WorldWideScience

Sample records for repository analogue program

  1. Natural analogues, paradigm for manmade repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Pavelescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Natural analogues are given by nature. They show the results of natural processes which have lasted thousands or millions of years. They provide an excellent example of what could happen in an underground site, offering in the same time the opportunity to test by observation and measurement, many of the geochemical processes that are expected to influence in a realistic and appropriate way, the predicted reliability of the radioactive waste repository over long periods of geological time. The natural analogue studies attempt to understand the multiprocessing complexity of the natural system, which contrasts with the limitations of the laboratory experiments and bring arguments to overcome the difficult time scale issue. By this the natural analogues are a useful paradigm for manmade repository for radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the implicit link in the public mind between natural analogues and manmade waste repository with an accent of the positive impact on public acceptance. It is also discussed the decisive qualities of the natural analogues concerning providing valid long term data and increasing the confidence of the public for manmade repositories. The debate is conducting in terms of sustainable development, having at base high-level principles in order to protect humans and their environment, both now and in the future, from potential hazards arising from such wastes. Safe radwaste management involves the application of technology and resources in a regulated manner so that the public, workers and the environment are protected in accordance with the accepted national and international standards. There are at least seven high-level principles which are mentioned in the paper. It is presented the general concept of the deep geological repository, very important for an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste, what is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Further are introduced natural and archaeological (manufactured) analogue

  2. Natural analogues for containment-providing barriers for a HLW repository in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J.; Noseck, U.

    2015-06-15

    In 2005, a German research project was started to develop a novel approach to prove safety for a HLW repository in a salt formation, to refine the safety concept, to identify open scientific issues and to define necessary R&D work. This project aimed at identifying the key information for a HLW repository in salt. One important question is how this information may be best fulfilled by natural analogue studies. This question is answered by starting a review of the required key information needs of the safety case (post-closure phase) in order to assess whether or not these requirements can be supported by natural analogues information. In order to structure the review and to address the key elements of the safety concepts, three types of natural analogues are distinguished: (i) natural analogues for the integrity of the geological barrier, (ii) natural analogues for the integrity of the geotechnical barriers and (iii) natural analogues for release scenarios. For the safety case in salt type (i) and (ii) are of highest importance and are treated in this paper. The assessment documented in this paper on the one hand indicates the high potential benefit of natural analogues for a safety case in salt and on the other hand helps to focus the available human and financial resources for the safety case on the most safety-relevant aspects. (authors)

  3. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100 degrees C and could reach 250 degrees C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinement of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields

  4. Applications of natural analogue studies to Yucca Mountain as a potential high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The 5-member group convened in Las Vegas, Nov. 11-13, 1991, to clarify the extent to which studies of natural analogues can assist the Yucca Mountain site characterization (SC) project. This document is to provide guidance and recommendations to DOE for the implementation of natural analogue studies in the SC program. Performance assessment, integrity of engineered barriers, and communication to the public and the scientific community are stressed. The reference design being developed by Babcock ampersand Wilcox Fuel Company are reviewed. Guidelines for selecting natural analogues are given. Quality assurance is discussed. Recommendations are given for developing an effective natural analogue program within the SC program

  5. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  6. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  7. Uranium, thorium and trace elements in geologic occurrences as analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Brookins, D.G.; Cohen, L.H.; Flexser, S.; Abashian, M.; Murphy, M.; Williams, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Contact zones between intrusive rocks and tuff, basalt, salt and granitic rock were investigated as possible analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions. Results of detailed studies of contacts between quartz monzonite of Laramide age, intrusive into Precambrian gneiss, and a Tertiary monzonite-tuff contact zone indicate that uranium, thorium and other trace elements have not migrated significantly from the more radioactive instrusives into the country rock. Similar observations resulted from preliminary investigations of a rhyodacite dike cutting basalt of the Columbia River plateau and a kimberlitic dike cutting bedded salt of the Salina basin. This lack of radionuclide migration occurred in hydrologic and thermal conditions comparable to, or more severe than those expected in nuclear waste repository environments and over time periods of the order of concern for waste repositories. Attention is now directed to investigation of active hydrothermal systems in candidate repository rock types, and in this regard a preliminary set of samples has been obtained from a core hole intersecting basalt underlying the Newberry caldera, Oregon, where temperatures presently range from 100 to 265 0 C. Results of mineralogical and geochemical investigations of this core should indicate the alteration mineralogy and behavior of radioelements in conditions analogous to those in the near field of a repository in basalt

  8. Natural analogues to the conditions around a final repository for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-12-01

    This report documents the proceedings resulting from a Workshop held at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, USA, from 1-3 October, 1984. The theme of the Workshop was entitled 'Natural analogues to the conditions around a final repository for high-level radioactive waste', and was restricted to ultimate disposal in a crystalline bedrock environment. The Workshop provided an important first step in co-ordinating and focussing different national and individual interests and approaches towards natural analogue studies. One of the points highlighted at the concluding forum of the meeting was the necessity to first define the geochemical processes which are assumed to occur after disposal of the radioactive waste, and then locate suitable analogue systems which can be used to test the mechanisms of one, or a simple combination of these geochemical processes. Even accepting that the choice of which geochemical process(es) to be selected for validation will be sensitive to individual national disposal strategies, farfield radionuclide retardation mechanisms in the geosphere were considered to be a central topic of importance, and should therefore be given high priority. At this early stage in the development of natural analogue studies it was not possible to cover all the important aspects. In retrospect, the role of the models should have received more attention; bridging the gap between geoscientists and the modellers was seen as being of prime importance in future meetings of this nature. (author)

  9. EEI/UWASTE oversight of the DOE Repository Program by the Repository Information Exchange Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, C.J.; Supko, E.M.; Schwartz, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Utility Nuclear Waste and Transportation Program of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI/UWASTE) has conducted reviews of the US DOE's repository program through its Repository Information Exchange Team (RIET or Team). Eight such reviews have been conducted since 1985 covering topics that include repository program management and control; repository schedule; repository budget; quality assurance; site characterization; repository licensing; environmental issues; and institutional and public information activities. The utility industry has used these repository program reviews as a forum for providing DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with comments on the direction of the repository program, advice for future actions regarding quality assurance activities and repository licensing, and suggestions for management and control of the Repository Program. The most significant recommendations made by the utility industry through the RIET are discussed along with any subsequent action by OCRWM in response to or subsequent to utility industry recommendations. The process used by the RIET to develop its recommendations to OCRWM regarding the repository program is also discussed

  10. Repository-based software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    1992-01-01

    The activities performed during September 1992 in support of Tasks 01 and 02 of the Repository-Based Software Engineering Program are outlined. The recommendations and implementation strategy defined at the September 9-10 meeting of the Reuse Acquisition Action Team (RAAT) are attached along with the viewgraphs and reference information presented at the Institute for Defense Analyses brief on legal and patent issues related to software reuse.

  11. Analogues to features and processes of a high-level radioactive waste repository proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Stuckless, John S.; with a Foreword by Abraham Van Luik, U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-01-01

    Natural analogues are defined for this report as naturally occurring or anthropogenic systems in which processes similar to those expected to occur in a nuclear waste repository are thought to have taken place over time periods of decades to millennia and on spatial scales as much as tens of kilometers. Analogues provide an important temporal and spatial dimension that cannot be tested by laboratory or field-scale experiments. Analogues provide one of the multiple lines of evidence intended to increase confidence in the safe geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Although the work in this report was completed specifically for Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste under the U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the applicability of the science, analyses, and interpretations is not limited to a specific site. Natural and anthropogenic analogues have provided and can continue to provide value in understanding features and processes of importance across a wide variety of topics in addressing the challenges of geologic isolation of radioactive waste and also as a contribution to scientific investigations unrelated to waste disposal. Isolation of radioactive waste at a mined geologic repository would be through a combination of natural features and engineered barriers. In this report we examine analogues to many of the various components of the Yucca Mountain system, including the preservation of materials in unsaturated environments, flow of water through unsaturated volcanic tuff, seepage into repository drifts, repository drift stability, stability and alteration of waste forms and components of the engineered barrier system, and transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated rock zones.

  12. The network to review natural analogue studies and their applications to repository safety assessment and public communication (NAnet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.M.; Hooker, P.J. [ENVIROS Consulting ltd, 61, the Shore Leith, UK-0 EH6 6RA Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Analogue information can increase our conceptual understanding of long-term repository behaviour in support of post-closure performance assessment (PA), provide quantitative data for PA models and provide ways of communicating safety information to non-specialist audiences. These functions of analogue studies have, however, received too little attention in PA reports and safety cases. Many analogue studies have been undertaken in the last two decades costing tens of millions of euros, and these have covered a wide range of phenomena such as uranium ore deposition, natural fission reactors, natural nuclide migration, contaminant containment by clays and sediments, preservation of ancient fossil trees and buried artefacts etc. The different uses of analogues would be easier to manage if a single database of quality approved analogue information were to be created. NAnet, a Thematic Network within the 5. EURATOM FP is aiming to promote more considered applications of analogues in performance and safety assessments and in audience dialogue. NAnet intends critically to review a number of analogue studies in terms of their relevance and limitations to different repository concepts and environments and with regard to their applications in performance assessments, safety cases and communication. On the basis of these reviews, a simple digital database is being developed for the PA community which will allow PA modelers to make quicker and wider use of natural analogue information in performance and safety assessments. It is expected that some of these tools will help radioactive waste institutions to make better use of natural analogue information for communication with different audiences, including the public. (authors)

  13. Salt Repository Project transportation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.L.; Greenberg, A.H.; Anderson, T.L.; Yates, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs

  14. Thorium deposit of Morro do Ferro in Pocos de Caldas, Brazil: an analogue of a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.P.; Carlos, M.T.; Sachett, I.A.; Campos, M.J.M.T. de; Lei, W.; Eisenbud, M.; New York Univ., NY

    1986-01-01

    A highly weathered deposit of thorium and rare earth elements located near the summit of a hill (Morro do Ferro) in Pocos de Caldas M.G., is being studied as an analogue for a radioactive waste repository that, sometime in the distant future, may be eroded to the surface or intruded by groundwater. Th - serves as an analogue for Pu 4+ and La 3+ as an analogue for Cm 3+ and Am 3+ . The mobilization rates of the analogue elements by groundwater are so slow (10 -7 to 10 -9 per year), as to suggest that essentially complete radioactive decay of transuranic actinides would occur in place, even under the unfavorable conditions that exist at a site such as this. (Author) [pt

  15. Repository-Based Software Engineering Program: Working Program Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Repository-Based Software Engineering Program (RBSE) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored program dedicated to introducing and supporting common, effective approaches to software engineering practices. The process of conceiving, designing, building, and maintaining software systems by using existing software assets that are stored in a specialized operational reuse library or repository, accessible to system designers, is the foundation of the program. In addition to operating a software repository, RBSE promotes (1) software engineering technology transfer, (2) academic and instructional support of reuse programs, (3) the use of common software engineering standards and practices, (4) software reuse technology research, and (5) interoperability between reuse libraries. This Program Management Plan (PMP) is intended to communicate program goals and objectives, describe major work areas, and define a management report and control process. This process will assist the Program Manager, University of Houston at Clear Lake (UHCL) in tracking work progress and describing major program activities to NASA management. The goal of this PMP is to make managing the RBSE program a relatively easy process that improves the work of all team members. The PMP describes work areas addressed and work efforts being accomplished by the program; however, it is not intended as a complete description of the program. Its focus is on providing management tools and management processes for monitoring, evaluating, and administering the program; and it includes schedules for charting milestones and deliveries of program products. The PMP was developed by soliciting and obtaining guidance from appropriate program participants, analyzing program management guidance, and reviewing related program management documents.

  16. A Natural Analogue for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Coupled Processes at the Proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bill Carey; Gordon Keating; Peter C. Lichtner

    1999-01-01

    Dike and sill complexes that intruded tuffaceous host rocks above the water table are suggested as natural analogues for thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Scoping thermal-hydrologic calculations of temperature and saturation profiles surrounding a 30-50 m wide intrusion suggest that boiling conditions could be sustained at distances of tens of meters from the intrusion for several thousand years. This time scale for persistence of boiling is similar to that expected for the Yucca Mountain repository with moderate heat loading. By studying the hydrothermal alteration of the tuff host rocks surrounding the intrusions, insight and relevant data can be obtained that apply directly to the Yucca Mountain repository and can shed light on the extent and type of alteration that should be expected. Such data are needed to bound and constrain model parameters used in THC simulations of the effect of heat produced by the waste on the host rock and to provide a firm foundation for assessing overall repository performance. One example of a possible natural analogue for the repository is the Paiute Ridge intrusive complex located on the northeastern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The complex consists of dikes and sills intruded into a partially saturated tuffaceous host rock that has stratigraphic sequences that correlate with those found at Yucca Mountain. The intrusions were emplaced at a depth of several hundred meters below the surface, similar to the depth of the proposed repository. The tuffaceous host rock surrounding the intrusions is hydrothermally altered to varying extents depending on the distance from the intrusions. The Paiute Ridge intrusive complex thus appears to be an ideal natural analogue of THC coupled processes associated with the Yucca Mountain repository. It could provide much needed physical and chemical data for understanding the influence of heat

  17. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process

  18. Use of natural analogues to support radionuclide transport models for deep geological repositories for long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Plans to dispose high level and long lived radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories have raised a number of unique problems, mainly due to the very long time-scales which have to be considered. An important way to help to evaluate performance and provide confidence in the assessment of safety in the long term is to carry out natural analogue studies. Natural analogues can be regarded as long term natural experiments the results or outcome of which can be observed, but which, by definition, are uncontrolled by humans. Studies of natural analogues have been carried out for more than two decades, although the application of information from them is only relatively recently becoming scientifically well ordered. This report is part of a the IAEA's programme on radioactive waste management dealing with disposal system technology for high level and long lived radioactive waste. It presents the current status of natural analogue information in evaluating models for radionuclide transport by groundwater. In particular, emphasis is given to the most useful aspects of quantitative applications for model development and testing (geochemistry and coupled transport models). The report provides an overview of various natural analogues as reference for those planning to develop a research programme in this field. Recommendations are given on the use of natural analogues to engender confidence in the safety of disposal systems. This report is a follow up of Technical Reports Series No. 304 on Natural Analogues in Performance Assessments for the Disposal of Long Lived Radioactive Waste (1989)

  19. Identification and applicability of analogues for a safety case for a HLW repository in evaporites: results from a NEA workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, U.; Wolf, J. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Brunswick (Germany); Steininger, W. [Project Management Agency Karslruhe Water Technology and Waste Management, PTKA-WTE, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Miller, B. [AMEC, The Renaissance Center, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    A workshop was held in September 2012 in Braunschweig, Germany, to discuss the potential for natural and anthropogenic analogue studies to contribute to safety cases for radioactive waste repositories constructed in salt formations. Presentations were given on many analogue sites and systems from different countries. Discussions at the workshop then addressed the following aspects that are particularly relevant to the safety concept for radioactive waste disposal in salt: (1) the long-term integrity of rock salt formations, (2) the integrity of technical barriers, and (3) microbial, chemical and transport processes. A diverse range of natural systems were discussed as potential analogues for the integrity of rock salt. These included the deformation of anhydrite layers in rock salt; the response of rock salt to mechanical and thermal loads; and the isotopic signatures of syngenetic waters contained in fluid inclusions. Some anthropogenic examples drawn from the oil and gas industries, and from hazardous waste disposal, were proposed as analogues for the integrity of (geo)technical barriers. A broad range of studies on natural and anthropogenic salt-brine systems were identified as potential analogues for the radionuclide sorption and (co)precipitation process that may take place in the repository near and far fields, as well as for understanding the significance of hydrocarbons and microbial processes. It was evident from discussions at the workshop that there are some specific technical issues that may benefit from further analogue study, particularly the compaction of crushed salt backfill, the viability of microbes in the near-field, the stability of plugs and seals, the deformation of anhydrite, and isotope signatures in fluid inclusions. (authors)

  20. Radionuclide migration around uranium ore bodies: analogue of radioactive waste repositories. Annual report, July 1982-June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    A number of uranium ore bodies in the Northern Territory of Australia have been evaluated as geochemical analogues of high-level radioactive waste repositories. The aim of the study is to contribute to the understanding of the scientific basis for the long-term prediction of the transport of radionuclides. Particular attention is being paid to investigations of (i) mechanisms of mobilization and subsequent retardation of uranium series nuclides following the weathering of metamorphic host rocks, (ii) the role of iron minerals in the retardation of uranium and thorium, (iii) the role of groundwater colloids in the transport of radionuclides, (iv) experimental methods for studying the time dependence of adsorption coefficients, and (v) conceptual methods for studying the effect of transport of uranium series nuclides through crystalline host rocks over geological time. The possibility of incorporating certain transuranic and fission product elements into the analogue is discussed. 29 figures, 36 tables

  1. Achieving public acceptance. Lessons from national repository programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all countries pursuing nuclear waste repository programs have had long and dynamic histories. There have had changes in policies, programs, and national laws, many successes and more failures. Most continue to pursue the siting and development of geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of the spent nuclear fuel (or reprocessed wastes) arising from the operation of nuclear power plants. And while many have had very strong repository science and technology programs, they have continued to find significant challenges associated with the societal acceptance issues required for such programs to be successful. Over recent years repository programs have developed and implemented rather different approaches to managing the non-technical (e.g. societal, political, and institutional) aspects of repository program development. This is not unexpected as programs have had different histories, operate under different laws, reside in countries with different cultures and values, and are managed under different formulations. For example, the U.S. program is implemented by a branch of the Department of Energy while in several other countries the program is managed by a separate corporation on behalf of the nuclear waste owners or dedicated quasi-governmental organizations. These similar, but different programs, and their rich histories and current work, provide an excellent opportunity to investigate features that have and have not proven successful in helping to achieve public acceptance. This paper will review some of the compelling aspects and provide some guidelines for applications in other national circumstances. Recent experiences will be evaluated to discern emerging trends for achieving public acceptance in nuclear repository development and in the broader dimensions associated with the potential renaissance of nuclear power. (author)

  2. Performance Assessment Strategy Plan for the Geologic Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Performance assessment is a major constituent of the program being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a geologic repository. Performance assessment is the set of activities needed for quantitative evaluations to assess compliance with the performance requirements in the regulations for a geologic repository and to support the development of the repository. The strategy for these evaluations has been documented in the Performance Assessment Strategy Plan (DOE, 1989). The implementation of the performance assessment strategy is defined in this document. This paper discusses the scope and objectives of the implementation plan, the relationship of the plan to other program plans, summarizes the performance assessment areas and the integrated strategy of the performance assessment program. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. The geochemical immobilization of uranium in a spent fuel repository in the Canadian Shield: Evidence from natural analogue investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    Natural analogue studies of uranium ore deposits provide valuable information on the geochemical conditions that control the mobilization of uranium and associated radionuclides in groundwaters. At Cigar Lake in northern Saskatchewan, the Pocos de Caldas site in Brazil, and at Palmottu in Finland, groundwaters are sufficiently reducing to prevent significant oxidation of U +4 to the more soluble U +6 oxidation state. Despite being one of the richest uranium deposits in the world, uranium concentrations in the groundwaters around the Cigar Lake ore are less than 5 x 10 -8 M. Even under oxiding conditions uranium may not necessarily be highly mobilized by groundwaters. Studies of the relatively shallow uranium ore deposits in the Alligator Rivers region of Australia have shown that uranium transport by groundwater can be limited because of uranium sorption onto secondary iron oxides within the aquifer. However, studies at 'negative analgoue' sites indicate that where the host rocks contain low concentrations of reductants such as iron sulphides, strongly reducing conditions are not established and high concentrations of dissolved uranium can result, even in areas where uranium ore deposits are not known to occur. The release rate of radionuclides from a spent fuel repository will be strongly dependent on the redox conditions that are established following resaturation of the repository. Groundwater at depths of 500 m in a granitic pluton may not be sufficiently reducing to prevent oxidative dissolution of uranium or oxidation of associated radionuclides such as 99 Tc. Accordingly other shield rocks richer in reductants, such as greenstone belts, should be considered as potential host rocks for a repository or the repository should be constructed at depths closer to 1000 m in granitic rock where more reducing conditions are likely to prevail. Alternatively, addition of reductants to the waste containers may be feasible as a means of maintaining reducing conditions

  4. Radon in underground waters as a natural analogue to study the escape of CO2 in geological repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; Ruano Sánchez, A B; de la Torre Pérez, J; Jurado Vargas, M

    2015-11-01

    Activity concentrations of dissolved (222)Rn and (226)Ra were measured in several underground aquifers, which are candidates for repositories or for the study of analogue natural escapes of CO2. The concentration of both radionuclides in water was determined using liquid scintillation counting. The values obtained for the (222)Rn concentrations varied from 0 to 150 Bq l(-1), while the levels of (226)Ra were in general very low. This indicates that (222)Rn is coming from the decay of the undissolved (226)Ra existing in the rocks and deep layers of the aquifers, being later transported by diffusion in water. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Poco de Caldas project: Natural analogues of processes in a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Shea, M.E.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The safe disposal of radioactive wastes by burial in deep geologic formations requires long-term predictions of the future behavior of the wastes nd their engineered repository. Such predictions can be tested by evaluating processes analogous to those which will occur in a repository, which have been long active in the natural geochemical environment. The title project is a comprehensive study of two ore deposits in Minas Gerais, Brasil, aimed at looking at uranium and thorium series radionuclide and rare earth element mobility, the development and movement of redox fronts, and the nature of natural groundwater colloids. A multidisciplinary team of experts from 27 laboratories carried out a fully integrated study of the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, hydrochemistry and geomicrobiology of the two sited for nearly four years. This book contains 20 papers covering the detailed findings, with particular emphasis on their significance for radioactive waste disposal, especially on the use of the data in testing models of radionuclide movement

  6. Salt Repository Project Waste Package Program Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.; Cunnane, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Under the direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) created within the DOE by direction of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the mission of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) is to provide for the development of a candidate salt repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent reactor fuel in a manner that fully protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In consideration of the program needs and requirements discussed above, the SRP has decided to develop and issue this SRP Waste Package Program Plan. This document is intended to outline how the SRP plans to develop the waste package design and to show, with reasonable assurance, that the developed design will satisfy applicable requirements/performance objectives. 44 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Bentonite deposits as a natural analogue to long-term barriers in a final repository of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The geology of bentonite occurrences in Almeria (Spain) and Wyoming (USA) were studied in order to find suitable natural analogue to the longterm mechanical behaviour of the bentonite barrier in the final nuclear waste disposal. The study is based on literature review over both occurrence areas and on fieldwork observations from Almeria, Spain. The deposit areas differ from each other by age, deposition environment, exchangeable cation chemistry, alteration condition, occurrence and deformational features. One of the most important deformational feature in Almeria bentonites was the existence of Tertiary (Middle and Upper Miocene, 6-15.5 Ma old) bentonite intrusion inside/over younger Quaternary (Pleistocene Superior, 0.01-0.72 Ma old) sediments. This was a result of the confining pressure of overlying volcanic rocks and sediments and the high plasticity behaviour of bentonites. According to this observation, the pressure effect in final nuclear waste repositories requires further investigations. The bentonites in Wyoming have survived weathering and shearing without losing their expandability or other properties typical of smectite-rich materials. (orig.)

  8. Nurture of human resources for geological repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese geological repository program entered the implementing stage in 2002. At the implementing stage of the program, different sectors need various human resources to conduct their functions. This paper discusses a suitable framework of nurture of the human resources to progress the geological repository program. The discussion is based on considering of specific characters involved in the program and of the multidisciplinary knowledge related to geological disposal. Considering the specific characters of the project, two types of the human resources need to be nurtured. First type is the core persons with the highest knowledge on geological disposal. They are expected to communicate with the various stakeholders and pass down the whole knowledge of the project to the next generation. Another is to conduct the project as the managers, the engineers and the workers. The former human resources can be developed through the broad practice and experience in each sector. The latter human resources can be effectively developed by training of the fundamental knowledge on geological disposal at training centers as well as by conventional on-the-job training. The sectors involved in the program need to take their own roles in the nurture of these human resources. (author)

  9. Repository-based software engineering program: Concept document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the context for Repository-Based Software Engineering's (RBSE's) evolving functional and operational product requirements, and it is the parent document for development of detailed technical and management plans. When furnished, requirements documents will serve as the governing RBSE product specification. The RBSE Program Management Plan will define resources, schedules, and technical and organizational approaches to fulfilling the goals and objectives of this concept. The purpose of this document is to provide a concise overview of RBSE, describe the rationale for the RBSE Program, and define a clear, common vision for RBSE team members and customers. The document also provides the foundation for developing RBSE user and system requirements and a corresponding Program Management Plan. The concept is used to express the program mission to RBSE users and managers and to provide an exhibit for community review.

  10. Salt repository sealing materials development program: 5-year work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.B.

    1986-06-01

    This plan covers 5 years (fiscal years 1986 through 1990) of work in the repository sealing materials program to support design decisions and licensing activities for a salt repository. The plan covers a development activity, not a research activity. There are firm deliverables as the end points of each part of the work. The major deliverables are: development plans for code development and materials testing; seal system components models; seal system performance specifications; seal materials specifications; and seal materials properties ''handbook.'' The work described in this plan is divided into three general tasks as follows: mathematical modeling; materials studies (salt, cementitious materials, and earthen materials); and large-scale testing. Each of the sections presents an overview, status, planned activities, and summary of program milestones. This plan will be the starting point for preparing the development plans described above, but is subject to change if preparation of the work plan indicates that a different approach or sequence is preferable to achieve the ultimate goal, i.e., support of design and licensing

  11. Nye County, Nevada 1992 nuclear waste repository program: Program overview. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the Nye County FY92 Nuclear Waste Repository Program (Program). Funds to pay for Program costs will come from the Federal Nuclear Waste Fund, which was established under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). In early 1983, the Yucca Mountain was identified as a potentially suitable site for the nation's first geologic repository for spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Later that year, the Nye County Board of County Commissioners (Board) established the capability to monitor the Federal effort to implement the NWPA and evaluate the potential impacts of repository-related activities on Nye County. Over the last eight years, the County's program has grown in complexity and cost in order to address DOE's evolving site characterization studies, and prepare for the potential for facility construction and operation. Changes were necessary as well, in response to Congress's redirection of the repository program specified in the amendments, to the NWPA approved in 1987. In early FY 1991, the County formally established a project office to plan and implement its program of work. The Repository Project Office's (RPO) mission and functions are provided in Section 2.0. The RPO organization structure is described in Section 3.0

  12. Environmental monitoring and radiation protection programs of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoskova, M.; Kostova, M.; Sheherov, L.; Bekiarov, P.; Iovtchev, M.

    2000-01-01

    The system for monitoring and control as an important part of the safety management of the Novi Han Radioactive Waste Repository contains two independent programs: environmental monitoring of the site (controlled area), the restricted access area and the surveillance area (supervised area) of the repository and radiation protection program including personal dosimetric control and indoor dosimetric control of workplaces in the buildings of the repository. The main activities related to the programs implementation are presented

  13. Sandstone uranium deposits of Meghalaya: natural analogues for radionuclide migration and backfill material in geological repository for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    Sandstone uranium deposits serve as potential natural analogue to demonstrate safety offered by geological media against possible release of nuclear waste from their confinement and migration towards biosphere. In this study, available database on geochemical aspects of Domisiat uranium deposit of Meghalaya has been evaluated to highlight the behavior of radionuclides of concern over long term in a geological repository. Constituents like actinides (U and Th), fission products and RE elements are adequately retained in clays and organic matters associated with these sandstone deposits. The study also highlights the possibility of utilization of lean ore discarded during mining and milling as backfill material in far field areas and optimizing near field buffers/backfills in a geological repository located in granitic rocks in depth range of 400-500m. (author)

  14. Natural Analogues - One Way to Help Build Public Confidence in the Predicted Performance of a Mined Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2002-02-26

    The general public needs to have a way to judge the predicted long-term performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The applicability and reliability of mathematical models used to make this prediction are neither easily understood nor accepted by the public. Natural analogues can provide the average person with a tool to assess the predicted performance and other scientific conclusions. For example, hydrologists with the Yucca Mountain Project have predicted that most of the water moving through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will move through the host rock and around tunnels. Thus, seepage into tunnels is predicted to be a small percentage of available infiltration. This hypothesis can be tested experimentally and with some quantitative analogues. It can also be tested qualitatively using a variety of analogues such as (1) well-preserved Paleolithic to Neolithic paintings in caves and rock shelters, (2) biological remains preserved in caves and rock shelters, and (3) artifacts and paintings preserved in man-made underground openings. These examples can be found in materials that are generally available to the non-scientific public and can demonstrate the surprising degree of preservation of fragile and easily destroyed materials for very long periods of time within the unsaturated zone.

  15. Repository Technology Program: Technical progress report for the period May 29, 1986--June 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This document reports the progress made in the 13-month period from May 29, 1986--June 30, 1987, on the development of a second geologic repository in rocks other than those being considered for a first repository. Subsequent periods will be covered in reports to be issued on a semiannual basis. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD), a prime contractor of the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Repository Technology Program (RTP) Office in the Repository Technology and Transportation Division (RTTD) of the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR). The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the OWTD. 50 refs

  16. Dispute resolution in the nuclear waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creighton, J.L.; Shorett, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    During 1987 a seven-person team addressed just that question for the State of Washington, as part of the studies of the socioeconomic impacts of a possible nuclear waste repository site at the Hanford site. The authors were, respectively, the Mitigation/Compensation team leader and the conflict resolution specialist within the team. While the studies were terminated when Congress selected the Nevada site, the conclusions may still have value for the State of Nevada, or for other controversial federal projects

  17. Quality assurance records system for research and development activities in support of geologic repository programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.W.; Ryder, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy, is conducting site-specific research for all three candidate sites for the first geologic high-level waste repository, as well as generic research for the second repository. In conjunction with this effort, PNL has developed a quality assurance (QA) program that is applicable to all organizations that are performing research and development (R and D) activities in support of the repository programs. This QA program meets the basic and supplemental requirements of ANSI/ASME NQA-1-1983 and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Review Plan for QA Programs for Site Characterization of High Level Nuclear Waste Repositories. A key part of this program is the handling of QA records that may ultimately support the licensing process for the repository. This paper describes a QA records system that is flexible enough to accommodate several types of research, such as paper studies, test method development, site characterization studies, software development, and hardware design. In addition, the QA records system is acceptable to a variety of sponsors who have licensing concerns. The QA procedures and their relation to the requirements are described. Most important is the discussion on the approaches used to assure that the records are organized such that the user can readily recreate or defend data, conclusions, and recommendations resulting from the research

  18. NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere

  19. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport

  20. A natural analogue for near-field behaviour in a high level radioactive waste repository in salt: the Salton Sea geothermal field, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elders, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), in the sediments of the delta of the Colorado River, we are developing a three-dimensional picture of active water/rock reactions at temperatures of 0 C and salinities of 7 to 25 weight percent to produce quantitative data on mineral stabilities and mobilities of naturally-occurring radio-nuclides. The aim is to produce data to validate geochemical computer codes being developed to assess the performance of a Commercial High-Level Waste (CHLW) repository in salt. Among the findings to date are: (1) greenschist facies metamorphism is occurring; (2) brine compositions are fairly similar to those expected in candidate salt repository sites; (3) U and Th concentrations in the rocks are typical for sedimentary rocks; (4) the brines are enriched in Na, Mn, Zn, Sr, Ra Po and strongly depleted in U and Th relative to the rocks; (5) significant radioactive disequilibria exist in brines and solid phases of the SSGF. The disequilibria in the actinide series allow estimation of the rates of brine-rock interaction and understanding of hydrologic processes and radionuclide behaviour. Work is continuing emphasizing the reactions of authigenic clay minerals, epidotes, feldspars, chlorites and sulphates. So far, adapting geochemical codes to the necessary combination of high salinity and high temperature has lagged behind the natural analogue study of the SSGF so that validation is still in progress. In the future our data can be also used in validating performance assessment codes which couple geochemistry and transport processes, and in design of waste packages and back fill compositions. (author)

  1. System description of the Repository-Only System for the FY 1990 systems integration program studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1991-07-01

    This document provides both functional and physical descriptions of a conceptual high-level waste management system defined as a Repository-Only System. Its purpose is to provide a basis for required system computer modeling and system studies initiated in FY 1990 under the Systems Integration Program of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The Repository-Only System is designed to accept 3000 MTU per year of spent fuel and 400 equivalent MTU per year of high-level wastes disposal in the geologic repository. This document contains both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system and physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those processes. These descriptions contain the level of detail needed for the projected systems analysis studies. The Repository-Only System contains all system components, from the waste storage facilities of the waste generators to the underground facilities for final disposal of the wastes. The major facilities in the system are the waste generator waste storage facilities, a repository facility that packages the wastes and than emplaces them in the geologic repository, and the transportation equipment and facilities for transporting the wastes between these major facilities. 18 refs., 39 figs

  2. A Conceptual Modeling for a GoldSim Program for Safety Assessment of an LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Sung Ho

    2009-12-01

    Modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program, by which an assessment of safety and performance for a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal repository with normal or abnormal nuclide release cases associated with the various FEPs involved in the performance of the proposed repository could be made has been carrying out by utilizing GoldSim under contract with KRMC. The report deals with a detailed conceptual modeling scheme by which a GoldSim program modules, all of which are integrated into a TSPA program as well as the input data set currently available. In-depth system models that are conceptually and rather practically described and then ready for implementing into a GoldSim program are introduced with plenty of illustrative conceptual models and sketches. The GoldSim program that will be finally developed through this project is expected to be successfully applied to the post closure safety assessment required both for the LILW repository and pyro processed repository by the regulatory body with both increased practicality and much reduced uncertainty

  3. Environmental program overview for a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The United States plans to begin operating the first repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste early in the next century. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified Yucca Mountain, in Nevada, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a repository. To determine its suitability, the DOE evaluated the Yucca Mountain site, along with eight other potentially acceptable sites, in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The purpose of the Environmental Program Overview (EPO) for the Yucca Mountain site is to provide an overview of the overall, comprehensive approach being used to satisfy the environmental requirements applicable to sitting a repository at Yucca Mountain. The EPO states how the DOE will address the following environmental areas: aesthetics, air quality, cultural resources (archaeological and Native American components), noise, radiological studies, soils, terrestrial ecosystems, and water resources. This EPO describes the environmental program being developed for the sitting of a repository at Yucca Mountain. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Concept document of the repository-based software engineering program: A constructive appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A constructive appraisal of the Concept Document of the Repository-Based Software Engineering Program is provided. The Concept Document is designed to provide an overview of the Repository-Based Software Engineering (RBSE) Program. The Document should be brief and provide the context for reading subsequent requirements and product specifications. That is, all requirements to be developed should be traceable to the Concept Document. Applied Expertise's analysis of the Document was directed toward assuring that: (1) the Executive Summary provides a clear, concise, and comprehensive overview of the Concept (rewrite as necessary); (2) the sections of the Document make best use of the NASA 'Data Item Description' for concept documents; (3) the information contained in the Document provides a foundation for subsequent requirements; and (4) the document adequately: identifies the problem being addressed; articulates RBSE's specific role; specifies the unique aspects of the program; and identifies the nature and extent of the program's users.

  5. RECON: a computer program for analyzing repository economics. Documentation and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, L.L.; Cole, B.M.; McNair, G.W.; Schutz, M.E.

    1983-05-01

    From 1981 through 1983 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been developing a computer model named RECON to calculate repository costs from parametric data input. The objective of the program has been to develop the capability to evalute the effect on costs of changes in repository design parameters and operating scenario assumptions. This report documents the development of the model through March of 1983. Included in the report are: (1) descriptions of model development and the underlying equations, assumptions and definitions; (2) descriptions of data input either using card images or an interactive data input program; and (3) detailed listings of the program and definitions of program variables. Cost estimates generated using the model have been verified against independent estimates and good agreement has been obtained

  6. RECON: a computer program for analyzing repository economics. Documentation and user's manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, L.L.; Schutz, M.E.; Luksic, A.T.

    1985-07-01

    From 1981 through 1984 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been developing a computer model named RECON to calculate repository costs from parametric data input. The objective of the program has been to develop the capability to evaluate the effect on costs of changes in repository design parameters and operating scenario assumptions. This report documents the development of the model through September of 1984. Included in the report are: (1) descriptions of model development and the underlying equations, assumptions and definitions; (2) descriptions of data input using either card images or an interactive data input program; and (3) detailed listings of the program and definitions of program variables. Cost estimates generated using the model have been verified against independent estimates and good agreement has been obtained. 2 refs

  7. RE/SPEC Inc. technical support to the Repository Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report presents a summary of all RE/SPEC Inc. technical support activities to the Repository Technology Program (RTP) from September 1, 1988, through June 30, 1992. The RE/SPEC Inc. activities are grouped into the following categories: project management, project quality assurance (QA), performance assessment (PA), support of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) through technical reviews and general assistance, participation in the Department of Energy (DOE) International Program, and code evaluation and documentation

  8. Geologic software for nuclear waste repository studies: A quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figuli, S.; English, S.L.

    1987-04-01

    This paper discusses a Quality Assurance (QA) program that Kent State University (KSU) has implemented for the development of geologic software. The software being developed at KSU will be used in the site characterization of nuclear waste repositories and must meet the requirements of federal regulations. This QA program addresses the development of models that will be used in the evaluation of the long-term climatic stability of three sites in the western US

  9. Natural repository analogue program. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.B.

    1982-03-01

    A report on the immobilization of uranium in the earth's crust has been completed. Techniques have been developed to do a comprehensive mass inventory of the Oklo reactor zones. These techniques were applied to a compilation of data from Oklo zones 2 and 3-4. The study shows large deficiencies of neodymium, ruthenium, and mass 99 elements ( 99 Tc or 99 Ru) in the reactor zones. The extent of these deficiencies are correlated with the intensity of the nuclear reactions. Analyses of ores from the Key Lake uranium mineralization show that 60 to 70% of the radiogenic lead is missing from the ores

  10. Natural repository analogue program. Progress report, January 1-March 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    Lead and uranium isotopic abundances in rocks from the Oklo mine show large deficiencies of radiogenic lead in the mineralized regions and enormous excesses of this element outside the uraniferous zones. A fracture lined with secondary minerals and its host rock from distances as far as approx. 13 meters away contain lead that was deposited contemporaneously. The isotopic composition of lead in these samples varies systematically as a function of distance from the fracture. This regularity may reflect the nature of the processes that transported lead from the ores and deposited it in the surrounding rocks

  11. Radiation-Induced Defects in Kaolinite as Tracers of Past Occurrence of Radionuclides in a Natural Analogue of High Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T.; Fourdrin, C.; Calas, G.

    2007-05-01

    Understanding the processes controlling migrations of radioelements at the Earth's surface is an important issue for the long-term safety assessment of high level nuclear waste repositories (HLNWR). Evidence of past occurrence and transfer of radionuclides can be found using radiation-induced defects in minerals. Clay minerals are particularly relevant because of their widespread occurrence at the Earth's surface and their finely divided nature which provides high contact area with radioactive fluids. Owing to its sensitivity to radiations, kaolinite can be used as natural, in situ dosimeter. Kaolinite is known to contain radiation-induced defects which are detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. They are differentiated by their nature, their production kinetics and their thermal stability. One of these defects is stable at the scale of geological periods and provides a record of past radionuclide occurrence. Based on artificial irradiations, a methodology has been subsequently proposed to determine paleodose cumulated by kaolinite since its formation. The paleodose can be used to derive equivalent radioelement concentrations, provided that the age of kaolinite formation can be constrained. This allows quantitative reconstruction of past transfers of radioelements in natural systems. An example is given for the Nopal I U-deposit (Chihuahua, Mexico), hosted in hydrothermally altered volcanic tufs and considered as analogue of the Yucca Mountain site. The paleodoses experienced by kaolinites were determined from the concentration of defects and dosimetry parameters of experimental irradiations. Using few geochemical assumption, a equivalent U-content responsible for defects in kaolinite was calculated from the paleodose, a dose rate balance and model ages of kaolinites constrained by tectonic phases. In a former study, the ages were assumptions derived from regional tectonic events. In thepresent study, ages of mineralization events are measured from U

  12. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs

  13. Office of Geologic Repositories program baseline procedures notebook (OGR/B-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    Baseline management is typically applied to aid in the internal control of a program by providing consistent programmatic direction, control, and surveillance to an evolving system development. This fundamental concept of internal program control involves the establishment of a baseline to serve as a point of departure for consistent technical program coordination and to control subsequent changes from that baseline. The existence of a program-authorized baseline ensures that all participants are working to the same ground rules. Baseline management also ensures that, once the baseline is defined, changes are assessed and approved by a process which ensures adequate consideration of overall program impact. Baseline management also includes the consideration of examptions from the baseline. The process of baseline management continues through all the phases of an evolving system development program. As the Program proceeds, there will be a progressive increase in the data contained in the baseline documentation. Baseline management has been selected as a management technique to aid in the internal control of the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) program. Specifically, an OGR Program Baseline, including technical and programmatic requirements, is used for program control of the four Mined Geologic Disposal System field projects, i.e., Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation, Salt Repository Project and Crystalline Repository Project. This OGR Program Baseline Procedures Notebook provides a description of the baseline mwanagement concept, establishes the OGR Program baseline itself, and provides procedures to be followed for controlling changes to that baseline. The notebook has a controlled distribution and will be updated as required

  14. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  15. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules

  16. Classification of methodologies in use for national repository siting programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Countries which possess nuclear power and/or weapons programs have already, or will in the near future, faced the problems associated with siting, developing and operating waste management and disposal facilities. Whereas management and conditioning facilities are generally seen as having a finite life, and have usually been co-located with an existing nuclear power plant, disposal facilities, for whatever category of waste, have consistently generated intense public debate, because of their unique long-term nature. Examination of siting programs around the world shows a wide range in degree of success. It is obvious that there has been a steady evolution from centralized, directed siting methods towards those in which public participation has become increasingly important. Many countries have begun to adopt a process of volunteer-siting, in which local communities or jurisdictions invite facility proponents to examine the potential suitability of their locale. Varying degrees of incentive, mostly financial, are offered in many cases

  17. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  18. Environmental program planning for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report was prepared to illustrate the policy and actions that the State of Nevada believe are required to assure that the quality of the environment is adequately considered during the course of the DOE work at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The report describes the DOE environmental program and the studies planned by NWPO to reflect the State's position toward environmental protection. 41 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs

  19. ERG [Engineering Review Group] review of the SRP [Salt Repository Project] salt irradiation effects program: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.

    1986-11-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The August 1985 meeting of the ERG reviewed the Salt Repository Project (SRP) salt irradiation effects program. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by the ERG

  20. Salt Repository Project: Waste Package Program (WPP) modeling activiteis: FY 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.; Simonson, S.A.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Salt Repository Project (SRP) through its Waste Package Program (WPP). During FY 1984, the WPP continued its program of waste package component development and interactions testing and application of the resulting data base to develop predictive models describing waste package degradation and radionuclide release. Within the WPP, the Modeling Task (Task 04 during FY 1984) was conducted to interpret the tests in such a way that scientifically defensible models can be developed for use in qualification of the waste package

  1. Development of a natural analogue database to support the safety case of the Korean radioactive waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, M.H.; Park, T.J.; Kim, I.Y.; Jeong, J. [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, K.W. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the status of natural analogue studies in Korea is briefly summarized and applicability of existing natural analogue information to the Korean safety case has been evaluated. To enable effective application of natural analogue information to the overall evaluation of long-term safety (the 'safety case') for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a natural analogue database has been developed by collecting, classifying, and evaluating relevant data. The natural analogue data collected were classified into categories based on site information, components/processes of the disposal system, properties/phenomena, reference, safety case application, application method, and suitability to a safety case. Suitability of the natural analogue data to a specific safety case was evaluated based upon the importance and the applicability to the Korean safety case. As a result, 75 natural analogue datasets were selected as important for the Korean safety case. The database developed can now be utilized in the RD and D (Research, Development, and Demonstration) program development for natural analogue studies. In addition, the methodology developed and the database compiled in this study may assist in the development of safety case including safety assessment for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea as well as in other countries. (authors)

  2. Development of a natural analogue database to support the safety case of the Korean radioactive waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, M.H.; Park, T.J.; Kim, I.Y.; Jeong, J.; Choi, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the status of natural analogue studies in Korea is briefly summarized and applicability of existing natural analogue information to the Korean safety case has been evaluated. To enable effective application of natural analogue information to the overall evaluation of long-term safety (the 'safety case') for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a natural analogue database has been developed by collecting, classifying, and evaluating relevant data. The natural analogue data collected were classified into categories based on site information, components/processes of the disposal system, properties/phenomena, reference, safety case application, application method, and suitability to a safety case. Suitability of the natural analogue data to a specific safety case was evaluated based upon the importance and the applicability to the Korean safety case. As a result, 75 natural analogue datasets were selected as important for the Korean safety case. The database developed can now be utilized in the RD and D (Research, Development, and Demonstration) program development for natural analogue studies. In addition, the methodology developed and the database compiled in this study may assist in the development of safety case including safety assessment for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea as well as in other countries. (authors)

  3. An evaluation of environmental effects of the DOE HLW repository siting and characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, M.F.; Ulland, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) environmental investigations in progress on the environmental effects of past and proposed activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Yucca Mountain repository. The environmental investigations refer to those studies specifically related to resource evaluation, impact assessment and mitigation planning for the repository program; it is defined to exclude consideration of technical suitability determinations, socioeconomics and transportation. This paper addresses the question of what are the disturbances created by past and proposed DOE activities related to repository siting and characterization at Yucca Mountain. It discusses considerations in linking disturbance to the potential for significant adverse environmental impacts

  4. Digitisation of analogue screening mammograms. Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program Troms and Finnmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Kristin; Johansen, Stian; Roenning, Frank; Stormo, Sonja; Bjurstam, Nils

    2004-08-01

    In the coming years a transition from analogue to digital imaging technology will take place in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP). This will make softcopy reading of images possible. However, one will also wish to compare new (digital) images with prior images on on film. This can be solved in different ways. This report contains a brief description of different alternatives. The solution chosen in Troms and Finnmark, digitisation of prior images, is then described in detail. Both technical and economical aspects are covered. (Author)

  5. Final status of the salt repository project waste package program experimental database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, B.M.; Reimus, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the final status of the Salt Repository Project Waste Package Program Experimental Database. The data base serves as a clearinghouse for all data collected within the Waste Package Program (WPP) and its predecessor programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The database was maintained using RS/1 database management software. Documented assurance that the entries in the database were consistent with experimental records was provided by having each experimentalist inspect the entries and signify that they were in agreement with the records. The inspection and signoff were done per PNL technical procedures. Data for which it was impossible to obtain the experimentalist's inspection and signature were segregated from the rest of the database, although they could still be accessed by WPP staff. The WPPED contains two groups of subdirectories. One group contains data taken prior to the installation of quality assurance procedures at PNL. The other group of subdirectories contains data taken under the NQA-1 procedures since their installation in April 1985. As part of closeout activities in the Salt Repository Project, the WPP database has been archived onto magnetic media. The data in the database are available by request on magnetic media or in hardcopy form. 2 refs

  6. Natural analogue studies in crystalline rock: the influence of water-bearing fractures on radionuclide immobilisation in a granitic rock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Scott, R.D.; McKinley, I.G.

    1990-06-01

    Current Swiss concepts for the disposal of radioactive waste involve disposal in deep mined repositories to ensure that only insignificant quantities of radionuclides will ever reach the surface and so enter the biosphere. The rock formations presently considered as potential candidates for hosting radwaste repositories have thus been selected on the basis of their capacity to isolate radionuclides from the biosphere. An important factor in ensuring such containment is a very low solute transport rate through the host formation. However, it is considered likely that, in the formations of interest in the Swiss programme (eg. granites, argillaceous sediments, anhydrite), the rocks will be fractured to some extent even at repository depth. In the instance of the cumulative failure of near-field barriers in the repository, these hydraulically connected fractures in the host formation could be very important far-field routes of migration (and possible sites of retardation) of radionuclides dissolved in the groundwaters. In this context, the so-called 'matrix diffusion' mechanism is potentially very important for radionuclide retardation. This report is the culmination of a programme which has attempted to assess the potential influence of these water-bearing fractures on radionuclide transport in a crystalline rock radwaste repository. 162 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  8. Redox front formation in an uplifting sedimentary rock sequence: An analogue for redox-controlling processes in the geosphere around deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Metcalfe, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Murakami, Y.; Hoshii, D.; Kanekiyo, A.; Naganuma, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Subsurface redox fronts control the mobilization and fixation of many trace elements, including potential pollutants such as certain radionuclides. Any safety assessment for a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes needs to take into account adequately the long-term redox processes in the geosphere surrounding the repository. To build confidence in understanding these processes, a redox front in a reduced siliceous sedimentary rock distributed in an uplifting area in Japan has been studied in detail. Geochemical analyses show increased concentrations of Fe and trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), at the redox front, even though concentrations of reduced rock matrix constituents show little change. Detailed SEM observations revealed that fossilized microorganisms composed of amorphous granules made exclusively of Fe and Si occur in the rock's pore space. Microbial 16S rDNA analysis suggests that there is presently a zonation of different bacterial groups within the redox band, and bacterial zonation played an important role in the concentration of Fe-oxyhydroxides at the redox front. These water-rock-microbe interactions can be considered analogous to the processes occurring in the redox fronts that would develop around geological repositories for radioactive waste. Once formed, the Fe-oxyhydroxides within such a front would be preserved even after reducing conditions resume following repository closure

  9. Redox front formation in an uplifting sedimentary rock sequence: An analogue for redox-controlling processes in the geosphere around deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, H. [Nagoya University Museum, Material Research Section, Furocho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: dora@num.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Metcalfe, R. [Quintessa Japan, Queen' s Tower A7-707, Minatomirai, Yokohama 220-6007 (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Nagoya University Museum, Material Research Section, Furocho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tono Geoscience Centre (Japan); Hoshii, D.; Kanekiyo, A.; Naganuma, T. [Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-4-4 (Japan); Hayashi, T. [Asahi University, Department of Dental Pharmacology, Hozumi, Gifu (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    Subsurface redox fronts control the mobilization and fixation of many trace elements, including potential pollutants such as certain radionuclides. Any safety assessment for a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes needs to take into account adequately the long-term redox processes in the geosphere surrounding the repository. To build confidence in understanding these processes, a redox front in a reduced siliceous sedimentary rock distributed in an uplifting area in Japan has been studied in detail. Geochemical analyses show increased concentrations of Fe and trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), at the redox front, even though concentrations of reduced rock matrix constituents show little change. Detailed SEM observations revealed that fossilized microorganisms composed of amorphous granules made exclusively of Fe and Si occur in the rock's pore space. Microbial 16S rDNA analysis suggests that there is presently a zonation of different bacterial groups within the redox band, and bacterial zonation played an important role in the concentration of Fe-oxyhydroxides at the redox front. These water-rock-microbe interactions can be considered analogous to the processes occurring in the redox fronts that would develop around geological repositories for radioactive waste. Once formed, the Fe-oxyhydroxides within such a front would be preserved even after reducing conditions resume following repository closure.

  10. Brine: a computer program to compute brine migration adjacent to a nuclear waste canister in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, G.D.; Fuller, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a mathematical model used to predict brine migration toward a nuclear waste canister in a bedded salt repository. The mathematical model is implemented in a computer program called BRINE. The program is written in FORTRAN and executes in the batch mode on a CDC 7600. A description of the program input requirements and output available is included. Samples of input and output are given

  11. The repository-based software engineering program: Redefining AdaNET as a mainstream NASA source

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Repository-based Software Engineering Program (RBSE) is described to inform and update senior NASA managers about the program. Background and historical perspective on software reuse and RBSE for NASA managers who may not be familiar with these topics are provided. The paper draws upon and updates information from the RBSE Concept Document, baselined by NASA Headquarters, Johnson Space Center, and the University of Houston - Clear Lake in April 1992. Several of NASA's software problems and what RBSE is now doing to address those problems are described. Also, next steps to be taken to derive greater benefit from this Congressionally-mandated program are provided. The section on next steps describes the need to work closely with other NASA software quality, technology transfer, and reuse activities and focuses on goals and objectives relative to this need. RBSE's role within NASA is addressed; however, there is also the potential for systematic transfer of technology outside of NASA in later stages of the RBSE program. This technology transfer is discussed briefly.

  12. Web-based system for radiological protection programs: a repository for research, consultation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Denise S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A., E-mail: gmsordi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In order to establish a Radiation Protection Plan or a Radiation Emergency Plan, Brazilian facilities should take into account all procedures based on national and international guidelines and recommendations. This information can be found in several documents published by different organizations over the past decades: the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). Therefore, this project aims the informatization of the radiological protection programs in a single system in order to offer unified programs and inter-related information in Portuguese, providing Brazilian facilities a complete repository for research, consultation and information, combining computer technology and radiological protection in order to enhance the best benefits from information technology. This research work includes programs about: (1) Monitoring of Workplace (Monitoring for External Radiation, Monitoring for Surface Contamination, Monitoring for Air Contamination) and (2) Individual Monitoring (Monitoring of External Exposure and Monitoring of Internal Exposure, Monitoring for Skin and Clothing). WEB platform tools and functionalities were developed according to target public needs, regarding new possibilities of media, mobile access, and information sharing. The servers processing power added to the technology of relational databases allow to integrate information from different sources, enabling complex queries with reduced response time. Moreover, taking into account this is a pioneer project with the prospect of long-term use, the challenge involves the combination of multiple computer technologies that allows a robust, effective and flexible system, which can be easily adapted to future technological innovations. (author)

  13. Web-based system for radiological protection programs: a repository for research, consultation and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Denise S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish a Radiation Protection Plan or a Radiation Emergency Plan, Brazilian facilities should take into account all procedures based on national and international guidelines and recommendations. This information can be found in several documents published by different organizations over the past decades: the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). Therefore, this project aims the informatization of the radiological protection programs in a single system in order to offer unified programs and inter-related information in Portuguese, providing Brazilian facilities a complete repository for research, consultation and information, combining computer technology and radiological protection in order to enhance the best benefits from information technology. This research work includes programs about: (1) Monitoring of Workplace (Monitoring for External Radiation, Monitoring for Surface Contamination, Monitoring for Air Contamination) and (2) Individual Monitoring (Monitoring of External Exposure and Monitoring of Internal Exposure, Monitoring for Skin and Clothing). WEB platform tools and functionalities were developed according to target public needs, regarding new possibilities of media, mobile access, and information sharing. The servers processing power added to the technology of relational databases allow to integrate information from different sources, enabling complex queries with reduced response time. Moreover, taking into account this is a pioneer project with the prospect of long-term use, the challenge involves the combination of multiple computer technologies that allows a robust, effective and flexible system, which can be easily adapted to future technological innovations. (author)

  14. Redox front penetration in the fractured Toki Granite, central Japan: An analogue for redox reactions and redox buffering in fractured crystalline host rocks for repositories of long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Koshi; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Akagawa, Fuminori; Nishimoto, Shoji; Metcalfe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Deep redox front developed in orogenic granitic rock have been studied. • The process was controlled by the buffering capacity of minerals. • This is an analogue of redox front penetration into HLW repositories in Japan. - Abstract: Redox buffering is one important factor to be considered when assessing the barrier function of potential host rocks for a deep geological repository for long-lived radioactive waste. If such a repository is to be sited in fractured crystalline host rock it must be demonstrated that waste will be emplaced deeper than the maximum depth to which oxidizing waters can penetrate from the earth’s surface via fractures, during the assessment timeframe (typically 1 Ma). An analogue for penetration of such oxidizing water occurs in the Cretaceous Toki Granite of central Japan. Here, a deep redox front is developed along water-conducting fractures at a depth of 210 m below the ground surface. Detailed petrographical studies and geochemical analyses were carried out on drill core specimens of this redox front. The aim was to determine the buffering processes and behavior of major and minor elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), during redox front development. The results are compared with analytical data from an oxidized zone found along shallow fractures (up to 20 m from the surface) in the same granitic rock, in order to understand differences in elemental migration according to the depth below the ground surface of redox-front formation. Geochemical analyses by XRF and ICP-MS of the oxidized zone at 210 m depth reveal clear changes in Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratios and Ca depletion across the front, while Fe concentrations vary little. In contrast, the redox front identified along shallow fractures shows strong enrichments of Fe, Mn and trace elements in the oxidized zone compared with the fresh rock matrix. The difference can be ascribed to the changing Eh and pH of groundwater as it flows downwards in the granite, due to

  15. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    DOE/CH/10140-05 is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index

  16. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This document is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index

  17. Repository Integration Program: RIP performance assessment and strategy evaluation model theory manual and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the theory and capabilities of RIP (Repository Integration Program). RIP is a powerful and flexible computational tool for carrying out probabilistic integrated total system performance assessments for geologic repositories. The primary purpose of RIP is to provide a management tool for guiding system design and site characterization. In addition, the performance assessment model (and the process of eliciting model input) can act as a mechanism for integrating the large amount of available information into a meaningful whole (in a sense, allowing one to keep the ''big picture'' and the ultimate aims of the project clearly in focus). Such an integration is useful both for project managers and project scientists. RIP is based on a '' top down'' approach to performance assessment that concentrates on the integration of the entire system, and utilizes relatively high-level descriptive models and parameters. The key point in the application of such a ''top down'' approach is that the simplified models and associated high-level parameters must incorporate an accurate representation of their uncertainty. RIP is designed in a very flexible manner such that details can be readily added to various components of the model without modifying the computer code. Uncertainty is also handled in a very flexible manner, and both parameter and model (process) uncertainty can be explicitly considered. Uncertainty is propagated through the integrated PA model using an enhanced Monte Carlo method. RIP must rely heavily on subjective assessment (expert opinion) for much of its input. The process of eliciting the high-level input parameters required for RIP is critical to its successful application. As a result, in order for any project to successfully apply a tool such as RIP, an enormous amount of communication and cooperation must exist between the data collectors, the process modelers, and the performance. assessment modelers

  18. The Use of Underground Research Laboratories to Support Repository Development Programs. A Roadmap for the Underground Research Facilities Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nationally developed underground research laboratories (URLs) and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form an Underground Research Facilities (URF) Network for training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies and the sharing of knowledge and experience related to geologic repository development, research, and engineering. In order to achieve its objectives, the URF Network regularly sponsors workshops and training events related to the knowledge base that is transferable between existing URL programs and to nations with an interest in developing a new URL. This report describes the role of URLs in the context of a general timeline for repository development. This description includes identification of key phases and activities that contribute to repository development as a repository program evolves from an early research and development phase to later phases such as construction, operations, and closure. This information is cast in the form of a matrix with the entries in this matrix forming the basis of the URF Network roadmap that will be used to identify and plan future workshops and training events.

  19. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance

  20. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-10-03

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance.

  1. Glaciation and geosphere evolution - Greenland Analogue Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Vorauer, A.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Jensen, M.

    2011-01-01

    The deep geological repository concept for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel involves the containment and isolation of used nuclear fuel in a suitable geological formation. A key objective of the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) geoscience technical research program is to advance the understanding of geosphere stability and its resilience to perturbations over time frames of relevance to a deep geological repository. Glaciation has been identified as the most probable and intense perturbation relevant to a deep geological repository associated with long-term climate change in northern latitudes. Given that the North American continent has been re-glaciated nine times over the past million years, it is strongly expected that a deep geological repository within a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation in Canada will be subject to glaciation events associated with long-term climate change. As such, NWMO's geoscience research program has placed particular emphasis on investigations of the response of the geosphere to glaciations. As surface conditions change from present day conditions to periglacial, followed by ice-sheet cover of variable thickness and rapid glacial retreat, transient geochemical, hydraulic, mechanical and temperature conditions will be simultaneously imposed on groundwater systems. NWMO research activities related to glaciation events and their impacts on groundwater system evolution are being undertaken using a multi-disciplinary approach aimed at collecting multiple lines of evidence. These investigations include assessment of the: Impact of an ice sheet on groundwater composition at repository depth using the Greenland Ice Sheet as an analogue to future glaciations in North America; Expected physical and temporal surface boundary conditions related to potential future glaciation events by estimating the magnitude and time rate of change of ice sheet thickness, ground surface temperature and

  2. Radionuclide migration around uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory, Australia - analogue of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Roman, D.; Golian, C.; Short, S.; Nightingale, T.; Lowson, R.T.; Davey, B.G.; Gray, D.

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate geochemical analogues may be used to reduce the uncertainties in predicting the long-term transport of actinides, radium and fission products from laboratory adsorption and hydrological data. In this study the migration of uranium series nuclides within, and down-gradient of ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers uranium province of the Northern Territory of Australia is described. A mathematical framework was developed to permit calculation of the rate of leaching or deposition of uranium and radium between defined zones of the ore bodies, and the rate of loss of the nuclides due to groundwater transport and surface erosion. A detailed study was made of the distribution of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes within various minerals comprising the weathered ore assemblage. Uranium and thorium concentrate principally in the iron minerals and radium in the clay-quartz phases. Substantial disequilibria are observed, which are attributed to a combination of α-recoil and chemical effects. Evidence of the relative lability of iron phases is presented. The transport of uranium series nuclides in groundwater intersecting the deposits was investigated. Down-gradient of the Ranger One deposit, the maximum retardation factor of uranium is 250. The role of colloids in groundwater transport is being studied. Uranium is transported principally in solution. There appears to be an equilibrium between solute and articulate uranium

  3. Product traceability and quality as applied to the united states transuranic and high-level waste repository programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.Y.; Orrell, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    As with any repository program, predictions of the performance of a site over very long time frames may often meet with skepticism from the public and decision-makers, such as regulatory and governmental agencies. Experience at the WIPP and the YMP indicate that demonstrating the defensibility of data, conceptual models, computer codes, and numerical analyses is critical. Five overarching principles have been found to be the basis of a technically and publicly acceptable repository. The principles are traceability, transparency, reproducibility, retrievability, and reviews. - Traceability allows one to understand the source and justification of data and other input that generate conclusions. - Transparency allows one to follow the logic, calculations, and other operations that produce results. - Reproducibility allows one to reconstruct the results without recourse to the originator of the information. - Retrievability allows one to retrieve documentation that demonstrate these overarching principles. - Reviews ensure that the work is technically acceptable, complete, and accurate. This paper discusses how these principles are applied to the WIPP and the YMP. By setting up quality assurance and management controls (e.g., procedures, audits, peer reviews) these principles are implemented. Without successfully applying these principles the WIPP would not have gone from research to industrial maturity. The YMP is ensuring that these are implemented for activities that support licensing. Any repository program concerned with demonstrating defensibility to the public and regulators would do well by incorporating traceability, transparency, reproducibility, retrievability, and reviews into their program. (authors)

  4. Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office independent scientific investigations program annual report, May 1997 - April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO's on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment; identifying areas not being addressed adequately by the Department of Energy (DOE). Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues. This report summarizes the results of monitoring from two boreholes and the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel that have been instrumented by Nye County since March and April of 1995. The preliminary data and interpretations presented in this report do not constitute and should not be considered as the official position of Nye County. The ISIP presently includes borehole and tunnel instrumentation, monitoring, data analysis, and numerical modeling activities to address the concerns of Nye County

  5. Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office independent scientific investigations program annual report, May 1997--April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment; identifying areas not being addressed adequately by the Department of Energy (DOE). Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues. This report summarizes the results of monitoring from two boreholes and the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel that have been instrumented by Nye County since March and April of 1995. The preliminary data and interpretations presented in this report do not constitute and should not be considered as the official position of Nye County. The ISIP presently includes borehole and tunnel instrumentation, monitoring, data analysis, and numerical modeling activities to address the concerns of Nye County.

  6. Technical position on items and activities in the high-level waste geologic repository program subject to quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.B.; Bilhorn, S.G.; Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    This document provides guidance on how to identify items and activities subject to Quality Assurance in the high-level nuclear waste repository program for pre-closure and post-closure phases of the repository. In the pre-closure phase, structures, systems and components essential to the prevention or mitigation of an accident that could result in an off-site radiation dose of 0.5rem or greater are termed ''important to safety''. In the post-closure phase, the barriers which are relied on to meet the containment and isolation requirements are defined as ''important to waste isolation''. These structures, systems, components, and barriers, and the activities related to their characterization, design, construction, and operation are required to meet quality assurance (QA) criteria to provide confidence in the performance of the geologic repository. The list of structures, systems, and components important to safety and engineered barriers important to waste isolation is referred to as the ''Q-List'' and lies within the scope of the QA program. 10 refs

  7. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  8. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  9. Overall review strategy for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's High-Level Waste Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1994-11-01

    The Overall Review Strategy gives general guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for conducting it's license application and pre-license application reviews. These reviews are in support of the Commission's construction authorization decision for a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Objectives and strategies are defined that focus the staff's reviews on determining compliance with requirements of 10 CFR Part 60. These strategies define how the staff prioritizes its reviews on those key technical uncertainties considered to be most important to repository performance. Strategies also give guidance for developing, in an integrated way, the License Application Review Plan together with supporting performance assessments, analyses, and research

  10. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J

    2007-01-15

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  11. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project

  12. NRC's geotechnical engineering research needs for the high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Philip, J.; Lorig, L.J.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    To develop the capability for independently assessing the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) geologic repository design within a limited time, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff needs to perform certain research well before receiving the license application. The NRC staff is using a number of factors to identify the areas that it needs to research. The staff assigns priorities to the needed research based on programmatic considerations and the significance of the work. In the geotechnical engineering field, the staff is conducting research in the following three areas: response of the repository to repeated strong ground motion, rock-mass sealing, and coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical interactions. In this paper, the NRC staff also presents the areas of additional research needed in the geotechnical engineering field

  13. Configuration management plan. System definition and project development. Repository Based Software Engineering (RBSE) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles

    1991-01-01

    This is the configuration management Plan for the AdaNet Repository Based Software Engineering (RBSE) contract. This document establishes the requirements and activities needed to ensure that the products developed for the AdaNet RBSE contract are accurately identified, that proposed changes to the product are systematically evaluated and controlled, that the status of all change activity is known at all times, and that the product achieves its functional performance requirements and is accurately documented.

  14. Occurrence of Fe-Mg-rich smectites and corrensite in the Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit (Cabo de Gata region, Spain): A natural analogue of the bentonite barrier in a radwaste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, M., E-mail: m.pelayo@ciemat.es [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Romero, E. [Departamento de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Facultad C.C. Geologicas, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Labajo, M.A.; Perez del Villar, L. [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > A hydrothermal process transformed Fe-Mg smectites into corrensite. > This transformation was favoured by the intrusion of the Morron de Mateo dome. > The intrusion caused a temperature increased and a supply of Fe-Mg rich solutions. > The system can be a good natural analogue of bentonite barrier in a radwaste disposal. > Experimental studies of stability of bentonite are in agreement with the results. - Abstract: The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on a bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository of high level radioactive wastes. This bentonite deposit and its host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the biocalcarenite beds close to the dome. In this work, the mineralogical and chemical features of the clay minerals of the hydrothermally altered pyroclastic (white tuffs) and epiclastic rocks (mass flow), located in the NE sector of the Morron de Mateo deposit are described. White tuffs have a high content of phyllosilicates, mainly composed of dioctahedral smectites, while mass flow have a higher proportion of inherited minerals, the neoformed phyllosilicates are dioctahedral smectites and an interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral of corrensite type. The chemical composition of smectites reflects the different nature of the parent rocks, in such a way that smectites from white tuffs have a quite homogeneous chemical composition and their structural formulae correspond to montmorillonite type, while smectites from mass flow show more chemical variability, higher Fe and Mg contents and a mean structural formulae corresponding to Fe-Mg-rich beidellite and/or to an intermediate smectite member between beidellite and saponite. In addition, chemical composition and textural features of corrensite-like clay minerals in relation to Fe-Mg-rich smectites in the samples have also been studied, suggesting

  15. Occurrence of Fe-Mg-rich smectites and corrensite in the Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit (Cabo de Gata region, Spain): A natural analogue of the bentonite barrier in a radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelayo, M.; Garcia-Romero, E.; Labajo, M.A.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A hydrothermal process transformed Fe-Mg smectites into corrensite. → This transformation was favoured by the intrusion of the Morron de Mateo dome. → The intrusion caused a temperature increased and a supply of Fe-Mg rich solutions. → The system can be a good natural analogue of bentonite barrier in a radwaste disposal. → Experimental studies of stability of bentonite are in agreement with the results. - Abstract: The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on a bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository of high level radioactive wastes. This bentonite deposit and its host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the biocalcarenite beds close to the dome. In this work, the mineralogical and chemical features of the clay minerals of the hydrothermally altered pyroclastic (white tuffs) and epiclastic rocks (mass flow), located in the NE sector of the Morron de Mateo deposit are described. White tuffs have a high content of phyllosilicates, mainly composed of dioctahedral smectites, while mass flow have a higher proportion of inherited minerals, the neoformed phyllosilicates are dioctahedral smectites and an interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral of corrensite type. The chemical composition of smectites reflects the different nature of the parent rocks, in such a way that smectites from white tuffs have a quite homogeneous chemical composition and their structural formulae correspond to montmorillonite type, while smectites from mass flow show more chemical variability, higher Fe and Mg contents and a mean structural formulae corresponding to Fe-Mg-rich beidellite and/or to an intermediate smectite member between beidellite and saponite. In addition, chemical composition and textural features of corrensite-like clay minerals in relation to Fe-Mg-rich smectites in the samples have also been studied

  16. Environmental program planning for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    Environmental protection during the course of siting and constructing a repository is mandated by NWPA in conjunction with various phases of repository siting and development. However, DOE has issued no comprehensive, integrated plan for environmental protection. Consequently, it is unclear how DOE will accomplish environmental assessment, monitoring, impact mitigation, and site reclamation. DOE should, therefore, defer further implementation of its current characterization program until a comprehensive environmental protection plan is available. To fulfill its oversight responsibilities the State of Nevada has proposed a comprehensive environmental program for the Yucca Mountain site that includes immediately undertaking studies to establish a 12-month baseline of environmental information at the site; adopting the DOE Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and the engineering design plans it will contain as the basis for defining the impact potential of site characterization activities; using the environmental baseline and the SCP to evaluate the efficacy of the preliminary impact analyses reported by DOE in the EA; using the SCP as the basis for discussions with federal, state, and local regulatory authorities to decide which environmental requirements apply and how they can be complied with; using the SCP, the EA impact review, and the compliance requirements to determine the scope of reclamation measures needed; and developing environmental monitoring and impact mitigation plans based on the EA impact review, compliance requirements, and anticipated reclamation needs

  17. Nye County nuclear waste repository project office independent scientific investigations program. Summary annual report, May 1996--April 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc. (MET) on behalf of Nye County Nuclear Waste Project Office, summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1996 to April 30, 1997. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO's on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: (1) Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment. (2) Identifying areas not being addressed adequately by DOE Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues

  18. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  19. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inyo County

    2006-01-01

    Inyo County has participated in oversight activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository since 1987. The overall goal of these studies are the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, or radionuclides into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. In addition to the potential of radionuclide transport through the LCA, Czarnecki (1997), with the US Geological Survey, research indicate potential radionuclide transport through the shallower Tertiary-age aquifer materials with ultimate discharge into the Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County. The specific purpose of this Cooperative Agreement drilling program was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: (1) establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin; (2) characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and (3) Evaluation the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA

  20. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  1. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Quality assurance program for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    A National Waste Terminal Storage Repository, in bedded salt, for spent unreprocessed fuel is the subject of a conceptual design project which began in January 1977. This volume presents a preliminary quality assurance program to guide the license applicant in developing a detailed program that will be compatible with anticipated National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTSR2) contracting arrangements and provide the documentation required by regulatory bodies. This QA program is designed to provide confidence that the quality-related activities pertaining to safety-related structures, systems, and components will be identified and controlled. Specific responsibilities for quality-related activities are documented and assigned to personnel and organizations for the major phases of facility design and construction. These responsibilities encompass a broad range of activities and are addressed in this preliminary program. The quality assurance program elements are organized and discussed herein as follows: (1) quality assurance during design and construction; (2) the applicant (DOE); (3) siting contractor; (4) architect/engineer; (5) project field management; and (6) operations contractor

  2. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  3. First update to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulatory strategy for the high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.; Linehan, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has updated its initial regulatory strategy for the High-Level Waste Repository Licensing Program. The update describes changes to the initial strategy and summarizes progress and future activities. This paper summarizes the first update of the regulatory strategy. In general the overall strategy of identifying and reducing uncertainties is unchanged. Identifying regulatory and institutional uncertainties is essentially complete, and therefore, the current and future emphasis is on reducing those regulatory and institutional uncertainties identified to date. The NRC staff has improved the methods of reducing regulatory uncertainties by (1) enhancing the technical basis preparation process for potential rulemakings and guidance and (2) designing a new guidance document, called a staff position, for clarifying regulatory uncertainties. For guiding the US DOE's reduction of technical uncertainties, the NRC staff will give more emphasis to prelicense application reviews and less emphasis on preparing staff technical positions

  4. Assessment of backfill design for a KBS-3V repository: the BACLO program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, E.; Gunnarsson, D.; Hansen, J.; Keto, P.; Dixon, D.A.; Boergesson, L.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Posiva and SKB initiated a joint programme BACLO (Backfilling and Closure of the Deep repository) in 2003 with the aim to develop methods and clay-based materials for backfilling the deposition tunnels of a repository utilizing the KBS-3V deposition concept. This paper summarises the work done in the third and final phase of the BACLO programme (2006-2008). The main objectives of this work were to examine backfill materials, deposition concepts and their importance to the clay-based block and pellet backfilling concept. Baclo Phase III was primarily intended to address the following four items: 1. evaluate options for design of block and pellet/granule materials for use in backfilling and in so doing provide a basis for selecting backfill materials; 2. provide a basis for recommending reference design(s) for backfilling through evaluation of materials, environmental processes and technical constraints likely to be encountered in a repository; 3. analyze how the potentially critical processes taking place during the installation and saturation phase affect the performance of the backfill and consequently the design basis for the backfill; and 4. evaluate how water will move through backfilled volumes and generally identify under what conditions water management will become an operational issue; and identify needs for further investigations and technical development. To address these objectives, studies were undertaken to examine how the various processes active during backfill installation and saturation as well as technical constraints affect its design basis. The work focused on the performance and technical feasibility of a block backfill concept, which calls for filling the majority of the tunnel volume with pre-compacted, clay-based backfill blocks and the remaining volume with bentonite pellets. Several backfill composition alternatives were chosen for study and they consisted of clay materials with differing

  5. Development of the web-based site investigation flow diagram in repository development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Ohuchi, Jin; Tsuboya, Takao; Ando, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    In siting a repository for high level radioactive wastes (HLW), it is essential for consensus building intelligibly and visually present why and how the area is selected as a suitable site. However 'information asymmetry' exists especially between society and an implementation body because various types of investigation, analysis and assessment are implemented in site characterization on the basis of a wide variety of advanced science and technology. Communication between experts (e.g. surveyors and modelers) is also important for efficient and reliable site investigation/ characterization. The Web-based Site Investigation Flow Diagram (SIFD) has been developed as a tool for information sharing among stake holders and society-jointed decision making. To test applicability of the SIFD, virtual site characterization ('dry run') is performed using the existing site investigation data. It is concluded that the web-based SIFD enhance traceability and transparency of the site investigation/ characterization, and therefore it would be a powerful communication tool among experts for efficient and reliable site investigation/characterization and among stake holders for consensus building

  6. The ramifications of a delay in the national high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1988-05-01

    This thesis examines the ramifications to the nuclear power industry if a national high-level waste repository is not operational by 1998 as mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The principal effect of a delay examined here is the potential shortage of spent fuel storage. In order to assess this impact, a computer model of a nuclear utility was developed. Data for 107 US reactors was then entered into the model to assess the impact for individual facilities. This model estimates that a delay to the year 2003 will cost industry between $21.4 million and $35.8 million in 1988 dollars. Similarly, a delay to the year 2010 is estimated to have between a $85.4 million and $142.4 million impact. Four other potential effects of a delay on industry are also examined: the potential inadequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund; an increased difficulty in obtaining licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; increased friction between industry and the Department of Energy; and a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power. This thesis also presents a framework for developing a policy to deal with the potential effects of a delay. An argument is made for a policy which includes anticipation, participation, and education. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Repositories; Repositorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: cbf@cdtn.br; tellocc@cdtn.br

    2007-11-15

    The use of the nuclear energy is increasing in all areas. Then the radioactive waste management is in continuous development to comply the national and international established requirements. The final objective is to assure that it will not have any contamination of the public or the environmental, and that the exposition doses will be lower than the radiological protection limits. The multi barrier concept for the repository is internationally recognized. Among the repository types, the most used are: near surface, geological formations and of deposition in rock cavities. This article explains the concept and the types of repository and gives some examples of them. (author)

  8. Office of Geologic Repositories quality assurance plan for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This document sets forth geologic repository program-wide quality assurance program requirements and defines management's quality assurance responsibilities for the Office of Geologic Repositories and its projects. (LM)

  9. NRC assessment of the high-level waste repository quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    As part of its licensing responsibilities, the NRC is independently reviewing the DOE quality assurance program applied to the site characterization phase activities. Data collected and other information generated during this phase of the program will ultimately be used in a license application to demonstrate the suitability of one site for long-term isolation of waste. They must therefore fall under the quality assurance program to provide confidence in their adequacy. This NRC review consists of three main activities: development of staff guidance on quality assurance measures appropriate for site characterization activities; review of DOE QA plans and procedures; and audits and other reviews of the implementation of the program

  10. Repository Integration Program: RIP performance assessment and strategy evaluation model theory manual and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the theory and capabilities of RIP (Repository Integration Program). RIP is a powerful and flexible computational tool for carrying out probabilistic integrated total system performance assessments for geologic repositories. The primary purpose of RIP is to provide a management tool for guiding system design and site characterization. In addition, the performance assessment model (and the process of eliciting model input) can act as a mechanism for integrating the large amount of available information into a meaningful whole (in a sense, allowing one to keep the ``big picture`` and the ultimate aims of the project clearly in focus). Such an integration is useful both for project managers and project scientists. RIP is based on a `` top down`` approach to performance assessment that concentrates on the integration of the entire system, and utilizes relatively high-level descriptive models and parameters. The key point in the application of such a ``top down`` approach is that the simplified models and associated high-level parameters must incorporate an accurate representation of their uncertainty. RIP is designed in a very flexible manner such that details can be readily added to various components of the model without modifying the computer code. Uncertainty is also handled in a very flexible manner, and both parameter and model (process) uncertainty can be explicitly considered. Uncertainty is propagated through the integrated PA model using an enhanced Monte Carlo method. RIP must rely heavily on subjective assessment (expert opinion) for much of its input. The process of eliciting the high-level input parameters required for RIP is critical to its successful application. As a result, in order for any project to successfully apply a tool such as RIP, an enormous amount of communication and cooperation must exist between the data collectors, the process modelers, and the performance. assessment modelers.

  11. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    rock around underground openings will draw water towards buried waste packages if they are encased in backfill. Analogue work in support of the U.S. repository program continues in the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. International video project on natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentensperger, Marcel

    1993-01-01

    A natural analogue can be defined as a natural process which has occurred in the past and is studied in order to test predictions about the future evolution of similar processes. In recent years, natural analogues have been used increasingly to test the mathematical models required for repository performance assessment. Analogues are, however, also of considerable use in public relations as they allow many of the principles involved in demonstrating repository safety to be illustrated in a clear manner using natural systems with which man is familiar. The international Natural Analogue Working Group (NAWG), organised under the auspices of the CEC, has recognised that such PR applications are of considerable importance and should be supported from a technical level. At the NAWG meeting in Pitlochry, Scotland (June 1990), it was recommended that the possibilities for making a video film on this topic be investigated and Nagra was requested to take the lead role in setting up such a project

  13. An overview of the history of the US geologic repository program: policies, polities, and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongnian Jow

    2010-01-01

    The high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) disposal program in the US started in 1950s soon after the Atomic Energy Act was passed by the US Congress. Early on, in 1955, the nuclear experts had recognized the difficulty of waste disposal as the most difficult problem in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The development and evolution of the HLW/SNF disposal program from 1950s to the current status will be briefly discussed, including the importance of legislation process of Nuclear Waste Policy Act, its Amendments, and their impacts on the development of disposal program in the US. The recent developments of Yucca Mountain project from License Application in 2008 through the DOE's announcement of withdrawing the License Application in January 2010 will also be discussed. (authors)

  14. Extracting classification rules from an informatic security incidents repository by genetic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Carvajal Montealegre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the data mining process to obtain classification rules over an information security incident data collection, explaining in detail the use of genetic programming as a mean to model the incidents behavior and representing such rules as decision trees. The described mining process includes several tasks, such as the GP (Genetic Programming approach evaluation, the individual's representation and the algorithm parameters tuning to upgrade the performance. The paper concludes with the result analysis and the description of the rules obtained, suggesting measures to avoid the occurrence of new informatics attacks. This paper is a part of the thesis work degree: Information Security Incident Analytics by Data Mining for Behavioral Modeling and Pattern Recognition (Carvajal, 2012.

  15. Repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C M

    1982-01-01

    Various technical issues of radioactive waste design are addressed in this paper. Two approaches to repository design considered herein are: (1) design to minimize the disturbance of the hot rock; and (2) designs that intentionally modify the hot rock to insure better containment of the wastes. The latter designs range from construction of a highly impermeable barrier around a spherical cavern to creating a matrix of tunnels and boreholes to form a cage within which the hydraulic pressure is nearly constant. Examples of these design alternatives are described in some detail. It is concluded that proposed designs for repositories illustrate that performance criteria considered acceptable for such facilities can be met by appropriate site selection and repository engineering. With these technically feasible design concepts, it is also felt that socioeconomic and institutional issues can be better resolved. (BLM)

  16. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)

  17. Linking data repositories - an illustration of agile data curation principles through robust documentation and multiple application programming interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.; Servilla, M. S.; Vanderbilt, K.; Wheeler, J.

    2015-12-01

    The growing volume, variety and velocity of production of Earth science data magnifies the impact of inefficiencies in data acquisition, processing, analysis, and sharing workflows, potentially to the point of impairing the ability of researchers to accomplish their desired scientific objectives. The adaptation of agile software development principles (http://agilemanifesto.org/principles.html) to data curation processes has significant potential to lower barriers to effective scientific data discovery and reuse - barriers that otherwise may force the development of new data to replace existing but unusable data, or require substantial effort to make data usable in new research contexts. This paper outlines a data curation process that was developed at the University of New Mexico that provides a cross-walk of data and associated documentation between the data archive developed by the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Office (PASTA - http://lno.lternet.edu/content/network-information-system) and UNM's institutional repository (LoboVault - http://repository.unm.edu). The developed automated workflow enables the replication of versioned data objects and their associated standards-based metadata between the LTER system and LoboVault - providing long-term preservation for those data/metadata packages within LoboVault while maintaining the value-added services that the PASTA platform provides. The relative ease with which this workflow was developed is a product of the capabilities independently developed on both platforms - including the simplicity of providing a well-documented application programming interface (API) for each platform enabling scripted interaction and the use of well-established documentation standards (EML in the case of PASTA, Dublin Core in the case of LoboVault) by both systems. These system characteristics, when combined with an iterative process of interaction between the Data Curation Librarian (on the LoboVault side of the process

  18. Project characteristics monitoring report: BWIP (Basalt Waste Isolation Program) repository project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedli, E.A.; Herborn, D.I.; Taylor, C.D.; Tomlinson, K.M.

    1988-03-01

    This monitoring report has been prepared to show compliance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) and to provide local and state government agencies with information concerning the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP). This report contains data for the time period May 26, 1986 to February 1988. The data include employment figures, salaries, project purchases, taxes and fees paid, worker survey results, and project closedown personal interview summaries. This information has become particularly important since the decision in December 1987 to stop all BWIP activities except those for site reclamation. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 requires nonreclamation work at the Hanford Site to stop as of March 22, 1988. 7 refs., 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Project characteristics monitoring report: BWIP [Basalt Waste Isolation Program] repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedli, E.A.; Herborn, D.I.; Taylor, C.D.; Tomlinson, K.M.

    1988-03-01

    This monitoring report has been prepared to show compliance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) and to provide local and state government agencies with information concerning the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP). This report contains data for the time period May 26, 1986 to February 1988. The data include employment figures, salaries, project purchases, taxes and fees paid, worker survey results, and project closedown personal interview summaries. This information has become particularly important since the decision in December 1987 to stop all BWIP activities except those for site reclamation. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 requires nonreclamation work at the Hanford Site to stop as of March 22, 1988. 7 refs., 6 figs., 28 tabs

  20. BALANOL ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a solid phase methodology for the preparation of a combinatorial library of structural analogues of the natural product balanol (ophiocordin, azepinostatin), which is a protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The method comprises solid...

  1. Uncertainties and credibility building of safety analyses. Natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laciok, A.

    2001-07-01

    The substance of natural analogues and their studies is defined as a complementary method to laboratory and in-situ experiments and modelling. The role of natural analogues in the processes of development of repositories is defined, mainly in performance assessment of repository system and communication with public. The criteria for identification of natural analogues which should be evaluated in the phase of initiation of new studies are specified. Review part of this report is divided to study of natural analogues and study of anthropogenic and industrial analogues. The main natural analogue studies performed in various countries, in different geological setting, with various aims are characterized. New results acquired in recently finished studies are included: Palmottu (2nd phase of project financed by European Commission), Oklo (results of research financed also by European Commission), Maqarin (3rd phase) and other information obtained from last meetings and workshops of NAWG. In view of the fact that programmes of development of deep repositories in Czech and Slovak Republics are interconnected, the natural analogues studies carried out in the Czech republic are incorporated in separate chapter - study of uranium accumulation in Tertiary clays at Ruprechtov site and study of degradation of natural glasses. In final part the areas of natural analogue studies as an integral part of development of deep geological repository are proposed along with characterization of broader context and aspects of realization of these studies (international cooperation, preparation and evaluation of procedures, communication with public). (author)

  2. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  3. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  4. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the Index...

  5. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  6. U.S. Department of Energy approaches to the assessment of radionuclide migration for the geologic repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luik, A.E. van; Apted, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Potential radionuclide migration in geologic repositories is being addressed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management through its Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR). A diversity of geohydrologic settings is being investigated: unsaturated tuff, saturated basalt, and bedded salt. A number of approaches to assessing potential migration are being considered. Mass transfer is prominent among near-field approaches. For far-field analysis of migration in the geosphere, detailed characterizations of potential repository sites will lead to site-specific models describing radionuclide migration for a variety of postulated release scenarios. Finite-element and finite-difference codes are being used and developed to solve the mathematical equations pertinent to far-field assessments. Computational approaches presently in use generally require distribution coefficients to estimate the retardation of specific radionuclides with respect to the transport rate of water. 26 refs

  7. Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)

  8. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. Digitisation of analogue screening mammograms. Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program Troms and Finnmark; Digitalisering av analoge screeningbilder. Mammografiprogrammet Troms og Finnmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Kristin; Johansen, Stian; Roenning, Frank; Stormo, Sonja; Bjurstam, Nils

    2004-08-01

    In the coming years a transition from analogue to digital imaging technology will take place in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP). This will make softcopy reading of images possible. However, one will also wish to compare new (digital) images with prior images on on film. This can be solved in different ways. This report contains a brief description of different alternatives. The solution chosen in Troms and Finnmark, digitisation of prior images, is then described in detail. Both technical and economical aspects are covered. (Author)

  10. Recommended safety, reliability, quality assurance and management aerospace techniques with possible application by the DOE to the high-level radioactive waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, W.M. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Aerospace SRQA and management techniques, principally those developed and used by the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center on the manned space flight programs, have been assessed for possible application by the DOE and the DOE-contractors to the high level radioactive waste repository program that results from the implementation of the NWPA of 1982. Those techniques believed to have the greatest potential for usefulness to the DOE and the DOE-contractors have been discussed in detail and are recommended to the DOE for adoption; discussion is provided for the manner in which this transfer of technology can be implemented. Six SRQA techniques and two management techniques are recommended for adoption by the DOE; included with the management techniques is a recommendation for the DOE to include a licensing interface with the NRC in the application of the milestone reviews technique. Three other techniques are recommended for study by the DOE for possible adaptation to the DOE program

  11. Natural analogue synthesis report, TDR-NBS-GS-000027 REV00 ICN02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.; Nieder-Westermann, G.; Stuckless, J.; Dobson, P.; Unger, A.J.A.; Kwicklis, E.; Lichtner, P.; Carey, B.; Wolde, G.; Murrel, M.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Meijer, A.; Faybishenko, B.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide

  12. Natural analogue synthesis report, TDR-NBS-GS-000027 rev00 icn02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, A.; Nieder-Westermann, G.; Stuckless, J.; Dobson, P.; Unger, A.J.A.; Kwicklis, E.; Lichtner, P.; Carey, B.; Wolde, G.; Murrel,M.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Meijer, A.; Faybishenko, B.

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M&O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release

  13. Analytical results and effective dose estimation of the operational Environmental Monitoring Program for the radioactive waste repository in Abadia de Goias from 1998 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Edison, E-mail: edison@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear- Br 060 km 174, 5-Abadia de Goias- Goias, CEP 75345-000 (Brazil); Tauhata, Luiz, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Eugenia dos Santos, Eliane, E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear- Br 060 km 174, 5-Abadia de Goias- Goias, CEP 75345-000 (Brazil); Silveira Correa, Rosangela da, E-mail: rcorrea@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear- Br 060 km 174, 5-Abadia de Goias- Goias, CEP 75345-000 (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program for the Radioactive waste repository of Abadia de Goias, which was originated from the accident of Goiania, conducted by the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-CO) of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (CNEN), from 1998 to 2008. The results are related to the determination of {sup 137}Cs activity per unit of mass or volume of samples from surface water, ground water, depth sediments of the river, soil and vegetation, and also the air-kerma rate estimation for gamma exposure in the monitored site. In the phase of operational Environmental Monitoring Program, the values of the geometric mean and standard deviation obtained for {sup 137}Cs activity per unit of mass or volume in the analyzed samples were (0.08 {+-} 1.16) Bq.L{sup -1} for surface and underground water, (0.22 {+-} 2.79) Bq.kg{sup -1} for soil, and (0.19 {+-} 2.72) Bq.kg{sup -1} for sediment, and (0.19 {+-} 2.30) Bq.kg{sup -1} for vegetation. These results were similar to the values of the pre-operational Environmental Monitoring Program. With these data, estimations for effective dose were evaluated for public individuals in the neighborhood of the waste repository, considering the main possible way of exposure of this population group. The annual effective dose obtained from the analysis of these results were lower than 0.3 mSv.y{sup -1}, which is the limit established by CNEN for environmental impact in the public individuals indicating that the facility is operating safely, without any radiological impact to the surrounding environment. - Research highlights: {yields} A stolen capsule of Cesium 137 was opened in the city of Goiania, generating some 6000 tons of debris which were stored in the Repository area built for this purpose. {yields} The activity of cesium 137 of the surface water, underground water, depth sediments of river, soil, vegetation, and air, inside and surround the Repository area. {yields

  14. Repository performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the

  15. The Valles natural analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39 Ar/ 4O isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  16. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.; Skagius K.; Karlsson, F.; Smellie, J.

    1993-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included

  17. Numerical modeling of magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno

    2001-01-01

    This report explains the numerical programs behind a comprehensive modeling effort of magma-repository interactions. Magma-repository interactions occur when a magma dike with high-volatile content magma ascends through surrounding rock and encounters a tunnel or drift filled with either a magmatic

  18. Evaluation of repository safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  19. Evaluation of repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S.

    2002-01-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  20. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  1. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  2. Process mining software repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poncin, W.; Serebrenik, A.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Software developers' activities are in general recorded in software repositories such as version control systems, bug trackers and mail archives. While abundant information is usually present in such repositories, successful information extraction is often challenged by the necessity to

  3. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  4. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, 99 Tc and 129 I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10 -12 /year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of 99 Tc and 129 I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration

  5. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  6. Compilation of the papers presented at the workshop 'Natural analogues for the ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyrer, M.

    1994-04-01

    To evaluate the long-term safety of repositories for hazardous waste, whose safety has to be guaranteed for thousands of years mathematical models are used. One possibility to prove the quality of these models is to observe and to describe similar processes in nature and to compare these processes with model predictions. This is the reason why natural analogues are used as subjects of investigations and are of increasing interest in R and D pertaining to waste disposal. Because of the significance of natural analogues concerning the long-term safety analysis of repositories the Program Management Entsorgung (PTE) on behalf of the BMFT organized a workshop in the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (4-5, November 1993). Objective of this workshop was to underscore the importance of natural analogues by presenting overview and special papers and to show the national as well as the international state-of-the-art in this field of research. The final goal of this workshop was to provide BMFT with appropriate background information so that future decisions concerning funding of its R and D-programm can be put on a sound basis. The papers presented at the workshop are compiled in this KfK-report. (orig.) [de

  7. Fundamentals of the NEA Thermochemical Database and its influence over national nuclear programs on the performance assessment of deep geological repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragoussi, Maria-Eleni; Costa, Davide

    2017-03-14

    For the last 30 years, the NEA Thermochemical Database (TDB) Project (www.oecd-nea.org/dbtdb/) has been developing a chemical thermodynamic database for elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste repositories, providing data that are vital to support the geochemical modeling of such systems. The recommended data are selected on the basis of strict review procedures and are characterized by their consistency. The results of these efforts are freely available, and have become an international point of reference in the field. As a result, a number of important national initiatives with regard to waste management programs have used the NEA TDB as their basis, both in terms of recommended data and guidelines. In this article we describe the fundamentals and achievements of the project together with the characteristics of some databases developed in national nuclear waste disposal programs that have been influenced by the NEA TDB. We also give some insights on how this work could be seen as an approach to be used in broader areas of environmental interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  9. The RAND Online Measure Repository for Evaluating Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Programs. The RAND Toolkit, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    tempo may raise the risk for mental health challenges. During this time, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has implemented numerous programs to...and were based on the constraints of each electronic database. However, most searches were variations on a basic three-category format: The first...Gerontology, 1983, 38: 111–116. Iannuzzo RW, Jaeger J, Goldberg JF, Kafantaris V, Sublette ME. “Development and Reliability of the Ham-D/MADRS

  10. Repository Rodeo Redux

    CERN Document Server

    Anez, Melissa; Donohue, Tim; Fyson, Will; Simko, Tibor; Wilcox, David

    2017-01-01

    You’ve got more repository questions and we’ve got more answers! Last year’s Repository Rodeo panel was a huge success, so we’re taking the show on the road to Brisbane for OR2017. Join representatives from the DSpace, Eprints, Fedora, Hydra, and Islandora communities as we (briefly) explain what each of our repositories actually does. We'll also talk about the directions of our respective technical and community developments, and related to the conference theme of Open: Innovation Knowledge Repositories, offer brief observations about the latest, most promising and/or most surprising innovations in our space. This panel will be a great opportunity for newcomers to Open Repositories to get a crash course on the major repository options and meet representatives from each of their communities. After a brief presentation from each representative, we'll open the session up for questions from the audience.

  11. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and...

  12. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  13. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J; Brinkerhoff, D; Johnson, J [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T; Engstroem, J; Kukkonen, I [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland); and others

    2012-04-15

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  14. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I.

    2012-04-01

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  15. Use of modeling in repository licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, J.M. III; Echols, F.S.

    1995-01-01

    A review of the regulatory history of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations applicable to the licensing of a geologic repository, as well as a review of NRC administrative (licensing) decisions and federal case law, support the NRC's use of simplified models, in appropriate circumstances, which provide well-documented and reasonably conservative bounding assumptions, together with the use of expert judgement, natural analogues, and other aids to supplement available information, in reaching its reasonable assurance determination whether the public health and safety will be adequately protected if the Yucca Mountain, Nevada site should be licensed for development as a geologic repository. Specific examples are provided to assist the reader to better understand how such qualitative concepts as open-quote reasonable assurance close-quote, open-quote reasonably conservative close-quote, and open-quote adequate close-quote protection are used in an administrative context to resolve technical issues

  16. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  17. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N.; Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J.; Clark, I.D.; Karlsson, F.; Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E.; Lagerblad, B.; Longworth, G.; Savage, D.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH) 2 type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the 'alkali disturbed zone' of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  18. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  19. How many geologic repositories will be needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.J.; Halstead, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    DOE's postponement of site-specific work on the second repository program had rekindled debate over the number of geologic repositories needed for disposal of high level radioactive waste. The multiple repository approach grew out of the March, 1979 IRG report, which recommended co-disposal of civilian and defense HLW in a system of regional repositories. The multiple repository approach was adopted by DOE, and incorporated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act passed by Congress in December, 1982. Since the late 1970's, the slower than anticipated growth of the nuclear power industry has substantially reduced earlier estimates of the amount of civilian spent fuel which will require geologic disposal. Reactors currently in operation (78.5 GWe) and reactors in the construction pipeline (28 GWe) are expected to discharge about 103,200 MTU of spent fuel by the year 2036, assuming no increase in fuel burnup rate. By the year 2020, defense high level radioactive wastes equivalent to as much as 27,000 MTU could require geologic disposal. Small amounts of high level waste from other sources will also require geologic disposal. Total disposal requirements appear to be less than 140,000 MTU. The five sites nominated for the first repository, as well as hypothetical sites in granite, the host rock under primary consideration for the second repository, all appear capable of accommodating up to 140,000 MTU

  20. The use of uranium fluxes as safety indicators of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Natural analogues based on uranium deposits are commonly used to represent the long-term behaviour of radioactive waste repositories or the processes that influence their radioactive contents. The geochemical dispersion of naturally occurring uranium can also be used to model natural radioactivity fluxes in the vicinity of a planned repository. These fluxes can be estimated for erosional and groundwater discharge processes and compared with calculated future fluxes of radioactivity that would be released from a repository. The methodology is outlined and the benefits of the approach for supporting the derivation of a safety case for a repository are indicated. (author)

  1. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts

  2. Gas generation in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.; McGahan, D.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1987-09-01

    The nature and quantities of gases likely to be produced by various processes in repositories for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes are examined in this preliminary study. Many simplifying assumptions are made where published or experimental data is unavailable. The corrosion of the canisters and metallic components in wastes is likely to be the major gas production process in both types of repository. A significant contribution from microbiological activity is expected to occur in low level repositories, predominantly where no cement grouting of the cans has been carried out. A number of areas for further research, required before a more comprehensive study could be carried out, have been identified. (author)

  3. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  4. Use of analogues to build technologists' confidence: NAnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseck, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    processes occurring at the geosphere-biosphere interface and in the surface environment. One of the primary outputs of the NAnet project has been the compilation of reviews of more than 70 individual analogue studies with relevance for the near-field, far field or biosphere. Each analogue study review was documented using a standard review template that includes sections concerned with performance assessment relevance and applications, limitations of the analogue, a summary of any particular quantitative information derived from the study, an assessment of the uncertainties associated with the qualitative and quantitative information, an indication of the time-scales covered by the analogue and reference to any applications in communication and links to the primary literature. A simple referencing system was developed that enables safety assessors and communication specialists rapidly to find all those analogues that relate to their specific issues and interests. It is based on a simple matrix that has on one axis the range of materials and on the other axis the range of processes that can occur in the repository system. Intersections of the axes identify unique material-process combinations and analogue studies can be listed at the appropriate intersections. Two generic analogue matrices have been developed, one for the near-field and one for the far-field. Combining analogue studies with field and laboratory investigations provides a powerful means of investigating the natural processes which will occur in the repository environment because the disadvantages of one method are balanced by the advantages of the other. In order to illustrate how analogues can contribute to build technologists confidence, examples for the three different roles of analogues are given. Analogue studies contribute to technologists confidence by increasing the understanding of processes that control the evolution of the repository system over time. Qualitative information from analogues is of

  5. Analogue studies at the french atomic commission (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1986-06-01

    The different research activities of the French Atomic Energy Commission in the analogue study field are presented. Most of them are conducted in collaboration with major research organisations, both french and international. In fact, the scientific community has been associated to these programmes at different steps of their realisation. The brief description presented illustrates the great diversity and complementarity of actions conducted by CEA for better understanding, through the study of natural analogues, the basic processes that will rule the long term behaviour of high level radwaste materials in a repository and hence contributing to hopefully guaranty disposal safety

  6. Repository development status in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, Alvaro; Zuloaga, Pablo [ENRESA (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The paper describes the status of repository development for the different waste categories. Low and Intermediate Waste Disposal facility of El Cabril was commissioned in 1992 and is in normal operation. The major modifications and activities during the last years are the adaptation to waste streams not initially foreseen such as some decommissioning waste or waste from steel industry, and the improvement of its performance assessment, supported by a R and D and refined models. As part of this facility, a new disposal facility specifically intended for very low activity waste has been constructed and commissioned in July 2008. Its design is based on the European Directive for hazardous waste disposal. National policy for Nuclear Spent Fuel and High-Level waste is focused on the development of a centralized storage facility of the vault type, whose site location would be selected through a volunteering process. Meanwhile, with the aim of solving specific problems, three individual storage facilities are in different status at reactor sites. Research on final solution, including some repository aspects as well as separation and transmutation are being carried out in accordance to ENRESA's R and D program. ENRESA has developed conceptual designs for non site specific repositories, both in granite and clay, and has carried out their corresponding performance assessment exercises. (authors)

  7. United States Crystalline Repository Project - key research areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patera, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Crystalline Repository Project is responsible for siting the second high-level nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock for the US Department of Energy. A methodology is being developed to define data and information needs and a way to evaluate that information. The areas of research the Crystalline Repository Project is involved in include fluid flow in a fractured network, coupled thermal, chemical and flow processes and cooperation in other nations and OECD research programs

  8. National Radwaste Repository Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce (Repository) is described. The Mochovce National Radioactive Waste Repository is a surface multi-barrier type storage facility for solid and treated solidified radioactive wastes generated from the Slovak Republic nuclear power plants operation and decommissioning, research institutes, laboratories and hospitals. The Repository comprises a system of single- and double-row storage boxes. The first double-row is enclosed by a steel-structure building. The 18 x 6 x 5.5 m storage boxes are made of reinforced concrete. The wall thickness is 600 mm. Two-double-rows, i.e. 80 storage boxes were built as part of Stage I (1 row = 20 storage boxes). Each storage box has a storage capacity of 90 fibre concrete containers of 3.1 m 3 volume. The total storage capacity is 7200 containers with the overall storage volume of 22320 m 3

  9. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  10. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  11. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  12. Managing and Evaluating Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccala, Alesia; Oppenheim, Charles; Dhiensa, Rajveen

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: We examine the role of the digital repository manager, discuss the future of repository management and evaluation and suggest that library and information science schools develop new repository management curricula. Method: Face-to-face interviews were carried out with managers of five different types of repositories and a Web-based…

  13. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

    1997-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS)

  14. Repository simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The repository simulation experiments described in this paper are designed to assess the performance of SRP waste glass under the most realistic repository conditions that can be obtained in the laboratory. These tests simulate the repository environment as closely as possible and introduce systematically the variability of the geology, groundwater chemistry, and waste package components during the leaching of the waste glass. The tests evaluate waste form performance under site-specific conditions, which differ for each of the geologic repositories under consideration. Data from these experiments will aid in the development of a realistic source term that can describe the release of radionuclides from SRP waste glass as a component of proposed waste packages. Hence, this information can be useful to optimize waste package design for SRP waste glass and to provide data for predicting long-term performance and subsequent conformance to regulations. The repository simulation tests also help to bridge the gap in interpreting results derived from tests performed under the control of the laboratory to the uncertainity and variability of field tests. In these experiments, site-specific repository components and conditions are emphasized and only the site specific materials contact the waste forms. An important feature of these tests is that both actual and simulated waste glasses are tested identically. 7 figures, 2 tables

  15. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  16. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  17. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories

  18. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  19. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Saulnier; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table

  20. Microsoft Repository Version 2 and the Open Information Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Bergstraesser, Thomas; Carlson, Jason; Pal, Shankar; Sanders, Paul; Shutt, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes the programming interface and implementation of the repository engine and the Open Information Model for Microsoft Repository, an object-oriented meta-data management facility that ships in Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server. Discusses Microsoft's component object model, object manipulation, queries, and information…

  1. Trust in Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ISO 16363:2012, Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories (ISO TRAC, outlines actions a repository can take to be considered trustworthy, but research examining whether the repository’s designated community of users associates such actions with trustworthiness has been limited. Drawing from this ISO document and the management and information systems literatures, this paper discusses findings from interviews with 66 archaeologists and quantitative social scientists. We found similarities and differences across the disciplines and among the social scientists. Both disciplinary communities associated trust with a repository’s transparency. However, archaeologists mentioned guarantees of preservation and sustainability more frequently than the social scientists, who talked about institutional reputation. Repository processes were also linked to trust, with archaeologists more frequently citing metadata issues and social scientists discussing data selection and cleaning processes. Among the social scientists, novices mentioned the influence of colleagues on their trust in repositories almost twice as much as the experts. We discuss the implications our findings have for identifying trustworthy repositories and how they extend the models presented in the management and information systems literatures.

  2. Sellafield repository design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1997, UK Nirex Ltd carried out a programme of investigations to evaluate the potential of a site adjacent to the BNFL Sellafield works to host a deep repository for the United Kingdom's intermediate-level and certain low-level radioactive waste. The programme of investigations was wound down following the decision in March 1997 to uphold the rejection of the Company's planning application for the Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF), an underground laboratory which would have allowed further investigations to confirm whether or not the site would be suitable. Since that time, the Company's efforts in relation to the Sellafield site have been directed towards documenting and publishing the work carried out. The design concept for a repository at Sellafield was developed in parallel with the site investigations through an iterative process as knowledge of the site and understanding of the repository system performance increased. This report documents the Sellafield repository design concept as it had been developed, from initial design considerations in 1991 up to the point when the RCF planning application was rejected. It shows, from the context of a project at that particular site, how much information and experience has been gained that will be applicable to the development of a deep waste repository at other potential sites

  3. In-situ test programs related to design and construction of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) deep geologic repositories. Final report (Task 2), June 1981-November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Bauhof, F.; Gonano, L.

    1983-03-01

    The media and sites considered include (1) basalt at Hanford, Washington; (2) tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site; (3) domal salt at specific Gulf Coast sites; (4) bedded salt at an unspecified site; and (5) granite at an unspecified site. A licensing perspective is outlined and a defensible rationale developed and utilized for the test selection process. This rationale essentially consists of: establishing the information needs for construction authorization; assessing the relevant capabilities of available tests; and matching the capabilities of specific tests to the perceived information needs. The information needs at any time consist of the additional information (if any) needed in order to predict satisfactory repository system performance with the required level of confidence, and thus are a function of: the significance of the repository engineered components and site characteristics to system performance; the currently available information, which may be supplemented with time; and the acceptable level of confidence in satisfactory performance for each licensing step. Determination of the acceptable levels of confidence and the significance of repository system components is outside the scope of this report. Suitable assumptions have thus been made regarding the development of information needs for construction authorization by the time of initial site submittals. Tests which are available and respond to the perceived media/site specific information needs, either by simulation or assessment of site characteristics, are identified and their capabilities assessed. Specific in situ tests are investigated and described in detail. Research and development which might be effective in improving test capabilities have been recommended

  4. The role of natural analogues in safety assessment and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Toenis

    1987-01-01

    The safety assessment must evaluate the level of safety for a repository, the confidence that can be placed on the assessment and how well the repository can meet the acceptance criteria of the society. Many of the processes and phenomena that govern the long term performance of a deep geologic repository for radioactive waste also take place in nature. To investigate these natural analogues and try to validate the models on which the safety assessment are based is a main task in the effort to build of confidence in the safety assessments. The assessment of the safety of a repository can, however, not only be based on good models. The possible role of natural analogues or natural evidence in other parts of the safety assessment is discussed. Specially with regard to - the need to demonstrate that all relevant processes have been taken into account, and that the important ones have been validated to an acceptable level for relevant parameters spans, -the definition and analysis of external scenarios for the safety assessment and for the claim that all reasonable scenarios have been addressed, - the public confidence in the long-term relevance of the acceptance criteria. (author)

  5. Reliable predictions of waste performance in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

    1985-08-01

    Establishing reliable estimates of long-term performance of a waste repository requires emphasis upon valid theories to predict performance. Predicting rates that radionuclides are released from waste packages cannot rest upon empirical extrapolations of laboratory leach data. Reliable predictions can be based on simple bounding theoretical models, such as solubility-limited bulk-flow, if the assumed parameters are reliably known or defensibly conservative. Wherever possible, performance analysis should proceed beyond simple bounding calculations to obtain more realistic - and usually more favorable - estimates of expected performance. Desire for greater realism must be balanced against increasing uncertainties in prediction and loss of reliability. Theoretical predictions of release rate based on mass-transfer analysis are bounding and the theory can be verified. Postulated repository analogues to simulate laboratory leach experiments introduce arbitrary and fictitious repository parameters and are shown not to agree with well-established theory. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Socioeconomic impacts of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Federal and state decision makers, community leaders, and residents must know how communities will be changed by the impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This chapter identifies the factors affecting an assessment of socioeconomic impacts and the types of impacts (economic, demographic, fiscal, community service, and social) likely to occur as a result of repository development. Each of these types can be divided into standard (those which typically results from any large-scale development) and special impact categories (those which result from the fact that radioactive materials will be handled). 3 tables

  7. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories is a recognised option for closing nuclear fuel cycles. Geological repositories are at present in stages of development in a number of countries and are expected to be built and operated early next century. A State usually has an obligation to safely store any nuclear material, which is considered unsuitable to re-enter the nuclear fuel cycle, isolated from the biosphere. In conjunction with this, physical protection has to be accounted for to prevent inadvertent access to such material. In addition to these two criteria - which are fully under the State's jurisdiction - a third criterion reflecting international non-proliferation commitments needs to be addressed. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements a State concedes verification of nuclear material for safeguards purposes to the IAEA. The Agency can thus provide assurance to the international community that such nuclear material has been used for peaceful purposes only as declared by the State. It must be emphasised that all three criteria mentioned constitute a 'unit'. None can be sacrificed for the sake of the other, but compromises may have to be sought in order to make their combination as effective as possible. Based on comprehensive safeguards agreements signed and ratified by the State, safeguards can be terminated only when the material has been consumed or diluted in such a way that it can no longer be utilised for any nuclear activities or has become practicably irrecoverable. As such safeguards for nuclear material in geological repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been back-filled and sealed. The effective application of safeguards must assure continuity-of-knowledge that the nuclear material in the repository has not been diverted for an unknown purpose. The nuclear material disposed in a geological repository may eventually have a higher and long term proliferation risk because the inventory is

  8. Citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.E.; Olsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    The following study presents a proposed strategy for citizen participation during the planning stages of nuclear waste repository siting. It discusses the issue from the general perspective of citizen participation in controversial issues and in community development. Second, rural institutions and attitudes toward energy development as the context for developing a citizen participation program are examined. Third, major citizen participation techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach for resolving public policy issues are evaluated. Fourth, principles of successful citizen participation are presented. Finally, a proposal for stimulating and sustaining effective responsible citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting and management is developed

  9. Analysis of the seismic hazard to an underground waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Conclusions are: The consequence associated with intense vibratory shaking of a well-designed repository is essentially negligible. The specification of an appropriate seismic vibratory design criteria could best be accomplished with a Bayesian seismic hazard assessment, using geologic slip rates as input. The consequence associated with fault displacement is very site specific and dependent on the host geologic media and its permeability changes in response to fault displacement. The probability of faulting through a repository in its million year design life is rather high, principally because of a high probability of primary or secondary faulting on undetected faults. The faulting probability can be minimized by deploying sophisticated site certification programs. High resolution microseismic surveillance seems to be most appropriate. The author's judgement is that the repository simulation program can neglect consequences associated with shaking of the repository, but that the probability of significant fault displacement through the repository during its design life should be conservatively taken as one

  10. A Repository of Semantic Open EHR Archetypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a repository of openEHR archetypes that have been translated to OWL. In the work presented here, five different CKMs (Clinical Knowledge Managers have been downloaded and the archetypes have been translated to OWL. This translation is based on an existing translator that has been improved to solve programming problems with certain structures. As part of the repository a tool has been developed to keep it always up-to-date. So, any change in one of the CKMs (addition, elimination or even change of an archetype will involve translating the changed archetypes once more. The repository is accessible through a Web interface (http://www.openehr.es/.

  11. Process model repositories and PNML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Post, R.D.J.; Somers, L.J.A.M.; Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Kindler, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bringing system and process models together in repositories facilitates the interchange of model information between modelling tools, and allows the combination and interlinking of complementary models. Petriweb is a web application for managing such repositories. It supports hierarchical process

  12. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  13. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin...

  14. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  15. CRIS and Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asserson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CRIS (Current Research Information Systems provide researchers, research managers, innovators, and others with a view over the research activity of a domain. IRs (institutional repositories provide a mechanism for an organisation to showcase through OA (open access its intellectual property. Increasingly, organizations are mandating that their employed researchers deposit peer-reviewed published material in the IR. Research funders are increasingly mandating that publications be deposited in an open access repository: some mandate a central (or subject-based repository, some an IR. In parallel, publishers are offering OA but replacing subscription-based access with author (or author institution payment for publishing. However, many OA repositories have metadata based on DC (Dublin Core which is inadequate; a CERIF (Common-European Research Information Format CRIS provides metadata describing publications with formal syntax and declared semantics thus facilitating interoperation or homogeneous access over heterogeneous sources. The formality is essential for research output metrics, which are increasingly being used to determine future funding for research organizations.

  16. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  17. Repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.W.; Pentz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of candidate repository sites has a number of programmatic objectives. Principal among these is the acquisition of data: a) to determine the suitability of a site relative to the DOE repository siting guidelines, b) to support model development and calculations to determine the suitability of a site relative to the post closure criteria of the NRC and EPA, c) to support the design of a disposal system, including the waste package and the engineered barrier system, as well as the shafts and underground openings of the repository. In meeting the gaols of site characterization, the authors have an obligation to conduct their investigations within an appropriate budget and schedule. This mandates that a well-constructed and systematic plan for field investigations be developed. Such a plan must fully account for the mechanisms which will control the radiologic performance in the repository. The plan must also flexibly and dynamically respond to the results of each step of field investigation, responding to the spatial variability of earth as well as to enhanced understandings of the performance of the disposal system. Such a plan must ensure that sufficient data are available to support the necessary probabilistic calculations of performance. This paper explores the planning for field data acquisition with specific reference to requirements for demonstrations of the acceptable performance for disposal systems

  18. Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David

    , different abstraction levels and enables users to analyze their own results, and allows to share data with collaborators. The approach of the Computational Materials Repository (CMR) is to convert data to an internal format that maintains the original variable names without insisting on any semantics...

  19. The Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David D.; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Nestorov, Svetlozar

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities for designing new materials based on quantum physics calculations are rapidly growing, but these design efforts lead to a significant increase in the amount of computational data created. The Computational Materials Repository (CMR) addresses this data challenge and provides...

  20. Consortial routes to effective repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Moyle, M.; Proudfoot, R.

    2009-01-01

    A consortial approach to the establishment of repository services can help a group of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to share costs, share technology and share expertise. Consortial repository work can tap into existing structures, or it can involve new groupings of institutions with a common interest in exploring repository development. This Briefing Paper outlines some of the potential benefits of collaborative repository activity, and highlights some of the technical and organisation...

  1. Summary of repository siting models. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.; Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports that will provide critical reviews and summaries of computer programs that can be used to analyze the potential performance of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The computer programs identified address the following phenomena: saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow, heat transport, solute transport, surface water runoff, geomechanical interactions, and geochemical interactions. The report identifies 183 computer programs that can be used to analyze a repository site and provides a summary description of 31 computer programs. The summary descriptions can be used: to assist in code evaluation, to facilitate code comparison, to determine applicability of codes to specific problems, to identify code deficiencies, and to provide a screening mechanism for code selection

  2. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  3. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  4. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  5. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  6. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  7. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  8. Numerical modeling capabilities to predict repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This report presents a summary of current numerical modeling capabilities that are applicable to the design and performance evaluation of underground repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. The report includes codes that are available in-house, within Golder Associates and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories; as well as those that are generally available within the industry and universities. The first listing of programs are in-house codes in the subject areas of hydrology, solute transport, thermal and mechanical stress analysis, and structural geology. The second listing of programs are divided by subject into the following categories: site selection, structural geology, mine structural design, mine ventilation, hydrology, and mine design/construction/operation. These programs are not specifically designed for use in the design and evaluation of an underground repository for nuclear waste; but several or most of them may be so used

  9. Publishers and repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The impact of self-archiving on journals and publishers is an important topic for all those involved in scholarly communication. There is some evidence that the physics arXiv has had no impact on physics journals, while 'economic common sense' suggests that some impact is inevitable. I shall review recent studies of librarian attitudes towards repositories and journals, and place this in the context of IOP Publishing's experiences with arXiv. I shall offer some possible reasons for the mis-match between these perspectives and then discuss how IOP has linked with arXiv and experimented with OA publishing. As well as launching OA journals we have co-operated with Cornell and the arXiv on Eprintweb.org, a platform that offers new features to repository users. View Andrew Wray's biography

  10. Distributed Web Service Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Nawrocki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability and popularity of computer systems has resulted in a demand for new, language- and platform-independent ways of data exchange. That demand has in turn led to a significant growth in the importance of systems based on Web services. Alongside the growing number of systems accessible via Web services came the need for specialized data repositories that could offer effective means of searching of available services. The development of mobile systems and wireless data transmission technologies has allowed the use of distributed devices and computer systems on a greater scale. The accelerating growth of distributed systems might be a good reason to consider the development of distributed Web service repositories with built-in mechanisms for data migration and synchronization.

  11. Shared Medical Imaging Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebre, Rui; Bastião, Luís; Costa, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a solution for the integration of ownership concept and access control over medical imaging resources, making possible the centralization of multiple instances of repositories. The proposed architecture allows the association of permissions to repository resources and delegation of rights to third entities. It includes a programmatic interface for management of proposed services, made available through web services, with the ability to create, read, update and remove all components resulting from the architecture. The resulting work is a role-based access control mechanism that was integrated with Dicoogle Open-Source Project. The solution has several application scenarios like, for instance, collaborative platforms for research and tele-radiology services deployed at Cloud.

  12. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  13. Czech Republic. Dukovany repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The repository at the Dukovany site is a structure located above the land surface. It consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults. Each double-row has dimensions 38x160x6 meters and contains 2x28 vaults. The internal dimensions of each vault are 18x6x5.4 meters. The repository serves for reactor wastes from the Dukovany and Temelin nuclear power plants (NPPs). Its capacity is 55,000 m 3 or 130,000 drums. The repository is a fully engineered facility with multiple barriers. The first engineered barrier is the waste form (in the case of waste from the Dukovany NPP, the waste form is mainly bitumen, but concrete and glass are also considered as suitable solidification products). The second barrier is the container (a 200 litre steel drum or a HIC container), whereas the third consists of cut-off reinforced concrete walls with asphalt-based hydro-insulation. The fourth barrier is a cap which should protect the vaults against infiltration of rainwater and should serve also as an intrusion and erosion barrier. The fifth barrier is a drainage system around the repository which is composed of layers of gravel and sand. The void space in drums around the waste is filled with specially composed grout. Such waste packages are emplaced into the disposal vault, which is covered by pre-fabricated panels. Thereafter, joints between the panels are sealed and a provisional coverage added; the final cover, however, will be constructed only over the whole row of 28 vaults, until all vaults are filled with waste. The final cover will encompass the following components: reinforced concrete pre-fabricated panels (500 mm); cement overcoat (30 mm); insulation foil; concrete layer for cap levelling (5-150 mm); layer of asphalto-propylene concrete (150 mm); soil (450 mm); geotextile foil with topsoil (top surface vegetation). (author)

  14. The Palmottu analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Blomqvist, R.; Suksi, J.

    1993-01-01

    The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out in 1992 at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, which is a small U-Th mineralization in Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland. Additionally, the report includes several separate articles dealing with various aspects of the Palmottu Analogue Project: (1) deep groundwater flow, (2) interpretation of hydraulic connections, (3) characterization of groundwater colloids, (4) uranium mineral-groundwater equilibrium, (5) water-rock interaction and (6) modelling of in situ matrix diffusion. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes (1) structural interpretations partly based on geophysical measurements, (2) hydrological studies including hydraulic drill-hole measurements, (3) flow modelling, (4) hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, (5) mineralogical studies, (6) geochemical interpretation and modelling, (7) studies of radionuclide mobilization and retardation including matrix diffusion, and (8) modelling of uranium series data. Palaeohydrogeological aspects, due to the anticipated future glaciation of the Fennoscandian Shield, are of special interest. Quaternary sediments are studied to gain information on post-glacial migration in the overburden. (orig.)

  15. Quantum analogue computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  16. A global nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wunan

    As a concerned scientist, I think that having a global nuclear waste repository is a reachable goal for human beings. Maybe through this common goal, mankind can begin to treat each other as brothers and sisters. So far, most human activities are framed by national boundaries, which are purely arbitrary. Breaking through these national boundaries will be very beneficial to human beings.Formation of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program in 1986 indicates a growing awareness on the part of scientists regarding Earth as a system. The Apollo missions gave us a chance to look back at Earth from space. That perspective emphasized that our Earth is just one system: our only home. It is in deed a lonely boat in the high sea of dark space. We must take good care of our “boat.”

  17. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems. Their importance to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Skagius, K.; Karlsson, Fred; Smellie, J.

    1992-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and of the far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes, have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included. The results of the study show that studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems have provided significant information regarding many issues of importance to repository performance. In several cases the evidence from natural analogues has demonstrated that processes assumed to take place in repositories actually occur in natural systems or under conditions similar to those predicted to prevail in a future repository. One example of such a process is coprecipitation of fission products and ferric oxyhydroxides as an analogue to corrosion products from a steel canister. In addition, the study of concentration gradients of uranium and other trace substances in the rock surrounding groundwater conduits confirm that matrix diffusion occurs in nature and that the diffusivities in the rock matrix measured in the laboratory are consistent with the observations in nature

  18. Repository simulation model: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report documents the application of computer simulation for the design analysis of the nuclear waste repository's waste handling and packaging operations. The Salt Repository Simulation Model was used to evaluate design alternatives during the conceptual design phase of the Salt Repository Project. Code development and verification was performed by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWL). The focus of this report is to relate the experience gained during the development and application of the Salt Repository Simulation Model to future repository design phases. Design of the repository's waste handling and packaging systems will require sophisticated analysis tools to evaluate complex operational and logistical design alternatives. Selection of these design alternatives in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) and License Application Design (LAD) phases must be supported by analysis to demonstrate that the repository design will cost effectively meet DOE's mandated emplacement schedule and that uncertainties in the performance of the repository's systems have been objectively evaluated. Computer simulation of repository operations will provide future repository designers with data and insights that no other analytical form of analysis can provide. 6 refs., 10 figs

  19. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  20. Application of natural analogues in the Yucca Mountain project - overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.

    2003-01-01

    The Natural Analogue Synthesis Report (NASR) [1] provides a compilation of information from analogues that test, corroborate, and add confidence to process models and model predictions pertinent to total system performance assessment (TSPA). The report updated previous work [2] with new literature examples and results of quantitative studies conducted by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate greater understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure of a proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Natural analogues, as used here, refer to either natural or anthropogenic systems in which processes similar to those expected to occur in a nuclear waste repository are thought to have occurred over long time periods (decades to millenia) and large spatial scales (up to tens of kilometers). In the past, the YMP has used analogues for testing and building confidence in conceptual and numerical process models in a number of ways. Yucca Mountain mineral alteration phases provided a self-analogue for postclosure alteration [3]. Thermodynamic parameters for silica minerals of the Wairakai, New Zealand geothermal field were added to databases used in geochemical modeling [4]. Scoping calculations of radionuclide transport using the Yucca Mountain TSPA numerical model were conducted for the Peqa Blanca site [5]. Eruption parameters from the Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, were used to verify codes that model ash plume dispersion [6]. Analogues have also been used in supplemental science and performance analyses to provide multiple lines of evidence in support of both analyses and model reports (AMRs) [7]; in screening arguments for inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEP)s in TSPAs; in the quantification of uncertainties [7]; in expert elicitations of volcanic and seismic hazards [8, 9] and in peer reviews [10]. Natural analogues may be applied

  1. The pitchblende of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) as natural analogue of spent fuel behaviour (matrix I project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Campos, R.; Gomez, P.; Cozar, J. S.; Pardillo, J.; Garralon, A.; Turrero, M. J.; Buil, B.; Pelayo, M.; Ruiz, B.; Rivas, P.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium ore deposits have been extensively studied as natural analogues to the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. These investigations constitute an essential element of both national and international research programmes applied to the assessment of geological repositories in crystalline, clayey and even in schistose rocks. The uranium ore deposit of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salmanca) is placed in highly fractured schistose rocks, a geological setting that has not been envisaged in ENRESA options. However, the similarities with some of the repository features and the analogies with the processes involved in the degradation of the ore deposits made advisable its study as natural analogue. The most important features are. (Author)

  2. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  3. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  4. Bentonite analogue research related to geological disposal of radioactive waste: current status and future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The practice of utilising natural analogues in assessing the long-term behaviour of various components of geological repositories for radioactive waste is already well established in most disposal programmes. Numerous studies on bentonites, focussing on bentonite interaction with other components of the engineered barrier system and a range of host rock environments, are present in the literature. In this article, recent bentonite natural analogue studies are briefly reviewed, and gaps in the current literature identified, with the aim of (1) suggesting where relevant new information could be obtained by data mining published bentonite natural analogue studies with a new focus on current safety case requirements, (2) collecting relevant information by revisiting known bentonite analogue sites and conducting investigations with more appropriate analytical techniques, and (3) identifying novel study sites where, for example, bentonite longevity in very dilute to highly saline groundwater conditions can be studied. It must be noted that the use of natural analogues in safety case development is likely to be site and repository design-specific in nature and thus emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of relevant natural analogue data on bentonite longevity. (authors)

  5. Bentonite analogue research related to geological disposal of radioactive waste: current status and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, H.M.; Russel, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of utilising natural analogues in assessing the long-term behaviour of various components of geological repositories for radioactive waste is already well established in most disposal programmes. Numerous studies on bentonites, focussing on bentonite interaction with other components of the engineered barrier system and a range of host rock environments, are present in the literature. In this article, recent bentonite natural analogue studies are briefly reviewed, and gaps in the current literature identified, with the aim of (1) suggesting where relevant new information could be obtained by data mining published bentonite natural analogue studies with a new focus on current safety case requirements, (2) collecting relevant information by revisiting known bentonite analogue sites and conducting investigations with more appropriate analytical techniques, and (3) identifying novel study sites where, for example, bentonite longevity in very dilute to highly saline groundwater conditions can be studied. It must be noted that the use of natural analogues in safety case development is likely to be site and repository design-specific in nature and thus emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of relevant natural analogue data on bentonite longevity. (authors)

  6. Economics of mined geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Dippold, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    During 1982, Congress considered legislation to provide for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The result of this legislative effort was the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), PL 97-425, signed into law January 7, 1983. An important part of the NWPA was the establishment of special funds in the US Treasury for Waste Disposal and Interim Storage to be financed by user fees to pay for all costs of the program. An initial fee of 1.0 mill per kilowatt-hour was specified. The Secretary was asked to annually review the amount of the fees established... to evaluate whether collection of the fee will provide sufficient revenues to offset the costs... In the event of a prospective fee cost mismatch, the Secretary was asked to propose an adjustment to the fee to insure full cost recovery. A series of studies were sponsored by DOE in 1982 to estimate program costs, to calculate the necessary fees to assure cost recovery, and to address uncertainties that could affect future program costs and consequent fee schedules. A brief summary of the 1982 cost estimates is presented. Sources of key cost uncertainties are discussed and the bases for the cost recovery fee calculations are summarized. 17 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  7. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  8. INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY: EMPLOYMENT IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the concept of «institutional repository» and determined the aspects of institutional repositories in higher education. Institutional Repositories are information systems that allow preserving, storing and disseminating scientific knowledge produced in higher education and scientific research institutions. This study presented the main aspects using institutional repositories in educational process (such as storage of scientific and educational information, means of organization activity of students, object of studying. This article produced the structure of communities and collections of the institutional. It is described the experience of implementing of DSpace in the learning process.

  9. Industrial complementarities between interim storage and reversible geological repository - 59237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoorelbeke, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    2006 French Act provides for a research program on interim storage to be carried out along with the repository project development. This program has been guided by the complementarities between interim storage and the repository project. The main research issues address the longevity of storage facilities, up to 100 years, their versatility with regard to waste package types and their modularity to match future needs progressively. In parallel the dialogue between Andra and waste producers will continue to propose optimized waste management scenarios. (author)

  10. Analogue computer display of accelerator beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, K.

    1984-01-01

    Analogue computers have been used years ago by several authors for the design of magnetic beam handling systems. At Bochum a small analogue/hybrid computer was combined with a particular analogue expansion and logic control unit for beam transport work. This apparatus was very successful in the design and setup of the beam handling system of the tandem accelerator. The center of the stripper canal was the object point for the calculations, instead of the high energy acceleration tube a drift length was inserted into the program neglecting the weak focusing action of the tube. In the course of the installation of a second injector for heavy ions it became necessary to do better calculations. A simple method was found to represent accelerating sections on the computer and a particular way to simulate thin lenses was adopted. The analogue computer system proved its usefulness in the design and in studies of the characteristics of different accelerator installations over many years. The results of the calculations are in very good agreement with real accelerator data. The apparatus is the ideal tool to demonstrate beam optics to students and accelerator operators since the effect of a change of any of the parameters is immediately visible on the oscilloscope

  11. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Radionuclide transport. Final Report - Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golian, C.; Lever, D.A.; Baker, A.J.; Connell, L.D.; Bennett, D.G.; Read, D.; Lindgreen, M.; Pers, K.; Skagius, K.; Murakami, T.; Ohnuki, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Koongarra orebody and its associated dispersion fan are examined as a geological analogue for the transport of radionuclides from waste repositories. The aim is to build a consistent picture of the transport that has been taking place in the orebody and the important processes controlling the retardation of uranium series isotopes and to test models of radionuclide transport. A particularly distinctive feature of the Koongarra system is the strong seasonal dependence of the groundwater flow. However, the Koongarra system is similar to a radioactive waste disposal system in that mobilization of uranium is taking place as a result of the infiltration of groundwaters that are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the mineralogy of the primary ore body. There are considerable differences between the Koongarra uranium orebody and a radioactive waste repository, particularly a deep waste repository. The Koongarra system is shallow, affected by seasonal hydrogeological changes as well as climatic variations on a longer timescale and transport is taking place in a zone of active weathering. Some of these features make the Koongarra system harder to characterise than a deep repository. However, there are nevertheless many analogies between the processes occurring at Koongarra and those occurring around a deep or shallow waste repository. The difficulties encountered because of the heterogeneity of the Koongarra weathered zone mirror those to be addressed in assessing radionuclide transport in repository systems. The 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios in rock samples from the dispersion fan decrease in the direction of groundwater transport, whereas in many other systems it has been reported that 234 U is preferentially mobile relative to 238 U (Osmond and Cowart, 1982; Osmond et al., 1983). As most uranium resides in the rock rather than in the groundwater, the net recoil flux of uranium daughter radionuclides is usually from the rock to the groundwater, thus leading to ( 234

  12. Management strategy for site characterization at candidate HLW repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for HLW repository site characterization which is aimed at producing an optimal characterization trajectory for site suitability and licensing evaluations. The core feature of the strategy is a matrix of alternative performance targets and alternative information-level targets which can be used to allocate and justify program effort. Strategies for work concerning evaluation of expected and disrupted repository performance are distinguished, and the need for issue closure criteria is discussed

  13. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  14. Nuclear waste repository research at the micro- to nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T.; Denecke, M. A.

    2010-04-01

    Micro- and nano-focused synchrotron radiation techniques to investigate determinant processes in contaminant transport in geological media are becoming especially an increasingly used tool in nuclear waste disposal research. There are a number of reasons for this but primarily they are driven by the need to characterize actinide speciation localized in components of heterogeneous natural systems. We summarize some of the recent research conducted by researchers of the Institute of Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology using micro- and nano-focused X-ray beams for characterization of colloids and their interaction with minerals and of elemental and phase distributions in potential repository host rocks and actinide speciation in a repository natural analogues sample. Such investigations are prerequisite to ensuring reliable assessment of the long term radiological safety for proposed nuclear waste disposal sites.

  15. Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Project: Summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.; Goldstein, S.; Dobson, P.F.; Goodell, P.; Ku, T.-L.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Saulnier, G.; Fayek, M.; de la Garza, R.

    2011-02-01

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill cores. Data from site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  16. Pena blanca natural analogue project: summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Schon S.; Goldstein, Steven J.; Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.

    2010-01-01

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill core. Datafrom site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  17. Pena blanca natural analogue project: summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Schon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel - Fattah, Amr I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill core. Datafrom site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  18. Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Project: Summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.; Goldstein, S.; Dobson, P.F.; Goodell, P.; Ku, T.-L.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Saulnier, G.; Fayek, M.; de la Garza, R.

    2011-01-01

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill cores. Data from site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  19. Reasoning by analogy: rational foundation of natural analogue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.-C.

    1992-01-01

    Long-term extrapolations concerning the safety of a nuclear waste repository cannot be satisfactorily made on the sole basis of short-term laboratory investigations. Most nuclear countries have hence developed an approach relying on the following research directions: 1. laboratory experiments; 2. in situ testing; 3. modeling; and 4. natural analogues, which are the only means by which very slow mechanisms can be identified and by which long-term predictions of models can be tested for pertinence (if not truly validated). Although the field of natural analogues has grown very rapidly in recent years, receiving support from varied specialists and institutions involved in radioactive waste disposal, there is not yet a full consensus on their actual usefulness. More problematic is the criticism sometimes made that analogical reasoning is not ''true science'' and that information retrieved from the study of natural analogues will always remain questionable. The present paper gives some clues about the exact status of reasoning by analogy, compared to more ''scientific'' ways of deriving information from investigated systems. It is not a thorough discussion of this very complex, and by far too philosophical issue but we hope, at least, to present to readers of papers devoted to natural analogue studies arguments showing that this approach has some sound foundation. (author)

  20. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-03-10

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 {+-} 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory

  1. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 ± 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory analysis

  2. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; Bellodi, G; Benedetto, E; Dorda, U; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, G; Schmidt, F; Todesco, E; Zotter, Bruno W; Payet, J; Bartolini, R; Farvacque, L; Sen, T; Chin, Y H; Ohmi, K; Oide, K; Furman, M; Qiang, J; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A; Vay, J L; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Cousineau, S M; Danilov, V; Holmes, J A; Shishlo, A; Kim, E S; Cai, Y; Pivi, M; Kaltchev, D I; Abell, D T; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Franchetti, G; Hofmann, I; Machida, S; Wei, J

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic acceleratorphysics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  3. Safety analysis in subsurface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The development of mathematical models to represent the repository-geosphere-biosphere system, and the development of a structure for data acquisition, processing, and use to analyse the safety of subsurface repositories, are presented. To study the behavior of radionuclides in geosphere a laboratory to determine the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient was constructed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Granite-repository - geochemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Some geochemical data of importance for a radioactive waste repository in hard rock are reviewed. The ground water composition at depth is assessed. The ground water chemistry in the vicinity of uranium ores is discussed. The redox system in Swedish bedrock is described. Influences of extreme climatic changes and of repository mining and construction are also evaluated

  5. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  6. Technology overview of mined repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimera, R.; Thirumalai, K.

    1982-01-01

    Mined repositories present an environmentally viable option for permanent disposal of nuclear waste. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art mining technologies and identifies technological issues and developments necessary to mine a repository in basalt. The thermal loading, isolation, and retrieval requirements of a repository present unique technological challenges unknown to conventional mining practice. The technology issues and developments required in the areas of excavation, roof and ground support, equipment development, instrumentation development, and sealing are presented. Performance assessment methods must be developed to evaluate the adequacies of technologies developed to design, construct, operate, and decommission a repository. A stepwise test-and-development approach is used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to develop cost-effective technologies for a repository

  7. Influence analysis of Github repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Bai, Xiaomei; Yu, Shuo; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    With the support of cloud computing techniques, social coding platforms have changed the style of software development. Github is now the most popular social coding platform and project hosting service. Software developers of various levels keep entering Github, and use Github to save their public and private software projects. The large amounts of software developers and software repositories on Github are posing new challenges to the world of software engineering. This paper tries to tackle one of the important problems: analyzing the importance and influence of Github repositories. We proposed a HITS based influence analysis on graphs that represent the star relationship between Github users and repositories. A weighted version of HITS is applied to the overall star graph, and generates a different set of top influential repositories other than the results from standard version of HITS algorithm. We also conduct the influential analysis on per-month star graph, and study the monthly influence ranking of top repositories.

  8. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  9. Salt repository project closeout status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE's) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Radioactive Waste Repositories and Incentives to Local Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste (RW) repository depends on various and often community-specific factors. Although radiological risk from a properly constructed low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository is practically negligible, routine safety considerations will favor low populated areas and therefore probably underdeveloped communities. Repository acceptance in such communities is more likely to be facilitated by prospective benefits to local economy, such as infrastructure development and increased employment, as well as by dedicated financial incentives to the community. Direct financial compensation to the local community for acceptance of the repository has been considered in some documents in countries experienced in RW management, but it has not become a widely accepted practice. In Croatia, a possibility for such compensation is mentioned in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository site. In Slovenia, the government has already specified the annual amount of 2.33 million euro as a compensation for 'limited land use' to be shared by local communities in the vicinity of the planned LILW repository during its operation. Applicability of the Slovenian compensations to the prospective joint Slovenian-Croatian repository is not yet clear, at least in the aspect of joint funding. The joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 did conservatively include the compensations into the repository cost estimates, but that might not be retained in subsequent revisions of the Program. According to the agreement between governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the Nuclear power plant Krsko, Croatian side has no obligations to participate in 'public expenditures' introduced after the agreement, as would be the case of community compensations for LILW repository in Slovenia. Before further decisions on joint NPP Krsko waste management are made, including the issue of LILW

  11. Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2005-01-01

    This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the

  12. Executive-style briefings on selected repository design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This document is a collection of executive-style briefings on selected repository design issues. Most of the briefings discuss differences between the US repository design bases presented in US Working Draft on Repository Physical Descriptions in a Salt Formation, prepared in support of INFCE discussions of May 1978 and the FRG-Netherlands design bases, presented in Design Study of a Radioactive Waste Repository to be Mined in a Medium-Size Salt Dome by Hamstra and Velzeboer, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, January 1978. Advantages and disadvantages of the two sets of design bases are discussed, and the impacts of adopting either of these bases on the other's programs and positions are identified

  13. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-01-01

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data

  14. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-09-12

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data.

  15. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  16. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    The BWIP Engineered Barrier Program has been developed to provide an integrated approach to the development of site-specific Engineered Barrier assemblages for a repository located in basalt. The goal of this program is to specify engineered and natural barriers which will ensure that nuclear and non-radioactive hazardous materials emplaced in a repository in basalt do not exceed acceptable rates of release to the biosphere. A wide range of analytical and experimental activities related to the basalt repository environment, waste package environment, waste/barrier/rock interactions, and barrier performance assessment provide the basis for selection of systems capable of meeting licensing requirements. Work has concentrated on specifying and testing natural and man-made materials which can be used to plug boreholes in basalt and which can be used as multiple barriers to surround nuclear waste forms and containers. The Engineered Barriers Program is divided into two major activities: multiple barrier studies and borehole plugging. 8 figures, 4 tables

  17. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R and D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''

  18. Repository for fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    A repository for holding and storing fissile or other hazardous materials either under or above the ground is provided by enclosing one or more inner containers, such as standard steel drums, in a larger, corrosion-resistant outer shell, with a layer of foamed polyurethane occupying the space therebetween. The polyurethane foam is free of voids at its interfaces with the inner container and outer shell, and adheres to and reinforces same to provide a stress skin structure. Protection is afforded by the chemical and physical characteristics of the polyurethane foam against destructive influences such as water vapor intrusion, package leakage and damaging effects of the environment, such as freezing, electrolysis, chemical and bacterial action. The outer shell is shaped to conform generally to the shape of the inner container and is made of a tube of bituminized fiber material with endcaps of exterior grade plywood treated with wood preservative. A quantity of fluorescein dye is positioned within the inner container for monitoring each package for leakage

  19. Biospecimen repositories and cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Savitri

    2015-03-01

    Biospecimen repositories are important for the advancement of biomedical research. Literature on the potential for biobanking of fine-needle aspiration, gynecologic, and nongynecologic cytology specimens is very limited. The potential for biobanking of these specimens as valuable additional resources to surgically excised tissues appears to be excellent. The cervicovaginal specimens that can be used for biobanking include Papanicolaou-stained monolayer preparations and residual material from liquid-based cytology preparations. Different types of specimen preparations of fine-needle aspiration and nongynecologic specimens, including Papanicolaou-stained and Diff-Quik-stained smears, cell blocks. and dedicated passes/residual material from fine-needle aspiration stored frozen in a variety of solutions, can be used for biobanking. Because of several gaps in knowledge regarding the standard of operative procedures for the procurement, storage, and quality assessment of cytology specimens, further studies as well as national conferences and workshops are needed not only to create awareness but also to facilitate the use of cytopathology specimens for biobanking. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  20. A Nuclide Release Model for a Deep Well Scenario near a Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    Recently several template programs ready for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository (HLW) and a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository (LILW) systems, that are conceptually modeled, have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. During the last few years, such template programs have been utilized for the evaluation of nuclide transports in the nearand far-field of a repository as well as transport through the biosphere under various normal and disruptive release scenarios with assumed data. The GoldSim program, another template program by which influence due to a well located very near to the repository has been modeled and evaluated for an assumed case in order to simulate the worst exposure scenario. This seems very useful to evaluate an accidental event a long time after closure of the repository has been developed and illustrated

  1. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  2. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  3. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  4. Repository waste-handling operations, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottam, A.E.; Connell, L.

    1986-04-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Mission Plan and the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geologic Disposal System state that beginning in 1998, commercial spent fuel not exceeding 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, or a quantity of solidified high-level radioactive waste resulting from the reprocessing of such a quantity of spent fuel, will be shipped to a deep geologic repository for permanent storage. The development of a waste-handling system that can process 3000 metric tons of heavy metal annually will require the adoption of a fully automated approach. The safety and minimum exposure of personnel will be the prime goals of the repository waste handling system. A man-out-of-the-loop approach will be used in all operations including the receipt of spent fuel in shipping casks, the inspection and unloading of the spent fuel into automated hot-cell facilities, the disassembly of spent fuel assemblies, the consolidation of fuel rods, and the packaging of fuel rods into heavy-walled site-specific containers. These containers are designed to contain the radionuclides for up to 1000 years. The ability of a repository to handle more than 6000 pressurized water reactor spent-fuel rods per day on a production basis for approximately a 23-year period will require that a systems approach be adopted that combines space-age technology, robotics, and sophisticated automated computerized equipment. New advanced inspection techniques, maintenance by robots, and safety will be key factors in the design, construction, and licensing of a repository waste-handling facility for 1998

  5. Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues, ... These compounds .... using microscope with 400 × magnification. APC ... Figure 3: Microscopic images of rat colorectal tissue stained with APC rabbit polyclonal antibody with different.

  6. Conceptual design of repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Engelmann, H.J.; Souquet, G.; Mayence, M.; Hamstra, J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the European Economic Communities programme of research into underground disposal of radioactive wastes repository design studies have been carried out for application in salt deposits, argillaceous formations and crystalline rocks. In this paper the design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual designs are presented in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Emphasis has been placed on the disposal of vitrified high level radioactive wastes although consideration has been given to other categories of radioactive waste

  7. Tools for Managing Repository Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Banker, Rajiv D.; Isakowitz, Tomas; Kauffman, Robert J.; Kumar, Rachna; Zweig, Dani

    1993-01-01

    working Paper Series: STERN IS-93-46 The past few years have seen the introduction of repository-based computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools which may finally enable us to develop software which is reliable and affordable. With the new tools come new challenges for management: Repository-based CASE changes software development to such an extent that traditional approaches to estimation, performance, and productivity assessment may no longer suffice - if they ever...

  8. Business models for digital repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Bjørnshauge, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Those setting up, or planning to set up, a digital repository may be interested to know more about what has gone before them. What is involved, what is the cost, how many people are needed, how have others made the case to their institution, and how do you get anything into it once it is built? I have recently undertaken a study of European repository business models for the DRIVER project and will present an overview of the findings.

  9. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-11-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  10. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K. [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1992-12-31

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  11. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Wingefors, S.

    1992-01-01

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  12. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  13. IAEA safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In September. 1988, the IAEA held its first formal meeting on the safeguards requirements for the final disposal of spent fuel and nuclear material-bearing waste. The consensus recommendation of the 43 participants from 18 countries at this Advisory Group Meeting was that safeguards should not terminate of spent fuel even after emplacement in, and closure of, a geologic repository.' As a result of this recommendation, the IAEA initiated a series of consultants' meetings and the SAGOR Programme (Programme for the Development of Safeguards for the Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geologic Repositories) to develop an approach that would permit IAEA safeguards to verify the non-diversion of spent fuel from a geologic repository. At the end of this process, in December 1997, a second Advisory Group Meeting, endorsed the generic safeguards approach developed by the SAGOR Programme. Using the SAGOR Programme results and consultants' meeting recommendations, the IAEA Department of Safeguards issued a safeguards policy paper stating the requirements for IAEA safeguards at geologic repositories. Following approval of the safeguards policy and the generic safeguards approach, the Geologic Repository Safeguards Experts Group was established to make recommendations on implementing the safeguards approach. This experts' group is currently making recommendations to the IAEA regarding the safeguards activities to be conducted with respect to Finland's repository programme. (author)

  14. Classifying decommissioning wastes for allocation to appropriate final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, J.C.; Tunaboylu, K.

    1982-01-01

    For the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in different repositories, it is of advantage to classify them in well-defined conditioned categories, appropriate for final disposal. These categories, the so-called waste sorts are characterized by similar radionuclide distribution, similar nuclide-specific activity concentrations and similar waste matrix. A methodology is presented for classifying decommissioning wastes and is applied to the decommissioning wastes arising from a Swiss program of 6 GWe. The amounts and nuclide-specific activity inventories of the decommissioning waste sorts have been estimated. A first allocation into two different repository types has been performed. Such a classification enables one to define the source parameters for repository safety analysis and allows one to allocate the different waste categories into appropriate final repositories. This work presents a first iteration to determine which waste sorts belong to which repository type. The characteristics of waste sorts have to be better defined and the protective strength of the repository barriers has to be optimized. 7 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  15. Review and critique of the US Department of Energy environmental program plan for site characterization for a high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report provides a review and critique of the US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental program plan for site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain which principally addresses compliance with federal and state environmental regulation and to a lesser extent monitoring and mitigation of significant adverse impacts and reclamation of disturbed areas. There are 15 documents which comprise the plan and focus on complying with the environmental requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, (NWPA) and with single-media environmental statutes and their regulations. All elements of the plan follow from the 1986 statutory environmental assessment (EA) required by NWPA which concluded that no significant adverse impacts would result from characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. The lack of appropriate environmental planning and review for site characterization at Yucca Mountain points to the need for an oversight function by the State of Nevada. It cannot be assumed that on its own DOE will properly comply with environmental requirements, especially the substantive requirements that comprise the intent of NEPA. Thus, procedures must be established to assure that the environmental interests of the State are addressed in the course of the Yucca Mountain Project. Accordingly, steps will be taken by the State of Nevada to review the soundness and efficacy of the DOE field surveys, monitoring and mitigation activities, reclamation actions, and ecological impact studies that follow from the DOE environmental program plans addressed by this review.

  16. Review and critique of the US Department of Energy environmental program plan for site characterization for a high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a review and critique of the US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental program plan for site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain which principally addresses compliance with federal and state environmental regulation and to a lesser extent monitoring and mitigation of significant adverse impacts and reclamation of disturbed areas. There are 15 documents which comprise the plan and focus on complying with the environmental requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, (NWPA) and with single-media environmental statutes and their regulations. All elements of the plan follow from the 1986 statutory environmental assessment (EA) required by NWPA which concluded that no significant adverse impacts would result from characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. The lack of appropriate environmental planning and review for site characterization at Yucca Mountain points to the need for an oversight function by the State of Nevada. It cannot be assumed that on its own DOE will properly comply with environmental requirements, especially the substantive requirements that comprise the intent of NEPA. Thus, procedures must be established to assure that the environmental interests of the State are addressed in the course of the Yucca Mountain Project. Accordingly, steps will be taken by the State of Nevada to review the soundness and efficacy of the DOE field surveys, monitoring and mitigation activities, reclamation actions, and ecological impact studies that follow from the DOE environmental program plans addressed by this review

  17. An approach to improve Romanian geological repository planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Veronica; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2016-01-01

    International standards recommend typical phases to be included within any national program for the development of a geological repository dedicated to disposal of the high level radioactive wastes generated in countries using nuclear power. However, these are not universally applicable and the content of each of these phases may need to be adapted for each national situation and regulatory and institutional framework. Several national geological repository programs have faced failures in schedules and have revised their programs to consider an adapted phased management approach. The authors have observed that in the case of those countries in the early phases of a geological repository program where boundary conditions have not been fully defined, international recommendations for handling delays/failures in the national program might not immediately help. This paper considers a case study of the influences of the national context risks on the current planning schedule of the Romanian national geological repository. It proposes an optimum solution for an integrated response to any significant adverse impact arising from these risks, enabling sustainable program planning

  18. Radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.; Barinov, A.; Prozorov, L.

    2000-01-01

    With the purpose to construct a radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety and reliable containment, MosNPO 'Radon' specialists have developed an advanced type repository - large diameter well (LBD) one. A project is started for the development of a technology for LDW repository construction and pilot operation of the new repository for 25-30 years. The 2 LDW repositories constructed at the 'Radon' site and the developed monitoring system are described

  19. Demystifying the institutional repository for success

    CERN Document Server

    Buehler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Institutional repositories remain key to data storage on campus, fulfilling the academic needs of various stakeholders. Demystifying the Institutional Repository for Success is a practical guide to creating and sustaining an institutional repository through marketing, partnering, and understanding the academic needs of all stakeholders on campus. This title is divided into seven chapters, covering: traditional scholarly communication and open access publishing; the academic shift towards open access; what the successful institutional repository looks like; institutional repository collaboratio

  20. Virtual patient repositories--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küfner, Julia; Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Hege, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Patients (VPs) are an important component of medical education. One way to reduce the costs for creating VPs is sharing through repositories. We conducted a literature review to identify existing repositories and analyzed the 17 included repositories in regards to the search functions and metadata they provide. Most repositories provided some metadata such as title or description, whereas other data, such as educational objectives, were less frequent. Future research could, in cooperation with the repository provider, investigate user expectations and usage patterns.

  1. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  2. Safety analysis of the proposed Canadian geologic nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Canadian program for development and qualification of a geologic repository for emplacement of high-level and long-lived, alpha-emitting waste from irradiated nuclear fuel has been inititiated and is in its initial development stage. Fieldwork programs to locate candidate sites with suitable geological characteristics have begun. Laboratory studies and development of models for use in safety analysis of the emplaced nuclear waste have been initiated. The immediate objective is to complete a simplified safety analysis of a model geologic repository by mid-1978. This analysis will be progressively updated and will form part of an environmental Assessment Report of a Model Fuel Center which will be issued in mid-1979. The long-term objectives are to develop advanced safety assessment models of a geologic repository which will be available by 1980

  3. Spent fuel performance in geologic repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    The performance assessment of the waste package is a current area of study in the United States program to develop a geologic repository for nuclear waste isolation. The waste package is presently envisioned as the waste form and its surrounding containers and possibly a packing material composed of crushed host rock or mixtures of that rock with clays. This waste package is tied to performance criteria set forth in recent legislation. It is the goal of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to obtain the necessary information on the waste package, in several geologic environments, to show that the waste package provides reasonable assurance of meeting established performance criteria. This paper discusses the United States program directed toward managing high-level radioactive waste, with emphasis on the current effort to define the behavior of irradiated spent fuel in repository groundwaters. Current studies are directed toward understanding the rate and nature (such as valence state, colloid form if any, solid phase controlling solubility) of radionuclide release from the spent fuel. Due to the strong interactive effect of radiation, thermal fields, and waste package components on this release, current spent fuel studies are being conducted primarily in the presence of waste package components over a wide range of potential environments

  4. RepoTREND. The program package for the integrated long term safety analysis of final repository systems. Version 4.5 (State March 2016); RepoTREND. Das Programmpaket zur integrierten Langzeitsicherheitsanalyse von Endlagersystemen. Version 4.5 (Stand Maerz 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Tatiana

    2016-04-15

    The long-term safety analysis is the analysis of final repository behavior after closure includes the spreading of pollutants into the biosphere (mobilization and release of pollutants into the near field, radionuclide migration through the geosphere, radiation exposure in the biosphere) and the radiological consequences. The report describes the program package RepoTREND, the respective modules (near field, GeoTREND, BioTREND and probabilistic analyses), sequencing and postprocessing and the quality management.

  5. Crystalline Repository Project: Technical progress report for the period October 1, 1982--May 28, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This document reports the progress made on the development of a second geologic repository in crystalline rocks during the duration of the Crystalline Repository Project from its inception in October 1982 to its termination in May 1986. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD), successor to the Office of Crystalline Repository Development. OWTD is a prime contractor of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Repository Technology Program Office, itself the successor to the Crystalline Repository Project Office. The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the Office of Crystalline Repository Development. 151 refs

  6. Andra's geologic repository monitoring strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschaert, S.; Lesoille, S.; Bertrand, J.; Landais, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After having concluded a feasibility study of deep geological disposal for high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in 2005, Andra was charged by the Planning Act no. 2006-739 to design and create an industrial site for geological disposal called Cigeo which must be reversible for at least a century-long period. The French Safety Guide recommends that Andra develop a monitoring program to be implemented at repository construction and conducted until closure, and possibly after closure, with the aim to confirming prior expectations and enhancing knowledge of relevant processes. This abstract focuses on underground structure monitoring. The monitoring system is based on a combination of in-situ instrumentation and nondestructive methods to obtain the required level of reliable performance. To optimize the device distribution, we take into account both the repetitive design of disposal cells and the homogeneity of the rock properties. This resulted in distinguishing pilot disposal cells that are highly instrumented and standard disposal cells where the instrumentation density could be reduced; monitoring will rely mostly on robotic nondestructive evaluations. If monitoring technologies do not comply with all monitoring objectives, real withdrawal tests of high level wastes in some pilot disposal cells are also planned to provide the possibility of carrying out visual inspection, destructive analyses and samplings on construction materials. Such cells are planned to be dismantled because of the potential disturbance of their component performances from the testing process. Based on this overall strategy, Andra has analyzed the technical requirements that must be met by its monitoring equipment. First, these must be able to provide information on key THMCR (Thermal- Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical and Radiological) processes, to provide a three-dimensional image of a disposal component's behavior and thus to understand

  7. How stakeholders view the use of analogues in safety cases: PAMINA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth; Bailey, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to provide an overview of some research that has been undertaken in the UK to investigate stakeholders' views of analogues. There are various reasons for using analogues including: to try and explain difficult concepts; to compare disposal facility features with familiar and/or natural systems; to provide an alternative, non-numerical line of reasoning to support the Safety Case conclusions; to provide evidence of behaviour over very long timescales, that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. There are some dangers when using analogues that people should be aware of: the analogue conditions may not be the same as those found in a disposal facility, so the analogue may have limited application. Some analogues may have negative implications, for example artefacts that have corroded. Analogues can be taken too far and used in inappropriate ways to try and support an assumption. So it is important to find out how stakeholders view the use of analogues in a safety case. NDA is involved in an EC funded project called Pamina (Performance Assessment Methodologies in Application). The project involves 26 partners from 11 European countries, plus other associated members and runs for 3 years from October 2006 to October 2009. The NDA is involved in several parts of the project: Exploring issues of modelling uncertainty; Evaluating effectiveness of approaches for communicating safety cases with stakeholders. NDA ran a workshop in October 2007 in Manchester. The aims of the workshop were to explore how different methods of communicating aspects of a safety case were received by stakeholders. The workshop presented stakeholders with: Examples of different repository concepts; Descriptions of barrier performance; Different ways of presenting numerical results; Use of natural analogues

  8. Statistical methods for mechanistic model validation: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggett, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Salt Repository Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the emplacement of nuclear waste containers in a salt repository. One objective of the SRP program is to develop an overall waste package component model which adequately describes such phenomena as container corrosion, waste form leaching, spent fuel degradation, etc., which are possible in the salt repository environment. The form of this model will be proposed, based on scientific principles and relevant salt repository conditions with supporting data. The model will be used to predict the future characteristics of the near field environment. This involves several different submodels such as the amount of time it takes a brine solution to contact a canister in the repository, how long it takes a canister to corrode and expose its contents to the brine, the leach rate of the contents of the canister, etc. These submodels are often tested in a laboratory and should be statistically validated (in this context, validate means to demonstrate that the model adequately describes the data) before they can be incorporated into the waste package component model. This report describes statistical methods for validating these models. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appetite weight gain irritability changes in mood or personality abnormally happy or excited mood difficulty falling asleep ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  10. Repository of Evaluation Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To inform the HHS, Congress, and the public about the efficiency, effectiveness, and integrity of HHS programs and to recommend actions to promote those goals.

  11. Repository of Audit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To inform the HHS, Congress, and the public about the efficiency, effectiveness, and integrity of HHS programs and to recommend actions to promote those goals. To...

  12. Biological Web Service Repositories Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdidiales-Nieto, David; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2017-05-01

    Web services play a key role in bioinformatics enabling the integration of database access and analysis of algorithms. However, Web service repositories do not usually publish information on the changes made to their registered Web services. Dynamism is directly related to the changes in the repositories (services registered or unregistered) and at service level (annotation changes). Thus, users, software clients or workflow based approaches lack enough relevant information to decide when they should review or re-execute a Web service or workflow to get updated or improved results. The dynamism of the repository could be a measure for workflow developers to re-check service availability and annotation changes in the services of interest to them. This paper presents a review on the most well-known Web service repositories in the life sciences including an analysis of their dynamism. Freshness is introduced in this paper, and has been used as the measure for the dynamism of these repositories. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. NRC overview: Repository QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is on the threshold of an extensive program for characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada to determine if it is a suitable site for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Earlier this year, the DOE published the Consultation Draft Site Characterization Plan for the Nevada site, which describes in some detail the studies that need to be performed to determine if the site is acceptable. In the near future, the final site characterization plan (SCP) is expected to be issued and large-scale site characterization activities to begin. The data and analyses that will result from the execution of that plan are expected to be the primary basis for the license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of the importance of these data and analyses in the assessment of the suitability of the site and in the demonstration of that suitability in the NRC licensing process, the NRC requires in 10CFR60 that site characterization be performed under a quality assurance (QA) program. The QA program is designed to provide confidence that data are valid, retrievable, and reproducible. The documentation produced by the program will form an important part of the record on which the suitability of the site is judged in licensing. In addition, because the NRC staff can review only a selected portion of the data collected, the staff will need to rely on the system of controls in the DOE QA program

  14. Recent outputs of the Oklo (Gabon) natural analogue study to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, V.; Trotignon, L.; Louvat, D.

    2000-01-01

    In the past twenty five years, the natural nuclear reactors of Oklo have been the subject of numerous detailed studies. First investigated for the physical and neutron aspects of the nuclear reaction, they were then reconsidered because they provide a unique opportunity in the world to study the containment of actinides and fission products in a geological formation over a broad timescale (two billion years). Although the sites investigated do not represent a complete analogue of a repository system, many of the processes studied (mass transfer to the surface, transport, migration / retention), the spatial extent of these processes, and the timescales involved, are compatible with processes liable to occur during the lifespan of a repository for the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A fresh program was therefore initiated as a European Commission project in 1990, entitled''Oklo as a natural analog for transfer processes in a radioactive waste repository'- phase 7, and then extended by a phase 2 entitled Oklo, Natural Analogue - Behavior of Nuclear Reaction Products in a Natural Environment''. Researches conducted in phase I served to determine the physical conditions of the operation of the natural reactor, reconstruct the geological history of the reactor environment, and decode the behavior of actinides as well as fission products in the surrounding geological formations. Phase N, which ended in June 1999, had three main objectives: i) to assess radionuclide migration and retention processes from the reactor zones to the geological environment, ii) to define the confinement properties and long-term behavior of geological materials; iii) to test models of processes related to radionuclide migration and retention, and eventually to provide suitable data and scenarios for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. This paper proposes a synthesis of the main outputs of the Oklo project to the performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal, the

  15. Harvesting NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D.; Mitchell, A. E.; Durbin, C.; Norton, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) stores metadata for over 30,000 datasets from both NASA and international providers along with over 300M granules. This metadata enables sub-second discovery and facilitates data access. While the CMR offers a robust temporal, spatial and keyword search functionality to the general public and international community, it is sometimes more desirable for international partners to harvest the CMR metadata and merge the CMR metadata into a partner's existing metadata repository. This poster will focus on best practices to follow when harvesting CMR metadata to ensure that any changes made to the CMR can also be updated in a partner's own repository. Additionally, since each partner has distinct metadata formats they are able to consume, the best practices will also include guidance on retrieving the metadata in the desired metadata format using CMR's Unified Metadata Model translation software.

  16. Sample management implementation plan: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Sample Management Implementation Plan is to define management controls and building requirements for handling materials collected during the site characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. This work will be conducted for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO). The plan provides for controls mandated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Salt Repository Project (SRP) Sample Management will interface with program participants who request, collect, and test samples. SRP Sample Management will be responsible for the following: (1) preparing samples; (2) ensuring documentation control; (3) providing for uniform forms, labels, data formats, and transportation and storage requirements; and (4) identifying sample specifications to ensure sample quality. The SRP Sample Management Facility will be operated under a set of procedures that will impact numerous program participants. Requesters of samples will be responsible for definition of requirements in advance of collection. Sample requests for field activities will be approved by the SRPO, aided by an advisory group, the SRP Sample Allocation Committee. This document details the staffing, building, storage, and transportation requirements for establishing an SRP Sample Management Facility. Materials to be managed in the facility include rock core and rock discontinuities, soils, fluids, biota, air particulates, cultural artifacts, and crop and food stuffs. 39 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  17. Different Mass Processing Services in a Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Zierau, Eld

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how a general bit repository mass processing service using different programming models and platforms can be specified. Such a service is needed in large data archives, especially libraries, where different ways of doing mass processing is needed for different digital...

  18. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Radionuclide transport. Final Report - Volume 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golian, C [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lever, D A; Baker, A J; Connell, L D [AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell (United Kingdom); Bennett, D G; Read, D [WS Atkins Science and Technology Epsom Surrey (United Kingdom); Lindgreen, M; Pers, K; Skagius, K [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Murakami, T; Ohnuki, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, IBARAKI (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The Koongarra orebody and its associated dispersion fan are examined as a geological analogue for the transport of radionuclides from waste repositories. The aim is to build a consistent picture of the transport that has been taking place in the orebody and the important processes controlling the retardation of uranium series isotopes and to test models of radionuclide transport. A particularly distinctive feature of the Koongarra system is the strong seasonal dependence of the groundwater flow. However, the Koongarra system is similar to a radioactive waste disposal system in that mobilization of uranium is taking place as a result of the infiltration of groundwaters that are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the mineralogy of the primary ore body. There are considerable differences between the Koongarra uranium orebody and a radioactive waste repository, particularly a deep waste repository. The Koongarra system is shallow, affected by seasonal hydrogeological changes as well as climatic variations on a longer timescale and transport is taking place in a zone of active weathering. Some of these features make the Koongarra system harder to characterise than a deep repository. However, there are nevertheless many analogies between the processes occurring at Koongarra and those occurring around a deep or shallow waste repository. The difficulties encountered because of the heterogeneity of the Koongarra weathered zone mirror those to be addressed in assessing radionuclide transport in repository systems. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios in rock samples from the dispersion fan decrease in the direction of groundwater transport, whereas in many other systems it has been reported that {sup 234}U is preferentially mobile relative to {sup 238}U (Osmond and Cowart, 1982; Osmond et al., 1983). As most uranium resides in the rock rather than in the groundwater, the net recoil flux of uranium daughter radionuclides is usually from the rock to the groundwater

  19. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Radionuclide transport. Final Report - Volume 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golian, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lever, D.A.; Baker, A.J.; Connell, L.D. [AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell (United Kingdom); Bennett, D.G.; Read, D. [WS Atkins Science and Technology Epsom Surrey (United Kingdom); Lindgreen, M.; Pers, K.; Skagius, K. [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Murakami, T.; Ohnuki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, IBARAKI (Japan)

    1992-12-31

    The Koongarra orebody and its associated dispersion fan are examined as a geological analogue for the transport of radionuclides from waste repositories. The aim is to build a consistent picture of the transport that has been taking place in the orebody and the important processes controlling the retardation of uranium series isotopes and to test models of radionuclide transport. A particularly distinctive feature of the Koongarra system is the strong seasonal dependence of the groundwater flow. However, the Koongarra system is similar to a radioactive waste disposal system in that mobilization of uranium is taking place as a result of the infiltration of groundwaters that are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the mineralogy of the primary ore body. There are considerable differences between the Koongarra uranium orebody and a radioactive waste repository, particularly a deep waste repository. The Koongarra system is shallow, affected by seasonal hydrogeological changes as well as climatic variations on a longer timescale and transport is taking place in a zone of active weathering. Some of these features make the Koongarra system harder to characterise than a deep repository. However, there are nevertheless many analogies between the processes occurring at Koongarra and those occurring around a deep or shallow waste repository. The difficulties encountered because of the heterogeneity of the Koongarra weathered zone mirror those to be addressed in assessing radionuclide transport in repository systems. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios in rock samples from the dispersion fan decrease in the direction of groundwater transport, whereas in many other systems it has been reported that {sup 234}U is preferentially mobile relative to {sup 238}U (Osmond and Cowart, 1982; Osmond et al., 1983). As most uranium resides in the rock rather than in the groundwater, the net recoil flux of uranium daughter radionuclides is usually from the rock to the groundwater

  20. Overly Honest Data Repository Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Fallaw

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After a year of development, the library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has launched a repository, called the Illinois Data Bank (https://databank.illinois.edu/, to provide Illinois researchers with a free, self-serve publishing platform that centralizes, preserves, and provides persistent and reliable access to Illinois research data. This article presents a holistic view of development by discussing our overarching technical, policy, and interface strategies. By openly presenting our design decisions, the rationales behind those decisions, and associated challenges this paper aims to contribute to the library community's work to develop repository services that meet growing data preservation and sharing needs.

  1. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  2. Retrievability as proposed in the US repository concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act states that any repository shall be designed and constructed to permit retrieval. Reasons for retrieval include public health and safety, environmental concerns, and recovery of economically valuable contents of spent nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that waste must be retrievable at any time up to 50 years after start of emplacement. The US Department of Energy intends to maintain a retrieval capability throughout the preclosure period. Possible preclosure periods range from a minimum of 50 years to as much as 300 years. Repository closure includes sealing all accessible portions of the repository, including ventilation shafts, access ramps and boreholes. Drip shields will be installed over the waste packages. Access to the repository after closure is not intended. The proposed repository includes horizontal emplacement drifts located in the unsaturated zone. The emplacement drift centerline spacing is 81 meters to provide a subboiling region between drifts for water drainage. A drip shield covers the waste packages. All emplacement drifts remain open until closure of the repository, providing performance benefits such as removing heat and moisture during the preclosure period and lowering postclosure temperatures. This does not impede retrieval, permitting a reversal of the emplacement process to accomplish retrieval under normal conditions. The preclosure period is therefore not to enhance retrievability, but does improve performance, and the resultant extension of the retrievability capability is a secondary effect. Information must be provided from the performance confirmation program to support a regulatory decision to close. Closure would isolate the repository from the accessible environment, preclude preferential flowpaths for water into the mountain, and minimize the possibility of inadvertent intrusion. (author)

  3. Corrosion of pure OFHC-copper in simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1990-04-01

    The research program 'Corrosion of pure OFHC-copper in simulated repository conditions' was planned to provide an experimental evaluation with respect to the theoretical calculations and forecasts made for the corrosion behaviour of pure copper in bentonite groundwater environments at temperatures between 20-80 deg C. The aim of this study in the first place is to evaluate the effects of groundwater composition, bentonite and temperature on the equilibrium and possible corrosion reactions between pure copper and the simulated repository environment. The progress report includes the results obtained after 36 months exposure time

  4. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. 'Buzz' Savage

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is investigating spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies that have the potential to improve the performance of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Separating actinides and selected fission products from spent fuel, storing some of them as low level waste and transmuting them in thermal and/or fast reactors has the potential to reduce the volume, short and long-term heat load and radiotoxicity of the high level waste destined for the repository, effectively increasing its capacity by a factor of 50 or more above the current legislative limit. (author)

  5. NPP Krsko: LILW Repository or Long Term Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokner, V.; Subasic, D.; Levanat, I.

    2008-01-01

    Construction of the facilities for LILW and SF management, as planned in Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko, would be a rather expensive and challenging project for such a small nuclear program. In order to accommodate waste arising from a single nuclear power plant, one LILW repository should be constructed before the end of the NPP operation, then one SF dry storage, and finally one geological repository. This requires relatively urgent identification within Slovenian/Croatian territory of three locations that meet the criteria for establishment of such facilities and are acceptable to the local communities. There are very few such potential locations. The siting process for the first of the three facilities is well under way in Slovenia, because the country wants to have its LILW repository in operation by the year 2013. In order to facilitate public acceptance, Slovenian government has introduced financial incentives to local communities for the repository construction and operation. These 'compensations for limited land use' may significantly increase the overall costs of disposal if the repository is in operation for a long period. In the recent years, however, a possibility of long term storage (LTS) is gaining an increased attention in the waste management community, and has already been introduced e.g. in the Netherlands. It is a particularly viable option for limited waste quantities. Disposal remains the final solution, but present technologies have made possible a relatively inexpensive storage up to about hundred years, which can accommodate LILW, HLW and SF from nuclear programs as well as research reactor waste and NORM. Such storage would be a safe and simple temporary solution, encompassing all immediate and near future waste management needs. In addition, it would increase flexibility and reduce financing requirements for the final waste disposal: providing additional time for reduction of radiation emission and heat

  6. 500 year concrete for a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipose, K.E.

    1988-03-01

    The IRUS (Intrusion resistant underground structure) repository planned at Chalk River for the belowground disposal of low level radioactive waste relies on the durability of concrete for the required 500 year service life. A research program for the IRUS repository to design a durable concrete and also to predict its longevity under the repository environment is in progress. The methodology involves the identification of major degradation agents, and the assessment of the rate of diffusion of corrosive ions and/or the rate of advancement of the reaction front into the concrete. Accelerated test methods are being used on laboratory specimens in conjunction with extrapolation procedures to predict long-term durability from short-term data. The inherent limitations are also examined

  7. Nuclide release calculation in the near-field of a reference HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2004-01-01

    The HLW-relevant R and D program for disposal of high-level radioactive waste has been carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since early 1997 in order to develop a conceptual Korea Reference Repository System for direct disposal of nuclear spent fuel by the end of 2007. A preliminary reference geologic repository concept considering such established criteria and requirements as waste and generic site characteristics in Korea was roughly envisaged in 2003 focusing on the near-field components of the repository system. According to above basic repository concept, which is similar to that of Swedish KBS-3 repository, the spent fuel is first encapsulated in corrosion resistant canisters, even though the material has not yet been determined, and then emplaced into the deposition holes surrounded by high density bentonite clay in tunnels constructed at a depth of about 500 m in a stable plutonic rock body. Not only to demonstrate how much a reference repository is safe in the generic point of view with several possible scenarios and cases associated with a preliminary repository concept by conducting calculations for nuclide release and transport in the near-field components of the repository, even though enough information has not been available that much yet, but also to show a methodology by which a generic safety assessment could be performed for further development of Korea reference repository concept, nuclide release calculation study strongly seems to be necessary

  8. Radioactive waste repositories in hard rock aquifers--hydrodynamic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.; Braester, C.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model for mass and heat flow and a computer program have been developed to demonstrate the effect of heat released from a hypothetical radioactive waste repository on the groundwater flow regime. The model, based on the continuum approach, conceptualizes the fracture pattern and the solid blocks as two overlapping continua and consists of a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The general form of the model is three-dimensional and can treat the fluid and rock either as two separate media with a quasi-steady exchange of heat between them or as a single equivalent medium with instantaneous thermal equilibrium. Numerical solutions have been obtained by the Galerkin finite element method. Examples have been presented for topographically different locations of the repository: below a horizontal ground surface, below a hill crest, below a hillside, and close to major fractures. The effects of constant permeability and porosity or downward decreasing with depth as well as the effect of anisotropic permeability have been investigated. Solutions include the velocity field, path lines, and traveling times of water particles passing the repository and the temperature distribution. The examples have been worked out for a two-dimensional flow domain, assuming that instantaneous thermal equilibrium takes place. This assumption was found to be justified by the relatively low flow velocities that occurred in the examples. Except for the location close to a major draining fracture, heat released from the radioactive waste repository may have a significant influence on the flow regime around the repository

  9. Repository Technology Program activities, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Thorpe, R.K.; Knapp, R.B.

    1989-07-01

    Our technical activities in FY 1988 included instrument selection and evaluation, calculational work, and simulator development. Near the end of the fiscal year, we began preparing several topical reports to document our results. This fiscal year, we continued developing three-dimensional numerical simulators to model coupled hydrologic-and mechanical-rock mass responses and, thus, to provide representative numerical tools for understanding and calculating these in situ processes. We also began scoping calculations in the second half of FY 1988 to evaluate ERE design criteria, but this work was redirected late in the year when the DOE/AECL Subsidiary Agreement was set aside. Our work in developing and evaluating experimental techniques focused on total pressure measurements, moisture content measurement, and tracer detection instrumentation for sealing experiments and for rock-mass-response field tests. At the end of the fiscal year, we completed a review of measurement technology for instrumenting migration/sorption tests to help define the technological requirements in these areas. By the end of FY 1988, we had completed a review of the existing codes for simulating reactive transport; we are using the results of this review to help formulate plans for future activities in this area. The following sections describe the major RTP tasks and activities at LLNL in more detail, and they include our FY 1988 accomplishments in these areas. 8 refs., 22 figs

  10. The Greenland Analogue Project, Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a realistic understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. The project includes three sub-projects (A-C) with specific individual objectives, which collectively aim at contributing knowledge and input to the overall project aim. Three field campaigns were carried out in SPA during 2009. These campaigns focused on: (1) deployment and maintenance of AWS and GPS stations and to test the deep-look radar equipment; (2) investigating the hydrological processes and feedbacks and testing of passive seismic equipment; (3) downloading of weather station data and GPS data and winterizing the equipment. An extensive archive of real-time satellite remote sensing datasets has been obtained to be able to better constraint the surface elevation and dynamics of basal hydrological mechanisms. From this archive it has been possible to obtain Russell Glacier Cachment (RGC)-wide constraints on annual, seasonal and specific temporal snapshots of surface speed, initial lake and moulin distribution, drainage and network connections along with the temporal

  11. The Greenland Analogue Project, Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a realistic understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. The project includes three sub-projects (A-C) with specific individual objectives, which collectively aim at contributing knowledge and input to the overall project aim. Three field campaigns were carried out in SPA during 2009. These campaigns focused on: (1) deployment and maintenance of AWS and GPS stations and to test the deep-look radar equipment; (2) investigating the hydrological processes and feedbacks and testing of passive seismic equipment; (3) downloading of weather station data and GPS data and winterizing the equipment. An extensive archive of real-time satellite remote sensing datasets has been obtained to be able to better constraint the surface elevation and dynamics of basal hydrological mechanisms. From this archive it has been possible to obtain Russell Glacier Cachment (RGC)-wide constraints on annual, seasonal and specific temporal snapshots of surface speed, initial lake and moulin distribution, drainage and network connections along with the temporal

  12. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations

  13. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  14. Causal structure of analogue spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    The so-called 'analogue models of general relativity' provide a number of specific physical systems, well outside the traditional realm of general relativity, that nevertheless are well-described by the differential geometry of curved spacetime. Specifically, the propagation of perturbations in these condensed matter systems is described by 'effective metrics' that carry with them notions of 'causal structure' as determined by an exchange of quasi-particles. These quasi-particle-induced causal structures serve as specific examples of what can be done in the presence of a Lorentzian metric without having recourse to the Einstein equations of general relativity. (After all, the underlying analogue model is governed by its own specific physics, not necessarily by the Einstein equations.) In this paper we take a careful look at what can be said about the causal structure of analogue spacetimes, focusing on those containing quasi-particle horizons, both with a view to seeing what is different from standard general relativity, and what the similarities might be. For definiteness, and because the physics is particularly simple to understand, we will phrase much of the discussion in terms of acoustic disturbances in moving fluids, where the underlying physics is ordinary fluid mechanics, governed by the equations of traditional hydrodynamics, and the relevant quasi-particles are the phonons. It must however be emphasized that this choice of example is only for the sake of pedagogical simplicity and that our considerations apply generically to wide classes of analogue spacetimes

  15. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, F; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The implementation of the signal generator is presented as well as an application where it was successfully utilized.

  16. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation

  17. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation.

  18. Repository seal materials performance for a SALT Repository Project 5-year code/model development plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This document describes an integrated laboratory testing and model development effort for the seal system for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The testing and modeling efforts are designed to determine seal material response in the repository environment, to provide models of seal system components for performance assessment, and to assist in the development of seal system designs. A code/model development and performance analysis program will be performed to predict the short- and long-term response of seal materials and seal components. The results from these analyses will be used to support the material testing activities on this contract and to support performance assessment activities that are conducted in other parts of the Salt Repository Project (SRP). 48 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  20. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  1. A Framework for Integrating Oceanographic Data Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Fox, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanographic research covers a broad range of science domains and requires a tremendous amount of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Advances in cyberinfrastructure are making it easier to share data across disciplines through the use of web services and community vocabularies. Best practices in the design of web services and vocabularies to support interoperability amongst science data repositories are only starting to emerge. Strategic design decisions in these areas are crucial to the creation of end-user data and application integration tools. We present S2S, a novel framework for deploying customizable user interfaces to support the search and analysis of data from multiple repositories. Our research methods follow the Semantic Web methodology and technology development process developed by Fox et al. This methodology stresses the importance of close scientist-technologist interactions when developing scientific use cases, keeping the project well scoped and ensuring the result meets a real scientific need. The S2S framework motivates the development of standardized web services with well-described parameters, as well as the integration of existing web services and applications in the search and analysis of data. S2S also encourages the use and development of community vocabularies and ontologies to support federated search and reduce the amount of domain expertise required in the data discovery process. S2S utilizes the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to describe the components of the framework, including web service parameters, and OpenSearch as a standard description for web services, particularly search services for oceanographic data repositories. We have created search services for an oceanographic metadata database, a large set of quality-controlled ocean profile measurements, and a biogeographic search service. S2S provides an application programming interface (API) that can be used to generate custom user interfaces, supporting data and application

  2. Plan for safety case of spent fuel repository at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2005-02-01

    analyse the evolution of the disposal system from the emplacement of the first canisters in the repository over the various transient phases into the far future. Radiation safety and fulfilment of regulatory requirements will mainly be dealt with in the Biosphere assessment, Radionuclide transport (safety assessment) and Complementary evaluations of safety (e.g. natural analogues) reports. The Summary report draws together the key findings and arguments. According to the outlined overall schedule, new reports on Site, Characteristics of spent fuel, Canister design, Repository design, and Evolution of site and repository should be available by 2006. The central contents for the Safety Case interim reporting will then be provided by the Process report (published in 2004) and the Evolution report. By 2009, a first or second version of each main report of the Safety Case should already be available. The central contents for the outline and preliminary assessments of the Safety Case will then be provided by the Site, Process, Radionuclide transport and Complementary evaluations reports compiled between 2007 and 2009. The final reports for the Safety Case supporting the construction license application will be compiled in 2010-2012. The Safety Case Plan will be updated along the progress of the Safety Case, for example, in association with the interim reporting of 2006 and 2009. (orig.)

  3. Commercial nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Patricio, J.G.; Heley, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is an ongoing research and engineering effort being conducted by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell), which is under contract to the US Department of Energy. The objectives of this program are to assess the feasibility of and to provide the technology needed to design and construct a licensed commercial nuclear waste repository in the deep basalt formations underlying the Hanford Site. An extensive preconceptual design effort was undertaken during 1979 to develop a feasible concept that could serve as a reference design for both surface and underground facilities. The preconceptual design utilized existing technology to the greatest extent possible to offer a system design that could be utilized in establishing schedule and cost baseline data, recommend alternatives that require additional study, and develop basic design requirements that would allow evolution of the design process prior to the existence of legislated criteria. This paper provides a description of the concept developed for the subsurface aspects of this nuclear waste repository

  4. Natural analogue of redox front formation in near-field environment at post-closure phase of HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Koushi; Amano, Yuki

    2005-01-01

    Redox fronts are created in the near field of rocks, in a range of oxidation environments, by microbial activity in rock groundwater. Such fronts, and the associated oxide formation, are usually unavoidable around high level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories, whatever their design. The long term behaviour of these oxides after repositories have been closed is however little known. Here we introduce an analogue of redox front formation, such as 'iron oxide' deposits, known as takashikozo forming cylindrical nodules, and the long term behaviour of secondarily formed iron oxyhydroxide in subsequent geological environments. (author)

  5. Rock support for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, L.W.; Schmidt, B.

    1984-01-01

    The design of rock support for underground nuclear waste repositories requires consideration of special construction and operation requirements, and of the adverse environmental conditions in which some of the support is placed. While repository layouts resemble mines, design, construction and operation are subject to quality assurance and public scrutiny similar to what is experienced for nuclear power plants. Exploration, design, construction and operation go through phases of review and licensing by government agencies as repositories evolve. This paper discusses (1) the various stages of repository development; (2) the environment that supports must be designed for; (3) the environmental effects on support materials; and (4) alternative types of repository rock support

  6. Environmental effects on corrosion in the Tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.

    1990-02-01

    Cortest Columbus is investigating the long-term performance of container materials used for high-level waste packages as part of the information needed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assess the Department of Energy's application to construct a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The scope of work consists of employing short-term techniques, to examine a wide range of possible failure modes. Long-term tests are being used to verify and further examine specific failure modes identified as important by the short-term studies. The original focus of the program was on the salt repository but the emphasis was shifted to the Tuff repository. This report summarizes the results of a literature survey performed under Task 1 of the program. The survey focuses on the influence of environmental variables on the corrosion behavior of candidate container materials for the Tuff repository. Environmental variables considered include: radiation, thermal and microbial effects. 80 refs., 44 figs., 44 tabs

  7. Global nuclear waste repository proposal highlights Australia's nuclear energy vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The Pangea proposal is disscused and considered relevant to Australia. A five-year research program by the company has identified Australia and Argentina as having the appropriate geological, economic and democratic credentials for such a deep repository, with Australia being favoured. A deep repository would be located where the geology has been stable for several hundred million years, so that there need not be total reliance on a robust engineered barrier system to keep the waste securely isolated for thousands of years. It would be a commercial undertaking and would have dedicated port and rail infrastructure. It would take spent fuel and other wastes from commercial reactors, and possibly also waste from weapons disposal programs. Clearly, while the primary ethical and legal principle is that each country is entirely responsible for its own waste, including nuclear waste (polluter pays etc), the big question is whether the concept of an international waste repository is acceptable ethically. Political and economic questions are secondary to this. By taking a fresh look at the reasons for the difficulties which have faced most national repository programs, and discarding the preconception that each country must develop its own disposal facilities, it is possible to define a class of simple, superior high isolation sites which may provide a multi-national basis for solving the nuclear waste disposal problem. The relatively small volumes of high-level wastes or spent fuel which arise from nuclear power production make shared repositories a feasible proposition. For small countries, the economies of scale which can be achieved make the concept attractive. For all countries, objective consideration of the relative merits of national and multi-national solutions is a prudent part of planning the management of long-lived radioactive wastes

  8. Coupled processes in repository sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.; Kelsall, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The significance of coupled processes in repository sealing is evaluated. In most repository designs, shaft seals will be located in areas of relatively low temperature perturbation, in which case the coupling of temperature with stress and permeability may be less significant than the coupling between stress and permeability that occurs during excavation. Constitutive relationships between stress and permeability are reviewed for crystalline rock and rocksalt. These provide a basis for predicting the development of disturbed zones near excavations. Field case histories of the degree of disturbance are presented for two contrasting rock types - Stripa granite and Southeastern New Mexico rocksalt. The results of field investigations in both rock types confirm that hydraulic conductivity or permeability is stress dependent, and that shaft seal performance may be related to the degree that stresses are perturbed and restored near the seal

  9. University digital repositories and authors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Keefer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Open Access movement offers two strategies for making scientific information available without economic, technical or legal obstacles: the publication of articles in OA journals and the deposit by authors of their Works in stable institutional or discipline-based repositories. This article explores the implementation of the second “route” on the part of authors, because it is the strategy that offers the greatest possibility of attaining OA in the short term. However, it does require repositories to exert great effort in informing the authors of the advantages of self-archiving and of the procedures for depositing their work and, even helping them to do so – through services and promotional activities.

  10. Evaluation of radiological safety assessment of a repository in a clay rock formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive description of the post-closure radiological safety assessment of a repository for the spent fuel arisings resulting from the Spanish nuclear program excavated in a clay host rock formation. In this report three scenarios have been analysed in detail. The first scenario represents the normal in detail. The first scenario represents the normal evolution of the repository (Reference Scenario); and includes a set of variants to investigate the relative importance of the various repository components and examine the sensitivity of the performance to parameters variations. Two altered scenarios have also been considered: deep well construction and poor sealing of the repository. This document contains a detailed description of the repository system, the methodology adopted for the scenarios generation, the process modelling approach and the results of the consequences analysis. (Author)

  11. Status of natural analogue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Keiichi

    1994-03-01

    This report is based on the materials for the meeting at the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan held on September 1993. Details are as follows: Alteration of glass as the study of alteration of natural minerals; alteration of uranium minerals, migration of uranium and thorium series radionuclides, alteration of chlorite, fixation of uranium alteration of minerals and migration of uranium as the study of alligator rivers analogue project held at Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. (author)

  12. Informing future societies about nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990 a working group of the NKS (the Nordic nuclear safety program) was formed and give the task of established a basis for a common Nordic view of the need for information conservation for nuclear waste repositories. The Group investigated what tipy of information should be conserved; in what form the information should be kept; the quality of the information; and the problems of future retrieval of information, including retrieval after very long periods of time. Topics covered include the following: scientific aspects including social context of scientific solutions; information management; systems for conservation and retrieval of information including the problems of prediction; archives, markers, archives vs. markers, and continuing processes in society; Archive media including paper documents, microfilm, digital media, media lifetimes; and finally conclusions and recommendations

  13. Technical progress report: Rhode Island crystalline repository project, calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vild, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    A Nuclear Waste Fund established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provides financial support to affected states to participate in the high-level radioactive waste repository siting program of the US Department of Energy. In Rhode Island, that function is performed by a multidisciplinary Project Review Team consisting of staff from three State agencies. Members of the Review Team attended several meetings in 1985 to voice their concerns directly to DOE. Written comments were also submitted on draft plans and reports. Among the issues raised were inconsistencies in the geologic and environmental data used to screen potential repository sites, the role of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) in the repository program, and regulations regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste. The Review Team also began work on a public information booklet describing the repository program in nontechnical terms. That booklet will be distributed widely upon completion

  14. Alligator Rivers Analogue Project. Final Report - Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerden, P [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lever, D A [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Sverjensky, D A [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Townley, L R [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Wembley, WA (Australia). Div. of Water Resources

    1992-07-01

    This summary report, which highlights the work and findings of the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project (ARAP) is one of a series of 16 volumes, listed below. Detailed descriptions and results are provided in Volumes 2 to 16. Full acknowledgment to individual contributions is provided in the individual reports, and in Appendix I of this report. The findings from the technical studies are discussed in the context of assessments of the long-term performance of geological repositories for radioactive wastes, which are being undertaken in many countries. They are also considered in an integrated 'Scenario Development' approach, aimed to understand the formation of the ore deposit. Despite their inherent uncertainties, the findings provide a basis for assessing the way in which radionuclides will migrate in environments with a variety of geologic settings and over a range of different geologic timescales. Thus, section 2 of this report discusses the concept of using uranium deposits as natural analogues and refers to a number of such studies, including those at the Koongarra deposit in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Section 3 reviews early scientific work in the Alligator Rivers Region and summarises the results of the analogue studies undertaken between 1981 and 1987 that were funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the UK Department of the Environment (UKDoE). Section 4 describes the objectives of ARAP and the manner in which the study was conducted and provides a general outline of the project and a summary of the findings. A general description of the Koongarra ore deposit, the focus of ARAP, is provided in Section 5, with Sections 6-13 providing summaries of the work carried out to characterise the site in detail and provide data for modelling. Sections 14-18 discuss how this data was used in modelling and how the results may be applied for performance assessment studies. Finally, Section 19 considers the

  15. Alligator Rivers Analogue Project. Final Report - Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.; Lever, D.A.; Sverjensky, D.A.; Townley, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    This summary report, which highlights the work and findings of the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project (ARAP) is one of a series of 16 volumes, listed below. Detailed descriptions and results are provided in Volumes 2 to 16. Full acknowledgment to individual contributions is provided in the individual reports, and in Appendix I of this report. The findings from the technical studies are discussed in the context of assessments of the long-term performance of geological repositories for radioactive wastes, which are being undertaken in many countries. They are also considered in an integrated 'Scenario Development' approach, aimed to understand the formation of the ore deposit. Despite their inherent uncertainties, the findings provide a basis for assessing the way in which radionuclides will migrate in environments with a variety of geologic settings and over a range of different geologic timescales. Thus, section 2 of this report discusses the concept of using uranium deposits as natural analogues and refers to a number of such studies, including those at the Koongarra deposit in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Section 3 reviews early scientific work in the Alligator Rivers Region and summarises the results of the analogue studies undertaken between 1981 and 1987 that were funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the UK Department of the Environment (UKDoE). Section 4 describes the objectives of ARAP and the manner in which the study was conducted and provides a general outline of the project and a summary of the findings. A general description of the Koongarra ore deposit, the focus of ARAP, is provided in Section 5, with Sections 6-13 providing summaries of the work carried out to characterise the site in detail and provide data for modelling. Sections 14-18 discuss how this data was used in modelling and how the results may be applied for performance assessment studies. Finally, Section 19 considers the

  16. Natural analogue studies of the role of colloids, natural organics and microorganisms on radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Colloids may be important as a geochemical transport mechanism for radionuclides at geological repositories if they are (1) present in the groundwater, (2) stable with respect to both colloidal and chemical stabilities, (3) capable of adsorbing radionuclides, especially if the sorption is irreversible, and (4) mobile in the subsurface. The available evidence from natural analogue and other field studies relevant to these issues is reviewed, as is the potential role of mobile microorganisms (open-quotes biocolloidsclose quotes) on radionuclide migration. Studies have demonstrated that colloids are ubiquitous in groundwater, although colloid concentrations in deep, geochemically stable systems may be too low to affect radionuclide transport. However, even low colloid populations cannot be dismissed as a potential concern because colloids appear to be stable, and many radionuclides that adsorb to colloids are not readily desorbed over long periods. Field studies offer somewhat equivocal evidence concerning colloid mobility and cannot prove or disprove the significance of colloid transport in the far-field environment. Additional research is needed at new sites to properly represent a repository far-field. Performance assessment would benefit from natural analogue studies to examine colloid behavior at sites encompassing a suite of probable groundwater chemistries and that mimic the types of formations selected for radioactive waste repositories

  17. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilization of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. These processes are considered separately in detail, reviewing first the mechanisms involved and the most important unknown then the types of natural analogue which could most usefully provide supporting evidence for the effects of the process. Conclusions are drawn, for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A summary is provided of the conclusions for each process, and the most important topics for further studies are listed. Specific examples of these requisite analogues are given. The report emphasises throughout the importance of linking analogues to well defined processes, concluding that analogues of complete disposal systems do not exist. The results are seen to be widely applicable. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Author)

  18. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas [and others

    2012-11-15

    . - The project on self-sealing backfill (SVV) ended in February 2010. However, further long-term observation work at Teutschenthal mine, where the material has been injected and tested in-situ, was performed within the project presented here. - National workshops have been performed to discuss and document the state-of-the-art of topics relevant for the safety case. Within this project a workshop on fundamental questions on the hydrogeology in sedimentary systems in Northern Germany and a workshop on sealing systems in a repository for HLW were performed. - The impact of future changes in climate on flow and transport in the geosphere as well on the exposure in the biosphere was further investigated with emphasis on the role of transitions between different discrete climate states. - With respect to natural analogues some final work has been performed at the ana-logue site in Ruprechtov, Czech Republic. The kaolin excavation at the site allowed checking on a larger scale the assumptions for the geological structure used in the conceptual model and the impact of disturbances on the uranium enrichment.

  19. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    . - The project on self-sealing backfill (SVV) ended in February 2010. However, further long-term observation work at Teutschenthal mine, where the material has been injected and tested in-situ, was performed within the project presented here. - National workshops have been performed to discuss and document the state-of-the-art of topics relevant for the safety case. Within this project a workshop on fundamental questions on the hydrogeology in sedimentary systems in Northern Germany and a workshop on sealing systems in a repository for HLW were performed. - The impact of future changes in climate on flow and transport in the geosphere as well on the exposure in the biosphere was further investigated with emphasis on the role of transitions between different discrete climate states. - With respect to natural analogues some final work has been performed at the ana-logue site in Ruprechtov, Czech Republic. The kaolin excavation at the site allowed checking on a larger scale the assumptions for the geological structure used in the conceptual model and the impact of disturbances on the uranium enrichment.

  20. The preliminary design and feasibility study of the spent fuel and high level waste repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valvoda, Z.; Holub, J.; Kucerka, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the year 1993, began the Program of Development of the Spent Fuel and High Level Waste Repository in the Conditions of the Czech Republic. During the first phase, the basic concept and structure of the Program has been developed, and the basic design criteria and requirements were prepared. In the conditions of the Czech Republic, only an underground repository in deep geological formation is acceptable. Expected depth is between 500 to 1000 meters and as host rock will be granites. A preliminary variant design study was realized in 1994, that analyzed the radioactive waste and spent fuel flow from NPPs to the repository, various possibilities of transportation in accordance to the various concepts of spent fuel conditioning and transportation to the underground structures. Conditioning and encapsulation of spent fuel and/or radioactive waste is proposed on the repository site. Underground disposal structures are proposed at one underground floor. The repository will have reserve capacity for radioactive waste from NPPs decommissioning and for waste non acceptable to other repositories. Vertical disposal of unshielded canisters in boreholes and/or horizontal disposal of shielded canisters is studied. As the base term of the start up of the repository operation, the year 2035 has been established. From this date, a preliminary time schedule of the Project has been developed. A method of calculating leveled and discounted costs within the repository lifetime, for each of selected 5 variants, was used for economic calculations. Preliminary expected parametric costs of the repository are about 0,1 Kc ($0.004) per MWh, produced in the Czech NPPs. In 1995, the design and feasibility study has gone in more details to the technical concept of repository construction and proposed technologies, as well as to the operational phase of the repository. Paper will describe results of the 1995 design work and will present the program of the repository development in next period

  1. Siting guidelines and their role in repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The first requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act was for the Secretary of Energy to issue general guidelines for siting repositories. The guidelines were to specify detailed geologic considerations that would be the primary criteria for the selection of sites in various host rocks, as well as factors that would qualify or disqualify any site from development as a repository. These guidelines were clearly intended to provide not only the framework for the siting program but also the stimulus for establishing effective communication and consultation among the parties involved in the program. The Act further required that the guidelines be a factor in the development of all future decision documents of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, including the environmental assessments that would accompany the nomination of sites for characterization, the site-characterization plans that are to be prepared before the sinking of exploratory shafts at any candidate site, and the environmental impact statement that is to support the recommendation of a site for development as a repository. More than two years after its passage, the intention of the Act for the guidelines has been realized. Concurred in by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on June 22, 1984, and issued by the Department in November 1984, the guidelines include postclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the long-term performance of the repository system; preclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the siting, construction, operation, and closure of the repository; and system guidelines whose objective is to ensure that the regulatory requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are met

  2. The role of weapons production and military waste in the repository selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.; Hope, J.; Power, W.; Hunter, T.

    1987-01-01

    The decision to commingle defense waste with commercial waste in the nuclear waste repository program has many impacts on that program. There will be more waste to place in the two repositories authorized under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, more transport miles to get the waste to a repository, and more costs associated with environmental and socio-economic impact mitigation. This paper explores the links between weapons production and military waste, and the repository selection process. The paper first describes the importance of state, tribe and public participation to the acceptance of a repository site selection. The paper then examines the various estimates of amounts of existing and future military nuclear wastes, and how these estimates affect repository siting decisions. The final section addresses the public policy questions which surround this issue. Repository siting may be jeopardized unless there is open public discussion about existing radioactive contamination at military production sites and about future nuclear weapons production. Cost-sharing is considered within this context

  3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Pietrzyk, Robert a.; Johnson, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository (Repository) is a storage bank that is used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time and under well-controlled conditions. Samples from the International Space Station (ISS), including blood and urine, will be collected, processed and archived during the preflight, inflight and postflight phases of ISS missions. This investigation has been developed to archive biosamples for use as a resource for future space flight related research. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a platform to investigate the effects of microgravity on human physiology prior to lunar and exploration class missions. The storage of crewmember samples from many different ISS flights in a single repository will be a valuable resource with which researchers can study space flight related changes and investigate physiological markers. The development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository will allow for the collection, processing, storage, maintenance, and ethical distribution of biosamples to meet goals of scientific and programmatic relevance to the space program. Archiving of the biosamples will provide future research opportunities including investigating patterns of physiological changes, analysis of components unknown at this time or analyses performed by new methodologies.

  4. A Generic Water Balance Model for a Trench Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.

  5. A Generic Water Balance Model for a Trench Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.

  6. Overview of adaptive phased management repository design development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is implementing Adaptive Phased Management, Canada's plan for long-term management of used nuclear fuel. The organization is proceeding with the process for selecting a site in partnership with an informed and willing host community to safely and securely container and isolate used nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository in a suitable rock formation. Adaptive Phased Management is the culmination of more than 30 years of research, development and demonstration of repository concepts in Canada. Adaptive Phased Management uses a phased and adaptive step-wise approach to the multi-barrier system which is consistent with the long-term waste management approaches being developed in many other countries with nuclear power programs such as Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and France. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is examining and developing conceptual designs for a deep geological repository and associated facilities for the placement of used nuclear fuel in long-lived containers. This paper will examine two of these generic conceptual designs which have recently been refined and updated. These conceptual designs will be used to support a pre-project review of repository design and safety by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. (author)

  7. Stability of underground openings in the Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    The licensing of a repository for high level radioactive waste will require assurances that underground openings do not experience frequent major instabilities, which are defined here as sudden movements of blocks of rock that limit the functions of the openings. Although the design of nuclear power plant structure is controlled by strict adherence to building or professional- engineering codes, this approach is not practical for the structural design of underground facilities because the design must accommodate a varied and partially defined geologic setting. However, regulations require the reduction of the potential for deleterious rock movement and the design of openings to maintain the option to retrieve waste. The present plans for meeting these requirements for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, include a program of state-of-the- art analyses and modified forms of existing empirically based design methods. An extensive experimental program is required to provide confidence in the results of the design- analysis process

  8. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  9. Salt Repository Project. FY-84 technical project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The FY 84 technical plans for the Salt Repository Project (SRP) are briefly presented. The objectives of the project in relation to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program are discused and the technical activities directed toward accomplishing these objectives are detailed. A budget is presented for each of the Level 2 Work Breakdown Structure Tasks (Systems, Waste Package, Site, Repository, Regulatory and Institutional, Test Facilities, Exploratory Shaft, Land Acquisition, and Program Management) in an appendix. An overall description, current status, and planned activities are presented for each of the subtasks which make up the above-mentioned Level 2 tasks. Milestones and their definitions for the plan year, as well as milestones for the outyears are also presented at this same subtask level for each subtask

  10. Office of Crystalline Repository Development FY 83 technical project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The technical plan for FY 83 activities of the Office of Crystalline Repository Development is presented in detail. Crystalline Rock Project objectives are discussed in relation to the National Waste Terminal storage (NWTS) program. The plan is in full compliance with requirements mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Implementation will comply with the requirements and criteria set forth in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations (10 CFR 60) and the Environmental Protection Agency standard (40 CFR 191). Technical approaches and the related milestones and schedules are presented for each of the Level 3 NWTS work Breakdown Structure Tasks. These are: Systems, Waste Package, Site, Repository, Regulatory and Institutional, Test Facilities and Excavations, Land Acquisition, and Program Management

  11. Hydrothermal conditions around a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.; Braester, C.

    1981-12-01

    Numerical solutions for the hydrothermal conditions around a hard rock repository for nuclear fuel waste are presented. The objective of the present investigation is to illustrate in principle the effect of heat released from a hypothetical radioactive waste repository with regard to anisotropy in the rock permeability. Permeability and porosity are assumed to be constant or to decrease exponentially with depth. The hypothetical repository is situated below a horizontal ground surface or below the crest of a hill, and it is assumed that the water table follows the topography. Major interest in the analysis is directed towards the influence of anisotropy in the permeability on the flow patterns and travel times for water particles, being traced from the repository to the ground surface. The presented results show that anisotropy in the permeability may have a significant influence on the flow conditions around the repository and subsequently also on the travel times from the repository. (Authors)

  12. People's perception of LILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Polic, Marko

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Social acceptability of the radioactive waste repository presents a great problem in every country with such a waste. Even if people agree with the need for its construction, the chosen location should be far from their homes (NIMBY). The reasons for such attitudes were attributed to different causes: uneducated public, differences in understanding of radioactivity and risk by experts and lay public, risk communication problems, lack of credibility and social trust, etc. While in earlier days public was blamed for its irrationality, and need for education and information was emphasized, today it is realized that public trust is extremely important if effective risk communication is to be achieved. It is also recognized that it is not so much the content of the risk message itself, as the lack of trust to those responsible for provision of information that is behind this opposition. Perhaps we could apply here Petty and Caciopo's elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, with credibility as a factor in peripheral route of persuasion. Nevertheless also general lowering of social trust should explain social non-agreement. This lack of trust in experts and political institutions is perhaps caused by outwitting public in earlier years, its bad experiences with responsible officials, dangerous accidents (e.g. TMI, Chernobyl), increased influence that professions have over people's welfare, a greater value placed on equality and better educated public, etc. In 1996 the ARAO re-initiated the search for a LILW repository location with a new, so-called combined approach to the site selection, where the technical, geologically led process is combined with participation of local community. In order to get information on people's perception of the LILW repository construction, their willingness to accept it and factors that influence the acceptability, several surveys have been conducted. Groups of experts and lay persons answered the questionnaires. The results of

  13. Technical conservatism in the design and analysis of a nuclear-waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage Program has adopted a policy of technical conservatism to guide the design and analysis of geologic disposal systems for commercial high-level radioactive waste. Technical conservatism serves as the programmatic philosophy for managing uncertainty in the performance of the disposal system. The implementation of technical conservatism as applied to a nuclear waste repository in basalt is discussed. Preliminary assessments of the performance of the waste package, repository, and site subsystems are compared to key proposed regulatory criteria. The comparison shows that there are substantial safety margins in the predicted performance of the nuclear waste repository in basalt

  14. Importance of creep failure of hard rock in the near field of a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacic, J D [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, (USA)

    1982-12-31

    Potential damage resulting from slow creep deformation intuitively seems unlikely for a high-level nuclear waste repository excavated in hard rock. However, recent experimental and modeling results indicate that the processes of time-dependent microcracking and water-induced stress corrosion can lead to significant reductions in strength and alteration of other key rock properties in the near-field region of a repository. We review the small data base supporting these conclusions and stress the need for an extensive laboratory program to obtain the new data that will be required for design of a repository.

  15. The pitchblende of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) as natural analogue of spent fuel behaviour (matrix I project); La pechblenda de la mina Fe (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca), como analogo natural del comportamiento del combustible gastado (Proyecto Matrix I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L; Campos, R; Gomez, P; Cozar, J S; Pardillo, J; Garralon, A; Turrero, M J; Buil, B; Pelayo, M; Ruiz, B; Rivas, P [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Uranium ore deposits have been extensively studied as natural analogues to the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. These investigations constitute an essential element of both national and international research programmes applied to the assessment of geological repositories in crystalline, clayey and even in schistose rocks. The uranium ore deposit of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salmanca) is placed in highly fractured schistose rocks, a geological setting that has not been envisaged in ENRESA options. However, the similarities with some of the repository features and the analogies with the processes involved in the degradation of the ore deposits made advisable its study as natural analogue. The most important features are. (Author)

  16. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  17. Groundwater movements around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.

    1977-10-01

    Based on regional models of groundwater flow, the regional hydraulic gradient at depth is equal to the regional topographic gradient. As a result, the equipotentials are near vertical. The permeability distribution with depth influences the groundwater flow patterns. A zone of sluggish flows, the quiescent zone is developed when the permeability decreases with depth. This feature is accentuated when horizontal anisotropy, with the horizontal permeability higher then the vertical permeability, is included. The presence of an inactive zone will be a prerequesite for a satisfactory repository site. The effect of an inclined discontinuity representing a singular geological feature such as a fault plane or shear zone has been modelled. The quiescent zone does not appear to be unduly disturbed by such a feature. However, meaningful quantitative predictions related to the flows in a typical singular feature cannot be made without more specific data on their hydraulic properties. Two dimensional analysis has been made for a site specific section of a candidate repository site at Forsmark, Sweden. The lateral extent of the model was defined by major tectonic features, assumed vertical. Potential gradients and pore velocities have been computed for a range of boundary conditions and assumed material properties. The potential gradients for the model with anisotropic permeability approach the average potential gradient between the boundaries. The result of this study of the initial groundwater conditions will be used as input data for the analyses of the thermomechanical perturbations of the groundwater regime. In the long term, the groundwater flow will return to the initial conditions. The residual effects of the repository on the flow will be discussed in part 2 of this report. (author)

  18. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  19. National radioactive wasterRepository Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the scheme of the Mochovce National radioactive waste repository for the Slovak Republic is presented. The National radioactive waste repository in Mochovce is a surface type storage facility. It is intended for final disposal of solid and solidified low and intermediate radioactive waste produced during the operation of nuclear power plants and institutions located within the territory of the Slovak Republic. The Repository site is situated about 2 km northwest to the Mochovce NPP

  20. Performance assessment of Mochovce repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrskova, A; Hanusik, V [Dept. of Accident Management and Risk Assessment, Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2000-07-01

    The near-surface disposal site at Mochovce is designed for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste. It is a vault-type concrete structure housing the reinforced concrete containers as the final waste packages. This paper shortly presents the long-term safety analysis methods applied for the post-closure phase of the repository. The main aim of paper is description of the philosophy of analysis, development of the scenarios, their modeling and comparing of the results of normal evolution scenario, alternative scenario and intruders scenario for some radionuclides. (author)

  1. Performance assessment of Mochovce repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrskova, A.; Hanusik, V.

    2000-01-01

    The near-surface disposal site at Mochovce is designed for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste. It is a vault-type concrete structure housing the reinforced concrete containers as the final waste packages. This paper shortly presents the long-term safety analysis methods applied for the post-closure phase of the repository. The main aim of paper is description of the philosophy of analysis, development of the scenarios, their modeling and comparing of the results of normal evolution scenario, alternative scenario and intruders scenario for some radionuclides. (author)

  2. An institutional repository initiative and issues concerning metadata

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAM, Özlem; ATILGAN, Doğan; ARSLANTEKİN, Sacit

    2006-01-01

    Ankara University has become one of the fist open access initiatives in Turkey. Ankara University Open Access Program (AUO) was formed as part of the Open Access project (http://acikarsiv.ankara.edu.tr ) and supported by the University with an example of an open access institutional repository. As for the further step, the system will require the metadata tools to enable international recognization. According to Budapest Open Access Initiative, as suggested two strategies for open access t...

  3. Basic repository source term and data sheet report: Lavender Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is one of a series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water, electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Lavender Canyon, Utah. 3 refs; 6 tabs

  4. Basic repository source term and data sheet report: Davis Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is one of series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Davis Canyon, Utah. 6 tabs

  5. The European Repository Landscape 2008 Inventory of Digital Repositories for Research Output

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Graaf, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that a common knowledge base for European research is necessary. Research repositories are an important innovation to the scientific information infrastructure. In 2006, digital repositories in the 27 countries of the European we

  6. 1972 preliminary safety analysis report based on a conceptual design of a proposed repository in Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-08-01

    This preliminary safety analysis report is based on a proposed Federal Repository at Lyons, Kansas, for receiving, handling, and depositing radioactive solid wastes in bedded salt during the remainder of this century. The safety analysis applies to a hypothetical site in central Kansas identical to the Lyons site, except that it is free of nearby salt solution-mining operations and bore holes that cannot be plugged to Repository specifications. This PSAR contains much information that also appears in the conceptual design report. Much of the geological-hydrological information was gathered in the Lyons area. This report is organized in 16 sections: considerations leading to the proposed Repository, design requirements and criteria, a description of the Lyons site and its environs, land improvements, support facilities, utilities, different impacts of Repository operations, safety analysis, design confirmation program, operational management, requirements for eventually decommissioning the facility, design criteria for protection from severe natural events, and the proposed program of experimental investigations

  7. 1972 preliminary safety analysis report based on a conceptual design of a proposed repository in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-08-01

    This preliminary safety analysis report is based on a proposed Federal Repository at Lyons, Kansas, for receiving, handling, and depositing radioactive solid wastes in bedded salt during the remainder of this century. The safety analysis applies to a hypothetical site in central Kansas identical to the Lyons site, except that it is free of nearby salt solution-mining operations and bore holes that cannot be plugged to Repository specifications. This PSAR contains much information that also appears in the conceptual design report. Much of the geological-hydrological information was gathered in the Lyons area. This report is organized in 16 sections: considerations leading to the proposed Repository, design requirements and criteria, a description of the Lyons site and its environs, land improvements, support facilities, utilities, different impacts of Repository operations, safety analysis, design confirmation program, operational management, requirements for eventually decommissioning the facility, design criteria for protection from severe natural events, and the proposed program of experimental investigations. (DLC)

  8. A Generic Safety Assessment Model for a Trench Type LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Choi, Hee-Joo

    2015-01-01

    This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal circumstances, disruptive events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. Despite the conceptual design of a trench type LILW repository system, all parameter values associated with the repository system were assumed for the time being, and the generic model developed through this study should be helpful because the evaluation of such releases is very important. A simple and effective model for a safety assessment of a conceptual trench repository system, in which an LILW that arises from a nuclear power plant and other sources, has been developed. The computer program based on this model has also been developed as a GoldSim template using the commercial GoldSim development tool

  9. A Generic Safety Assessment Model for a Trench Type LILW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Choi, Hee-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal circumstances, disruptive events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. Despite the conceptual design of a trench type LILW repository system, all parameter values associated with the repository system were assumed for the time being, and the generic model developed through this study should be helpful because the evaluation of such releases is very important. A simple and effective model for a safety assessment of a conceptual trench repository system, in which an LILW that arises from a nuclear power plant and other sources, has been developed. The computer program based on this model has also been developed as a GoldSim template using the commercial GoldSim development tool.

  10. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.

    2016-11-08

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later, thousands of universities and other institutions have answered this call, but many more have not due to gaps in budgets, awareness and, most of all, practical guidance on creating an institutional repository. This workshop provides you with an essential primer on what it takes to establish a fully-functioning institutional repository. Every aspect of the process will be covered, including policies, procedures, staffing guidelines, workflows and repository technologies.

  11. Center for Leadership Development (CLD) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Center for Leadership Development Repository stores various data including policies, procedures, governance, guidance, security, and financial documents of the...

  12. Nuclear waste repository design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlke, B.M.; Monsees, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive underground excavation will be required for construction of a mined geologic repository for nuclear waste. Hundreds of thousands of feet of drift will be required based on the conceptual layout design for each candidate nuclear waste repository. Comparison of boring and blasting excavation methods are discussed, as are special design and construction requirements (e.g., quality assurance procedures and performance assessment) for the nuclear waste repository. Comparisons are made between boring and blasting construction methods for the repository designs proposed for salt, volcanic tuff, and basalt

  13. The Open Data Repositorys Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D.; Bristow, T.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-01-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of researcher's workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity.

  14. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Bristow, T.; Blake, D. F.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-12-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of research workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software (http://www.opendatarepository.org) strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity. We gratefully acknowledge the support for this study by the Science-Enabling Research Activity (SERA), and NASA NNX11AP82A

  15. Natural and archaeological analogues: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter natural analogues in the geomedia for various aspects of radioactive waste disposal are discussed. Particular reference is made to the Okla Natural Reactor in Gabon. Igneous contact zones are discussed and natural analogues of waste-form materials. The importance of archaeological remains and anthropogenic materials left by man, in assessing weathering conditions and serving as radioactive waste analogues, is also emphasised. (UK)

  16. ERG review of containment failure probability and repository functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, S.

    1986-06-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The June 1984 meeting of the ERG considered two topics: (1) statistical probability for containment of nuclides within the waste package and (2) repository design criteria. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these two subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by ERG

  17. Summary report of first and foreign high-level waste repository concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Reference repository concepts designs adopted by domestic and foreign waste disposal programs are reviewed. Designs fall into three basic categories: deep borehole from the surface; disposal in boreholes drilled from underground excavations; and disposal in horizontal tunnels or drifts. The repository concepts developed in Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Canada, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Denmark, West Germany and the United States are described. 140 refs., 315 figs., 19 tabs

  18. Harvesting Statistical Metadata from an Online Repository for Data Analysis and Visualization : Concept Application on Theseus

    OpenAIRE

    Gebresilassie, Sem

    2014-01-01

    Theses and publications from Finnish universities of applied sciences are accessible from an open online repository called Theseus. This repository has an application programming interface (API) that provides tools for harvesting its contents. By properly utilizing this API, it is possible to gather and reuse metadata of thesis documents for any other objective. This thesis mainly intends to explain how to gather the author name, title, submission year, keywords, subjects, department, u...

  19. Geological status of NWTS repository siting activities in the paradox basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, N.A.; Conwell, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Emplacement of waste packages in mined geological repositories is one method being evaluated for isolating high-level nuclear wastes. Granite, dome salt, tuff, basalt and bedded salt are among the rock types being investigated. Described in this paper is the status of geological activities in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado, one region being explored as a part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program to site a geological repository in bedded salt

  20. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  1. INIS: Nuclear Grey Literature Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić, Dobrica

    2016-01-01

    As one of the world's largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, INIS represents an extraordinary example of world cooperation. Currently, as INIS members, 130 countries and 24 international organizations share and allow access to their valuable nuclear information resources, preserving them for future generations and offering a freely available nuclear knowledge repository. Since its creation in 1970, INIS has collected and provided access to more than 3.8 million bibliographic references to publications, documents, technical reports, non-copyrighted documentation, and other grey literature, as well as over a million full texts. Public interest throughout the years in accessing the INIS Collection has been remarkable. This paper deals with the challenges faced by INIS in its endeavour to increase the use, accessibility, usability and expandability of its on-line repository. It also describes document collection, the features and characteristics of implementing a new search engine, as well as the lessons learned. (author)

  2. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1986-12-01

    This document is the third joint annual report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that are in progress at the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This Government supported mine serves as an underground test facility for research and development (R and D)-work in the field of nuclear waste repository research and simulation experiments. The tests are designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. This document covers the following sections: Issues and test objectives: This section presents issues that are investigated by the Brine Migration Test, and the test objectives derived from these issues; test site: This section describes the test site location and geology in the Asse mine; test description: A description of the test configuration, procedures, equipment, and instrumentation is given in this section; actual test chronology: The actual history of the test, in terms of the dates at which major activities occured, is presented in this section. Test results: This section presents the test results observed to data and the planned future work that is needed to complete the test; conclusions and recommendations: This section summarizes the conclusions derived to date regarding the Brine Migration Test. Additional work that would be useful to resolve the issues is discussed. (orig.)

  3. In-situ test programs related to design and construction of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) deep geologic repositories. Appendices. Final report (Task 2), June 1981-November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Bauhof, F.; Gonano, L.

    1983-03-01

    The media and sites considered include: (1) basalt at Hanford, Washington; (2) tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site; (3) domal salt at specific Gulf Coast sites; (4) bedded salt at an unspecified site; and (5) granite at an unspecified site. A licensing perspective is outlined and a defensible rationale developed and utilized for the test selection process. This rationale essentially consists of: establishing the information needs for construction authorization; assessing the relevant capabilities of available tests; and matching the capabilities of specific tests to the perceived information needs. The information needs at any time consist of the additional information (if any) needed in order to predict satisfactory repository system performance with the required level of confidence, and thus are a function of: the significance of the repository engineered components and site characteristics to system performance; the currently available information, which may be supplemented with time; and the acceptable level of confidence in satisfactory performance for each licensing step. Determination of the acceptable levels of confidence and the significance of repository system components is outside the scope of this report. Suitable assumptions have thus been made regarding the development of information needs for construction authorization by the time of initial site characterization reports submittals. Tests which are available and respond to the perceived media/site specific information needs, either by simulation or assessment of site characteristics, are identified and their capabilities assessed. Specific in situ tests are investigated and described in detail. Research and development which might be effective in improving tests capabilities have been recommended

  4. Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.

    1989-02-01

    This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. (ed.)

    1989-02-01

    This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilisation of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. Existing studies are assessed and possibilities considered for additional analogues. Conclusions are drawn for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Auth.)

  7. Thermo-mechanical effects from a KBS-3 type repository. Performance of pillars between repository tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, E.; Olofsson, Stig-Olof

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate how the rock mass, in the near field of a KBS-3 type repository, will be affected by the excavation of tunnels and deposition holes and the thermal load from the deposited waste. The three-dimensional finite difference program FLAC 3D was used to perform numerical simulation of the rock mass behaviour. The rock mass was modelled as a homogeneous and isotropic continuum. The initial area heat intensity of the repository was assumed to be 10 W/m 2 in all models. The results show that in the middle of the pillar between the repository tunnels the temperature reaches a maximum of about 70 deg C after 55 years of deposition. The extent of areas where the rock is predicted to yield depends on the assumed quality of the rock mass and the initial in-situ stress field. The volume of yielded rock reaches a maximum after about 200 years after deposition. For a rock mass with internal friction angle of 45 deg and cohesion of 5 MPa (using a Mohr-Coulomb material model), the extent of yielded rock is limited to about 1.5 m behind the excavation periphery. The largest rock displacements are found in the tunnel floor at the upper part of the deposition holes. Tension and shear failure in the periphery of the excavations is predicted to occur during the rock excavation, with a depth extension depending on the magnitude and orientation of the in-situ stresses, as well as on the rock mass quality. Both the excavation effects and the then-no-mechanical effects are smallest when the major principal stress is oriented parallel with the deposition tunnels. The maximum convergence between tunnel walls was calculated to occur after 200 years and be about 9 mm, in the model assuming a rock mass with 5 MPa cohesion, 45 deg internal friction angle and maximum horizontal stress perpendicular to the tunnel. In this study confining effects from the buffer and backfill material was neglected. The effective stress concept was used in most of the models

  8. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M ampersand O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use)

  9. UK Natural Analogue Co-Ordinating Group: first annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.J.; Chapman, N.A.

    1987-11-01

    The British Geological Survey is reponsible for co-ordinating the Department of the Environment's programme of natural analogue studies of radionuclide migration, a research programme that involved both UK and overseas sites. Co-ordination is achieved through the UK Natural Analogue Co-ordinating Group (NACG) which was established in October 1986. It has met three times to date and its function is to ensure that the different research projects have an integrated purpose aimed at improving and applying our understanding of natural geochemical processes in a way that will increase our confidence in long-term modelling predictions. Improved modelling prediction of radionuclide transport in the geosphere will directly benefit the performance and safety assessments of proposed radioactive waste repositories. (author)

  10. Natural analogue studies of engineered barrier materials at PNC Tokai, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, G.; Yusa, Y.; Yamagata, J.; Inoue, K.

    1991-01-01

    Long-term extrapolations concerning the safety of a nuclear waste repository cannot be satisfactorily made on the sole basis of short-term laboratory tests. Natural analogues, which are the only means by which very slow mechanisms can be identified and by which long-term predictions of models can be tested for pertinence. Our natural analogue studies for the assessment of long-term durability of engineered barrier materials are outlined. Materials of young age and with simple history are the most suitable for the studies as: 1) properties of the materials tend to deteriorate over the longer term; and 2) detailed quantitative data on the term and on the environmental conditions can be obtained. The framework of our studies includes: 1) clarification of alteration phenomena, 2) examination of the environmental conditions, and 3) support experiments. (author)

  11. Integration of natural analogue studies within a national confidence-building programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboya, T. [Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Centre (RWMC), No. 15 Mori Bldg., 2-8-10 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)]. E-mail: tsuboya@rwmc.or.jp; McKinley, I.G. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)]. E-mail: ian.mackinley@nagra.ch

    2004-07-01

    It is now commonly recognised that public acceptance is one of the key factors influencing the feasibility of nuclear waste repositories - or indeed, any major industrial or technical developments. The general antipathy against anything 'radioactive' is further compounded by the difficulty of developing a simple, transparent safety case for a facility deep underground that clearly shows that there is no health risk at any time in the future. Natural analogues have great potential as communication tools within such a safety case. The analogue programme must, however, be embedded in an integrated communication strategy that identifies the key concerns of different critical groups and identifies the most appropriate way to address them. Some of the important characteristics of such a strategy include: demonstration of high levels of competence, openness and honesty of involved organisations (both regulators and implementers); ensuring consistency of policy, procedures and utilisation of technical arguments; recognition of the importance of reacting to feedback from all involved parties. (author)

  12. Aspects of igneous activity significant to a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krier, D.J.; Perry, F.V.

    2004-01-01

    Location, timing, volume, and eruptive style of post-Miocene volcanoes have defined the volcanic hazard significant to a proposed high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a low-probability, high-consequence event. Examination of eruptive centers in the region that may be analogueues to possible future volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining and evaluating the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption above a repository. The probability of a future event intersecting a repository at Yucca Mountain has a mean value of 1.7 x 10 -8 per year. This probability comes from the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) completed in 1996 and updated to reflect change in repository layout. Since that time, magnetic anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified fiom magnetic surveys; however these potential buried centers only slightly increase the probability of an event intersecting the repository. The proposed repository will be located in its central portion of Yucca Mountain at approximately 300m depth. The process for assessing performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain has identified two scenarios for igneous activity that, although having a very low probability of occurrence, could have a significant consequence should an igneous event occur. Either a dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, or a volcanic eruption through the repository could result in release of radioactive material to the accessible environment. Ongoing investigations are assessing the mechanisms and significance of the consequence scenarios. Lathrop Wells Cone (∼80,000 yrs), a key analogue for estimating potential future volcanic activity, is the youngest surface expression of apparent waning basaltic volcanism in the region. Cone internal structure, lavas, and ash-fall tephra have been examined to estimate eruptive volume, eruption

  13. Development of an international safeguards approach to the final disposal of spent fuel in geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphey, W.M.; Moran, B.W.; Fattah, A.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently pursuing development of an international safeguards approach for the final disposal of spent fuel in geological repositories through consultants meetings and through the Program for Development of Safeguards for Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geological Repositories (SAGOR). The consultants meetings provide policy guidance to IAEA; SAGOR recommends effective approaches that can be efficiently implemented by IAEA. The SAGOR program, which is a collaboration of eight Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), was initiated in July 1994 and has identified 15 activities in each of three areas (i.e. conditioning facilities, active repositories, and closed repositories) that must be performed to ensure an efficient, yet effective safeguards approach. Two consultants meetings have been held: the first in May 1991 and the last in November 1995. For nuclear materials emplaced in a geological repository, the safeguards objectives were defined to be (1) to detect the diversion of spent fuel, whether concealed or unconcealed, from the repository and (2) to detect undeclared activities of safeguards concern (e.g., tunneling, underground reprocessing, or substitution in containers)

  14. Reasoning by analogy: rational foundation of natural analogue studies. [Application to radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J.-C. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux Roses, (France). DRDD/SESD)

    1992-01-01

    Long-term extrapolations concerning the safety of a nuclear waste repository cannot be satisfactorily made on the sole basis of short-term laboratory investigations. Most nuclear countries have hence developed an approach relying on the following research directions: 1. laboratory experiments; 2. in situ testing; 3. modeling; and 4. natural analogues, which are the only means by which very slow mechanisms can be identified and by which long-term predictions of models can be tested for pertinence (if not truly validated). Although the field of natural analogues has grown very rapidly in recent years, receiving support from varied specialists and institutions involved in radioactive waste disposal, there is not yet a full consensus on their actual usefulness. More problematic is the criticism sometimes made that analogical reasoning is not ''true science'' and that information retrieved from the study of natural analogues will always remain questionable. The present paper gives some clues about the exact status of reasoning by analogy, compared to more ''scientific'' ways of deriving information from investigated systems. It is not a thorough discussion of this very complex, and by far too philosophical issue but we hope, at least, to present to readers of papers devoted to natural analogue studies arguments showing that this approach has some sound foundation. (author).

  15. Natural analogue study on engineered barriers for underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, K.; Motegi, M.; Emoto, Y.; Kaji, Y.; Ikari, S.; Nada, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1989-01-01

    This is a report to develop the natural analogue methodology for the assessment of the life of the engineered barriers beyond the time period of normal experiments, 1000 years, for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes with activity levels greater than those of wastes acceptable for shallow land burial in Japan. Geological and archeological events and objects available for the assessment of the possible life of each engineered barrier are surveyed. Taking heavy precipitation into account in Japan, a long-term, zero-release engineered barrier system using long-term durable materials based on the natural analogue events and objects is proposed along with the conventional type of water permeable engineered barrier system. The combination of the material quality and the environment that could be achieved within the repository is important for the long-term durability of the engineered barrier material. It is proposed that for the natural analogue study a physico-chemical methodology, which may be referred to as the physico-chemical natural history, is necessary to get parameters from the natural analogue events for the long-term assessment of the disposal system

  16. Pre-treatment of bituminized NPP wastes for disposal in near-surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. The Brazilian repository is being planned to be a near-surface one. In Brazil the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are immobilized using cement and bitumen for Angra 1 and Angra 2 NPP, respectively. The main problems due to the disposal of bituminized wastes in repositories are swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling of the bituminized wastes, the drums are filled up to 70 - 90% of their volume, which reduces the structural the repository stability and the disposal availability. Countries, which use bitumen in the solidification of NPP's radioactive waste and have near-surface repositories, need to immobilize this bituminized waste within other drums containing cement pastes or mortars to disposal them. This study aims to find solutions for the storage in surface repository of bituminized radioactive waste products, making them compatible with the acceptance criteria of cemented waste products. It was also performed a modeling with the results obtained in the leaching test using the ALT program and defined the transport model of the cesium leachate element and it was verified that in the early times the leaching was governed by the diffusion model and later by the partition model. The results obtained in this study can be used in the evaluation of performance of repositories. (author)

  17. Pre-treatment of bituminized NPP wastes for disposal in near-surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. The Brazilian repository is being planned to be a near-surface one. In Brazil the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are immobilized using cement and bitumen for Angra 1 and Angra 2 NPP, respectively. The main problems due to the disposal of bituminized wastes in repositories are swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling of the bituminized wastes, the drums are filled up to 70 - 90% of their volume, which reduces the structural the repository stability and the disposal availability. Countries, which use bitumen in the solidification of NPP's radioactive waste and have near-surface repositories, need to immobilize this bituminized waste within other drums containing cement pastes or mortars to disposal them. This study aims to find solutions for the storage in surface repository of bituminized radioactive waste products, making them compatible with the acceptance criteria of cemented waste products. It was also performed a modeling with the results obtained in the leaching test using the ALT program and defined the transport model of the cesium leachate element and it was verified that in the early times the leaching was governed by the diffusion model and later by the partition model. The results obtained in this study can be used in the evaluation of performance of repositories. (author)

  18. Anticipated Degradation Modes of Metallic Engineered Barriers for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Martín A.

    2014-03-01

    Metallic engineered barriers must provide a period of absolute containment to high-level radioactive waste in geological repositories. Candidate materials include copper alloys, carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. The national programs of nuclear waste management have to identify and assess the anticipated degradation modes of the selected materials in the corresponding repository environment, which evolves in time. Commonly assessed degradation modes include general corrosion, localized corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen-assisted cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Laboratory testing and modeling in metallurgical and environmental conditions of similar and higher aggressiveness than those expected in service conditions are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the materials. This review focuses on the anticipated degradation modes of the selected or reference materials as corrosion-resistant barriers in nuclear repositories. These degradation modes depend not only on the selected alloy but also on the near-field environment. The evolution of the near-field environment varies for saturated and unsaturated repositories considering backfilled and unbackfilled conditions. In saturated repositories, localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking may occur in the initial aerobic stage, while general corrosion and hydrogen-assisted cracking are the main degradation modes in the anaerobic stage. Unsaturated repositories would provide an oxidizing environment during the entire repository lifetime. Microbiologically influenced corrosion may be avoided or minimized by selecting an appropriate backfill material. Radiation effects are negligible provided that a thick-walled container or an inner shielding container is used.

  19. International Conference on Geological Repositories 2016. Conference Synthesis, 7-9 December 2016, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walke, Russell; Kwong, Gloria; )

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide consensus exists within the international community that geological repositories can provide the necessary long-term safety and security to isolate long-lived radioactive waste from the human environment over long timescales. Such repositories are also feasible to construct using current technologies. However, proving the technical merits and safety of repositories, while satisfying societal and political requirements, has been a challenge in many countries. Building upon the success of previous conferences held in Denver (1999), Stockholm (2003), Berne (2007) and Toronto (2012), the ICGR 2016 brought together high-level decision makers from regulatory and local government bodies, waste management organisations and public stakeholder communities to review current perspectives of geological repository development. This publication provides a synthesis of the 2016 conference on continued engagement and safe implementation of repositories, which was designed to promote information and experience sharing, particularly in the development of polices and regulatory frameworks. Repository safety, and the planning and implementation of repository programs with societal involvement, as well as ongoing work within different international organisations, were also addressed at the conference. (authors)

  20. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  1. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  2. Analisis Konten dan Kebijakan Akses Institutional Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2016-07-01

    Abstract; Institutional repository has become a major concern of higher education in Indonesia. The number of institutional respository was increased, one of the reason is the ranking web of repositories has been conducted by the Cybermetrics Lab in 2008. At that time, many institutions started to build institutional repository in order to manage the scientific work and also trying to reach the better ranks. Meanwhile, it is an achievement of institution performance which can be promote and increase visibility for the institution. University of Surabaya has also developed the institutional repository and managed by the library. The aims of this study is to analyze the content availability and access policies defined by the University of Surabaya repository  providing services to the academic community and external users. The method used in this study by using observations of the institutional repository University of Surabaya with a literature review to clarify the analysis of the content and access policies. The results of this study indicate that the library's role is has the authority to manage the scientific work of academic community can be done through the institutional repository. However there is still need for library to be proactive to communicate regulations on mandatory deposit of scientific work and create intensive promotion of the institutional repository.

  3. Electronic Repository of Russian Historical Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhonov, Vyacheslav; Kessler, Gijs; Markevich, Andrei; de Vries, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Electronic Repository for Russian Historical Statistics brings together data extracted from various published and unpublished sources in one place. Its principal focus is Russian economic and social history of the last three centuries (18th-21st). The repository caters to the needs of the

  4. Decompression of magma into repository tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Woods, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    It is nontrivial to find and design safe repository sites for nuclear waste. It appears common sense to drill tunnels as repository sites in a mountain in remote and relatively dry regions. However, erosion of the waste canisters by naturally abundant chemicals in the mountains water cycle remains a

  5. Asset Reuse of Images from a Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    According to Markus's theory of reuse, when digital repositories are deployed to collect and distribute organizational assets, they supposedly help ensure accountability, extend information exchange, and improve productivity. Such repositories require a large investment due to the continuing costs of hardware, software, user licenses, training,…

  6. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood

  7. Towards Content Development For Institutional Digital Repository ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth in Information and Communication Technology has lead to the emergence of Institutional Digital Repository, a digital archive for the preservation and dissemination of institutional research outputs. Institutional Digital Repositories make possible global dissemination of research outputs through the use of the ...

  8. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell

  9. Reconstruction and modernization of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, I.; Dralchev, D.; Spasov, P.; Jordanov, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents briefly the most important issues of the study performed by EQE - Bulgaria. The objectives of the study are the development of conceptual solutions for construction of the following facilities in the Novi Han radioactive waste repository: an operational storage for unconditioned high level spent sources; new temporary buildings over the existing radioactive waste storage facilities; a rain-water draining system ect. The study also includes the engineering solutions for conservation of the existing facilities, currently full with high level spent sources. A 'Program for reconstruction and modernization' has been created, including the analysis of some regulation aspects concerning this program implementation. In conclusions the engineering problems of Novi Han repository are clear and appropriate solutions are available. They can be implemented in both cases of 'small' or 'large' reconstruction. The reconstruction project anyway should start with the construction of a new site infrastructure. Reconstruction and modernization of Novi Han radioactive waste repository is the only way to improve the management and safety of radioactive waste from medicine, industry and scientific research in Bulgaria

  10. Assessment of Savannah River borosilicate glass in the repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Wicks, G.G.; Bibler, N.E.

    1982-04-01

    Since 1973, borosilicate glass has been studied as a matrix for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In 1977, efforts began to develop and test the large-scale equipment necessary to convert the alkaline waste slurries at SRP into a durable borosilicate glass. A process has now been developed for the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which will annually produce approximately 500 canisters of SRP waste glass which will be stored on an interim basis on the Savannah River site. Current national policy calls for the permanent disposal of high-level waste in deep geologic repositories. In the repository environment, SRP waste glass will eventually be exposed to such stresses as lithostatic or hydrostatic pressures, radiation fields, and self-heating due to radioactive decay. In addition, producing and handling each canister of glass will also expose the glass to thermal and mechanical stresses. An important objective of the extensive glass characterization and testing programs of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has been to determine how these stresses affect the performance of SRP waste glass. The results of these programs indicate that: these stresses will not significantly affect the performance of borosilicate glass containing SRP waste; and SRP waste glass will effectively immobilize hazardous radionuclides in the repository environment

  11. Scientific information repository assisting reflectance spectrometry in legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael; Zimmermann, Klaus; Liehr, Andreas W

    2012-06-01

    Reflectance spectrometry is a fast and reliable method for the characterization of human skin if the spectra are analyzed with respect to a physical model describing the optical properties of human skin. For a field study performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Freiburg Materials Research Center of the University of Freiburg, a scientific information repository has been developed, which is a variant of an electronic laboratory notebook and assists in the acquisition, management, and high-throughput analysis of reflectance spectra in heterogeneous research environments. At the core of the repository is a database management system hosting the master data. It is filled with primary data via a graphical user interface (GUI) programmed in Java, which also enables the user to browse the database and access the results of data analysis. The latter is carried out via Matlab, Python, and C programs, which retrieve the primary data from the scientific information repository, perform the analysis, and store the results in the database for further usage.

  12. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, ''Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 ''Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work

  13. Hydrologic issues in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remson, I.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Extrapolation of Darcy's law to the transport of water an solutes in unfractured poorly permeable rocks being studied for nuclear waste disposal is questioned. The hydrologic literature includes numerous references to both non-Darcian flow in dense materials devoid of macrofractures and microfractures and to threshold gradients below which no flow occurs. For such situations to occur, the pore-size range must be small enough so that all pore water is sufficiently close to mineral surfaces to be affected by the surficial forces. Then the flow will be non-Newtonian and non-Darcian, and solute transport will be by molecular diffusion. If fluid transport in very dense unfractured rocks is non-Darcian, useful methods of testing candidate host rocks become apparent. In situ nondestructive pressure testing of canister waste emplacement boreholes in a mined repository can verify the absence of both fracture flow and Darcian flow. 18 references

  14. Safety assessment of geologic repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.; Burkholder, H.C.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration of geologic isolation for final disposition of radioactive wastes has led to the need for evaluation of the safety of the concept. Such evaluations require consideration of factors not encountered in conventional risk analysis: consequences at times and places far removed from the repository site; indirect, complex, and alternative pathways between the waste and the point of potential consequences; a highly limited data base; and limited opportunity for experimental verification of results. R and D programs to provide technical safety evaluations are under way. Three methods are being considered for the probabilistic aspects of the evaluations: fault tree analysis, repository simulation analysis, and system stability analysis. Nuclide transport models, currently in a relatively advanced state of development, are used to evaluate consequences of postulated loss of geologic isolation. This paper outlines the safety assessment methods, unique features of the assessment problem that affect selection of methods and reliability of results, and available results. It also discusses potential directions for future work

  15. Repository-relevant testing applied to the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Veleckis, E.

    1989-04-01

    A repository environment poses a challenge to developing a testing program because of the diverse nature of conditions that may exist at a given time during the life of the repository. A starting point is to identify whether any potential waste-water contact modes are particularly deleterious to the waste form performance, and whether any interactions between materials present in the waste package environment need to be accounted for during modeling the waste form reaction. The Unsaturated Test method in one approach that has been developed by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to investigate the above issues, and a description of results that have been obtained during the testing of glass and unirradiated UO 2 are the subject of this report. 10 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Salt Repository Project: FY 85 technical project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The FY 85 technical plan for the Salt Repository Project is briefly presented. The objectives of the project in relation to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program are discussed, and the technical activities directed toward accomplishing these objectives are detailed. A budget is presented for each of the Level 2 work breakdown structure tasks (Systems, Waste Package, Site, Repository, Regulatory and Institutional, Exploratory Shaft, Test Facilities, Land Acquisition, and Project Management) in the various sections. An overall description, current status, and planned activities are presented for each of the subtasks which make up the above-mentioned Level 2 tasks. A strategy diagram and a master schedule are included and each of the milestones is also listed chronologically in the sections

  17. Salt Repository Project input to seismic design: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Salt Repository Program (SRP) Input to Seismic Design (ISD) documents the assumptions, rationale, approaches, judgments, and analyses that support the development of seismic-specific data and information to be used for shaft design in accordance with the SRP Shaft Design Guide (SDG). The contents of this document are divided into four subject areas: (1) seismic assessment, (2) stratigraphy and material properties for seismic design, (3) development of seismic design parameters, and (4) host media stability. These four subject areas have been developed considering expected conditions at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The ISD should be used only in conjunction with seismic design of the exploratory and repository shafts. Seismic design considerations relating to surface facilities are not addressed in this document. 54 refs., 55 figs., 18 tabs

  18. Development of thermal analysis method for the near field of HLW repository using ABAQUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuh, Jung Eui; Kang, Chul Hyung; Park, Jeong Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-10-01

    An appropriate tool is needed to evaluate the thermo-mechanical stability of high level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. In this report a thermal analysis methodology for the near field of HLW repository is developed to use ABAQUS which is one of the multi purpose FEM code and has been used for many engineering area. The main contents of this methodology development are the structural and material modelling to simulate a repository, setup of side conditions, e.g., boundary and load conditions, and initial conditions, and the procedure to selection proper material parameters. In addition to these, the interface programs for effective production of input data and effective change of model size for sensitivity analysis for disposal concept development are developed. The results of this work will be apply to evaluate the thermal stability and to use as main input data for mechanical analysis of HLW repository. (author). 20 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. A GoldSim modeling approach to safety assessment of an LILW repository system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jongtae; Choi, Jongwon

    2011-01-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository system has been developed by utilizing GoldSim. By utilizing this nuclide transport in the near- and far-field of a repository as well as a transport through a biosphere under various natural and manmade disruptive events affecting a nuclide release are modeled and evaluated. To demonstrate its usability, some illustrative cases under the selected scenarios including the influence of degradation of manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and the natural disruptive events such as a sudden formation of preferential flow pathway have been investigated and illustrated for a hypothetical LILW repository. Even though all the parameter values applied to a hypothetical repository are assumed without any real base, the illustrative cases could be informative especially when seeing the result of the probabilistic calculation or sensitivity studies with various scenarios that possibly happen for nuclide release and further transport. (author)

  20. The ketamine analogue methoxetamine and 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine are high affinity and selective ligands for the glutamate NMDA receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L Roth

    Full Text Available In this paper we determined the pharmacological profiles of novel ketamine and phencyclidine analogues currently used as 'designer drugs' and compared them to the parent substances via the resources of the National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program. The ketamine analogues methoxetamine ((RS-2-(ethylamino-2-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanone and 3-MeO-PCE (N-ethyl-1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanamine and the 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine, (1-[1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine and 1-[1-(4-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine, were all high affinity ligands for the PCP-site on the glutamate NMDA receptor. In addition methoxetamine and PCP and its analogues displayed appreciable affinities for the serotonin transporter, whilst the PCP analogues exhibited high affinities for sigma receptors. Antagonism of the NMDA receptor is thought to be the key pharmacological feature underlying the actions of dissociative anaesthetics. The novel ketamine and PCP analogues had significant affinities for the NMDA receptor in radioligand binding assays, which may explain their psychotomimetic effects in human users. Additional actions on other targets could be important for delineating side-effects.

  1. Natural analogues of bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.-H.

    1989-07-01

    Occurrences of natural bitumen provide possibilities to identify and assess materials, processes, phenomena and conditions in nature which can serve as model cases valid also with respect to a final repository. Natural bitumens meet the basic requirements for use as natural analogues. In natural sites, processes of bitumen formation and degradation often work simultaneously. The major processes are thermal alteration, evaporation, reaction with water, biodegradation, oxidation, weathering and radiation degradation. Progress in analytical organic geochemistry made during recent years has enabled a deeper understanding of the structural and compositional effects of these processes on bitumen. This is necessary in natural analogue applications. The time scales involved in degradation processes, as observed in natural occurrences, exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of most important fission products in low and medium level waste by orders of magnitude. Only exposure to the weather at the surface leads to a more rapid destruction of bitumen. Trace metals in bitumen arenot released until the matrix is completely destroyed. Products of radiation degradation and weathering of bitumen are able, to a certain degree, to delay migration of the metal ions released. Impregnation with bitumen may effectively reduce the microbial decomposition of easily destructable organic waste components, as can be deduced on the basis of the excellent preservation of fossils observed in bitumen. The complexity of all the natural sites described requires extensive understanding of the origin and kind of organic material in bitumen, its maturation, migration, alteration and degradation and of the geological and tectonic evolution of the site. The latter is used for establishing the time scale

  2. Implementing and Sustaining Data Lifecycle best Practices: a Framework for Researchers and Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, S.

    2016-02-01

    Emerging data management mandates in conjunction with cross-domain international interoperability are posing new challenges for researchers and repositories. Domain repositories are serving in this critical, growing role monitoring and leading data management standards and capability within their own repository and working on mappings between repositories internationally. Leading research institutions and companies will also be important as they develop and expand data curation efforts. This landscape poses a number of challenges for developing and ensuring the use of best practices in curating research data, enabling discovery, elevating quality across diverse repositories, and helping researchers collect and organize it through the full data life cycle. This multidimensional challenge will continue to grow in complexity. The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is developing two programs to help researchers and data repositories develop and elevate best practices and address these challenges. The goal is to provide tools for the researchers and repositories, whether domain, institutional, or other, that improve performance throughout the data lifecycle across the Earth and space science community. For scientists and researchers, AGU is developing courses around handling data that can lead toward a certification in geoscience data management. Course materials will cover metadata management and collection, data analysis, integration of data, and data presentation. The course topics are being finalized by the advisory board with the first one planned to be available later this year. AGU is also developing a program aimed at helping data repositories, large and small, domain-specific to general, assess and improve data management practices. AGU has partnered with the CMMI® Institute to adapt their Data Management Maturity (DMM)SM framework within the Earth and space sciences. A data management assessment using the DMMSM involves identifying accomplishments and

  3. The Listening and Spoken Language Data Repository: Design and Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradham, Tamala S.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Toll, Alice; Hecht, Barbara F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the Listening and Spoken Language Data Repository (LSL-DR) was to address a critical need for a systemwide outcome data-monitoring program for the development of listening and spoken language skills in highly specialized educational programs for children with hearing loss highlighted in Goal 3b of the 2007 Joint Committee…

  4. Learning frameworks as an alternative to repositories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of ‘learning frameworks’. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and question collections of digital learning objects in large repositories and to argue for large learning frameworks which organise a number of thematically related digital learning materials. Whereas...... a learning object repository contains all kinds of materials, a learning framework consists of an organisation of materials related to a common theme. Further, a repository consists of single, self-contained objects, whereas a learning framework is an open-ended environment which presents a number...

  5. Setting waste isolation times into a geological context: some experience with natural analogues in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritschi, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The concept of geological repositories: Permanent protection of humans and the environment by long-term passive isolation of the radioactive materials from the environment. Permanent means until radioactivity has decayed to insignificant levels (Many tens of thousands of years up to one million years into the future). Human experience with timescales: - Personal: Some 10 years, maybe up to 2 to (3) generations; - 'Rapid' (normally experienced as slow) and relevant changes with regard to personal well-being during this time span; - 100 years of European history; - Human History up to 5,000 years: but relevant to experience? So there is a complete mismatch of personal experience with the question addressed in the safety case. Understandable explanation of a geological repository: - Why is a geological repository necessary? - Why are geological repositories safe? - How can one be sure, what happens in 100,000 years? Radioactive waste must be disposed of in a way to ensure permanent protection of humans and the environment (Swiss Nuclear Energy Law). A Containment is thus necessary. Today's containment (storage) needs maintenance, but how about stability of society? How about the future development on the surface where we live? Passive safety is based on multiple barrier system: passive containment without the need of maintenance in a geological environment. Requirements on the host rock and the geosphere: Sound science and expertise is available for all the components. The need for translation: What pictures do you use to explain the functioning of a geological repository over long time scales? Pictures, Symbols, 'Analogues' must be adapted to the specific situation in a country. So whatever may happen on the surface over the next one million years: Time stands still in the underground

  6. The alligator rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.

    1991-01-01

    The Koongarra uranium ore deposit in the Northern Territory of Australia is being studied to evaluate the processes and mechanisms involved in the hydrological/geochemical alteration of the primary uranium and model the formation of the secondary uranium mineralisation and the dispersion fan. A wide range of research is undertaken in the field and at laboratories in Australia, Japan, Sweden, the UK and the USA. The experimental and modelling tasks consider the original weathering of the region, the alteration of the host rock and primary uranium, groundwater flow and migration pathways, rock/groundwater interactions, such as adsorption desorption, nuclide transport and the relative distribution of the uranium/thorium radionuclides in the multi-phase system, and the continued development of the dispersion fan. The study of the in-situ production and mobility of long lived fission products eg Tc-99 and I-129 and transuranic nuclides such as Pu-239 is also possible. The methods used in collecting data for a repository are similar to those applied at Koongarra, hence, an analysis of the many different approaches taken may help evaluate and decrease the uncertainties of with field and laboratory measurements. (J.P.N.)

  7. An Ilustrative Nuclide Release Behavior from an HLW Repository due to an Earthquake Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Hwang, Yong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-01-01

    Program for the evaluation of a high-level waste repository which is conceptually modeled. During the last few years, programs developed with the aid of AMBER and GoldSim by which nuclide transports in the near- and far-field of a repository as well as transport through the biosphere under various normal and disruptive release scenarios could be modeled and evaluated, have been continuously demonstrated. To show its usability, as similarly done for the natural groundwater flow scheme, influence of a possible disruptive event on a nuclide release behavior from an HLW repository system caused naturally due to an earthquake has been investigated and illustrated with the newly developed GoldSim program

  8. A Climate Statistics Tool and Data Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Kuiper, J. A.; Orr, A.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory and collaborating organizations have generated regional scale, dynamically downscaled climate model output using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) version 3.3.1 at a 12km horizontal spatial resolution over much of North America. The WRF model is driven by boundary conditions obtained from three independent global scale climate models and two different future greenhouse gas emission scenarios, named representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The repository of results has a temporal resolution of three hours for all the simulations, includes more than 50 variables, is stored in Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) files, and the data volume is nearly 600Tb. A condensed 800Gb set of NetCDF files were made for selected variables most useful for climate-related planning, including daily precipitation, relative humidity, solar radiation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and wind. The WRF model simulations are conducted for three 10-year time periods (1995-2004, 2045-2054, and 2085-2094), and two future scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). An open-source tool was coded using Python 2.7.8 and ESRI ArcGIS 10.3.1 programming libraries to parse the NetCDF files, compute summary statistics, and output results as GIS layers. Eight sets of summary statistics were generated as examples for the contiguous U.S. states and much of Alaska, including number of days over 90°F, number of days with a heat index over 90°F, heat waves, monthly and annual precipitation, drought, extreme precipitation, multi-model averages, and model bias. This paper will provide an overview of the project to generate the main and condensed data repositories, describe the Python tool and how to use it, present the GIS results of the computed examples, and discuss some of the ways they can be used for planning. The condensed climate data, Python tool, computed GIS results, and documentation of the work are shared on the Internet.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of febrifugine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Thanh, Giang Vo; Tran, Van Hieu; Vu, Van Nam; Vu, Van Loi; Le, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Phi, Thi Dao; Truong, Bich Ngan; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2014-12-01

    A series of febrifugine analogues were designed and synthesized. Antimalarial activity evaluation of the synthetic compounds indicated that these derivatives had a strong inhibition against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Many of them were found to be more active than febrifugine hydrochloride. The tested analogues had also a significant cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, LU1 and HepG2). Among the synthetic analogues, two compounds 17b and 17h displayed a moderate cytotoxicity while they exhibited a remarkable antimalarial activity.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  11. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  12. The Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository From A Corrosion Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.H. Payer

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion is a primary determinant of waste package performance at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and will control the delay time for radionuclide transport from the waste package. Corrosion is the most probable and most likely degradation process that will determine when packages will be penetrated and the shape, size, and distribution of those penetrations. The general issues in corrosion science, materials science and electrochemistry are well defined, and the knowledge base is substantial for understanding corrosion processes. In this paper, the Yucca Mountain Repository is viewed from a corrosion perspective. A major component of the long-term strategy for safe disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository is first to completely isolate the radionuclides in the waste packages for long times and to greatly retard the egress and transport of radionuclides from penetrated packages. Therefore, long-lived waste packages are important. The corrosion resistance of the waste package outer canister is reviewed, and a framework for the analysis of localized corrosion processes is presented. An overview is presented of the Materials Performance targeted thrust of the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's Office of Science and Technology and International. The thrust program strives for increased scientific understanding, enhanced process models and advanced technologies for corrosion control

  13. Low temperature spent fuel oxidation under tuff repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.; Woodley, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project is studying the suitability of tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, for high level waste disposal. The oxidation state of LWR spent fuel in a tuff repository may be a significant factor in determining its ability to inhibit radionuclide migration. Long term exposure at low temperatures to the moist air expected in a tuff repository is expected to increase the oxidation state of the fuel. A program is underway to determine the spent fuel oxidation mechanisms which might be active in a tuff repository. Initial work involves a series of TGA experiments to determine the effectiveness of the technique and to obtain preliminary oxidation data. Tests were run at 200 0 C and 225 0 C for as long as 720 hours. Grain boundary diffusion appears to open up a greater surface area for oxidation prior to onset of bulk diffusion. Temperature strongly influences the oxidation rates. The effect of moisture is small but readily measurable. 25 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  14. An Optimal Centralized Carbon Dioxide Repository for Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Poiencot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at various sites around the globe, but none have identified the potential for a statewide system in Florida, USA. In 2005, 83% of Florida’s electrical energy was produced by natural gas, coal, or oil (e.g., fossil fuels, from power plants spread across the state. In addition, only limited research has been completed on evaluating optimal pipeline transportation networks to centralized carbon dioxide repositories. This paper describes the feasibility and preliminary locations for an optimal centralized Florida-wide carbon sequestration repository. Linear programming optimization modeling is used to plan and route an idealized pipeline network to existing Florida power plants. Further analysis of the subsurface geology in these general locations will provide insight into the suitability of the subsurface conditions and the available capacity for carbon sequestration at selected possible repository sites. The identification of the most favorable site(s is also presented.

  15. Potential host media for a high-level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustrulid, W

    1982-01-01

    Earlier studies of burial of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories had concentrated on salt formations for well-publicized reasons. However, under the Carter administration, significant changes were made in the US nuclear waste management program. Changes which were made were: (1) expansion of the number of rock types under consideration; (2) adoption of the multiple-barrier approach to waste containment; (3) additional requirements for waste retrieval; and (4) new criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the isolation of high-level waste in geologic repositories. Results of the studies of different types of rocks as repository sites are summarized herein. It is concluded that each generic rock type has certain advantages and disadvantages when considered from various aspects of the waste disposal problem and that characteristics of rocks are so varied that a most favorable or least favorable rock type cannot be easily identified. This lack of definitive characteristics of rocks makes site selection and good engineering barriers very important for containment of the wastes. (BLM)

  16. Cyprus natural analogue project (CNAP). Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Milodowski, A.E.

    2011-02-01

    Due to the extremely slow kinetics of bentonite reaction in low alkali cement leachates, natural analogues would appear to be the only viable method of studying bentonite reaction. As a result of a review of the available literature, several sites in Cyprus were selected as particularly promising for this purpose. This report presents the results of two short field campaigns in Cyprus in November/December, 2008 and February, 2009. The main aim of these campaigns was to establish if appropriate sites existed for a natural analogue study of bentonite-low alkali cement leachate reaction. Focus is on mineralogical changes and not changes in physical properties (such as porosity and permeability) of bentonite as the industrially-processed bentonite used in a repository will be completely different in terms of its engineering and hydrogeological properties to the unprocessed natural bentonite or analogue smectite-rich materials. The first campaign was in the form of a reconnaissance study to identify sites of likely interest and the second, follow-up, campaign focussed on obtaining preliminary groundwater and solid phase (bentonites/clay-rich sediments/altered igneous rocks/soils) samples which would allow a more detailed assessment of several of the potential sites. A large amount of information was collected during these short field campaigns and subsequent laboratory analysis of the collected samples so, to keep the main report down to a digestible size, much of the supporting information has been collated in seven appendices. These include full details of all 30 sites visited during both campaigns along with sample details, information on the analytical techniques, the analytical raw data and numerous photographs of the sites. The intention is that this report will provide full supporting information for a potential Phase III and a detailed database for our colleagues at the Geological Survey Department (GSD) in Cyprus. Consequently, all the information acquired

  17. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-11-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 m g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great as those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  18. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-07-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 ml g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great at those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland Cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  19. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities

  20. Building the repositories to serve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The project to design and build the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory also includes the exciting opportunity to implement client/server information systems. Lab technologists were eager to take advantage of the cost savings inherent in the open systems and a distributed, client server environment and, at the same time, conscious of the need to provide secure repositories for sensitive data as well as a schedule sensitive acquisition strategy for mission critical software. During the first year of project activity, micro-based project management and business support systems were acquired and implemented to support a small study project of less than 400 people allocating contracts of less than $1 million. The transition to modern business systems capable of supporting more than 10,000 participants (world wide) who would be researching and developing the new technologies that would support the world's largest scientific instrument, a 42 Tevatron, superconducting, super collider became a mission critical event. This paper will present the SSC Laboratory's strategy to balance its commitment to open systems, structured query language (SQL) standards and its success with acquiring commercial off the shelf software to support immediate goals. Included will be an outline of the vital roles played by other labs (Livermore, CERN, Brookhaven, Fermi and others) and a discussion of future collaboration potentials to leverage the information activities of all Department of Energy funded labs

  1. Building the repositories to serve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersch, D.

    1993-04-01

    The project to design and build the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory also includes the exciting opportunity to implement client/server information systems. Lab technologists were eager to take advantage of the cost savings inherent in the open systems and a distributed, client server environment and, at the same time, conscious of the need to provide secure repositories for sensitive data as well as a schedule sensitive acquisition strategy for mission critical software. During the first year of project activity, micro-based project management and business support systems were acquired and implemented to support a small study project of less than 400 people allocating contracts of less than $1 million. The transition to modern business systems capable of supporting more than 10,000 participants (world wide) who would be researching and developing the new technologies that would support the world's largest scientific instrument, a 42 Tevatron, superconducting, super collider became a mission critical event. This paper will present the SSC Laboratory's strategy to balance our commitment to open systems, structured query language (SQL) standards and our success with acquiring commercial off the shelf software (COTS) to support our immediate goals. Included will be an outline of the vital roles played by other labs (Livermore, CERN, Brookhaven, Fermi and others) and a discussion of future collaboration potentials to leverage the information activities of all Department of Energy (DOE) funded labs

  2. Shaft placement in a bedded salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasi, M.L.

    1982-10-01

    Preferred shaft pillar sizes and shaft locations were determined with respect to the induced thermal stresses in a generic bedded salt repository at a depth of 610 m with a gross thermal loading of 14.8 W/m 2 . The model assumes isotropic material properties, plane strain and linear elastic behavior. Various shaft locations were analyzed over a 25 year period. The thermal results show that for this time span, the stratigraphy is unimportant except for the region immediately adjacent to the repository. The thermomechanical results show that for the given repository depth of 610 m, a minimum central shaft pillar radius of 244 m is required to equal the material strength in the barrier pillar. An assumed constant stress and constant temperature distribution creep model of the central shaft region adjacent to the repository conservatively overestimates a creep closure of 310 mm in a 6.1 m diameter centrally-located shaft

  3. Preliminary design of the repository, stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  4. Decision theory applied to radioactive repository construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present, through the presentation of an example, the applicability of the decision theory on the selection and construction of a repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste. (author)

  5. Preliminary design of the repository. Stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-04-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  6. Biospecimen Repository Access and Data Sharing (BRADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BRADS is a repository for data and biospecimens from population health research initiatives and clinical or interventional trials designed and implemented by NICHD’s...

  7. NIMH Repository and Genomics Resources (RGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIMH Repository and Genomics Resource (RGR) stores biosamples, genetic, pedigree and clinical data collected in designated NIMH-funded human subject studies. The...

  8. Evaluasi Website Repositori Institusi Universitas Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The  development  of  institutional  repositories  (IRs  in Indonesia within the broader framework of open access has significant impact on preserving intellectual capital and scholarly communication. Institutional  repositories  play  a  fundamental  role  in  centralizing, preserving,  and  making  accessible  institution’s  intellectual  capital. Evaluation of the system is to determine the functionality the system to meet the users need. Using a descriptive analysis this study wants to evaluate institutional repositories of University of Surabaya. The result is usefull for institution to develop the repository systems.

  9. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.; Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later

  10. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Ltd, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Vuorinen, U. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Werme, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in he Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long- term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature.Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid.

  11. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F.; Ahonen, L.; Taxen, C.; Vuorinen, U.; Werme, L

    2002-01-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid. (orig.)

  12. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Ahonen, L.; Taxen, C.; Vuorinen, U.; Werme, L.

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in he Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long- term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature.Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid

  13. A Single Global Small-User Nuclear Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.L.; Wright, J.

    2009-01-01

    Global energy partnerships in nuclear power, proposed by France, Russia, U.S. and England, seek to address the proliferation issue by controlling fuel production and nuclear materials, removing the need for each country to develop enrichment, fabrication, recycling or disposal capabilities. Several of the large generator countries such as France, the U.S., Japan, S. Korea, Russia, the U.K., China and India, all have plans for deep geologic repositories because they anticipate sufficient waste over the next century to justify the expense of a repository. However, countries having, or planning, less than five reactors, such as Egypt, Iran, Indonesia, Brazil and about 30 other countries, will not have sufficient waste generation, or a favorable geologic site, to justify the economic and environmental issues of developing their own repository. The Salado salt formation in New Mexico, set aside for nuclear waste disposal within the 16 square-mile area by the Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, is the most optimal geologic formation for the permanent disposal of any nuclear waste and is easily able to host all of the commercial nuclear waste that will be generated in the next thousand years. The U.S. commercial nuclear waste needs presently surpass all others, and will for the foreseeable future. Hosting the relatively small amount of waste from these small-user nations will add little to U.S. waste stream while the cost/benefit analysis from the standpoint of operations, safety, geology, cost and proliferation is overwhelmingly positive for developing such a global repository. Oceanic and overland transportation, high-level disposal logistics and costs from several programs, including WIPP, have demonstrated that the operation would pay for itself from international user fees with no U.S. taxpayer dollars required and still save the world about $400 billion over 100 years. The ethical considerations alone are compelling. (authors)

  14. OWLing Clinical Data Repositories With the Ontology Web Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Rubí, Raimundo; Pastor, Xavier; Lozano, Esther

    2014-08-01

    The health sciences are based upon information. Clinical information is usually stored and managed by physicians with precarious tools, such as spreadsheets. The biomedical domain is more complex than other domains that have adopted information and communication technologies as pervasive business tools. Moreover, medicine continuously changes its corpus of knowledge because of new discoveries and the rearrangements in the relationships among concepts. This scenario makes it especially difficult to offer good tools to answer the professional needs of researchers and constitutes a barrier that needs innovation to discover useful solutions. The objective was to design and implement a framework for the development of clinical data repositories, capable of facing the continuous change in the biomedicine domain and minimizing the technical knowledge required from final users. We combined knowledge management tools and methodologies with relational technology. We present an ontology-based approach that is flexible and efficient for dealing with complexity and change, integrated with a solid relational storage and a Web graphical user interface. Onto Clinical Research Forms (OntoCRF) is a framework for the definition, modeling, and instantiation of data repositories. It does not need any database design or programming. All required information to define a new project is explicitly stated in ontologies. Moreover, the user interface is built automatically on the fly as Web pages, whereas data are stored in a generic repository. This allows for immediate deployment and population of the database as well as instant online availability of any modification. OntoCRF is a complete framework to build data repositories with a solid relational storage. Driven by ontologies, OntoCRF is more flexible and efficient to deal with complexity and change than traditional systems and does not require very skilled technical people facilitating the engineering of clinical software systems.

  15. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study. A case of Tono natural analogue study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1996-01-01

    Natural analogue regarding long-term performance of the geological disposal system for radioactive waste isolation is essentially the study of geochemical process which has been evolved in geological environment. All geochemical studies, however, will not be nominated as natural analogue studies. It is, therefore, important to be clear the criteria for natural analogue study with the view of analogy by following three categories, (1) Conceptual model development, (2) Data provision and (3) Model testing, for the concept of geological disposal and safety assessment model. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study through the case of Tono Natural Analogue Study, and the usefulness of natural analogue study for the safety assessment of geological disposal system in Japan have been presented in this paper. (author)

  16. 48 CFR 227.7108 - Contractor data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repositories. 227.7108 Section 227.7108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Technical Data 227.7108 Contractor data repositories. (a) Contractor data repositories may be established when permitted by agency procedures. The contractual instrument establishing the data repository must...

  17. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  18. Memory provisions for the Manche Surface Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Jean-Noel; Espiet-Subert, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The French La Manche repository site received its last radioactive waste package in 1994. In 2003, the official surveillance phase of the closed repository started under the supervision of Andra (the national industrial operator), the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and society (e.g. the local municipalities). Florence Espiet explained that information on the existence of the repository, its content, how it was operated and how it works needs to be preserved. It also is planned to review the information periodically for a minimum of 300 years. She described the creation of two documents on memory (a detailed and a summary one), both on permanent paper, and the preservation of the land registration. The latter constitutes 'passive' provisions for preserving memory. In addition, a number of 'active' provisions are and will be put in place: guided visits, exhibitions, partnerships with organisations dealing with memory preservation, and the creation of a think tank. The latter consists of local citizens and politicians, retired employees from Andra and artists that meet several times a year and reflect on memory preservation from the perspective of, for instance, local history, education, arts and rituals. Finally, two types of markers will be used to preserve the repository's memory: i) three herbaria cataloguing the plants growing on the site of the repository, including a very short description of the repository, will be stored at different sites in France; ii) a stele indicating the main characteristics of the repository, potentially linked to an art work, will be erected at the repository

  19. Impact of retrievability of repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Gaag, J. v.d.; Prij, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the retrievability on the design of the repository will be handled. Retrievability of radioactive waste from a repository in geological formations has received increasing attention during recent years. It is obvious that this retrievability will have consequences in terms of mining engineering, safety and cost. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate cost consequences by comparing two extreme options for retrievable storage. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  20. Transfer systems in an underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Ehrlich, D.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to logistic problem definitions taking into account the waste types of the wastes to be disposed of and the mining conditions, transport and handling of radioactive wastes in a repository, particularly require the keeping of safety technological marginal conditions mainly resulting from the accident analyses carried out. The realization of these safety technological aspects is described taking the planned Konrad repository as an example. (author)

  1. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  2. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  3. The development of safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research and development on geological repositories for High Level Waste (HLW) focuses on the short- and long-term safety aspects of the repository. If the repository will also be used for the disposal of spent fuel, safeguards aspects have to be taken into account. Safety and safeguards requirements may be contradictory; the safety of a geological repository is based on the non-intrusion of the geological containment, while safeguards require regular inspections of position and amount of the spent fuel. Examples to reconcile these contradictory requirements are the use of information required for the safety assessment of the geological repository for safeguards purposes and the adaptation of the safeguards approach to use non-intrusive inspection techniques. The principles of an inspection approach for a geological repository are now generally accepted within the IAEA. The practical applicability of the envisaged inspection techniques is still subject to investigation. It is specifically important for the Belgian situation that an inspection technique can be used in clay, the geological medium in which Belgium intends to dispose its HLW and spent fuel. The work reported in this chapter is the result of an international cooperation in the framework of the IAEA, in which SCK-CEN participates

  4. Region-to-area screening methodology for the crystalline repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The ''Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982'' (NWPA), enacted January 7, 1983 as Public Law 97-425, confirmed the responsibility of the US Department of Energy (DOE) for management of high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA directed the DOE to provide safe facilities for isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the environment in federally owned and federally licensed repositories. To achieve the goals of providing licensed repositories for high-level radioactive waste, a technical program has been developed by the DOE to meet all relevant radiological protection criteria and other requirements. By March 1987, the NWPA requires the DOE to recommend to the President a single site, chosen from five nominated sites for construction of the first repository. Rock types being considered as potential hosts for the first repository include salt, basalt, and tuff. The NWPA also requires the DOE to select three candidate sites, chosen from five nominated sites to be recommended to the President by July 1989, as possible locations for the second repository. Potential host rock types for the second federal repository will include crystalline rock. This document outlines the methodology for region-to-area screening of exposed crystalline rock bodies for suitability as sites for further study. 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  5. The RAGE Game Software Components Repository for Supporting Applied Game Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krassen Stefanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the architecture of the RAGE repository, which is a unique and dedicated infrastructure that provides access to a wide variety of advanced technology components for applied game development. The RAGE project, which is the principal Horizon2020 research and innovation project on applied gaming, develops up to three dozens of software components (RAGE software assets that are reusable across a wide diversity of game engines, game platforms and programming languages. The RAGE repository provides storage space for assets and their artefacts and is designed as an asset life-cycle management system for defining, publishing, updating, searching and packaging for distribution of these assets. It will be embedded in a social platform for asset developers and other users. A dedicated Asset Repository Manager provides the main functionality of the repository and its integration with other systems. Tools supporting the Asset Manager are presented and discussed. When the RAGE repository is in full operation, applied game developers will be able to easily enhance the quality of their games by including selected advanced game software assets. Making available the RAGE repository system and its variety of software assets aims to enhance the coherence and decisiveness of the applied game industry.

  6. A GoldSim Based Biosphere Assessment Model for a HLW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Hwang, Yong-Soo; Kang, Chul-Hyung

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of a repository, the dose exposure to a human being due to nuclide releases from a repository should be evaluated and the results compared to the dose limit presented by the regulatory bodies. To evaluate a dose rate to an individual due to a long-term release of nuclides from a HLW repository, biosphere assessment models and their implemented codes such as ACBIO1 and ACBIO2 have been developed with the aid of AMBER during the last few years. BIOMASS methodology has been adopted for a HLW repository currently being considered in Korea, which has a similar concept to the Swedish KBS-3 HLW repository. Recently, not just only for verifying the purpose for biosphere assessment models but also for varying the possible alternatives to assess the consequences in a biosphere due to a HLW repository, another version of the assessment modesl has been newly developed in the frame of development programs for a total system performance assessment modeling tool by utilizing GoldSim. Through a current study, GoldSim approach for a biosphere modeling is introduced. Unlike AMBER by which a compartment scheme can be rather simply constructed with an appropriate transition rate between compartments, GoldSim was designed to facilitate the object-oriented modules by which specific models can be addressed in an additional manner, like solving jig saw puzzles

  7. Socioeconomic impacts of large-scale developments: implications for high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Hamm, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste repositories will likely be located in sparsely settled rural areas in the US. These projects will significantly affect the economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social (the socioeconomic) dimensions of those rural areas. The impacts and means of mitigating them thus require careful analysis. This paper examines some of the potential socioeconomic impacts likely to occur in rural areas as a result of repository siting and development, and it describes some of the characteristics of mitigation programs that are likely to be necessary, if the impacts are to be addressed. Both (1) standard impacts, those resulting from the fact that, like many other large-scale developments, repositories will involve a substantial number of new workers and residents (relative to the size of existing communities), and (2) special impacts, those resulting from the fact that repositories store radioactive materials, are examined. The discussion indicates that economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social impacts (standard and special) of these repositories will be substantial and problematic in many cases. Unless the impacts are effectively addressed with carefully planned and well financed mitigation efforts that insure that high-quality planning information is provided to local residents, and that local residents are involved in impact planning and management throughout the siting and development process, repository siting is unlikely to be effectively and equitably achieved. 44 references

  8. Rate of accumulation of thymidine analogue mutations in patients continuing to receive virologically failing regimens containing zidovudine or stavudine: implications for antiretroviral therapy programs in resource-limited settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Phillips, Andrew N; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because changes in antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings (RLSs) are delayed until patients experience immunological or clinical failure, it is important to be able to estimate the consequences in terms of accumulation of thymidine analogue (TA) mutations (TAMs). METHODS...... until the second GRT. RESULTS: At the time of the first GRT in a pair (t0), 1 year after virological failure, a median of 3 TAMs were detected, mutations 41L and 215Y in 65% of pairs and 67N in 52%. Overall, 126 TAMs were accumulated during 548 person-years of follow-up (PYFUs) (1/4.3 years; 95......% confidence interval, 3.7-5.0 years). Greater predicted activity of the TA at t0, TAM profile 2 (TAM2; vs TAM profile 1 [TAM1]) profiles at t0, use of a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) at t0 (vs combined NNRTI and protease inhibitor), and acquisition of HIV infection through heterosexual...

  9. Alligator rivers analogue project. Final report; volume 1; summary of findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.; Lever, D.A.; Sverjensky, D.A.; Townley, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Koongarra uranium ore deposit is located in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Many of the processes that have controlled the development of this natural system are relevant to the performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories. An agreement was reached in 1987 by a number of agencies concerned with radioactive waste disposal to set up the International Alligator Rivers Analogue Project (ARAP) to study relevant aspects of the hydrological and geochemical evolution of the site. The Project ran for five years. The aims of the study were: to contribute to the production of reliable and realistic models for radionuclide migration within geological environments relevant to the assessment of the safety of radioactive waste repositories; to develop methods of validation of models using a combination of laboratory and field data associated with the Koongarra uranium deposit; and to encourage maximum interaction between modellers and experimentalists in achieving these objectives. It was anticipated that the substantial databases generated in the field and laboratory studies would then be used to develop and test geochemical and radionuclide transport models. The findings from the technical studies are discussed in the context of assessments of the long-term performance of geological repositories for radioactive wastes, which are being undertaken in many countries. They are also considered in an integrated 'Scenario Development' approach, aimed to understand the formation of the ore deposit. Despite their inherent uncertainties, the findings provide a basis for assessing the way in which radionuclides will migrate in environments with a variety of geologic settings and over a range of different geologic timescales. This summary report, which highlights the work and findings of the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project is one of a series of 16 volumes

  10. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  11. The Yucca Mountain Repository - Too Little, Too Late

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.G.; Pentz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    repository program for both SNF and other long-lived radioactive waste requiring deep geological disposal. 5. Enable nuclear fuel leasing to a) lower the cost of U.S. utilities SNF waste management and b) ensure safe global expansion of commercial nuclear power. If timely and diligently integrated into a holistic, total systems approach to nuclear energy/management policy, these solutions would accommodate currently-defined and projected national SNF-disposition needs over a planning horizon consistent with planned new nuclear power investments and a new national energy independence policy. They also embody major beneficial impacts on homeland security, the nuclear renaissance here and abroad, and ensure that nuclear proliferation risks are reduced and minimized. The planning horizon should extend for at least the next 60 years and also provide disposition solutions for other long-lived radioactive waste categories currently lacking domestic disposition solutions, including byproducts of both uranium enrichment and reprocessing. (authors)

  12. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D. A.; Boergesson, L.; Gunnarsson, D.; Hansen, J.

    2009-11-01

    -nuclear applications where plugs are needed in an underground environment are also examined and their potential for use in a repository application is discussed. Several generic plug designs have also been developed by SKB and Posiva as part of their repository engineering programs and these are presented, together with a brief discussion of some of the key advantages, disadvantages and issues associated with them. Based on this review it would seem that the most appropriate plug for use in a spent-fuel repository will be some form of a composite construction, consisting of both low-pH concrete and compacted swelling clay components. Final design of plugs will of course be site-dependant and must be tailored to the field conditions

  13. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A. (AECL, Chalk River (Canada)); Boergesson, L. (Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, D. (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hansen, J. (Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    -nuclear applications where plugs are needed in an underground environment are also examined and their potential for use in a repository application is discussed. Several generic plug designs have also been developed by SKB and Posiva as part of their repository engineering programs and these are presented, together with a brief discussion of some of the key advantages, disadvantages and issues associated with them. Based on this review it would seem that the most appropriate plug for use in a spent-fuel repository will be some form of a composite construction, consisting of both low-pH concrete and compacted swelling clay components. Final design of plugs will of course be site-dependant and must be tailored to the field conditions

  14. Groundwater impacts of foreseeable human activities on a HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has begun a program of Systematic Regulatory Analysis (SRA) to help ensure that all important technical issues related to the disposal of civilian, high-level nuclear wastes will be identified prior to the receipt of a license application. Large-scale groundwater withdrawals near a repository could have significant impacts on the groundwater flow system. Future large-scale withdrawals of groundwater could occur to support irrigation to growing population centers, such as Las Vegas. Various scenarios of groundwater withdrawals, along with other scenarios of future human activity, will need to be tested before evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site is complete

  15. A Deterministic Safety Assessment of a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    A GoldSim template program for a safety assessment of a hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS', in which two kinds of pyro-processed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyro-processing of PWR nuclear spent fuels are disposed of, has been developed. This program is ready both for a deterministic and probabilistic total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios. The A-KRS has been deterministically assessed with 5 various normal and abnormal scenarios associated with nuclide release and transport in and around the repository. Dose exposure rates to the farming exposure group have been evaluated in accordance with all the scenarios and then compared among other.

  16. Assessments of the thermal evolution for a radioactive waste final repository using analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radut, A. C.; Roman, M. R.; Florea, S.; Ionescu, D. V.; Olteanu, G.; Valeca, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the designing process for a radioactive final repository concept, the temperature evolution over time is a significant issue for the stability and long-term safety of entire emplacement. In particular, the maximum value of temperature in the whole structure, during time, must not exceed a certain safety value which depends, beside other criteria, on the bulk material of the repository. A computer code TEMPROC, based on analytical model for the transient thermal heat conduction, described in this paper, was developed inside ''Fuel Performance''Department from ICN Pitesti, in order to evaluate the waste repository's temperature distribution. The program was developed under ''Microsoft FORTRAN Power Station''platform that provides IMSL subroutines library support for numeric algorithm. So the program is relative small, with a good calculus speed. The numerical results obtained with TEMPROC computer code, have been acceptably compared with similar existing data from scientific literature [1]. (authors)

  17. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  18. Importance of creep failure of hard rock in the near field of a nuclear-waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Potential damage resulting from slow creep deformation intuitively seems unlikely for a high-level nuclear waste repository excavated in hard rock. However, recent experimental and modeling results indicate that the processes of time-dependent microcracking and water-induced stress corrosion can lead to significant reductions in strength and alteration of other key rock properties in the near-field region of a repository. We review the small data base supporting these conclusions and stress the need for an extensive laboratory program to obtain the new data that will be required for design of a repository

  19. Probabilistic calculations and sensitivity analysis of parameters for a reference biosphere model assessing the potential exposure of a population to radionuclides from a deep geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Christian; Kaiser, Jan Christian [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, Munich (Germany); Proehl, Gerhard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Wagramerstrasse 5, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Radioecological models are used to assess the exposure of hypothetical populations to radionuclides. Potential radionuclide sources are deep geological repositories for high level radioactive waste. Assessment time frames are long since releases from those repositories are only expected in the far future, and radionuclide migration to the geosphere biosphere interface will take additional time. Due to the long time frames, climate conditions at the repository site will change, leading to changing exposure pathways and model parameters. To identify climate dependent changes in exposure in the far field of a deep geological repository a range of reference biosphere models representing climate analogues for potential future climate states at a German site were developed. In this approach, model scenarios are developed for different contemporary climate states. It is assumed that the exposure pathways and parameters of the contemporary biosphere in the far field of the repository will change to be similar to those at the analogue sites. Since current climate models cannot predict climate developments over the assessment time frame of 1 million years, analogues for a range of realistically possible future climate conditions were selected. These climate states range from steppe to permafrost climate. As model endpoint Biosphere Dose conversion factors (BDCF) are calculated. The radionuclide specific BDCF describe the exposure of a population to radionuclides entering the biosphere in near surface ground water. The BDCF are subject to uncertainties in the exposure pathways and model parameters. In the presented work, probabilistic and sensitivity analysis was used to assess the influence of model parameter uncertainties on the BDCF and the relevance of individual parameters for the model result. This was done for the long half-live radionuclides Cs-135, I-129 and U-238. In addition to this, BDCF distributions for nine climate reference regions and several scenarios were

  20. Robust record preservation system on geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, J.; Torata, S.; Tsuboya, T.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term record preservation system on geological disposal of High Level Radioactive Wastes (HLW) has been investigated as the institutional control by RWMC, Japan. Geological disposal of HLW, being based on the passive safe concept, has been considered not to necessitate the human controls to maintain its long-term safety. However how to complement the safety case on geological disposal is an important issue in each countries to progress the repository program with the step-wise decisions process during the long-term period up to several hundreds years. Although we cannot predict the future society, we need to realize the robust and redundant system for preserving records, which should be accessible, retrievable and understandable for the unpredicted future generations. First of all, we held a Rome workshop in January 2003 to exchange views on the matter, resulted in the suggestion directing the discussion on the record management and long-term preservation and retrieval of information regarding radioactive waste. Second, we considered the balance of active and passive system to strengthen the robustness. Another significance of long-term record preservation is to send current generation an implicit message, 'doing our best for future generations', in addition to aiming at both warning and their own decision-making. We call it 'meta-signal' to current generation. Thirdly, we demonstrated the laser-engraving technology to have converted five hundreds pages of an A4 sized report with human readable font sizes to 42 square silicon carbide plates, 10cm x10cm and 1mm in thickness. Silicon carbide would be an alternative to paper and might be possible to be an alternative to microfilm utilized as digital recording media. Another case study is the future generations' accessibility to the preserved records. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  2. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  3. Nuclear waste. DOE has terminated research evaluating crystalline rock for a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Weigel, Dwayne E.; Price, Vincent P.

    1989-05-01

    We found that DOE terminated funding of research projects specifically designed to evaluate the suitability of crystalline rock for a repository. DOE continued other research efforts involving crystalline rock because they will provide information that it considers useful for evaluating the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for a potential repository. Such research activities are not prohibited by the amendments. In January 1988, DOE began evaluating both its domestic and international research programs to ensure their compliance with the 1987 amendments. Several DOE offices and contractors were involved in the evaluation. DOE officials believe that the evaluation effectively brought the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management activities into compliance with the amendments while maintaining useful international relations of continuing benefit to the nuclear waste program in general and to DOE's investigation of the Yucca Mountain site in particular. (The 1987 amendments designated Yucca Mountain as the only site that DOE is to investigate for a potential repository.) The approach and results of DOE's evaluation are discussed. Our review of DOE documents indicates that, by June 22, 1988, DOE completed its evaluation of ongoing crystalline rock research projects to ensure compliance with the 1987 amendments, terminated those research activities it identified as being specifically designed to evaluate the suitability of crystalline rock for a repository, continued some research activities involving crystalline rock because these activities would benefit the investigation and development of the Yucca Mountain repository site, and redirected some research activities so that they would contribute to investigating and developing the Yucca Mountain site

  4. Summary of four release consequence analyses for hypothetical nuclear waste repositories in salt and granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-12-01

    Release consequence methology developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) program has now been applied to four hypothetical repository sites. This paper summarizes the results of these four studies in order to demonstrate that the far-field methodology developed under the AEGIS program offers a practical approach to the post-closure safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories sited in deep continental geologic formations. The four studies are briefly described and compared according to the following general categories: physical description of the repository (size, inventory, emplacement depth); geologic and hydrologic description of the site and the conceptual hydrologic model for the site; description of release scenario; hydrologic model implementation and results; engineered barriers and leach rate modeling; transport model implementation and results; and dose model implementation and results. These studies indicate the following: numerical modeling is a practical approach to post-closure safety assessment analysis for nuclear waste repositories; near-field modeling capability needs improvement to permit assessment of the consequences of human intrusion and pumping well scenarios; engineered barrier systems can be useful in mitigating consequences for postulated release scenarios that short-circuit the geohydrologic system; geohydrologic systems separating a repository from the natural biosphere discharge sites act to mitigate the consequences of postulated breaches in containment; and engineered barriers of types other than the containment or absorptive type may be useful

  5. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I andC) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I andC systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I andC systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored

  6. Fons antic i repositoris universitaris a Espanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Morillas, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Es mostra la presència de col·leccions de fons antic en els repositoris de les biblioteques universitàries espanyoles després d'analitzar tots els repositoris. Per a aquesta anàlisi, com a part de la metodologia emprada, s'ha elaborat un model o llista que consta d'onze elements. Del conjunt de les universitats espanyoles, seixanta tenen repositoris, vint-i-vuit dels quals (16,8 % disposen de col·leccions de fons antic. Com que del concepte de repositori institucional no sembla desprendre's que tingui com a finalitat incloure aquest tipus de col·leccions, es reflexiona sobre la peculiaritat que una part dels repositoris universitaris espanyols inclogui col·leccions d'aquestes característiques.Se muestra la presencia de colecciones de fondo antiguo en los repositorios de las bibliotecas universitarias españolas después de analizar todos los repositorios. Para este análisis, como parte de la metodología empleada, se ha elaborado un modelo o lista que consta de once elementos. Del conjunto de las universidades españolas, sesenta cuentan con repositorios y, de estos, veintiocho (16,8 % disponen de colecciones de fondo antiguo. Debido a que del concepto de repositorio institucional no parece desprenderse que tenga como finalidad albergar este tipo de colecciones, se hace una reflexión sobre la peculiaridad de que parte de los repositorios universitarios españoles incluya colecciones de estas características.This paper uses an analysis of the repositories of Spanish universities to identify which institutions contain rare book and manuscript collections. The method used in this analysis involved examining each university on the basis of a list comprising eleven elements. A total of 60 universities were found to have repositories but only 28 (16.8 % of these contained rare book and manuscript collections. In the light of these figures, which suggest that Spanish university repositories do not generally consider the preservation of rare

  7. Coupling fuel cycles with repositories: how repository institutional choices may impact fuel cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; Miller, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The historical repository siting strategy in the United States has been a top-down approach driven by federal government decision making but it has been a failure. This policy has led to dispatching fuel cycle facilities in different states. The U.S. government is now considering an alternative repository siting strategy based on voluntary agreements with state governments. If that occurs, state governments become key decision makers. They have different priorities. Those priorities may change the characteristics of the repository and the fuel cycle. State government priorities, when considering hosting a repository, are safety, financial incentives and jobs. It follows that states will demand that a repository be the center of the back end of the fuel cycle as a condition of hosting it. For example, states will push for collocation of transportation services, safeguards training, and navy/private SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) inspection at the repository site. Such activities would more than double local employment relative to what was planned for the Yucca Mountain-type repository. States may demand (1) the right to take future title of the SNF so if recycle became economic the reprocessing plant would be built at the repository site and (2) the right of a certain fraction of the repository capacity for foreign SNF. That would open the future option of leasing of fuel to foreign utilities with disposal of the SNF in the repository but with the state-government condition that the front-end fuel-cycle enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities be located in that state

  8. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.

  9. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  10. Thermoelastic analysis of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste repositories in salt. A semi-analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1977-04-01

    An underground repository containing heat generating, High Level Waste or Spent Unreprocessed Fuel may be approximated as a finite number of heat sources distributed across the plane of the repository. The resulting temperature, displacement and stress changes may be calculated using analytical solutions, providing linear thermoelasticity is assumed. This report documents a computer program based on this approach and gives results that form the basis for a comparison between the effects of disposing of High Level Waste and Spent Unreprocessed Fuel

  11. Planning the rad waste repository - Croatian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lokner, V.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in Croatia from various nuclear applications as well as from the Krsko NPP (Slovenian and Croatian joint venture facility). The national programme on radioactive waste management is aimed at straightening existing infrastructure, establishing new (more transparent) system of responsibilities and development of new legislation. The siting of LL/ILW repository is important segments of the whole radioactive waste management cycle. The status and efficiency of the rad waste management infrastructure in the country have the significant influence on all the activities related to the project of repository construction - from the very first phases of preliminary planning and background preparations to advanced phases of the project development. The present status of the Croatian national radioactive waste infrastructure and its influence on the repository project are presented. The role of national legislation and institutional framework are specially discussed. (author)

  12. Augmenting interoperability across repositories architectural ideas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The aDORe digital repository architecture designed and implemented by the Los Alamos Research Library is fully standards-based and highly modular, with the various components of the architecture interacting in a protocol-driven manner. Although aDORe was designed for use in the context of the Los Alamos Library, its modular and standards-based design has led to interesting insights regarding possible new levels of interoperability in a federation of heterogeneous repositories. The presentation will discuss these insights, and will illustrate that attractive federations of repositories can be built by introducing rather basic interoperability requirements. The presentation will also show that, once these requirements are met, a powerful service framework that overlays the federation can emerge.

  13. Reducing Psychological Resistance to Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Quinn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential value of digital repositories is dependent on the cooperation of scholars to deposit their work. Although many researchers have been resistant to submitting their work, the literature on digital repositories contains very little research on the psychology of resistance. This article looks at the psychological literature on resistance and explores what its implications might be for reducing the resistance of scholars to submitting their work to digital repositories. Psychologists have devised many potentially useful strategies for reducing resistance that might be used to address the problem; this article examines these strategies and how they might be applied.

  14. Initial design process of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the final disposal of high level wastes is to isolate the waste from the biosphere for extremely long periods of time by emplacement of wastes into deep stable geological formations. Several geological formations have been considered as candidate host environments for high level waste disposal and several techniques have been developed for repository design. In this study, interrelationships of main parameters of a general repository design have been defined and effective parameters are shown at each step. Initial design process is based on the long term stability of underground openings as disposal galleries. For this reason, this design process includes two main analyses: mechanical analysis and thermal analysis. Each of the analysis systems is directly related to each other by technical precautions. As a result of this design process, general information about the acceptable depth of the repository, layout and emplacement pattern can be taken. Final design study can be established on the result of initial design process. (author)

  15. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This Paper describes a mathematical model design to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  16. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1992-07-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This paper describes a mathematical model designed to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (Author)

  17. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  18. Alternative measure for performance of HLW geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhang, Ahn; Chambre, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    A repository performance model that can show effects of canister multiplicity and repository configuration has been developed. Masses of a radionuclide in the repository and in the far field are proposed as performance measures. Canister multiplicity has significant effects on the release of long-lived radionuclides from the repository. As more canisters are included in the same water stream, the radionuclide concentration in the stream increases, but becomes independent of the number of canisters for sufficiently many canisters. Effects of reduction of radionuclide mass in the repository on the repository performance are clearly observed if the canister multiplicity is taken into account and the mass-based measures are applied. (author)

  19. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  20. Supply-side approach to nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) was signed into law on January 7, 1983. Its purpose was to provide for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, to establish a program of research, development, and demonstration regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and for other purposes. Its goal is to have the first waste repository operational by 1998. It is believed by many that this goal cannot possibly be met. The Act is exceedingly complex with something in it for everybody. There are serious impediments to the program - not the least of which is legislation itself. The process will cost tens of billions of dollars and, even if it does succeed, will take many years to accomplish. This paper proposes a method for getting there in 7 years while saving billions of dollars. It is a summary of a more extensive research effort by the author while attending the Industrial College of the Armed Forces