded that proposed designs for repositories illustrate that performance criteria considered acceptable for such facilities can be met by appropriate site selection and repository engineering. With these technically feasible design concepts, it is also felt that socioeconomic and institutional issues can be better resolved. (BLM)

  14. Preliminary thermal/thermomechanical analyses of the Site Characterization Plan's Conceptual Design for a repository containing horizontally emplaced waste packages at the Deaf Smith County site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghantous, N.Y.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents thermal/thermomechanical analyses of the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design for horizontal package emplacement at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The repository was divided into three geometric regions. Then two-dimensional finite-element models were set up to approximate the three-dimensional nature of each region. Thermal and quasistatic thermomechanical finite-element analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal/thermomechanical responses of the three regions. The exponential-time creep law was used to represent the creep behavior of salt rock. The repository design was evaluated by comparing the thermal/thermomechanical responses obtained for the three regions with interim performance constraints. The preliminary results show that all the performance constraints are met except for those of the waste package. The following factors were considered in interpreting these results: (1) the qualitative description of the analytical responses; (2) the limitations of the analyses; and (3) either the conclusions based on overall evaluation of limitations and analytical results or the conclusions based on the fact that the repository design may be evaluated only after further analyses. Furthermore, a parametric analysis was performed to estimate the effect of material parameters on the predicted thermal/thermomechanical response. 23 refs., 34 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Rock stability considerations for siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. Based on experiences from Aespoe HRL, AECL's URL, tunnelling and mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.D. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Soederhaell, J. [VBB VIAK AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 25 years the international nuclear community has carried out extensive research into the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in hard rocks. In two cases this research has resulted in the construction of dedicated underground research facilities: SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden and AECL's Underground Research Laboratory, Canada. Both laboratories are located in hard rocks considered representative of the Fennoscandian and Canadian Shields, respectively. This report is intended to synthesize the important rock mechanics findings from these research programs. In particular the application of these finding to assessing the stability of underground openings. As such the report draws heavily on the published results from the SKB's ZEDEX Experiment in Sweden and AECL's Mine- by Experiment in Canada. The objectives of this report are to: 1. Describe, using the current state of knowledge, the role rock engineering can play in siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. 2. Define the key rock mechanics parameters that should be determined in order to facilitate repository siting and construction. 3. Discuss possible construction issues, linked to rock stability, that may arise during the excavation of the underground openings of a KBS-3 repository. 4. Form a reference document for the rock stability analysis that has to be carried out as a part of the design works parallel to the site investigations. While there is no unique or single rock mechanics property or condition that would render the performance of a nuclear waste repository unacceptable, certain conditions can be treated as negative factors. Outlined below are major rock mechanics issues that should be addressed during the siting, construction and closure of a nuclear waste repository in Sweden in hard crystalline rock. During the site investigations phase, rock mechanics information will be predominately gathered from examination and testing of the rock core and

  16. Rock stability considerations for siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. Based on experiences from Aespoe HRL, AECL's URL, tunnelling and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.D.; Christiansson, Rolf; Soederhaell, J.

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 25 years the international nuclear community has carried out extensive research into the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in hard rocks. In two cases this research has resulted in the construction of dedicated underground research facilities: SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden and AECL's Underground Research Laboratory, Canada. Both laboratories are located in hard rocks considered representative of the Fennoscandian and Canadian Shields, respectively. This report is intended to synthesize the important rock mechanics findings from these research programs. In particular the application of these finding to assessing the stability of underground openings. As such the report draws heavily on the published results from the SKB's ZEDEX Experiment in Sweden and AECL's Mine- by Experiment in Canada. The objectives of this report are to: 1. Describe, using the current state of knowledge, the role rock engineering can play in siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. 2. Define the key rock mechanics parameters that should be determined in order to facilitate repository siting and construction. 3. Discuss possible construction issues, linked to rock stability, that may arise during the excavation of the underground openings of a KBS-3 repository. 4. Form a reference document for the rock stability analysis that has to be carried out as a part of the design works parallel to the site investigations. While there is no unique or single rock mechanics property or condition that would render the performance of a nuclear waste repository unacceptable, certain conditions can be treated as negative factors. Outlined below are major rock mechanics issues that should be addressed during the siting, construction and closure of a nuclear waste repository in Sweden in hard crystalline rock. During the site investigations phase, rock mechanics information will be predominately gathered from examination and testing of the rock core and mapping of the

  17. Reflection seismic imaging of the upper crystalline crust for characterization of potential repository sites: Fine tuning the seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Palm, H.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2001-09-01

    SKB is currently carrying out studies to determine which seismic techniques, and how, they will be used for investigations prior to and during the building of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Active seismic methods included in these studies are refraction seismics, reflection seismics, and vertical seismic profiling (VSP). The main goal of the active seismic methods is to locate fracture zones in the crystalline bedrock. Plans are to use longer reflection seismic profiles (3.4 km) in the initial stages of the site investigations. The target depth for these seismic profiles is 100-1500 m. Prior to carrying out the seismic surveys over actual candidate waste repository sites it has been necessary to carry out a number of tests to determine the optimum acquisition parameters. This report constitutes a summary of the tests carried out by Uppsala University. In addition, recommended acquisition and processing parameters are presented at the end of the report. A major goal in the testing has been to develop a methodology for acquiring high-resolution reflection seismic data over crystalline rock in as a cost effective manner as possible. Since the seismic source is generally a major cost in any survey, significant attention has been given to reducing the cost of the source. It was agreed upon early in the study that explosives were the best source from a data quality perspective and, therefore, only explosive source methods have been considered in this study. The charge size and shot hole dimension required to image the upper 1-1.5 km of bedrock is dependent upon the conditions at the surface. In this study two types of shot hole drilling methods have been employed depending upon whether the thickness of the loose sediments at the surface is greater or less than 0.5 m. The charge sizes and shot hole dimensions required are: Loose sediment thickness less than 0.5 m: 15 g in 90 cm deep 12 mm wide uncased shot holes. Loose sediment thickness greater than 0.5 m: 75 g

  18. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinagra, T.A.; Harig, R.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ''MRS'') on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. 6 refs., 83 figs., 57 tabs

  19. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinagra, T.A.; Harig, R.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ''MRS'') on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. This document contains A-D

  20. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The study group on the selection procedures of radioactive waste final repository sites has presented the report in December 2002. The author dicusses the consequences of this report with respect to the site selection focussing on two topics: the serach for the best possible site and the prevention of prejudices

  1. Feasibility study for siting of a deep repository within the Malaa municipality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for localizing a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are analyzed in this study. The geologic structures of the area have been reviewed, using mostly data from published studies. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use, environment, employment and other social effects. (This report is almost identical to the report NEI-SE--222, referred to in INIS 27:12 (AN: 27-040802)). 47 refs, 41 figs, 8 tabs.

  2. Feasibility study for siting of a deep repository within the Malaa municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for localizing a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are analyzed in this study. The geologic structures of the area have been reviewed, using mostly data from published studies. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use, environment, employment and other social effects. (This report is almost identical to the report NEI-SE--222, referred to in INIS 27:12 (AN: 27-040802))

  3. Disruption scenarios for a nuclear-waste repository on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, R.L.; Bingham, F.W.; Barr, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Scenarios are being constructed for the release of radioactive maerial from hypothetical repositories in different types of rock at NTS. Deductive event trees are constructed; each path through an event tree is a scenario. The complete set of NTS event trees comprises about 340 scenarios, not counting the multiple paths through the subtrees made by expanding complex events. Each of these scenarios is being analyzed for 10 different types of rocks

  4. Modelling of the near-field chemistry of the SMA repository at the Wellenberg site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neall, F.B.

    1994-09-01

    Of the materials which make up the L/ILW repository for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, around 95 weight percent consists of concrete, around 4% of steel and around 1% of high molecular weight organic waste components. In this report, models are used to evaluate the long-term stability of concrete, steel and high molecular weight organic components under repository conditions. The results of this study will then form the basis for describing release of radionuclides from the disposal caverns, and particularly the sorption of nuclides on concrete. In the disposal caverns, concrete is exposed to a range of processes which affect its stability. External processes include the leaching of hydrated cement by percolating groundwater, while internal processes include dissolution of repository components in cement porewater which can then react with the concrete. Of greatest significance in this respect are the high molecular weight organic waste components which degrade to organic acids in the disposal environment and then react with the basic components of the concrete. The leaching of hydrated cement is described, using a mixing tank model, as a sequence of batch experiments in which the same cement block reacts repeatedly with fresh groundwater. The model is based on the work by Berner (1990) but has been extended to include other solid cement phases and can, in a simple way, take account of the degradation of high molecular weight organics and their reaction with hydrated cement. The mixing tank model shows that, given the low water fluxes that are expected for a L/ILW repository, concrete remains stable over geological time spans provided only small volumes of high molecular organics are present. If high concentrations of these materials ar present, the longevity of the concrete may be reduced. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. The Aespoe redox investigations in block scale. Project summary and implications for repository performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banwart, S [ed.; Bradford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-11-01

    During construction and operation of a deep repository for high level waste, the groundwater environment will be open to oxidizing surface conditions and surface water inflow. Construction of the access tunnel to the Hard Rock Laboratory intersected a vertical fracture zone at a depth of 70 m. Changes in the groundwater chemistry were then monitored for a period of three years. Mass balances for conservative and reactive natural tracers provided a basis for a site model of the fracture zone. Groundwater dilution was the dominant process affecting the geochemistry of the site. There was associated Na-Ca ion-exchange. There is evidence for extensive lateral flow between recharge areas and the discharge point in the access tunnel. There was a significant transport of young organic carbon from the surface to the discharge borehole during recharge. Proposed microbial processes during lateral flow include anaerobic respiration coupled to reduction of iron hydroxide, methanogenesis, precipitation of calcite and secondary ferrous minerals. There is strong evidence to rule out sulfate reduction. Sulfate increased dramatically, possibly by desorption from fracture minerals. Fracture performance is affected by the extensive groundwater dilution and by the microbial processes that occur. Dilution affects aqueous speciation, radionuclide solubility and sorption, and the stability and mobility of colloids. Aerobic respiration provides an effective sink for oxygen. Maintaining anoxia favors low solubility for Tc, Np, Pu and U. Reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide will release sorbed radionuclides, while formation of biogenic Fe(II) minerals can provide an effective reducing migration barrier to radionuclides and to future intrusion of oxygen from the surface. 26 refs, 13 figs, 10 tabs.

  6. The Aespoe redox investigations in block scale. Project summary and implications for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banwart, S.

    1995-11-01

    During construction and operation of a deep repository for high level waste, the groundwater environment will be open to oxidizing surface conditions and surface water inflow. Construction of the access tunnel to the Hard Rock Laboratory intersected a vertical fracture zone at a depth of 70 m. Changes in the groundwater chemistry were then monitored for a period of three years. Mass balances for conservative and reactive natural tracers provided a basis for a site model of the fracture zone. Groundwater dilution was the dominant process affecting the geochemistry of the site. There was associated Na-Ca ion-exchange. There is evidence for extensive lateral flow between recharge areas and the discharge point in the access tunnel. There was a significant transport of young organic carbon from the surface to the discharge borehole during recharge. Proposed microbial processes during lateral flow include anaerobic respiration coupled to reduction of iron hydroxide, methanogenesis, precipitation of calcite and secondary ferrous minerals. There is strong evidence to rule out sulfate reduction. Sulfate increased dramatically, possibly by desorption from fracture minerals. Fracture performance is affected by the extensive groundwater dilution and by the microbial processes that occur. Dilution affects aqueous speciation, radionuclide solubility and sorption, and the stability and mobility of colloids. Aerobic respiration provides an effective sink for oxygen. Maintaining anoxia favors low solubility for Tc, Np, Pu and U. Reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide will release sorbed radionuclides, while formation of biogenic Fe(II) minerals can provide an effective reducing migration barrier to radionuclides and to future intrusion of oxygen from the surface. 26 refs, 13 figs, 10 tabs

  7. Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the nearfield around a HLW repository in argillaceous formations. Vol. I. Laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang; Czaikowski, Oliver; Rothfuchs, Tilmann; Wieczorek, Klaus

    2013-06-15

    All over the world, clay formations are being investigated as host medium for geologic disposal of radioactive waste because of their favourable properties, such as very low hydraulic conductivity against fluid transport, good sorption capacity for retardation of radionuclides, and high potential of self-sealing of fractures. The construction of a repository, the disposal of heat-emitting high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the backfilling and sealing of the remaining voids, however, will inevitably induce mechanical (M), hydraulic (H), thermal (T) and chemical (C) disturbances to the host formation and the engineered barrier system (EBS) over very long periods of time during the operation and post-closure phases of the repository. The responses and resulting property changes of the clay host rock and engineered barriers are to be well understood, characterized, and predicted for assessing the long-term performance and safety of the repository.

  8. Site selection - location of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Platsval - lokalisering av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document describes the localization work and SKB's choice of site for the repository. Furthermore, SKB's basis and rationale for the decisions taken during the work are reported. The document is Appendix PV of applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code to both build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar municipality

  9. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Patton, P.

    2012-01-01

    'Full Text:' The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking screenings of site suitability. This panel presentation provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The panel presentation will be conducted in three parts: site selection process and engagement, Aboriginal engagement and Technical evaluations, followed by a discussion. The presentation will outline how NWMO sought

  10. Planned investigations for packing materials for a waste package in a salt repository: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Bunnell, L.R.; Thornton, T.A.

    1987-10-01

    A considerable number of materials have been either proposed or investigated as packing materials for nuclear waste package systems. Almost always the expandable clays, such as the smectites contained in commercial bentonites, have received the most attention when their primary function is to retard groundwater flow. Other materials including zeolites, metals, and dessicants are considered as special-purpose additives. Materials that tend to hydrolyze and lead to porosity reduction, such as silicates, oxides, and sulfates, have also been suggested as packing materials. All these types of materials are also considered as components of tailored mixtures to achieve a broad range of packing material performance. Some of these materials are reviewed, along with proposed candidate materials, with respect to the properties required to function in a salt repository. The investigation of packing materials is composed of five studies which are discussed below. Initial candidates will consist of calcium hydroxide, a sodium silicate, and a cement-gypsum mixture in addition to the reference crushed salt. Consequently these tests will be necessary to determine properties of individual components and to optimize properties of mixtures. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  12. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  14. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  15. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  16. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  17. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  18. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation, based on initial site investigation data. Planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2002-12-01

    This report is a planning document for the preliminary safety evaluations (PSE) to be carried out at the end of the initial stage of SKBs ongoing site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The main purposes of the evaluations are to determine whether earlier judgements of the suitability of the candidate area for a deep repository with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of borehole data and to provide feed-back to continued site investigations and site specific repository design. The preliminary safety evaluations will be carried out by a safety assessment group, based on a site model, being part of a site description, provided by a site modelling group and a repository layout within that model suggested by a repository engineering group. The site model contains the geometric features of the site as well as properties of the host rock. Several alternative interpretations of the site data will likely be suggested. Also the biosphere is included in the site model. A first task for the PSE will be to compare the rock properties described in the site model to previously established criteria for a suitable host rock. This report gives an example of such a comparison. In order to provide more detailed feedback, a number of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical analyses of the site will also be included in the evaluation. The selection of analyses is derived from the set of geosphere and biosphere analyses preliminarily planned for the comprehensive safety assessment named SR-SITE, which will be based on a complete site investigation. The selection is dictated primarily by the expected feedback to continued site investigations and by the availability of data after the PSE. The repository engineering group will consider several safety related factors in suggesting a repository layout: Thermal calculations will be made to determine a minimum distance between canisters avoiding canister surface temperatures above 100 deg C

  1. International workshop on site investigation and evaluation based on the siting process in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Stroem, A.

    2001-06-01

    SKB's goal is to commence surface based site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the international workshop on site characterisation held at Aespoe April 2001 was to: present the SKB site investigation and evaluation programme to a group of international experts; discuss whether the available toolbox of investigation methods for surface based site investigations is appropriate and state-of-the-art in an international perspective; and by working group sessions discuss the level of ambition in the programme for site investigation for each discipline. This report summarises the conclusions of the workshop in general terms. Many of the detailed comments and ideas obtained at the workshop have already inspired and will also directly inspire the on-going planning work for site characterisation. The core activity at the workshop was the work performed by working groups. They addressed what should be considered for a site characterisation programme, based on the generic planning made so far by SKB. The working groups also outlined site specific characterisation programmes for the sites suggested by SKB. The tasks were strictly confined to technical and scientific modelling issues. The working group chairmen presented the working group results at the workshop and have also submitted short memos to SKB. The present document is a compilation of these memos. The SKB generic programme as presented in the existing top level documents, 'Requirements and Criteria and Overall Programme', received general endorsement and was appreciated for being comprehensive and systematic. For example, it contains comprehensive lists of parameters to be measured. However, there is need for prioritisation and sequencing. This is actually included in the current planning process at SKB where the generic programme later this year will be adapted to

  2. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T ampersand MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document

  3. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-03-26

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that !he Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a

  4. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that the Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a staggering amount of

  5. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, Rolf; Hudson, John

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate

  6. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  7. Staff technical position on investigations to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, K.I.; Blackford, M.E.; Ibrahim, A.K.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this Staff Technical Position (STP) is to provide guidance to the US Department of Energy (DOE) on acceptable geologic repository investigations that can be used to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards. ne staff considers that the approach this STP takes to investigations of fault displacement and seismic phenomena is appropriate for the collection of sufficient data for input to analyses of fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards, both for the preclosure and postclosure performance periods. However, detailed analyses of fault displacement and seismic data, such as those required for comprehensive assessments of repository performance, may identify the need for additional investigations. Section 2.0 of this STP describes the 10 CFR Part 60 requirements that form the basis for investigations to describe fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository. Technical position statements and corresponding discussions are presented in Sections 3.0 and 4.0, respectively. Technical position topics in this STP are categorized thusly: (1) investigation considerations, (2) investigations for fault-displacement hazards, and (3) investigations for seismic hazards

  8. Can multi-criteria analysis models support the site selection for a repository for heat-generating waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutberlet, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The decision for or against a potential site for a nuclear waste repository is highly complex and requires decision-makers to consider multiple assessment criteria. The complexity of each site and its characteristics, and the differing opinions among members of the public and advocacy groups mean t hat conflicts of interest are likely to arise. In this paper, the author suggests that multi-criteria analysis models could be used to provide methodological support during the selection process. The models can map these types of decision situations and suggest coherent solutions with relatively little formal effort. They allow users to compare different opt ions simultaneously and ensure that t heir decision-making Is conscious rather than arbitrary.

  9. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories. Discussion Group reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The NRC Waste Management Program and the Office of State Programs held three regional workshops to solicit ideas from State executives and legislators on the siting and licensing procedures for high level waste repositories and to solicit comments on the NRC preliminary site suitability criteria. The workshops were held in Denver, Colorado; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the period 19-30 September 1977. The reports from these workshops are contained herein. The workshops were attended by 170 invited State executives and legislators from 46 states. In addition, there were over 80 observers from diverse backgrounds including the general public, government, industry, professional consultants and university faculty. The workshops were announced in the Federal Register on September 1, 1977

  10. Development of a methodology for post closure radiological risk analysis of underground waste repositories. Illustrative assessment of the Harwell site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralewski, Z.A.; Kane, P.; Nicholls, D.B.

    1987-06-01

    A probabilistic risk analysis (pra) is demonstrated for a number of ground water mediated release scenarios at the Harwell Site for a hypothetical repository at a depth of about 150 metres. This is the second stage of development of an overall risk assessment methodology. A procedure for carrying out multi-scenario assessment using available probabilistic risk assessment (pra) models is presented and a general methodology for combining risk contributions is outlined. Appropriate levels of model complexity in pra are discussed. Modelling requirements for the treatment of multiple simultaneous pathways and of site evolution are outlined. Further developments of pra systems are required to increase the realism of both the models and their mode of application, and hence to improve estimates of risk. (author)

  11. Geotechnical investigations of the PEP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, R.S.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the general nature of the geology and rock and soil formations of the PEP site as they relate to the design and construction of the project; to describe site investigation programs and to catalog the geotechnical information presently available about the site. The recently-completed investigation of subterranean conditions around the PEP ring when coupled with previous surveys gives us a good understanding of what to expect with regard to tunneling, undertaking larger underground excavations and constructing research halls are the interaction areas. It bears out the predictions made in Jacobs and Associates' report of 1973; i.e., that the ring housing construction is classified as soft-ground tunneling and that large underground openings, such as region 10 and the injection junction structures, will require great attention to support. A shield or shields will probably be required. On the positive side, the site affords very good conditions for soft-ground tunneling. Water will be a problem in some areas, but not an unsolvable one. The possibility of encountering lethal or explosive gases, almost always the case in tunneling in California's coastal formations, exists but has not been ascertained. Finally, no reasons to change current cost estimates or schedules have merged from the investigation. 13 refs., 1 fig

  12. Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository and the progress in site characterization at the Beishan potential site in NW China's Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Zhangru; Chen Weiming; Wang Wenguang

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository is summarized in this paper. The distribution and characteristics of granite, tuff, clay stone, salt and loess in China are described, while maps showing the distribution of host rocks are presented. Because of the wide distribution, large scale, good heat conductivity and suitable mechanical properties, granite is considered as the most potential host rock. Some granite bodies distributed in NW China, SW China, South China and Inner Mongolia have been selected as potential areas. Detailed site characterization at Beishan area, Gansu Province NW China is in progress

  13. Project ANSICHT. Final repository concept and backfilling and sealing concept for the final repository site model SUeD; Projekt ANSICHT. Endlagerkonzept sowie Verfuell- und Verschlusskonzept fuer das Endlagerstandortmodell SUeD. Technischer Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, Michael; Lommerzheim, Andree

    2015-08-03

    In the frame of ANSICHT the methodology for the demonstration of safe enclosure for high-level heat generating radioactive wastes is described. The report is based on the safety requirements for final repository concepts and shows a first backfilling and sealing concept that was developed for the final repository site model SUeD. The final repository model SUeD is based on a horizontal line storage concept, the Gorleben (VSG) and ERATO container concept and the mine layout were adopted and adapted to the given conditions. The backfill and sealing concept includes migration barriers, line closures and shaft closures in the frame of a redundant and diverse enclosure system. For all technical and geotechnical barrier components the long-term functional requirements were defined. The backfilling concept of underground cavities considers the variety of possible cavities in the line and infrastructure areas.

  14. Development of Next-generation Technology for Integrated Site Characterization of Deep Geological Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, H.; Umeki, H.; Ota, K.; Hama, K.; Sawada, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Semba, T.; Takase, H.; McKinley, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    As site investigation proceeds and information obtained on geological environments increases, the characterization plan has to be iteratively reviewed and modified to reflect improved understanding. Such modification would also be needed when changes occur in technical or socio-political boundary conditions. JAEA teams involved in implementation of URL projects have used a geo-synthesis data flow diagram to integrate a huge amount of practical experience in order to carry out such management functions. However, much of this experience was gained in the past, when it was possible for staff to learn by taking leading roles in novel, complex and important projects and learn by successes - and mistakes - under boundary conditions that were much more casual than they are at present. It is necessary to transfer such tacit knowledge to implementing and regulatory organizations in a practical manner before it is lost with the retirement of senior staff. An option being examined involves application of advanced technology, termed the Information Synthesis and Interpretation System (ISIS), to capture experience using Knowledge Engineering methods. This is being tested for practical applicability in an exercise involving stepwise 'optimization' of a site characterization plan. (authors)

  15. Alternative approaches to improve site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.B.; Silka, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    Common complaints about standard investigations at hazardous waste sites include high costs and long time frames. Investigations at military bases as part of the installation restoration program or base closures suffer additionally from nonuniformity of approach and results and redundancy of work effort conducted by multiple environmental contractors. The problems of high costs and long time frames can be minimized by the consistent use of alternative sampling methods (such as soil gas surveys) and the utilization of analytical screening procedures at both on-site and off-site laboratories. Acceptable data quality is maintained by several procedures. Incorporation of quality control measures (10 % frequency), such as matrix spikes and duplicates, into the alternative analytical techniques allows assessment of the data quality relative to predetermined data quality objectives (DQOs). Confirmation of the screening results (10% frequency) using standard US EPA methods, such as the contract laboratory program (CLP) statement of work (SOW), allows an additional evaluation of the data accuracy. Depending on the investigative objectives, knowledge based computer systems (expert systems,) could be used to improve uniformity of site evaluations. Several case histories will be presented demonstrating how soil gas surveys, screening analyses and standard analyses can be utilized to give increased site information in a reduced time frame and at a cost savings of 30 to 40%. One case history illustrates a screening technique developed by the author for polynuclear aromatics (semi-volatile organic compounds) that can be conducted at a cost savings of 90% relative to a standard US EPA method. A comparison of the phased investigative approach to one using an integrated field team is presented for fuel spill or UST areas

  16. Status of LANL investigations of temperature constraints on clay in repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporuscio, Florie A.; Cheshire, Michael C.; Newell, Dennis L.; McCarney, Mary Kate

    2012-01-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign is presently evaluating various generic options for disposal of used fuel. The focus of this experimental work is to characterize and bound Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) conditions in high heat load repositories. The UFD now has the ability to evaluate multiple EBS materials, waste containers, and rock types at higher heat loads and pressures (including deep boreholes). The geologic conditions now available to the U.S.A. and the international community for repositories include saturated and reduced water conditions, along with higher pressure and temperature (P, T) regimes. Chemical and structural changes to the clays, in either backfill/buffer or clay-rich host rock, may have significant effects on repository evolution. Reduction of smectite expansion capacity and rehydration potential due to heating could affect the isolation provided by EBS. Processes such as cementation by silica precipitation and authigenic illite could change the hydraulic and mechanical properties of clay-rich materials. Experimental studies of these repository conditions at high P,T have not been performed in the U.S. for decades and little has been done by the international community at high P,T. The experiments to be performed by LANL will focus on the importance of repository chemical and mineralogical conditions at elevated P,T conditions. This will provide input to the assessment of scientific basis for elevating the temperature limits in clay barriers.

  17. Site investigation SFR. Hydrochemical characterisation of groundwater in the SFR repository. Sampling and analysis during 2010. Extended investigations in KFR7A: 48.0 to 74.7 m KFR08: 63.0 to 104.0 m and KFR19: 95.6 to 110.0 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kersti (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    This report presents chemistry data from the extended sampling in SFR, performed every five years. The extended sampling yielded groundwater chemistry data in accordance with SKB chemistry class 3, 4 and 5 and included all water bearing borehole sections. Supplementary, more extensive, hydrochemical groundwater investigations were performed in three borehole sections: KFR7A:1 (48.0-74.7 m borehole length; 134.0-134.9 m.b.s.l.), KFR08:1 (63.0-104.0 m borehole length; 91.5-95.1 m.b.s.l.) and KFR19:1 (95.6-110.0 m borehole length; 58.2-54.5 m.b.s.l.) with a second purpose to supply important additional data to the SFR extension project. Samples for chemical analyses (major constituents, trace metals and isotopes) were collected in all three borehole sections and on-line measurements of pH, redox potential (Eh) and water temperature were also performed. The measurements were conducted in a flow through cell at the orifice of the boreholes. In addition, on-line measurements of electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen were conducted in KFR19:1. Furthermore, enrichments of humic and fulvic acids for determination of delta13C and 14C in organic material were performed in all three sections and sampling for analyses of dissolved gas was performed in KFR08:1 and KFR19:1. The three borehole sections with redox measurements showed stable water composition during the sampling periods. The chloride concentrations amounted to between 2,790 mg/L (KFR19:1) and 3,670 mg/L (KFR7A:1). All of the measured redox potentials (Eh) reached stable and consistent values (-153 mV in KFR7A:1, -156 mV in KFR08:1 and -168 mV in KFR19:1). All three borehole sections showed relatively high oxygen-18 values indicating a clearly marine origin of the groundwaters. No major changes of the water chemistry in the four boreholes included in the annual hydrochemistry monitoring program have been noticed during 2010. A slow shift towards lower chloride concentrations can be noticed when data for a

  18. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torudd, Jesper [Facilia AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    This study is part of the safety assessment of the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, called SR-Site. The purpose of the report is to clarify whether the environment is protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiation after a possible future release of radioactive matter from the planned repository. According to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources must be protected, and the evaluation should pay special attention to threatened and endemic species as well as economically and culturally valuable species. The report shows the approach to, and results of, calculations of dose rates to organisms other than man. The calculations are based on modelled activity concentrations from a potential future radioactive release, provided by a separate modelling project. Calculations were performed with the ERICA Tool, a software programme developed by an EU research project. In the ERICA Tool, dose rates for site specific organisms (i.e., occurring at the site) were calculated using input data such as size dimensions and masses of organisms, ecosystems and habitats, concentration ratios for the studied elements (i.e. the ratio of accumulated element concentration in the body compared with the element concentration in the surrounding environment) and maximum activity concentrations of radionuclides from the modelled future release. The results are provided in terms of final dose rates for each studied organism. In accordance with rationales of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the ERICA project, Representative (site-specific) Organisms from the planned site of the future repository were studied. Ideally, the organisms selected would meet the criteria defined by both SSM (species worth protecting) and by ICRP and ERICA (so-called Reference Organisms). Since activity concentrations for a number of radionuclides were missing for some of the studied

  19. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torudd, Jesper (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This study is part of the safety assessment of the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, called SR-Site. The purpose of the report is to clarify whether the environment is protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiation after a possible future release of radioactive matter from the planned repository. According to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources must be protected, and the evaluation should pay special attention to threatened and endemic species as well as economically and culturally valuable species. The report shows the approach to, and results of, calculations of dose rates to organisms other than man. The calculations are based on modelled activity concentrations from a potential future radioactive release, prov